WorldWideScience

Sample records for sun grant information

  1. Brownfields Grants Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes all types of information regarding Brownfields grant programs that subsidize/support Brownfield cleanup. This includes EPA's Brownfields Program...

  2. Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sun Microsystems, Inc. is committed to open standards,a standardization system, and sharing within the information tech nology field, focusing not only on technical innovation, but also on new ideas, practices and future development.

  3. Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure.

  4. Grants for Libraries & Information Services. 2012 Digital Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation Center, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication is only available as a downloadable file. See who's giving and getting grants in your field. Strengthen your search for funds with the Foundation Center's digital edition of "Grants for Libraries & Information Services." This new "Grant Guide" reveals the scope of current foundation giving in the field. You'll find descriptions of…

  5. 78 FR 54267 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Disaster Recovery Grant Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Disaster Recovery Grant Reporting..., 2013. A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Disaster Recovery Grant... information and proposed use: The Disaster Recovery Grant Reporting (DRGR) System is a grants...

  6. SunDial: embodied informal science education using GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. Halpern

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Science centers serve a number of goals for visitors, ideally providing experiences that are educational, social, and meaningful. This paper describes SunDial, a handheld application developed for families to use at a science center. Inspired by the idea of geocaching, the high-tech treasure hunting game that utilizes GPS technologies, SunDial asks families to use a single handheld device to locate and participate in a series of learning modules around the museum. Observations of 10 families suggest that it supports rich informal science education experiences, provides insights about families’ interaction patterns around and with single handheld devices, and demonstrates the value of navigation as an educational experience. Further, using recently released guidelines for Informal Science Education (ISE experiences to inform the design process proved valuable, tying features of the technology to educational and social goals, and giving evidence that explicit reference to these guidelines can improve ISE experiences and technologies.

  7. 78 FR 17418 - Rural Health Information Technology Network Development Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... award under the Rural Health Information Technology Network Development Grant (RHITND) to Grace... relinquishing its fiduciary responsibilities for the Rural Health Information Technology Network Development... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Rural Health Information Technology...

  8. 77 FR 27243 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Disaster Recovery Grant Reporting (DRGR) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Disaster Recovery Grant Reporting (DRGR... Information and proposed use: The Disaster Recovery Grant Reporting (DRGR) System is a grants management...: Notice. SUMMARY: The proposed information collection requirement described below will be submitted to...

  9. 77 FR 74024 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Emergency Solutions Grant Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Emergency Solutions...: Emergency Solutions Grants Program Record Keeping Requirements. Description of the need for the information... Solutions Grants (ESG) program recipients will be expected to implement and retain. This submission...

  10. 24 CFR 511.75 - Disbursement of rental rehabilitation grant amounts: Cash and Management Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rehabilitation grant amounts: Cash and Management Information System. 511.75 Section 511.75 Housing and Urban... rehabilitation grant amounts: Cash and Management Information System. (a) General. Rental Rehabilitation grants... Information System. Copies of these forms and issuances may be obtained from HUD Field Offices....

  11. 76 FR 41813 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Higher Education Grant Program Application; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Higher Education Grant Program... collection of information for the Higher Education Grant Program Application. The information collection is... able to do so. III. Data OMB Control Number: 1076-0101. Title: Higher Education Grant Application,...

  12. 75 FR 2181 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4100, Iran Program Grants Vetting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4100, Iran Program Grants Vetting, Information Collection... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection described below. The... of Information Collection: Iran Program Grants OMB Control Number: 1405-0176 Type of...

  13. 78 FR 9071 - Comment Request: National Science Foundation Proposal/Award Information-Grant Proposal Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Comment Request: National Science Foundation Proposal/Award Information--Grant Proposal Guide AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title of Collection: ``National Sciences Foundation Proposal/Award Information--Grant Proposal... all the various fields of science and engineering; Programs that provide a source of information...

  14. 75 FR 9000 - Comment Request: National Science Foundation Proposal/Award Information-Grant Proposal Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Comment Request: National Science Foundation Proposal/Award Information--Grant Proposal Guide AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title of Collection: ``National Sciences Foundation Proposal/Award Information-Grant Proposal... all the various fields of science and engineering; Programs that provide a source of information...

  15. 75 FR 25307 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4100, Iran Program Grants Vetting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4100, Iran Program Grants Vetting, Information Collection... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Iran Program Grants. OMB Control Number: 1405-0176. Type...

  16. 76 FR 18220 - Labor-Management Cooperation Grant Program Information Collection Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... CONCILIATION SERVICE Labor-Management Cooperation Grant Program Information Collection Request AGENCY: Federal... information collection request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval in...-Management Cooperation Grant Program Information Collection Request'' (OMB Control No. 3076-0006) will...

  17. 78 FR 79455 - Information Collection; System for Award Management Registration Requirements for Prime Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; System for Award Management Registration Requirements for Prime Grant.... ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 3090- 0290, System for Award Management... comments only and cite Information Collection 3090-0290, System for Award Management...

  18. Grant Project Information via a Shared Data Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Roberts

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available A quarterly keyword index to campus grant projects is provided by the Health Science Library at the University of California, San Francisco, using a data base created and maintained by the campus' Contracts & Grants Office. The index is printed in KWOC format, using the chief investigator's name as the key to a section of project summaries. A third section is also included, listing the summaries under the name of the sponsoring department.

  19. 78 FR 31972 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Request Voucher for Grant Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... comments on the subject proposal. Payment request vouchers for distribution of grant funds using the... notice also lists the following information: Title Of Proposal: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and.... Description of the need for the information and proposed use: Payment request vouchers for distribution...

  20. 77 FR 25994 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Institute of Education Sciences; Pell Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Doc No: 2012-10621] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Institute of Education Sciences; Pell Grant Expansions Under the Pell Grant Expansions (PGE) Study 2012... the proposed information collection request may be accessed from http://edicsweb.ed.gov , by...

  1. Grant Project Information via a Shared Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Justine

    1973-01-01

    Creation of a quarterly keyword index to campus grant projects is the chief investigator's name as the key to a section of project summaries. A third section is also included, listing the summaries under the name of the sponsoring department. (Author)

  2. 75 FR 59284 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Grant Drawdown Payment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... the payment vouchers to request funds from HUD through the LOCCS/VRS voice activated system. The... Grant recipients use the payment vouchers to request funds from HUD through the LOCCS/VRS voice... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Grant Drawdown...

  3. 76 FR 10033 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY..., OMB number, to Ed.Calimag@hhs.gov , or call the Reports Clearance Office on (202) 690- 7569. Send... notice directly to the Grants.gov OMB Desk Officer; faxed to OMB at 202-395-6974. Proposed Project: SF...

  4. 76 FR 10035 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY..., OMB number, to Ed.Calimag@hhs.gov , or call the Reports Clearance Office on (202) 205- 1193. Send... notice directly to the Grants.gov OMB Desk Officer; faxed to OMB at 202-395-6974. Proposed Project: The...

  5. 76 FR 10034 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY..., OMB number, to Ed.Calimag@hhs.gov , or call the Reports Clearance Office on (202) 205- 1193. Send... notice directly to the Grants.gov OMB Desk Officer; faxed to OMB at 202-395-6974. Proposed Project: The...

  6. 76 FR 10364 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY..., OMB number, to Ed.Calimag@hhs.gov , or call the Reports Clearance Office on (202) 205- 1193. Send... notice directly to the Grants.gov OMB Desk Officer; faxed to OMB at 202-395-6974. Proposed Project: The...

  7. 76 FR 10036 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY..., OMB number, to Ed.Calimag@hhs.gov , or call the Reports Clearance Office on (202) 205- 1193. Send... notice directly to the Grants.gov OMB Desk Officer; faxed to OMB at 202-395-6974. Proposed Project: The...

  8. 76 FR 10037 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY..., OMB number, to Ed.Calimag@hhs.gov , or call the Reports Clearance Office on (202) 205- 1193. Send... notice directly to the Grants.gov OMB Desk Officer; faxed to OMB at 202-395-6974. Proposed Project: The...

  9. Sun-Earth Day: Reaching the Education Audience by Informal Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-01-01

    For ten years the Sun-Earth Day program has promoted Heliophysics education to ever larger audiences through events centered on attractive annual themes. What originally started out as a one day event quickly evolved into a series of programs and events that occur throughout the year culminating with a celebration on or near the Spring Equinox. The events are often formal broadcasts or webcasts seeking to convey the science behind the latest solar-terrestrial mission discoveries. This has been quite successful, but it is clear that the younger generation increasingly depends on social networking approaches and informal news transmission for learning what is happening in the world around them. For 2010, the Sun-Earth Day team put emphasis on using informal approaches to bring the theme to the audience. The main event, a webcast from the NASA booth at the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) annual meeting by the NASA EDGE group, took a lighthearted and offbeat approach to interviewing scientists and educators about Heliophysics news. NASA EDGE programs are unscripted and unpredictable, and that represents a different approach to getting the message across. The webcast was supplemented by a number of social networking avenues. The Sun-Earth Day program explored a wide range of social media applications including Facebook, Twitter, NING, podcasting, iPhone apps, etc. Each of these offers unique and effective methods to promote Heliophysics content and mission related highlights. The facebook site was quite popular and message posting there told the Sun-Earth Day story piece by piece. The same could be said of twittering and the tweetup held at the NSTA site. Has all of this been effective? Results are still being gathered, but anecdotal responses from the world seem very positive. What other methods might be used in the future to bring the science to a personal hands-on, interactive experience? Outcomes: Participants will: (1) Be introduced to the Sun

  10. 16 CFR 1025.39 - Orders requiring witnesses to testify or provide other information and granting immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provide other information and granting immunity. 1025.39 Section 1025.39 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Process § 1025.39 Orders requiring witnesses to testify or provide other information and granting immunity... witness or deponent to testify or provide other information upon being granted immunity from prosecution...

  11. 49 CFR 511.39 - Orders requiring witnesses to testify or provide other information and granting immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other information and granting immunity. 511.39 Section 511.39 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... testify or provide other information and granting immunity. (a) A party who desires the issuance of an order requiring a witness to testify or provide other information upon being granted immunity from...

  12. Integrating Information Literacy into Teacher Education: A Successful Grant Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Information literacy has gained importance over the last few decades, not only among librarians, but also with higher education faculty. Information literacy instruction is important for all college-level students. However, it is essential for teacher education students who must not only be information literate themselves, but also be able to…

  13. 78 FR 14326 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Community Development Block Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Community Development Block Grant Recovery (CDBG-R) Program AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION... agency that made Recovery Act funds available to any recipient shall make the information in...

  14. 77 FR 56217 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Disaster Recovery Grant Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Disaster Recovery Grant Reporting System AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The proposed information collection requirement described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and...

  15. 78 FR 25760 - Proposed Information Collection; Urban Park and Recreation Recovery Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Urban Park and Recreation Recovery Program Grants... Park and Recreation Recovery Program'' in the subject line of your comments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... subject line. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Urban Park and Recreation Recovery (UPARR)...

  16. 78 FR 46360 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant Payment... of Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS... proposed use: Payment request vouchers for distribution of grant funds using the automated Voice...

  17. 16 CFR 3.39 - Orders requiring witnesses to testify or provide other information and granting immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provide other information and granting immunity. 3.39 Section 3.39 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE... granting immunity. (a) Where Commission complaint counsel desire the issuance of an order requiring a witness or deponent to testify or provide other information and granting immunity under 18 U.S.C. 6002...

  18. 16 CFR 2.15 - Orders requiring witnesses to testify or provide other information and granting immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provide other information and granting immunity. 2.15 Section 2.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE... and granting immunity. (a) The Bureau Director, Deputy Directors, and Assistant Directors in the... issuance of an order requiring a witness to testify or provide other information granting immunity under...

  19. 75 FR 14455 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Request Voucher for Grant Payment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS) Voice Response System Access Authorization AGENCY... responses. This Notice also lists the following information: Title of proposal: Request Voucher for...

  20. 77 FR 3489 - Proposed Information Collection; Wildlife and Sport Fish Grants and Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... and 16 U.S.C. 661, 16 None. Technical Assistance U.S.C. 742f(a)(4). (Generic Training). 15.605 Sport...-FF09W11000] Proposed Information Collection; Wildlife and Sport Fish Grants and Cooperative Agreements AGENCY...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract. The Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Program (WSFR), U.S. Fish...

  1. 78 FR 31999 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Iran Democracy Program Grants Vetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Iran Democracy Program Grants Vetting ACTION: Notice of request for public comment and submission to OMB of proposed collection of information. SUMMARY:...

  2. 45 CFR 2522.570 - What information on performance measures must my grant application include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What information on performance measures must my... APPLICANTS Evaluation Requirements Performance Measures: Requirements and Procedures § 2522.570 What information on performance measures must my grant application include? You must submit all of the following...

  3. The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Essential for life on earth and a major influence on our environment, the Sun is also the most fascinating object in the daytime sky. Every day we feel the effect of its coming and going – literally the difference between day and night. But figuring out what the Sun is, what it’s made of, why it glows so brightly, how old it is, how long it will last – all of these take thought and observation. Leon Golub and Jay M. Pasachoff offer an engaging and informative account of what scientists know about the Sun, and the history of these discoveries. Solar astronomers have studied the Sun over the centuries both for its intrinsic interest and in order to use it as a laboratory to reveal the secrets of other stars. The authors discuss the surface of the Sun, including sunspots and their eleven-year cycle, as well as the magnetism that causes them; the Sun’s insides, as studied mainly from seismic waves that astronomers record on its surface; the outer layers of the Sun that we see from Earth only at eclipses ...

  4. 29 CFR 37.40 - What access to sources of information must grant applicants and recipients provide the Director?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What access to sources of information must grant applicants... (WIA) Recordkeeping and Other Affirmative Obligations of Recipients Data and Information Collection and Maintenance § 37.40 What access to sources of information must grant applicants and recipients provide the...

  5. 77 FR 74491 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request Community Development Block Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Steve Johnson, Director, Entitlement Communities Division, Office of Block Grant... evaluation of the completion status of the project or activity; (D) an estimate of the number of jobs created and the number of jobs retained by the project or activity; and (E) for infrastructure...

  6. 78 FR 15798 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Iran Democracy Program Grants Vetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Iran Democracy Program Grants Vetting ACTION: Notice of request for public comment. SUMMARY: The Department of State is seeking Office of Management and...

  7. 76 FR 30186 - Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Birds and Wetlands Conservation Grant Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Birds and Wetlands Conservation... administers grant programs associated with the North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA), Public Law... partnerships to carry out wetlands conservation projects in the United States, Canada, and Mexico for...

  8. 75 FR 29740 - Office of Elementary and Secondary Education; Overview Information; Gulf Coast Recovery Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Office of Elementary and Secondary Education; Overview Information; Gulf Coast Recovery Grant Initiative... improvement funds under section 1003(g) of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as... 24, 2010. Thelma Mel ndez de Santa Ana, Assistant Secretary for Elementary and Secondary...

  9. 76 FR 36566 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB “Logic Model” Grant Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB ``Logic Model'' Grant...: ``Logic Model'' Grant Performance Report Standard. OMB Approval Number: 2535-0114. Form Numbers: HUD 96010, each program utilizing the Logic Model will have the same form number and the Program Name following...

  10. 75 FR 13305 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Evaluation of the Technology-Based Learning Grants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... comments concerning a new data collection effort for the Technology- Based Learning Grants Evaluation. A... Evaluation of the Technology-Based Learning (TBL) Grants is a two-year evaluation of grantees funded under... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Evaluation of the...

  11. 76 FR 588 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Workforce Information Grants to States Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... flexibility, and maintain the current state reporting burden. It is ETA's goal for the Workforce Information... section of this notice. DATES: Written comments must be submitted to the office listed in the addressee's section below on or before March 7, 2011. ADDRESSES: Submit written comments to Mr. Anthony Dais, Room...

  12. Sun Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ... m. when the sun is brightest. Avoid sudden exposure to lots of sunlight. Many people have sun allergy symptoms when they ...

  13. Improved pointing information for SCIAMACHY from in-flight measurements of the viewing directions towards sun and moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramstedt, Klaus; Stone, Thomas C.; Gottwald, Manfred; Noël, Stefan; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.

    2017-07-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) on Envisat (2002-2012) performed nadir, limb, solar/lunar occultation and various monitoring measurements. The pointing information of the instrument is determined by the attitude information of the Envisat platform with its star trackers together with the encoder readouts of both the azimuth and the elevation scanner of SCIAMACHY. In this work, we present additional sources of attitude information from the SCIAMACHY measurements itself. The basic principle is the same as used by the star tracker: we measure the viewing direction towards celestial objects, i.e. sun and moon, to detect possible mispointings. In sun over limb port observations, we utilise the vertical scans over the solar disk. In horizontal direction, SCIAMACHY's sun follower device (SFD) is used to adjust the viewing direction. Moon over limb port measurements use for both the vertical and the horizontal direction the adjustment by the SFD. The viewing direction is steered towards the intensity centroid of the illuminated part of the lunar disk. We use reference images from the USGS Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) to take into account the inhomogeneous surface and the variations by lunar libration and phase to parameterise the location of the intensity centroid from the observation geometry. Solar observations through SCIAMACHY's so-called sub-solar port (with a viewing direction closely to zenith) also use the SFD in the vertical direction. In the horizontal direction the geometry of the port defines the viewing direction. Using these three type of measurements, we fit improved mispointing parameters by minimising the pointing offsets in elevation and azimuth. The geolocation of all retrieved products will benefit from this; the tangent heights are especially improved. The altitudes assigned to SCIAMACHY's solar occultation measurements are changed in the range of -130 to -330 m, the lunar occultation

  14. Improved pointing information for SCIAMACHY from in-flight measurements of the viewing directions towards sun and moon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bramstedt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY on Envisat (2002–2012 performed nadir, limb, solar/lunar occultation and various monitoring measurements. The pointing information of the instrument is determined by the attitude information of the Envisat platform with its star trackers together with the encoder readouts of both the azimuth and the elevation scanner of SCIAMACHY. In this work, we present additional sources of attitude information from the SCIAMACHY measurements itself. The basic principle is the same as used by the star tracker: we measure the viewing direction towards celestial objects, i.e. sun and moon, to detect possible mispointings. In sun over limb port observations, we utilise the vertical scans over the solar disk. In horizontal direction, SCIAMACHY's sun follower device (SFD is used to adjust the viewing direction. Moon over limb port measurements use for both the vertical and the horizontal direction the adjustment by the SFD. The viewing direction is steered towards the intensity centroid of the illuminated part of the lunar disk. We use reference images from the USGS Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO to take into account the inhomogeneous surface and the variations by lunar libration and phase to parameterise the location of the intensity centroid from the observation geometry. Solar observations through SCIAMACHY's so-called sub-solar port (with a viewing direction closely to zenith also use the SFD in the vertical direction. In the horizontal direction the geometry of the port defines the viewing direction. Using these three type of measurements, we fit improved mispointing parameters by minimising the pointing offsets in elevation and azimuth. The geolocation of all retrieved products will benefit from this; the tangent heights are especially improved. The altitudes assigned to SCIAMACHY's solar occultation measurements are changed in the range of −130 to −330 m, the lunar

  15. 76 FR 10045 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; “eLogic Model” Grant Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... containing viruses by the system. Grantees who submit reports that do not meet the file-naming requirements... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; ``eLogic Model'' Grant... Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street, SW., Room 3156, Washington, DC 20410 or e-mail at Barbara...

  16. 78 FR 63488 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Grant Drawdown Payment Request/LOCCS/VRS Voice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    .../VRS Voice Activated AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public and Indian Housing, PIH, HUD... vouchers to request funds from HUD through the LOCCS/VRS voice activated system. The information collected... Collection: Grant Drawdown Payment Request/ LOCCS/VRS Voice Activated. OMB Approval Number: 2577-0166....

  17. 78 FR 79691 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; The SunWise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ....08, OMB Control No. 2060- 0439) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval... collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of... partner survey Form Numbers: None. Respondents/affected entities: Elementary and middle school...

  18. 78 FR 16862 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Emergency Shelter Grants Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... HEARTH Act. To see the regulations for the new ESG program and applicable supplementary documents, visit... Grants Program and changed to match the new program name created through the HEARTH Act. To see...

  19. 76 FR 72210 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request Congressional Earmark Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ...: Economic ] Development Initiative-Special Project (EDI-SP) and Neighborhood Initiative (NI) grants. DATES... Project (EDI-SP) grantees and Neighborhood Initiative (NI) grantees. The agency has used the...

  20. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  1. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  2. 30 CFR 285.600 - What plans and information must I submit to MMS before I conduct activities on my lease or grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information must I submit to MMS before I conduct activities on my lease or grant? You must submit a SAP, COP... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What plans and information must I submit to MMS before I conduct activities on my lease or grant? 285.600 Section 285.600 Mineral Resources...

  3. 76 FR 2406 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request Sustainable Communities Regional Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... (4) public health and environmental impact. The Rating Factor Form is an important data collection... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... Regional Grant Program AGENCY: Office of Sustainable Housing and Communities, Office of the...

  4. 76 FR 4348 - Labor-Management Cooperation Grant Program Information Collection Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ...), Accounting System and Financial Capability Questionnaire (LM-3), Request for Advance or Reimbursement SF-270 (LM- 6), Financial Status Report SF-269a (LM-7), Project Performance (LM-8), and Grants Program... estimated time per response is 60 minutes. The Accounting System and Financial Capability Questionnaire (LM...

  5. 75 FR 43510 - Office of Innovation and Improvement; Overview Information; Charter Schools Program (CSP) Grants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ...-State Educational Agencies for Planning, Program Design, and Implementation and for Dissemination.... The non-State educational agency (non-SEA) grants for planning, program design, and implementation... program. 5. Funding Restrictions: Use of Funds for Post-Award Planning and Design of the...

  6. 76 FR 56779 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Community Challenge Planning Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Planning Grant Program, Notice of Funding Availability AGENCY: Office Sustainable Housing and Communities... CONTACT: Thaddeus Wincek, Office of Sustainable Housing and Communities, Department of Housing and Urban...: September 9, 2011. Shelley Poticha, Director, Office of Sustainable Housing and Communities, U.S. Department...

  7. 75 FR 3449 - Office of Innovation and Improvement; Overview Information; Teaching American History Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... dissemination of grant products and results through Open Educational Resources (OER). OER are teaching, learning... strategies, and lessons learned in implementing TAH projects with the wider community of history educators... quality traditional American history teaching and student learning in action, for presentation to the...

  8. Sun meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  9. IGMS Construction Grants Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Integrated Grants Management System (IGMS) is a web-based system that contains information on the recipient of the grant, fellowship, cooperative agreement and interagency agreement, including the name of the entity accepting the award.

  10. Sun-Earth Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  11. Midnight sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunger, A.P.; Lambert, S.B.; Gagnon, M.P.

    1990-09-01

    Midnight Sun, the University of Waterloo's solar-electric car, was designed and built by about 30 engineering, kinesiology and physics students for the GM Sunrayce USA held in July 1990. The car measures 2 m by 4.2 m, weighs 224 kg, can collect about 1000 W of solar electricity in full sun, and had a top speed of 79 km/h. The race took 11 days to cover the 1644 miles from the Epcot Center in Lake Buena Vista, Florida to the GM Technical Center in Warren, Michigan. Thirty-two cars, powered only by solar energy, competed in this race. Midnight Sun showed its potential during the race qualifying runs by completing the required qualifying course with the 12th fastest time of 52.83 seconds, and the 6th fastest trap speed of 63 km/h. During the Sunrayce, Midnight Sun came in second on day 1 of the race, tenth on day 6, and eighth on day 7, and was one of only 17 solar cars that were able to make it up the toughest hill in the race on day 8. The most serious problems encountered by the car were a weak rear suspension, power losses, and failure of bypass diodes in the photovoltaic array. Midnight Sun was in 17th place overall at the end of day 9. At about 11:00 am on day 10 in Ohio, the Waterloo car was moving at 60 km/h when it was bumped off the road by an out of control pickup truck. The solar car driver was not hurt. Despite the difficulties, the next day Midnight Sun was repaired and driven across the finish line at the ceremonial finish. After receiving time penalties for not completing the last day and a half of the race, Midnight Sun was awarded 24th place with an official cumulative time of 114 h 37 min 15 s. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Little Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  13. Little sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  14. Sun Proof

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the harmful effects of the sun and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 10/23/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/23/2012.

  15. BioSunMS: a plug-in-based software for the management of patients information and the analysis of peptide profiles from mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xuemin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With wide applications of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS, statistical comparison of serum peptide profiles and management of patients information play an important role in clinical studies, such as early diagnosis, personalized medicine and biomarker discovery. However, current available software tools mainly focused on data analysis rather than providing a flexible platform for both the management of patients information and mass spectrometry (MS data analysis. Results Here we presented a plug-in-based software, BioSunMS, for both the management of patients information and serum peptide profiles-based statistical analysis. By integrating all functions into a user-friendly desktop application, BioSunMS provided a comprehensive solution for clinical researchers without any knowledge in programming, as well as a plug-in architecture platform with the possibility for developers to add or modify functions without need to recompile the entire application. Conclusion BioSunMS provides a plug-in-based solution for managing, analyzing, and sharing high volumes of MALDI-TOF or SELDI-TOF MS data. The software is freely distributed under GNU General Public License (GPL and can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/biosunms/.

  16. 78 FR 4867 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program... Information Resources. BILLING CODE 4310-4M-P ... comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the collection of...

  17. Grants Solutions -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Grants Center of Excellence The Grants Center of Excellence (COE) delivers end-to-end grants management products and support to over 17 Federal partner agencies....

  18. 78 FR 23290 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program... Burden: $0. Dated: April 12, 2013. John Ashley, Acting Assistant Director for Information Resources... comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the collection of...

  19. Region 9 Tribal Grant Program - Project Officer and Tribal Contact Information Map Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This compilation of geospatial data is for the purpose of managing and communicating information about current EPA project officers, tribal contacts, and tribal...

  20. 77 FR 2773 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Notice of New Requirements and Procedures for Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... now be required to have electronic Internet access to register in the Delphi eInvoicing system... Delphi eInvoicing system. Users must complete a user request form and provide the following information... requests through the Delphi eInvoicing system under limited circumstances. Recipients may apply for...

  1. Grants Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Grants Process provides an overview of the end-to-end lifecycle of grant funding. Learn about the types of funding available and the basics for application, review, award, and on-going administration within the NCI.

  2. USAspending.gov Grants and Loans

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Provides U.S. Federal Spending by agency. The Grants section allows visitors to search for information about federal assistance; including grants, insurance, direct...

  3. SCIENCE OF SUN PHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, the total amount of gases and particles in a column of atmosphere cannot be determined from measurements just at Earth's surface, by a single measurement essentially at the bottom of the atmosphere column. Balloons, airplanes, and rockets are all used to perform direct measurements in the atmosphere at altitudes up to and beyond the stratosphere. Satellite-based instruments provide global views, but it is difficult to infer surface and column distributions from space-based measurements, so such measurements must still be supplemented by ground-based measurements. Sun photometry is an important way of probing the atmosphere from the ground to measure the effects of the atmosphere on Sun radiation crossing through the atmosphere to Earth's surface. These indirect technique provide information about the entire atmosphere above the observer, not just the atmosphere that can be sampled directly close to Earth's surface.

  4. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  5. 75 FR 3212 - Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Overview Information; Grant Competition for the Cooperative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ..., Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the independent states of the former Soviet Union as defined in section 3 of the... hand delivery. a. Electronic Submission of Applications. If you choose to submit your application to us... be saved into a database. You may not e-mail an electronic copy of a grant application to us....

  6. 75 FR 24990 - Proposed Information Collection for the Evaluation of the Community-Based Job Training Grants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... workers in the skills required to succeed in high- growth, high-demand industries. CBJTG provides grants for the development and implementation of industry-specific job training programs at community colleges to meet the workforce needs of industry, including health care, energy, and advanced manufacturing...

  7. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  8. USEPA Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a provisional dataset that contains point locations for all grants given out by the USEPA going back to the 1960s through today. There are many limitations...

  9. Foreign grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program, a national research grants program, offers opportunities for support of research in Burma, Guinea, India, and Pakistan in astrophysics and earth sciences; anthropology, archeology, and related disciplines; systematic and environmental biology; and museum programs.Grants in the local currencies of the countries are awarded to U.S. institutions for research by senior scientists; collaborative programs involving host country institutions are welcome. Awards are determined on the basis of competitive scholarly review.

  10. Sun's rap song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, M.; Lee, W.

    1995-07-01

    We present a rap song composed for the Sun, our star. This Sun's Rap Song can be utilized in classroom teaching to spark the students' interest and facilitate the students' learning of the relevant subjects.

  11. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  12. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  13. Grants Reporting and Tracking System (GRTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Grants Reporting and Tracking System (GRTS) is the primary tool for management and oversight of EPA's Nonpoint Source (NPS) Pollution Control Program. GRTS pulls grant information from EPA's centralized grants and financial databases and allows grant recipients to enter detailed information on the individual projects or activities funded under each grant. To browse these records, click on Project Records in the left-hand menu.

  14. Seasons by the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Meri-Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the Sun has challenged people since ancient times. Mythology from the Greek, Inuit, and Inca cultures attempted to explain the daily appearance and nightly disappearance of the Sun by relating it to a chariot being chased across the sky. While people no longer believe the Sun is a chariot racing across the sky, teachers are still…

  15. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  16. 32 CFR 154.49 - Granting access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Granting access. 154.49 Section 154.49 National... SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.49 Granting access. (a) Access to classified information shall be granted to persons whose official duties require such access and who have...

  17. Granting Equality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ An amendment to the Electoral Law of the National People's Congress and Local People's Congresses of the People's Republic of China granting equal representation in legislative bodies to rural and urban people was ratified by the National People's Congress(NPC),China's top legislature,on March 14.

  18. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  19. The perceived benefit of the disability grant for persons living with HIV in an informal settlement community in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolgar, Helen Louise; Mayers, Pat M

    2014-01-01

    For persons living with HIV (PLWH) in limited socioeconomic circumstances in South Africa, social grants for disability have contributed significantly to alleviate poverty, yet there is a risk that recipients may lose these grants once they are clinically stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our qualitative research explored perceptions and experiences of PLWH on ART concerning the social grant for disability and its contribution to health. Three focus groups were conducted with 15 purposively selected participants who attended a primary care clinic in the Western Cape. A thematic data analysis approach revealed two themes: (a) disability grants as a means of survival and (b) disability grants and ART adherence. The disability grant was considered an essential source of income and, for some, the sole means of survival. Participants valued their health more than the income, however, and, despite the risk of losing the grant, remained adherent to ART.

  20. Sun and Sjogren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet The Sun and Sjögren’s Syndrome The SSF thanks Mona Z. Mofid, MD, FAAD, Diplomate, American Board of Dermatology, and Medical Director, American Melanoma Foundation, San Diego, California, ...

  1. SOHO starts a revolution in the science of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Point No. 1 where the gravity of the Sun and the Earth are in balance. The spacecraft's engineering has proved to be excellent and no difficulty is anticipated in keeping it operational for at least six years. Early SOHO results were summarized in ESA's Information Note Nr 07-96, 2 May 1996. Here follow notes and comments on some further conclusions by SOHO's scientists. Fast action in the Sun's atmosphere The ultraviolet spectrometers aboard SOHO, called SUMER and CDS, were designed to analyse events in the solar atmosphere and discover temperatures, densities and speeds of motion in the gas. Their detailed results come in the spectra, which analyse the intensities at different wavelengths with high sensitivity, but the spectrometers also generate images by scanning selected regions of the Sun. When the SUMER instrument scans the whole Sun by the ultraviolet light of strongly ionized sulphur atoms (S VI at 933 angstroms) it picks out gas at 200,000 degrees C and reveals a vast number of bright regions created by magnetic field lines looping through the atmosphere. The brightness can change by a factor of ten in a distance of a few thousand kilometres or in a few seconds of time. SUMER has also shown that thick streaks called polar plumes, which climb far into space from the Sun's polar regions, are anchored in bright regions near the Sun's visible surface. The spectrometer CDS has observed fast action in the Sun's atmosphere. It can measure velocities along the line of sight by shifts in the wavelength of emissions from selected atoms, and contrary motions (turbulence) appear in a spreading of the wavelengths. In one high-velocity event, corresponding with a small streak of brightness in the scanned image, CDS detected vertical motions differing by 450 kilometres per second, and an overall motion of 65 kilometres per second downwards. "By taking the Sun's atmosphere to pieces we begin to understand how it influences our lives," says Richard Harrison of the UK

  2. Why Study the Sun?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind Bhatnagar

    2006-06-01

    In this presentation we briefly describe the Sun through large number of illustrations and pictures of the Sun taken from early times to the present day space missions. The importance of the study of the Sun is emphasized as it is the nearest star which presents unparallelled views of surface details and numerous phenomena. Our Sun offers a unique celestial laboratory where a large variety of phenomena take place, ranging in temporal domain from a few milliseconds to several decades, in spatial domain from a few hundred kilometers to thousands of kilometers, and in the temperature domain from a few thousand degrees to several million degrees. Its mass motion ranges from thousandths to thousands of kilometers per second. Such an object provides us with a unique laboratory to study the state of matter in the Universe. The existing solar ground-based and space missions have already revealed several mysteries of the outer environment of our Sun and much more is going to come in the near future from planned new sophisticated ground-based solar telescopes and Space missions. The new technique of helioseismology has unravelled many secrets of the solar interior and has put the Standard Solar Model (SSM) on firm footing. The long-standing problem of solar neutrinos has been recently sorted out, and even the ‘back side’ view of the Sun can be seen using the technique of holographic helioseismology.

  3. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  4. The Sun's interior structure and dynamics, and the solar cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Broomhall, A -M; Howe, R; Norton, A A; Thompson, M J

    2014-01-01

    The Sun's internal structure and dynamics can be studied with helioseismology, which uses the Sun's natural acoustic oscillations to build up a profile of the solar interior. We discuss how solar acoustic oscillations are affected by the Sun's magnetic field. Careful observations of these effects can be inverted to determine the variations in the structure and dynamics of the Sun's interior as the solar cycle progresses. Observed variations in the structure and dynamics can then be used to inform models of the solar dynamo, which are crucial to our understanding of how the Sun's magnetic field is generated and maintained.

  5. Manual for ERLE (Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment). Instructions and information for institutions of higher learning concerning used energy-related laboratory equipment grants; Manual para ERLE [Equipo de Laboratorio Relacionado con la Energia]. Instrucciones e informacion para instituciones de educacion superior sobre subvenciones de equipo de laboratorio usado relacionado con la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  6. Lessons from the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this brief note, the implications of a condensed Sun will be examined. A celestial body composed of liquid metallic hydrogen brings great promise to astronomy, relative to understanding thermal emission and solar structure. At the same time, as an incom- pressible liquid, a condensed Sun calls into question virtually everything which is cur- rently believed with respect to the evolution and nature of the stars. Should the Sun be condensed, then neutron stars and white dwarfs will fail to reach the enormous densities they are currently believed to possess. Much of cosmology also falls into question, as the incompressibility of matter curtails any thought that a primordial atom once existed. Aging stars can no longer collapse and black holes will know no formative mechanism. A condensed Sun also hints that great strides must still be made in understanding the nature of liquids. The Sun has revealed that liquids possess a much greater potential for lattice order than previously believed. In addition, lessons may be gained with regards to the synthesis of liquid metallic hydrogen and the use of condensed matter as the basis for initiating fusion on Earth.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Priest, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics of the Sun is a completely new up-to-date rewrite from scratch of the 1982 book Solar Magnetohydrodynamics, taking account of enormous advances in understanding since that date. It describes the subtle and complex interaction between the Sun's plasma atmosphere and its magnetic field, which is responsible for many fascinating dynamic phenomena. Chapters cover the generation of the Sun's magnetic field by dynamo action, magnetoconvection and the nature of photospheric flux tubes such as sunspots, the heating of the outer atmosphere by waves or reconnection, the structure of prominences, the nature of eruptive instability and magnetic reconnection in solar flares and coronal mass ejections, and the acceleration of the solar wind by reconnection or wave-turbulence. It is essential reading for graduate students and researchers in solar physics and related fields of astronomy, plasma physics and fluid dynamics. Problem sets and other resources are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521854719.

  8. The Sun's Supergranulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The Sun's supergranulation refers to a physical pattern covering the surface of the quiet Sun with a typical horizontal scale of approximately 30000km. Its most noticeable observable signature is as a fluctuating velocity field whose components are mostly horizontal. Supergranulation was discovered more than fifty years ago, however explaining why and how it originates still represents one of the main challenges of modern solar physics. A lot of work has been devoted to the subject over the years, but observational constraints, conceptual difficulties and numerical limitations have all concurred to prevent a detailed understanding of the supergranulation phenomenon so far. With the advent of 21st century supercomputing resources and the availability of unprecedented high-resolution observations of the Sun, the solar community has now reached a stage at which key progress can be made on this question. A unifying strategy between observations and modeling is more than ever required for this to be possible. The ...

  9. Sun, Earth and Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1995-01-01

    The Sun is enveloped by a hot, tenuous million-degree corona that expands to create a continuous solar wind that sweeps past all the planets and fills the heliosphere. The solar wind is modulated by strong gusts that are initiated by powerful explosions on the Sun, including solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This dynamic, invisible outer atmosphere of the Sun is currently under observation with the soft X-ray telescope aboard the Yohkoh spacecraft, whose results are presented. We also show observations from the Ulysses spacecraft that is now passing over the solar pole, sampling the solar wind in this region for the first time. Two other spacecraft, Voyager 1 and 2, have recently detected the outer edge of the invisible heliosphere, roughly halfway to the nearest star. Magnetic solar activity, the total radiative output from the Sun, and the Earth's mean global surface temperature all vary with the 11-year sunspot cycle in which the total number of sunspots varies from a maximum to a minimum and back to a maximum again in about 11 years. The terrestrial magnetic field hollows out a protective magnetic cavity, called the magnetosphere, within the solar wind. This protection is incomplete, however, so the Sun feeds an unseen world of high-speed particles and magnetic fields that encircle the Earth in space. These particles endanger spacecraft and astronauts, and also produce terrestrial aurorae. An international flotilla of spacecraft is now sampling the weak points in this magnetic defense. Similar spacecraft have also discovered a new radiation belt, in addition to the familiar Van Allen belts, except fed by interstellar ions instead of electrons and protons from the Sun.

  10. Piece of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Our rapidly industrialising world has an insatiable hunger for energy, and conventional sources are struggling to meet demand. Oil is running out, coal is damaging our climate, many nations are abandoning nuclear, yet solar, wind and water will never be a complete replacement. The solution, says Daniel Clery in this deeply researched and revelatory book, is to be found in the original energy source: the Sun itself. There, at its centre, the fusion of 630 million tonnes of hydrogen every second generates an unfathomable amount of energy. By replicating even a tiny piece of the Sun's power

  11. Near-Sun asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'yanenko, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    As follows from dynamical studies, in the course of evolution, most near-Earth objects reach orbits with small perihelion distances. Changes of the asteroids in the vicinity of the Sun should play a key role in forming the physical properties, size distribution, and dynamical features of the near-Earth objects. Only seven of the discovered asteroids are currently moving along orbits with perihelion distances q orbits farther from the Sun. In this study, we found asteroids that have been recently orbiting with perihelion distances q orbits for hundreds to tens of thousands of years. To carry out astrophysical observations of such objects is a high priority.

  12. The SUN S TRAVELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Louis; Stevenson

    2005-01-01

    The sun is not a-bed, when I At night upon my pillow lie; Stilt round the earth his Way he takes, And morning after morning makes. White here at home, in shining day, We round the sunny garden play, Each tittle Indian sleepy - head Is being kissed and put to bed. And When at eve I rise from tea, Day dawns beyond the Atlantic Sea; And all the children in the West Are getting up and being dressed.The SUN'S TRAVELS@Robert Louis Stevenson

  13. Wetland Program Pilot Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  14. How to Observe the Sun Safely

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Lee

    2012-01-01

    How to Observe the Sun Safely, Second Edition gives all the basic information and advice the amateur astronomer needs to get started in observing our own ever-fascinating star. Unlike many other astronomical objects, you do not need a large telescope or expensive equipment to observe the Sun. And it is possible to take excellent pictures of the Sun with today's low-cost digital cameras! This book surveys what is visible on the Sun and then describes how to record solar features and measure solar activity levels. There is also an account of how to use H-alpha and Calcium-K filters to observe and record prominences and other features of the solar chromosphere, the Sun's inner atmosphere. Because we are just entering a period of high activity on the Sun, following a long, quiet period, this is a great time to get involved with solar observing. Still emphasizing safety first, this Second Edition reflects recent and exciting advances in solar observing equipment. Chapters 6 through 8 have been completely revised ...

  15. Maximising the sun

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is blessed with some of the best quality solar radiation in the world. In the light of this many exciting opportunities exist to utilize the sun to its full potential in the design of energy efficient buildings. Passive solar buildings...

  16. Sun Ultra 5

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The Sun Ultra 5 is a 64-bit personal computer based on the UltraSPARC microprocessor line at a low price. The Ultra 5 has been declined in several variants: thus, some models have a processor with less cache memory to further decrease the price of the computer.

  17. The Toboggan Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, WPS; van der Werf, SY

    2005-01-01

    Special variants of the Novaya Zemlya effect may arise from localized temperature inversions that follow the height profile of hills or mountains. Rather than following its natural path, the rising or setting Sun may, under such circumstances, appear to slide along a distant mountain slope. We found

  18. Go Sun Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael D.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    This is the story of Go Sun Smart, a worksite wellness program endorsed by the North American Ski Area Association and funded by the National Cancer Institute. Between 2000 and 2002 we designed and implemented a large-scale worksite intervention at over 300 ski resorts in North America with the objective of reducing ski area employees and guests…

  19. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  20. Our Explosive Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sun's atmosphere is a highly structured but dynamic place, dominated by the solar magnetic field. Hot charged gas (plasma) is trapped on lines of magnetic force that can snap like an elastic band, propelling giant clouds of material out into space. A range of ground-based and space-based solar telescopes observe these eruptions, particularly…

  1. Stars resembling the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrel de Strobel, G.

    This review is primarily directed to the question whether photometric solar analogues remain such when subjected to detailed spectroscopic analyses and interpreted with the help of internal stucture models. In other words, whether the physical parameters: mass, chemical composition, age (determining effective temperature and luminosity), chromospheric activity, equatorial rotation, lithium abundance, velocity fields etc., we derive from the spectral analysis of a photometric solar analogue, are really close to those of the Sun. We start from 109 photometric solar analogues extracted from different authors. The stars selected had to satisfy three conditions: i) their colour index (B-V) must be contained in the interval: Δ (B-V) = 0.59-0.69, ii) they must possess a trigonometric parallax, iii) they must have undergone a high resolution detailed spectroscopic analysis. First, this review presents photometric and spectrophotometric researches on solar analogues and recalls the pionneering work on these stars by the late Johannes Hardorp. After a brief discussion on low and high resolution spectroscopic researches, a comparison is made between effective temperatures as obtained, directly, from detailed spectral analyses and those obtained, indirectly, from different photometric relations. An interesting point in this review is the discussion on the tantalilizing value of the (B-V)solar of the Sun, and the presentation of a new reliable value of this index. A short restatement of the kinematic properties of the sample of solar analogues is also made. And, finally, the observational ( T eff, M bol) diagram, obtained with 99 of the initially presented 109 analogues, is compared to a theoretical ( T eff, M bol) diagram. This latter has been constructed with a grid of internal structure models for which, (very important for this investigation), the Sun was used as gauge. In analysing the position, with respect to the Sun, of each star we hoped to find a certain number of

  2. 38 CFR 61.51 - Applications for technical assistance grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technical assistance grants. 61.51 Section 61.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... technical assistance grants. (a) To apply for a technical assistance grant under this part, an applicant must obtain from VA a technical assistance grant application package and submit to VA the information...

  3. How hot is the sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超

    2001-01-01

    Do you know how hot thesun is? There are no solidsor liquids on the sun. Why not? The temperature onoutside the sun is more than 10, 000℃, and that at the centre is about 20, 000, 000℃.The sun is so hot that all thesolids and all the liquids havebeen turned into gases.

  4. The sun, our star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, R. W.

    Observational data, analytical models, and instrumentation used to study the sun and its evolution are detailed, and attention is given to techniques for converting solar energy to useful power on earth. The star ignited when the mutual gravitational attractions of dust and vapor in a primordial cloud in the Galaxy caused an in-rush of accelerating particles which eventually became dense enough to ignite. The heat grew until inward rushing matter was balanced by outward moving radiative forces. The planets formed from similar debris, and solar radiation is suggested to have triggered the chemical reactions giving rise to life on earth. Visual, spectroscopic, coronagraphic, and UV observations of the sun from the ground and from spacecraft, particularly Skylab, are described, together with features of the solar surface, magnetic field, sunspots, and coronal loops. Models for the processes that occur in the solar interior are explored, as are the causes of solar flares. Attention is given to solar cells, heliostat arrays, wind turbines, and water turbines as means to convert, either directly or indirectly, the earth-bound solar energy to electrical and thermal power. Finally, the life cycle of the sun, about 9 billion yr in duration, is summarized, noting the current status of midlife.

  5. Preparing, Submitting, and Tracking a Grant Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information compiled by NCI's Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program to help investigators learn more about NIH and NCI information and policies related to writing and submitting new, resubmission, late, and renewal grant applications.

  6. The Sun's New Exotic Neighbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, an international team of researchers [1] discovered a brown dwarf belonging to the 24th closest stellar system to the Sun. Brown dwarfs are intermediate objects that are neither stars nor planets. This object is the third closest brown dwarf to the Earth yet discovered, and one of the coolest, having a temperature of about 750 degrees Celsius. It orbits a very small star at about 4.5 times the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. Its mass is estimated to be somewhere between 9 and 65 times the mass of Jupiter. At a time when astronomers are peering into the most distant Universe, looking at objects as far as 13 billion light-years away, one may think that our close neighbourhood would be very well known. Not so. Astronomers still find new star-like objects in our immediate vicinity. Using ESO's VLT, they just discovered a brown dwarf companion to the red star SCR 1845-6357, the 36th closest star to the Sun. ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 11a/06 New Brown Dwarf in the Solar Neighbourhood (Artist's Impression) "This newly found brown dwarf is a valuable object because its distance is well known, allowing us to determine with precision its intrinsic brightness", said team member Markus Kasper (ESO). "Moreover, from its orbital motion, we should be able in a few years to estimate its mass. These properties are vital for understanding the nature of brown dwarfs." To discover this brown dwarf, the team used the high-contrast adaptive optics NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager (SDI [2]) on ESO's Very Large Telescope, an instrument specifically developed to search for extrasolar planets. The SDI camera enhances the ability of the VLT and its adaptive optics system to detect faint companions that would normally be lost in the glare of the primary star. In particular, the SDI camera provides additional, often very useful spectral information which can be used to determine a rough temperature for the object without follow

  7. Review - The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Blackburn, Stuart H. 2010. The Sun Rises: A Shaman's Chant, Ritual Exchange and Fertility in the Apatani Valley. Leiden: Brill. xvii+401. Color and black and white photographs, maps. ISBN: 9789-0041-7578-5 (hardcover, 97USD. The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. The heart of this book is a chant of nineteen segments.

  8. Superfund Technical Assistance Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes data related to the Superfund Technical Assistance Grant program, including grant number, award amounts, award dates, period of performance,...

  9. Occupational sun protection: workplace culture, equipment provision and outdoor workers' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew; McCool, Judith P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe outdoor workers' sun-protective practices, workplace sun-safety culture and sun-protective equipment provision; investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with sun-protective practices; and identify potential strategies for improving workers' sun protection. The present study used a clustered survey design with randomly identified employers in nine occupations. Employees provided questionnaire measures of demographics, personal characteristics (skin type, skin cancer risk perceptions, tanning attitudes, sun-exposure knowledge), personal occupational sun protection practices (exposure reduction, use of sun-protective clothing, sunscreen and shade), workplace sun-protective equipment provision and perceived workplace sun-safety culture. Summative scores were calculated for attitudes, knowledge, workplace provision and culture. A multivariable model was built with worker and workplace variables as plausible predictors of personal sun protection. In this study, 1,061 workers (69% participation) from 112 workplaces provided sufficient information for analysis. Sex, age, prioritized ethnicity, education and risk perception differed significantly between occupational groups (pworkplace sun-protection equipment provision and supportive culture. After adjustment, each one-point increase in Workplace Sun-safety Culture 2013Score (range 12 points) was associated with a 0.16 higher Personal Sun-Protection Score (pWorkplace Provision Score (range 4 points) was associated with a 0.14 higher score (pworkplace culture are promising components for the development of comprehensive programmes to improve outdoor workers' sun-protective practices.

  10. Eruptions from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  11. Sun Protection Belief Clusters: Analysis of Amazon Mechanical Turk Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Schnur, Julie B; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed (i) to determine whether people could be differentiated on the basis of their sun protection belief profiles and individual characteristics and (ii) explore the use of a crowdsourcing web service for the assessment of sun protection beliefs. A sample of 500 adults completed an online survey of sun protection belief items using Amazon Mechanical Turk. A two-phased cluster analysis (i.e., hierarchical and non-hierarchical K-means) was utilized to determine clusters of sun protection barriers and facilitators. Results yielded three distinct clusters of sun protection barriers and three distinct clusters of sun protection facilitators. Significant associations between gender, age, sun sensitivity, and cluster membership were identified. Results also showed an association between barrier and facilitator cluster membership. The results of this study provided a potential alternative approach to developing future sun protection promotion initiatives in the population. Findings add to our knowledge regarding individuals who support, oppose, or are ambivalent toward sun protection and inform intervention research by identifying distinct subtypes that may best benefit from (or have a higher need for) skin cancer prevention efforts.

  12. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    energy, and produce X-rays, microwaves and a shock wave that heats the solar surface. Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that predicts the nature and magnitude of the shock waves that this beam of energetic electrons should create when they slam down into the solar atmosphere. Although their theory directed them to the right area to search for the seismic waves, the waves that they found were 10 times stronger than they had predicted. "They were so strong that you can see them in the raw data," Kosovichev says. The solar seismic waves appear to be compression waves like the "P" waves generated by an earthquake. They travel throughout the Sun's interior. In fact, the waves should recombine on the opposite side of the Sun from the location of the flare to create a faint duplicate of the original ripple pattern, Kosovichev predicts. Now that they know how to find them, the SOHO scientists say that the seismic waves generated by solar flares should allow them to verify independently some of the conditions in the solar interior that they have inferred from studying the pattern of waves that are continually ruffling the Sun's surface. SOHO is part of the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program, a global effort to observe and understand our star and its effects on our environment. The ISTP mission includes more than 20 satellites, coupled with with ground-based observatories and modeling centers, that allow scientists to study the Sun, the Earth, and the space between them in unprecedented detail. ISTP is a joint program of NASA, ESA, Japan's Institute for Astronautical Science, and Russia's Space Research Institute. Still images of the solar quake can be found at the following internet address: FTP://PAO.GSFC.NASA.GOV/newsmedia/QUAKE/ For further information, please contact : ESA Public Relations Division Tel:+33(0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.76.90 3

  13. Neptune as a Mirror for the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    How would the Kepler mission see a star like the Sun? We now know the answer to this question due to a creative approach: a new study has used the Kepler K2 mission to detect signals from the Sun reflected off of the surface of Neptune.Asteroseismology uses different oscillation modes of a star to probe its internal structure and properties. [Tosaka]Information in OscillationsKeplers most glamorous work is in discovering new planets around other stars. To successfully do this, however, the spacecraft is also quietly doing a lot of very useful work in the background, characterizing the many stars in our vicinity that planets might be found around.One of the ways Kepler gets information about these stars is from oscillations of the stars intensities. In asteroseismology, we look at oscillatory modes that are caused by convection-driven pressure changes on the inside of the star. All stars with near-surface convection oscillate like this including the Sun and by measuring the oscillations in intensity of these stars, we can make inferences about the stars properties.A Planetary MirrorWe do this by first understanding our Suns oscillations especially well (made easier by the fact that its nearby!). Then we use asteroseimic scaling relations determined empirically that relate characteristics like mass and radius of other stars to those of the Sun, based on the relation between the stars oscillation properties to the Suns.The trouble is, those oscillation properties are difficult to measure, and different instruments often measure different values. For this reason, wed like to measure the Suns oscillations with the same instrument we use to measure other stars oscillations: Kepler.Top panel: Kepler K2 49-day light curve of Neptune. Bottom panel: power density spectrum as a function of frequency (grey). Neptunes rotation frequencies and harmonics appear toward the left side (blue); the excess power due to the solar modes is visible toward the bottom right. The green curve

  14. Arts Education Grants, Fiscal Year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Assembly of State Arts Agencies, 2011

    2011-01-01

    National Assembly of State Arts Agencies (NASAA) is the authority on state arts agency funding and grant making. NASAA publications provide extensive information on strategic planning, needs assessment and program evaluation methods specifically adapted to public arts agencies. This document presents the total number of arts education grant awards…

  15. The validated sun exposure questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires used in monitoring sun-related behavior have been tested for validity. We established criteria validity of a developed questionnaire for monitoring population sun-related behavior. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week...... that measured the outdoor time and dose of erythemal UVR exposure. In the following week, they answered a questionnaire on their sun-related behavior in the measurement week. Outdoor time measured by dosimetry correlated strongly with both outdoor time and the developed exposure scale measured....... The weekly sunburn fraction correlated strongly with the number of ambient sun hours (r=0.73, p

  16. The Sun, Mercury, and Venus

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    The Messenger mission to Mercury opened a new window into the inner solar system. In 2008, this mission began a number of years of flybys, culminating in an orbital insertion around Mercury and producing unparalleled observations about this mysterious innermost planet. Mercury orbits so close to the Sun, from the point of view of Earth, that seeing it from the Earth against the Sun's glare is a great challenge. At the same time, the huge gravitational force of the Sun makes it a challenge to put a mission on Mercury without losing it into the Sun. Now, with heightened understanding of Mercury,

  17. The Rapidly Rotating Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l ux of a solar luminosity outwards? The Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.

  18. Sun light European Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubielle, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create

  19. Physics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, Thomas; Mihalas, Dimitri; Ulrich, Roger

    1986-01-01

    This volume, together with its two companion volumes, originated in a study commis­ sioned by the United States National Academy of Sciences on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A committee composed of Tom Holzer, Dimitri Mihalas, Roger Ulrich and myself was asked to prepare a comprehensive review of current knowledge concerning the physics of the sun. We were fortunate in being able to persuade many distinguished scientists to gather their forces for the preparation of 21 separate chapters covering not only solar physics but also relevant areas of astrophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. It proved necessary to divide the chapters into three separate volumes that cover three different aspects of solar physics. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with 'The Solar Interior' and with 'The Solar Atmosphere'. This volume, devoted to 'Astrophysics and Solar-Terrestrial Relations', focuses on problems of solar physics from these two different but complementary perspectives. The emphasis thr...

  20. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  1. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  2. 77 FR 25463 - Applications for New Awards; Enhanced Assessment Instruments Grants Program-Enhanced Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Instruments Grants that yield significant research, methodologies, products, or tools specifically regarding... Applications for New Awards; Enhanced Assessment Instruments Grants Program--Enhanced Assessment Instruments...: Notice. Overview Information: Enhanced Assessment Instruments Grants Program--Enhanced...

  3. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Lee M.

    1996-01-01

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  4. Global Seismology of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Sarbani

    2016-01-01

    The seismic study of the Sun and other stars offers a unique window into the interior of these stars. Thanks to helioseismology, we know the structure of the Sun to admirable precision. In fact, our knowledge is good enough to use the Sun as a laboratory. We have also been able to study the dynamics of the Sun in great detail. Helioseismic data also allow us to probe the changes that take place in the Sun as solar activity waxes and wanes. The seismic study of stars other than the Sun is a fairly new endeavour, but we are making great strides in this field. In this review I discuss some of the techniques used in helioseismic analyses and the results obtained using those techniques. In this review I focus on results obtained with global helioseismology, i.e., the study of the Sun using its normal modes of oscillation. I also briefly touch upon asteroseismology, the seismic study of stars other than the Sun, and discuss how seismic data of others stars are interpreted.

  5. Observing the sun a pocket field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive solar observing guide for use at the telescope by amateur astronomers at all three levels: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. Users will find invaluable information for identifying features through photos, charts, diagrams in a logical, orderly fashion and then interpreting the observations. Because the Sun is a dynamic celestial body in constant flux, astronomers rarely know for certain what awaits them at the eyepiece. All features of the Sun are transient and sometimes rather fleeting. Given the number of features and the complex life cycles of some solar features, it can be a challenging hobby, and this guide provides all of the guidance necessary to inform observers about the sights and events unfolding before their eyes on the most active and powerful member of our Solar System.

  6. National Directory of NASA Space Grant Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Congress enacted the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (also known as Space Grant). NASA's Space Grant Program funds education, research, and public service programs in all 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico through 52 university-based Space Grant consortia. These consortia form a network of colleges and universities, industry partners, State and local Government agencies, other Federal agencies, museum and science centers, and nonprofit organizations, all with interests in aerospace education, research, and training. Space Grant programs emphasize the diversity of human resources, the participation of students in research, and the communication of the benefits of science and technology to the general public. Each year approximately one-third of the NASA Space Grant funds support scholarships and fellowships for United States students at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Typically, at least 20 percent of these awards go to students from underrepresented groups, and at least 40 percent go to women. Most Space Grant student awards include a mentored research experience with university faculty or NASA scientists or engineers. Space Grant consortia also fund curriculum enhancement and faculty development programs. Consortia members administer precollege and public service education programs in their States. The 52 consortia typically leverage NASA funds with matching contributions from State, local, and other university sources, which more than double the NASA funding. For more information, consult the Space Grant Web site at http://education.nasa.gov/spacegrant/

  7. Let's Get Funded. Guidelines for Outstanding Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopka, Christine Boyd; Beland, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    This article provides guidelines for schools, agencies and individuals seeking funding for physical education-related programs and activities. Discussed are sources of funding, procedures for preparing grant proposals, and sources of information about available funds. (IAH)

  8. Administrative Discretionary Grants (FY 1996-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Review the administrative records for discretionary grant recipients who were awarded funds by IMLS from FY 1996 to FY 2014. Data include information on the...

  9. Reconnection on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  10. Successful grant writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelman, Gerard H; Holloway, John W

    2012-03-01

    Obtaining research funding is central to the research process. However many (clinician-) scientists receive little, or no, training in the process of writing a successful grant application. In an era of reductions in research budgets and application success rates, the ability to construct a well presented, clear, articulate proposal is becoming more important than ever. Obtaining grants is a method to achieve your long term research goals. If you are able to formulate these long term goals, it is relevant to explore the market and investigate all potential grant opportunities. Finally, we will provide an outline of key elements of successful research grants.

  11. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  12. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Your Eyes and the Sun Sections The Sun, UV Radiation ... Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Written by: David Turbert Aug. 28, 2014 Keep ...

  13. Spacecraft Attitude Determination with Earth Albedo Corrected Sun Sensor Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan

    This thesis focuses on advanced modeling of the Earth albedo experienced by satellites in Earth orbit. The model of the Earth albedo maintains directional information of the Earth albedo irradiance from each partition on the Earth surface. This allows enhanced modeling of Sun sensor current outputs......-Method, Extended Kalman Filter, and Unscented Kalman Filter algorithms are presented and the results are compared. Combining the Unscented Kalman Filter with Earth albedo and enhanced Sun sensor modeling allows for three-axis attitude determination from Sun sensor only, which previously has been perceived...

  14. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between...... Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  15. Sun position calculator (SPC) for Landsat imagery with geodetic latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Jeong C.

    2015-12-01

    Landsat imagery comes with sun position information such as azimuth and sun elevation, but they are available only at the center of a scene. To aid in the use of Landsat imagery for various solar radiation applications such as topographic correction, solar power, urban heat island, agriculture, climate and vegetation, it is necessary to calculate the sun position information at every pixel. This research developed a PC application that creates sun position data layers in ArcGIS at every pixel in a Landsat scene. The SPC program is composed of two major routines - converting universal transverse Mercator (UTM) projection coordinates to geographic longitudes and latitudes, and calculating sun position information based on the Meeus' routine. For the latter, an innovative method was also implemented to account for the Earth's flattening on an ellipsoid. The Meeus routine implemented in this research showed about 0.2‧ of mean absolute difference from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Position Algorithm (SPA) routine when solar zenith and azimuth angles were tested with every 30 min data at four city locations (Fairbanks, Atlanta, Sydney and Rio Grande) on June 30, 2014. The Meeus routine was about ten times faster than the SPA routine. Professionals who need the Sun's position information for Landsat imagery will benefit from the SPC application.

  16. Description of the Sun as a Star: General Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Theresa; Crannell, Carol Jo

    2000-01-01

    Numerical parameters characterizing the size and energy output of the sun are presented. These values are the standard yardstick by which other stars are measured. The large number of significant digits tabulated here serve mainly to illustrate the precision to which these parameters are known. Also listed are parameters characterizing the earth's orbit around the sun and the intensity of the sun's radiation at the mean orbital distance. The appearance of the sun depends critically on how it is observed. Each type of radiation observed carries specific information about the physical processes at work on the sun. Special types of instruments reveal aspects otherwise invisible. Coronagraphs reveal the dimmer outer regions of the sun's atmosphere otherwise visible only during total solar eclipses. Spectroscopy can reveal motions, magnetic field strengths, temperatures and densities. In situ measurements have revealed the characteristics of the solar wind and extended our knowledge of the solar magnetic field both near the earth and beyond the orbits of the planets. As an example, the sun's disk observed almost simultaneously in six different wavelengths of light is shown. In visible light we can see the white disk of the sun with the dark spots known as sunspots. By analyzing the spectral lines produced by the sun we can measure the strength of the sun's magnetic field at its surface, producing a magnetogram. This magnetogram reveals that the sunspots are regions of intense magnetic field. Further images of the sun reveal that the sunspot regions are just the bases of systems of hot loops which emit radio-waves, ultraviolet light and X-rays. The sun imaged in a spectral line of hydrogen known as "H alpha" is shown. In this line we also see the long dark "filaments". These filaments form in long channels between areas of opposing magnetic field. Such channels can be seen in the ultraviolet image. Data concerning the sun are obtained with many different kinds of

  17. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  18. Unintended Sunburn: A Potential Target for Sun Protection Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine F. H. McLeod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand (NZ has the highest melanoma incidence rate in the world. Primary prevention efforts focus on reducing sunburn incidence and increasing sun protective practices in the population. However, sunburn from excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR remains common. To reduce sunburn incidence, it is important to examine those individuals who experience unintended sunburn. This study aims to use data from the NZ Triennial Sun Protection Survey to describe respondents who were not intending to tan but were sunburnt after outdoor UVR exposure. Information on sociodemographics, concurrent weather conditions, sun protection attitudes and knowledge, and outdoor behaviour was also collected. The results showed 13.5% of respondents’ experienced unintended sunburn during the survey weekend but had not attempted to obtain a tan that summer. Respondents who reported unintended sunburn were more likely than others to have been near water and in unshaded areas, used sunscreen, had higher SunSmart knowledge scores, had lower positive attitudes towards tanning, and were outdoors for a longer duration with less body coverage. As sunburn was unintended these respondents’ outdoor sun protective behaviours may be amenable to change. Future public health initiatives should focus on increasing sun protection (clothing and shade and reducing potential barriers to sun protection.

  19. A Tracking Sun Photometer Without Moving Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is small, lightweight, and consumes very little electricity as it measures the solar energy attenuated by gases and aerosol particles in the atmosphere. A Sun photometer is commonly used on the Earth's surface, as well as on aircraft, to determine the solar energy attenuated by aerosol particles in the atmosphere and their distribution of sizes. This information is used to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, as well as their distribution sizes. The design for this Sun photometer uses a combination of unique optics and a charge coupled device (CCD) array to eliminate moving parts and make the instrument more reliable. It could be selfcalibrating throughout the year. Data products would be down-welling flux, the direct-diffuse flux ratio, column abundance of gas phase constituents, aerosol optical depth at multiple-wavelengths, phase functions, cloud statistics, and an estimate of the representative size of atmospheric particles. These measurements can be used to obtain an estimate of aerosol size distribution, refractive index, and particle shape. Incident light is received at a light-reflecting (inner) surface, which is a truncated paraboloid. Light arriving from a hemispheric field of view (solid angle 2 steradians) enters the reflecting optic at an entrance aperture at, or adjacent to, the focus of the paraboloid, and is captured by the optic. Most of this light is reflected from an inner surface. The light proceeds substantially parallel to the paraboloid axis, and is detected by an array detector located near an exit aperture. Each of the entrance and exit apertures is formed by the intersection of the paraboloid with a plane substantially perpendicular to the paraboloid axis. Incident (non-reflected) light from a source of limited extent (the Sun) illuminates a limited area on the detector array. Both direct and diffuse illumination may be reflected, or not reflected, before being received on

  20. Autonomous Sun-Direction Estimation Using Partially Underdetermined Coarse Sun Sensor Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.

    In recent years there has been a significant increase in interest in smaller satellites as lower cost alternatives to traditional satellites, particularly with the rise in popularity of the CubeSat. Due to stringent mass, size, and often budget constraints, these small satellites rely on making the most of inexpensive hardware components and sensors, such as coarse sun sensors (CSS) and magnetometers. More expensive high-accuracy sun sensors often combine multiple measurements, and use specialized electronics, to deterministically solve for the direction of the Sun. Alternatively, cosine-type CSS output a voltage relative to the input light and are attractive due to their very low cost, simplicity to manufacture, small size, and minimal power consumption. This research investigates using coarse sun sensors for performing robust attitude estimation in order to point a spacecraft at the Sun after deployment from a launch vehicle, or following a system fault. As an alternative to using a large number of sensors, this thesis explores sun-direction estimation techniques with low computational costs that function well with underdetermined sets of CSS. Single-point estimators are coupled with simultaneous nonlinear control to achieve sun-pointing within a small percentage of a single orbit despite the partially underdetermined nature of the sensor suite. Leveraging an extensive analysis of the sensor models involved, sequential filtering techniques are shown to be capable of estimating the sun-direction to within a few degrees, with no a priori attitude information and using only CSS, despite the significant noise and biases present in the system. Detailed numerical simulations are used to compare and contrast the performance of the five different estimation techniques, with and without rate gyro measurements, their sensitivity to rate gyro accuracy, and their computation time. One of the key concerns with reducing the number of CSS is sensor degradation and failure. In

  1. NEW SUNS IN THE COSMOS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Freitas, D. B.; Leao, I. C.; Lopes, C. E. Ferreira; Paz-Chinchon, F.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Alves, S.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-08-20

    The present work reports on the discovery of three stars that we have identified to be rotating Sun-like stars, based on rotational modulation signatures inferred from light curves from the CoRoT mission's Public Archives. In our analysis, we performed an initial selection based on the rotation period and position in the period-T{sub eff} diagram. This revealed that the stars CoRoT IDs 100746852, 102709980, and 105693572 provide potentially good matches to the Sun with a similar rotation period. To refine our analysis, we applied a novel procedure, taking into account the fluctuations of the features associated with photometric modulation at different time intervals and the fractality traces that are present in the light curves of the Sun and of these ''New Sun'' candidates alike. In this sense, we computed the so-called Hurst exponent for the referred stars, for a sample of 14 CoRoT stars with sub- and super-solar rotational periods, and for the Sun itself in its active and quiet phases. We found that the Hurst exponent can provide a strong discriminant of Sun-like behavior, going beyond what can be achieved with solely the rotation period itself. In particular, we find that CoRoT ID 105693572 is the star that most closely matches the solar rotation properties as far as the latter's imprints on light curve behavior are concerned. The stars CoRoT IDs 100746852 and 102709980 have significant smaller Hurst exponents than the Sun, notwithstanding their similarity in rotation periods.

  2. Traditions of the Sun, One Model for Expanding Audience Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Paglierani, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Internet is a powerful tool with which to expand audience access, bringing students, teachers and the public to places and resources they might not otherwise visit or make use of. We will present Traditions of the Sun, an experiential Web site that invites exploration of the world's ancient observatories with special emphasis on Chaco Culture National Historic Park in the Four Corners region of the US and several sites in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Traditions of the Sun includes resources in English and Spanish along with a unique trilingual on-line book, "Traditions of the Sun, A Photographic Journal," containing explanatory text in Yucatec Maya as well. Traditions of the Sun offers rich opportunities for virtual visits to ancient sites used for solar observing while learning about current NASA research on the Sun and indigenous solar practices within a larger historical and cultural context. The site contains hundreds of photographs, historic images and rich multimedia to help tell the story of the Sun-Earth Connection. Visitors to the site can zoom in on the great Mayan cities of Chichen Itza, Uxmal, Dzibilchaltun, and Mayapan to learn about Mayan astronomy, history, culture, and science. They can also visit Chaco Canyon to watch sunrise over Pueblo Bonito on the summer solstice, take a virtual reality tour of the great kiva at Casa Rinconada or see panoramic vistas from Fajada Butte, an area which, for preservation purposes, is restricted to the public. Traditions of the Sun provides one model of how exploration and discovery can come to life for both formal and informal audiences via the Internet. Traditions of the Sun is a collaborative project between NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum, the National Park Service, Instituto National de Antropologia e Historia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, and Ideum.

  3. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  4. The Sun's dusty interstellar environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Veerle

    2016-07-01

    The Sun's dusty interstellar environment Interstellar dust from our immediate interstellar neighborhood travels through the solar system at speeds of ca. 26 km/s: the relative speed of the solar system with respect to the local interstellar cloud. On its way, its trajectories are altered by several forces like the solar radiation pressure force and Lorentz force. The latter is due to the charged dust particles that fly through the interplanetary magnetic field. These trajectories differ per particle type and size and lead to varying fluxes and directions of the flow inside of the solar system that depend on location but also on phase in the solar cycle. Hence, these fluxes and directions depend strongly on the configuration of the inner regions and outer regions of the heliosphere. Several missions have measured this dust in the solar system directly. The Ulysses dust detector data encompasses 16 years of intestellar dust fluxes and approximate directions, Stardust captured returned to Earth a few of these particles sucessfully, and finally the Cassini dust detector allowed for compositional information to be obtained from the impacts on the instrument. In this talk, we give an overview of the current status of interstellar dust research through the measurements made inside of the solar system, and we put them in perspective to the knowledge obtained from more classical astronomical means. In special, we focus on the interaction of the dust with the interplanetary magnetic field, and on what we learn about the dust (and the fields) by comparing the available dust data to computer simulations of dust trajectories. Finally, we synthesize the different methods of observation, their results, and give a preview on new research opportunities in the coming year(s).

  5. Administrative Discretionary Grant Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — This dataset of administrative records contains discretionary grant recipients who were awarded funds by the Institute of Museum and Library Services from fiscal...

  6. US EPA CARE Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a provisional dataset that contains point locations for the subset of Community Action for a Renewed Environment (CARE) grants given out by the US EPA. CARE...

  7. US EPA EJ Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a provisional dataset that contains point locations for all Environmental Justice (EJ) grants given out by the US EPA. There are many limitations to the data...

  8. US EPA Brownfields Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer provides point locations for Brownfields Grants as derived from the Cleanups in My Community (CIMC) database. Locations were derived from Cleanups in My...

  9. Watching the Sun to Improve Exoplanet Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Looking for stars that wobble is one of the key ways by which we detect exoplanets: the gravitational pull of planets cause tiny variations in stars radial velocities. But our ability to detect Earth twins is currently limited by our ability to distinguish between radial-velocity variations caused by exoplanets, and those caused by noise from the star itself. A team of scientists has recently proposed that the key to solving this problem may be to examine our own star.Precision Amid NoiseThe radial-velocity technique works well for detecting large planets on close orbits, but detecting an Earth twin requires being able to detect star motion on the order of 10 cm/s! This precision is hard to reach, because activity on the stellar surface i.e., sunspots, plages (bright spots), or granulation can also cause variations in the measured radial velocity for the star, obscuring the signature of a planet.Because the stars were examining arent resolved, we cant track the activity on their surfaces so how can we better understand the imprint that stellar activity has on radial-velocity measurements? A team of scientists has come up with a clever approach: examine the Sun as though it were a distant star.Wealth of InformationThe team, led by Xavier Dumusque (Branco-Weiss Fellow at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and David F. Phillips (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), has begun a project to observe the Sun with a ground-based solar telescope. The telescope observes the full disk of the Sun and feeds the data into the HARPS-N spectrograph in Spain, a spectrograph normally used for radial-velocity measurements of other stars in the hunt for exoplanets.But the team has access to other data about the Sun, too: information from satellites like the Solar Dynamics Observatory and SORCE about the solar activity and total irradiance during the time when the spectra were taken. Dumusque and collaborators have combined all of this information, during a week

  10. Grant writing 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jason T; Alavi, Karim; Milner, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    Writing a grant is a hefty undertaking. Start by surrounding yourself with a successful mentor and accompanying team with a good track record. Get organized, select clear goals and objectives to your project. Once the foundation for the grant is set, begin by generating a robust hypothesis. Once your hypothesis is clearly defined, you should contact the project officer of the specific grant for which you are applying; they can help identify if the proposal meets an area of need. The basic components of a grant include the following: the face page, which highlights the key contributors; followed by table of contents; abstract; biographical sketches, which are minicurriculum vitae; budget; research plan, which is composed mostly of background, significance, and specific aims; and lastly, references cited. Be sure to follow specific formatting. Use resources including the internet to find an appropriate grant. Finally, given the confines of a busy surgical practice and the significant amount of work necessary to complete a grant, it is essential that the work begins early and well in advance of the proposed deadline.

  11. Earth's Heat Source - The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Manuel, Oliver K

    2009-01-01

    The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

  12. The Sun: Our Nearest Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have in our celestial backyard, a prime example of a variable star. The Sun, long thought to be "perfect" and unvarying, began to reveal its cycles in the early 1600s as Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner used a telescope to study sunspots. For the past four hundred years, scientists have accumulated data, showing a magnetic cycle that repeats, on average, every eleven (or twenty-two) years. In addition, modern satellites have shown that the energy output at radio and x-ray wavelengths also varies with this cycle. This talk will showcase the Sun as a star and discuss how solar studies may be used to understand other stars.

  13. 76 FR 50315 - Notice of Fiscal Year 2012 Safety Grants and Solicitation for Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... authorities provided for in the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy of... Registration Information Systems Management (PRISM) grants; Safety Data Improvement Program (SaDIP) grants; and..., award, and grants management processes, and to award grant funds earlier each fiscal year. In...

  14. Site Team Review: Petition for Degree-Granting Authority by National Defense University, School for Information Resources Management (iCollege)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    On November 3, 2010, a site team from the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity (NACIQI) and the U.S. Department of Education conducted a visit to National Defense University's (University) School for Information Resources Management (IRMC or iCollege) at Ft. McNair in Washington, DC. The purpose of the visit was to…

  15. 1994 AASL Research Grant Award Interim Report: The Information Search Process: A Study of Cognitive Strategies for Teaching Higher-Level Thinking Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Provides a summary of a research project that is investigating how increased involvement by the library media specialist in teaching specific cognitive strategies affect students' achievement and satisfaction with their learning. Higher-level thinking skills, learning processes, students' use of information, teaching strategies, and teachers'…

  16. Day the sun went out

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "A new british sci-fi movie envisages the death of the sun not in billions of years, but in decades. And, amazingly, the film's scientific adviser says this may not be so far from the truth..." (1/2 page)

  17. Effects of Early Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be harmful. It can lead to:Skin changes. Some skin cells with melanin can form a clump. This creates freckles and moles. Over time, these can develop cancer.Early aging. Time spent in the sun makes your skin age faster than normal. Signs of this are wrinkled, tight, or leathery ...

  18. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  19. How Bright Is the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berr, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sequence of activities designed to allow eighth grade students to deal with one of the fundamental relationships that govern energy distribution. Activities guide students to measure light bulb brightness, discover the inverse square law, compare light bulb light to candle light, and measure sun brightness. (two references) (MCO)

  20. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  1. Sociodemographic and Psychological Correlates of Sun Protection Behaviors among Outdoor Workers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak K. Nahar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at a higher risk for developing skin cancer due to their increased sun exposure. The primary objective of this review was to synthesize the current research literature that addresses sociodemographic and psychological factors related to sun protection behaviors in outdoor workers. Two additional purposes were to provide an overview of sun exposure and describe sun protection behaviors of outdoor workers. To identify the studies for this review, a methodical search was performed in the PubMed, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, and ERIC databases. Fifteen studies met the review criteria. Despite regular and prolonged sun exposure, many outdoor workers fail to engage in sufficient sun protection behaviors. Correlates of outdoor workers’ sun protection behaviors include being female, older age, being white, personal skin cancer history, time (hours/years spent at work, sun safety training, perceived prioritization of sun protection, concern about sun exposure, workplace support, families’ expectations, and familial information giving. However, limited attention is given to designing theoretically grounded studies to identify factors to inform future research. There is a need to conduct research based on solid theoretical foundations that explains the relationships among the factors in this domain.

  2. The Sun: the Earth light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrilli, Francesco; Giovannelli, Luca; Del Moro, Dario; Piazzesi, Roberto; Catena, Liu` Maria; Amicucci, Giordano; Vittorio, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    We have implemented at Department of Physics of University of Rome Tor Vergata a project called "The Sun: the Earth light source". The project obtained the official endorsement from the IAU Executive Committee Working Group for the International Year of Light. The project, specifically designed for high school students, is focused on the "scientific" study of Sun light by means of a complete acquisition system based on "on the shelf" appropriately CMOS low-cost sensor with free control s/w and self-assembled telescopes. The project (hereafter stage) plan is based on a course of two weeks (60 hours in total). The course contains 20 hours of theoretical lectures, necessary to learn basics about Sun, optics, telescopes and image sensors, and 40 hours of laboratory. During the course, scientists and astronomers share with high schools students, work activities in real research laboratories. High schools teachers are intensely involved in the project. Their role is to share activities with university teachers and realize outreach actions in the home institutions. Simultaneously, they are introduced to innovative teaching methods and the project in this way is regarded as a professional development course. Sun light analysis and Sun-Earth connection through light are the main scientific topics of this project. The laboratory section of the stage is executed in two phases (weeks): First phase aims are the realization of a keplerian telescope and low-cost acquisition system. During this week students are introduced to astronomical techniques used to safety collect and acquire solar light; Second phase aims is the realization of a low-cost instrument to analyse sunlight extracting information about the solar spectrum, solar irradiance and Sun-Earth connection. The proposed stage has been already tested in Italy reached the fifth edition in 2014. Since 2010, the project has been a cornerstone outreach program of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, the Italian Ministry of

  3. Horton Research Grant proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Geophysical Union is requesting proposals for the award of the Horton Research Grant. The proposal deadline is March 15, 1984. The grant will be in support of research projects in hydrology and water resources by Ph.D. candidates of American institutions of higher education and is awarded annually to a single proponent. Its objective is to foster graduate student research leading to the completion of doctoral dissertations. Proposals may be in hydrology (including its physical, chemical, or biological aspects) or in the water resource policy sciences (including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law).

  4. Sun-Tanning Perceptions of a New Zealand Urban Population (1994–2005/6)

    OpenAIRE

    Reeder, A I; McLeod, G. F. H.; Gray, A. R.; McGee, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Sun-tanning perceptions are monitored to identify changes and help refine targeting of skin cancer prevention messages. Aim. To investigate associations between perceptions of sun-tanning and demographic factors among a New Zealand urban population, 1994–2006. Methods. A telephone survey series was conducted during summer in 1994, 1997, 1999/2000, 2002/2003, and 2005/2006. Demographic and personal information (sex, age group, skin sun-sensitivity, and self-defined ethnicity) obtai...

  5. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin; Maksimovic, Milan; Alibay, Farah; Amiri, Nikta; Bastian, Tim; Cohen, Christina; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward; Reinard, Alysha; Schwadron, Nathan; Cecconi, Baptiste; Hallinan, Gregg; Hegedus, Alex; Krupar, Vratislav; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 RS. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (ν ≳ 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (≲ 3RS). The state-of-the-art for tracking such emission from space is defined by single antennas (Wind/WAVES, Stereo/SWAVES), in which the tracking is accomplished by assuming a frequency-to-density mapping; there has been some success in triangulating the emission between the spacecraft, but considerable uncertainties remain. We describe the Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) mission concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  6. The Land-Grant Movement in American Higher Education. An Historical Bibliography of the Land-Grant Movement and the Individual Land-Grant Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songe, Alice H.

    Following the Morrill Act of 1862, the Land-Grant institutions developed, keeping pace with the industrial, social and economic changes in our national life. It is the purpose of this bibliography to present sources containing information on this development, through general references and histories of the individual Land-Grant institutions. The…

  7. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of selected vegetables/Sun's soup as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  8. Grants Mining District

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Grants Mineral Belt was the focus of uranium extraction and production activities from the 1950s until the late 1990s. EPA is working with state, local, and federal partners to assess and address health risks and environmental effects of the mines

  9. Research grant handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook prescribes policies and procedures relating to the award and administration of NASA research grants and cooperative agreements with educational institutions and other nonprofit organizations. The handbook is divided into six subparts: (1) general; (2) definitions; (3) the process; (4) provisions and special conditions; (5) administration; and (6) reports. The appendix includes a listing of exhibits.

  10. Discretionary Grants Administration Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This manual sets forth applicable administrative policies and procedures to recipients of discretionary project grants or cooperative agreements awarded by program offices in the Office of Human Development Services (HDS). It is intended to serve as a basic reference for project directors and business officers of recipient organizations who are…

  11. Successful grant writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, Gerard H.; Holloway, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining research funding is central to the research process. However many (clinician-) scientists receive little, or no, training in the process of writing a successful grant application. In an era of reductions in research budgets and application success rates, the ability to construct a well pre

  12. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  13. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  14. Making Time for Dissertation Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasche, Leslie K.; Perron, Brian E.; Proctor, Enola K.

    2013-01-01

    Grant writing is a necessary skill for becoming an independent and successful social work researcher. Since social work dissertation grants are a relatively new trend, students face many challenges in identifying, preparing, and submitting dissertation grants. Lack of resources and experiences, difficulties in protecting time for grant writing, and the uncertainty of success can hinder work on dissertation grants. Thus, this article provides an overview of dissertation grants, including a review of grant mechanisms, suggestions for preparing grants in the context of program milestones, and identifying institutional infrastructure to facilitate submissions. Strategies discussed include how to learn about funding priorities, how to establish timelines to account for grant deadlines, and how to use peer reviews to guide the revision process. PMID:24244078

  15. Caddo Sun Accounts across Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerona, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Billy Day, a Tunica/Biloxi, recently described the significance of the sun for Caddoan people. Day quoted an "old Caddo relative" of his who said: "I used to go outside and hold my hands up and bless myself with the sun--'a'hat.' Well, I can't do that anymore because they say we are sun worshipers. We didn't worship the sun. We worshiped what was…

  16. Global Warming Blame the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, N

    1997-01-01

    Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

  17. Overview and tips for successful grant writing for infusion nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwekkeboom, Kristine L

    2014-01-01

    Grant writing is an important step to building evidence for infusion nursing practice. This paper describes the role of the infusion nurse in developing a research proposal, identifying appropriate sources of funding, and preparing to write the grant application; identifies typical sections of a grant application and information necessary in each; and provides tips for writing an application that will contribute to a positive review.

  18. Total eclipses of the sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirker, J B

    1980-12-19

    Total eclipses of the sun offer research opportunities in a variety of sciences. Some of the advances in solar physics resulting from eclipse observations are discussed. Experiments at the total eclipse of 16 February 1980 in India are also described. These included a test of general relativity, studies in coronal physics, investigations of solar prominences, diameter measurements, a search for interplanetary dust, a study of the gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere, and experiments on the biological effects on animals and humans.

  19. Revisiting SU(N) integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Zuber, Jean-Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this note, I revisit integrals over $\\SU(N)$ of the form $ \\int DU\\, U_{i_1j_1}\\cdots U_{i_pj_p}\\Ud_{k_1l_1}\\cdots \\Ud_{k_nl_n}$. While the case $p=n$ is well known, it seems that explicit expressions for $p=n+N$ had not appeared in the literature. Similarities and differences, in particular in the large $N$ limit, between the two cases are discussed

  20. Coherent States with SU(N) Charges

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, M; Mathur, Manu; Paul, Samir K.

    2003-01-01

    We define coherent states carrying SU(N) charges by exploiting generalized Schwinger boson representation of SU(N) Lie algebra. These coherent states are defined on $2 (2^{N - 1} - 1)$ complex planes. They satisfy continuity property and provide resolution of identity. We also exploit this technique to construct the corresponding non-linear SU(N) coherent states.

  1. The Sun Rises on the Solar Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Reyaz A.

    2009-01-01

    Energy from the sun is abundant and free. Solar energy is in essence electromagnetic radiation emitted from the sun. Earth's climate, hydrologic systems, and ecosystems all derive from the sun. Other forms of renewable power such as wind, wave, biomass, and hydro are an indirect function of solar radiation.

  2. The Sun A User's Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The Sun is an account of the many ways in which our nearest star affects our planet, how its influence has changed over the last few centuries and millennia, and the extent to which we can predict its future impact. The Sun's rays foster the formation of Vitamin D by our bodies, but it can also promote skin cancer, cataracts, and mutations in our DNA. Besides providing the warmth and light essential to most animal and plant life, solar energy contributes substantially to global warming. Although the charged particles of the solar wind shield us from harmful cosmic rays, solar storms may damage artificial satellites and cripple communication systems and computer networks. The Sun is the ideal renewable energy source, but its exploitation is still bedevilled by the problems of storage and distribution. Our nearest star, in short, is a complex machine which needs to be treated with caution, and this book will equip every reader with the knowledge that is required to understand the benefits and dangers it can bri...

  3. The faint young Sun problem

    CERN Document Server

    Feulner, Georg

    2012-01-01

    For more than four decades, scientists have been trying to find an answer to one of the most fundamental questions in paleoclimatology, the `faint young Sun problem'. For the early Earth, models of stellar evolution predict a solar energy input to the climate system which is about 25% lower than today. This would result in a completely frozen world over the first two billion years in the history of our planet, if all other parameters controlling Earth's climate had been the same. Yet there is ample evidence for the presence of liquid surface water and even life in the Archean (3.8 to 2.5 billion years before present), so some effect (or effects) must have been compensating for the faint young Sun. A wide range of possible solutions have been suggested and explored during the last four decades, with most studies focusing on higher concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane or ammonia. All of these solutions present considerable difficulties, however, so the faint young Sun prob...

  4. Tree Leaf Shadows to the Sun's Density: A Surprising Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2013-01-01

    Rays of sunlight that strike raindrops produce rainbows that provide information about the spectrum of sunlight. Rays of sunlight that strike airborne ice crystals produce halos, sun pillars, and many other patterns of light and color in the sky. Analysis of those patterns makes it possible to determine the types and orientations of the ice…

  5. Tree Leaf Shadows to the Sun's Density: A Surprising Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2013-01-01

    Rays of sunlight that strike raindrops produce rainbows that provide information about the spectrum of sunlight. Rays of sunlight that strike airborne ice crystals produce halos, sun pillars, and many other patterns of light and color in the sky. Analysis of those patterns makes it possible to determine the types and orientations of the ice…

  6. Sun Savvy Students: Free Teaching Resources from EPA's SunWise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Jordan, Luke

    2008-01-01

    With summer in full swing and the sun is naturally on our minds, what better time to take advantage of a host of free materials provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Sun Wise program. Sun Wise aims to teach students and teachers about the stratospheric ozone layer, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and how to be safe while in the Sun.…

  7. Mass media barriers to social marketing interventions: the example of sun protection in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Gillian Ann; Eagle, Lynne; Verne, Julia

    2011-03-01

    The role of the mass media in communicating health-related information to the wider population is the focus of this paper. Using the example of sun protection within the UK, we highlight some of the major challenges to raising awareness of steadily increasing melanoma rates and of effective sun protection strategies. The implications of potential barriers to official sun protection messages via conflicting messages in the media are discussed in terms of editorial on sun protection and in the way in which television programme content portrays the issues. Implications for public policy and future research conclude the paper.

  8. Grant Monitoring: Department of Education Could Improve Its Processes with Greater Focus on Assessing Risks, Acquiring Financial Skills, and Sharing Information. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Education (Education) awards about $45 billion in grants each year to school districts, states, and other entities. In addition, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided an additional $97 billion in grant funding. In a series of reports from 2002 to 2009, Education's Inspector General cited a number of grantees…

  9. Lives under the Sun; The sensory qualities of daylight in designing the everyday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    significance to their bodies and lives as they describe it. By taking a biomimetic approach a metaphor is presented that, like plants, some people crave daylight in order to feel well. By showing people’s engagement with the sun and its daylight the phenomenon of natural light becomes imbued with sociality...... and it is described how people design their everyday in accordance with the sun. The sensation of daylight normally taken for granted and acknowledged as a physiological element in our being-in-the-world is foregrounded and shown as a sense in people that may have a physiological origin when daylight hits the eye...

  10. Retrenchment at Doctorate-Granting Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Data on current retrenchment policies and practices of doctorate-granting institutions are reported and analyzed, including information on the existence of a retrenchment policy, retrenchment between 1974-75 and 1977-78, the retrenchment process, and the impact of retrenchment on affirmative action and employment rights and benefits. (MLW)

  11. Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program post excerpts of their grant applications online.

  12. An Introduction to Waves and Oscillations in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, A Satya

    2013-01-01

    Astrophysicists and others studying the Sun will find this expansive coverage of what we know about waves and oscillations in our nearest star an informative introduction to a hot contemporary topic. After a section summarizing the Sun's physical characteristics, the volume moves on to explore the basics of electrodynamics, which in turn facilitate a discussion of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The material also details the often complex nature of waves and oscillations in uniform and non-uniform media, before categorizing the observational signatures of oscillations and exploring the instabilities in fluid, dealing with a range of known forms. Lastly, a section on helioseismology explores our growing familiarity with the internal structure of the Sun. This book is a unified portal to a thorough grounding in solar waves that includes a wealth of explanatory vignettes demystifying concepts such as flux tubes, current-free and force-free magnetic fields, the prominences, and the relationship between the vorticity ...

  13. 41 CFR 51-9.303-3 - Granting access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Granting access. 51-9.303...-Individual Access to Records § 51-9.303-3 Granting access. (a) Upon receipt of a request for access to non...) If an individual's request for access does not contain sufficient information to permit the...

  14. 77 FR 13297 - Applications for New Awards; Education Research and Special Education Research Grant Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Applications for New Awards; Education Research and Special Education Research Grant Programs AGENCY: Institute of Education Sciences. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information: Education Research and Special Education... Institute's FY 2013 competitions for grants to support ] education research and special education research...

  15. 76 FR 11765 - Education Research and Special Education Research Grant Programs; Institute of Education Sciences...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Education Research and Special Education Research Grant Programs; Institute of Education Sciences; Overview Information; Education Research and Special Education Research Grant Programs; Notice Inviting Applications... support education research and special education research. The Director takes this action under the...

  16. 76 FR 30239 - Volkswagen Group of America, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Information Report is inconsequential to motor vehicle safety. Accordingly, Volkswagen's petition is granted... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Volkswagen Group of America, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Volkswagen Group of America, Inc. (Volkswagen),\\1\\ has determined...

  17. 76 FR 5789 - Teaching American History Grant Program; Office of Innovation and Improvement; Overview...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Teaching American History Grant Program; Office of Innovation and Improvement; Overview Information; Teaching American History Grant Program; Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY... of Announcement I. Funding Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The Teaching American History...

  18. INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    由香港著名潮人陈冠希主理的CLOT近日再次联手美国著名牛仔裤品牌Levi's推出一款名为Black Sun Survivor 501 Denim的全新款型。此次重量级的合作冠希已经率先上身,并且在网络上询问度颇高。

  19. Micro technology based sun sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Pedersen, Martin; Fléron, René

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing interest among universities in the scientific and educational possibilities of picosatellites base on the CubeSat 5 concept. Due to sever mass and dimension constraints place on this type of satellites, new approaches and ideas regarding different systems arises to accommodate...... DTUsat sun sensors are needed along with a magnetometer to obtain unambiguous attitude determination for the ACDS and the payloads - an electrodynamic tether and a camera. The accuracy needed was not obtainable by employing conventional attitude sensors. Hence a linear slit sensor was designed...

  20. Seismology of the Wounded Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Cally, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Active regions are open wounds in the Sun's surface. Seismic oscillations from the interior pass through them into the atmosphere, changing their nature in the process to fast and slow magneto-acoustic waves. The fast waves then partially reflect and partially mode convert to upgoing and downgoing Alfv\\'en waves. The reflected fast and downgoing Alfv\\'en waves then re-enter the interior through the active regions that spawned them, infecting the surface seismology with signatures of the atmosphere. Using numerical simulations of waves in uniform magnetic fields, we calculate the upward acoustic and Alfv\\'enic losses in the atmosphere as functions of field inclination and wave orientation as well as the Time-Distance `travel time' perturbations, and show that they are related. Travel time perturbations relative to quiet Sun can exceed 40 seconds in 1 kG magnetic field. It is concluded that active region seismology is indeed significantly infected by waves leaving and re-entering the interior through magnetic w...

  1. Exoplanets Clue to Sun's Curious Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    . "Like our Sun, these stars have been very efficient at destroying the lithium they inherited at birth," says team member Nuno Santos. "Using our unique, large sample, we can also prove that the reason for this lithium reduction is not related to any other property of the star, such as its age." Unlike most other elements lighter than iron, the light nuclei of lithium, beryllium and boron are not produced in significant amounts in stars. Instead, it is thought that lithium, composed of just three protons and four neutrons, was mainly produced just after the Big Bang, 13.7 billion years ago. Most stars will thus have the same amount of lithium, unless this element has been destroyed inside the star. This result also provides the astronomers with a new, cost-effective way to search for planetary systems: by checking the amount of lithium present in a star astronomers can decide which stars are worthy of further significant observing efforts. Now that a link between the presence of planets and curiously low levels of lithium has been established, the physical mechanism behind it has to be investigated. "There are several ways in which a planet can disturb the internal motions of matter in its host star, thereby rearrange the distribution of the various chemical elements and possibly cause the destruction of lithium. It is now up to the theoreticians to figure out which one is the most likely to happen," concludes Mayor. More information This research was presented in a paper that appears in the 12 November 2009 issue of Nature (Enhanced lithium depletion in Sun-like stars with orbiting planets, by G. Israelian et al.). The team is composed of Garik Israelian, Elisa Delgado Mena, Carolina Domínguez Cerdeña, and Rafael Rebolo (Instituto de Astrofisíca de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain), Nuno Santos and Sergio Sousa (Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade de Porto, Portugal), Michel Mayor and Stéphane Udry (Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland), and Sofia Randich (INAF

  2. Research grants announced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger Enterprises, Inc., has announced the winners of its 1983 Geochron Research Competition. Two awards were granted to support research proposals in each of the following areas: K-Ar dating, C-14 analyses, and Stable Isotope Ratio Analyses (SIRA).Winners in the K-Ar dating area, their school, and their research topics are James J . Hardy, Jr., Northern Arizona Univ., The use of the K-Ar method to date a major thrust event in west-central Arizona; and Christopher S. Lynnes, Univ. of Michigan, Correlation with age of magnetization in Cambro-Ondovician intrusives from Colorado.

  3. Here comes the sun...; Here comes the sun...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Robert [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    It sounds a bit strange that you can use solar energy to maintain or refrigerate products or spaces below the ambient temperature, because we know that something that makes the sun is heating; but yes indeed, the sun can produce cold, and in addition without polluting, and without consuming conventional energy. In this document are mentioned the various research projects on solar cooling that have been made in the Energy Research Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico such as the thermo-chemical intermittent refrigerator, the geothermal cooling demonstration system in Mexicali, B.C., the GAX system for air conditioning, the ice producer intermittent solar refrigerator, the continuous solar refrigerator, the refrigeration by ejection-compression. It also mentions the functioning of heat pumps and the process of solar drying applications in agricultural products. [Spanish] Suena un poco extrano que se pueda utilizar la energia solar para mantener o refrigerar productos o espacios por debajo de la temperatura ambiente, ya que sabemos que algo que hace el sol es calentar; pero si, el sol puede producir frio, y ademas sin contaminar y sin consumir energia convencional. En este documento se mencionan las diferentes investigaciones sobre refrigeracion solar que se han realizado en el Centro de Investigacion en Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico como el refrigerador termoquimico intermitente, el sistema demostrativo de refrigeracion geotermico en Mexicali, B.C., el sistema GAX para aire acondicionado, el refrigerador solar intermitente productor de hielo, el refrigerador continuo solar, la refrigeracion por eyecto-compresion. Tambien se menciona el funcionamiento de las bombas de calor y el proceso de secado solar de aplicacion en productos agropecuarios.

  4. Internships, employment opportunities, and research grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    As an unbiased, multidisciplinary science organization, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is dedicated to the timely, relevant, and impartial study of the health of our ecosystems and environment, our natural resources, the impacts of climate and land-use change, and the natural hazards that threaten us. Opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students and faculty to participate in USGS science are available in the selected programs described below. Please note: U.S. citizenship is required for all government positions.This publication has been superseded by USGS General Information Product 165 Grant Opportunities for Academic Research and Training and USGS General Information Product 166 Student and Recent Graduate Employment Opportunities.This publication is proceeded by USGS General Information Product 80 Internships, Employment Opportunities, and Research Grants published in 2008.

  5. Grants Process Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the steps in the National Institutes of Health and National Cancer Institute Grants Process. The graphic shows which steps are done by the Principle Investigator, Grantee Institution, and by NIH. The process is represented by a circular flow of steps. Starting from the top and reading clockwise: The Principle Investigator “Initiates Research Idea and Prepares Application” The Grantee Institution “Submits Application” NIH “NIH Center For Scientific Review, Assigns To NCI And To Study Section” NIH “Scientific Review Group (NCI OR CSR) Evaluates for Scientific Merit” NIH “National Cancer Advisory Board Recommends Action” NIH “NCI Evaluates Program Relevance And Need” NIH “NCI Makes Funding Selections And Issues Grant Awards” (NIH) NIH “NCI Monitors Programmatic and Business Management Performance of the Grant” The Grantee Institution “Manages Funds” The Principle Investigator “Conducts Research” Source: www.cancer.gov Icons made by Freepik from http://www.flaticon.com is licensed by CC BY3.0”

  6. TRIGONOMETRIC SU(N) GAUDIN MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain the eigenstates and the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonians of the trigonometric SU(N) Gaudin model based on the quasi-classical limit of the trigonometric SU(N) chain with the periodic boundary condition.By using the quantum inverse scattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generating function of the trigonometric SU(N) Gaudin model.

  7. The summer sun shone round me

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The summer sun shone round me, The folded valley lay In a stream of sun and odour, That sultry summer day. The tall trees stood in the sunlight As still as still could be, But the deep grass sighed and rustled And bowed and beckoned me. The deep grass moved and whispered And bowed and brushed my face. It whis pered in the sunshine: The winter comes apdce.”The summer sun shone round me

  8. Sun awareness in Maltese secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, S; Gauci, A Amato; Ellul, M; Scerri, L

    2004-11-01

    Studies indicate that reducing exposure to ultraviolet light during childhood and adolescence decreases the risk of skin cancer. From a young age, children need to be educated about the sun's harmful effects on the skin and how best to protect themselves. To help in the design of school-based interventions to raise sun awareness, a school survey was carried out to identify students' stereotypes and misconceptions. A total of 965 students attending Maltese secondary schools in forms 1, 2 and 3 were surveyed in May 2002, using a structured questionnaire designed to examine students' sun-related attitudes and knowledge. A high level of sun awareness among students was demonstrated, with high scores on knowledge of the effects of the sun on the skin, knowledge of skin cancer and knowledge of sun protection. Girls were clearly more knowledgeable than boys. However, of all the students surveyed, 55% thought that a suntan made them look better and 70% thought that their friends would desire a tan. These views were commoner among the older students. Skin type and hair or eye colour had no bearing on attitudes towards tanning or sun-related knowledge. The commonest misconceptions were that 'the sun is bad for your skin only when you get sunburnt' and that 'you cannot get too much sun on a cloudy day'. Deliberate suntanning was more frequently reported by girls than by boys and by students in the higher forms. Attitude change lags behind knowledge. Future school sun awareness interventions need to take into account gender and age differences in students' attitudes and perspectives. They should aim at motivating attitude change and preventive behaviour through consistent and repeated sun-education messages that are supported by a sun-conscious school environment.

  9. Sun Jingxia Devotes Herself to Nursing Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    "I really didn’t expect that at my advanced age, I would be awarded the highest honor in international nursing circles," said Mme. Sun Jingxia, 81, who had just returned from Beijing where she received the Nightingale Medal. Wearing a light yellow suit, with a collar bordered in red, Sun is inhigh spirits, reminding people of the beauty of the setting sun. It is clear that Sun Jingxia has deep feelings as she looks at the medal which shows a relief of Florence Nightingale’s head. She spoke in her usual soft voice but with some excitement, "President Jiang

  10. Minority On-Line Information Service (MOLIS): A minority research and education information service. Final report for Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-90ER75602

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodman, John A.

    2000-12-01

    MOLIS is an online database of minority institutions, and is used by federal agencies to identify peer reviewers and by majority institutions to identify possible collaborations and sub-contracts. MOLIS includes in-depth information about the research and educational capabilities of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs), and Tribal Colleges. Included with this report are several annual progress reports, a list of all minority institutions currently on MOLIS, a list of outreach activities, etc.

  11. Examining young recreational sportswomen's intentions to engage in sun-protective behavior: the role of group and image norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Natalie G; White, Katherine M; Hamilton, Kyra

    2013-01-01

    Researchers examined the sun-protective intentions and behavior of young, Caucasian, Australian sportswomen aged between 17 and 35 years (N = 100). The study adopted a 2 x 2 experimental design, comparing group norms (supportive vs. non-supportive) and image norms (tanned vs. pale) related to sun protection and taking into account group identification with friends and peers in the sport. While no significant findings emerged involving image norms, regression analyses revealed a significant two-way interaction for group norm x identification on recreational sportswomen's intentions to engage in sun protection in the next fortnight. Participants identifying strongly with their group had stronger intentions to engage in sun protection when exposed to a norm reflecting fellow recreational sportswomen engaging in sun-protective actions in comparison to those exposed to a non-supportive group. In addition, while prior intentions to engage in sun protection were not significantly related to sun-protection behavior, post-manipulation intentions after exposure to the sun-protective information that was provided were significantly related to follow-up behavior. Overall, the findings supported the importance of group-based social influences, rather than tanned media images, on sun-protective decisions among young recreational sportswomen and provided a targeted source for intervention strategies encouraging sun safety among this at-risk group for repeated sun exposure.

  12. International Grants and Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA provides grants and enters into cooperative agreements that support protecting human health and the environment while advancing U.S. national interests through international environmental collaboration.

  13. Space Technology Research Grants Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Technology Research Grants Program will accelerate the development of "push" technologies to support the future space science and exploration...

  14. Used energy-related laboratory equipment grant program for institutions of higher learning. Eligible equipment catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  15. Modeling Earth Albedo Currents on Sun Sensors for Improved Vector Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Earth albedo influences vector measurements of the solar line of sight vector, due to the induced current on in the photo voltaics of Sun sensors. Although advanced digital Sun sensors exist, these are typically expensive and may not be suited for satellites in the nano or pico-class. Previously...... for modeling Sun sensor output by incorporating the Earth albedo model is presented. This model utilizes the directional information of in the Earth albedo model, which is achieved by Earth surface partitioning. This allows accurate simulation of the Sun sensor output and the results are consistent with Ørsted...... and useful for space environment simulations, and may be utilized to improve attitude estimation algorithms applying Sun sensor vector observations....

  16. Regina vs Hubbs: Determining the Sun's Position

    CERN Document Server

    Samra, Raminder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Here I determined the Sun's position as an expert witness for crown counsel. From my calculations I found the Sun's location in the sky was such that it could not impede the driver's vision, as a result it could not have been the reason for the accused to be involved in a motor vehicle accident.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA deletion percentage in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Julia M; Murphy, Gillian; Ralph, Nikki; O'Gorman, Susan M; Murphy, James E J

    2016-12-01

    The percentages of mitochondrial genomes carrying the mtDNA(3895) and the mtDNA(4977) (common) deletion were quantified in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin biopsies, for five cohorts of patients varying either in sun exposure profile, age or skin cancer status. Non-melanoma skin cancer diagnoses are rising in Ireland and worldwide [12] but most risk prediction is based on subjective visual estimations of sun exposure history. A quantitative objective test for pre-neoplastic markers may result in better adherence to sun protective behaviours. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to be subject to the loss of a significant proportion of specific sections of genetic code due to exposure to ultraviolet light in sunlight. Although one such deletion has been deemed more sensitive, another, called the mtDNA(4977) or common deletion, has proved to be a more useful indicator of possible risk in this study. Quantitative molecular analysis was carried out to determine the percentage of genomes carrying the deletion using non sun exposed and sun exposed skin biopsies in cohorts of patients with high or low sun exposure profiles and two high exposure groups undergoing treatment for NMSC. Results indicate that mtDNA deletions correlate to sun exposure; in groups with high sun exposure habits a significant increase in deletion number in exposed over non sun exposed skin occurred. An increase in deletion percentage was also seen in older cohorts compared to the younger group. The mtDNA(3895) deletion was detected in small amounts in exposed skin of many patients, the mtDNA(4977) common deletion, although present to some extent in non sun exposed skin, is suggested to be the more reliable and easily detected marker. In all cohorts except the younger group with relatively lower sun exposure, the mtDNA(4977) deletion was more frequent in sun exposed skin samples compared to non-sun exposed skin.

  18. Gravitational Lensing Characteristics of the Transparent Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Patla, Bijunath

    2007-01-01

    The transparent Sun is modeled as a spherically symmetric and centrally condensed gravitational lens using recent Standard Solar Model (SSM) data. The Sun's minimum focal length is computed to a refined accuracy of 23.5 +/- 0.1 AU, just beyond the orbit of Uranus. The Sun creates a single image of a distant point source visible to observers inside this minimum focal length and to observers sufficiently removed from the line connecting the source through the Sun's center. Regions of space are mapped where three images of a distant point source are created, along with their associated magnifications. Solar caustics, critical curves, and Einstein rings are computed and discussed. Extremely high gravitational lens magnifications exist for observers situated so that an angularly small, unlensed source appears near a three-image caustic. Types of radiations that might undergo significant solar lens magnifications as they can traverse the core of the Sun, including neutrinos and gravitational radiation, are discusse...

  19. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  20. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  1. Hawaii Space Grant Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Luke P.

    2005-01-01

    The Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium is composed of ten institutions of higher learning including the University of Hawai'i at Manoa, the University of Hawai'i at Hilo, the University of Guam, and seven Community Colleges spread over the 4 main Hawaiian islands. Geographic separation is not the only obstacle that we face as a Consortium. Hawai'i has been mired in an economic downturn due to a lack of tourism for almost all of the period (2001 - 2004) covered by this report, although hotel occupancy rates and real estate sales have sky-rocketed in the last year. Our challenges have been many including providing quality educational opportunities in the face of shrinking State and Federal budgets, encouraging science and technology course instruction at the K-12 level in a public school system that is becoming less focused on high technology and more focused on developing basic reading and math skills, and assembling community college programs with instructors who are expected to teach more classes for the same salary. Motivated people can overcome these problems. Fortunately, the Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium (HSGC) consists of a group of highly motivated and talented individuals who have not only overcome these obstacles, but have excelled with the Program. We fill a critical need within the State of Hawai'i to provide our children with opportunities to pursue their dreams of becoming the next generation of NASA astronauts, engineers, and explorers. Our strength lies not only in our diligent and creative HSGC advisory board, but also with Hawai'i's teachers, students, parents, and industry executives who are willing to invest their time, effort, and resources into Hawai'i's future. Our operational philosophy is to FACE the Future, meaning that we will facilitate, administer, catalyze, and educate in order to achieve our objective of creating a highly technically capable workforce both here in Hawai'i and for NASA. In addition to administering to programs and

  2. 75 FR 14609 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Emergency Comment Request; HUD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Program, Community Development Block Grants, Indian Community Development Block Grant Program, Native American Housing Block Grants, Native Hawaiian Housing Block Grants, Tax Credit Assistance Program, Lead... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Emergency Comment...

  3. The Sun and How to Observe It

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2009-01-01

    Without the Sun, all life on Earth would perish. But what exactly do we know about this star that lights, heats, and powers Earth? Actually, we know quite a lot, thanks mainly to a host of eager solar observers. Looking directly at the Sun is EXTREMELY hazardous. But many astronomers, both professional and amateur, have found ways to view the Sun safely to learn about it. You, too, can view the Sun in all of its glorious detail. Some of the newest, most exciting telescopes on the market are affordable to amateur astronomers or even just curious sky watchers, and with this guide to what the Sun has to offer, including sunspots, prominences, and flares, plus reviews of the latest instruments for seeing and capturing images of the Sun, you can contribute to humankind’s knowledge of this immense ball of glowing gases that gives us all life. For a complete guide to Sun viewing, see also Total Solar Eclipses and How to Observe Them (2007) by Martin Mobberley in this same series.

  4. Sun-synchronous satellite orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Der-Ming; Zhai, Shen-You

    2004-02-01

    The linearized dynamic equations used for on-board orbit determination of Sun-synchronous satellite are derived. Sun-synchronous orbits are orbits with the secular rate of the right ascension of the ascending node equal to the right ascension rate of the mean sun. Therefore the orbit is no more a closed circle but a tight helix about the Earth. In the paper, instead of treating the orbit as a closed circle, the actual helix orbit is taken as nominal trajectory. The details of the linearized equations of motion for the satellite in the Sun-synchronous orbit are derived. The linearized equations are obtained by perturbing the Keplerian motion with the J2 correction and the effect of sun's attraction being neglected. Combined with the GPS navigation equations, the Kalman filter formulation is given. The particular application considered is the circular Sun-synchronous orbit with the altitude of 800 km and inclination of 98.6°. The numerical example simulated by MATLAB® shows that only the pseudo-range data used in the algorithm still gives acceptable results. Based on the simulation results, we can use the on-board GPS receivers' signal only as an alternative to determine the orbit of Sun-Synchronous satellite and therefore circumvents the need for extensive ground support.

  5. SunPy—Python for solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SunPy Community; Mumford, Stuart J.; Christe, Steven; Pérez-Suárez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J.; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Freij, Nabil; Meszaros, Tomas; Bennett, Samuel M.; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Mampaey, Benjamin; Campos-Rozo, Jose Iván; Kirk, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specializing in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy.

  6. 30 CFR 887.13 - Grant period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant period. 887.13 Section 887.13 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE INSURANCE PROGRAM GRANTS § 887.13 Grant period. The grant funding period... remaining at the end of any grant period to us according to 43 CFR part 12. ...

  7. New Suns in the Cosmos II: Differential rotation in $Kepler$ Sun-like stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chagas, M L Das; Costa, A D; Lopes, C E Ferreira; Sobrinho, R Silva; Paz-Chinchón, F; Leão, I C; Valio, A; de Freitas, D B; Martins, B L Canto; Lanza, A F; De Medeiros, J R

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the discovery of Sun-like stars, namely main-sequence stars with $T_{\\rm eff}$, $\\log g$ and rotation periods $P_{rot}$ similar to solar values, presenting evidence of surface differential rotation. An autocorrelation of the time series was used to select stars presenting photometric signal stability from a sample of 881 stars with light curves collected by the $Kepler$ space-borne telescope, in which we have identified 17 stars with stable signals. A simple two-spot model together with a Bayesian information criterion were applied to these stars in the search for indications of differential rotation; in addition, for all 17 stars, it was possible to compute the spot rotation period $P$, the mean values of the individual spot rotation periods and their respective colatitudes, and the relative amplitude of the differential rotation.

  8. New Suns in the Cosmos II: differential rotation in Kepler Sun-like stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Chagas, M. L.; Bravo, J. P.; Costa, A. D.; Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Silva Sobrinho, R.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Leão, I. C.; Valio, A.; de Freitas, D. B.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Lanza, A. F.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    The present study reports the discovery of Sun-like stars, namely main-sequence stars with Teff, log g and rotation periods Prot similar to solar values, presenting evidence of surface differential rotation (DR). An autocorrelation of the time series was used to select stars presenting photometric signal stability from a sample of 881 stars with light curves collected by the Kepler space-borne telescope, in which we have identified 17 stars with stable signals. A simple two-spot model together with a Bayesian information criterion were applied to these stars in the search for indications of DR; in addition, for all 17 stars, it was possible to compute the spot rotation period P, the mean values of the individual spot rotation periods and their respective colatitudes, and the relative amplitude of the DR.

  9. Anisotropic microstructure near the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, W. A.; Grall, R. R.; Spangler, S. R.; Sakurai, T.; Harmon, J. K.

    1996-07-01

    Radio scattering observations provide a means of measuring a two-dimensional projection of the three-dimensional spatial spectrum of electron density, i.e., in the plane perpendicular to the line of sight. Earlier observations have shown that the microstructure at scales of the order of 10 km becomes highly field-aligned inside of 10 Rsolar [Armstrong et al., 1990]. Earlier work has also shown that density fluctuations at scales larger than 1000 km have a Kolmogorov spectrum, whereas the smaller scale structure has a flatter spectrum and is considerably enhanced above the Kolmogorov ``background'' [Coles et al., 1991]. Here we present new observations made during 1990 and 1992. These confirm the earlier work, which was restricted to one source on a few days, but they suggest that the anisotropy changes abruptly near 6 Rsolar which was not clear in the earlier data. The axial ratio measurements are shown on Figure 1 below. The new observations were made with a more uniform sampling of the spatial plane. They show that contours of constant correlation are elliptical. This is apparently inconsistent with the spatial correlation of the ISEE-3 magnetic field which shows a ``Maltese Cross'' shape [Matthaeus et al., 1990]. However this inconsistency may be only apparent: the magnetic field and density correlations need not have the same shape; the scale of the magnetic field correlations is at least 4 orders of magnitude larger; they are much further from the sun; and they are point measurements whereas ours are path-integrated. We also made two simultaneous measurements, at 10 Rsolar, of the anisotropy on scales of 200 to 4000 km. Significant anisotropy was seen on the smaller scales, but the larger scale structure was essentially isotropic. This suggests that the process responsible for the anisotropic microstructure is independent of the larger scale isotropic turbulence. It is then tempting to speculate that the damping of this anisotropic process inside of 6 Rsolar

  10. Perspectives on the Interior of the Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Μ. Chitre

    2000-09-01

    The interior of the Sun is not directly accessible to observations. Nonetheless, it is possible to infer the physical conditions inside the Sun with the help of structure equations governing its equilibrium and with the powerful observational tools provided by the neutrino fluxes and oscillation frequencies. The helioseismic data show that the internal constitution of the Sun can be adequately represented by a standard solar model. It turns out that a cooler solar core is not a viable solution for the measured deficit of neutrino fluxes, and the resolution of the solar neutrino puzzle should be sought in the realm of particle physics.

  11. The Jovian period in the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    The 41-year measurements of the Doppler effect of the photosphere performed at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, discovered two periods of global oscillations of the Sun: 9600.606(12) s and 9597.929(15) s. Their beat period, 398.4(2.9) d, well agrees with a synodic orbital period of Jupiter, PJ = 398.9 d, raising a new problem for solar physics, cosmogony and cosmology. A hypothesis is advanced that the PJ beating of the Sun is induced by gravitation of Jupiter, revolving in a privileged reference system "the Sun - the Earth".

  12. Semiautomatic sun shots with the WIDIF DIflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasson, Jean L.; Hendrickx, Olivier; Marin, Jean-Luc

    2017-07-01

    The determination of magnetic declination angle entails finding two directions: geographic north and magnetic north. This paper deals with the former. The known way to do it by using the sun's calculable orientation in the sky is improved by using a device based on a WIDIF DIflux theodolite and split photocells positioned on its telescope ocular. Given the WIDIF accurate timing and location provided by the onboard GPS receiver, an astronomical computation can be effected to accurately and quickly determine the sun's azimuth and an auxiliary mark's azimuth. The precise sun's crossing of the split photocell, amplified by the telescope's magnification, allows azimuth accuracies of a few seconds of arc.

  13. Internal Grant Review to Increase Grant Funding for Junior Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Heather S; Brodsky, Martin B; Ewen, Joshua B; Bergey, Gregory K; Lloyd, Thomas E; Haughey, Norman J; Marvel, Cherie L

    2017-09-04

    Decreasing biomedical research support over the past decade has driven many talented young scientists to seek careers outside academia. In 2011, the Department of Neurology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine developed an internal grant review program (IGRP) to systematically review career development awards (CDAs) and research grants (e.g., R01s) for junior investigators prior to NIH submission. With IGRP implementation, we observed significant increases in the number of CDAs and R-grants awarded to junior investigators. Thus, internal grant review is an effective means for supporting junior faculty and help them retain their research roles within academia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  14. GEF small grants programme - overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the GEF small grants program which seeks to enhance the role of households and communities in conserving global biodiversity, mitigating global climate change, and protecting international waters. Grants up to $50k have been granted for projects in 33 countries, with plans for 12 other countries. The author describes the framework that the program works under, and the methodology followed in developing and planning projects. The approach to climate change concerns is to emphasize the development of non-carbon energy development activities to provide energy sources and economic development.

  15. Hydrology to name grant winner

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hydrology Section will announce at the 1983 AGU Spring Meeting the recipient of the first Horton Research Grant. The grant was established at the section's Executive Committee meeting at the 1982 AGU Fall Meeting. The $4,500 grant is to support research projects in hydrology and water resources by Ph.D. candidates in American institutions of higher education and is to be awarded annually to a single recipient. Appropriate topics would be in hydrology (including its physical, chemical, or biological aspects) or in water resources policy sciences (including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law).

  16. Tips for writing a NAON research grant proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisanti, P; Talotta, D

    2000-01-01

    This article is intended to help the novice nurse researcher prepare a research grant proposal for the National Association of Orthopaedic Nurses (NAON). It summarizes the grant guidelines and describes each component of the research proposal. The components include the abstract, statement of the problem, literature review, purpose, design, methodology, timetable and budget. NAON's research priorities are included as well as contact information for the organization and tips for survival.

  17. Wetland Program Development Grants (WPDGs) Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  18. Finding the lost siblings of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Feltzing, Sofia; Ruchti, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a spectral analysis on 18 stars solar sibling candidate. We found that only one one of the candidateshas solar metallicity and at the same time might have an age comparable to that of the Sun.

  19. Sun and Other Types of Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Causes Cancer? Sun and Other Types of Radiation Learn about the different types of radiation and ... other diseases. Learn more here. Other Types of Radiation Exposure Not all types of radiation have been ...

  20. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J

    2013-01-01

    Background  It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis......, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. Objectives  In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to assess sun exposure after diagnosis of CMM by objective measurements to substantiate advice about sun...... months and 6 years before the start of the study. During a summer season participants filled in sun exposure diaries daily and wore personal electronic UVR dosimeters in a wristwatch that continuously measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema dose. Results  The UVR dose of recently diagnosed...

  1. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  2. Nilaja Sun's "No Child...": Reflections on Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nilaja; Alexander, Phillip; Huldeen, Branden; Russell, Ron; Friedman, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Nilaja Sun's groundbreaking one-woman show about a TA, her students, and her school, and includes interviews with the author/performer, an excerpt of the work, and a discussion of the organization behind it.

  3. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part I. Energy, Society, and the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which were selected for information on solar energy is presented in this booklet. This booklet is the first of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles provide brief discussions on topics such as the power of the sun, solar energy developments for homes, solar energy versus power plants, solar access laws, and the role of utilities with respect to the sun's energy. (BCS)

  4. The Sun murrab Baltimaadesse ja Soome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis andis ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun Soomes, Lätis, Leedus ja Eestis üksteist kontserti. Heliplaadi "Here Gomes The Sun" lugu "Hopelessness You" on Soome raadiote tipp 300s neljakümnendal kohal, lugu "Learn the game" on Leedu FM99 raadios 33 enim mängitava loo seas, laul "One of those days" saavutas Läti raadio SWH rokkmuusika edetabelis teise koha.

  5. Optimal control of sun tracking solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    Application of the modern control theory to derive an optimal sun tracking control for a point focusing solar concentrator is presented. A standard tracking problem converted to regulator problem using a sun rate input achieves an almost zero steady state tracking error with the optimal control formulation. However, these control techniques are costly because optimal type algorithms require large computing systems, thus they will be used mainly as comparison standards for other types of control algorithms and help in their development.

  6. The Sun murrab Baltimaadesse ja Soome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis andis ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun Soomes, Lätis, Leedus ja Eestis üksteist kontserti. Heliplaadi "Here Gomes The Sun" lugu "Hopelessness You" on Soome raadiote tipp 300s neljakümnendal kohal, lugu "Learn the game" on Leedu FM99 raadios 33 enim mängitava loo seas, laul "One of those days" saavutas Läti raadio SWH rokkmuusika edetabelis teise koha.

  7. Brownfields Site Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset contains all Brownfield facility data. It includes all information necessary to track Brownfields grant recipients' environmental progress at Brownfield...

  8. Orientation in birds. The sun compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Koenig, K; Ganzhorn, J U; Ranvaud, R

    1991-01-01

    The sun compass was discovered by G. Kramer in caged birds showing migratory restlessness. Subsequent experiments with caged birds employing directional training and clock shifts, carried out by Hoffman and Schmidt-Koenig, showed that the sun azimuth is used, and the sun altitude ignored. In the laboratory, McDonald found the accuracy to be +/- 3 degrees(-)+/- 5 degrees. According to Hoffmann and Schmidt-Koenig, caged birds trained at medium northern latitudes were able to allow for the sun's apparent movement north of the arctic circle, but not in equatorial and trans-equatorial latitudes. In homing experiments, and employing clock shifts, Schmidt-Koenig demonstrated that the sun compass is used by homing pigeons during initial orientation. This finding is the principal evidence for the existence of a map-and-compass navigational system. Pigeons living in equatorial latitudes utilize the sun compass even under the extreme solar conditions of equinox, achieving angular resolution of about 3 degrees in homing experiments. According to preliminary analyses, the homing pigeons' ephemerides are retarded by several weeks (Ranvaud, Schmidt-Koenig, Ganzhorn et al.).

  9. SunPy: Solar Physics in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Perez Suarez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russel

    2015-04-01

    SunPy is a community-developed open-source software library for solar physics. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language which is being increasingly adopted throughout the scientific community as well as further afield. This has resulted in a wide array of software packages useful for scientific computing, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy, etc.), to machine learning (scifitlearn), to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy aims to provide required specialised software for analysing solar and heliospheric datasets in Python. The current version is 0.5 with 0.6 expected to be released later this year. SunPy provides solar data access through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It supports common data types from major solar missions such as images (SDO/AIA, STEREO, PROBA2/SWAP etc.), time series (GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE, PROBA2/LYRA), and radio spectra (e-Callisto, STEREO/WAVES). SunPy’s code base is publicly available through github.com and can be contributed to by anyone. In this poster we demonstrate SunPy’s functionality and future goals of the project. We also encourage interested users to become involved in further developing SunPy.

  10. ACED Federal Grant Contractor Tracking

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Dataset includes grant, project, and contractor awarded which are tracked for ensuring Davis-Bacon Act compliance where applicable. The 1931 Davis-Bacon Act...

  11. Namibia - Vocational Training Grant Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The impact evaluation of the Vocational Training Grant Fund (VTGF) subactivity in Namibia uses a random assignment design to determine the effects of VTGF-funded...

  12. Intergovernmental grants in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    A country's grant system is the product of its political environment. Such systems tend to develop over time in response to prevailing political needs and then become institutionalized. Since they have developed in a haphazard fashion over time, grant"systems"commonly are not systems at all. Hard pressed government ministries seldom undertake any thorough analysis of these arrangements; hence their overall impact is unknown in spite of the importance of this use of resources.

  13. Implications of advanced warning messages on eliminating sun glare disturbances at signalized intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to sun glare disturbances, drivers encounter fatal threats on roadways, particularly at signalized intersections. Many studies have attempted to develop applicable solutions, such as avoiding sun positions, applying road geometric re-directions, and wearing anti-glare glasses. None of these strategies have fully solved the problem. As one of the “Connected Vehicle” practices proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, advanced warning messages (AWMs are capable of providing wireless information about traffic controls. AWM acts as a supplement to conventional signs and signals, which can be blocked by obstacles or natural disturbances, such as sun glare. The drivers' smart advisory system (DSAS can provide drivers with AWM. Using a driving simulator this research explores the effects of DSAS messages on driving behaviors under sun glare disturbance. Statistical analyses were applied to assess (1 the negative impacts of sun glare, (2 the compensation of the DSAS AWM to sun glare effects, and (3 the improvement in driving performance due to DSAS AWM. Four performance indexes were measured, including (1 half kinetic energy speed, (2 mean approach speed, (3 brake response time, and (4 braking distance. The effects of the socio-demographic factors, such as gender, age, educational background, and driving experience were also studied. The analytical results illustrate that the DSAS can compensate for reduced visibility due to sun glare and improve driving performance to a normal visual situation, particularly for left turn and through movement.

  14. ULYSSES comes full circle, before revisiting the Sun's poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    From its unique perspective, Ulysses has provided scientists with the very first all-round map of the heliosphere, the huge bubble in space filled by the Sun's wind. The Earth swims deep inside the heliosphere, and gusts and shocks in the solar wind can harm satellites, power supplies and ommunications. They may also affect our planet's weather. A better grasp of the solar weather in the heliosphere is therefore one of the major aims of ESA's science programme. In a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA, Ulysses was launched towards Jupiter in October 1990 by the US space shuttle Discovery. Arriving in February 1992, Ulysses stole energy from the giant planet in a slingshot manoeuvre and was propelled back towards the Sun in an elongated orbit almost at right angles to the ecliptic plane, where the Earth and other planets circle the Sun. "This month Ulysses returns to the point in space where its out-of-ecliptic journey began, but Jupiter isn't there," explains Richard Marsden, ESA's project scientist for Ulysses. "Following its own inexorable path around the Sun, Jupiter is far away on the opposite side of the Solar System. So Ulysses' course will not be changed a second time. The spacecraft is now in effect a man-made comet, forever bound into a 6-year polar orbit around the Sun." Ulysses now starts its second orbit. It will travel over the poles of the Sun in 2000-2001 just as the count of dark sunspots is expected to reach a maximum. With its operational life extended for the Ulysses Solar Maximum Mission, the spacecraft will find the heliosphere much stormier than during its first orbit. Discoveries so far Like its mythical namesake, Ulysses has already had an eventful voyage of discovery. Its unique trajectory has provided the scientific teams with a new perspective, from far out in space and especially in the previously unknown regions of the heliosphere over the Sun's poles. Passing within 9.8 degrees of the polar axis, the highly

  15. Challenges for asteroseismic analysis of Sun-like stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chaplin, W J; Appourchaux, T; Elsworth, Y; New, R; Toutain, T

    2008-01-01

    Asteroseismology of Sun-like stars is undergoing rapid expansion with, for example, new data from the CoRoT mission and continuation of ground-based campaigns. There is also the exciting upcoming prospect of NASA's Kepler mission, which will allow the asteroseismic study of several hundred Sun-like targets, in some cases for periods lasting up to a few years. The seismic mode parameters are the input data needed for making inference on stars and their internal structures. In this paper we discuss the ease with which it will be possible to extract estimates of individual mode parameters, dependent on the mass, age, and visual brightness of the star. Our results are generally applicable; however, we look at mode detectability in the context of the upcoming Kepler observations. To inform our discussions we make predictions of various seismic parameters. To do this we use simple empirical scaling relations and detailed pulsation computations of the stochastic excitation and damping characteristics of the Sun-like...

  16. Moon and Sun shadow observation with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, Fabian; Tenholt, Frederik; Becker-Tjus, Julia [Theoretische Physik, Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany); Westerhoff, Stefan [University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of the Moon shadow is a standard method in IceCube to determine the angular resolution and absolute pointing capabilities of the IceCube detector at the geographic South Pole. The Sun has not been used as a calibrator thus far, as its shadow is expected to be influenced by the solar magnetic field, which deflects the cosmic rays near the solar surface. This, on the other hand, provides indirect pieces of information on the magnetic field structure of the Sun. This talk shows a first analysis of the Sun shadow with IceCube data. The analysis is based on the data of the detector configurations with 79 (IC79) and 86 strings (IC86) from 2010 through 2012. To examine the shadows, a binned method is used to compare all events from one on-source with two off-source windows. For the IC40 and IC59 configuration a deficit with a statistical significance of more than 6σ was observed.

  17. The Sun Health Research Institute Brain Donation Program: Description and Eexperience, 1987–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Lucia I.; Walker, Douglas G.; Roher, Alex E.; Lue, LihFen; Vedders, Linda; Connor, Donald J.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Rogers, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The Brain Donation Program at Sun Health Research Institute has been in continual operation since 1987, with over 1000 brains banked. The population studied primarily resides in the retirement communities of northwest metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. The Institute is affiliated with Sun Health, a nonprofit community-owned and operated health care provider. Subjects are enrolled prospectively to allow standardized clinical assessments during life. Funding comes primarily from competitive grants. The Program has made short postmortem brain retrieval a priority, with a 2.75-h median postmortem interval for the entire collection. This maximizes the utility of the resource for molecular studies; frozen tissue from approximately 82% of all cases is suitable for RNA studies. Studies performed in-house have shown that, even with very short postmortem intervals, increasing delays in brain retrieval adversely affect RNA integrity and that cerebrospinal fluid pH increases with postmortem interval but does not predict tissue viability. PMID:18347928

  18. The Sun Health Research Institute Brain Donation Program: description and experience, 1987-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Thomas G; Sue, Lucia I; Walker, Douglas G; Roher, Alex E; Lue, LihFen; Vedders, Linda; Connor, Donald J; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Rogers, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    The Brain Donation Program at Sun Health Research Institute has been in continual operation since 1987, with over 1000 brains banked. The population studied primarily resides in the retirement communities of northwest metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. The Institute is affiliated with Sun Health, a nonprofit community-owned and operated health care provider. Subjects are enrolled prospectively to allow standardized clinical assessments during life. Funding comes primarily from competitive grants. The Program has made short postmortem brain retrieval a priority, with a 2.75-h median postmortem interval for the entire collection. This maximizes the utility of the resource for molecular studies; frozen tissue from approximately 82% of all cases is suitable for RNA studies. Studies performed in-house have shown that, even with very short postmortem intervals, increasing delays in brain retrieval adversely affect RNA integrity and that cerebrospinal fluid pH increases with postmortem interval but does not predict tissue viability.

  19. The sun and space weather Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    This second edition is a great enhancement of literature which will help the reader get deeper into the specific topics. There are new sections included such as space weather data sources and examples, new satellite missions, and the latest results. At the end a comprehensive index is given which will allow the reader to quickly find his topics of interest. The Sun and Space weather are two rapidly evolving topics. The importance of the Sun for the Earth, life on Earth, climate and weather processes was recognized long ago by the ancients. Now, for the first time there is a continuous surveillance of solar activity at nearly all wavelengths. These data can be used to improve our understanding of the complex Sun-Earth interaction. The first chapters of the book deal with the Sun as a star and its activity phenomena as well as its activity cycle in order to understand the complex physics of the Sun-Earth system. The reader will see that there are many phenomena but still no definite explanations and models exis...

  20. The Sun Sense Study: An Intervention to Improve Sun Protection in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Alice; Shaheen, Magda; Glenn, Beth A.; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on parental knowledge, sun avoidance behaviors, and sun protection practices in children 3-10 years. Methods: A randomized trial at a pediatric clinic recruited 197 caregiver-child pairs (90% parents). Intervention included a brief presentation and brochure for the parent and…

  1. After the Bell: Developing Sun Sense--Learning about Protection from the Sun's Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology (2008) reports that our students will experience 80% of their lifetime exposure to the Sun by the time they are 18. Further, research has demonstrated that continued exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet rays can lead to skin aging, sunburn, immune suppression, ocular melanoma, cataracts, corneal burns, and even…

  2. Sun-Earth Connection EPO's with Multiple Uses and Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Russell, R.; Lu, G.; Richmond, A.; Maute, A.; Haller, D.; Conery, C.; Bintner, G.; Kiessling, D.; Hughes, W. J.

    2005-05-01

    The three-year life of an EPO grant can be a journey guided by clear goals and enriched by collaborative and outreach opportunities connecting Space sciences to Earth sciences for both K-12 and public audiences. This point is illustrated by two EPO projects funded by NASA Sun-Earth Connection research grants to the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. They are entering their final year coordinated by the Office of Education and Outreach at University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. The content focus of both projects is well aligned with HAO's research mission and the expertise of our scientists, addressing solar dynamics, space weather, and the impacts of solar events on the magnetosphere, as well as societies inhabiting Earth's surface. The first project (Gang Lu, PI) develops presentation resources, inquiry activities, and tips that will help HAO scientists be better prepared to visit K-12 classrooms. Unexpectedly, the simultaneous development of a Teachers' Guide to NCAR's new Climate Discovery exhibit, which takes an Earth system approach to climate and global change, has created a niche for this EPO resource to be revised and repurposed for a needed unit in the guide about the exhibit's graphic panels on Sun-Earth connections. The second project (Art Richmond, PI) engages two high school "Teachers in Residence" to develop resources they can utilize with their students. Excited by exceptional educational graphics and animations in the new Physics of the Aurora: Earth Systems module co-produced by HAO and the COMET Program for advanced undergraduate courses, they chose to adapt appropriate sections of the module to enrich Earth science and math concepts addressed in their 9th and 10th grade astronomy and general physics classes. Simultaneously, the Windows to the Universe web site, which continuously updates space science content and is now developing a new Space Weather section with support from the Center for

  3. Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, L David

    1991-01-01

    This volume thoroughly covers the sub-field of information, and is one of the first in a series which synthesizes the research literature on major concepts in the field of communication. Each concise volume includes a research definition (concept explication) and presents a state-of-the-art analysis of theory and empirical findings related to the concept. After defining the word `information', the author contrasts non-linear and reflexive ideas about human communication with linear perspectives. Information is equated with uncertainty. The result presents a pattern for the process of conceptua

  4. 7 CFR 4280.110 - Grant funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-kind contributions are acceptable in accordance with 7 CFR part 3015 of this title. (2) Passive third... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant funding. 4280.110 Section 4280.110 Agriculture... Improvements Program Section A. Grants § 4280.110 Grant funding. (a) The amount of grant funds that will...

  5. 25 CFR 23.52 - Grant suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant suspension. 23.52 Section 23.52 Indians BUREAU OF... Grant Administration Provisions and Requirements § 23.52 Grant suspension. (a) When a grantee has... assistance, suspend the grant. The notice preceding the suspension shall include the effective date of...

  6. 77 FR 34122 - Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter... to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Sun Air Express, LLC d/b/a Sun...

  7. Beyond 3 AU from the Sun: "Hypervolatiles" in Distant Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonev, Boncho P.; Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Mumma, Michael J.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Paganini, Lucas; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Lippi, Manuela; Gibb, Erika L.; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; de Val-Borro, Miguel; Kawakita, Hideyo; Altwegg, Kathrin

    2016-10-01

    Our understanding of inner coma composition in comets has long been biased towards heliocentric distances (Rh) smaller than 2-3 AU. However, observations far from the Sun are also of high value for better understanding the nucleus structure and outgassing of volatiles. Substantial and very important evidence for the activity of distant comets has been accumulated from photometry and analyses of light curves, but direct detections of primary (parent) volatiles are still rare. For example, comet C/2006 W3 (Christensen) remained outside 3.1 AU throughout its apparition, yet it presented the best opportunity since Hale-Bopp (1997) for detailed spectroscopic studies in a distant comet. C/2006 W3 was observed from several space- and ground-based facilities using both infrared and radio techniques. CO, CH4, and C2H6 were measured via infrared spectroscopy at ESO-VLT at Rh = 3.25 AU. Production rates were found to exceed those measured for each of these species in most other comets, despite those comets being observed much closer to the Sun. With its relatively high CO/CO2 ratio, C/2006 W3 also appears as an outlier in the AKARI comet survey of 18 comets. The detections of H2O (Herschel Space Observatory) and CO (ESO-VLT) allow for constraining the coma abundance ratio H2O/CO at Rh = 5 AU.We will compare the C2H6/CH4/CO ratios in C/2006 W3 with those in other comets spanning a large range in Rh: from D/2012 S1 ISON (~0.7 AU) to 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 (~ 6.3 AU). Notably in situ measurements by the Rosetta mission were performed in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, at a very similar heliocentric distance to C/2006 W3 (3.15 AU). While comparisons of column-integrated remote sensing measurements and abundances from in-situ mass spectrometry (as performed by the ROSINA instrument) are not straightforward, both types of measurement are of high value for constraining models of nucleus outgassing beyond 3 AU from the Sun, where the inferred nucleus structure and

  8. 78 FR 38996 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life... information technology. To Submit Comments and For Further Information: To obtain a copy of the data... days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health,...

  9. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined......-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose...... and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data...

  10. Precise nuclear physics for the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    For many centuries, the study of the Sun has been an important testbed for understanding stars that are further away. One of the first astronomical observations Galileo Galilei made in 1612 with the newly invented telescope concerned the sunspots, and in 1814, Joseph von Fraunhofer employed his new spectroscope to discover the absorption lines in the solar spectrum that are now named after him. Even though more refined and new modes of observation are now available than in the days of Galileo and Fraunhofer, the study of the Sun is still high on the agenda of contemporary science, due to three guiding interests. The first is connected to the ages-old human striving to understand the structure of the larger world surrounding us. Modern telescopes, some of them even based outside the Earth's atmosphere in space, have succeeded in observing astronomical objects that are billions of light-years away. However, for practical reasons precision data that are important for understanding stars can still only be gained from the Sun. In a sense, the observations of far-away astronomical objects thus call for a more precise study of the closeby, of the Sun, for their interpretation. The second interest stems from the human desire to understand the essence of the world, in particular the elementary particles of which it consists. Large accelerators have been constructed to produce and collide these particles. However, man-made machines can never be as luminous as the Sun when it comes to producing particles. Solar neutrinos have thus served not only as an astronomical tool to understand the Sun's inner workings, but their behavior on the way from the Sun to the Earth is also being studied with the aim to understand their nature and interactions. The third interest is strictly connected to life on Earth. A multitude of research has shown that even relatively slight changes in the Earth's climate may strongly affect the living conditions in a number of densely

  11. The Spectrum of Darkonium in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Kouvaris, Chris; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter that gets captured in the Sun may form positronium-like bound states if it self-interacts via light dark photons. In this case, dark matter can either annihilate to dark photons or recombine in bound states which subsequently also decay to dark photons. The fraction of the dark photons that leave the Sun without decaying to Standard Model particles have a characteristic energy spectrum which is a mixture of the direct annihilation process, the decays of ortho- and para- bound states and the recombination process. The ultimate decay of these dark photons to positron-electron pairs (via kinetic mixing) outside the Sun creates a distinct signal that can either identify or set strict constraints on dark photon models.

  12. The spectrum of darkonium in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Langæble, Kasper; Grønlund Nielsen, Niklas

    2016-10-01

    Dark matter that gets captured in the Sun may form positronium-like bound states if it self-interacts via light dark photons. In this case, dark matter can either annihilate to dark photons or recombine in bound states which subsequently also decay to dark photons. The fraction of the dark photons that leave the Sun without decaying to Standard Model particles have a characteristic energy spectrum which is a mixture of the direct annihilation process, the decays of ortho- and para- bound states and the recombination process. The ultimate decay of these dark photons to positron-electron pairs (via kinetic mixing) outside the Sun creates a distinct signal that can either identify or set strict constraints on dark photon models.

  13. The sun since the Bronze Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the behavior of the sun during the last 7000 years. The C-14 content in carbonaceous fossil material can be used as an indicator regarding the level of solar activity at the time when the carbon was assimilated in the process of photosynthesis. Living trees, such as the bristlecone pine, provide a solar activity record to about 3000 B.C. The record can be extended with the aid of well-preserved dead wood to beyond 5000 B.C. The results of an analysis of solar activity levels as a function of time on the basis of C-14 contents are presented in a graph. Attention is given to the Maunder Minimum, a history of the sun in the last 5000 years, an interpretation of the major C-14 excursions, and the sun and climate history.

  14. 'My Sun' and 'Guided by the Moon'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Baillie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available My Sun and Guided by the Moon (2012 show the heavily pregnant artist with her swollen belly covered in gold and silver leaf. The work is suggestive that the connectivity experienced by an expectant mother, extends outwards, even as far as her relationship with the cosmos. The 'sun' portrait was taken on a bright September morning, and its partner image, the following October, on the night of a full moon. Female cycles and the importance of time passing during a pregnancy are referenced. Interestingly, bearing in mind that the artist gave birth to a son in November, creating the 'moon' portrait felt like a familiar, empowering and yet isolated expression of selfhood, whilst the 'sun/son' version exuded the energy of a collaboration, and stimulated feelings of joy, liberation and potentiality. By seeming contradiction, the boy was born on a full moon, exactly a month to the day that Guided by the Moon was taken.

  15. Semiautomatic sun shots with the WIDIF DIflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Rasson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The determination of magnetic declination angle entails finding two directions: geographic north and magnetic north. This paper deals with the former. The known way to do it by using the sun's calculable orientation in the sky is improved by using a device based on a WIDIF DIflux theodolite and split photocells positioned on its telescope ocular. Given the WIDIF accurate timing and location provided by the onboard GPS receiver, an astronomical computation can be effected to accurately and quickly determine the sun's azimuth and an auxiliary mark's azimuth. The precise sun's crossing of the split photocell, amplified by the telescope's magnification, allows azimuth accuracies of a few seconds of arc.

  16. FLYPAPER EFFECT PADA UNCONDITIONAL GRANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irham Iskandar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to know the influence of unconditional grants, local revenue, and GRDP to local expenditure and to detect the possibility of flypaper effect occurrences at local expenditure in West Java province. Population in this research is West Java Province and the sample consisted of 13 regency and 6 municipality. Estimates conducted by the panel regression using eviews program. The results of this research, the first show that unconditional grants significant and have positive relationships to local expenditure, local revenue has a significant and a positive relationship to local expenditure, GRDP has a significant and a negative relationship to the local expenditure. Second, the value of the coefficient of local revenue is greater than unconditional grants and both are significant. It indicates no occurrence of flypaper effect in West Java Province.

  17. Structure of magnetic fields on the quiet sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haimin

    1988-01-01

    To obtain quantitative temporal and spatial information on the network magnetic fields, auto- and cross-correlation techniques are applied to the Big Bear videomagnetogram data. The average size of the network magnetic elements derived from the auto-correlation curve is about 5700 km. The distance between the primary and secondary peak in the auto-correlation curve is about 17,000 km, which is half of the size of the supergranule as determined from the velocity map. The canceling features and the emergence of ephemeral regions are the major sources for the loss and replenishment of magnetic flux on the quiet sun.

  18. Conforming STOP Violence Against Women Formula Grant Program Regulations to Statutory Change; Definitions and Confidentiality Requirements Applicable to All OVW Grant Programs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    This rule amends the regulations for the STOP (ServicesTrainingOfficersProsecutors) Violence Against Women Formula Grant Program (STOP Program) and the general provisions governing Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) programs to comply with statutory changes and reduce repetition of statutory language. Also, this rule implements statutory requirements for nondisclosure of confidential or private information relating to all OVW grant programs.

  19. Horton Research Grant posposals sought

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Geophysical Union is requesting proposals for the award of the Horton Research Grant. The proposal deadline is March 15, 1984. The grant will be in support of research projects in hydrology and water resources by Ph.D. candidates of American institutions of higher education and is awarded annually to a single proponent. Its objective is to foster graduate student research leading to the completion of doctoral dissertations. Proposals may be in hydrology (including its physical, chemical, or biological aspects) or in the water resource policy sciences (including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law).

  20. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güdel Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have led to the escape of important amounts of atmospheric constituents. The present dry atmosphere of Venus and the thin atmosphere of Mars may be a product of early irradiation and heating by solar high-energy radiation. High levels of magnetic activity are also inferred for the pre-main sequence Sun. At those stages, interactions of high-energy radiation and particles with the circumsolar disk in which planets eventually formed were important. Traces left in meteorites by energetic particles and anomalous isotopic abundance ratios in meteoritic inclusions may provide evidence for a highly active pre-main sequence Sun. The present article reviews these various issues related to the magnetic activity of the young Sun and the consequent interactions with its environment. The emphasis is on the phenomenology related to the production of high-energy photons and particles. Apart from the activity on the young Sun, systematic trends applicable to the entire

  1. The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Marsden, R G; Balogh, A; Gloeckler, G; Geiss, J; McComas, D J; McKibben, R B; MacDowall, R J; Lanzerotti, L J; Krupp, N; Krueger, H; Landgraf, M

    2003-11-14

    Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.

  2. Ra: The Sun for Science and Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development. For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements. Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework. These were to identify and investigate: possible application spin-offs from science missions, possible solar-terrestrial missions dedicated to a particular application, and possible future applications that require technology development. The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions (1962-1980) seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft. A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions (1990-1996) focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In planned missions, Sun/Earth interactions and environmental effects of solar activity are becoming more important. The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions

  3. Haloes around the Moon and the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex; Gaina, Danielle A.

    2008-10-01

    The authors observations of the Haloes around the Moon and the Sun during few last years are reported. A Historical review of the phenomenon is given since the observations by Benvenuto Cellini and Gaston Tissandier is given. A photograph (from eight available) of the Halo around the Sun observed in Chisinau on 21 May 2007 is included. The Halo from 21 May 2007 occured after a very fast increasing of the air temperature during one day by more than 15 Deg. The authors consider, that the phenomenon is due to scattering of light on Cirri clouds(7 km altitude), present on the sky during that day. They formed due to very fast heating.

  4. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  5. Radio emission of the sun and planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleznyakov, V V

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 25: Radio Emission of the Sun and Planets presents the origin of the radio emission of the planets. This book examines the outstanding triumphs achieved by radio astronomy of the solar system. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the physical conditions in the upper layers of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets. This text then examines the three characteristics of radio emission, namely, the frequency spectrum, the polarization, and the angular spectrum. Other chapters consider the measurements of the i

  6. 78 FR 51812 - Urbanized Area Formula Grants; Passenger Ferry Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Federal Transit Administration Urbanized Area Formula Grants; Passenger Ferry Grant Program AGENCY... Project Proposals for the Passenger Ferry Grant Program. SUMMARY: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA... Discretionary Passenger Ferry Grant program. This grant opportunity will be funded using $29.9 million in FY...

  7. 大数据环境下信息管理专业课程设计的思考--以中山大学新华学院资讯管理专业为例%Reflections on Professional Curriculum Design of Information Management Major in the Context of Big-data---An example from Department of Information Management,Xinhua College of Sun Yat-Sen University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周梦洁; 周旭毓; 周纯; 王庭槐

    2016-01-01

    With the information explosion,complication of information types and the high-speed information flow,we have stridden into an age labelling“big data”. Techniques regarding information management,data exploitation and analysis,and information security have become the productivity for a new round,especially in the medical field orienting the public. Re-gional medical informatization featuring“information interchange and resource sharing”will be a trend in the future. Based on the characteristics of big-data age and demand for professionals,this article analyzes the disparity between professional train-ing and social demand. We use the example from Department of Information Management,Xinhua College of Sun Yat-Sen University,to explore the principles in course design to cultivate talents in medical information and suit the need of a big-data context.%随着信息量的爆炸性增长,类型复杂化和信息流高速化,人类进入了大数据时代。对信息的管理,数据的挖掘、分析及信息安全等相关大数据技术将成为新一轮的生产力。尤其是在面向大众的医疗领域,“信息互通、资源共享”、区域医疗信息化将成为未来发展的趋势。为此本文从大数据时代特征和对人才的需求入手,分析当今人才培养和时代需求间的鸿沟,并以中山大学新华学院资讯管理专业为例,探讨培养适应大数据环境的医学信息人才为目标的课程设计原则。

  8. NORD Funding Available for Pseudomyxoma Peritonei Seed Grants, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the Editors

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD is accepting applications for clinical research seed grants (two related to pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP. Each of the two grants amounts to $50,000 and is to be used for a two-year study. The submission deadline for initial abstract with letter of intent is May 17, 2010. The NORD Research Grant Program aims to encourage meritorious studies designed to improve the diagnosis and/or therapy of rare disorders. Protocols focusing on early detection, diagnosis or treatment (pharmacological, devices, surgery or dietary will be given priority. The Grant Program is international and open to researchers worldwide. The Grant Program is administered by Stefanie Putkowski, RN, of the NORD staff. Information and application forms for the 2010 NORD Research Grants are available online at http://www.rarediseases.org/research/requests. Questions or requests for application forms may be directed to Ms. Putkowski at 203-744-0100 or research@rarediseases.org.

  9. BcSUN1, a B. cinerea SUN-Family Protein, Is Involved in Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Alicia; González, Mario; González, Celedonio; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Brito, Nélida

    2017-01-01

    BcSUN1 is a glycoprotein secreted by Botrytis cinerea, an important plant pathogen that causes severe losses in agriculture worldwide. In this work, the role of BcSUN1 in different aspects of the B. cinerea biology was studied by phenotypic analysis of Bcsun1 knockout strains. We identified BcSUN1 as the only member of the Group-I SUN family of proteins encoded in the B. cinerea genome, which is expressed both in axenic culture and during infection. BcSUN1 is also weakly attached to the cellular surface and is involved in maintaining the structure of the cell wall and/or the extracellular matrix. Disruption of the Bcsun1 gene produces different cell surface alterations affecting the production of reproductive structures and adhesion to plant surface, therefore reducing B. cinerea virulence. BcSUN1 is the first member of the SUN family reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of a filamentous fungus. PMID:28163701

  10. Sun exposure and sun protection practices of children and their parents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, A D

    2009-05-01

    The primary aims of this study were: to estimate sun exposure in hours of children in Cork during the summer months; to examine sun protection measures used by children and their parents and to explore parental knowledge of sun exposure and protection. A cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in June 2006 in primary schools, pre-schools and creches throughout Cork City and County. Parents of 250 children aged less than 12 years were sampled. Mean sun exposure of Cork children was 40.9 hours per week in the summer months, with 77 (46.1%) children developing sunburn. 59.3% of the studied children were of skin type 1 or 2. 95 (57%) children on weekdays and 137 (82%) children at weekends were exposed to the sun between 11 am and 3 pm. Sunscreen and hats\\/caps were the most common protection measures used. A minority used protective clothing, sunglasses or sought shade. Thirty one (30.5%) children had sunscreen reapplied every 2 hours. Knowledge of sun protection was considerable among Irish parents. However the frequency of sunburn among Irish children suggests we are not providing them with adequate sun protection.

  11. The grant writer's handbook how to write a research proposal and succeed

    CERN Document Server

    Crawley, Gerard M

    2016-01-01

    The Grant Writer's Handbook: How to Write a Research Proposal and Succeed provides useful and practical advice on all aspects of proposal writing, including developing proposal ideas, drafting the proposal, dealing with referees, and budgeting. The authors base their advice on many years of experience writing and reviewing proposals in many different countries at various levels of scientific maturity. The book describes the numerous kinds of awards available from funding agencies, in particular large collaborative grants involving a number of investigators, and addresses the practical impact of a grant, which is often required of proposals. In addition, information is provided about selection of reviewers and the mechanics of organizing a research grant competition to give the proposal writer the necessary background information. The book includes key comments from a number of experts and is essential reading for anyone writing a research grant proposal.The Grant Writer's Handbook's companion website, featuri...

  12. Raising sun protection and early detection awareness among Florida high schoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Alan C; Shamban, Jill; O'Riordan, David L; Slygh, Carolyn; Kinney, John P; Rosenberg, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Changing adolescents' sun protection behaviors remains a challenge, and the need for effective interventions targeting this group is a priority, particularly in warmer climates where emphasis on appropriate sun protection remains a year-round concern. However, there has been little prospective research on the effect of school-based sun protection interventions, particularly on adolescents, especially teens aged 15 to 18. High school science students in Palm Beach County, Florida, received a seven-lesson sun protection and early detection curriculum preceded by pretests and followed with post-tests 6 months later. The main outcome measures were student knowledge and sun protection practices, including adherence to sunscreen recommendations. Of 344 students completing the baseline surveys, 184 students completed the postintervention questionnaire. Overall, there were significant improvements from baseline to follow-up for many of the knowledge questions. Greatest change scores were seen in the children's ability to correctly define the five rules of early detection of skin cancer (27-60%, pchallenges and obstacles and thus, further work is needed to better understand what combination of knowledge-based information, activity-based education, school-wide changes, and community efforts, will create a long-term systemic improvement in sun protection habits in children.

  13. Novel approach to analysing large data sets of personal sun exposure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesić, Suzana M; Stratimirović, Đorđe I; Ajtić, Jelena V; Wright, Caradee Y; Allen, Martin W

    2016-11-01

    Personal sun exposure measurements provide important information to guide the development of sun awareness and disease prevention campaigns. We assess the scaling properties of personal ultraviolet radiation (pUVR) sun exposure measurements using the wavelet transform (WT) spectral analysis to process long-range, high-frequency personal recordings collected by electronic UVR dosimeters designed to measure erythemal UVR exposure. We analysed the sun exposure recordings of school children, farmers, marathon runners and outdoor workers in South Africa, and construction workers and work site supervisors in New Zealand. We found scaling behaviour in all the analysed pUVR data sets. We found that the observed scaling changes from uncorrelated to long-range correlated with increasing duration of sun exposure. Peaks in the WT spectra that we found suggest the existence of characteristic times in sun exposure behaviour that were to some extent universal across our data set. Our study also showed that WT measures enable group classification, as well as distinction between individual UVR exposures, otherwise unattainable by conventional statistical methods.

  14. Developing scanning-slit spectrograph for imaging the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthvi, Hemanth; Ramesh, K. B.; Dhara, Sajal Kumar; Ravindra, B.

    2016-08-01

    For moderate resolution spectroscopy of the Sun, an imaging spectrograph is being developed at Indian Institute of Astrophysics. With this instrument images of the region of interest of the Sun can be obtained with low spatial and moderate spectral resolution. Dopplergrams can also be obtained with the acquired data to get line of sight velocity maps. The instrument is a back-end for a telescope with tracking system i.e. stable image of the Sun is projected onto the focal plane at all times. Modular approach is followed in the design, keeping sections of the instruments fairly independent. Scanning-slit assembly is a module that can linearly move in one direction to sweep the region of interest in the image. Spectrograph assembly consists of another slit, optics and dispersing element along with the detector so that spectral information about spatial locations on the slit can be obtained. This module is designed to obtain Intensity vs. (x,λ) (x is along the slit) and as the scanning-slit is swept along the y-direction, Intensity vs. (x,y,λ) information is built. The spatial resolution will be seeing limited as there's no correction system. Field of view is 6 arc minute along the slit direction, as the features of interest include sunspots and surrounding region. For testing, a front end system of 100mm clear aperture with f/22.5 is being used. The dispersing element is a reflecting grating with 1200 grooves/mm. For 6563 Å(H-alpha line) spectral resolution is 35 mÅ in second order. Linear dispersion is about 38 mÅ /pixel for the pixel size of 7.5μm, indicating that slit-width limited spectral resolution can be obtained.

  15. Ultraviolet radiation, sun damage and preventing; Ultrafiolett straaling, solskader og forebygging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, B.; Christensen, T.; Nilsen, L.T.; Hannevik, M.

    2013-03-01

    The report focuses on the large impact of health damages due to excessive UV exposure from natural sun. The first part of the report gives background information on factors significantly affecting the intensity of UV radiation. The second part gives an overview of health effects related to UV exposure, with recommendations on how to avoid excessive UV exposure and still enjoy the positive sides of outdoor activity. The report is intended to contribute to informational activities about sun exposure as recommended by the World Health Organisation and the World Meteorology Organisation. (Author)

  16. Rational SU(N) Gaudin Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏

    2001-01-01

    We propose the eigenstates and eigenvalues of Hamiltonians of the rational SU(N) Gaudin model based onthe quasi-classical limit of the SU ( N) chain under the periodic boundary condition. Using the quantum inversescattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generation function of the rational SU ( N) Gaudin model.

  17. Asymmetric dark matter and the Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sarkar, Subir

    2010-01-01

    Cold dark matter particles with an intrinsic matter-antimatter asymmetry do not annihilate after gravitational capture by the Sun and can affect its interior structure. The rate of capture is exponentially enhanced when such particles have self-interactions of the right order to explain structure...

  18. SunPy - Python for Solar Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Community, The SunPy; Christe, Steven; Pérez-Suárez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y; Inglis, Andrew R; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Freij, Nabil; Meszaros, Tomas; Bennett, Samuel M; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J; Robitaille, Thomas P; Mampaey, Benjamin; Campos-Rozo, Jose Iván; Kirk, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualisation and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specialising in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from mis...

  19. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ve Got Skin in the Game Anti-Aging Vitamin D Related: What Is Skin Cancer? | True Stories | Ask the Experts Blog Events ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Golf: You've Got Skin in the Game expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter ...

  20. Sino-Sun Architects & Engineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Sino-Sun is an A-Class state architectural design company organized by a group of experts who have returned to China after studying abroad. In the 10 yearssince its establishment, it has grown into an outstanding andwell-known design team, which has influence in the national archi-tectural design field.

  1. Ulysses Passes South Pole of Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程林

    1995-01-01

    On the 14th of September,1994, the fastest scientific instrument in space passed the south pole of the Sun,a place where no human-made object has been before. A spaceprobe called Ulysses made the polar pass at about midday as it continued to collect data on the solar wind,a stream of high-energy sub-atomic

  2. Isotopes Tell Sun's Origin and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, O.; Kamat, Sumeet A.; Mozina, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Modern versions of Aston's mass spectrometer enable measurements of two quantities - isotope abundances and masses - that tell the Sun's origin and operation. Isotope analyses of meteorites, the Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, the solar wind, and solar flares over the past 45 years indicate that fresh, poorly-mixed, supernova debris formed the solar system. The iron-rich Sun formed on the collapsed supernova core and now itself acts as a magnetic plasma diffuser, as did the precursor star, separating ions by mass. This process covers the solar surface with lightweight elements and with the lighter isotopes of each element. Running difference imaging provides supporting evidence of a rigid, iron-rich structure below the Sun's fluid outer layer of lightweight elements. Mass measurements of all 2,850 known nuclides expose repulsive interactions between neutrons that trigger neutron-emission at the solar core, followed by neutron-decay and a series of reactions that collectively generate solar luminosity, solar neutrinos, the carrier gas for solar mass separation, and an outpouring of solar-wind hydrogen from the solar surface. Neutron-emission and neutron-decay generate ~ 65% of solar luminosity; H-fusion ~ 35%, and ~ 1% of the neutron-decay product survives to depart as solar-wind hydrogen. The energy source for the Sun and other ordinary stars seems to be neutron-emission and neutron-decay, with partial fusion of the decay product, rather than simple fusion of hydrogen into helium or heavier elements.

  3. Sun Baiqiu Fights for the Human Cause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    SUN Baiqiu liked to read well known literature from all over the world when she was a little girl. She sympathized with the good-hearted characters and hated the greedy and the evil. She imagined that she would become like a fairy godmother, holding a magic wand and helping the poor but kind people in distress. In 1963 she graduated from Haerbin

  4. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Güdel, M

    2007-01-01

    (abridged) The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have...

  5. Possible conservation units of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Sarawak based on variation of mtDNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Manabu; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki

    2006-11-01

    The mitochondrial DNA control region of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) was sequenced using 21 DNA samples collected from confiscated sun bears to identify conservation units, such as evolutionarily significant units and management units, in Sarawak, Borneo Island. A total of 10 haplotypes were observed, indicating the presence of at least two lineages in the sun bear population in Sarawak. Presumably, these two lineages could represent evolutionarily significant units. However, the geographical distributions of the two lineages remained unknown due to the lack of information regarding the exact capture locations of the confiscated sun bears. It is essential to elucidate the geographical distributions of these lineages in order to create a proper conservation plan for the sun bears in Sarawak. Therefore, further studies examining the haplotype distributions using DNA samples from known localities are essential.

  6. Smartphone mobile application delivering personalized, real-time sun protection advice: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Lantz, Kathy; Buller, Mary Klein; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Liu, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Mobile smartphones are rapidly emerging as an effective means of communicating with many Americans. Using mobile applications (apps), they can access remote databases, track time and location, and integrate user input to provide tailored health information. A smartphone mobile app providing personalized, real-time sun protection advice was evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. The trial was conducted in 2012 and had a randomized pretest-posttest controlled design with a 10-week follow-up. Data were collected from a nationwide population-based survey panel. A sample of 604 non-Hispanic and Hispanic adults from the Knowledge Panel 18 years or older who owned an Android smartphone were enrolled. The mobile app provided advice on sun protection (ie, protection practices and risk of sunburn) and alerts (to apply or reapply sunscreen and get out of the sun), hourly UV Index, and vitamin D production based on the forecast UV Index, the phone's time and location, and user input. Percentage of days using sun protection and time spent outdoors (days and minutes) in the midday sun and number of sunburns in the past 3 months were collected. Individuals in the treatment group reported more shade use (mean days staying in the shade, 41.0% vs 33.7%; P = .03) but less sunscreen use (mean days, 28.6% vs 34.5%; P = .048) than controls. There was no significant difference in number of sunburns in the past 3 months (mean, 0.60 in the treatment group vs 0.62 for controls; P = .87). Those who used the mobile app reported spending less time in the sun (mean days keeping time in the sun to a minimum, 60.4% for app users vs 49.3% for nonusers; P = .04) and using all protection behaviors combined more (mean days, 39.4% vs 33.8%; P = .04). The mobile app improved some sun protection. Use of the mobile app was lower than expected but associated with increased sun protection. Providing personalized advice when and where people are in the sun may help reduce sun exposure.

  7. FEMA Grants Program Directorate - Preparedness (Non-Disaster) and Assistance to Firefighter Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Grant Programs Directorate (GPD) strategically and effectively administers and manages FEMA grants to ensure critical and measurable results for customers and...

  8. The Sun Recorded Through History Scientific Data Extracted from Historical Documents

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez, M

    2009-01-01

    The Sun Recorded Through History is a text that reconstructs past solar activity based on information from historical documents, complementing studies using other techniques. Historical accounts describing phenomena related to solar activity, such as aurorae, sunspots, and corona observed during solar eclipses can be used as a proxy of solar activity in the past. These descriptions are reviewed, on the one hand providing primary material for the history of astronomy and, on the other, verifying or refuting current ideas concerning the time variability of the Sun on the scale of centuries. Documents predating the discovery of photography (around 1840) that contain information on these topics are highlighted, but modern drawings are also included. The lower temporal limit of study is set by the archaeoastronomy of prehistoric sources. In addition, the necessary background on the Sun is provided, with special emphasis on observing techniques and the influences of telescopes and the Earth's atmosphere on the data...

  9. School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

  10. Observing the Sun with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a space telescope primarily designed to detect high-energy X-rays from faint, distant astrophysical sources. Recently, however, its occasionally been pointing much closer to home, with the goal of solving a few longstanding mysteries about the Sun.Intensity maps from an observation of a quiet-Sun region near the north solar pole and an active region just below the solar limb. The quiet-Sun data will be searched for small flares that could be heating the solar corona, and the high-altitude emission above the limb may provide clues about particle acceleration. [Adapted from Grefenstette et al. 2016]An Unexpected TargetThough we have a small fleet of space telescopes designed to observe the Sun, theres an important gap: until recently, there was no focusing telescope making solar observations in the hard X-ray band (above ~3 keV). Conveniently, there is a tool capable of doing this: NuSTAR.Though NuSTARs primary mission is to observe faint astrophysical X-ray sources, a team of scientists has recently conducted a series of observations in which NuSTAR was temporarily repurposed and turned to focus on the Sun instead.These observations pose an interesting challenge precisely because of NuSTARs extreme sensitivity: pointing at such a nearby, bright source can quickly swamp the detectors. But though the instrument cant be used to observe the bright flares and outbursts from the Sun, its the perfect tool for examining the parts of the Sun weve been unable to explore in hard X-rays before now such as faint flares, or the quiet, inactive solar surface.In a recently published study led by Brian Grefenstette (California Institute of Technology), the team describes the purpose and initial results of NuSTARs first observations of the Sun.Solar MysteriesWhat is NuSTAR hoping to accomplish with its solar observations? There are two main questions that hard X-ray observations may help to answer.How are particles accelerated in

  11. A randomised controlled trial of a theory-based intervention to improve sun protective behaviour in adolescents ('you can still be HOT in the shade': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Anna L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most skin cancers are preventable by encouraging consistent use of sun protective behaviour. In Australia, adolescents have high levels of knowledge and awareness of the risks of skin cancer but exhibit significantly lower sun protection behaviours than adults. There is limited research aimed at understanding why people do or do not engage in sun protective behaviour, and an associated absence of theory-based interventions to improve sun safe behaviour. This paper presents the study protocol for a school-based intervention which aims to improve the sun safe behaviour of adolescents. Methods/design Approximately 400 adolescents (aged 12-17 years will be recruited through Queensland, Australia public and private schools and randomized to the intervention (n = 200 or 'wait-list' control group (n = 200. The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive sun protective attitudes and beliefs, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection behaviour, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over using sun protection. It will be delivered during three × one hour sessions over a three week period from a trained facilitator during class time. Data will be collected one week pre-intervention (Time 1, and at one week (Time 2 and four weeks (Time 3 post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun protection behaviour. Secondary outcomes include attitudes toward performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., attitudes, perceptions of normative support to sun protect (i.e., subjective norms, group norms, and image norms, and perceived control over performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., perceived behavioural control. Discussion The study will provide valuable information about the effectiveness of the intervention in improving the sun protective behaviour of adolescents.

  12. 78 FR 66987 - Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... (cash or in-kind) match requirement. DATES: FRA will accept grant applications until February 5, 2014... organizations to fully and successfully execute proposal plan within proposed timeframe and budget. 5... be considered. Information Collection: The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has approved...

  13. 45 CFR 1385.9 - Grants administration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR Part 92—Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and... social security number will be obtained. Only eligibility information will be obtained regarding type and... this responsibility. The system may elect to obtain a release from all individuals requesting or...

  14. Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1985-01-01

    Information on each of the 24 projects funded by the U.S. Geological Survey in FY 1985 under section 105 of Public Law 93-242 (the Water Resources Research Act of 1984) is presented, including the grant number, organization, the period of performance, and a brief description of the work to be carried out. (Lantz-PTT)

  15. Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    There are unstructured abstracts (no more than 256 words) and structured abstracts (no more than 480). The specific requirements for structured abstracts are as follows:An informative, structured abstracts of no more than 4-80 words should accompany each manuscript. Abstracts for original contributions should be structured into the following sections. AIM (no more than 20 words): Only the purpose should be included. Please write the aim as the form of "To investigate/ study/..."; MATERIALS AND METHODS (no more than 140 words); RESULTS (no more than 294 words): You should present P values where appropnate and must provide relevant data to illustrate how they were obtained, e.g. 6.92 ± 3.86 vs 3.61 ± 1.67, P< 0.001; CONCLUSION (no more than 26 words).

  16. "Don't take diabetes for granted."

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "Don't take diabetes for granted." Past Issues / Fall 2009 ... regularly, and take your medicines on time. Don't take diabetes for granted! Fall 2009 Issue: Volume ...

  17. 31 CFR 20.650 - Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.650 Grant. Grant means an award of financial... or stimulation authorized by a law of the United States, rather than to acquire property or...

  18. 40 CFR 36.650 - Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 36.650 Grant. Grant means an award of... support or stimulation authorized by a law of the United States, rather than to acquire property...

  19. 15 CFR 29.650 - Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.650 Grant. Grant means an award of financial assistance... stimulation authorized by a law of the United States, rather than to acquire property or services for...

  20. 32 CFR 26.650 - Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.650 Grant. Grant means an award of... support or stimulation authorized by a law of the United States, rather than to acquire property...

  1. 14 CFR 1267.650 - Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.650 Grant. Grant means an award of financial assistance... stimulation authorized by a law of the United States, rather than to acquire property or services for...

  2. 38 CFR 48.650 - Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.650 Grant. Grant means an award of... support or stimulation authorized by a law of the United States, rather than to acquire property...

  3. 36 CFR 1212.650 - Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1212.650 Grant. Grant... a public purpose of support or stimulation authorized by a law of the United States, rather than to...

  4. 13 CFR 147.650 - Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.650 Grant. Grant means an award of financial assistance that... authorized by a law of the United States, rather than to acquire property or services for the Federal...

  5. 25 CFR 41.8 - Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the date thereof; (3) A written statement of the goals, philosophy, or proposed plan of operation... existence would be threatened if they did not receive such a grant). (3) All grants under this section shall...

  6. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants Program Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP, CFDA Number: 97.039) provides grants to States and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures...

  7. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants Program Summary - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP, CFDA Number: 97.039) provides grants to States and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures...

  8. 7 CFR 4284.1014 - Grant closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRANTS Agriculture Innovation Demonstration Centers... Innovation Center Grant Agreement” prior to the advance of funds. ...

  9. Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1998-09-14

    OAK B188 Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program. The purpose of the Travel Grant Program is to increase the awareness of plasma research. The new results and techniques of plasma research in fusion plasmas, plasma processing space plasmas, basic plasma science, etc, have broad applicability throughout science. The benefits of these results are limited by the relatively low awareness and appreciation of plasma research in the larger scientific community. Whereas spontaneous interactions between plasma scientists and other scientists are useful, a focused effort in education and outreach to other scientists is efficient and is needed. The academic scientific community is the initial focus of this effort, since that permits access to a broad cross-section of scientists and future scientists including undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and research staff.

  10. ESMD Space Grant Faculty Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiang; Whitmore, Stephen; Radcliff, Roger; Misra, Prabhakar; Prasad, Nadipuram; Conrad, James; Lackey, Ellen; Selby, Gregory; Wersinger, Jean-Marie; Lambright, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The strength of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate ESMD Faculty Project lies in its ability to meet National Aeronautics Space Administration NASA's Strategic Educational Outcome 1 by developing a sustainable and long-term integration of student involvement at academic institutions with all NASA Centers. This outcome is achieved by a three-fold approach: 1) by collecting Senior Design projects pertaining to Constellation work performed at each of the ten NASA Centers, 2) by engaging students at Minority Serving Institutions in the art of systems engineering and systems design of technologies required for space exploration, and 3) by identifying potential internships at each Center relative to exploration that provide students who are supported by their institutional Space Grant to engage in on-going mission-level and explorative systems designs. The objectives of the ESMD Faculty Project are to: 1. Aid the Centers (both Education Offices and associated technical organizations) in providing relevant opportunities for the ESMD Space Grant Program to support student and faculty in Senior Design projects 2. Enable better matches between the ESMD work required and what the Space Grant Consortia can do to effectively contribute to NASA programs 3. Provide the Space Grant Consortia an opportunity to strengthen relations with the NASA Centers 4. Develop better collective understanding of the U.S. Space Exploration Policy by the Center, Space Grant, faculty, Education Office, and students 5. Enable Space Grant institution faculty to better prepare their students to meet current and future NASA needs 6. Enable the Center Education Offices to strengthen their ties to their technical organizations and Space Grant Consortia 7. Aid KSC in gaining a greater and more detailed understanding of each of the Center activities Senior Design projects are intended to stimulate undergraduate students on current NASA activities related to lunar, Mars, and other planetary missions

  11. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  12. UV photography, masculinity, and college men's sun protection cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the impact of an ultraviolet (UV) photography intervention and masculinity on college men's sun protection cognitions, including: perceived vulnerability to skin damage, attitudes toward sun protection, willingness to engage in sun protection behaviors, and intentions to receive a skin cancer exam. After completing a baseline survey, participants (N = 152) viewed a black-and-white photo of their face. Half also viewed a photo showing their UV damage. Participants then completed a second survey assessing sun protection cognitions. Regressions revealed that masculinity predicted lower sun protection cognitions, and men in the UV photograph condition reported higher sun protection cognitions. Masculinity by condition interactions showed that the positive effect of UV photography was stronger among masculine men. Negative associations between masculinity and sun protection cognitions were significant only among men who did not receive the intervention. Findings suggest that UV photography is a promising sun protection intervention among masculine men.

  13. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, Mattias, E-mail: emb@kth.se [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Edsjoe, Joakim, E-mail: edsjo@physto.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ohlsson, Tommy, E-mail: tommy@theophys.kth.se [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    The prospects to detect neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes.

  14. How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... other options to prevent UV damage. Too Much Sun Hurts Turning pink? Unprotected skin can be damaged ...

  15. Spurring Innovation with Matching Grants

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Matching grants are one of the most common tools used in private sector development programs in developing countries and have been included in more than 60 World Bank projects totaling over US$1.2 billion, funding over 100,000 micro, small and medium enterprises. The Enterprise Revitalization and Employment Pilot (EREP) was designed as a two year pilot project aimed at improving firm capab...

  16. 75 FR 14596 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters/Grants to Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... workplace identified to the agency changes during the performance of the grant, the grantee shall inform the agency of the change(s), if it previously identified the workplaces in question (see paragraph five). (8... Regarding Drug-Free Workplace Requirements (See Attachment D): By signing and submitting the application...

  17. Blinded by the light the secret life of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    1991-01-01

    An investigation into the secrets and the new scientific developments which are changing our perceptions of the sun. The book tackles such questions as: does the sun breathe?; can it make sound?; is its centre ice-cold? The new research in sun science will alter our perception not only of the sun, but of the whole universe and add to the understanding of how the world works. The author has also written "Hothouse Earth" and "The Hole in the Sky".

  18. Power producing sun shades; Elproducerende solafskaermninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.; Soerensen, Henrik; Katic, I.; Schmidt-Petersen, H.; AAroe, D.

    2012-01-15

    Integrating photovoltaics into sun shades takes advantage of the best opportunities to capture and utilize solar energy when the shades are most needed to shield users from solar radiation. The report describes results of a development project for solar shading in the form of broad, horizontal and rotating lamellae with solar cells and an integrated control function that simultaneously is optimized based on energy consumption and thermal and visual indoor climate. The project idea was to meet the needs for effective sun protection in the present office, commercial and public buildings, where glass facades are dominant. The conclusion of the development project is that it rarely would be optimal to integrate solar cells into movable shades. This will normally only be relevant in cases where it is justified by architectural considerations. (LN)

  19. Hierarchical analysis of the quiet Sun magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, A Asensio

    2014-01-01

    Standard statistical analysis of the magnetic properties of the quiet Sun rely on simple histograms of quantities inferred from maximum-likelihood estimations. Because of the inherent degeneracies, either intrinsic or induced by the noise, this approach is not optimal and can lead to highly biased results. We carry out a meta-analysis of the magnetism of the quiet Sun from Hinode observations using a hierarchical probabilistic method. This model allows us to infer the statistical properties of the magnetic field vector over the observed field-of-view consistently taking into account the uncertainties in each pixel due to noise and degeneracies. Our results point out that the magnetic fields are very weak, below 275 G with 95% credibility, with a slight preference for horizontal fields, although the distribution is not far from a quasi-isotropic distribution.

  20. A new perspective on quiet Sun magnetism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LITES; Bruce; William

    2009-01-01

    The Hinode mission has provided us with a new, quantitative view of the magnetism of the quiet Sun. It has revealed that the quiet internetwork areas are blanketed by horizontal fields that appear at first sight to have more flux than the vertical fields resolved on the same 0.3 size scale. These measurements point to the possibility that the horizontal fields might be the primary source of the "hidden turbulent flux" of the quiet Sun anticipated from Hanle effect depolarization. In this paper, evidence is presented suggesting that the "seething" horizontal fields observed by Harvey in 2007 and the horizontal fields revealed by Hinode are the same phenomenon. Because the seething fields appear to be of uniform fluctuation over the whole disk, the phenomenon is most likely not associated with the dynamo source of solar activity. Thus, the small-scale "hidden turbulent flux" lends support to the notion of a local solar dynamo acting on granular sizes and time scales.

  1. Under the Lens: Investigating the Sun's Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, William; Klotz, Irene

    2008-11-01

    Sometime around 2012, the waxing 11-year solar cycle once again will reach its peak. Between now and then, magnetically turbulent sunspots, spawned by some still mysterious process, will form near the poles in increasing numbers and migrate toward the Sun's faster-rotating equator in pairs of opposite polarity. Titanic magnetic storms will rage as immense flux tubes rise to the surface in active regions around sunspots and spread out in a boiling sea of electric charge. Magnetic field lines across an enormous range of scales will arc and undulate, rip apart and reconnect, heating the Sun's upper atmosphere and occasionally triggering brilliant flares and multibillion-megaton coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that travel through the solar wind and slam into Earth.

  2. Wreathes of Magnetism in Rapidly Rotating Suns

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Benjamin P; Brun, Allan Sacha; Toomre, Juri

    2009-01-01

    When our Sun was young it rotated much more rapidly than now. Observations of young, rapidly rotating stars indicate that many possess substantial magnetic activity and strong axisymmetric magnetic fields. We conduct simulations of dynamo action in rapidly rotating suns with the 3-D MHD anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code to explore the complex coupling between rotation, convection and magnetism. Here we study dynamo action realized in the bulk of the convection zone for two systems, rotating at three and five times the current solar rate. We find that substantial organized global-scale magnetic fields are achieved by dynamo action in these systems. Striking wreathes of magnetism are built in the midst of the convection zone, coexisting with the turbulent convection. This is a great surprise, for many solar dynamo theories have suggested that a tachocline of penetration and shear at the base of the convection zone is a crucial ingredient for organized dynamo action, whereas these simulations do not includ...

  3. How plants LINC the SUN to KASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Meier, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Linkers of the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes formed by SUN and KASH proteins are conserved eukaryotic protein complexes that bridge the nuclear envelope (NE) via protein-protein interactions in the NE lumen. Revealed by opisthokont studies, LINC complexes are key players in multiple cellular processes, such as nuclear and chromosomal positioning and nuclear shape determination, which in turn influence the generation of gametes and several aspects of development. Although comparable processes have long been known in plants, the first plant nuclear envelope bridging complexes were only recently identified. WPP domain-interacting proteins at the outer NE have little homology to known opisthokont KASH proteins, but form complexes with SUN proteins at the inner NE that have plant-specific properties and functions. In this review, we will address the importance of LINC complex-regulated processes, describe the plant NE bridging complexes and compare them to opisthokont LINC complexes.

  4. 24 CFR 572.200 - Planning grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Planning grants. 572.200 Section...) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN....200 Planning grants. Any planning grants made by HUD under the HOPE 3 program will continue to be...

  5. 47 CFR 1.945 - License grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License grants. 1.945 Section 1.945... Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.945 License grants. (a) License grants—auctionable license applications. Procedures for grant of licenses that are subject to competitive...

  6. The Art (Not Science) of Grants Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosmire, Doreen

    2006-01-01

    Currently there are more than fifty thousand nonprofit agencies and organizations, including schools, that receive federal grants. These entities invest substantial time and money in seeking grant dollars (Schumacher, 2005). Recipients underestimate the investment and complexity associated with managing grants. The work of creating ownership,…

  7. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting access. 2606.203 Section 2606... Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing access to records, when such access has been granted by OGE or the other agency concerned are:...

  8. Welfare financing : Grant allocation and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda; Allers, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Welfare is often administered locally, but financed through grants from the central government. This raises the question how the central government can prevent local governments from spending more than necessary. Block grants are more efficient than matching grants, because the latter reduce the loc

  9. Grants: Genesis of Some Funded Proposal Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazdar, John

    2011-01-01

    While "thinking outside the box" can be an over-used phase at times, in the world of grants it can provide the genesis of ideas. The "box" is the world of academia accepted by most educators, while "thinking outside" is the process that leads to grant ideas. In the grant world, "thinking outside the box" is a process of doing something that has…

  10. The Block Grant Record: Lessons from Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Anne H.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluates the performance of federal block grants in health, law enforcement, peoplepower training, community development, and Social Security programs, to help forecast the effects of such grants in education. Finds that block grants did not improve local control, accountability, citizen participation, efficiency, targeting of funds, or program…

  11. 28 CFR 91.24 - Grant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant distribution. 91.24 Section 91.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Correctional Facilities on Tribal Lands § 91.24 Grant distribution. (a) From the amounts appropriated under section...

  12. 77 FR 29617 - Intent to Grant a Partially Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent to Grant a Partially Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: The United States..., title and interest the Air Force has in: U.S. Patent Application No. 13/190,520, filed July 26, 2011.... Kimball. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The Air Force intends to grant a license for the...

  13. 15 CFR 918.5 - Eligibility, qualifications, and responsibilities-Sea Grant Regional Consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... above as evaluated by a site review team composed of members of the Sea Grant Review Panel, the Office... to the educational and information dissemination role, the advisory service program must aid in the... cooperative work with local, State, regional, and Federal agencies, other Sea Grant Programs, and...

  14. 75 FR 81286 - Emergency Comment Request; Indian Housing Block Grants (IHBG) Program Reporting; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Emergency Comment Request; Indian Housing Block Grants (IHBG) Program Reporting... Block Grant (IHBG) funds provide plans for low-income housing programs in their communities and submit... be missed. This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Indian Housing Block...

  15. 7 CFR 1700.57 - Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant Program. 1700.57 Section 1700.57 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.57 Distance Learning and Telemedicin...

  16. Sports Management Faculty External Grant-Writing Activities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVinney, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to fill a void in information, provide relevant, current data for faculty members related to external grant-writing activities related to the academic field of sport management and serve as a tool that may aid in the advancement of external grant-writing efforts within the field of sport management. All data is specific to…

  17. International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Series of three US satellites designed to study the solar wind and its interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. ISEE-1 and 2 were placed into highly elliptical Earth orbits. ISEE-3 was placed in a halo orbit at the L1 Lagrangian point between the Sun and Earth. It gave advance warning of solar storms heading towards Earth. (See also INTERNATIONAL COMETARY EXPLORER and EXPLORER.)...

  18. Operational Art and the Rising Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-16

    shall run wild for the first six months or a year, but I have utterly no confidence for the second or third ’Potter, p. 46; Michael Slackman, Target...attack that no american carriers in 26Joseph K. Taussig , "A Tactical View of Pearl Harbor", Paul Stillwell, ed., Air Raid: Pearl Harbor! (Annapolis, MD...Weiner, 1991. Slackman, Michael . Target: Pearl Harbor. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990. Stephan, John J. Hawaii Under the Rising Sun

  19. Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying-Tian; LIM Boon-Han; LIM Chern-Sing

    2006-01-01

    A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuthelevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

  20. Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Tian; Lim, Boon-Han; Lim, Chern-Sing

    2006-01-01

    A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuth-elevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

  1. Outdoor Workers' Use of Sun Protection at Work and Leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This high-participation rate cohort helps characterize sun protection behaviors among outdoor workers. Workers practiced better sun protection at work than on weekends, suggesting that workplace policies supportive of sun protection could be useful for skin cancer prevention in the construction industry.

  2. ON FELICITOUS CHARACTER OF GENERALIZED SUN-GRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Si-hua; YAO Bing; YAO Ming

    2015-01-01

    Felicitous character of some generalized sun-graphs is investigated in this note, and furthermore the exact felicitous labellings of two classes of generalized sun-graphs are obtained by analyzing the structures of the generalized sun-graphs. And the constructed graph theory models in coding theory, communication networks, logistics and other aspects have important applications.

  3. Design and Fabrication of an Albedo Insensitive Analog Sun Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Leijtens, J.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    A sun sensor is usually included in a satellite for optically measuring the position relative to the sun. The accuracy of a conventional sun sensor is affected by reflected sunlight at the nearby earth atmosphere: the albedo radiation. The part of the spectrum at near IR (1.5 μm) is not included in

  4. Exploring Young People's Beliefs and Images about Sun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. M.; Robinson, N. G.; Young, R. McD.; Anderson, P. J.; Hyde, M. K.; Greenbank, S.; Keane, J.; Rolfe, T.; Vardon, P.; Baskerville, D.

    2008-01-01

    To understand young people's low levels of sun protection behaviour, 145 young people (aged 12 to 20 years) were recruited from Queensland, to participate in a one-hour focus group where they discussed issues related to sun protection and images of tanned and non-tanned people. Responses were content analysed to identify common sun protection…

  5. Reading The Sun: A Three Dimensional Visual Model of The Solar Environment During Solar Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-fulmer, T. L.; Moldwin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The sun is a powerful force that has proven to our society that it has a large impact on our lives. Unfortunately, there is still a lack of awareness on how the sun is capable of affecting Earth. The over all idea of "Reading The Sun" installation is to help demonstrate how the sun impacts the Earth, by compiling various data sources from satellites (SOHO, SDO, and STERO) with solar and solar wind models (MAS and ENLIL) to create a comprehensive three dimensional display of the solar environment. It focuses on the current solar maximum of solar cycle 24 and a CME that impacted Earth's magnetic field on February 27, 2014, which triggered geomagnetic storms around the Earth's poles. The CME was an after-effect of a class X4.9 solar flare, which was released from the sun on February 25, 2014. "Reading The Sun" is a 48" x 48" x 48" hanging model of the sun with color coded open opposing magnetic field lines along with various layers of the solar atmosphere, the heliospheric current sheet, and the inner planets. At the center of the xyz axis is the sun with the open magnetic field lines and the heliospheric current sheet permeating inner planetary space. The xyz axes are color coded to represent various types of information with corresponding visual images for the viewer to be able to read the model. Along the z-axis are three colors (yellow, orange, and green) that represent the different layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona) that correspond to three satellite images in various spectrums related to a CME and Solar Flare and the xy-plane shows where the inner planets are in relation to the sun. The exhibit in which "Reading The Sun "is being displayed is called, The Rotation of Language at the Wheather Again Gallery in Rockaway, New York. The intent of the exhibit is to both celebrate as well as present a cautionary tale on the ability of human language to spark and ignite the individual and collective imagination towards an experience

  6. 中国生态系统研究网络授权专利计量分析%A Granted Patent Information Analysis of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏文

    2013-01-01

    从年度趋势、专利类型、技术构成、申请人、生态系统类型等角度,对中国生态系统研究网络(CERN)2001-2011年授权专利进行了分析,以了解CERN技术创新的现状、特点及发展趋势。结果显示,CERN技术创新活动发展迅速,技术创新能力和水平较高;技术研发重点领域主要集中在农林牧渔生产、生态要素观测两个方面,主要技术之间交叉技术累积优势明显;不同生态系统分别在不同技术领域具有明显的相对优势,在技术创新意识和创新能力方面存在差异。%Based on the granted patents of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) collected from 2001 to 2011, this paper reveals the current situation, characteristics and prospects of technological innovation of CERN through the analysis of annual trend,patent types, patent IPC,applicants and ecosystem types of the patents. The results show that technological innovation activities in CERN have made re-markable progress in the past decade, the innovation capability is strong and innovation level is rather high;tow kinds of technologies are the focuses of CERN, one is about agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishing, and the other is about measurement; the cross, penetration and fusion are obviously among main technology fields;each of the ecosystems of CERN has its own advantage in technology fields respectively, and differs in consciousness and capability of technological innovation.

  7. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...... aimed at making the processes and practices of grant review more consistent, transparent, and user friendly....

  8. Hot water from the sun: a consumer guide to solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Beth

    2005-02-15

    The following topics are discussed: how solar water heaters work, making good use of the sun, estimating costs and savings, choosing the right dealer/installer, choosing the right system, warranties and contracts, getting a good installation, and living with your solar energy system. The appendices discuss system performance and durability, and provide sources of additional information on solar energy and its applications. (MHR)

  9. Sun-Earth Day: Growth and Impact of NASA E/PO Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Thieman, J.

    2004-12-01

    Over the past six years, the NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum has sponsored and coordinated education public outreach events to highlight NASA Sun-Earth Connection research and discoveries. Our strategy involves using celestial phenomena, such as total solar eclipses and the Transit of Venus to celebrate Sun-Earth Day, a popular Education and Public Outreach international program. Sun-Earth Day also focuses attention on Equinoxes and Solstices to engage K-12 schools and the general public in space science activities, demonstrations, and interactions with space scientists. In collaboration with partners that include the Exploratorium, Maryland Science Center, NASA Connect, Sun-Earth Connection missions, Ideum, and others, we produce webcasts, other multi-media, and print resources for use by school and informal educators nation-wide. We provide training and professional development to K-12 educators, museum personnel, amateur astronomers, Girl Scout leaders, etc., so they can implement their own outreach programs taking advantage of our resources. A coordinated approach promotes multiple programs occurring each year under a common theme. We will report lessons learned from several years of experience, and strategies for growth and sustainability. We will also share our plans for "Ancient Observatories - Timeless Knowledge" our theme for Sun-Earth Day 2005, which will feature solar alignments at ancient sites that mark the equinoxes and/or solstices. The video and webcast programming will feature several sites including: Chaco Canyon (New Mexico), Hovenweep (Utah), and Chichen Itza (Mexico). Many of these sites present unique opportunities to develop authentic cultural connections to Native Americans, highlighting the importance of the Sun across the ages.

  10. Keeping Cool Close to the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    The germanium detector in the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft is only the size and weight of a can of peaches but will play a critical role in investigating Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun. The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft travels at about 38 kilometers per second and is named after the scientific goals of the mission. It is the first spacecraft to visit Mercury since 1975. MESSENGER must take an oblique route to approach Mercury so that it does not fly past the planet and fall directly into the Sun. The spacecraft will travel 7.9 billion kilometers, flying by Earth once, Venus twice, and Mercury three times before settling into orbit around this mysterious planet. Of all the terrestrial planets, which include Venus, Earth, and Mars, Mercury is the smallest and the densest; its days are 176 Earth days long, two complete orbits of the planet around the Sun. Temperatures range from a high of 450 C on the Sun side during its long day to a low of -185 C on its night side. By studying this extreme planet, scientists hope to better understand how Earth formed and evolved. The GRS, one of the seven lightweight scientific instruments on MESSENGER, will be used to help scientists determine the abundance of elements in Mercury's crust, including the materials that might be ice at its poles. Livermore engineer Norman Madden led the West Coast team effort to design and build the GRS in a collaboration led by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL). The team included Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories as well as University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). The JHUAPL MESSENGER project is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Mission. Because the detector needs to operate at very low temperatures and MESSENGER is close to the Sun, the thermal design to protect the detector was

  11. Detecting Asymmetric Dark Matter in the Sun with Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Kohta

    2016-01-01

    Dark Matter (DM) may have a relic density that is in part determined by a particle/antiparticle asymmetry, much like baryons. If this is the case, it can accumulate in stars like the Sun to sizable number densities and annihilate to Standard Model (SM) particles including neutrinos. We show that the combination of neutrino telescope and direct detection data can be used in conjunction to determine or constrain the DM asymmetry from data. Depending on the DM mass, the current neutrino data from Super-K and IceCube give powerful constraints on asymmetric DM unless its fractional asymmetry is $\\lesssim 10^{-2}$. Future neutrino telescopes and detectors like Hyper-K and KM3NeT can search for the resulting signal of high-energy neutrinos from the center of the Sun. The observation of such a flux yields information on both the DM-nucleus cross section but also on the relative abundances of DM and anti-DM.

  12. Sun-earth connection education through modern views of ancient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) has the responsibility of using the latest science results from the study of solar physics, space physics, and aeronomy to inspire students in the classroom and to inform the public in general. SECEF works with NASA's Sun-Earth Connection spaceflight missions to accomplish this goal. Each year the missions and SECEF combine to promote their science through a major event designed to attract the attention of all. In late 2004 and 2005 the event will be the study of solar observatories created by ancient peoples and a comparison of their knowledge and culture to present understanding. Two solar observatory sites will be featured, Chaco Canyon in the U.S. and Chichen Itza in Mexico. There are many other places throughout the world that could also be featured as solar observatories and some of these may be described on the SECEF web site or used in future occurrences. Special emphasis is placed on events associated with the solstice and equinox dates. It is hoped that there will be happenings around the world on these days and SECEF will work with many museums, science centers, and other groups to help make this happen. Plans for the 2005 Ancient Observatories event and possible future events on the same subject will be described.

  13. Monitoring Holes in the Sun's Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Coronal holes are where the fast solar wind streams out of the Suns atmosphere, sending charged particles on rapid trajectories out into the solar system. A new study examines how the distribution of coronal holes has changed over the last 40 years.Coronal holes form where magnetic field lines open into space (B) instead of looping back to the solar surface (A). [Sebman81]Source of the Fast Solar WindAs a part of the Suns natural activity cycle, extremely low-density regions sometimes form in the solar corona. These coronal holes manifest themselves as dark patches in X-ray and extreme ultraviolet imaging, since the corona is much hotter than the solar surface that peeks through from underneath it.Coronal holes form when magnetic field lines open into space instead of looping back to the solar surface. In these regions, the solar atmosphere escapes via these field lines, rapidly streaming away from the Suns surface in whats known as the fast solar wind.Coronal Holes Over Space and TimeAutomated detection of coronal holes from image-based analysis is notoriously difficult. Recently, a team of scientists led by Kenichi Fujiki (ISEE, Nagoya University, Japan) has developed an automated prediction technique for coronal holes that relies instead on magnetic-field data for the Sun, obtained at the National Solar Observatorys Kitt Peak between 1975 and 2014. The team used these data to produce a database of 3335 coronal hole predictions over nearly 40 years.Latitude distribution of 2870 coronal holes (each marked by an x; color indicates polarity), overlaid on the magnetic butterfly map of the Sun. The low-latitude coronal holes display a similar butterfly pattern, in which they move closer to the equator over the course of the solar cycle. Polar coronal holes are more frequent during solar minima. [Fujiki et al. 2016]Examining trends in the coronal holes distribution in latitude and time, Fujiki and collaborators find a strong correlation between the total area covered

  14. Sun protecting and sun exposing behaviors: testing their relationship simultaneously with indicators of ultraviolet exposure among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melinda; Caputi, Peter; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build on existing understanding of adolescent sun-related behavior by combining sun protecting and sun exposing behaviors and testing their relationship simultaneously with indicators of ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Data were collected for 692 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years. General linear modeling was undertaken to test the relationship of sun-related behaviors with indicators of UV exposure. Overall, the combined sun protection and sun exposing behaviors accounted for 13.8% of the variance in the number of sunburns, 28.1% of the variance in current tan and 57.5% of the variance in desired tan, respectively. Results indicated that having a strong desire for a tan was significantly associated with spending time tanning, delaying the use of sun protection, wearing brief clothing and using no sun protection; whereas the number of sunburns was significantly associated with sunscreen use, avoiding peak hours and delaying sun protection. Current tan was significantly associated with wearing sunglasses, shade use and time spent tanning. In examining sun-related behaviors among adolescents, consideration needs to be given to both sun exposing and sun protecting behaviors. This research has important implications for conceptualizing outcomes in programs designed to reduce UV exposure.

  15. Sun-climate connection over the last millennium facts and questions

    CERN Document Server

    Ogurtsov, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    ""The search for a cause of the global warming phenomenon on our planet has sparked some interest in the scientific community. The connection between changes occurring in the sun and global warming presents one fundamental perspective which has been investigated by a number of scientific research groups. In recent times, there have been some promising results that might help us uncover the clues about such a link. The Sun-Climate Connection over the Last Millennium: facts and questions presents fundamental information about the solar activity, space weather, terrestrial climates and their var

  16. Destruction of Sun-Grazing Comet C-2011 N3 (SOHO) Within the Low Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Brown, J. C.; Battams, K.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Liu, W.; Hudson, H.; Pesnell, W. D.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of comets in Sun-grazing orbits that survive solar insolation long enough to penetrate into the Suns inner corona provide information on the solar atmosphere and magnetic field as well as on the makeup of the comet. On 6 July 2011, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observed the demise of comet C2011 N3 (SOHO) within the low solar corona in five wavelength bands in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). The comet penetrated to within 0.146 solarradius (100,000 kilometers) of the solar surface before its EUV signal disappeared.

  17. [Research on absolute calibration of sun channel of sun photometer using laser raster scanning method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Bin; Li, Jian-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Bing

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, a new calibration method of absolute spectral irradiance responsivity of sun channel of sun photometer was developed. A tunable laser was used as source and a standard tranfer detector, calibrated against cryogenic absolute radiometer, was used to measure laser beam power. By raster scanning of a single collimated laser beam to generate the uniform irradiance field at the plane of effective aperture stop of sun photometer, the absolute irradiance responsivity of center wavelength of the 870 nm unpolarized sun channels of sun photometer was obtained accurately. The relative spectral irradiance responsivity of corresponding channel was obtained by using lamp-monochromator system and then used to acquire the absolute spectral irradiance responsivity in the laboratory. On the basis of the above results, the top-of-the-atmosphere responsive constant V0 was obtained by integration with extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance data. Comparing the calibration result with that from GSFC, NASA in 2009, the difference is only 3.75%. In the last, the uncertainties of calibration were evaluated and reached to 2.06%. The principle feasibility of the new method was validated.

  18. Effects of motives on reactions to safe sun messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspden, Trefor; Ingledew, David K; Parkinson, John A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether appearance motive for sun exposure, which strongly predicts exposure behaviour, would predict reactions to safe sun messages. In a survey with an embedded experiment, 245 individuals completed measures of motives, read a safe sun message framed by incentive (appearance/health), tone (directive/nondirective) and valence (gain/loss), then completed measures of reactions. For participants high in appearance motive, an appearance-nondirective message was most persuasive. Regardless of individual's appearance motive, appearance messages produced lower reactance if phrased using nondirective language. To maximise persuasion and minimise reactance in individuals most motivated to sun expose, safe sun messages should focus on appearance using nondirective language.

  19. On the Sr I 4607 A Hanle depolarization signals in the quiet Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J S

    2005-01-01

    The Hanle depolarization signals of Sr 4607 A have been used to estimate the unsigned magnetic flux and magnetic energy existing in the quiet Sun photosphere. However, the Sr 4607 A Hanle signals are not sensitive to the unsigned flux and energy. They only bear information on the fraction of photosphere occupied by magnetic field strengths smaller than the Hanle saturation, which do not contribute to the unsigned flux and energy. We deduce an approximate expression for the relationship between magnetic fill factor and Hanle signal. When applied to existing Hanle depolarization measurements, it indicates that only 40% of the quiet Sun is filled by magnetic fields with a strength smaller than 60 G. The remaining 60% of the surface has field strengths above this limit. Such constraint will be needed to determine the distribution of magnetic field strengths existing in the quiet Sun.

  20. Sun-Tanning Perceptions of a New Zealand Urban Population (1994–2005/6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Reeder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sun-tanning perceptions are monitored to identify changes and help refine targeting of skin cancer prevention messages. Aim. To investigate associations between perceptions of sun-tanning and demographic factors among a New Zealand urban population, 1994–2006. Methods. A telephone survey series was conducted during summer in 1994, 1997, 1999/2000, 2002/2003, and 2005/2006. Demographic and personal information (sex, age group, skin sun-sensitivity, and self-defined ethnicity obtained from 6,195 respondents, 50.2% female, 15–69 years, was investigated in relation to six sun-tanning related statements. A total “positive perceptions of tanning” (ProTan score was also calculated. Regression analyses modelled each component and the ProTan score against survey year and respondent characteristics. Results. Statistically significantly higher ProTan scores were found for age group (strong reverse dose-response effect, male sex, residence (highest in Auckland, ethnicity (highest among Europeans, and sun sensitivity (an n-shaped association. There was no statistically significant change in total ProTan scores from baseline. Conclusions. The development, pretesting, and evaluation of messages for those groups most likely to endorse ProTan statements should be considered for the New Zealand skin cancer prevention program. To achieve and embed significant change, mass media campaigns may require greater intensity and reinforcement with sustained contextual support for settings-based behavioural change.

  1. New eyes on the sun a guide to satellite images and amateur observation

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, John

    2012-01-01

    Information collected by satellites recently sent by the USA, the European Space Agency, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Russia to monitor the Sun has changed our knowledge and understanding of the Sun, particularly its effect on Earth. This book presents these findings in a way that will be welcomed by amateur astronomers, students, educators and anyone interested in the Sun. Enhanced by many colour photographs, the book combines newly acquired scientific understanding with detailed descriptions of features visible on the Sun’s surface and in its atmosphere. In the past, observing the Sun has been left to academics with specialised instruments, since solar observation has been unsafe because of the risk of eye damage.  This book explains how amateur astronomers can safely observe the various solar phenomena using special hydrogen-alpha telescopes that are not too expensive. Amateurs can now make a positive contribution to science by monitoring the Sun as professionals do.  Amateurs can also acces...

  2. The Apsidal Precession for Low Earth Sun Synchronized Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkelzen Cakaj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By nodal regression and apsidal precession, the Earth flattering at satellite low Earth orbits (LEO is manifested. Nodal regression refers to the shift of the orbit’s line of nodes over time as Earth revolves around the Sun. Nodal regression is orbit feature utilized for circular orbits to be Sun synchronized. A sun¬-synchronized orbit lies in a plane that maintains a fixed angle with respect to the Earth-Sun direction. In the low Earth Sun synchronized circular orbits are suited the satellites that accomplish their photo imagery missions. Nodal regression depends on orbital altitude and orbital inclination angle. For the respective orbital altitudes the inclination window for the Sun synchronization to be attained is determined. The apsidal precession represents major axis shift, respectively the argument of perigee deviation. The apsidal precession simulation, for inclination window of sun synchronized orbital altitudes, is provided through this paper.

  3. Sun exposure and protection behavior of Danish farm children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Øager Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2014-01-01

    Healthy sun habits acquired in childhood could reduce skin cancer incidence. We examined the sun exposure and protection behavior of an expected high-exposure group of children, and the association to their parents. Open, prospective cohort study. One hundred and thirty nine participants (40...... families) kept daily sun behavior diaries (sun exposure, sunscreen use, sunburns) over a 4-month summer period (15,985 diary days). The Pigment Protection Factor (PPF), an objective measure of sun exposure, was measured at two body sites, before and after summer. All participants presented data from...... the same 115 days. Risk behavior (sun exposure of upper body) took place on 9.5 days (boys) and 15.6 days (girls). Sunburn and sunscreen use were infrequent. Boys' sun exposure resulted in an increased photo protection over the study period of 1.7 SED (upper arm) and 0.8 SED (shoulder) to elicit erythema...

  4. Grand Challenges in the Physics of the Sun and Sun-like Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The study of stellar structure and evolution is one of the main building blocks of astrophysics, and the Sun has an importance both as the star that is most amenable to detailed study and as the star that has by far the biggest impact on the Earth and near-Earth environment through its radiative and particulate outputs. Over the past decades, studies of stars and of the Sun have become somewhat separate. But in recent years, the rapid advances in asteroseismology, as well as the quest to better understand solar and stellar dynamos, have emphasized once again the synergy between studies of the stars and the Sun. In this article I have selected two "grand challenges" both for their crucial importance and because I thnk that these two problems are tractable to significant progress in the next decade. They are (i) understanding how solar and stellar dynamos generate magnetic field, and (ii) improving the predictability of geo-effective space weather.

  5. Carousel Trackers with 1-Sun or 3-Sun Modules for Commercial Building Rooftops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Huang, H, [JX Crystals, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    The goal is lower cost solar electricity. Herein, two evolutional steps are described toward achieving this goal. The first step is to follow the sun with a solar tracker. Herein, a carousel tracker is described for mounting on commercial building flat rooftops in order to produce more kWh per kW relative to fixed PV modules. The second evolutionary improvement is to produce lower cost 3-sun CPV modules where two thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon material is replaced by less expensive mirror material. This paper describes the performance and durability of two prototype installations demonstrating these evolutionary innovations. In the first case, the installation and operation of 2 carousels equipped with traditional flat plate modules is described. In the second case, the operation of a carousel equipped with new 3-sun CPV modules is described. Both systems have been operating as expected for several months through the winter of 2007.

  6. Performance of 3-Sun Mirror Modules on Sun Tracking Carousels on Flat Roof Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Hurt, Rick A [ORNL; Boehm, Robert F [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  7. Performance of 3-sun mirror modules on sun tracking carousels on flat roof buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Lewis; Avery, James; Minkin, Leonid; Maxey, Curt; Gehl, Tony; Hurt, Rick; Boehm, Robert

    2008-08-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  8. 7 CFR 1739.12 - Eligible grant purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.12 Eligible grant purposes. Grant... all required facilities needed to offer such service to residential and business customers located...

  9. Comparing High-speed Transition Region Jets in Coronal Holes and Quiet Sun Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate Arbacher, Rebecca; Tian, Hui; Cranmer, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    The complicated energy transfer and plasma motion in the transition region, between the photosphere and the corona, may play a significant role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. New observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have revealed unprecedented levels of detail in this less-studied region. Coronal holes in particular are a likely source of solar wind material, though the formation and acceleration mechanisms of the fast solar wind are still largely unknown. In our previous work, we have reported the prevalence of small-scale high-speed (~80-250 km/s) jets with transition region temperatures from the network structures of coronal holes. Here we undertake a comparative study of these short-lived episodic network jets in a coronal hole region and a quiet sun region using IRIS sit-and-stare slit-jaw imaging in the 1330 Angstrom (C II) passband. The pointing coordinates, exposure time, observing cadence, and field of view of both observations are all identical. Our preliminary study suggests that the speeds and lengths of the network jets may differ between quiet sun and coronal hole regions. The quiet sun region exhibits many compact bright regions with sizes of 5-10 arcseconds which produce very few jets. The jets that do exist tend to propagate at much slower speeds over smaller distances than their coronal hole counterparts. Comparatively, in the coronal hole, such compact regions are almost absent and all network patches are permeated by the intermittent high-reaching jets. Such a difference suggests that magnetic loops are much smaller in the coronal hole and the network jets are produced at low heights. The recurrence frequency seems to be higher in the coronal hole region, with many of the isolated quiet sun region jets demonstrating curved trajectories.This work is supported under contract 8100002705 from Lockheed-Martin to SAO and by the NSF-REU solar physics program at SAO, grant number AGS-1263241.

  10. A state of the science on influential factors related to sun protective behaviors to prevent skin cancer in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy F. Bruce, MSN, RN, NE-BC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer rates have risen over the past decades, making it imperative that adults understand the need for protection from sun exposure. Though some risk factors have been identified as predictive for skin cancers, there is a lack of synthesized information about factors that influence adults in their decisions to engage in sun protective behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to present the current state of the science on influential factors for sun protective behaviors in the general adult population. A rigorous literature search inclusive of a generally White, Caucasian, and non-Hispanic adult population was performed, and screening yielded 18 quantitative studies for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that modifiable and non-modifiable factors are interdependent and play a role in sun protective behaviors. This study resulted in a proposed conceptual model for affecting behavioral change in sun protection including the following factors: personal characteristics, cognitive factors, family dynamics, and social/peer group influences. These factors are introduced to propose tailored nursing interventions that would change current sun protective behavior practice. Key implications for nursing research and practice focus on feasibility of annual skin cancer screening facilitated by advanced practice nurses, incorporating the identified influential factors to reduce skin cancer risk and unnecessary sun exposure.

  11. 75 FR 13774 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, OMB No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Review; Comment Request, OMB No. 1660-NEW; FEMA Preparedness Grants: Urban Areas Security Initiative... Preparedness Grants: Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI) Nonprofit Security Grant Program (NSGP). Type of... the information to evaluate applicants' familiarity with the national preparedness architecture...

  12. Final report. Geothermal Energy Program: Information dissemination, public outreach, and technical analysis activities. April 1, 1999 to December 31, 2001. USDOE Grant No. DE-FG01-99-EE35098

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2002-03-22

    This is the final report of the accomplishments of the geothermal energy program: information dissemination, public outreach, and technical analysis activities by the project team consisting of the Geo-Heat Center, Geothermal Resources Council, Geothermal Education Office, Geothermal Energy Association, and the Washington State University Energy Program.

  13. Magnetic Patches in Internetwork Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wijn, Alfred; Lites, B.; Berger, T.; Shine, R.; Title, A.; Katsukawa, Y.; Tsuneta, S.; Suematsu, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Hinode Team

    2007-05-01

    We study strong flux elements in the quiet sun in the context of the nature of quiet-sun magnetism, its coupling to chromospheric, transition-region and coronal fields, and the nature of a local turbulent dynamo. Strong, kilogauss flux elements show up intermittently as small bright points in G-band and Ca II H images. Although bright points have been extensively studied in the magnetic network, internetwork magnetism has only come under scrutiny in recent years. A full spectrum of field strengths seems to be ubiquitously present in the internetwork at small spatial scales, with the stronger elements residing in intergranular lanes. De Wijn et al. (2005) found that bright points in quiet sun internetwork areas appear recurrently with varying intensity and horizontal motion within long-lived patches that outline cell patterns on mesogranular scales. They estimate that the "magnetic patches" have a mean lifetime of nine hours, much longer than granular timescales. We use multi-hour sequences of G-band and Ca II H images as well as magnetograms recorded by the Hinode satellite to follow up on their results. The larger field of view, the longer sequences, the addition of magnetograms, and the absence of atmospheric seeing allows us to better constrain the patch lifetime, to provide much improved statistics on IBP lifetime, to compare IBPs to network bright points, and to study field polarity of IBPs in patches and between nearby patches. Hinode is an international project supported by JAXA, NASA, PPARC and ESA. We are grateful to the Hinode team for all their efforts in the design, build and operation of the mission.

  14. Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable suns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Baudon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph \\(G = (V,E\\ is arbitrarily vertex decomposable if for any sequence \\(\\tau\\ of positive integers adding up to \\(|V|\\, there is a sequence of vertex-disjoint subsets of \\(V\\ whose orders are given by \\(\\tau\\, and which induce connected graphs. The aim of this paper is to study the recursive version of this problem on a special class of graphs called suns. This paper is a complement of [O. Baudon, F. Gilbert, M. Woźniak, Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable graphs, research report, 2010].

  15. The radiation belt of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    For a given solar magnetic field, the near-Sun (phase-space) density of cosmic ray electrons and positrons of energy above about 10GeV can be calculated from first principles, without any assumptions about the cosmic ray diffusion. This is because the sunlight Compton drag must be more important than diffusion. If the solar magnetic field has an appreciable dipole component, the electron/positron density should have a belt-like dent, perhaps extending to several solar radii. The belt structure appears because the quasi-bound orbits are depopulated by the sunlight Compton drag.

  16. Search for Neutrinos from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1968-09-01

    A solar neutrino detection system has been built to observe the neutrino radiation from the sun. The detector uses 3,900,000 liters of tetrachloroethylene as the neutrino capturing medium. Argon is removed from the liquid by sweeping with helium gas, and counted in a small low level proportional counter. The recovery efficiency of the system was tested with Ar{sup 36} by the isotope dilution method, and also with Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by fast neutrons. These tests demonstrate that Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by neutrino capture can be removed with a 95 percent efficiency by the procedure used.

  17. Dual Axis Light Sensor for Tracking Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Miki; Tambo, Toyokazu

    We have developed convenient light sensors to control a platform of solar cell panel. Dual axis light sensor in the present paper has structure of 5 PD (photodiode) light sensor which is composed of 5 photodiodes attached on a frustum of pyramid(1). Light source can be captured in front of the sensor by rotating the X and Y axis as decreasing the output deviation between two pairs of outside photodiodes. We here report the mechanism of sun tacking using the dual axis 5 PD light sensor and the fundamental results performed in the dark room.

  18. Hinode, the Sun, and public outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaji, K.; Tonooka, H.; Shimojo, M.; Tokimasa, N.; Suzuki, D.; Nakamichi, A.; Shimoikura, I.

    2015-03-01

    Extended Abstract Hinode is a solar observation satellite in Japan and its launch was in September 2006. Its name means ``SUNRISE`` in Japanese. It has three instruments onboard in visible light, X-ray, EUV to solve mystery of coronal heating and origins of magnetic fields. Hinode has been providing us with impressive solar data, which are very important for not only investigating solar phenomena but also giving new knowledge about the sun to the public. In order to efficiently communicate Hinode data to the public, we organized working group for public use of Hinode data. which are composed of both researchers and educators in collaboration. As follow, we introduce our activities in brief. For the public use of Hinode data, at first, we produced two DVDs introducing Hinode observation results. In particular, second DVD contains a movie for kids, which are devloped to picturebook. Now, it is under producing an illustrated book and a planetarium program. It turn out that the DVDs help the public understand the sun from questionnaire surveys. Second, we developed teaching materials from Hinode data and had a science classroom about the sun, solar observations, practice with PC such as imaging software at junior high school. As the results, they had much interests in Hinode data. Third, we have joint observations with high school students and so on in a few years. The students compare their own data with Hinode data and have a presentation at science contests. The joint observations make their motivation higher in their activities. It is important to record and report our activities in some ways. So, we positively publish papers and have presentions in domestic/international meetings. Though we are supported in budget, resources and so on by NAOJ Hinode Team, we apply research funds for promoting our EPO activities and acquire some funds such as NAOJ Joint Research Expenses and Grands-Aid for Scientific Research Funds since the launch. This way, since its launch, we

  19. Selective factors in sun-weather research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the correlations between solar wind/IMF disturbances and subsequent winter troposphere vorticity changes (denoted SV) are reviewed to investigate sun-weather relationships. Uncertainties in the research attempting to link short-term solar variations and associated changes in the lower atmosphere are discussed, and it is noted that such analyses have generally not addressed either the choice of parameters or the selective factors involved in the physical relationships existing between parameters. It is suggested that the identification of a viable mechanism scenario would require a detailed multiparameter selective factor analysis, extending to the investigation of the atmospheric data as well as the solar wind/IMF parameters.

  20. Investigation of possible sun-weather relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Businger, S

    1978-01-01

    Statistical correlations between anomalous solar activity (as denoted by large solar flares, active plages, and interplanetary magnetic sector boundaries) and the circulation of the troposphere are reviewed. Two indices (measuring atmospheric vorticity and mean zonal geostrophic flow in the northern hemisphere) are analyzed in an effort to reveal possible sun-weather relationships. The result of this analysis provides no additional statistical evidence for a connection between solar activity and the weather. Finally, physical mechanisms that have been suggested to explain the claimed correlations are discussed.

  1. Present and past neutrino luminosity of the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J K; Cleveland, B T; Davis, R Jr; Hampel, W; Kirsten, T

    1979-01-01

    The neutrino radiation from the sun can give direct information on the basic nuclear fusion processes that provide the solar energy. Results are reported which have been obtained over the last seven years with the Brookhaven solar neutrino detector that depends upon the neutrino capture reaction, /sup 37/Cl(..nu..,e/sup -/)/sup 37/ Ar. These results do not agree with the predictions of the standard solar model. It is of great interest to know whether the lack of agreement between the measurements and theoretical expectation could possibly be explained by a secular variation in the rate of the fusion process. Two radiochemical neutrino detection techniques have been proposed previously that could in principle record the neutrino flux of the past. An analysis of the expected background processes for these experiments is given. These and other possible methods of recording the past solar neutrino luminosity are discussed in relation to variations expected from theoretical solar models. 2 figures, 6 tables, 36 references.

  2. Tilt of Emerging Bipolar Magnetic Regions on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovichev, A. G.; Stenflo, J. O.

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic fields emerging from the Sun's interior carry information about the physical processes of magnetic field generation and transport in the convection zone. A statistical analysis of variations of the tilt angle of bipolar magnetic regions during the emergence, observed from SOHO MDI, shows that the systematic tilt with respect to the equator (Joy's law) is established by the middle of the emergence period. This suggests that the tilt is most likely generated below the surface. However, the data do not show evidence of a dependence of the tilt angle on the amount of flux or a relaxation of the bipolar orientation toward the east-west direction, in contrast to the predictions of the rising magnetic flux rope theories.

  3. Observing the Sun with the Murchison Widefield Array

    CERN Document Server

    Oberoi, D; Bhatnagar, S; Lonsdale, C J; Matthews, L D; Cairns, I H; Tingay, S J; Benkevitch, L; Donea, A; White, S M; Bernardi, G; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; Deshpande, A; Emrich, D; Gaensler, B M; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kratzenberg, E; Lynch, M J; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Offringa, A R; Ord, S M; Prabu, T; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Salah, J E; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Waterson, M; Wayth, R B; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; William, A; Williams, C L

    2014-01-01

    The Sun has remained a difficult source to image for radio telescopes, especially at the low radio frequencies. Its morphologically complex emission features span a large range of angular scales, emission mechanisms involved and brightness temperatures. In addition, time and frequency synthesis, the key tool used by most radio interferometers to build up information about the source being imaged is not effective for solar imaging, because many of the features of interest are short lived and change dramatically over small fractional bandwidths. Building on the advances in radio frequency technology, digital signal processing and computing, the kind of instruments needed to simultaneously capture the evolution of solar emission in time, frequency, morphology and polarization over a large spectral span with the requisite imaging fidelity, and time and frequency resolution have only recently begun to appear. Of this class of instruments, the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is best suited for solar observations. T...

  4. 34 CFR 75.234 - The conditions of the grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The conditions of the grant. 75.234 Section 75.234 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.234 The conditions of the grant. (a) The Secretary makes a grant to an...

  5. 76 FR 41323 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... information, contact the State's Single Point of Contact (SPOC) to find out about and comply with the State's... Budget's homepage at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/grants/spoc.html . E. Funding Restrictions...

  6. The sun and its impact on your health - Use it, don't abuse it

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    At the invitation of the CERN Medical Service, nursing specialists from the Ligue genevoise contre le cancer (Geneva League against cancer) will be present in the Main Building from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Thursday, 16 June for a public-health promotional event.   Come along for advice, information, documentation... Make sure that the sun remains a pleasure. For more information: www.lgc.ch ligue.cancer@mediane.ch

  7. Sun-Earth Day Connects History, Culture and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, T.; Thieman, J.

    2003-12-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education forum annually promotes and event called Sun-Earth Day: a national celebration of the Sun, the space around the Earth (geospace), and how all of it affects life on our planet. For the past 3 years this event has provided a venue by which classrooms, museums, planetaria, and at NASA centers have had a sensational time sharing stories, images, and activities related to the Sun-Earth connections and the views o fthe Sun from Earth. Each year we select a different theme by which NASA Space Science can be further related to cross-curricular activities. Sun-Earth Day 2002, "Celebrate the Equinox", drew parallels between Native American Cultures and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection research via cultural stories, interviews, web links, activities and Native American participation. Sun-Earth Day 2003, "Live From the Aurora", shared the beauty of the Aurora through a variety of activities and stories related to perspectives of Northern Peoples. Sun-Earth Day 2004 will share the excitement of the transit of Venus through comparisons of Venus with Earth and Mars, calculations of the distances to nearby stars, and the use of transits to identify extra-solar planets. Finally, Sun-Earth Day 2005 will bring several of these themes together by turning our focus to the history and culture surrounding ancient observatories such as Chaco Canyon, Machu Picchu, and Chichen Itza.

  8. The Sun and the Earth's Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigh Joanna D.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Variations in solar activity, at least as observed in numbers of sunspots, have been apparent since ancient times but to what extent solar variability may affect global climate has been far more controversial. The subject had been in and out of fashion for at least two centuries but the current need to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change has brought it again to the forefront of meteorological research. The absolute radiometers carried by satellites since the late 1970s have produced indisputable evidence that total solar irradiance varies systematically over the 11-year sunspot cycle, relegating to history the term “solar constant”, but it is difficult to explain how the apparent response to the Sun, seen in many climate records, can be brought about by these rather small changes in radiation. This article reviews some of the evidence for a solar influence on the lower atmosphere and discusses some of the mechanisms whereby the Sun may produce more significant impacts than might be surmised from a consideration only of variations in total solar irradiance.

  9. Seismic Sounding of Convection in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Shravan; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

    2015-01-01

    Our Sun, primarily composed of ionized hydrogen and helium, has a surface temperature of 5777~K and a radius $R_\\odot \\approx 696,000$ km. In the outer $R_\\odot/3$, energy transport is accomplished primarily by convection. Using typical convective velocities $u\\sim100\\,\\rm{m\\,s^{-1}}$ and kinematic viscosities of order $10^{-4}$ m$^{2}$s$^{-1}$, we obtain a Reynolds number $Re \\sim 10^{14}$. Convection is thus turbulent, causing a vast range of scales to be excited. The Prandtl number, $Pr$, of the convecting fluid is very low, of order $10^{-7}$\\,--\\,$10^{-4}$, so that the Rayleigh number ($\\sim Re^2 Pr$) is on the order of $10^{21}\\,-\\,10^{24}$. Solar convection thus lies in extraordinary regime of dynamical parameters, highly untypical of fluid flows on Earth. Convective processes in the Sun drive global fluid circulations and magnetic fields, which in turn affect its visible outer layers ("solar activity") and, more broadly, the heliosphere ("space weather"). The precise determination of the depth of sola...

  10. A new perspective on quiet Sun magnetism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LITES Bruce William

    2009-01-01

    The Hinode mission has provided us with a new, quantitative view of the magnetism of the quiet Sun. It has revealed that the quiet internetwork areas are blanketed by horizontal fields that appear at first sight to have more flux than the vertical fields resolved on the same 0.3″ size scale. These measurements point to the possibility that the horizontal fields might be the primary source of the "hidden turbulent flux" of the quiet Sun anticipated from Hanle effect depolarization. In this paper, evidence is presented suggesting that the "seething" horizontal fields observed by Harvey in 2007 and the horizontal fields revealed by Hinode are the same phenomenon. Because the seething fields appear to be of uniform fluctuation over the whole disk, the phenomenon is most likely not associated with the dynamo source of solar activity. Thus, the small-scale "hidden turbulent flux" lends support to the notion of a local solar dynamo acting on granular sizes and time scales.

  11. Promoting sun safety among zoo visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J A; Lewis, E C; Eckhardt, L; Slymen, D; Belch, G; Elder, J; Engelberg, M; Eichenfield, L; Achter, A; Nichols, T; Walker, K; Kwon, H; Talosig, M; Gearen, C

    2001-09-01

    Each year, millions of children visit zoological parks, where they are exposed to long bouts of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We conducted a study in the winter and replicated it in the summer to evaluate an intervention for reducing UVR exposure during the zoo visit. Each study used a nonequivalent control group design: one zoological site received the intervention and a second received evaluation only. Key outcome measures consisted of observed prevalence of hat use by exiting children (N = 8,721 and 8,524, respectively, in winter and summer studies) and purchase rates of sunscreen and hats in zoo gift shops. Intervention consisted of tip sheets for parents, children's activities, prompts, and discounts off the price of sunscreen and sun-protective hats. In the summer study, sales of both sunscreen and target hats increased significantly at the intervention site relative to the control site, whereas in the winter study, only sunscreen sales at the intervention site had a significant (relative) increase. Children's hat use increased significantly at the intervention site, but only in the winter study. The multicomponent program was effective in promoting purchases of sun-safe items, but its impact on children's hat use was inconclusive. Copyright 2001 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  12. Light Work: Contemporary Artists Consider the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Modern day life and timekeepers have profoundly affected the way we conceptualize time and our position in the universe. Over the past year, I have been investigating the apparent movement of the Sun both sculpturally and photographically. In this paper, I discuss my collaborations with Woody Sullivan and highlight several of the sundials, both gigantic and intimate, created by University of Washington students in the class Where is Noon? Regarding Giant Sundials that we co-taught in Spring 2003. I have continued to develop artistic approaches to solar events. Some of these sunworks have not been designed specifically to measure the exact time of day as a classic sundial does, but to stimulate a greater awareness of our subjective and paradoxical relationship to nature and technology. Other, almost domestic, poetic, humorous or intimate ways of interacting with science and technology are being actively explored. I will also provide a background to previous works I have done in relation to the Sun and optics, and briefly mention artists who are using astronomical events as a point of departure.

  13. Two sun-like superflare stars rotating as slow as the Sun*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Daisaku; Notsu, Yuta; Honda, Satoshi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari

    2014-04-01

    We report on the results of high dispersion spectroscopy of two "superflare stars," KIC 9766237 and KIC 9944137 with Subaru/HDS. Superflare stars are G-type main sequence stars, but show gigantic flares compared to the Sun, which have recently been discovered in the data obtained with the Kepler spacecraft. Though most of these stars are thought to have a rotation period shorter than 10 d on the basis of photometric variabilities, the two targets of the present paper are estimated to have rotation periods of 21.8 d and 25.3 d. Our spectroscopic results clarified that these stars have stellar parameters similar to those of the Sun in terms of the effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity. The projected rotational velocities derived by us are consistent with the photometric rotation period, indicating a fairly high inclination angle. The average strength of the magnetic field on the surface of these stars are estimated to be 1-20 G, by using the absorption line of Ca II 8542. We could not detect any hint of binarity in our spectra, although more data are needed to firmly rule out the presence of an unseen low-mass companion. These results claim that the spectroscopic properties of these superflare stars are very close to those of the Sun, and support the hypothesis that the Sun might cause a superflare.

  14. Perceptions of Risk of Developing Skin Cancer for Diverse Audiences: Enhancing Relevance of Sun Protection to Reduce the Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June K; Friedewald, John; Gordon, Elisa J

    2016-03-01

    Sixty-five percent of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Perceptions of risk of developing skin cancer, amelioration of this risk with sun protection, and having choices among sun protection strategies may enhance sun protection use by KTRS, who are at greater risk than the general population. Thirty KTRs stratified among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanic/Latinos evaluated three versions of the interactive, web-based, electronic sun protection program and suggested refinements. The sequence of content presentation prepared the participant to accept the credibility, accuracy, and relevance of the message. Beginning with informing participants that using sun protection reduces the chance of developing skin cancer made the information credible to KTRs. Showing skin cancer on all skin types and patient testimonials enhanced participants' awareness of their susceptibility to develop skin cancer and primed patients to receive their personal risk of developing skin cancer. Coupling presentation of knowledge about the benefits of sun protection in reducing the risk of developing skin cancer with the personal risk of getting the disease was essential to KTRs believing that they could influence their health outcome.

  15. Astronomy for Extremely ill or Traumatically Injured Children and Their Families - IAU OAD Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    This grant funded a program for extremely ill or traumatically injured children, their siblings, and family members rlated to the children’s surgery and medical treatments at nearby hospitals. This grant provided an educational family-learning experience and out-of-this world diversion from the stress of being sick or of having a sick family member hospitalized. The families stayed at the four Ronald McDonald Houses (RMHs) of Chicago. The RMHs provide free or low-cost housing in a comfortable, supportive alternative atmosphere where family members sleep, eat, relax and find support from other families in similar situations. Families are kept united when mutual support is as critical as the medical treatment itself. The ill children and their families may stay for a few days or months because of chemotherapy, dialysis, or rehabilitative therapy. Children from 50 states and 50 countries stay the Chicago RMHs and there are 260 RMHs in the US and 65 worldwide.The RMH staff and volunteers were trained to: use optical and solar telescopes; use the Stellarium program to show the night sky, identify objects, and plan observing sessions; use Sky and Telescope or Astronomy Magazine to selected the best nights for observing; conduct simple family oriented demonstrations; demonstrate citizen science/Zooniverse activities; and provide information about science museums and astronomy clubs near their home. The Chicago Astronomical Society (amateur astronomy club) provides ongoing support.I created an Activity Book with demonstrations and participatory hands-on activities including a toilet plunger sundial, making a sundial, creating a scale model of the Solar System (football field or toilet paper), phases and craters of the Moon (Oreo cookie phases, flour/ cocoa crater formation), eclipses, make constellations from chocolate chips in chocolate-chip cookies, crate your own constellation patterns, stellar temperature (images, demonstrations, candy), order images of the stages of

  16. Fiscal Year 2014 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  17. Fiscal Year 2015 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  18. Daily Public Assistance Grants Award Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Daily activity of Public Assistance Grant Awards, including FEMA Region, State, Disaster Declaration Number, Event description, Mission Assigned agency, Assistance...

  19. The traditional symbolism of the Sun Dance Lodge among the Wind River Shoshoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Hultkrantz

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Of all the North American Indian religious ceremonies no one is as spectacular and as well-known as the Sun Dance of the Plains Indians. The information collected on the subject since the turn of the century is quite extensive. However, while there is a mass of materials on the outer features of the Dance, on behavioural and ritual aspects, there is very little information on its religious aspects, in particular the meaning of the ritual.The following account is an attempt to view the religious symbolism of the Wind River Shoshoni Sun Dance lodge in a "meaningful" perspective. Attention is paid not only to the ideology of the Dance as such but also and foremost to the concrete elements of the Sun Dance structure which together throw further light on this ideology. A particular place in the analysis will be devoted to a new scholarly interpretation according to which the Shoshoni Sun Dance serves as a revitalization cult.

  20. Perry, Kelvin, and the age of the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2013-04-01

    Lord Kelvin argued that the Sun had to be between 20 and 100 million years old, based on the assumption that the Sun's energy source was gravitational contraction. As everyone now knows, the Sun's actual power source is the thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium. But Kelvin's number is based on a physical assumption for which he could give no justification: the Sun's density is approximately constant. Had Kelvin assumed instead that the Sun had a small core near a black hole radius - an assumption allowed by the knowledge of physicists at the end of the nineteenth century - he would have obtained an age for the Sun as long as 10 trillion years, completely consistent with the long time scale required for evolution. Conversely, had Kelvin accepted the geologists' time scale, he would have been forced to acknowledge the existence of very dense objects, making it easier for twentieth century astronomers to accept the existence of black holes and neutron stars.

  1. Scalar model of SU(N) glueball \\`a la Heisenberg

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Nonperturbative model of glueball is studied. The model is based on the nonperturbative quantization technique suggested by Heisenberg. 2- and 4-point Green functions for a gauge potential are expressed in terms of two scalar fields. The first scalar field describes quantum fluctuations of a subgroup $SU(n) \\subset SU(N)$, and the second one describes quantum fluctuations of coset $SU(N) / SU(n)$. An effective Lagrangian for the scalar fields is obtained. The coefficients for all terms in the Lagrangian are calculated, and it is shown that they depend on $\\dim SU(n), \\dim SU(N)$. It is demonstrated that spherically symmetric solution describing the glueball does exist.

  2. Sun One Portal Server体系架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇泉

    2003-01-01

    目前,门户市场上存在着国内外多种多样的产品,本文主要介绍Sun公司的Sun ONE Portal Servero Sun ONE Portal Server到目前为止,在全球拥有400多个客户,分布于金融、电信、政府、汽车、制造、教育等行业。Sun ONE Portal Server是Sun ONE的重要组成部分。首先,让我们来看看Sun ONE(Sun Open Net Environment)的

  3. Demographic Differences in Sun Protection Beliefs and Behavior: A Community-Based Study in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Yan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We want to know the attitudes and behaviors towards UV protection and we want to analyze the difference between different Chinese demographic groups in this study. Methods: A community-based study was undertaken in Shanghai from October 2009 to January 2010. The participants, ages 20–60 years old, were screened by cluster sampling and were investigated through interviews at their own homes. Personal basic information and questions pertaining to their knowledge and attitudes towards sunlight and sun protective activities were included in the questionnaire. Results: We completed 5964 questionnaires (2794 men and 3170 women. Eighty-six percent of the respondents belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Knowledge about UV-induced risks was known by more than half of the participants. However, only one-third of the participants thought they needed sun protection in winter and indoors or in vehicles, and 27% of the participants acknowledged tanning was not favorable. The attitudes towards sun exposure varied greatly, showing significant differences based on gender, age, socioeconomic groups and skin type groups (p < 0.05. Fifty-five percent of the participants never use an umbrella under sunlight, only 26.5% of the respondents wear hats, and 21.3% of the participants applied sunscreen. Females and individuals of a younger age and higher education level were more likely to perform sun-protective behaviors than males and those of an older age and lower education level (p < 0.001. Conclusion: There is a deficit in the use of sun protection existing in our surveyed Chinese population, especially in males and lower socioeconomic population, which could allow for planning prevention campaigns and exploring sun-preventive products.

  4. Interdependence and contributions of sun exposure and vitamin D to MRI measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivadinov, Robert; Treu, Cierra N; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Turner, Caitlin; Bergsland, Niels; O'Connor, Kerri; Dwyer, Michael G; Carl, Ellen; Ramasamy, Deepa P; Qu, Jun; Ramanathan, Murali

    2013-10-01

    To assess the relationships of sun exposure history, supplementation and environmental factors to vitamin D levels in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and to evaluate the associations between sun exposure and MRI measures. This study included 264 MS patients (mean age 46.9±10 years, disease duration 14.6±10 years; 67.8% relapsing-remitting, 28% secondary progressive and 4.2% primary progressive MS) and 69 healthy controls. Subjects underwent neurological and 3 T MRI examinations, provided blood samples and answered questions to a structured questionnaire. Information on race, skin and eye colour, supplement use, body mass index (BMI) and sun exposure was obtained by questionnaire. The vitamin D metabolites (25-hydroxy vitamin D3, 1, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and 24, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3) were measured using mass spectrometry. Multivitamin supplementation (partial correlation r(p)=0.29, psun exposure (r(p)=0.22, p=0.002) and darker eye colour (r(p)=-0.18, p=0.015) had the strongest associations with vitamin D metabolite levels in the MS group. Increased summer sun exposure was associated with increased grey matter volume (GMV, r(p)=0.16, p=0.019) and whole brain volume (WBV, r(p)=0.20, p=0.004) after correcting for Extended Disability Status Scale in the MS group. Inclusion of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 levels did not substantially affect the positive associations of sun exposure with WBV (r(p)=0.18, p=0.003) and GMV (r(p)=0.14, p=0.026) in the MS group. Sun exposure may have direct effects on MRI measures of neurodegeneration in MS, independently of vitamin D.

  5. Superflares on Sun-Like Stars: Bane of Habitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, T.

    2014-04-01

    A key aspect of planetary habitability is the existence of rare, but catastrophic events. One Earthly example is the attribution of several geological mass extinctions to asteroid collisions. Indeed, the Late Heavy Bombardment, during which the 600 Myr old Earth was pummeled persistently by impactors over a period of perhaps a hundred Myr, likely significantly delayed the permanent foothold of life on our planet. Another, less well known, example is the proposed existence of "superflares" on Sun-like stars. Although the quantity of energy in a superflare is negligible compared with the time-integrated X-ray dose from the quiescent multi-MK corona, the quality of the radiation (i.e., composition dominated by gamma rays) released from the transient, but extreme, outburst is what could be of concern to the survival of primitive lifeforms struggling for existence on a semi-habitable world. However, existing reports of superflares mainly involve interpretations of historical materials, such as long-term astronomical plate collections; there are very few concrete examples of such events observed by modern techniques at the most relevant wavelengths, namely ultraviolet or X-rays. The lack of good examples is mostly because these rare events are, well, rare. However, a recent HST Cosmic Origins Spectrograph program to record the ultraviolet spectrum of young (~50 Myr) solar analog EK Draconis, fortuitously captured a giant, hour-long FUV transient, in hot lines like the C IV 155 nm doublet (T~100,000 K), and very toasty Fe XXI 124 nm coronal forbidden line (~10 MK). If translated into the equivalent GOES 0.1-0.8 nm X-ray fluence, the event would correspond to an X25000-class flare (most extreme observed on the Sun might reach as high as a mere X50). The EK Dra giant flare, as viewed with the excellent wavelength resolution, broad coverage, and high sensitivity of COS, provides the opportunity to deduce properties of such events to help inform possible impacts on planetary

  6. Navigating the Road to Success: A Systematic Approach to Preparing Competitive Grant Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Mackenzie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Difficulty in securing research funding has been cited as one barrier to the involvement of more librarians and information professionals in conducting original research. This article seeks to support the work of librarians who wish to secure research funding by describing a systematic approach to the creation of successful grant applications.Approach The authors draw on more than fifteen years collective experience in supporting the development of successful research grant proposals. Eleven grant‐writing best practicesor ‘key approaches’ are described, and a planning timeline is suggested.Conclusions: Use of these best practices can assist researchers in creating successful research grant proposals that will also help streamline the research process once it is underway. It is important to recognize the competitive nature of research grant competitions, obtain feedback from an internal review panel, and use feedback from funding agencies to strengthen future grant applications.

  7. Multi-Aperture CMOS Sun Sensor for Microsatellite Attitude Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Grassi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the high precision digital sun sensor under development at the University of Naples. The sensor determines the sun line orientation in the sensor frame from the measurement of the sun position on the focal plane. It exploits CMOS technology and an original optical head design with multiple apertures. This allows simultaneous multiple acquisitions of the sun as spots on the focal plane. The sensor can be operated either with a fixed or a variable number of sun spots, depending on the required field of view and sun-line measurement precision. Multiple acquisitions are averaged by using techniques which minimize the computational load to extract the sun line orientation with high precision. Accuracy and computational efficiency are also improved thanks to an original design of the calibration function relying on neural networks. Extensive test campaigns are carried out using a laboratory test facility reproducing sun spectrum, apparent size and distance, and variable illumination directions. Test results validate the sensor concept, confirming the precision improvement achievable with multiple apertures, and sensor operation with a variable number of sun spots. Specifically, the sensor provides accuracy and precision in the order of 1 arcmin and 1 arcsec, respectively.

  8. Interstellar Dust Close to the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, Priscilla C

    2012-01-01

    The low density interstellar medium (ISM) close to the Sun and inside of the heliosphere provides a unique laboratory for studying interstellar dust grains. Grain characteristics in the nearby ISM are obtained from observations of interstellar gas and dust inside of the heliosphere and the interstellar gas towards nearby stars. Comparison between the gas composition and solar abundances suggests that grains are dominated by olivines and possibly some form of iron oxide. Measurements of the interstellar Ne/O ratio by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer spacecraft indicate that a high fraction of interstellar oxygen in the ISM must be depleted onto dust grains. Local interstellar abundances are consistent with grain destruction in ~150 km/s interstellar shocks, provided that the carbonaceous component is hydrogenated amorphous carbon and carbon abundances are correct. Variations in relative abundances of refractories in gas suggest variations in the history of grain destruction in nearby ISM. The large observed ...

  9. Imaging convection and magnetism in the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Shravan

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the field of helioseismology and its outstanding challenges and also offers a detailed discussion of the latest computational methodologies. The focus is on the development and implementation of techniques to create 3-D images of convection and magnetism in the solar interior and to introduce the latest computational and theoretical methods to the interested reader. With the increasing availability of computational resources, demand for greater accuracy in the interpretation of helioseismic measurements and the advent of billion-dollar instruments taking high-quality observations, computational methods of helioseismology that enable probing the 3-D structure of the Sun have increasingly become central. This book will benefit students and researchers with proficiency in basic numerical methods, differential equations and linear algebra who are interested in helioseismology.

  10. Choosing an expected sun protection factor value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, John R; Caswell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sun protection factor, SPF, is a measure of the efficacy of a topical sunscreen product; the higher the SPF, the greater the blockage of ultraviolet-induced erythema. While there are several methods to determine SPF, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) methods are unique. The FDA methods define the label SPF value as the largest whole integer after subtracting an "A" value from the mean SPF. The A value, composed of the product of the upper 5% point of the t-distribution and the standard deviation (SD), divided by √(n), where n equals the number of subjects, has a significant impact on the label SPF value. Two examples explore this impact. Development of strategies to mitigate the impact of A using expected SPF values are explored using historical clinical trial data. A more enlightened choice of expected SPF values is shown to lead to higher label SPF values.

  11. Coronal Mass Ejections: From Sun to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsourakos, S.

    2016-06-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are gigantic expulsions of magnetized plasmas from the solar corona into the interplanetary (IP) space. CMEs spawn ~ 1015 gr of mass and reach speeds ranging between several hundred to a few thousand km/s (e.g., Gopalswamy et al. 2009; Vourlidas et al. 2010). It takes 1-5 days for a CME to reach Earth. CMEs are one of the most energetic eruptive manifestations in the solar system and are major drivers of space weather via their magnetic fields and energetic particles, which are accelerated by CME-driven shocks. In this review we give a short account of recent, mainly observational, results on CMEs from the STEREO and SDO missions which include the nature of their pre-eruptive and eruptive configurations and the CME propagation from Sun to Earth. We conclude with a discussion of the exciting capabilities in CME studies that will soon become available from new solar and heliospheric instrumentation.

  12. An Encounter between the Sun and Venus

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The astronomical event of the year will take place on Tuesday, 8 June, when Venus transits across the disk of the sun. In the framework of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations, the CERN Astronomy Club and the Orion Club invite you to attend their observation of the event on the car park of the Val-Thoiry shopping centre (France) between 7.15 a.m. and 1.30 p.m. Various instruments will be set up in a special tent so that the event can be observed without any risk of damage to the eyes. As the observation of this astronomical event will depend on the weather forecast, confirmation of the above arrangements will be given on the 50th anniversary website the day before.

  13. Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2009-01-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting Cataclysmic Variable (CV) Dwarf Novae systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar and black hole systems. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our a...

  14. Convectively driven vortex flows in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bonet, J A; Almeida, J Sanchez; Cabello, I; Domingo, V

    2008-01-01

    We have discovered small whirlpools in the Sun, with a size similar to the terrestrial hurricanes (<~0.5 Mm). The theory of solar convection predicts them, but they had remained elusive so far. The vortex flows are created at the downdrafts where the plasma returns to the solar interior after cooling down, and we detect them because some magnetic bright points (BPs) follow a logarithmic spiral in their way to be engulfed by a downdraft. Our disk center observations show 0.009 vortexes per Mm^2, with a lifetime of the order of 5 min, and with no preferred sense of rotation. They are not evenly spread out over the surface, but they seem to trace the supergranulation and the mesogranulation. These observed properties are strongly biased by our type of measurement, unable to detect vortexes except when they are engulfing magnetic BPs.

  15. Substructure of Quiet Sun Bright Points

    CERN Document Server

    Andic, Aleksandra; Goode, Phillip R

    2010-01-01

    Since photospheric bright points (BPs) were first observed, there has been a question as to how are they structured. Are they just single flux tubes or a bundle of the flux-tubes? Surface photometry of the quiet Sun (QS) has achieved resolution close to 0.1" with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. This resolution allowed us to detect a richer spectrum of BPs in the QS. The smallest BPs we observed with TiO 705.68 nm were 0.13", and we were able to resolve individual components in some of the BPs clusters and ribbons observed in the QS, showing that they are composed of the individual BPs. Average size of observed BPs was 0.22".

  16. Cartography of the sun and the stars

    CERN Document Server

    Neiner, Coralie

    2016-01-01

    The mapping of the surface of stars requires diverse skills, analysis techniques and advanced modeling, i.e. the collaboration of scientists in various specialties. This volume gives insights into new techniques allowing for the first time to obtain resolved images of stars. It takes stock of what has been achieved so far in Chile, on the ESO VLTI instrument or, in the States, on the CHARA instrument. In recent times interferometry, combined with adaptive optics has allowed to reconstruct images of stars. Besides the Sun (of course) by now five stars have been resolved in detail. In addition to interferometry, this book highlights techniques used for mapping the surfaces of stars using photometry made by space observatories; Zeeman- and Doppler Imaging; mapping the surface element abundances via spectroscopy. This book will also take stock of the best images of the  solar surface, made by connecting the differential rotation to the underlying physical parameters derived from helioseismology. Recent measureme...

  17. Bashful ballerina: The asymmetric Sun viewed from the heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursula, K.

    Long-term observations of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) at 1 AU have depicted interesting systematic hemispheric and longitudinal asymmetries that have far-reaching implications for the understanding of solar magnetism. It has recently been found that the HMF sector that is prevalent in the northern solar hemisphere dominates the observed HMF sector occurrence for a few years in the late declining to minimum phase of the solar cycle. This leads to a persistent southward shift or coning of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) at these times, which has been described by the concept of the bashful ballerina. This result was later verified by direct measurements of the solar magnetic field which showed that the average field intensity was smaller and the corresponding area larger in the northern (heliographic) hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere during roughly 3 years in the late declining to minimum phase of the cycle. During these years when the HCS was shifted southwards, the solar quadrupole moment was found to be systematically non-zero and oppositely oriented with respect to the dipole moment. Long-term observations of the geomagnetic field can yield information on the HMF sector structure in the pre-satellite era, showing that the ballerina was bashful since 1930s. In addition to the hemispheric asymmetries, the Sun is systematically asymmetric in longitude. It has been shown that the global HMF has persistent active longitudes whose dominance depicts an oscillation with a period of about 3.2 years. Accordingly, the bashful ballerina takes three such steps per activity cycle, thus dancing in waltz tempo. Stellar observations show that this is a general pattern for sun-like cool stars. We describe these phenomena and discuss their implications.

  18. 76 FR 34297 - Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program; Availability of 2012 Grant Application Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... Internal Revenue Service Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program; Availability of 2012 Grant Application... 3319) for organizations interested in applying for a Low Income Taxpayer Clinic (LITC) matching grant... representation for free or for a nominal fee to low income taxpayers involved in tax controversies with the...

  19. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...

  20. 77 FR 51610 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Driving Grant (hereinafter ``First-Year Texting-Ban Grant''). See ] Section III.C. The basis for an award... Section 405(e), as outlined below: (1) Prohibition on texting while driving. The State statute must-- (a) Prohibit drivers from texting through a personal wireless communications device while driving; (b)...

  1. 5 CFR 1205.14 - Granting access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting access. 1205.14 Section 1205.14... Procedures for Obtaining Records § 1205.14 Granting access. (a) The Board may allow a requester to inspect... access to records may be accompanied by another individual of the requester's choice. Under...

  2. 44 CFR 6.32 - Granting access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Granting access. 6.32 Section... SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Individual Access to Records § 6.32 Granting access. (a) Upon receipt of a request for access to non-exempt records, the system manager shall...

  3. Federal Grants to State and Local Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congressional Budget Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In fiscal year 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments. Those funds accounted for 17 percent of federal outlays, 4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), and a quarter of spending by state and local governments that year. Over the past 30 years, those "intergovernmental" grants--financial…

  4. Welfare Financing : Grant Allocation and Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema, L.A.; Allers, Maarten A.

    2014-01-01

    Welfare is often administered locally, but financed through grants from the central government. This raises the question how the central government can prevent local governments from spending more than necessary. We analyze block grants used in The Netherlands, which depend on exogenous spending nee

  5. 28 CFR 83.650 - Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant. 83.650 Section 83.650 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS... value to the recipient to carry out a public purpose of support or stimulation authorized by a law...

  6. Interactive, Web-based Information Skills Tutorial Well Received by Graduate Students in Health and Social Care Research. A review of: Grant, Maria J., and Alison J. Brettle. “Developing and Evaluating an Interactive Information Skills Tutorial.” Health Information and Libraries Journal 23.2 (June 2006: 79 ‐86.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy L. Brown

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether a newly developed interactive, Web -based tutorial on OVID MEDLINE was acceptable to students, and to identify whether the tutorial improved students’ information skills. Design – Objective and subjective assessment within a small cohort study. Setting – An evidence based practice module within a Master's in Research (MRes program at the University of Salford, UK. Subjects – A total of 13 usable evaluations were received from graduate students who took an evidence based practice module as part of their MRes coursework. Methods – Information skills (IS were taught in weeks two and three of a 12 ‐week module on evidence based practice. Each of the two IS sessions lasted approximately three hours. At the beginning of the first session, baseline skills were assessed by asking the students to perform a literature search on either the effectiveness of nursing interventions for smoking cessation, or the effectiveness of rehabilitation after stroke. The OVID MEDLINE tutorial was introduced at the first session, and guided hands ‐on practice was offered. Homework was given, and between ‐session use of the tutorial was encouraged. At the end of the second session, students were asked to complete another search in order to assess short ‐term impact of the tutorial. Both sets of search results were scored using a checklist rubric that looked for Boolean operators, use of MeSH terms, use of limits, number and relevance of references, and other assessment criteria. The rubric was a modified version of a tool published by Rosenberg et al. The tutorial remained available throughout the 12 ‐week module, at which time a systematic literature review was assigned in order to measure longer ‐term impact. As an additional subjective measurement, a questionnaire regarding the information skills sessions and tutorial was given at the end of the second IS session (week 3. Main Results – Thirteen objective

  7. 77 FR 32661 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Fiscal Year 2012 Disaster Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Fiscal Year 2012 Disaster Recovery Grant Application and Setup in the Disaster Recovery Grant Reporting System; Emergency... information collection. SUMMARY: The proposed information collection requirement described below has...

  8. Organization and management of space grant programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Sallie; Nichols, Steve

    1990-01-01

    The 21 Space Grant Programs represent a broad range of organizational structures which operate programs ranging in size from single university organizations to organizations including up to 41 members involving a composite of industrial organizations such as state agencies, and universities. Some of the space grant awards were made to organizations already in existence with on-going programs while other awards were made to consortia newly formed for the purpose of applying to the Space Grant Program. The workshop on organization and management of Space Grant Programs provided an opportunity for directors and program representatives to discuss and compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of the various models being used. This paper offers examples of the diversity of organizations, summarizes the common concerns to be met by each organizational model, and provides a case study of the Texas Space Grant Consortium organization.

  9. Sun-Earth Day 2005: Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Hawkins, I.; Odenwald, S.; Mayo, L.

    2005-05-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) annually promotes an event called Sun-Earth Day. For Sun-Earth Day 2005 SECEF has selected a theme called "Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge. This year's Sun-Earth Day theme is your ticket to a fascinating journey through time as we explore centuries of sun watching by a great variety of cultures. From ancient solar motion tracking to modern solar activity monitoring the Sun has always occupied an important spot in mankind's quest to understand the Universe. Sun-Earth Day events usually are centered on the spring equinox around March 21, but this year there has already been a webcast from the San Francisco Exploratorium and the Native American ruins at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico on the day of winter solstice 2004. There will be another webcast on March 20 live from Chichen Itza, Mexico highlighting the solar alignment that makes a serpent appear on one of the ancient pyramids. The website http://sunearthday.nasa.gov has been developed to provide the necessary resources and opportunities for participation by scientists and educators in giving school or general public programs about Sun-Earth Day. The goal is to involve as much of the student population and the public in this event as possible and to help them understand the importance of the Sun for ancient and modern peoples. Through engaging activities available on the website, classrooms and museums can create their own event or participate in one of the opportunities we make available. Scientists, educators, amateur astronomers, and museums are invited to register on the website to receive a free packet of materials about Sun-Earth Day for use in making presentations or programs about the event. Past and future Sun-Earth Days will be discussed as well.

  10. Human-Sun Bears Conflict in Mizoram, North East India: Impact and Conservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between Malayan sun bears (Helarctos malayanus and humans in Mizoram state. We carried out informal interview in 40 villages out of 60 villages covered, locating in and around the protected areas of Mizoram, North-eastern state, during 2008 to 2010. In total, there were 33 human casualties by sun bear during 2000-2010. Males were attacked (n=26, 78.8% and female were attacked (n=7, 21.2%. Injuries were caused to face, nose, eyes, neck, hand and legs. Mark yearly variation of human sun bear casualties, the highest casualties (24.1% during the year of 2002 and less casualties (3.0% during the 2006. Bear attacks were recorded in all the seasons, but maximum cases occurred during autumn and winter months. During December, November, September, April, October and August 27.3 %, 21.2 %, 12.1 %, 9.1% and 6.1 % casualties respectively occurred. Out of 33 cases, victims were mainly in the age group of 31-40 years (45.5 %, followed by 21-30 years (33.3 %, and 41-50 years (12.1 %. Bear accounted for only 6.1 % and 3.0 % cases in the age group of 11-20 years and 51> years respectively. Information on sun bear attacks on human beings and circumstances are presented and discussed. Maximum cases i.e. 21 (63.6 % occurred in forests, followed by 9 (27. 3 % cases in crop fields and 3 (9.1% cases in the vicinity of villages. These victims were involved in cattle grazing, farming or crop protection or moving in forests or vicinity of villages or non-timber forest produce collection. Most of these incidents occurred during morning, evening and night time when bears remained most active. Recommendations have been made for reducing conflict and conservation of sun bear.

  11. Sun Protection Policies of Australian Primary Schools in a Region of High Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S. L.; Garzón-Chavez, D. R.; Nikles, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP…

  12. Further Study is Needed to Define and Measure the Use of Reflective Practice in Library and Information Science. A review of: Grant, Maria J. “The Role of Reflection in the Library and Information Sector: A Systematic Review.” Health Information and Libraries Journal 24.3 (2007: 155‐66.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives ‐ To identify and review the literature of reflective practice in library and information science (LIS in order to understand its role, particularly with regard to health libraries.Design ‐ Systematic reviewSetting ‐ LIS English‐language articles published between 1969 and 2006, and indexed in the Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA database.Subjects ‐ 929 citations retrieved from the LISA database.Methods ‐ The author conducted free text searches in the LISA database for the terms ‘reflective,’ ‘reflection*,’ or ‘reflexion*.’ An initial search series was conducted in 2004 in order to retrieve items published between 1969‐2003, then in 2007 for articles published between 2004‐2006. In all, 929 article citations were retrieved. Exclusion criteria included those articles addressing the facilitation of reflective practices in others, as well as non‐English language materials,and those pre-dating 1969. After review, 55 articles met the author’s relevance standard.Citation tracking then added 10 articles to the total. From this dataset, full‐text articles were obtained where possible, if determined on initial scrutiny to be deserving of further examination. Thirteen articles (.013% were ultimately selected for analysis. These articles were categorized as analytical or non‐analytical, with respect to perspective (individual or organizational, and recency of events (retrospective or recent. In addition, a determination was made about whether the articles’ foci were reflection occurring on (in retrospect to or in (during practice.Main results ‐ Of thirteen articles, five were found to be non‐analytical, with the other six being analytical. Three of the non-analytical items were the reflections of an individual, while the remaining two offered an organizational perspective. The non-analytical accounts were found to be descriptive accounts by an individual, mostly retrospective and offering

  13. New Views of the Sun: STEREO and Hinode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Janet G.; Tsuneta, Saku; Bougeret, J.-L.; Galvin, Antoinette; Howard, R. A.; Kaiser, Michael; Thompson, W. T.

    The twin-spacecraft STEREO mission has now been in orbit for 1.5 years. Although the main scientific objective of STEREO is the origin and evolution of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their heliospheric consequences, the slow decline of the previous solar cycle has provided an extraordinary opportunity for close scrutiny of the quiet corona and solar wind, including suprathermal and energetic particles. However, STEREO has also captured a few late cycle CMEs that have given us a taste of the observations and analyses to come. Images from the SECCHI investigation afforded by STEREO's separated perspectives and the heliospheric imager have already allowed us to visibly witness the origins of the slow solar wind and the Sun-to-1 AU transit of ICMEs. The SWAVES investigation has monitored the transit of interplanetary shocks in 3D while the PLASTIC and IMPACT in-situ measurements provide the 'ground truth' of what is remotely sensed. New prospects for space weather forecasting have been demonstrated with the STEREO behind spacecraft, a successful proof-of-concept test for future space weather mission designs. The data sets for the STEREO investigations are openly available through a STEREO Science Center web interface that also provides supporting information for potential users from all communities. Comet observers and astronomers, interplanetary dust researchers and planetary scientists have already made use of this resource. The potential for detailed Sun-to-Earth CME/ICME interpretations with sophisticated modeling efforts are an upcoming STEREO-Hinode partnering activity whose success we can only anticipate at this time. Since its launch in September 2006, Hinode has sent back solar images of unprecedented clarity every day. The primary purpose of this mission is a systems approach to understanding the generation, transport and ultimate dissipation of solar magnetic fields with a well-coordinated set of advanced telescopes. Hinode is equipped with three

  14. 42 CFR 56.204 - Grant evaluation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant evaluation and award. 56.204 Section 56.204 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Centers § 56.204 Grant evaluation...

  15. 42 CFR 56.604 - Grant evaluation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant evaluation and award. 56.604 Section 56.604 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Programs § 56.604 Grant evaluation and award....

  16. 42 CFR 56.404 - Grant evaluation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant evaluation and award. 56.404 Section 56.404 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Entities § 56.404 Grant evaluation and award....

  17. 42 CFR 56.305 - Grant evaluation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant evaluation and award. 56.305 Section 56.305 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.305 Grant evaluation and award....

  18. 42 CFR 56.504 - Grant evaluation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant evaluation and award. 56.504 Section 56.504 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Programs § 56.504 Grant evaluation...

  19. Polar Magnetic Field Reversals of the Sun in Maunder Minimum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. I. Makarov; A. G. Tlatov

    2000-09-01

    A possible scenario of polar magnetic field reversal of the Sun during the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) is discussed using data of magnetic field reversals of the Sun for 1880-1991 and the 14C content variations in the bi-annual rings of the pine-trees in 1600-1730 yrs.

  20. Quadrant to Measure the Sun's Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, A Morgan, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The changing altitude of the Sun (either over the course of a day or longer periods) is a phenomenon that students do not normally appreciate. However, the altitude of the Sun affects many topics in disciplines as diverse as astronomy, meteorology, navigation, or horology, such as the basis for seasons, determination of latitude and longitude, or…

  1. Sun avoidance strategies at the Large Millimeter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souccar, Kamal; Smith, David R.; Schloerb, F. Peter; Wallace, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope observatory is extending its night time operation to the day time. A sun avoidance strategy was therefore implemented in the control system in real-time to avoid excessive heating and damage to the secondary mirror and the prime focus. The LMT uses an "on-the-fly" trajectory generator that receives as input the target location of the telescope and in turn outputs a commanded position to the servo system. The sun avoidance strategy is also implemented "on-the-fly" where it intercepts the input to the trajectory generator and alters that input to avoid the sun. Two sun avoidance strategies were explored. The first strategy uses a potential field approach where the sun is represented as a high-potential obstacle in the telescope's workspace and the target location is represented as a low-potential goal. The potential field is repeatedly calculated as the sun and the telescope move and the telescope follows the induced force by this field. The second strategy is based on path planning using visibility graphs where the sun is represented as a polygonal obstacle and the telescope follows the shortest path from its actual position to the target location via the vertices of the sun's polygon. The visibility graph approach was chosen as the favorable strategy due to the efficiency of its algorithm and the simplicity of its computation.

  2. Relationship Factors and Couples' Engagement in Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, S. L.; Coups, E. J.; Kashy, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals may be more motivated to adopt health practices if they consider the benefits of these behaviors for their close relationships. The goal of this study was to examine couple concordance with sun protection and use the interdependence and communal coping theory to evaluate the role of relationship factors in sun protection. One hundred…

  3. Regular Biology Students Learn Like AP Students with SUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiza, Ann; Luo, Wen; Zhang, Bo; Gruhl, Mary; Nelson, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Ning, Ling; Roberts, Marisa; Knopp, Jonathan; Harrington, Tom; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Marcey, David

    2016-01-01

    The SUN approach to biological energy transfer education is fundamentally different from past practices that trace chemical and energy inputs and outputs. The SUN approach uses a hydrogen fuel cell to convince learners that electrons can move from one substance to another based on differential attraction. With a hydrogen fuel cell, learners can…

  4. Wien's Law and the Temperature of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Mark L.; Katz, Debora M.; Aho, Robert; Diaz-Barriga, James; Petron, Jerome

    2002-10-01

    A simple approach is used in an attempt to determine the temperature of the sun by modeling the sun as a blackbody radiator and applying Wein's Law. Apparently excellent results are obtained, but the results are false as a consequence of two corrections which cancel out.

  5. Mr. Sun Laiyan Appointed as Administrator of CNSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The State Council of the People's Republic of China announced on April 23, 2004 that Mr. Sun Laiyan was appointed to be the Administrator of China National Space Administration (CNSA). Mr. Luan Enjie was announced to retire from the office. Mr. Sun Laiyan, born in October 1957, graduated from Xian Communication

  6. Growth and morphogenesis of sun and shade plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corre, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    A number of species of sun and shade plants in the vegetative phase were grown in different light intensities, different light qualities (r/fr ratio) and different combinations of light intensity and nutrient supply. Sun and shade species were also grown at various plant densities and in interspecif

  7. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  8. The Sun is Condensed Matter and has a Real Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2014-03-01

    The idea that the Sun was a gaseous in nature was born from 1858-65. At that time, a group of men, including Herbert Spencer, Father Angelo Secchi, Warren de la Rue, Balfour Stewart, and Benjamin Loewy, advanced that the Sun was a ball of gas. In 1865, Hervé Faye was the first to argue that the solar surface was merely an illusion. Dismissing all signs to the contrary, solar physics has promoted this idea to the present day, as manifested by the Standard Solar Model. In this work, overwhelming observational evidence will be presented that the Sun does indeed possess a distinct surface (see P.M. Robitaille, Forty Lines of Evidence for Condensed Matter -- The Sun on Trial: Liquid Metallic Hydrogen as a Solar Building Block, Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 4, 90-143). Our telescopes and satellites are sampling real structures on the surface of the Sun.

  9. Exotic World Blisters Under the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept shows a Jupiter-like planet soaking up the scorching rays of its nearby 'sun.' NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope used its heat-seeking infrared eyes to figure out that a gas-giant planet like the one depicted here is two-faced, with one side perpetually in the cold dark, and the other forever blistering under the heat of its star. The illustration portrays how the planet would appear to infrared eyes, showing temperature variations across its surface. The planet, called Upsilon Andromedae b, was first discovered in 1996 around the star Upsilon Andromedae, located 40 light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. This star also has two other planets orbiting farther out. Upsilon Andromedae b is what's known as a 'hot-Jupiter' planet, because it is made of gas like our Jovian giant, and it is hot, due to its tight, 4.6-day-long jaunt around its star. The toasty planet orbits at one-sixth the distance of Mercury from our own sun. It travels in a plane that is seen neither edge- nor face-on from our solar system, but somewhere in between. Scientists do not know how fast Upsilon Andromedae b is spinning on its axis, but they believe that it is tidally locked to its star, just as our locked moon forever hides its 'dark side' from Earth's view. Spitzer observed Upsilon Andromedae b at five points during the planet's trip around its star. The planet's light levels went up or down, as detected by Spitzer, depending on whether the planet's sunlit or dark side was pointed toward Earth. These data indicate that the temperature difference between the two hemispheres of the planet is about 1,400 degrees Celsius (2,550 degrees Fahrenheit). According to astronomers, this means that the side of the planet that faces the star is always as hot as lava, while the other side could potentially be as cold as ice. Specifically, the hot side of the planet ranges from about 1,400 to 1,650 degrees Celsius (2,550 to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit), and the cold side from about

  10. The risks and benefits of sun exposure 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, David G.; Berwick, Marianne; de Gruijl, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Public health authorities in the United States are recommending that men, women and children reduce their exposure to sunlight, based on concerns that this exposure will promote skin cancer. On the other hand, data show that increasing numbers of Americans suffer from vitamin D deficiencies and serious health problems caused by insufficient sun exposure. The body of science concerning the benefits of moderate sun exposure is growing rapidly, and is causing a different perception of sun/UV as it relates to human health. Melanoma and its relationship to sun exposure and sunburn is not adequately addressed in most of the scientific literature. Reports of favorable health outcomes related to adequate serum 25(OH)D concentration or vitamin D supplementation have been inappropriately merged, so that benefits of sun exposure other than production of vitamin D are not adequately described. This review of recent studies and their analyses consider the risks and benefits of sun exposure which indicate that insufficient sun exposure is an emerging public health problem. This review considers the studies that have shown a wide range health benefits from sun/UV exposure. These benefits include among others various types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer disease/dementia, myopia and macular degeneration, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. The message of sun avoidance must be changed to acceptance of non-burning sun exposure sufficient to achieve serum 25(OH)D concentration of 30 ng/mL or higher in the sunny season and the general benefits of UV exposure beyond those of vitamin D. PMID:27942349

  11. Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1986-01-01

    Information is presented on the 43 projects funded by the United States Geological Survey 's Water Resources Grant Program in fiscal year 1986. The report gives the grant number; project title; performing organization; principal investigator(s); dates; and a project description which includes (1) identification of the water related problems and problem-solution approach, (2) contribution to problem solution, (3) objectives, (4) approach, and (5) result users. The 43 projects include 14 in the area of groundwater management, 6 in surface-water management, 2 in systems-operating/planning, 3 in irrigation management, 8 in desalination/reuse, 6 in economic/institutional studies, and 4 in climate variability. The reports contain tables showing (1) funding according to research topic, (2) projects funded to type of submitting organization, (3) proposals received, research topic, and funding levels, and (4) submitting organization. A comparison is given to fiscal year 1985 in each case. (USGS)

  12. Knowledge and Practice of Sun Protection in Schools in South Africa Where No National Sun Protection Programme Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y.; Reeder, Anthony I.; Albers, Patricia N.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline…

  13. ATLAS PhD Grants 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcelloni De Oliveira, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS PHd Grants - We are excited to announce the creation of a dedicated grant scheme (thanks to a donation from Fabiola Gianotti and Peter Jenni following their award from the Fundamental Physics Prize foundation) to encourage young and high-caliber doctoral students in particle physics research (including computing for physics) and permit them to obtain world class exposure, supervision and training within the ATLAS collaboration. This special PhD Grant is aimed at graduate students preparing a doctoral thesis in particle physics (incl. computing for physics) to spend one year at CERN followed by one year support also at the home Institute.

  14. Grant County 2010 Census Edges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  15. floodzones_grant_FEMA_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Q3 Flood Data are derived from the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMS) published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The file is georeferenced to...

  16. Grant County 2010 Census Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  17. Grant County Current Point Landmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  18. Grant County Current Area Landmark

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  19. Grant County 2010 Census Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  20. Grant County 2010 Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...