WorldWideScience

Sample records for sun exposure sun

  1. Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sun Microsystems, Inc. is committed to open standards,a standardization system, and sharing within the information tech nology field, focusing not only on technical innovation, but also on new ideas, practices and future development.

  2. The validated sun exposure questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires used in monitoring sun-related behavior have been tested for validity. We established criteria validity of a developed questionnaire for monitoring population sun-related behavior. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week...... that measured the outdoor time and dose of erythemal UVR exposure. In the following week, they answered a questionnaire on their sun-related behavior in the measurement week. Outdoor time measured by dosimetry correlated strongly with both outdoor time and the developed exposure scale measured....... The weekly sunburn fraction correlated strongly with the number of ambient sun hours (r=0.73, p

  3. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between...... Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  4. Effects of Early Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be harmful. It can lead to:Skin changes. Some skin cells with melanin can form a clump. This creates freckles and moles. Over time, these can develop cancer.Early aging. Time spent in the sun makes your skin age faster than normal. Signs of this are wrinkled, tight, or leathery ...

  5. Sun Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ... m. when the sun is brightest. Avoid sudden exposure to lots of sunlight. Many people have sun allergy symptoms when they ...

  6. Sun exposure and protection behavior of Danish farm children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Øager Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2014-01-01

    Healthy sun habits acquired in childhood could reduce skin cancer incidence. We examined the sun exposure and protection behavior of an expected high-exposure group of children, and the association to their parents. Open, prospective cohort study. One hundred and thirty nine participants (40...... families) kept daily sun behavior diaries (sun exposure, sunscreen use, sunburns) over a 4-month summer period (15,985 diary days). The Pigment Protection Factor (PPF), an objective measure of sun exposure, was measured at two body sites, before and after summer. All participants presented data from...... the same 115 days. Risk behavior (sun exposure of upper body) took place on 9.5 days (boys) and 15.6 days (girls). Sunburn and sunscreen use were infrequent. Boys' sun exposure resulted in an increased photo protection over the study period of 1.7 SED (upper arm) and 0.8 SED (shoulder) to elicit erythema...

  7. Sun exposure and sun protection practices of children and their parents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, A D

    2009-05-01

    The primary aims of this study were: to estimate sun exposure in hours of children in Cork during the summer months; to examine sun protection measures used by children and their parents and to explore parental knowledge of sun exposure and protection. A cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in June 2006 in primary schools, pre-schools and creches throughout Cork City and County. Parents of 250 children aged less than 12 years were sampled. Mean sun exposure of Cork children was 40.9 hours per week in the summer months, with 77 (46.1%) children developing sunburn. 59.3% of the studied children were of skin type 1 or 2. 95 (57%) children on weekdays and 137 (82%) children at weekends were exposed to the sun between 11 am and 3 pm. Sunscreen and hats\\/caps were the most common protection measures used. A minority used protective clothing, sunglasses or sought shade. Thirty one (30.5%) children had sunscreen reapplied every 2 hours. Knowledge of sun protection was considerable among Irish parents. However the frequency of sunburn among Irish children suggests we are not providing them with adequate sun protection.

  8. The risks and benefits of sun exposure 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, David G.; Berwick, Marianne; de Gruijl, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Public health authorities in the United States are recommending that men, women and children reduce their exposure to sunlight, based on concerns that this exposure will promote skin cancer. On the other hand, data show that increasing numbers of Americans suffer from vitamin D deficiencies and serious health problems caused by insufficient sun exposure. The body of science concerning the benefits of moderate sun exposure is growing rapidly, and is causing a different perception of sun/UV as it relates to human health. Melanoma and its relationship to sun exposure and sunburn is not adequately addressed in most of the scientific literature. Reports of favorable health outcomes related to adequate serum 25(OH)D concentration or vitamin D supplementation have been inappropriately merged, so that benefits of sun exposure other than production of vitamin D are not adequately described. This review of recent studies and their analyses consider the risks and benefits of sun exposure which indicate that insufficient sun exposure is an emerging public health problem. This review considers the studies that have shown a wide range health benefits from sun/UV exposure. These benefits include among others various types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer disease/dementia, myopia and macular degeneration, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. The message of sun avoidance must be changed to acceptance of non-burning sun exposure sufficient to achieve serum 25(OH)D concentration of 30 ng/mL or higher in the sunny season and the general benefits of UV exposure beyond those of vitamin D. PMID:27942349

  9. Sun protecting and sun exposing behaviors: testing their relationship simultaneously with indicators of ultraviolet exposure among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melinda; Caputi, Peter; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build on existing understanding of adolescent sun-related behavior by combining sun protecting and sun exposing behaviors and testing their relationship simultaneously with indicators of ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Data were collected for 692 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years. General linear modeling was undertaken to test the relationship of sun-related behaviors with indicators of UV exposure. Overall, the combined sun protection and sun exposing behaviors accounted for 13.8% of the variance in the number of sunburns, 28.1% of the variance in current tan and 57.5% of the variance in desired tan, respectively. Results indicated that having a strong desire for a tan was significantly associated with spending time tanning, delaying the use of sun protection, wearing brief clothing and using no sun protection; whereas the number of sunburns was significantly associated with sunscreen use, avoiding peak hours and delaying sun protection. Current tan was significantly associated with wearing sunglasses, shade use and time spent tanning. In examining sun-related behaviors among adolescents, consideration needs to be given to both sun exposing and sun protecting behaviors. This research has important implications for conceptualizing outcomes in programs designed to reduce UV exposure.

  10. Sun exposure patterns of urban, suburban, and rural children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sun exposure is the main etiology of skin cancer. Differences in skin cancer incidence have been observed between rural and urban populations. OBJECTIVES: As sun exposure begins in childhood, we examined summer UVR exposure doses and sun behavior in children resident in urban, suburban......, and rural areas. METHODS: Personal, electronic UVR dosimeters and sun behavior diaries were used during a summer (3.5 months) by 150 children (4-19 years of age) resident in urban, suburban, and rural areas. RESULTS: On school/kindergarten days rural children spent more time outdoors and received higher UVR...... doses than urban and suburban children (rural: median 2.3 h per day, median 0.9 SED per day, urban: median 1.3 h per day, median 0.3 SED per day, suburban: median 1.5 h per day, median 0.4 SED per day) (p ≤ 0.007). Urban and suburban children exhibited a more intermittent sun exposure pattern than rural...

  11. Sun Exposure and Reduced Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The association between red hair color (RHC melanocortin 1 receptor genotype, past environmental sun exposure, and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS was investigated in a population-based case-control study in Tasmania, Australia, involving 136 cases with MS and 272 controls.

  12. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  13. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  14. Sun meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  15. The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Essential for life on earth and a major influence on our environment, the Sun is also the most fascinating object in the daytime sky. Every day we feel the effect of its coming and going – literally the difference between day and night. But figuring out what the Sun is, what it’s made of, why it glows so brightly, how old it is, how long it will last – all of these take thought and observation. Leon Golub and Jay M. Pasachoff offer an engaging and informative account of what scientists know about the Sun, and the history of these discoveries. Solar astronomers have studied the Sun over the centuries both for its intrinsic interest and in order to use it as a laboratory to reveal the secrets of other stars. The authors discuss the surface of the Sun, including sunspots and their eleven-year cycle, as well as the magnetism that causes them; the Sun’s insides, as studied mainly from seismic waves that astronomers record on its surface; the outer layers of the Sun that we see from Earth only at eclipses ...

  16. Midnight sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunger, A.P.; Lambert, S.B.; Gagnon, M.P.

    1990-09-01

    Midnight Sun, the University of Waterloo's solar-electric car, was designed and built by about 30 engineering, kinesiology and physics students for the GM Sunrayce USA held in July 1990. The car measures 2 m by 4.2 m, weighs 224 kg, can collect about 1000 W of solar electricity in full sun, and had a top speed of 79 km/h. The race took 11 days to cover the 1644 miles from the Epcot Center in Lake Buena Vista, Florida to the GM Technical Center in Warren, Michigan. Thirty-two cars, powered only by solar energy, competed in this race. Midnight Sun showed its potential during the race qualifying runs by completing the required qualifying course with the 12th fastest time of 52.83 seconds, and the 6th fastest trap speed of 63 km/h. During the Sunrayce, Midnight Sun came in second on day 1 of the race, tenth on day 6, and eighth on day 7, and was one of only 17 solar cars that were able to make it up the toughest hill in the race on day 8. The most serious problems encountered by the car were a weak rear suspension, power losses, and failure of bypass diodes in the photovoltaic array. Midnight Sun was in 17th place overall at the end of day 9. At about 11:00 am on day 10 in Ohio, the Waterloo car was moving at 60 km/h when it was bumped off the road by an out of control pickup truck. The solar car driver was not hurt. Despite the difficulties, the next day Midnight Sun was repaired and driven across the finish line at the ceremonial finish. After receiving time penalties for not completing the last day and a half of the race, Midnight Sun was awarded 24th place with an official cumulative time of 114 h 37 min 15 s. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Little Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  18. Little sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  19. Measuring sun exposure in epidemiological studies: Matching the method to the research question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura; Xiang, Fan; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Lucas, Robyn M

    2015-12-01

    Sun exposure has risks and benefits for health. Testing these associations requires tools for measuring sun exposure that are feasible and relevant to the time-course of the health outcome. Recent sun exposure, e.g. the last week, is best captured by dosimeters and sun diaries. These can also be used for medium-term sun exposure e.g. over several weeks, but incur a high participant burden. Self-reported data on "typical time outdoors" for working and non-working days, is less detailed and not influenced by day-to-day variation. Over a longer period, e.g. the lifetime, or for particular life stages, proxies of sun exposure, such as latitude of residence or ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels (from satellites or ground-level monitoring) can be used, with additional detail provided by lifetime sun exposure calendars that include locations of residence, usual time outdoors, and detail of sunburn episodes. Objective measures of lifetime sun exposure include microtopography of sun-exposed skin (e.g. using silicone casts) or conjunctival UV autofluorescence. Potential modifiers of the association between sun exposure and the health outcome, such as clothing coverage and skin colour, may also need to be measured. We provide a systematic approach to selecting sun exposure measures for use in epidemiological health research.

  20. Sun Proof

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the harmful effects of the sun and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 10/23/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/23/2012.

  1. Sun Protection Policies of Australian Primary Schools in a Region of High Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S. L.; Garzón-Chavez, D. R.; Nikles, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP…

  2. [Skin, sun exposure and vitamin D: facts and controversies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leccia, M-T

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin D plays a clearly defined role in phosphorus, calcium and bone metabolism. In addition to its effects on cellular proliferation and differentiation, and on immunity, it appears to exert other action, poorly understood to date, on human physiology and disease. A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated a protective role of sun exposure with regard to the incidence of certain immune diseases and cancer, and upon the related mortality rates. Furthermore, over the last 10 years, studies have purported to find levels judged "inadequate" in numerous populations, and, in the absence of any strict scientific arguments, a correlation was established by certain authors between supposedly "inadequate" levels, sun exposure and risk of cancer. However, analysis of the literature shows that there is in fact no precise and consensual definition of normal ranges and that the notion of inadequacy was created artificially using assay techniques lacking in sensitivity and reproducibility. Photosynthesis of vitamin D can in fact be considered perfectly adequate in the majority of populations. However, greater care is needed with elderly subjects and with subjects exposed very little to sunlight. Current studies show that the means of photoprotection used in everyday life do not adversely affect such photosynthesis. In the event of documented vitamin D deficiency, oral supplements should be given, and exposure to natural or artificial UV radiation should not be prescribed. Ultraviolet radiation has been shown to be carcinogenic and responsible for the onset of most skin cancers, and the population must be warned against misleading advertising from the tanning industry. Care should also be taken with regard to the potential harmful effects of inappropriate vitamin D supplementation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Dissemination of go sun smart in outdoor recreation: effect of program exposure on sun protection of guests at high-altitude ski areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkosz, Barbara J; Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Scott, Michael D; Dignan, Mark B; Cutter, Gary R; Liu, Xia; Maloy, Julie A

    2014-09-01

    Go Sun Smart is a theory-based health communication program designed to influence sun-protection behaviors of employees and guests at high-altitude ski areas to reduce skin cancer risk. The effects of Go Sun Smart, in a Phase IV dissemination randomized posttest-only trial, on sun-protection behaviors of ski area guests are reported. Program use was assessed by on-site observation and guest message exposure, and sun protection was measured in intercept surveys at ski areas. Dissemination strategy-enhanced versus basic-was not significantly related to sun safety practices. Additional analyses examined the relation between message exposure and guests' sun safety practices. Ski areas displaying at least 6 Go Sun Smart materials in guest-only areas and 9 Go Sun Smart materials throughout the area increased guests' message exposure. Higher message exposure within the high-use ski areas was associated with improved sun protection by guests but not within the low-use ski areas. The authors underscore the importance of program implementation and message exposure on the success of evidence-based health communication efforts applied industrywide.

  4. Occupational sun exposure and risk of melanoma according to anatomical site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Kylie; McGeechan, Kevin; Armstrong, Bruce K; Cust, Anne E

    2014-06-01

    Although sunburn and intermittent sun exposures are associated with increased melanoma risk, most studies have found null or inverse associations between occupational (more continuous pattern) sun exposure and melanoma risk. The association of melanoma with occupational sun exposure may differ according to anatomical site, with some studies finding a positive association with melanoma on the head and neck. We examined the association between occupational sun exposure (self-reported weekday sun exposure) and melanoma risk according to anatomical site, using data from two multicentre population-based case-control studies: the Australian Melanoma Family Study (588 cases, 472 controls) and the Genes, Environment and Melanoma study (GEM; 1079 cases, 2,181 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for potential confounders. Occupational sun exposure was not positively associated with melanoma risk overall or at different body sites in both studies. The GEM study found inverse associations between occupational sun exposure and melanoma on the head and neck [OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.56, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.36-0.86, ptrend 0.02], and between the proportion of total sun exposure occurring on weekdays and melanoma on the upper limbs (OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.66, 95% CI 0.42-1.02, ptrend 0.03). Our results suggest that occupational sun exposure does not increase risk of melanoma, even of melanomas situated on the head and neck. This finding seemed not to be due to negative confounding of occupational sun exposure by weekend sun.

  5. Measuring sun exposure habits and sun protection behaviour using a comprehensive scoring instrument--an illustration of a possible model based on Likert scale scorings and on estimation of readiness to increase sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M; Anderson, C D

    2012-08-01

    Few attempts to present a comprehensive scoring instrument for sun exposure and protection have been made. The present paper aims to describe a possible set of questions suitable for such an instrument, comprising the most important aspects of sun exposure and protection. The material from a previously performed intervention study, using a questionnaire based on Likert scales and on the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change (TTM), was utilised. 213 primary healthcare patients filled in the questionnaire and were randomised into two groups receiving sun protection advice, in Group 1 in letter-form, and in Group 2 orally during a doctor's consultation. In the original study, increased sun protection/readiness to increase sun protection was demonstrated for several items in Group 2, at six months. To compose a comprehensive scoring instrument, five questions concerning sun exposure/protection (intentional tanning, sunscreen use, choice of SPF, number of occasions with sunburn, and time spent in the sun at midday), were selected to give a 20 point behavioural score. Similarly, four TTM-based questions (giving up sunbathing, using clothes for sun protection, using sunscreens, and staying in the shade) gave a 16 point "propensity-to-change"-score. At follow-up, increased sun protection reflected in the behavioural score occurred only in Group 2 (p Likert scale behavioural score with a TTM-based propensity-to-change-score seems promising for the creation of a questionnaire-based, comprehensive scoring instrument for sun exposure and protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Local Adaptation of Sun-Exposure-Dependent Gene Expression Regulation in Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Ryosuke; Fraser, Hunter B.

    2016-01-01

    Sun-exposure is a key environmental variable in the study of human evolution. Several skin-pigmentation genes serve as classical examples of positive selection, suggesting that sun-exposure has significantly shaped worldwide genomic variation. Here we investigate the interaction between genetic variation and sun-exposure, and how this impacts gene expression regulation. Using RNA-Seq data from 607 human skin samples, we identified thousands of transcripts that are differentially expressed between sun-exposed skin and non-sun-exposed skin. We then tested whether genetic variants may influence each individual’s gene expression response to sun-exposure. Our analysis revealed 10 sun-exposure-dependent gene expression quantitative trait loci (se-eQTLs), including genes involved in skin pigmentation (SLC45A2) and epidermal differentiation (RASSF9). The allele frequencies of the RASSF9 se-eQTL across diverse populations correlate with the magnitude of solar radiation experienced by these populations, suggesting local adaptation to varying levels of sunlight. These results provide the first examples of sun-exposure-dependent regulatory variation and suggest that this variation has contributed to recent human adaptation. PMID:27760139

  7. Sun behaviour and personal UVR exposure among Europeans on short term holidays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Maier, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be the main cause of skin cancer, the incidence of which is rising with national differences across Europe. With this observation study we aimed to determine the impact of nationality on sun behaviour and personal UVR exposure on sun and ski holidays....... 25 Danish and 20 Spanish sun-seekers were observed during a sun holiday in Spain, and 26 Danish and 27 Austrian skiers were observed during a ski holiday in Austria. The participants recorded their location and clothing in diaries. Personal time-logged UVR data were recorded as standard erythema...... doses (SEDs) by an electronic UVR dosimeter worn on the wrist. Danish sun-seekers were outdoors for significantly longer, received significant higher percentages of ambient UVR, and received greater accumulated UVR doses than Spanish sun-seekers. Danish skiers were also outdoors for significantly longer...

  8. Sun Exposure Guidelines and Serum Vitamin D Status in Denmark: The StatusD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Tjønneland, Anne; Køster, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how vitamin D status is affected by adherence to UVB-limiting sun exposure guidelines. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between adherence to the Danish sun exposure guidelines and vitamin D status. In total, 3194 Danes (2625 adults, 569 children) were recruited among...... who did not had an OR (95% CI) of 1.68 (1.25-2.35) of having ≥50 nmol/L during both spring and autumn. No associations were found with wearing a sunhat, and there were no clear associations for children. In conclusion, adherence to the sun exposure guidelines on shade and protective clothing...

  9. Novel approach to analysing large data sets of personal sun exposure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesić, Suzana M; Stratimirović, Đorđe I; Ajtić, Jelena V; Wright, Caradee Y; Allen, Martin W

    2016-11-01

    Personal sun exposure measurements provide important information to guide the development of sun awareness and disease prevention campaigns. We assess the scaling properties of personal ultraviolet radiation (pUVR) sun exposure measurements using the wavelet transform (WT) spectral analysis to process long-range, high-frequency personal recordings collected by electronic UVR dosimeters designed to measure erythemal UVR exposure. We analysed the sun exposure recordings of school children, farmers, marathon runners and outdoor workers in South Africa, and construction workers and work site supervisors in New Zealand. We found scaling behaviour in all the analysed pUVR data sets. We found that the observed scaling changes from uncorrelated to long-range correlated with increasing duration of sun exposure. Peaks in the WT spectra that we found suggest the existence of characteristic times in sun exposure behaviour that were to some extent universal across our data set. Our study also showed that WT measures enable group classification, as well as distinction between individual UVR exposures, otherwise unattainable by conventional statistical methods.

  10. Culture and sun exposure in immigrant East Asian women living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Haeyoung; Koo, Fung Kuen; Ke, Liang; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Fraser, David R; Seibel, Marcus J; Tseng, Marilyn; Mpofu, Elias; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, researchers examined cultural and attitudinal factors that might be related to sun-exposure behaviors among East Asian women living in Australia. Researchers asked Chinese (n = 20) and Korean (n = 16) immigrant women who participated in a larger cross-sectional quantitative study of vitamin D blood levels to volunteer to participate in an in-depth interview in 2010. These women reported a number of cultural factors related to their attitudes and behaviors with regard to sun exposure. They expressed preference for fair skin, a tradition of covering skin when outdoors, and no sunbathing culture. They believed that fair skin was more beautiful than tanned skin. They reported that beauty was the reason for active avoidance of sunlight exposure. Although they reported knowledge of the need for sun avoidance due to skin cancer risk, few reported knowledge about the benefits of sun exposure for adequate vitamin D levels. These findings may provide some reasons for vitamin D deficiency previously reported in these populations. Thus, researchers recommend that these attitudes of excessive sun protection and limiting sun exposure be further investigated as they may have implications for planning and delivery of health promotion programs to this growing population of immigrants in Australia.

  11. Sun exposure behaviours, attitudes and protection practices among Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University Students- A survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman Bahakim, Nasr Addin; Alanazi, Bader Ghanem; Alead, Mohammed Yousef; Alaql, Abdulrahman Bader; Al-Ogail, Nasser Abdulla; Alghulaydhawi, Fahad Abdullah

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate sun exposure behaviours, sun protection practices, general knowledge, attitudes and awareness of University students about the benefits of sun exposure and harmful effects of too much or avoidance of sun exposure. This cross-sectional survey study was conducted in December 2014 and January2015 at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice closed questions was used. Sample was collected using cluster sampling method. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Of the 399 participants, 200(50.1%) were men and 199(49.9%) were women. The overall mean age was 21±1.82years (range: 18-30 years). Moreover, 217(54.4%) participants intentionally exposed themselves to sun. Spending summer holidays in coastal areas was reported by 150(37.6%). Sunglasses were used by 161(40.4%) participants. Besides, 274(68.7%) participants agreed that sun exposure of 5 to 10 minutes for two or three times per week was very important; 189(47.4%) were aware of the importance of sun exposure for child health. 165(66%), knew that too much sun exposure was harmful and might cause skin cancer. Most of the participants were aware of both beneficial effects of the appropriate sun exposure and harmful effects of too much exposure or its avoidance. However, proper sun exposure practices and sun protection practices need further guidance and encouragements from health-promoting programmes.

  12. Imputating missing values in diary records of sun-exposure study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Larsen, Jan

    2001-01-01

    In a sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning sun-habits were collected from 195 subjects. This paper focuses on the general problem of missing data values, which occurs when some, or even all of the questions have not been answered in a questionnaire. Here, only missing values of low concen...... concentration are investigated. We consider and compare two different models for imputating missing values: the Gaussian model and the non-parametric K-nearest neighbor model....

  13. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  14. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  15. Sun Exposure and Its Effects on Human Health: Mechanisms through Which Sun Exposure Could Reduce the Risk of Developing Obesity and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Naomi; Geldenhuys, Sian; Gorman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant burden on global healthcare due to its high prevalence and associations with chronic health conditions. In our animal studies, ongoing exposure to low dose ultraviolet radiation (UVR, found in sunlight) reduced weight gain and the development of signs of cardiometabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high fat diet. These observations suggest that regular exposure to safe levels of sunlight could be an effective means of reducing the burden of obesity. However, there is limited knowledge around the nature of associations between sun exposure and the development of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction, and we do not know if sun exposure (independent of outdoor activity) affects the metabolic processes that determine obesity in humans. In addition, excessive sun exposure has strong associations with a number of negative health consequences such as skin cancer. This means it is very important to “get the balance right” to ensure that we receive benefits without increasing harm. In this review, we detail the evidence around the cardiometabolic protective effects of UVR and suggest mechanistic pathways through which UVR could be beneficial. PMID:27727191

  16. Sun Exposure and Its Effects on Human Health: Mechanisms through Which Sun Exposure Could Reduce the Risk of Developing Obesity and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Fleury

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant burden on global healthcare due to its high prevalence and associations with chronic health conditions. In our animal studies, ongoing exposure to low dose ultraviolet radiation (UVR, found in sunlight reduced weight gain and the development of signs of cardiometabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high fat diet. These observations suggest that regular exposure to safe levels of sunlight could be an effective means of reducing the burden of obesity. However, there is limited knowledge around the nature of associations between sun exposure and the development of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction, and we do not know if sun exposure (independent of outdoor activity affects the metabolic processes that determine obesity in humans. In addition, excessive sun exposure has strong associations with a number of negative health consequences such as skin cancer. This means it is very important to “get the balance right” to ensure that we receive benefits without increasing harm. In this review, we detail the evidence around the cardiometabolic protective effects of UVR and suggest mechanistic pathways through which UVR could be beneficial.

  17. Compliance and data reliability in sun exposure studies with diaries and personal, electronic UV dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2006-04-01

    Skin cancer risk estimations are based on sun exposure data. However, the reliability of collected data in personal ultraviolet (UV) dosimeters studies has not previously been validated. We aimed at investigating the data reliability and subject compliance in a study of sun exposure behaviour among 407 subjects (age range, 4-68 years) during 54 943 days based on time-stamped personal UV dosimeter readings and diary records. By comparing diary records and UV dosimeter readings on a daily basis, we investigated subject compliance, total sun exposure record, reasons for non-responding along with rates of diary completing errors. Efforts to improve compliance were described. The subject compliance rate was median 93.5% (percent days where the diary was completed and the UV dosimeter was worn). The total sun exposure record rate was median 84.1% (percent of participation days with both UV dosimeter and diary records and where the UV dosimeter was worn). Children, adolescents and golfers had lower sun exposure record rates than the rest of the groups (Pdosimeter maintenance service within 24 h and scrutinized data for errors and mistakes.

  18. Using behavioral economics to promote healthy behavior toward sun exposure in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Romero, Maria T; Geller, Alan C; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer represents an important public health problem, and it is associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure, particularly at early ages. Unhealthy sun exposure and intentional tanning continue to be the trend among young people. Multiple interventions to raise awareness of the risks of sun exposure have been implemented, without necessarily translating into decreased unhealthy behaviors or skin cancer incidence rates. Behavioral economics adds a set of concepts and tools to potentially boost the efficacy of existing approaches to decrease unhealthy sun exposure. This paper reviews public health interventions that have been based in behavioral economics concepts and their results, and provides examples of new and creative ways physicians and health professionals can actively apply insights from behavioral economics to counsel teenagers and young adults about skin cancer prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sun's rap song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, M.; Lee, W.

    1995-07-01

    We present a rap song composed for the Sun, our star. This Sun's Rap Song can be utilized in classroom teaching to spark the students' interest and facilitate the students' learning of the relevant subjects.

  20. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  1. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  2. Effect of “Noisy” sun conditions on aircrew radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. J.; Green, A. R.; Bennett, L. G. I.

    2009-07-01

    In computer codes used to estimate the aircrew radiation exposure from galactic cosmic radiation, a quiet sun model is usually assumed. A revised computer code (PCAIRE ver. 8.0f) is used to calculate the impact of noisy sun conditions on aircrew radiation exposure. The revised code incorporates the effect of solar storm activity, which can perturb the geomagnetic field lines, altering cutoff rigidities and hence the shielding capability of the Earth's magnetic field. The effect of typical solar storm conditions on aircrew radiation exposure is shown to be minimal justifying the usual assumptions.

  3. Sun exposure, vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Esther M; Schwartz, Gary G; Koo, Jocelyn; Wang, Wei; Ingles, Sue A

    2007-12-15

    Considerable evidence indicates that vitamin D may reduce the risk of several cancers, including breast cancer. This study examined associations of breast cancer with sun exposure, the principal source of vitamin D, and vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) polymorphisms (FokI, TaqI, BglI) in a population-based case-control study of Hispanic, African-American, and non-Hispanic White women aged 35-79 years from the San Francisco Bay Area of California (1995-2003). In-person interviews were obtained for 1,788 newly diagnosed cases and 2,129 controls. Skin pigmentation measurements were taken on the upper underarm (a sun-protected site that measures constitutive pigmentation) and on the forehead (a sun-exposed site) using reflectometry. Biospecimens were collected for a subset of the study population (814 cases, 910 controls). A high sun exposure index based on reflectometry was associated with reduced risk of advanced breast cancer among women with light constitutive skin pigmentation (odds ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.31, 0.91). The association did not vary with VDR genotype. No associations were found for women with medium or dark pigmentation. Localized breast cancer was not associated with sun exposure or VDR genotype. This study supports the hypothesis that sunlight exposure reduces risk of advanced breast cancer among women with light skin pigmentation.

  4. Seasons by the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Meri-Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the Sun has challenged people since ancient times. Mythology from the Greek, Inuit, and Inca cultures attempted to explain the daily appearance and nightly disappearance of the Sun by relating it to a chariot being chased across the sky. While people no longer believe the Sun is a chariot racing across the sky, teachers are still…

  5. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  6. Interdependence and contributions of sun exposure and vitamin D to MRI measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivadinov, Robert; Treu, Cierra N; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Turner, Caitlin; Bergsland, Niels; O'Connor, Kerri; Dwyer, Michael G; Carl, Ellen; Ramasamy, Deepa P; Qu, Jun; Ramanathan, Murali

    2013-10-01

    To assess the relationships of sun exposure history, supplementation and environmental factors to vitamin D levels in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and to evaluate the associations between sun exposure and MRI measures. This study included 264 MS patients (mean age 46.9±10 years, disease duration 14.6±10 years; 67.8% relapsing-remitting, 28% secondary progressive and 4.2% primary progressive MS) and 69 healthy controls. Subjects underwent neurological and 3 T MRI examinations, provided blood samples and answered questions to a structured questionnaire. Information on race, skin and eye colour, supplement use, body mass index (BMI) and sun exposure was obtained by questionnaire. The vitamin D metabolites (25-hydroxy vitamin D3, 1, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and 24, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3) were measured using mass spectrometry. Multivitamin supplementation (partial correlation r(p)=0.29, psun exposure (r(p)=0.22, p=0.002) and darker eye colour (r(p)=-0.18, p=0.015) had the strongest associations with vitamin D metabolite levels in the MS group. Increased summer sun exposure was associated with increased grey matter volume (GMV, r(p)=0.16, p=0.019) and whole brain volume (WBV, r(p)=0.20, p=0.004) after correcting for Extended Disability Status Scale in the MS group. Inclusion of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 levels did not substantially affect the positive associations of sun exposure with WBV (r(p)=0.18, p=0.003) and GMV (r(p)=0.14, p=0.026) in the MS group. Sun exposure may have direct effects on MRI measures of neurodegeneration in MS, independently of vitamin D.

  7. A Hands-On Activity to Raise Awareness about Healthy Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    João Fonseca, Maria; Costa, Patrício; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes sunburn and has been consistently associated with increased susceptibility to melanoma and skin ageing. Acknowledging the need to promote healthy sun exposure habits, numerous educational initiatives have been developed to raise public awareness towards this issue. However, studies…

  8. Sun Exposure, Shade and Vitamin D: A Practical Activity for the Australian Climate and Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, David; Parisi, Alfio; Downs, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Australia has one of the highest rates of incidence and mortality due to skin cancer in the world. Exposure to the sun also has a beneficial side. The beneficial effects are relatively few, but they are essential to a person's well being. It is well known that exposure to small amounts of UV radiation are beneficial for the human body and…

  9. Sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity associated with disability progression in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hooghe, M B; Haentjens, P; Nagels, G; Garmyn, M; De Keyser, J

    2012-04-01

    Sunlight and vitamin D have been inversely associated with the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity in relation to disability progression in MS. We conducted a survey among persons with MS, registered by the Flemish MS society, Belgium, and stratified data according to relapsing-onset and progressive-onset MS. We used Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses with time to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 6 as outcome measure. Hazard ratios for the time from onset and from birth were calculated for the potentially predictive variables, adjusting for age at onset, gender and immunomodulatory treatment. 704 (51.3%) of the 1372 respondents had reached EDSS 6. In relapsing-onset MS, respondents reporting equal or higher levels of sun exposure than persons of the same age in the last 10 years had a decreased risk of reaching EDSS 6. In progressive-onset MS, increased sun sensitivity was associated with an increased hazard of reaching EDSS 6. The association of higher sun exposure with a better outcome in relapsing-onset MS may be explained by either a protective effect or reverse causality. Mechanisms underlying sun sensitivity might influence progression in progressive-onset MS.

  10. Sunburn related to UV radiation exposure, age, sex, occupation, and sun bed use based on time-stamped personal dosimetry and sun behavior diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter A; Sandby-Møller, Jane; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2005-04-01

    To assess when sunburn occurs and who experiences sunburn by personal UV dosimetry and diaries. Open prospective observational study. University hospital. A convenience sample of 340 Danish volunteers: children, adolescents, indoor workers, sun worshippers, golfers, and gardeners (age range, 4-68 years). Subjects recorded sunburn and sun-exposure behavior in diaries and carried personal, electronic, wristwatch UV radiation (UVR) dosimeters that measured time-stamped UVR doses continuously for a median of 119 days covering 346 sun-years (1 sun-year equals 1 subject participating during 1 summer half-year). A typical sunburn day was a day off work (91%; odds ratio, 4.1) with risk behavior (sunbathing/exposing shoulders) (79%; odds ratio, 15.9) in May, June, or July (90%) for 6.4 exposure hours (interquartile range, 5-7.7 hours), of which 2.8 hours fell between noon and 3 pm. Subjects had a median of 1 sunburn per sun-year; adolescents, sun worshippers, and indoor workers had more than children, golfers, and gardeners (Ppersons had more risk-behavior days and lower skin type (Ppersons. The median UVR doses received were significantly higher on sunburn days than on nonsunburn days with risk behavior (P<.01). There was a significant correlation between sunburn size and severity; sunburn and sunscreen use; and sunburn and sun-bed use (P<.01 for all 3 comparisons). Sunburn was highly correlated with risk behavior. Reduction of risk-behavior days and/or exposure hours around noon can reduce sunburn. Sunburn was not found during breaks on normal full-time indoor work or school days.

  11. Melanocytic Nevi Prevalence and the Relationship with Sun Exposure Among School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Şendur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Melanocytic nevi (MN count is known as the strongest risk factor for melanoma development. So it is important to know the MN count in public. We aimed to determine the MN prevalence in schoolchildren and also clarify the possible relation between MN counts, constitutional variables and sun exposure. Material and Method: In this randomized, cross-sectional study, a questionnaire asking skin phenotypes and sun exposure in previous summer was prepared for primary-school children. Nine hundred and sixty questionnaires distributed to the parents. Children who were given permission by parents for examination were examined for whole body MN. Results: Questionnaires were answered by parents of 939 children and 622 children (316 boys and 306 girls were examined. Mean age of children was 8.8±1.5 (6-12. Mean MN count was 19.6±16.6 and this count was increasing with age (p<0.001. MN count was significantly related with sex, skin phototype and skin colour. More MN were found in boys (p<0.001, children with sun sensitive phototypes (p=0.03 and light skin colour (p<0.001. Time spent outside on midday in previous summer was not related with the MN count (p=0.35. Sunburns experienced in previous summer were not related with MN count (p=0.11. MN were most densely located on the face, and then on upper extremity, trunk and lower extremity in decreasing order. There were more MN on the more sun exposed sites of the arms, hands and feet. Conclusion: It was found that previous summer sun exposure had no effect on MN count in schoolchildren. However, relation between MN count and skin phenotype and distribution of the MN on the body suggest that sun exposure could affect MN count and this effect could be seen in a long period of time.

  12. Skin cancer knowledge, attitude and behavior towards sun exposure among young adults in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Laniauskaitė

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to assess young adult's knowledge about skin cancer and it’s risk factors, attitude towards sun exposure and the interactions of various behaviors in the sun.Material and methods: The anonymous questionnaire-based inquiry of 750 respondents was created according to the anonymous form filled-in during the annual Euromelanoma Day campaign. Results: 708 questionnaires were filled-in correctly: 328 (46.3% by men, 380 (53.7% by women. Median of age was 21 (women – 22, men – 21. During the sunny days 93.2% of respondents sometimes seek shade, 17.5% of young adults never try to get a tan from 11a.m. to 3p.m. Sunglasses are worn in 52.4% of cases, however 63.1% of them with UV filters. 8,1% of respondents always wear T-shirts, 30.6% cover head in the beach. While sun-bathing one third (32.9% wear sun protection cream, while working or doing sports outdoors – 8.9%. Majority (57.4% apply sun protection cream when coming to the beach, 31.4% of them don't use it repeatedly. Those who knew, what is melanoma, were more likely to wear sunglasses (p=0.003 with UV filters (p=0.006, T-shirts (p=0.046, covered head (p<0.0001 and seeked shadow (p=0.002 on the beach; used sun protection cream while working ≥1 hour outdoors (p=0.001 or sunbathing (p<0.0001, and choosed a sun protection cream according to SPF value (p<0.0001.Conclusion: The data of this study showed that respondents behave careless in the sun. One third of respondents always wear sun protection cream, the majority do not know how to use it properly. More responsible behavior in the sun depends on better knowledge of skin cancer.

  13. Sun exposure, skin color and vitamin D status in Arab children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Khan, Nasiruddin; Sabico, Shaun; Aljohani, Naji; Alfawaz, Hanan; Alsulaimani, Maha; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M; Alokail, Majed S

    2016-11-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East and North African countries. Sunlight has long been recognized as a major provider of vitamin D and lighter skin color has been associated with better vitamin D status. In this context, we aimed to determine whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D[25-(OH)D] concentrations are related to skin color, sun exposure and gender among healthy Saudi children and adults. A total of 808 Saudi children (age=14.6±0.04years) and 561 (age=31.4±0.3years) adults of both genders were included in this study. Levels of sun exposure and skin color were determined using a standard questionnaire. Anthropometry and plasma 25-(OH)D concentrations were analyzed. On the basis of duration of sun exposure (20min), a significantly lower concentration of 25-(OH)D (40.9±1.2 vs. 35.5±1.8nmol/l; pcolor on vitamin D status of children or adults, except in dark-skinned boys who had lower 25(OH)D concentrations associated with limited sun exposure.

  14. Sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity associated with disability progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Haentjens, P.; Nagels, G.; Garmyn, M.; De Keyser, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sunlight and vitamin D have been inversely associated with the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: We investigated sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity in relation to disability progression in MS. Methods: We conducted a survey among persons with MS, registered by the Flemish MS

  15. Skin cancer as a marker of sun exposure associates with myocardial infarction, hip fracture and death from any cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Jacobsen, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F;

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is the single most important risk factor for skin cancer, but sun exposure may also have beneficial effects on health. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with skin cancer (non-melanoma skin cancer and cutaneous malignant melanoma) have less myocardial infarction, hip fracture...

  16. Influence of sun exposures during childhood and during adulthood on melanoma risk. EPIMEL and EORTC Melanoma Cooperative Group. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autier, P; Doré, J F

    1998-08-12

    Sun exposure in both childhood and adult life represents the main environmental risk determinant for cutaneous melanoma. However, little is known about the joint effects of sun exposure during early and later life on melanoma risk. A case-control study in Belgium, Germany and France conducted in 1991-1992 suggests that the melanoma risks attached to indicators related to sun exposure appear to combine their effects in an additive way. We therefore constructed composite indices of sun exposure during childhood and during adulthood, assuming additive combinations of melanoma risk associated with each indicator of sun exposure. Logistic regression modeling showed that the melanoma risk associated with a given level of sun exposure during adulthood increased with higher sun exposure during childhood, but the increase in risk was higher than the simple addition of melanoma risk associated with sun exposure during childhood or adulthood. In turn, high sun exposure during childhood constituted a significant risk factor for melanoma only if there was substantial sun exposure during adult life. We thus suggest that sun exposure during childhood and during adulthood would be interdependent as far as their impact on melanoma risk is concerned. Our results support the hypothesis by which the important contribution of sun exposure during childhood in melanoma occurrence is not properly assessed by retrospective epidemiologic studies. Sun avoidance during childhood would have a greater impact on melanoma risk than sun avoidance during adulthood.

  17. Assessing the impacts of lifetime sun exposure on skin damage and skin aging using a non-invasive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlin, Michael G; Guo, Yuming

    2012-05-15

    Ultraviolet radiation exposure during an individuals' lifetime is a known risk factor for the development of skin cancer. However, less evidence is available on assessing the relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. This study aims to assess the relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging using a non-invasive measure of exposure. We recruited 180 participants (73 males, 107 females) aged 18-83 years. Digital imaging of skin hyperpigmentation (skin damage) and skin wrinkling (skin aging) on the facial region was measured. Lifetime sun exposure (presented as hours) was calculated from the participants' age multiplied by the estimated annual time outdoors for each year of life. We analyzed the effects of lifetime sun exposure on skin damage and skin aging. We adjust for the influence of age, sex, occupation, history of skin cancer, eye color, hair color, and skin color. There were non-linear relationships between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Younger participant's skin is much more sensitive to sun exposure than those who were over 50 years of age. As such, there were negative interactions between lifetime sun exposure and age. Age had linear effects on skin damage and skin aging. The data presented showed that self reported lifetime sun exposure was positively associated with skin damage and skin aging, in particular, the younger people. Future health promotion for sun exposure needs to pay attention to this group for skin cancer prevention messaging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chrysiasis: the role of sun exposure in dermal hyperpigmentation secondary to gold therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, P A; Moatamed, F; Ward, J R; Piepkorn, M W; Adams, E J; Knibbe, W P

    1986-02-01

    To investigate the role of sun exposure in the pathophysiology of chrysiasis, we studied 10 Caucasian female patients with rheumatoid arthritis: 4 with clinically apparent chrysiasis and 6 without apparent pigmentation. Three patients without chrysiasis had received over 4 g of gold and 3 less than one g. The mean melanin score, determined by histological examination of sun exposed and nonsun exposed skin, was significantly higher in the sun exposed skin of the chrysiasis and high dose controls than low dose controls (p less than .05). Concentration of gold measured semiquantitatively by transmission electron microscopy and quantitatively by atomic absorption showed increased gold concentration in sun exposed when compared to nonsun exposed skin of chrysiasis and high dose controls (p = .26). Low dose controls had no gold demonstrated by either method. Our results suggest that gold deposition in the dermis stimulates melain production and that melanin is important in hyperpigmentation of chrysiasis. Furthermore ultraviolet light may induce preferential uptake of gold by the skin.

  19. Assessing the impacts of lifetime sun exposure on skin damage and skin aging using a non-invasive method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimlin, Michael G., E-mail: m.kimlin@qut.edu.au; Guo, Yuming, E-mail: guoyuming@yahoo.cn

    2012-05-15

    Background: Ultraviolet radiation exposure during an individuals' lifetime is a known risk factor for the development of skin cancer. However, less evidence is available on assessing the relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Objectives: This study aims to assess the relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging using a non-invasive measure of exposure. Methods: We recruited 180 participants (73 males, 107 females) aged 18-83 years. Digital imaging of skin hyperpigmentation (skin damage) and skin wrinkling (skin aging) on the facial region was measured. Lifetime sun exposure (presented as hours) was calculated from the participants' age multiplied by the estimated annual time outdoors for each year of life. We analyzed the effects of lifetime sun exposure on skin damage and skin aging. We adjust for the influence of age, sex, occupation, history of skin cancer, eye color, hair color, and skin color. Results: There were non-linear relationships between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Younger participant's skin is much more sensitive to sun exposure than those who were over 50 years of age. As such, there were negative interactions between lifetime sun exposure and age. Age had linear effects on skin damage and skin aging. Conclusion: The data presented showed that self reported lifetime sun exposure was positively associated with skin damage and skin aging, in particular, the younger people. Future health promotion for sun exposure needs to pay attention to this group for skin cancer prevention messaging. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first study finding the non-linear relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study finds there is negative interaction between lifetime sun exposure and age for skin damage and aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study suggests that future

  20. Sun-Earth Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  1. Protein Characterization of Javan Cobra (Naja sputatrix) Venom Following Sun Exposure and Photo-Oxidation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyani; Biki, R. S.; Andrianto, D.

    2017-03-01

    Snake venom has always been known for its toxicity that can cause fatality, however, it is also one of the important biological resources to be used for disease treatment. In Indonesia, snake venom previously expose under the sun has been used for alternative treatment of some diseases such as dengue fever, atherosclerosis, cancer, and diabetes. There has been very little scientific evidence on the use of snake venom of Indonesia origin as well as its protein characteristic. Thus, the objective of this research is to characterize the protein content and the specific activity of the venom of Javan Cobra (N.sputatrix) when treated with sun exposure in comparison with photo-oxidation by ultraviolet. Qualitative analysis of protein contents was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE). The L-amino acid oxidase activity (LAAO) and the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities were determined using spectrophotometry. The venom’s protein was separated into 5 main protein bands with molecular weight ranging from 14 to 108 kDa. A time course study showed that the venom lost 91% of its LAAO activity and 96% of PLA2 activity after 6 hours of sun exposure. UV photo-oxidation carried out for 3 hours decreased 91% of LAAO activity, and almost diminished all of PLA2 activity (99.8%). These findings suggest that the exposure of N. sputatrix venom under the sun and UV photo-oxidation decreased its toxicity as shown by the significant reduction of the enzymes activity, but did not affect the protein’s integrity. Therefore, these approaches produced N.sputatrix venom with less toxicity but still withheld other characters of intact proteins.

  2. Sun and Sjogren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet The Sun and Sjögren’s Syndrome The SSF thanks Mona Z. Mofid, MD, FAAD, Diplomate, American Board of Dermatology, and Medical Director, American Melanoma Foundation, San Diego, California, ...

  3. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48% compared to females (46%. Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Why Study the Sun?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind Bhatnagar

    2006-06-01

    In this presentation we briefly describe the Sun through large number of illustrations and pictures of the Sun taken from early times to the present day space missions. The importance of the study of the Sun is emphasized as it is the nearest star which presents unparallelled views of surface details and numerous phenomena. Our Sun offers a unique celestial laboratory where a large variety of phenomena take place, ranging in temporal domain from a few milliseconds to several decades, in spatial domain from a few hundred kilometers to thousands of kilometers, and in the temperature domain from a few thousand degrees to several million degrees. Its mass motion ranges from thousandths to thousands of kilometers per second. Such an object provides us with a unique laboratory to study the state of matter in the Universe. The existing solar ground-based and space missions have already revealed several mysteries of the outer environment of our Sun and much more is going to come in the near future from planned new sophisticated ground-based solar telescopes and Space missions. The new technique of helioseismology has unravelled many secrets of the solar interior and has put the Standard Solar Model (SSM) on firm footing. The long-standing problem of solar neutrinos has been recently sorted out, and even the ‘back side’ view of the Sun can be seen using the technique of holographic helioseismology.

  5. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  6. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofiak, Hubert; Mlynczak, Marcel; Gaczynska, Ewa; Ziemba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure) and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in the years 2010–2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD—outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND—weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN—track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL—track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OH)D < 30 ng/ml) and were supplemented orally. Inadequate Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral

  7. Lessons from the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this brief note, the implications of a condensed Sun will be examined. A celestial body composed of liquid metallic hydrogen brings great promise to astronomy, relative to understanding thermal emission and solar structure. At the same time, as an incom- pressible liquid, a condensed Sun calls into question virtually everything which is cur- rently believed with respect to the evolution and nature of the stars. Should the Sun be condensed, then neutron stars and white dwarfs will fail to reach the enormous densities they are currently believed to possess. Much of cosmology also falls into question, as the incompressibility of matter curtails any thought that a primordial atom once existed. Aging stars can no longer collapse and black holes will know no formative mechanism. A condensed Sun also hints that great strides must still be made in understanding the nature of liquids. The Sun has revealed that liquids possess a much greater potential for lattice order than previously believed. In addition, lessons may be gained with regards to the synthesis of liquid metallic hydrogen and the use of condensed matter as the basis for initiating fusion on Earth.

  8. Sun Exposure Guidelines and Serum Vitamin D Status in Denmark: The StatusD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Hansen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known on how vitamin D status is affected by adherence to UVB-limiting sun exposure guidelines. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between adherence to the Danish sun exposure guidelines and vitamin D status. In total, 3194 Danes (2625 adults, 569 children were recruited among the general population, and more than 92% had blood samples taken both autumn and spring. Using linear regression, we associated serum vitamin D concentrations to questionnaire responses on: seeking shade, wearing a sunhat, wearing protective clothing or using sunscreen. The odds ratio (OR of either low (<25 or 50 nmol/L or adequate/high (≥50 nmol/L vitamin D status was examined using logistic regression. For adults, those who always sought shade or wore protective clothing compared to those who did not had lower levels of vitamin D (autumn concentrations for shade: 7.2 nmol/L lower (−11.0–−3.6 nmol/L; for protective clothing: 9.9 nmol/L lower (−13.6–−6.2 nmol/L. Adherence to all four guidelines was also associated with lower vitamin D concentrations (autumn: 9.7 nmol/L lower (−14.3–−5.1 nmol/L. Use of sunscreen was associated with adequate vitamin D status, as those who always sought shade compared to those who did not had an OR (95% CI of 1.68 (1.25–2.35 of having ≥50 nmol/L during both spring and autumn. No associations were found with wearing a sunhat, and there were no clear associations for children. In conclusion, adherence to the sun exposure guidelines on shade and protective clothing was associated with lower vitamin D status among Danish adults, but not children.

  9. SFDT-1 Camera Pointing and Sun-Exposure Analysis and Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph; Dutta, Soumyo; Striepe, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) vehicle was developed to advance and test technologies of NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Technology Demonstration Mission. The first flight test (SFDT-1) occurred on June 28, 2014. In order to optimize the usefulness of the camera data, analysis was performed to optimize parachute visibility in the camera field of view during deployment and inflation and to determine the probability of sun-exposure issues with the cameras given the vehicle heading and launch time. This paper documents the analysis, results and comparison with flight video of SFDT-1.

  10. Magnetohydrodynamics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Priest, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics of the Sun is a completely new up-to-date rewrite from scratch of the 1982 book Solar Magnetohydrodynamics, taking account of enormous advances in understanding since that date. It describes the subtle and complex interaction between the Sun's plasma atmosphere and its magnetic field, which is responsible for many fascinating dynamic phenomena. Chapters cover the generation of the Sun's magnetic field by dynamo action, magnetoconvection and the nature of photospheric flux tubes such as sunspots, the heating of the outer atmosphere by waves or reconnection, the structure of prominences, the nature of eruptive instability and magnetic reconnection in solar flares and coronal mass ejections, and the acceleration of the solar wind by reconnection or wave-turbulence. It is essential reading for graduate students and researchers in solar physics and related fields of astronomy, plasma physics and fluid dynamics. Problem sets and other resources are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521854719.

  11. The Sun's Supergranulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The Sun's supergranulation refers to a physical pattern covering the surface of the quiet Sun with a typical horizontal scale of approximately 30000km. Its most noticeable observable signature is as a fluctuating velocity field whose components are mostly horizontal. Supergranulation was discovered more than fifty years ago, however explaining why and how it originates still represents one of the main challenges of modern solar physics. A lot of work has been devoted to the subject over the years, but observational constraints, conceptual difficulties and numerical limitations have all concurred to prevent a detailed understanding of the supergranulation phenomenon so far. With the advent of 21st century supercomputing resources and the availability of unprecedented high-resolution observations of the Sun, the solar community has now reached a stage at which key progress can be made on this question. A unifying strategy between observations and modeling is more than ever required for this to be possible. The ...

  12. Sun, Earth and Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1995-01-01

    The Sun is enveloped by a hot, tenuous million-degree corona that expands to create a continuous solar wind that sweeps past all the planets and fills the heliosphere. The solar wind is modulated by strong gusts that are initiated by powerful explosions on the Sun, including solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This dynamic, invisible outer atmosphere of the Sun is currently under observation with the soft X-ray telescope aboard the Yohkoh spacecraft, whose results are presented. We also show observations from the Ulysses spacecraft that is now passing over the solar pole, sampling the solar wind in this region for the first time. Two other spacecraft, Voyager 1 and 2, have recently detected the outer edge of the invisible heliosphere, roughly halfway to the nearest star. Magnetic solar activity, the total radiative output from the Sun, and the Earth's mean global surface temperature all vary with the 11-year sunspot cycle in which the total number of sunspots varies from a maximum to a minimum and back to a maximum again in about 11 years. The terrestrial magnetic field hollows out a protective magnetic cavity, called the magnetosphere, within the solar wind. This protection is incomplete, however, so the Sun feeds an unseen world of high-speed particles and magnetic fields that encircle the Earth in space. These particles endanger spacecraft and astronauts, and also produce terrestrial aurorae. An international flotilla of spacecraft is now sampling the weak points in this magnetic defense. Similar spacecraft have also discovered a new radiation belt, in addition to the familiar Van Allen belts, except fed by interstellar ions instead of electrons and protons from the Sun.

  13. Piece of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Our rapidly industrialising world has an insatiable hunger for energy, and conventional sources are struggling to meet demand. Oil is running out, coal is damaging our climate, many nations are abandoning nuclear, yet solar, wind and water will never be a complete replacement. The solution, says Daniel Clery in this deeply researched and revelatory book, is to be found in the original energy source: the Sun itself. There, at its centre, the fusion of 630 million tonnes of hydrogen every second generates an unfathomable amount of energy. By replicating even a tiny piece of the Sun's power

  14. Near-Sun asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'yanenko, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    As follows from dynamical studies, in the course of evolution, most near-Earth objects reach orbits with small perihelion distances. Changes of the asteroids in the vicinity of the Sun should play a key role in forming the physical properties, size distribution, and dynamical features of the near-Earth objects. Only seven of the discovered asteroids are currently moving along orbits with perihelion distances q orbits farther from the Sun. In this study, we found asteroids that have been recently orbiting with perihelion distances q orbits for hundreds to tens of thousands of years. To carry out astrophysical observations of such objects is a high priority.

  15. The SUN S TRAVELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Louis; Stevenson

    2005-01-01

    The sun is not a-bed, when I At night upon my pillow lie; Stilt round the earth his Way he takes, And morning after morning makes. White here at home, in shining day, We round the sunny garden play, Each tittle Indian sleepy - head Is being kissed and put to bed. And When at eve I rise from tea, Day dawns beyond the Atlantic Sea; And all the children in the West Are getting up and being dressed.The SUN'S TRAVELS@Robert Louis Stevenson

  16. UVR protection influences fructosamine level after sun exposure of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mianowska, Beata; Narbutt, Joanna; Young, Antony Richard; Fendler, Wojciech; Małachowska, Beata; Młynarski, Wojciech; Lesiak, Aleksandra

    2016-09-01

    Seasonal variation in glycated hemoglobin levels has been observed, and sun exposure has been considered as one of the factors associated with this relationship. Fructosamine is a short-time marker of blood protein glycation. We investigated the effect of seven days of sunbathing on blood fructosamine concentration in healthy volunteers using different ultraviolet radiation (UVR) protections. Participants were assigned to one of three groups: group A - used a UVA and UVB absorbing sunscreen (N = 15), group B - used a UVB absorbing sunscreen (N = 18), and group C - followed uncontrolled sun protection habits (N = 22). Overall, the fructosamine concentration did not change after sun exposure (baseline 248.8 μmol/l, 25-75%: 238.5 to 258.8 μmol/l vs. after 247.3 μmol/l, 25-75%: 234.9 to 261.8 μmol/l, P = 0.6637). Median change of fructosamine differed significantly between groups (A: -1.90 μmol/l, 25-75%: -17.10 to 1.80 μmol/l vs. B: -3.80 μmol/l, 25-75%: -18.50 to 2.40 μmol/l vs. C: +4.05 μmol/l, 25-75%: -3.20 to 22.0 μmol/l; one-way ANOVAP = 0.0277). After age adjustment and combining groups A and B, the difference in change of fructosamine concentration was statistically significant between groups A + B (decrease) vs. group C (increase, P = 0.0193). Appropriate sunscreen use during sunbathing resulted in decreased fructosamine concentrations, while inadequate UVR protection resulted in its increase. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlAklabi, Aeed S; AlQahtani, Abdulla Z

    2016-11-01

    Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601) of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  18. Impairment of hair mechanical properties by sun exposure and bleaching treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Ana Carolina Santos; Nakano, Adelino Kaoru; Joekes, Inées

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sun exposure and bleaching treatments on hair mechanical properties. Tresses of virgin dark-brown hair were initially washed with lauryl sodium sulfate solution. Sun irradiation was simulated with xenon (full radiation) or mercury-vapor (full or UVB-filtered radiation) lamps. Hair was bleached using a commercial persulfate-peroxide solution. Stress/strain data were obtained from 20 fibers of each sample using a universal test machine. Breaking elongation and breaking strength were the main parameters affected by both treatments. Reduction in the breaking strength was observed for the photo-oxidized and bleached hair (compared to untreated samples). A reduction in the breaking elongation was also observed for the photo-oxidized samples. On the other hand, an increased tendency in this parameter was observed for the bleached hair. In relation to the radiation source, similar results were achieved with much less exposure time to a xenon lamp compared to a mercury-vapor lamp. When UVB radiation was filtered, no breaking strength reduction was observed, indicating that changes in hair mechanical properties are mainly related to that range of the solar spectrum.

  19. Farmers sun exposure, skin protection and public health campaigns: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Smit-Kroner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer is a common and costly cancer in agricultural populations. Prevention and early detection are an effective way to decrease the burden of disease and associated costs. To examine sun exposure and skin protection practices in agricultural workers and farmers a thematic review of the literature between 1983 and 2014 was undertaken. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of skin protection, and analytic methods used. Farmers are the most exposed to harmful ultraviolet (UV radiation of all outdoor workers and the level of reported skin protection by farmers is suboptimal. Years of public health campaigns have failed to adequately address farmers' specific needs. Increased rates of skin cancer and subsequent higher costs are expected. Estimates of sun exposure and skin protection practice indicate that protective clothing is the most promising avenue to improve on farmers' skin protection. Early detection needs to be part of public health campaigns. This review explores the quantitative data about Australian farmers and their skin protective behaviours. We investigate what the documented measurable effect of the public health campaign Slip!Slop!Slap! has had on agricultural workers and farmers and make recommendations for future focus.

  20. Maximising the sun

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is blessed with some of the best quality solar radiation in the world. In the light of this many exciting opportunities exist to utilize the sun to its full potential in the design of energy efficient buildings. Passive solar buildings...

  1. Sun Ultra 5

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The Sun Ultra 5 is a 64-bit personal computer based on the UltraSPARC microprocessor line at a low price. The Ultra 5 has been declined in several variants: thus, some models have a processor with less cache memory to further decrease the price of the computer.

  2. The Toboggan Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, WPS; van der Werf, SY

    2005-01-01

    Special variants of the Novaya Zemlya effect may arise from localized temperature inversions that follow the height profile of hills or mountains. Rather than following its natural path, the rising or setting Sun may, under such circumstances, appear to slide along a distant mountain slope. We found

  3. Go Sun Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael D.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    This is the story of Go Sun Smart, a worksite wellness program endorsed by the North American Ski Area Association and funded by the National Cancer Institute. Between 2000 and 2002 we designed and implemented a large-scale worksite intervention at over 300 ski resorts in North America with the objective of reducing ski area employees and guests…

  4. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  5. Our Explosive Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sun's atmosphere is a highly structured but dynamic place, dominated by the solar magnetic field. Hot charged gas (plasma) is trapped on lines of magnetic force that can snap like an elastic band, propelling giant clouds of material out into space. A range of ground-based and space-based solar telescopes observe these eruptions, particularly…

  6. Mitochondrial DNA deletion percentage in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Julia M; Murphy, Gillian; Ralph, Nikki; O'Gorman, Susan M; Murphy, James E J

    2016-12-01

    The percentages of mitochondrial genomes carrying the mtDNA(3895) and the mtDNA(4977) (common) deletion were quantified in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin biopsies, for five cohorts of patients varying either in sun exposure profile, age or skin cancer status. Non-melanoma skin cancer diagnoses are rising in Ireland and worldwide [12] but most risk prediction is based on subjective visual estimations of sun exposure history. A quantitative objective test for pre-neoplastic markers may result in better adherence to sun protective behaviours. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to be subject to the loss of a significant proportion of specific sections of genetic code due to exposure to ultraviolet light in sunlight. Although one such deletion has been deemed more sensitive, another, called the mtDNA(4977) or common deletion, has proved to be a more useful indicator of possible risk in this study. Quantitative molecular analysis was carried out to determine the percentage of genomes carrying the deletion using non sun exposed and sun exposed skin biopsies in cohorts of patients with high or low sun exposure profiles and two high exposure groups undergoing treatment for NMSC. Results indicate that mtDNA deletions correlate to sun exposure; in groups with high sun exposure habits a significant increase in deletion number in exposed over non sun exposed skin occurred. An increase in deletion percentage was also seen in older cohorts compared to the younger group. The mtDNA(3895) deletion was detected in small amounts in exposed skin of many patients, the mtDNA(4977) common deletion, although present to some extent in non sun exposed skin, is suggested to be the more reliable and easily detected marker. In all cohorts except the younger group with relatively lower sun exposure, the mtDNA(4977) deletion was more frequent in sun exposed skin samples compared to non-sun exposed skin.

  7. Sun exposure patterns of urban, suburban, and rural children: a dosimetry and diary study of 150 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodekær, Mette; Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Heydenreich, Jakob; Thieden, Elisabeth; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2015-07-01

    Sun exposure is the main etiology of skin cancer. Differences in skin cancer incidence have been observed between rural and urban populations. As sun exposure begins in childhood, we examined summer UVR exposure doses and sun behavior in children resident in urban, suburban, and rural areas. Personal, electronic UVR dosimeters and sun behavior diaries were used during a summer (3.5 months) by 150 children (4-19 years of age) resident in urban, suburban, and rural areas. On school/kindergarten days rural children spent more time outdoors and received higher UVR doses than urban and suburban children (rural: median 2.3 h per day, median 0.9 SED per day, urban: median 1.3 h per day, median 0.3 SED per day, suburban: median 1.5 h per day, median 0.4 SED per day) (p ≤ 0.007). Urban and suburban children exhibited a more intermittent sun exposure pattern than rural children. Differences in UVR exposure doses were from high exposure days (e.g. beach days) outside Denmark. Suburban children had a total UVR exposure similar to rural children (suburban: median 109.4 SED, rural: median 103.1 SED), with days spent abroad contributing greatly to the total UVR exposure dose (total UVR on days spent abroad: suburban: median 48.0 SED, rural: median 8.0 SED). Differences in sun exposure patterns exist between children from different areas and may be the background for higher skin cancer incidences in urban populations.

  8. Stars resembling the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrel de Strobel, G.

    This review is primarily directed to the question whether photometric solar analogues remain such when subjected to detailed spectroscopic analyses and interpreted with the help of internal stucture models. In other words, whether the physical parameters: mass, chemical composition, age (determining effective temperature and luminosity), chromospheric activity, equatorial rotation, lithium abundance, velocity fields etc., we derive from the spectral analysis of a photometric solar analogue, are really close to those of the Sun. We start from 109 photometric solar analogues extracted from different authors. The stars selected had to satisfy three conditions: i) their colour index (B-V) must be contained in the interval: Δ (B-V) = 0.59-0.69, ii) they must possess a trigonometric parallax, iii) they must have undergone a high resolution detailed spectroscopic analysis. First, this review presents photometric and spectrophotometric researches on solar analogues and recalls the pionneering work on these stars by the late Johannes Hardorp. After a brief discussion on low and high resolution spectroscopic researches, a comparison is made between effective temperatures as obtained, directly, from detailed spectral analyses and those obtained, indirectly, from different photometric relations. An interesting point in this review is the discussion on the tantalilizing value of the (B-V)solar of the Sun, and the presentation of a new reliable value of this index. A short restatement of the kinematic properties of the sample of solar analogues is also made. And, finally, the observational ( T eff, M bol) diagram, obtained with 99 of the initially presented 109 analogues, is compared to a theoretical ( T eff, M bol) diagram. This latter has been constructed with a grid of internal structure models for which, (very important for this investigation), the Sun was used as gauge. In analysing the position, with respect to the Sun, of each star we hoped to find a certain number of

  9. SCIENCE OF SUN PHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, the total amount of gases and particles in a column of atmosphere cannot be determined from measurements just at Earth's surface, by a single measurement essentially at the bottom of the atmosphere column. Balloons, airplanes, and rockets are all used to perform direct measurements in the atmosphere at altitudes up to and beyond the stratosphere. Satellite-based instruments provide global views, but it is difficult to infer surface and column distributions from space-based measurements, so such measurements must still be supplemented by ground-based measurements. Sun photometry is an important way of probing the atmosphere from the ground to measure the effects of the atmosphere on Sun radiation crossing through the atmosphere to Earth's surface. These indirect technique provide information about the entire atmosphere above the observer, not just the atmosphere that can be sampled directly close to Earth's surface.

  10. How hot is the sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超

    2001-01-01

    Do you know how hot thesun is? There are no solidsor liquids on the sun. Why not? The temperature onoutside the sun is more than 10, 000℃, and that at the centre is about 20, 000, 000℃.The sun is so hot that all thesolids and all the liquids havebeen turned into gases.

  11. The sun, our star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, R. W.

    Observational data, analytical models, and instrumentation used to study the sun and its evolution are detailed, and attention is given to techniques for converting solar energy to useful power on earth. The star ignited when the mutual gravitational attractions of dust and vapor in a primordial cloud in the Galaxy caused an in-rush of accelerating particles which eventually became dense enough to ignite. The heat grew until inward rushing matter was balanced by outward moving radiative forces. The planets formed from similar debris, and solar radiation is suggested to have triggered the chemical reactions giving rise to life on earth. Visual, spectroscopic, coronagraphic, and UV observations of the sun from the ground and from spacecraft, particularly Skylab, are described, together with features of the solar surface, magnetic field, sunspots, and coronal loops. Models for the processes that occur in the solar interior are explored, as are the causes of solar flares. Attention is given to solar cells, heliostat arrays, wind turbines, and water turbines as means to convert, either directly or indirectly, the earth-bound solar energy to electrical and thermal power. Finally, the life cycle of the sun, about 9 billion yr in duration, is summarized, noting the current status of midlife.

  12. Improving the Efficacy of Appearance-Based Sun Exposure Interventions with the Terror Management Health Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kasey Lynn; Cooper, Douglas P.; Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Arndt, Jamie; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2014-01-01

    The terror management health model (TMHM) suggests that when thoughts of death are accessible people become increasingly motivated to bolster their self-esteem relative to their health, because doing so offers psychological protection against mortality concerns. Two studies examined sun protection intentions as a function of mortality reminders and an appearance-based intervention. In Study 1, participants given a sun protection message that primed mortality and shown a UV-filtered photo of their face reported greater intentions to use sun protection on their face, and took more sunscreen samples than participants shown a regular photo of their face. In Study 2, reminders of mortality increased participants’ intentions to use facial sun protection when the UV photo was specifically framed as revealing appearance consequences of tanning, compared to when the photo was framed as revealing health consequences, or when no photo was shown. These findings extend the terror management health model, and provide preliminary evidence that appearance-based tanning interventions have a greater influence on sun protection intentions under conditions that prime thoughts of death. We discuss implications of the findings, and highlight the need for additional research examining the applicability to long-term tanning behavior. PMID:24811049

  13. Sun exposure and the risk of prostate cancer in the Singapore Prostate Cancer Study: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Sin-Eng; Wong, Kin-Yoke; Cheng, Christopher; Lau, Weber; Tan, Puay-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Most of the epidemiology studies on the effects of sun exposure and prostate cancer were conducted among the temperate countries of North America and Europe. Little is known about the influence on Asian populations. The purpose of current study was to evaluate any association of sun exposure with risk of prostate cancer in Chinese, Malays and Indians who reside in the tropics. The Singapore Prostate Cancer Study is a hospital-based case-control study of 240 prostate cancer incident cases and 268 controls conducted in Singapore between April 2007 and May 2009. Detailed information on outdoor activities in the sun, skin colour, sun sensitivity and other possible risk factors were collected in personal interviews. Cases were further classified by Gleason scores and TNM staging. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, ethnicity, education, family history of any cancers, BMI and skin colour. We found that prostate cancer risk was increased in subjects with black/dark-brown eyes (OR 5.88, 95%CI 3.17-10.9), darker skin colour e.g. tan/dark brown/black (OR 7.62, 95%CI 3.41-17.0), frequent sunburn in lifetime (OR 4.30, 95%CI 1.7-11.2) and increased general sun exposure in adulthood per week (OR 2.03, 95%CI 1.09-3.81). The increased risk was consistent for high grade tumours and advanced stage prostate cancers. The findings from this study suggest that excessive sun exposure is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Asians.

  14. Unprotected daily sun exposure is differently associated with central adiposity and beta-cell dysfunction by gender: The Korean national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES) V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohn, Jung Hun [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, In Ho [Department of Dermatology, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Park, Juri; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Lee, Seong Jin; Kim, Doo-Man; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Eun-Gyoung, E-mail: hegletter@hallym.or.kr [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Background: Ultraviolet irradiation by sun exposure has been associated with both harms and benefits to metabolic health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether unprotected daily sun exposure is associated with the prevalence of diabetes and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey V from 2010 to 2011. Participants 19–60 years of age were asked about the average amount of time they had been exposed to direct sunlight per day since the age of 19. We categorized participants into three groups with different levels of lifetime daily sun exposure and explored the association of sun exposure with the prevalence of diabetes. Results: The risk of diabetes was higher in subjects with more than 5 h of unprotected sun exposure per day, with an odds ratio of 2.39 (95% CI 1.75–3.25), compared to those with less than 2 h of sun exposure, and the association remained significant after adjusting for diabetes risk factors. Long-term sun exposure was associated with increased central obesity and the possibility of an increase in visceral adiposity, especially among women, and with decrease in beta cell function and peripheral adiposity or percent body fat in men. Conclusions: Our study provides a cutoff for upper limit of sun exposure and suggests unprotected daily sun exposure for more than 5 h should be avoided to prevent diabetes. Increased central adiposity and decreased beta cell function were observed in women and men, respectively, who had long-term unprotected daily sun exposure. - Highlights: • Sun exposure for more than 5 h per day is associated with diabetes risk. • Insulin resistance associated with visceral adiposity may play a role in women. • Insulin secretory defect may explain diabetes risk in men.

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. AlGhamdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western. Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601 of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544 were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p < 0.001. Likewise, respondents from the middle social class and those with higher education levels were more likely to be informed (p < 0.02. The prevalence of regular sunscreen use among study participants was only 23.7%, and female and employed respondents were more likely to use sunscreen (p < 0.001. Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  16. Sunscreen use related to UV exposure, age, sex, and occupation based on personal dosimeter readings and sun-exposure behavior diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter A; Sandby-Møller, Jane; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2005-08-01

    To examine during what behaviors people apply sunscreen and to assess the relationship to UV exposure monitored by personal dosimetry and diaries. Open prospective observational study. University hospital. A convenience sample of 340 Danish volunteers: children, adolescents, indoor workers, sun worshippers, golfers, and gardeners (age range, 4-68 years). Intervention Subjects recorded sunscreen use and sun-exposure behavior in diaries and carried personal, electronic UV dosimeters, measuring time-stamped UV doses continuously, during a median of 119 days covering 346 sun-years (1 sun-year equals 1 subject participating during 1 summer season). Associations between sunscreen use and age, sex, skin type, occupation, sunburn, UV exposure doses, and behavior; and adequate application density and sun protection factor required to prevent sunburn. There were great variations in sunscreen use, which was highly correlated with risk behavior (sunbathing or exposing the upper body) (r = 0.39; P<.001). Sunscreens were used on a median of 5 days per sun-year (range, 1 day for gardeners to 16 days for sun worshippers). Ten percent of females and 41% of males never used sunscreens. Females used sunscreens more but also had more unprotected risk behavior than males (8 days vs 4 days; P<.001). Sunscreen use was not correlated with age, and children had as much unprotected risk behavior as adults. Sunscreens were used on 86% of the days with risk behavior in southern Europe vs 20% in northern Europe (P<.001). The UV doses were significantly higher on days with sunscreen (P< or = .03) and on sunburn days (P<.001). The median sun protection factor was 10.5. The sun-protecting effect corresponded to an application density of 0.5 mg/cm2. Days with sunscreen correlated not with days without risk behavior, but with days "sunbathing with the intention to tan," indicating that sunscreens were used as tanning aids to avoid sunburn.

  17. Sun awareness in Maltese secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, S; Gauci, A Amato; Ellul, M; Scerri, L

    2004-11-01

    Studies indicate that reducing exposure to ultraviolet light during childhood and adolescence decreases the risk of skin cancer. From a young age, children need to be educated about the sun's harmful effects on the skin and how best to protect themselves. To help in the design of school-based interventions to raise sun awareness, a school survey was carried out to identify students' stereotypes and misconceptions. A total of 965 students attending Maltese secondary schools in forms 1, 2 and 3 were surveyed in May 2002, using a structured questionnaire designed to examine students' sun-related attitudes and knowledge. A high level of sun awareness among students was demonstrated, with high scores on knowledge of the effects of the sun on the skin, knowledge of skin cancer and knowledge of sun protection. Girls were clearly more knowledgeable than boys. However, of all the students surveyed, 55% thought that a suntan made them look better and 70% thought that their friends would desire a tan. These views were commoner among the older students. Skin type and hair or eye colour had no bearing on attitudes towards tanning or sun-related knowledge. The commonest misconceptions were that 'the sun is bad for your skin only when you get sunburnt' and that 'you cannot get too much sun on a cloudy day'. Deliberate suntanning was more frequently reported by girls than by boys and by students in the higher forms. Attitude change lags behind knowledge. Future school sun awareness interventions need to take into account gender and age differences in students' attitudes and perspectives. They should aim at motivating attitude change and preventive behaviour through consistent and repeated sun-education messages that are supported by a sun-conscious school environment.

  18. Review - The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Blackburn, Stuart H. 2010. The Sun Rises: A Shaman's Chant, Ritual Exchange and Fertility in the Apatani Valley. Leiden: Brill. xvii+401. Color and black and white photographs, maps. ISBN: 9789-0041-7578-5 (hardcover, 97USD. The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. The heart of this book is a chant of nineteen segments.

  19. Eruptions from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  20. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...

  1. The Sun, Mercury, and Venus

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    The Messenger mission to Mercury opened a new window into the inner solar system. In 2008, this mission began a number of years of flybys, culminating in an orbital insertion around Mercury and producing unparalleled observations about this mysterious innermost planet. Mercury orbits so close to the Sun, from the point of view of Earth, that seeing it from the Earth against the Sun's glare is a great challenge. At the same time, the huge gravitational force of the Sun makes it a challenge to put a mission on Mercury without losing it into the Sun. Now, with heightened understanding of Mercury,

  2. After the Bell: Developing Sun Sense--Learning about Protection from the Sun's Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology (2008) reports that our students will experience 80% of their lifetime exposure to the Sun by the time they are 18. Further, research has demonstrated that continued exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet rays can lead to skin aging, sunburn, immune suppression, ocular melanoma, cataracts, corneal burns, and even…

  3. The Rapidly Rotating Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l ux of a solar luminosity outwards? The Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.

  4. Sun light European Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubielle, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create

  5. Physics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, Thomas; Mihalas, Dimitri; Ulrich, Roger

    1986-01-01

    This volume, together with its two companion volumes, originated in a study commis­ sioned by the United States National Academy of Sciences on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A committee composed of Tom Holzer, Dimitri Mihalas, Roger Ulrich and myself was asked to prepare a comprehensive review of current knowledge concerning the physics of the sun. We were fortunate in being able to persuade many distinguished scientists to gather their forces for the preparation of 21 separate chapters covering not only solar physics but also relevant areas of astrophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. It proved necessary to divide the chapters into three separate volumes that cover three different aspects of solar physics. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with 'The Solar Interior' and with 'The Solar Atmosphere'. This volume, devoted to 'Astrophysics and Solar-Terrestrial Relations', focuses on problems of solar physics from these two different but complementary perspectives. The emphasis thr...

  6. Sun and Other Types of Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Causes Cancer? Sun and Other Types of Radiation Learn about the different types of radiation and ... other diseases. Learn more here. Other Types of Radiation Exposure Not all types of radiation have been ...

  7. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  8. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  9. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J

    2013-01-01

    Background  It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis......, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. Objectives  In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to assess sun exposure after diagnosis of CMM by objective measurements to substantiate advice about sun...... months and 6 years before the start of the study. During a summer season participants filled in sun exposure diaries daily and wore personal electronic UVR dosimeters in a wristwatch that continuously measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema dose. Results  The UVR dose of recently diagnosed...

  10. Sun exposure may increase risk of prostate cancer in the high UV environment of New South Wales, Australia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair-Shalliker, Visalini; Smith, David P; Egger, Sam; Hughes, Ann Maree; Kaldor, John M; Clements, Mark; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2012-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight may influence risk of prostate cancer. In New South Wales (NSW), Australia, we examined the relationship between sun exposure at 30 and 50 years of age and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control study combining the NSW prostate cancer care and outcome study (cases) and the NSW non-Hodgkin's lymphoma study (controls). Prostate cancer risk increased with increasing estimated sun exposure (adjusted OR for highest vs. lowest quartiles of average weekly sun exposure in the warmer months 2.07 95% CI: 1.36-3.15) and this increase was most evident with weekend sun exposure (adjusted OR=5.55, 95% CI: 2.94-10.48). High sun sensitivity was also positively associated with risk for prostate cancer (adjusted OR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.09-2.44). The apparent effects of weekly sun exposure did not vary by disease aggressiveness. Our results suggest that increasing sun exposure in mid-adult years increases prostate cancer risk in a high ambient solar UV environment. Given that previous studies, conducted mainly in low solar UV environments, have generally found evidence of a negative association, our findings suggest there may be a U-shaped relationship between solar UV exposure and prostate cancer. Further studies are needed to test the hypothesis that high solar UV exposure is a risk factor for prostate cancer and to explore possible mechanisms for such an association.

  11. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...... in SPF decreases between an organic and an inorganic sunscreen, assuming that the sunscreens are stable, and that the SPF decrease is time dependent if caused by absorption....

  12. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Lee M.

    1996-01-01

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  13. Global Seismology of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Sarbani

    2016-01-01

    The seismic study of the Sun and other stars offers a unique window into the interior of these stars. Thanks to helioseismology, we know the structure of the Sun to admirable precision. In fact, our knowledge is good enough to use the Sun as a laboratory. We have also been able to study the dynamics of the Sun in great detail. Helioseismic data also allow us to probe the changes that take place in the Sun as solar activity waxes and wanes. The seismic study of stars other than the Sun is a fairly new endeavour, but we are making great strides in this field. In this review I discuss some of the techniques used in helioseismic analyses and the results obtained using those techniques. In this review I focus on results obtained with global helioseismology, i.e., the study of the Sun using its normal modes of oscillation. I also briefly touch upon asteroseismology, the seismic study of stars other than the Sun, and discuss how seismic data of others stars are interpreted.

  14. Reconnection on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  15. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  16. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Your Eyes and the Sun Sections The Sun, UV Radiation ... Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Written by: David Turbert Aug. 28, 2014 Keep ...

  17. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  18. TERT promoter mutations in skin cancer: the effects of sun exposure and X-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pópulo, Helena; Boaventura, Paula; Vinagre, João; Batista, Rui; Mendes, Adélia; Caldas, Regina; Pardal, Joana; Azevedo, Filomena; Honavar, Mrinalini; Guimarães, Isabel; Manuel Lopes, José; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-08-01

    The reactivation or reexpression of telomerase (TERT) is a widespread feature of neoplasms. TERT promoter mutations were recently reported that were hypothesized to result from UV radiation. In this retrospective study, we assessed TERT promoter mutations in 196 cutaneous basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), including 102 tumors from X-irradiated patients, 94 tumors from patients never exposed to ionizing radiation treatment, and 116 melanomas. We sought to evaluate the effects of UV and X-ray irradiation on TERT mutation frequency. TERT mutations were detected in 27% of BCCs from X-irradiated patients, 51% of BCCs from nonirradiated patients, and 22% of melanoma patients. TERT mutations were significantly increased in non-X-irradiated BCC patients compared with X-irradiated BCC patients; the mutations also presented a different mutation signature. In nonirradiated patients, TERT mutations were more frequent in BCCs of sun-exposed skin, supporting a possible causative role of UV radiation. In melanoma, TERT promoter mutations were generally restricted to intermittent sun-exposed areas and were associated with nodular and superficial spreading subtypes, increased thickness, ulceration, increased mitotic rate, and BRAFV600E mutations. Our results suggest that various carcinogenic factors may cause distinct TERT promoter mutations in BCC and that TERT promoter mutations might be associated with a poorer prognosis in melanoma.

  19. Reducing Sun Exposure for Prevention of Skin Cancers: Factorial Invariance and Reliability of the Self-Efficacy Scale for Sun Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F. Babbin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Self-Efficacy Scale for Sun Protection consists of two correlated factors with three items each for Sunscreen Use and Avoidance. This study evaluated two crucial psychometric assumptions, factorial invariance and scale reliability, with a sample of adults (N=1356 participating in a computer-tailored, population-based intervention study. A measure has factorial invariance when the model is the same across subgroups. Three levels of invariance were tested, from least to most restrictive: (1 Configural Invariance (nonzero factor loadings unconstrained; (2 Pattern Identity Invariance (equal factor loadings; and (3 Strong Factorial Invariance (equal factor loadings and measurement errors. Strong Factorial Invariance was a good fit for the model across seven grouping variables: age, education, ethnicity, gender, race, skin tone, and Stage of Change for Sun Protection. Internal consistency coefficient Alpha and factor rho scale reliability, respectively, were .84 and .86 for Sunscreen Use, .68 and .70 for Avoidance, and .78 and .78 for the global (total scale. The psychometric evidence demonstrates strong empirical support that the scale is consistent, has internal validity, and can be used to assess population-based adult samples.

  20. The effects of sun exposure on carotenoid accumulation and oxidative stress in the retina of the House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew B Toomey; Kevin J McGraw

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diet-derived carotenoid pigments are concentrated in the retinas of birds and serve a variety of func-tions, including photoprotection. In domesticated bird species (e.g., chickens and quail), retinal carotenoid pigmenta-tion has been shown to respond to large manipulations in light exposure and provide protection against photodam-age. However, it is not known if or how wild birds respond to ecologically relevant variation in sun exposure. Methods: We manipulated the duration of natural sunlight exposure and dietary carotenoid levels in wild-caught captive House Finches (Haemorhous mexicanus), then measured carotenoid accumulation and oxidative stress in the retina. Results: We found no signiifcant effects of sun exposure on retinal levels of carotenoids or lipid peroxidation, in rep-licate experiments, in winter (Jan–Mar) and spring/summer (May–June). Dietary carotenoid supplementation in the spring/summer experiment led to signiifcantly higher retinal carotenoid levels, but did not affect lipid peroxidation. Carotenoid levels differed signiifcantly between the winter and spring/summer experiments, with higher retinal and lower plasma carotenoid levels in birds from the later experiment. Conclusion: Our results suggest that variation in the duration of exposure to direct sunlight have limited inlfuence on intraspeciifc variation in retinal carotenoid accumulation, but that accumulation may track other seasonal–envi-ronmental cues and physiological processes.

  1. Effects of motives on reactions to safe sun messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspden, Trefor; Ingledew, David K; Parkinson, John A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether appearance motive for sun exposure, which strongly predicts exposure behaviour, would predict reactions to safe sun messages. In a survey with an embedded experiment, 245 individuals completed measures of motives, read a safe sun message framed by incentive (appearance/health), tone (directive/nondirective) and valence (gain/loss), then completed measures of reactions. For participants high in appearance motive, an appearance-nondirective message was most persuasive. Regardless of individual's appearance motive, appearance messages produced lower reactance if phrased using nondirective language. To maximise persuasion and minimise reactance in individuals most motivated to sun expose, safe sun messages should focus on appearance using nondirective language.

  2. People maintain their sun exposure behaviour in a 5-7-year follow-up study using personal electronic UVR dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieden, Elisabeth; Heydenreich, Jakob; Philipsen, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether people change their sun behaviour over a period of 7 years. Thus 32 volunteers, who had all participated in earlier sun exposure studies in 1999-2001, were enrolled in a follow-up study in 2006. They were selected to represent a previous low......, medium and high UVR exposure. They participated for mean 121 days (range 65-157 days) wearing a personal, electronic wrist-borne UVR dosimeter and completed sun exposure diaries. No statistically significant differences were seen from year to year in the estimated annual UVR dose, mean UVR dose per day...... they received a mean for the previous participation years (1999-2001) of 236 SED (median 153 SED, range 24-980 SED). The estimated annual UVR dose for each of the previous sun years and the estimated annual dose for 2006 correlated significantly (R(2) = 0.51; p...

  3. NEW SUNS IN THE COSMOS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Freitas, D. B.; Leao, I. C.; Lopes, C. E. Ferreira; Paz-Chinchon, F.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Alves, S.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-08-20

    The present work reports on the discovery of three stars that we have identified to be rotating Sun-like stars, based on rotational modulation signatures inferred from light curves from the CoRoT mission's Public Archives. In our analysis, we performed an initial selection based on the rotation period and position in the period-T{sub eff} diagram. This revealed that the stars CoRoT IDs 100746852, 102709980, and 105693572 provide potentially good matches to the Sun with a similar rotation period. To refine our analysis, we applied a novel procedure, taking into account the fluctuations of the features associated with photometric modulation at different time intervals and the fractality traces that are present in the light curves of the Sun and of these ''New Sun'' candidates alike. In this sense, we computed the so-called Hurst exponent for the referred stars, for a sample of 14 CoRoT stars with sub- and super-solar rotational periods, and for the Sun itself in its active and quiet phases. We found that the Hurst exponent can provide a strong discriminant of Sun-like behavior, going beyond what can be achieved with solely the rotation period itself. In particular, we find that CoRoT ID 105693572 is the star that most closely matches the solar rotation properties as far as the latter's imprints on light curve behavior are concerned. The stars CoRoT IDs 100746852 and 102709980 have significant smaller Hurst exponents than the Sun, notwithstanding their similarity in rotation periods.

  4. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  5. People maintain their sun exposure behaviour in a 5-7-year follow-up study using personal electronic UVR dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieden, Elisabeth; Heydenreich, Jakob; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether people change their sun behaviour over a period of 7 years. Thus 32 volunteers, who had all participated in earlier sun exposure studies in 1999-2001, were enrolled in a follow-up study in 2006. They were selected to represent a previous low, medium and high UVR exposure. They participated for mean 121 days (range 65-157 days) wearing a personal, electronic wrist-borne UVR dosimeter and completed sun exposure diaries. No statistically significant differences were seen from year to year in the estimated annual UVR dose, mean UVR dose per day or mean percentage of ambient UVR. However, there was a person effect showing that participants maintained a high or low UVR dose lifestyle over the years. In 2006 the 32 participants received an estimated annual mean UVR dose of 221 SED and a median dose of 154 SED (range 25-1337 SED), while they received a mean for the previous participation years (1999-2001) of 236 SED (median 153 SED, range 24-980 SED). The estimated annual UVR dose for each of the previous sun years and the estimated annual dose for 2006 correlated significantly (R(2) = 0.51; p < 0.0001). Sun risk behaviour, expressed as days sunbathing, did not change either. The participants thus seem to have maintained their sun exposure behaviour over a 5-7-year period.

  6. Knowledge deficit, attitude and behavior scales association to objective measures of sun exposure and sunburn in a Danish population based sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Christensen, Karl Bang; Allen, Martin; Olsen, Anja; Bentzen, Joan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop new scales measuring knowledge and attitude about UVR and sun related behavior, and to examine their association to sun related behavior objectively measured by personal dosimetry. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week that measured their UVR exposure. Afterwards, they answered a questionnaire on sun-related items. We applied descriptive analysis, linear and logistic regression analysis to evaluate the associations between the questionnaire scales and objective UVR measures. Perceiving protection as routine and important were positively correlated with protective behavior. Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma, perceived benefits and importance of protection behavior was also correlated with use of protection. ‘Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma and Perceived barrier towards sun avoidance between 12 and 15’ were both associated with increased risk of sunburn. Attitude towards tan was associated to both outdoor time and exposure as well as use of protection, but not to sunburn. The results regarding Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma associated to UVR exposure and Perceived barrier towards sun avoidance between 12 and 15 emphasize the importance of awareness of melanoma risk and the priority of the skin cancer prevention advice. Shifting activities to outside the suns peak-hours could be an approach for structural and campaign preventive measures. Knowledge of items predicting exposure to UVR, use of protection and sunburn are important for planning of preventive interventions and melanoma research. PMID:28542543

  7. Earth's Heat Source - The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Manuel, Oliver K

    2009-01-01

    The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

  8. The Sun: Our Nearest Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have in our celestial backyard, a prime example of a variable star. The Sun, long thought to be "perfect" and unvarying, began to reveal its cycles in the early 1600s as Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner used a telescope to study sunspots. For the past four hundred years, scientists have accumulated data, showing a magnetic cycle that repeats, on average, every eleven (or twenty-two) years. In addition, modern satellites have shown that the energy output at radio and x-ray wavelengths also varies with this cycle. This talk will showcase the Sun as a star and discuss how solar studies may be used to understand other stars.

  9. Cutaneous melanoma frequencies and seasonal trend in 20 years of observation of a population characterised by excessive sun exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Serena; Albano, Antonio; di Meo, Nicola; Gatti, Alessandro; Stinco, Giuseppe; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Trevisan, Giusto

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer. It has become an increasingly common neoplasm in the most developed countries, especially among individuals of European origin. Patients and methods. Anonymous data of patients with cutaneous melanoma were collected from the diagnostic database of the University Hospital of Trieste from 1 January 1990 to 10 December 2013. Our study is based on a population which was constant over the period of observation; it was also well-defined and characterised by unrestrained sun exposure. Results The number of cutaneous melanomas increased during the period of observation with a seasonality trend and gender related differences both for anatomical sites distribution and stage of the disease. Moreover, 6% of our cohort developed multiple melanomas. Conclusions In a well-defined population devoted to excessive sun exposure the frequencies of skin melanomas roughly doubled from 1990 to 2013 following a seasonal trend. In that population, prevention efforts according to gender specific risk behaviour, as well as follow-up programmes both for evaluation of metastatic spreading and for early diagnosis of additional skin melanomas, are crucial due to gender specific differences and to the occurrence of multiple melanomas. PMID:26834525

  10. Exposure to sun radiation as a risk factor for the occurrence of basal cell carcinoma in the Montenegrian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgound/aim: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent form of carcinomas in the whites. Among the environmental factors, the most important risk factor for its occurrence is the exposure to sun radiation. The aim of this study was to assess the role of the sun radiation in the development of basal cell carcinoma BCC in the Montenegrian population. Methods. A case-control study was conducted in a period from 2002-2003. The study group included 100 histopatologically confirmed cases with BCC, while the control group included 100 patients from the same population, who did not present skin cancer and who were individually matched with the cases from the study group by sex and age (± 5 years. All the participants were interviewed using an epidemiological questionnaire. For statistical analysis, the χ2 test and univariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results. The risk for development of BCC was increased in the persons: that always had burns with no tan during the exposure to sunlight (OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.20-2.55; p = 0.003; that developed sunburns after two hours of the exposure to sunlight (OR = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.39-5.79; p < 0.001 that kept light tan or remained without changes in childhood and adolescence after the repeated exposures to sunlight (OR = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.89-4.52; p < 0.001 that often had severe and painful sunburns (OR = 4.48; 95% CI = 2.74-7.33; p < 0.001. Conclusion. Our study confirmed the significance of sunlight exposure for the development of BCC.

  11. Day the sun went out

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "A new british sci-fi movie envisages the death of the sun not in billions of years, but in decades. And, amazingly, the film's scientific adviser says this may not be so far from the truth..." (1/2 page)

  12. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  13. How Bright Is the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berr, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sequence of activities designed to allow eighth grade students to deal with one of the fundamental relationships that govern energy distribution. Activities guide students to measure light bulb brightness, discover the inverse square law, compare light bulb light to candle light, and measure sun brightness. (two references) (MCO)

  14. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  15. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined......-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose...... and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data...

  16. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin; Maksimovic, Milan; Alibay, Farah; Amiri, Nikta; Bastian, Tim; Cohen, Christina; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward; Reinard, Alysha; Schwadron, Nathan; Cecconi, Baptiste; Hallinan, Gregg; Hegedus, Alex; Krupar, Vratislav; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 RS. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (ν ≳ 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (≲ 3RS). The state-of-the-art for tracking such emission from space is defined by single antennas (Wind/WAVES, Stereo/SWAVES), in which the tracking is accomplished by assuming a frequency-to-density mapping; there has been some success in triangulating the emission between the spacecraft, but considerable uncertainties remain. We describe the Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) mission concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  18. Knowledge deficit, attitude and behavior scales association to objective measures of sun exposure and sunburn in a Danish population based sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Brian; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop new scales measuring knowledge and attitude about UVR and sun related behavior, and to examine their association to sun related behavior objectively measured by personal dosimetry. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV......-dosimeter for one week that measured their UVR exposure. Afterwards, they answered a questionnaire on sun-related items. We applied descriptive analysis, linear and logistic regression analysis to evaluate the associations between the questionnaire scales and objective UVR measures. Perceiving protection as routine...... 12 and 15' were both associated with increased risk of sunburn. Attitude towards tan was associated to both outdoor time and exposure as well as use of protection, but not to sunburn. The results regarding Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma associated to UVR exposure and Perceived barrier...

  19. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  20. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  1. Seasonal changes in vitamin D status among Danish adolescent girls and elderly women: the influence of sun exposure and vitamin D intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Brot, C; Jakobsen, Jette

    2013-01-01

    longitudinal observational study of 54 girls (11-13 years) and 52 women (70-75 years). The participants were examined three times (winter-summer-winter). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD) concentration and vitamin D intake were measured at each visit. Sun exposure was measured during summer.Results:S-25OHD......Background/objectives:To determine seasonal variation in vitamin D status in healthy Caucasian adolescent girls and elderly community-dwelling women living in Denmark, and to quantify the impact of sun exposure and intake on the seasonal changes in vitamin D status.Subjects/methods:A 1-year...

  2. Caddo Sun Accounts across Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerona, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Billy Day, a Tunica/Biloxi, recently described the significance of the sun for Caddoan people. Day quoted an "old Caddo relative" of his who said: "I used to go outside and hold my hands up and bless myself with the sun--'a'hat.' Well, I can't do that anymore because they say we are sun worshipers. We didn't worship the sun. We worshiped what was…

  3. Global Warming Blame the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, N

    1997-01-01

    Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

  4. Total eclipses of the sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirker, J B

    1980-12-19

    Total eclipses of the sun offer research opportunities in a variety of sciences. Some of the advances in solar physics resulting from eclipse observations are discussed. Experiments at the total eclipse of 16 February 1980 in India are also described. These included a test of general relativity, studies in coronal physics, investigations of solar prominences, diameter measurements, a search for interplanetary dust, a study of the gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere, and experiments on the biological effects on animals and humans.

  5. Revisiting SU(N) integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Zuber, Jean-Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this note, I revisit integrals over $\\SU(N)$ of the form $ \\int DU\\, U_{i_1j_1}\\cdots U_{i_pj_p}\\Ud_{k_1l_1}\\cdots \\Ud_{k_nl_n}$. While the case $p=n$ is well known, it seems that explicit expressions for $p=n+N$ had not appeared in the literature. Similarities and differences, in particular in the large $N$ limit, between the two cases are discussed

  6. Coherent States with SU(N) Charges

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, M; Mathur, Manu; Paul, Samir K.

    2003-01-01

    We define coherent states carrying SU(N) charges by exploiting generalized Schwinger boson representation of SU(N) Lie algebra. These coherent states are defined on $2 (2^{N - 1} - 1)$ complex planes. They satisfy continuity property and provide resolution of identity. We also exploit this technique to construct the corresponding non-linear SU(N) coherent states.

  7. The Sun Rises on the Solar Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Reyaz A.

    2009-01-01

    Energy from the sun is abundant and free. Solar energy is in essence electromagnetic radiation emitted from the sun. Earth's climate, hydrologic systems, and ecosystems all derive from the sun. Other forms of renewable power such as wind, wave, biomass, and hydro are an indirect function of solar radiation.

  8. The Sun A User's Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The Sun is an account of the many ways in which our nearest star affects our planet, how its influence has changed over the last few centuries and millennia, and the extent to which we can predict its future impact. The Sun's rays foster the formation of Vitamin D by our bodies, but it can also promote skin cancer, cataracts, and mutations in our DNA. Besides providing the warmth and light essential to most animal and plant life, solar energy contributes substantially to global warming. Although the charged particles of the solar wind shield us from harmful cosmic rays, solar storms may damage artificial satellites and cripple communication systems and computer networks. The Sun is the ideal renewable energy source, but its exploitation is still bedevilled by the problems of storage and distribution. Our nearest star, in short, is a complex machine which needs to be treated with caution, and this book will equip every reader with the knowledge that is required to understand the benefits and dangers it can bri...

  9. The faint young Sun problem

    CERN Document Server

    Feulner, Georg

    2012-01-01

    For more than four decades, scientists have been trying to find an answer to one of the most fundamental questions in paleoclimatology, the `faint young Sun problem'. For the early Earth, models of stellar evolution predict a solar energy input to the climate system which is about 25% lower than today. This would result in a completely frozen world over the first two billion years in the history of our planet, if all other parameters controlling Earth's climate had been the same. Yet there is ample evidence for the presence of liquid surface water and even life in the Archean (3.8 to 2.5 billion years before present), so some effect (or effects) must have been compensating for the faint young Sun. A wide range of possible solutions have been suggested and explored during the last four decades, with most studies focusing on higher concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane or ammonia. All of these solutions present considerable difficulties, however, so the faint young Sun prob...

  10. Sun Savvy Students: Free Teaching Resources from EPA's SunWise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Jordan, Luke

    2008-01-01

    With summer in full swing and the sun is naturally on our minds, what better time to take advantage of a host of free materials provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Sun Wise program. Sun Wise aims to teach students and teachers about the stratospheric ozone layer, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and how to be safe while in the Sun.…

  11. Phenylpropanoid metabolites and expression of key genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the shaded peel of apple fruit in response to sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fengjuan; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2013-08-01

    The shaded peel of 'Fortune' (a red cultivar) and 'Mutsu' (a yellow/green cultivar) apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) was exposed to full sun by turning fruit 180° at about one week before harvest to determine the expression of key genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis in response to sunlight exposure and their relationships with the levels of anthocyanins and other phenolics. For the unturned (control) fruit, the shaded peel had lower expression levels of MdMYB10 (a transcriptional factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis) and seven structural genes in anthocyanin synthesis (MdPAL, MdCHS, MdCHI, MdF3H, MdDFR1, MdLDOX, and MdUFGT), and lower levels of anthocyanins and flavonols than the sun-exposed peel in both cultivars. Exposure of the shaded peel to full sun caused marked up-regulation of the expression of MdMYB10 and all seven structural genes, which peaked between 6 h and 30 h after fruit turning, consequently leading to higher levels of anthocyanins, flavonols, and total phenolics than in the shaded peel and even in the sun-exposed peel of control fruit. Interestingly, the levels of flavonols were higher in the shaded peel of turned fruit (the original sun-exposed peel) than in the sun-exposed peel of both control and turned fruit in both cultivars, suggesting that competition for substrates exists in different branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway. These results indicate that sunlight exposure stimulates the expression of MdMYB10 and structural genes in anthocyanin synthesis, thereby elevating the levels of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds in both red and yellow/green cultivars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure.

  13. Micro technology based sun sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Pedersen, Martin; Fléron, René

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing interest among universities in the scientific and educational possibilities of picosatellites base on the CubeSat 5 concept. Due to sever mass and dimension constraints place on this type of satellites, new approaches and ideas regarding different systems arises to accommodate...... DTUsat sun sensors are needed along with a magnetometer to obtain unambiguous attitude determination for the ACDS and the payloads - an electrodynamic tether and a camera. The accuracy needed was not obtainable by employing conventional attitude sensors. Hence a linear slit sensor was designed...

  14. In melanocytic lesions the fraction of BRAF V600E alleles is associated with sun exposure but unrelated to ERK phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venesio, Tiziana; Chiorino, Giovanna; Balsamo, Antonella; Zaccagna, Alessandro; Petti, Consalvo; Scatolini, Maria; Pisacane, Alberto; Sarotto, Ivana; Picciotto, Franco; Risio, Mauro

    2008-06-01

    BRAF(V600E) mutation has been frequently reported in different types of melanocytic lesions, but its role in melanomagenesis is poorly understood, having been associated with either the proliferative-induced MAPK pathway activation or the acquisition of oncogene-driven senescence. The presence of BRAF alterations has been related to sun exposure, although the molecular mechanisms underlying this event are only partly known. To elucidate the relationships among BRAF/NRAS alterations, MAPK pathway activation, and sun exposure, we examined 22 acquired nevi and 18 cutaneus melanomas from 38 patients. Microdissected tissues from each lesion were subjected to BRAF/NRAS mutation analysis by sequencing, allele-specific PCR and pyrosequencing assay. The same lesions were also examined for the expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2. Phototype and an accurate history of sun exposure were evaluated for each patient. BRAF(V600E) mutation was detected in 50% of the acquired nevi and in 70% of the cutaneus melanomas in the absence of NRAS alterations. The fraction of alleles carrying BRAF(V600E) substitution was variable but strongly associated with sun exposure. In contrast, no relationship was evidenced between the presence of this mutation and patients' phototype, phosphorylated ERK1/2 expression, or Clark's level. Our findings indicate that in melanocytic lesions, BRAF(V600E) mutation can affect a subset of the cells and is associated with the type and quantity of sun exposure. This mutation is independent of the nevo-melanoma progression and unrelated to ERK phosphorylation, suggesting that alternative mechanisms to the MAPK activation are also involved in this type of transformation.

  15. Knowledge and Practice of Sun Protection in Schools in South Africa Where No National Sun Protection Programme Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y.; Reeder, Anthony I.; Albers, Patricia N.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline…

  16. Sun exposure before and after a diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure before and after a diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) have been based primarily on questionnaires. Objective measures are needed....

  17. Determinants of personal ultraviolet-radiation exposure doses on a sun holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B; Thieden, E; Philipsen, P A

    2013-01-01

    A great number of journeys to sunny destinations are sold to the Danish population every year. We suspect that this travel considerably increases personal annual ultraviolet-radiation (UVR) exposure doses. This is important because such exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, and studies have ...

  18. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic

  19. Seismology of the Wounded Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Cally, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Active regions are open wounds in the Sun's surface. Seismic oscillations from the interior pass through them into the atmosphere, changing their nature in the process to fast and slow magneto-acoustic waves. The fast waves then partially reflect and partially mode convert to upgoing and downgoing Alfv\\'en waves. The reflected fast and downgoing Alfv\\'en waves then re-enter the interior through the active regions that spawned them, infecting the surface seismology with signatures of the atmosphere. Using numerical simulations of waves in uniform magnetic fields, we calculate the upward acoustic and Alfv\\'enic losses in the atmosphere as functions of field inclination and wave orientation as well as the Time-Distance `travel time' perturbations, and show that they are related. Travel time perturbations relative to quiet Sun can exceed 40 seconds in 1 kG magnetic field. It is concluded that active region seismology is indeed significantly infected by waves leaving and re-entering the interior through magnetic w...

  20. The Sun's New Exotic Neighbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, an international team of researchers [1] discovered a brown dwarf belonging to the 24th closest stellar system to the Sun. Brown dwarfs are intermediate objects that are neither stars nor planets. This object is the third closest brown dwarf to the Earth yet discovered, and one of the coolest, having a temperature of about 750 degrees Celsius. It orbits a very small star at about 4.5 times the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. Its mass is estimated to be somewhere between 9 and 65 times the mass of Jupiter. At a time when astronomers are peering into the most distant Universe, looking at objects as far as 13 billion light-years away, one may think that our close neighbourhood would be very well known. Not so. Astronomers still find new star-like objects in our immediate vicinity. Using ESO's VLT, they just discovered a brown dwarf companion to the red star SCR 1845-6357, the 36th closest star to the Sun. ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 11a/06 New Brown Dwarf in the Solar Neighbourhood (Artist's Impression) "This newly found brown dwarf is a valuable object because its distance is well known, allowing us to determine with precision its intrinsic brightness", said team member Markus Kasper (ESO). "Moreover, from its orbital motion, we should be able in a few years to estimate its mass. These properties are vital for understanding the nature of brown dwarfs." To discover this brown dwarf, the team used the high-contrast adaptive optics NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager (SDI [2]) on ESO's Very Large Telescope, an instrument specifically developed to search for extrasolar planets. The SDI camera enhances the ability of the VLT and its adaptive optics system to detect faint companions that would normally be lost in the glare of the primary star. In particular, the SDI camera provides additional, often very useful spectral information which can be used to determine a rough temperature for the object without follow

  1. Here comes the sun...; Here comes the sun...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Robert [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    It sounds a bit strange that you can use solar energy to maintain or refrigerate products or spaces below the ambient temperature, because we know that something that makes the sun is heating; but yes indeed, the sun can produce cold, and in addition without polluting, and without consuming conventional energy. In this document are mentioned the various research projects on solar cooling that have been made in the Energy Research Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico such as the thermo-chemical intermittent refrigerator, the geothermal cooling demonstration system in Mexicali, B.C., the GAX system for air conditioning, the ice producer intermittent solar refrigerator, the continuous solar refrigerator, the refrigeration by ejection-compression. It also mentions the functioning of heat pumps and the process of solar drying applications in agricultural products. [Spanish] Suena un poco extrano que se pueda utilizar la energia solar para mantener o refrigerar productos o espacios por debajo de la temperatura ambiente, ya que sabemos que algo que hace el sol es calentar; pero si, el sol puede producir frio, y ademas sin contaminar y sin consumir energia convencional. En este documento se mencionan las diferentes investigaciones sobre refrigeracion solar que se han realizado en el Centro de Investigacion en Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico como el refrigerador termoquimico intermitente, el sistema demostrativo de refrigeracion geotermico en Mexicali, B.C., el sistema GAX para aire acondicionado, el refrigerador solar intermitente productor de hielo, el refrigerador continuo solar, la refrigeracion por eyecto-compresion. Tambien se menciona el funcionamiento de las bombas de calor y el proceso de secado solar de aplicacion en productos agropecuarios.

  2. Aging and photo-aging DNA repair phenotype of skin cells-Evidence toward an effect of chronic sun-exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prunier, Chloe; Masson-Genteuil, Gwenaeelle [Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, CEA, DSM, INAC, SCIB, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ugolin, Nicolas [Laboratoire de Cancerologie Experimentale, CEA, DSV, IRCM, SREIT, BP6, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex F-92265 (France); Sarrazy, Fanny [Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, CEA, DSM, INAC, SCIB, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sauvaigo, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.sauvaigo@cea.fr [Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, CEA, DSM, INAC, SCIB, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2012-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the deleterious effect of aging on the capacity of cells to repair their DNA. However, current existing assays aimed at measuring DNA repair address only a specific repair step dedicated to the correction of a specific DNA lesion type. Consequently they provide no information regarding the repair pathways that handle other types of lesions. In addition to aging, consequences of photo-exposure on these repair processes remain elusive. In this study we evaluated the consequence of aging and of chronic and/or acute photo-exposure on DNA repair in human skin fibroblasts using a multiplexed approach, which provided detailed information on several repair pathways at the same time. The resulting data were analyzed with adapted statistics/bioinformatics tools. We showed that, irrespective of the repair pathway considered, excision/synthesis was less efficient in non-exposed cells from elderly compared to cells from young adults and that photo-exposure disrupted this very clear pattern. Moreover, it was evidenced that chronic sun-exposure induced changes in DNA repair properties. Finally, the identification of a specific signature at the level of the NER pathway in cells repeatedly exposed to sun revealed a cumulative effect of UVB exposure and chronic sun irradiation. The uses of bioinformatics tools in this study was essential to fully take advantage of the large sum of data obtained with our multiplexed DNA repair assay and unravel the effects of environmental exposure on DNA repair pathways.

  3. TRIGONOMETRIC SU(N) GAUDIN MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain the eigenstates and the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonians of the trigonometric SU(N) Gaudin model based on the quasi-classical limit of the trigonometric SU(N) chain with the periodic boundary condition.By using the quantum inverse scattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generating function of the trigonometric SU(N) Gaudin model.

  4. The summer sun shone round me

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The summer sun shone round me, The folded valley lay In a stream of sun and odour, That sultry summer day. The tall trees stood in the sunlight As still as still could be, But the deep grass sighed and rustled And bowed and beckoned me. The deep grass moved and whispered And bowed and brushed my face. It whis pered in the sunshine: The winter comes apdce.”The summer sun shone round me

  5. Temporal Trends in Satellite-Derived Erythemal UVB and Implications for Ambient Sun Exposure Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Langston

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation (UVR has been associated with various health outcomes, including skin cancers, vitamin D insufficiency, and multiple sclerosis. Measurement of UVR has been difficult, traditionally relying on subject recall. We investigated trends in satellite-derived UVB from 1978 to 2014 within the continental United States (US to inform UVR exposure assessment and determine the potential magnitude of misclassification bias created by ignoring these trends. Monthly UVB data remotely sensed from various NASA satellites were used to investigate changes over time in the United States using linear regression with a harmonic function. Linear regression models for local geographic areas were used to make inferences across the entire study area using a global field significance test. Temporal trends were investigated across all years and separately for each satellite type due to documented differences in UVB estimation. UVB increased from 1978 to 2014 in 48% of local tests. The largest UVB increase was found in Western Nevada (0.145 kJ/m2 per five-year increment, a total 30-year increase of 0.87 kJ/m2. This largest change only represented 17% of total ambient exposure for an average January and 2% of an average July in Western Nevada. The observed trends represent cumulative UVB changes of less than a month, which are not relevant when attempting to estimate human exposure. The observation of small trends should be interpreted with caution due to measurement of satellite parameter inputs (ozone and climatological factors that may impact derived satellite UVR nearly 20% compared to ground level sources. If the observed trends hold, satellite-derived UVB data may reasonably estimate ambient UVB exposures even for outcomes with long latency phases that predate the satellite record.

  6. Sun Jingxia Devotes Herself to Nursing Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    "I really didn’t expect that at my advanced age, I would be awarded the highest honor in international nursing circles," said Mme. Sun Jingxia, 81, who had just returned from Beijing where she received the Nightingale Medal. Wearing a light yellow suit, with a collar bordered in red, Sun is inhigh spirits, reminding people of the beauty of the setting sun. It is clear that Sun Jingxia has deep feelings as she looks at the medal which shows a relief of Florence Nightingale’s head. She spoke in her usual soft voice but with some excitement, "President Jiang

  7. Occupational sun protection: workplace culture, equipment provision and outdoor workers' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew; McCool, Judith P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe outdoor workers' sun-protective practices, workplace sun-safety culture and sun-protective equipment provision; investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with sun-protective practices; and identify potential strategies for improving workers' sun protection. The present study used a clustered survey design with randomly identified employers in nine occupations. Employees provided questionnaire measures of demographics, personal characteristics (skin type, skin cancer risk perceptions, tanning attitudes, sun-exposure knowledge), personal occupational sun protection practices (exposure reduction, use of sun-protective clothing, sunscreen and shade), workplace sun-protective equipment provision and perceived workplace sun-safety culture. Summative scores were calculated for attitudes, knowledge, workplace provision and culture. A multivariable model was built with worker and workplace variables as plausible predictors of personal sun protection. In this study, 1,061 workers (69% participation) from 112 workplaces provided sufficient information for analysis. Sex, age, prioritized ethnicity, education and risk perception differed significantly between occupational groups (pworkplace sun-protection equipment provision and supportive culture. After adjustment, each one-point increase in Workplace Sun-safety Culture 2013Score (range 12 points) was associated with a 0.16 higher Personal Sun-Protection Score (pWorkplace Provision Score (range 4 points) was associated with a 0.14 higher score (pworkplace culture are promising components for the development of comprehensive programmes to improve outdoor workers' sun-protective practices.

  8. Regina vs Hubbs: Determining the Sun's Position

    CERN Document Server

    Samra, Raminder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Here I determined the Sun's position as an expert witness for crown counsel. From my calculations I found the Sun's location in the sky was such that it could not impede the driver's vision, as a result it could not have been the reason for the accused to be involved in a motor vehicle accident.

  9. Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3)levels in adult New Zealanders with ethnicity, skin color and self-reported skin sensitivity to sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessvi, Sofia; Johansson, Lisa; Jopson, Jan; Stewart, Alistair; Reeder, Anthony; McKenzie, Richard; Scragg, Robert K

    2011-01-01

    The study aim was to determine the contribution of ethnicity, objectively measured skin color and skin reaction-to-sun exposure to variations in 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3) ]. A multiethnic sample (European, Maori, Pacific and Asian) of 503 adult volunteers aged 18-85 years, recruited from Auckland and Dunedin in New Zealand, answered a questionnaire on sun exposure and self-defined ethnicity. Skin color was measured using a spectrophotometer and the Individual Typology Angle (ITA) calculated. A blood sample was collected 4 weeks later to measure 25(OH)D(3). 25(OH)D(3) was associated with ethnicity, but not self-reported skin reaction-to-sun exposure. Amongst the ethnic groups, Asians had the lowest mean 25(OH)D level (37.0 nmol L(-1)) and Europeans with lighter colored skin had the highest (57.9 nmol L(-1)). An association also was seen between 25(OH)D(3) and skin color, with an increase of 2-3 nmol L(-1) per 10° increase in ITA value, indicating higher 25(OH)D(3) with lighter skin color; but much of this association disappeared after adjusting for ethnicity. In contrast, ethnicity remained associated with 25(OH)D(3) after adjusting for ITA skin color and skin reaction-to-sun exposure. These results indicate that self-defined ethnicity was a major determinant of variations in serum 25(OH)D(3), while objective measures of skin color explained relatively little additional variation.

  10. Gravitational Lensing Characteristics of the Transparent Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Patla, Bijunath

    2007-01-01

    The transparent Sun is modeled as a spherically symmetric and centrally condensed gravitational lens using recent Standard Solar Model (SSM) data. The Sun's minimum focal length is computed to a refined accuracy of 23.5 +/- 0.1 AU, just beyond the orbit of Uranus. The Sun creates a single image of a distant point source visible to observers inside this minimum focal length and to observers sufficiently removed from the line connecting the source through the Sun's center. Regions of space are mapped where three images of a distant point source are created, along with their associated magnifications. Solar caustics, critical curves, and Einstein rings are computed and discussed. Extremely high gravitational lens magnifications exist for observers situated so that an angularly small, unlensed source appears near a three-image caustic. Types of radiations that might undergo significant solar lens magnifications as they can traverse the core of the Sun, including neutrinos and gravitational radiation, are discusse...

  11. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  12. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  13. "Sunlight is said to be the best of disinfectants"*: the efficacy of sun exposure for reducing fungal contamination in used clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichai, Boaz; Grunwald, Marcelo H; Davidovici, Batya; Shemer, Avner

    2014-07-01

    Tinea pedis is a common chronic skin disease; the role of contaminated clothes as a possible source of infection or re-infection has not been fully understood. The ability of ultraviolet light to inactivate microorganisms has long been known and UV is used in many applications. To evaluate the effectivity of sun exposure in reducing fungal contamination in used clothes. Fifty-two contaminated socks proven by fungal culture from patients with tinea pedis were studied. The samples were divided into two groups: group A underwent sun exposure for 3 consecutive days and group B remained indoors. At the end of each day fungal cultures of the samples were performed. Overall, there was an increase in the percentage of negative cultures with time. The change was significantly higher in socks that were left in the sun (chi-square for linear trend = 37.449, P exposure of contaminated clothes was effective in lowering the contamination rate. This finding enhances the current trends of energy saving and environmental protection, which recommend low temperature laundry.

  14. Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Cioffi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.

  15. Associations of Sun Exposure with 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in a Cohort of Hypertensive Patients: The Graz Endocrine Causes of Hypertension (GECOH Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pilz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunlight-induced vitamin D, synthesis in the skin is the major source of vitamin D, but data on the relationship of sun-related behaviour with vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH levels are relatively sparse. We evaluated whether habitual sun exposure is associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D and PTH levels and whether there exist seasonal variations. We examined 111 hypertensive patients in Austria (latitude 47° N. Frequent sunbathing at home and outdoor sports were associated with higher 25(OHD levels (P<0.05 for both. Red or blond scalp hair as a child, memory of sunburns, preferring sunbathing, frequent stays on the beach or in open-air pools, and solarium use were associated with lower PTH levels (P<0.05 for all. Multiple linear regression analyses including age, sex, and body mass index showed that sun exposure score was significantly associated with 25(OHD (beta coefficient=0.27; P=0.004 and by trend with PTH (beta coefficient=−0.16; P=0.09. These associations were more prominent in summer in which 25(OHD levels were significantly higher compared to winter. Translation of these findings into recommendations for the prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency remains a challenge for the future.

  16. The Sun and How to Observe It

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2009-01-01

    Without the Sun, all life on Earth would perish. But what exactly do we know about this star that lights, heats, and powers Earth? Actually, we know quite a lot, thanks mainly to a host of eager solar observers. Looking directly at the Sun is EXTREMELY hazardous. But many astronomers, both professional and amateur, have found ways to view the Sun safely to learn about it. You, too, can view the Sun in all of its glorious detail. Some of the newest, most exciting telescopes on the market are affordable to amateur astronomers or even just curious sky watchers, and with this guide to what the Sun has to offer, including sunspots, prominences, and flares, plus reviews of the latest instruments for seeing and capturing images of the Sun, you can contribute to humankind’s knowledge of this immense ball of glowing gases that gives us all life. For a complete guide to Sun viewing, see also Total Solar Eclipses and How to Observe Them (2007) by Martin Mobberley in this same series.

  17. Sun-synchronous satellite orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Der-Ming; Zhai, Shen-You

    2004-02-01

    The linearized dynamic equations used for on-board orbit determination of Sun-synchronous satellite are derived. Sun-synchronous orbits are orbits with the secular rate of the right ascension of the ascending node equal to the right ascension rate of the mean sun. Therefore the orbit is no more a closed circle but a tight helix about the Earth. In the paper, instead of treating the orbit as a closed circle, the actual helix orbit is taken as nominal trajectory. The details of the linearized equations of motion for the satellite in the Sun-synchronous orbit are derived. The linearized equations are obtained by perturbing the Keplerian motion with the J2 correction and the effect of sun's attraction being neglected. Combined with the GPS navigation equations, the Kalman filter formulation is given. The particular application considered is the circular Sun-synchronous orbit with the altitude of 800 km and inclination of 98.6°. The numerical example simulated by MATLAB® shows that only the pseudo-range data used in the algorithm still gives acceptable results. Based on the simulation results, we can use the on-board GPS receivers' signal only as an alternative to determine the orbit of Sun-Synchronous satellite and therefore circumvents the need for extensive ground support.

  18. SunPy—Python for solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SunPy Community; Mumford, Stuart J.; Christe, Steven; Pérez-Suárez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J.; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Freij, Nabil; Meszaros, Tomas; Bennett, Samuel M.; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Mampaey, Benjamin; Campos-Rozo, Jose Iván; Kirk, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specializing in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy.

  19. Unintended Sunburn: A Potential Target for Sun Protection Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine F. H. McLeod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand (NZ has the highest melanoma incidence rate in the world. Primary prevention efforts focus on reducing sunburn incidence and increasing sun protective practices in the population. However, sunburn from excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR remains common. To reduce sunburn incidence, it is important to examine those individuals who experience unintended sunburn. This study aims to use data from the NZ Triennial Sun Protection Survey to describe respondents who were not intending to tan but were sunburnt after outdoor UVR exposure. Information on sociodemographics, concurrent weather conditions, sun protection attitudes and knowledge, and outdoor behaviour was also collected. The results showed 13.5% of respondents’ experienced unintended sunburn during the survey weekend but had not attempted to obtain a tan that summer. Respondents who reported unintended sunburn were more likely than others to have been near water and in unshaded areas, used sunscreen, had higher SunSmart knowledge scores, had lower positive attitudes towards tanning, and were outdoors for a longer duration with less body coverage. As sunburn was unintended these respondents’ outdoor sun protective behaviours may be amenable to change. Future public health initiatives should focus on increasing sun protection (clothing and shade and reducing potential barriers to sun protection.

  20. Sun exposure and vitamin D supplementation in relation to vitamin D status of breastfeeding mothers and infants in the global exploration of human milk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Davidson, Barbara; Woo, Jessica G; Peng, Yong-Mei; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; de Lourdes Guerrero, Maria; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2015-02-05

    Although vitamin D (vD) deficiency is common in breastfed infants and their mothers during pregnancy and lactation, a standardized global comparison is lacking. We studied the prevalence and risk factors for vD deficiency using a standardized protocol in a cohort of breastfeeding mother-infant pairs, enrolled in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study, designed to examine longitudinally the effect of environment, diet and culture. Mothers planned to provide breast milk for at least three months post-partum and were enrolled at four weeks postpartum in Shanghai, China (n=112), Cincinnati, Ohio (n=119), and Mexico City, Mexico (n=113). Maternal serum 25(OH)D was measured by radioimmunoassay (Mexico City) seen at 26 weeks of age during fall and winter seasons. Data collected prospectively included vD supplementation, season and sun index (sun exposure×body surface area exposed while outdoors). Differences and factors associated with vD deficiency were evaluated using appropriate statistical analysis. vD deficiency in order of magnitude was identified in 62%, 52% and 17% of Mexican, Shanghai and Cincinnati mothers, respectively (pseason (p=0.001) and sites (pSeason (p=0.022), adding formula feeding (p<0.001) and a higher sun index (p=0.085) predicted higher infant vD status. vD deficiency appears to be a global problem in mothers and infants, though the prevalence in diverse populations may depend upon sun exposure behaviors and vD supplementation. Greater attention to maternal and infant vD status starting during pregnancy is warranted worldwide.

  1. Anisotropic microstructure near the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, W. A.; Grall, R. R.; Spangler, S. R.; Sakurai, T.; Harmon, J. K.

    1996-07-01

    Radio scattering observations provide a means of measuring a two-dimensional projection of the three-dimensional spatial spectrum of electron density, i.e., in the plane perpendicular to the line of sight. Earlier observations have shown that the microstructure at scales of the order of 10 km becomes highly field-aligned inside of 10 Rsolar [Armstrong et al., 1990]. Earlier work has also shown that density fluctuations at scales larger than 1000 km have a Kolmogorov spectrum, whereas the smaller scale structure has a flatter spectrum and is considerably enhanced above the Kolmogorov ``background'' [Coles et al., 1991]. Here we present new observations made during 1990 and 1992. These confirm the earlier work, which was restricted to one source on a few days, but they suggest that the anisotropy changes abruptly near 6 Rsolar which was not clear in the earlier data. The axial ratio measurements are shown on Figure 1 below. The new observations were made with a more uniform sampling of the spatial plane. They show that contours of constant correlation are elliptical. This is apparently inconsistent with the spatial correlation of the ISEE-3 magnetic field which shows a ``Maltese Cross'' shape [Matthaeus et al., 1990]. However this inconsistency may be only apparent: the magnetic field and density correlations need not have the same shape; the scale of the magnetic field correlations is at least 4 orders of magnitude larger; they are much further from the sun; and they are point measurements whereas ours are path-integrated. We also made two simultaneous measurements, at 10 Rsolar, of the anisotropy on scales of 200 to 4000 km. Significant anisotropy was seen on the smaller scales, but the larger scale structure was essentially isotropic. This suggests that the process responsible for the anisotropic microstructure is independent of the larger scale isotropic turbulence. It is then tempting to speculate that the damping of this anisotropic process inside of 6 Rsolar

  2. The Sun's dusty interstellar environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Veerle

    2016-07-01

    The Sun's dusty interstellar environment Interstellar dust from our immediate interstellar neighborhood travels through the solar system at speeds of ca. 26 km/s: the relative speed of the solar system with respect to the local interstellar cloud. On its way, its trajectories are altered by several forces like the solar radiation pressure force and Lorentz force. The latter is due to the charged dust particles that fly through the interplanetary magnetic field. These trajectories differ per particle type and size and lead to varying fluxes and directions of the flow inside of the solar system that depend on location but also on phase in the solar cycle. Hence, these fluxes and directions depend strongly on the configuration of the inner regions and outer regions of the heliosphere. Several missions have measured this dust in the solar system directly. The Ulysses dust detector data encompasses 16 years of intestellar dust fluxes and approximate directions, Stardust captured returned to Earth a few of these particles sucessfully, and finally the Cassini dust detector allowed for compositional information to be obtained from the impacts on the instrument. In this talk, we give an overview of the current status of interstellar dust research through the measurements made inside of the solar system, and we put them in perspective to the knowledge obtained from more classical astronomical means. In special, we focus on the interaction of the dust with the interplanetary magnetic field, and on what we learn about the dust (and the fields) by comparing the available dust data to computer simulations of dust trajectories. Finally, we synthesize the different methods of observation, their results, and give a preview on new research opportunities in the coming year(s).

  3. Perspectives on the Interior of the Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Μ. Chitre

    2000-09-01

    The interior of the Sun is not directly accessible to observations. Nonetheless, it is possible to infer the physical conditions inside the Sun with the help of structure equations governing its equilibrium and with the powerful observational tools provided by the neutrino fluxes and oscillation frequencies. The helioseismic data show that the internal constitution of the Sun can be adequately represented by a standard solar model. It turns out that a cooler solar core is not a viable solution for the measured deficit of neutrino fluxes, and the resolution of the solar neutrino puzzle should be sought in the realm of particle physics.

  4. The Jovian period in the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    The 41-year measurements of the Doppler effect of the photosphere performed at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, discovered two periods of global oscillations of the Sun: 9600.606(12) s and 9597.929(15) s. Their beat period, 398.4(2.9) d, well agrees with a synodic orbital period of Jupiter, PJ = 398.9 d, raising a new problem for solar physics, cosmogony and cosmology. A hypothesis is advanced that the PJ beating of the Sun is induced by gravitation of Jupiter, revolving in a privileged reference system "the Sun - the Earth".

  5. Semiautomatic sun shots with the WIDIF DIflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasson, Jean L.; Hendrickx, Olivier; Marin, Jean-Luc

    2017-07-01

    The determination of magnetic declination angle entails finding two directions: geographic north and magnetic north. This paper deals with the former. The known way to do it by using the sun's calculable orientation in the sky is improved by using a device based on a WIDIF DIflux theodolite and split photocells positioned on its telescope ocular. Given the WIDIF accurate timing and location provided by the onboard GPS receiver, an astronomical computation can be effected to accurately and quickly determine the sun's azimuth and an auxiliary mark's azimuth. The precise sun's crossing of the split photocell, amplified by the telescope's magnification, allows azimuth accuracies of a few seconds of arc.

  6. Assessment of intake of calcium and vitamin D and sun exposure in the context of osteoporosis risk in a study conducted on perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kopiczko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The results of many epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease and develops mainly in women during menopause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diet with particular emphasis on calcium and vitamin D intake and sun exposure in premenopausal women in terms of risk of osteoporosis. Material and methods : The study involved 300 women aged 45-55 years from Warsaw. The method used was a questionnaire assessing the frequency of consumption from the last three months. Exposure to the sun evaluated using a questionnaire prepared in cooperation with the Institute of Food and Nutrition in Warsaw. For the purpose of the project, profiles of attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis were developed. Results : Inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D among the majority of women surveyed was confirmed. The highest percentage of women represented profile VIII: attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis, characterized by insufficient exposure to sunlight and a diet deficient in both calcium and vitamin D. Conclusions: In the diets of women surveyed significant deficiencies of calcium and vitamin D were found, which confirms previous reports on the lack of nutritional support for normal women’s bone mineralization. Among the surveyed women the majority reported insufficient exposure to sunlight as a source of vitamin D additional to food. There is a need for health education of these women in the prevention of osteoporosis and especially paying attention to the proper intake of calcium and more vitamin D in their diet. At the same time, adequate exposure to the sun is vital as it is the main source of vitamin D for the body coming not from the food consumed.

  7. Promoting sun safety among zoo visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J A; Lewis, E C; Eckhardt, L; Slymen, D; Belch, G; Elder, J; Engelberg, M; Eichenfield, L; Achter, A; Nichols, T; Walker, K; Kwon, H; Talosig, M; Gearen, C

    2001-09-01

    Each year, millions of children visit zoological parks, where they are exposed to long bouts of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We conducted a study in the winter and replicated it in the summer to evaluate an intervention for reducing UVR exposure during the zoo visit. Each study used a nonequivalent control group design: one zoological site received the intervention and a second received evaluation only. Key outcome measures consisted of observed prevalence of hat use by exiting children (N = 8,721 and 8,524, respectively, in winter and summer studies) and purchase rates of sunscreen and hats in zoo gift shops. Intervention consisted of tip sheets for parents, children's activities, prompts, and discounts off the price of sunscreen and sun-protective hats. In the summer study, sales of both sunscreen and target hats increased significantly at the intervention site relative to the control site, whereas in the winter study, only sunscreen sales at the intervention site had a significant (relative) increase. Children's hat use increased significantly at the intervention site, but only in the winter study. The multicomponent program was effective in promoting purchases of sun-safe items, but its impact on children's hat use was inconclusive. Copyright 2001 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  8. Finding the lost siblings of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Feltzing, Sofia; Ruchti, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a spectral analysis on 18 stars solar sibling candidate. We found that only one one of the candidateshas solar metallicity and at the same time might have an age comparable to that of the Sun.

  9. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  10. Nilaja Sun's "No Child...": Reflections on Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nilaja; Alexander, Phillip; Huldeen, Branden; Russell, Ron; Friedman, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Nilaja Sun's groundbreaking one-woman show about a TA, her students, and her school, and includes interviews with the author/performer, an excerpt of the work, and a discussion of the organization behind it.

  11. The effects of sun exposure on carotenoid accumulation and oxidative stress in the retina of the House Finch(Haemorhous mexicanus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew B.Toomey; Kevin J.McGraw

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diet-derived carotenoid pigments are concentrated in the retinas of birds and serve a variety of functions, including photoprotection. In domesticated bird species(e.g., chickens and quail), retinal carotenoid pigmentation has been shown to respond to large manipulations in light exposure and provide protection against photodamage. However, it is not known if or how wild birds respond to ecologically relevant variation in sun exposure.Methods: We manipulated the duration of natural sunlight exposure and dietary carotenoid levels in wild-caught captive House Finches(Haemorhous mexicanus), then measured carotenoid accumulation and oxidative stress in the retina.Results: We found no significant effects of sun exposure on retinal levels of carotenoids or lipid peroxidation, in replicate experiments, in winter(Jan–Mar) and spring/summer(May–June). Dietary carotenoid supplementation in the spring/summer experiment led to significantly higher retinal carotenoid levels, but did not affect lipid peroxidation. Carotenoid levels differed significantly between the winter and spring/summer experiments, with higher retinal and lower plasma carotenoid levels in birds from the later experiment.Conclusion: Our results suggest that variation in the duration of exposure to direct sunlight have limited influence on intraspecific variation in retinal carotenoid accumulation, but that accumulation may track other seasonal–environmental cues and physiological processes.

  12. The Sun murrab Baltimaadesse ja Soome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis andis ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun Soomes, Lätis, Leedus ja Eestis üksteist kontserti. Heliplaadi "Here Gomes The Sun" lugu "Hopelessness You" on Soome raadiote tipp 300s neljakümnendal kohal, lugu "Learn the game" on Leedu FM99 raadios 33 enim mängitava loo seas, laul "One of those days" saavutas Läti raadio SWH rokkmuusika edetabelis teise koha.

  13. Optimal control of sun tracking solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    Application of the modern control theory to derive an optimal sun tracking control for a point focusing solar concentrator is presented. A standard tracking problem converted to regulator problem using a sun rate input achieves an almost zero steady state tracking error with the optimal control formulation. However, these control techniques are costly because optimal type algorithms require large computing systems, thus they will be used mainly as comparison standards for other types of control algorithms and help in their development.

  14. The Sun murrab Baltimaadesse ja Soome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis andis ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun Soomes, Lätis, Leedus ja Eestis üksteist kontserti. Heliplaadi "Here Gomes The Sun" lugu "Hopelessness You" on Soome raadiote tipp 300s neljakümnendal kohal, lugu "Learn the game" on Leedu FM99 raadios 33 enim mängitava loo seas, laul "One of those days" saavutas Läti raadio SWH rokkmuusika edetabelis teise koha.

  15. How to Observe the Sun Safely

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Lee

    2012-01-01

    How to Observe the Sun Safely, Second Edition gives all the basic information and advice the amateur astronomer needs to get started in observing our own ever-fascinating star. Unlike many other astronomical objects, you do not need a large telescope or expensive equipment to observe the Sun. And it is possible to take excellent pictures of the Sun with today's low-cost digital cameras! This book surveys what is visible on the Sun and then describes how to record solar features and measure solar activity levels. There is also an account of how to use H-alpha and Calcium-K filters to observe and record prominences and other features of the solar chromosphere, the Sun's inner atmosphere. Because we are just entering a period of high activity on the Sun, following a long, quiet period, this is a great time to get involved with solar observing. Still emphasizing safety first, this Second Edition reflects recent and exciting advances in solar observing equipment. Chapters 6 through 8 have been completely revised ...

  16. Orientation in birds. The sun compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Koenig, K; Ganzhorn, J U; Ranvaud, R

    1991-01-01

    The sun compass was discovered by G. Kramer in caged birds showing migratory restlessness. Subsequent experiments with caged birds employing directional training and clock shifts, carried out by Hoffman and Schmidt-Koenig, showed that the sun azimuth is used, and the sun altitude ignored. In the laboratory, McDonald found the accuracy to be +/- 3 degrees(-)+/- 5 degrees. According to Hoffmann and Schmidt-Koenig, caged birds trained at medium northern latitudes were able to allow for the sun's apparent movement north of the arctic circle, but not in equatorial and trans-equatorial latitudes. In homing experiments, and employing clock shifts, Schmidt-Koenig demonstrated that the sun compass is used by homing pigeons during initial orientation. This finding is the principal evidence for the existence of a map-and-compass navigational system. Pigeons living in equatorial latitudes utilize the sun compass even under the extreme solar conditions of equinox, achieving angular resolution of about 3 degrees in homing experiments. According to preliminary analyses, the homing pigeons' ephemerides are retarded by several weeks (Ranvaud, Schmidt-Koenig, Ganzhorn et al.).

  17. SunPy: Solar Physics in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Perez Suarez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russel

    2015-04-01

    SunPy is a community-developed open-source software library for solar physics. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language which is being increasingly adopted throughout the scientific community as well as further afield. This has resulted in a wide array of software packages useful for scientific computing, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy, etc.), to machine learning (scifitlearn), to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy aims to provide required specialised software for analysing solar and heliospheric datasets in Python. The current version is 0.5 with 0.6 expected to be released later this year. SunPy provides solar data access through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It supports common data types from major solar missions such as images (SDO/AIA, STEREO, PROBA2/SWAP etc.), time series (GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE, PROBA2/LYRA), and radio spectra (e-Callisto, STEREO/WAVES). SunPy’s code base is publicly available through github.com and can be contributed to by anyone. In this poster we demonstrate SunPy’s functionality and future goals of the project. We also encourage interested users to become involved in further developing SunPy.

  18. Knowledge and attitudes of UK university students in relation to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and their sun-related behaviours: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Lucy; Greenfield, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore whether knowledge about the harms of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) influences UK university students' sun-related behaviours and examine in depth their attitudes towards: sun protection, natural and artificial tanning behaviours. Design Qualitative methodology with 15 semistructured, individual interviews. Thematic analysis using the Framework Method with analyst triangulation and member validation. Setting One university in the West Midlands, UK. Participants 15 Caucasian male (n=4) and female (n=11) students, aged 18–22 years, from a UK university. Participants were recruited using convenience sampling from the university's main campus followed by purposive sampling for: gender, course and sun-related behaviours. Results Five main themes emerged: (1) knowledge of UVR; (2) sun-protection practices; (3) attitudes towards tanning; (4) external influences and (5) internal influences. All students knew the associated skin cancer risks from the sun and sunbed use, but this did not appear an important influence in their sun-related behaviours. Body image strongly motivated sun-protection practices and the desire to tan naturally or artificially, across both genders. However, participants' final decision-making appeared to be influenced by their beliefs that practising known harmful sun-related behaviours would not affect them or the perceived susceptibility to sunburn. Beliefs about sunbathing and sunscreen use prompted improper use of sun protection and inadvertently caused more harmful practices. Participants' peers, family and the media had dual roles influencing the development of attitudes towards sun protection and tanning, which contributed to how participants behaved in the sun and their engagement in tanning methods. Conclusions Knowledge about the risk of skin cancer associated with UVR did not strongly influence sun-related behaviours, whereas body image appeared as a key motivator. Attitudes towards sun protection and tanning stemmed

  19. Relative importance of summer sun exposure, vitamin D intake, and genes to vitamin D status in Dutch older adults: The B-PROOF study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; Vaes, Anouk M M; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Swart, Karin M A; Ham, Annelies C; van Dijk, Suzanne C; Enneman, Anke W; Sohl, Evelien; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Lips, Paul; Feskens, Edith J M; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among seniors is high. Whereas sun exposure, vitamin D intake, genes, demographics, and lifestyle have been identified as being important determinants of vitamin D status, the impact of these factors is expected to differ across populations. To improve current prevention and treatment strategies, this study aimed to explore the main determinants of vitamin D status and its relative importance in a population of community-dwelling Dutch older adults. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in 2857 adults aged ≥65 years. Sun exposure was assessed with a structured questionnaire (n=1012), vitamin D intake using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (n=596), and data on genetic variation that may affect 25(OH)D status was obtained for 4 genes, DHCR7 (rs12785878), CYP2R1 (rs10741657), GC (rs2282679), and CYP24A1 (rs6013897) (n=2530). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations vitamin D supplements. Sun exposure (being outside daily during summer: 66±25nmol/L vs not being outside daily during summer: 58±27nmol/L, P=0.02) and vitamin D intake (per unit μg/day during winter/spring: 3.1±0.75nmol/L, Pvitamin D intake (R(2)=0.24), and genes (R(2)=0.28) explained 35% (R(2)=0.35) of the variation in 25(OH)D concentrations during summer/autumn period, when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and self-rated health status (n=185). The investigated determinants explained 35% of 25(OH)D status. Of the three main determinants under study, sun exposure still appeared to be an important determinant of serum 25(OH)D in older individuals, closely followed by genes, and vitamin D intake. Given the low frequency of vitamin D supplement use in this population, promoting supplement use may be an inexpensive, easy, and effective strategy to fight vitamin D deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Myopia in young adults is inversely related to an objective marker of ocular sun exposure: the Western Australian Raine cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Charlotte M; Sherwin, Justin C; Yazar, Seyhan; Forward, Hannah; Tan, Alex X; Hewitt, Alex W; Pennell, Craig E; McAllister, Ian L; Young, Terri L; Coroneo, Minas T; Mackey, David A

    2014-11-01

    To determine the association between ocular sun exposure measured by conjunctival ultraviolet (UV) autofluorescence and myopic refractive error in young adults. Cross-sectional study. setting: Population-based cohort in Western Australia. study population: Total of 1344 mostly white subjects aged 19-22 years in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Eye Health Study. observation procedures: Cycloplegic autorefraction, conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence photography, participant questionnaire. main outcome measures: Prevalence of myopic refractive error (spherical equivalent less than -0.50 diopters) and area of conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence in mm(2). There was an inverse relationship between myopic refractive error and ocular sun exposure, with more than double the prevalence of myopia in the lowest quartile of conjunctival autofluorescence than the highest quartile (33.0% vs 15.6%). Median area of autofluorescence was significantly lower in myopic than in nonmyopic subjects (31.9 mm(2) vs 47.9 mm(2), P exposure, even after adjustment for potential confounders. This further supports the inverse association between outdoor activity and myopia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The sun and space weather Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    This second edition is a great enhancement of literature which will help the reader get deeper into the specific topics. There are new sections included such as space weather data sources and examples, new satellite missions, and the latest results. At the end a comprehensive index is given which will allow the reader to quickly find his topics of interest. The Sun and Space weather are two rapidly evolving topics. The importance of the Sun for the Earth, life on Earth, climate and weather processes was recognized long ago by the ancients. Now, for the first time there is a continuous surveillance of solar activity at nearly all wavelengths. These data can be used to improve our understanding of the complex Sun-Earth interaction. The first chapters of the book deal with the Sun as a star and its activity phenomena as well as its activity cycle in order to understand the complex physics of the Sun-Earth system. The reader will see that there are many phenomena but still no definite explanations and models exis...

  2. The Sun Sense Study: An Intervention to Improve Sun Protection in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Alice; Shaheen, Magda; Glenn, Beth A.; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on parental knowledge, sun avoidance behaviors, and sun protection practices in children 3-10 years. Methods: A randomized trial at a pediatric clinic recruited 197 caregiver-child pairs (90% parents). Intervention included a brief presentation and brochure for the parent and…

  3. Sun protection in newborns. A comparison of educational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L; Berwick, M; Fine, J A; Simpson, P; Jasmin, M

    1991-10-01

    We investigated the effect of education on the sun exposure of newborns. Mothers of healthy newborns (n = 275) were enrolled in the spring of 1989 and interviewed by telephone in the fall of 1989. The mothers were divided into a control group, a low-level intervention group, and a high-level intervention group. Both the low-level and high-level interventions succeeded in reducing the amount of time the newborns were allowed to spend in direct sunlight. Both types of intervention also resulted in reduced sun exposure time for the mothers. Although the number of mothers who used sunscreen was approximately the same in all three groups, when sunscreen use was controlled for, the intervention groups spent significantly less unprotected time in the sun than the control group. The mothers and newborns in both intervention groups simply spent less time outdoors.

  4. 77 FR 34122 - Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter... to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Sun Air Express, LLC d/b/a Sun...

  5. Sun Exposure and Vitamin D Supplementation in Relation to Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Mothers and Infants in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Dawodu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although vitamin D (vD deficiency is common in breastfed infants and their mothers during pregnancy and lactation, a standardized global comparison is lacking. We studied the prevalence and risk factors for vD deficiency using a standardized protocol in a cohort of breastfeeding mother-infant pairs, enrolled in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study, designed to examine longitudinally the effect of environment, diet and culture. Mothers planned to provide breast milk for at least three months post-partum and were enrolled at four weeks postpartum in Shanghai, China (n = 112, Cincinnati, Ohio (n = 119, and Mexico City, Mexico (n = 113. Maternal serum 25(OHD was measured by radioimmunoassay (<50 nmol/L was categorized as deficient. Serum 25(OHD was measured in a subset of infants (35 Shanghai, 47 Cincinnati and 45 Mexico City seen at 26 weeks of age during fall and winter seasons. Data collected prospectively included vD supplementation, season and sun index (sun exposure × body surface area exposed while outdoors. Differences and factors associated with vD deficiency were evaluated using appropriate statistical analysis. vD deficiency in order of magnitude was identified in 62%, 52% and 17% of Mexican, Shanghai and Cincinnati mothers, respectively (p < 0.001. In regression analysis, vD supplementation (p < 0.01, obesity (p = 0.03, season (p = 0.001 and sites (p < 0.001 predicted maternal vD status. vD deficiency in order of  magnitude was found in 62%, 28%, and 6% of Mexican, Cincinnati and Shanghai infants, respectively (p < 0.001. Season (p = 0.022, adding formula feeding (p < 0.001 and a higher sun index (p = 0.085 predicted higher infant vD status. vD deficiency appears to be a global problem in mothers and infants, though the prevalence in diverse populations may depend upon sun exposure behaviors and vD supplementation. Greater attention to maternal and infant vD status starting during pregnancy is warranted worldwide.

  6. Precise nuclear physics for the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    For many centuries, the study of the Sun has been an important testbed for understanding stars that are further away. One of the first astronomical observations Galileo Galilei made in 1612 with the newly invented telescope concerned the sunspots, and in 1814, Joseph von Fraunhofer employed his new spectroscope to discover the absorption lines in the solar spectrum that are now named after him. Even though more refined and new modes of observation are now available than in the days of Galileo and Fraunhofer, the study of the Sun is still high on the agenda of contemporary science, due to three guiding interests. The first is connected to the ages-old human striving to understand the structure of the larger world surrounding us. Modern telescopes, some of them even based outside the Earth's atmosphere in space, have succeeded in observing astronomical objects that are billions of light-years away. However, for practical reasons precision data that are important for understanding stars can still only be gained from the Sun. In a sense, the observations of far-away astronomical objects thus call for a more precise study of the closeby, of the Sun, for their interpretation. The second interest stems from the human desire to understand the essence of the world, in particular the elementary particles of which it consists. Large accelerators have been constructed to produce and collide these particles. However, man-made machines can never be as luminous as the Sun when it comes to producing particles. Solar neutrinos have thus served not only as an astronomical tool to understand the Sun's inner workings, but their behavior on the way from the Sun to the Earth is also being studied with the aim to understand their nature and interactions. The third interest is strictly connected to life on Earth. A multitude of research has shown that even relatively slight changes in the Earth's climate may strongly affect the living conditions in a number of densely

  7. Neptune as a Mirror for the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    How would the Kepler mission see a star like the Sun? We now know the answer to this question due to a creative approach: a new study has used the Kepler K2 mission to detect signals from the Sun reflected off of the surface of Neptune.Asteroseismology uses different oscillation modes of a star to probe its internal structure and properties. [Tosaka]Information in OscillationsKeplers most glamorous work is in discovering new planets around other stars. To successfully do this, however, the spacecraft is also quietly doing a lot of very useful work in the background, characterizing the many stars in our vicinity that planets might be found around.One of the ways Kepler gets information about these stars is from oscillations of the stars intensities. In asteroseismology, we look at oscillatory modes that are caused by convection-driven pressure changes on the inside of the star. All stars with near-surface convection oscillate like this including the Sun and by measuring the oscillations in intensity of these stars, we can make inferences about the stars properties.A Planetary MirrorWe do this by first understanding our Suns oscillations especially well (made easier by the fact that its nearby!). Then we use asteroseimic scaling relations determined empirically that relate characteristics like mass and radius of other stars to those of the Sun, based on the relation between the stars oscillation properties to the Suns.The trouble is, those oscillation properties are difficult to measure, and different instruments often measure different values. For this reason, wed like to measure the Suns oscillations with the same instrument we use to measure other stars oscillations: Kepler.Top panel: Kepler K2 49-day light curve of Neptune. Bottom panel: power density spectrum as a function of frequency (grey). Neptunes rotation frequencies and harmonics appear toward the left side (blue); the excess power due to the solar modes is visible toward the bottom right. The green curve

  8. The Spectrum of Darkonium in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Kouvaris, Chris; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter that gets captured in the Sun may form positronium-like bound states if it self-interacts via light dark photons. In this case, dark matter can either annihilate to dark photons or recombine in bound states which subsequently also decay to dark photons. The fraction of the dark photons that leave the Sun without decaying to Standard Model particles have a characteristic energy spectrum which is a mixture of the direct annihilation process, the decays of ortho- and para- bound states and the recombination process. The ultimate decay of these dark photons to positron-electron pairs (via kinetic mixing) outside the Sun creates a distinct signal that can either identify or set strict constraints on dark photon models.

  9. The spectrum of darkonium in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Langæble, Kasper; Grønlund Nielsen, Niklas

    2016-10-01

    Dark matter that gets captured in the Sun may form positronium-like bound states if it self-interacts via light dark photons. In this case, dark matter can either annihilate to dark photons or recombine in bound states which subsequently also decay to dark photons. The fraction of the dark photons that leave the Sun without decaying to Standard Model particles have a characteristic energy spectrum which is a mixture of the direct annihilation process, the decays of ortho- and para- bound states and the recombination process. The ultimate decay of these dark photons to positron-electron pairs (via kinetic mixing) outside the Sun creates a distinct signal that can either identify or set strict constraints on dark photon models.

  10. The sun since the Bronze Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the behavior of the sun during the last 7000 years. The C-14 content in carbonaceous fossil material can be used as an indicator regarding the level of solar activity at the time when the carbon was assimilated in the process of photosynthesis. Living trees, such as the bristlecone pine, provide a solar activity record to about 3000 B.C. The record can be extended with the aid of well-preserved dead wood to beyond 5000 B.C. The results of an analysis of solar activity levels as a function of time on the basis of C-14 contents are presented in a graph. Attention is given to the Maunder Minimum, a history of the sun in the last 5000 years, an interpretation of the major C-14 excursions, and the sun and climate history.

  11. 'My Sun' and 'Guided by the Moon'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Baillie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available My Sun and Guided by the Moon (2012 show the heavily pregnant artist with her swollen belly covered in gold and silver leaf. The work is suggestive that the connectivity experienced by an expectant mother, extends outwards, even as far as her relationship with the cosmos. The 'sun' portrait was taken on a bright September morning, and its partner image, the following October, on the night of a full moon. Female cycles and the importance of time passing during a pregnancy are referenced. Interestingly, bearing in mind that the artist gave birth to a son in November, creating the 'moon' portrait felt like a familiar, empowering and yet isolated expression of selfhood, whilst the 'sun/son' version exuded the energy of a collaboration, and stimulated feelings of joy, liberation and potentiality. By seeming contradiction, the boy was born on a full moon, exactly a month to the day that Guided by the Moon was taken.

  12. Semiautomatic sun shots with the WIDIF DIflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Rasson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The determination of magnetic declination angle entails finding two directions: geographic north and magnetic north. This paper deals with the former. The known way to do it by using the sun's calculable orientation in the sky is improved by using a device based on a WIDIF DIflux theodolite and split photocells positioned on its telescope ocular. Given the WIDIF accurate timing and location provided by the onboard GPS receiver, an astronomical computation can be effected to accurately and quickly determine the sun's azimuth and an auxiliary mark's azimuth. The precise sun's crossing of the split photocell, amplified by the telescope's magnification, allows azimuth accuracies of a few seconds of arc.

  13. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güdel Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have led to the escape of important amounts of atmospheric constituents. The present dry atmosphere of Venus and the thin atmosphere of Mars may be a product of early irradiation and heating by solar high-energy radiation. High levels of magnetic activity are also inferred for the pre-main sequence Sun. At those stages, interactions of high-energy radiation and particles with the circumsolar disk in which planets eventually formed were important. Traces left in meteorites by energetic particles and anomalous isotopic abundance ratios in meteoritic inclusions may provide evidence for a highly active pre-main sequence Sun. The present article reviews these various issues related to the magnetic activity of the young Sun and the consequent interactions with its environment. The emphasis is on the phenomenology related to the production of high-energy photons and particles. Apart from the activity on the young Sun, systematic trends applicable to the entire

  14. The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Marsden, R G; Balogh, A; Gloeckler, G; Geiss, J; McComas, D J; McKibben, R B; MacDowall, R J; Lanzerotti, L J; Krupp, N; Krueger, H; Landgraf, M

    2003-11-14

    Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.

  15. Ra: The Sun for Science and Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development. For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements. Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework. These were to identify and investigate: possible application spin-offs from science missions, possible solar-terrestrial missions dedicated to a particular application, and possible future applications that require technology development. The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions (1962-1980) seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft. A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions (1990-1996) focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In planned missions, Sun/Earth interactions and environmental effects of solar activity are becoming more important. The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions

  16. Haloes around the Moon and the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex; Gaina, Danielle A.

    2008-10-01

    The authors observations of the Haloes around the Moon and the Sun during few last years are reported. A Historical review of the phenomenon is given since the observations by Benvenuto Cellini and Gaston Tissandier is given. A photograph (from eight available) of the Halo around the Sun observed in Chisinau on 21 May 2007 is included. The Halo from 21 May 2007 occured after a very fast increasing of the air temperature during one day by more than 15 Deg. The authors consider, that the phenomenon is due to scattering of light on Cirri clouds(7 km altitude), present on the sky during that day. They formed due to very fast heating.

  17. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  18. Radio emission of the sun and planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleznyakov, V V

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 25: Radio Emission of the Sun and Planets presents the origin of the radio emission of the planets. This book examines the outstanding triumphs achieved by radio astronomy of the solar system. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the physical conditions in the upper layers of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets. This text then examines the three characteristics of radio emission, namely, the frequency spectrum, the polarization, and the angular spectrum. Other chapters consider the measurements of the i

  19. BcSUN1, a B. cinerea SUN-Family Protein, Is Involved in Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Alicia; González, Mario; González, Celedonio; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Brito, Nélida

    2017-01-01

    BcSUN1 is a glycoprotein secreted by Botrytis cinerea, an important plant pathogen that causes severe losses in agriculture worldwide. In this work, the role of BcSUN1 in different aspects of the B. cinerea biology was studied by phenotypic analysis of Bcsun1 knockout strains. We identified BcSUN1 as the only member of the Group-I SUN family of proteins encoded in the B. cinerea genome, which is expressed both in axenic culture and during infection. BcSUN1 is also weakly attached to the cellular surface and is involved in maintaining the structure of the cell wall and/or the extracellular matrix. Disruption of the Bcsun1 gene produces different cell surface alterations affecting the production of reproductive structures and adhesion to plant surface, therefore reducing B. cinerea virulence. BcSUN1 is the first member of the SUN family reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of a filamentous fungus. PMID:28163701

  20. Sociodemographic and Psychological Correlates of Sun Protection Behaviors among Outdoor Workers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak K. Nahar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at a higher risk for developing skin cancer due to their increased sun exposure. The primary objective of this review was to synthesize the current research literature that addresses sociodemographic and psychological factors related to sun protection behaviors in outdoor workers. Two additional purposes were to provide an overview of sun exposure and describe sun protection behaviors of outdoor workers. To identify the studies for this review, a methodical search was performed in the PubMed, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, and ERIC databases. Fifteen studies met the review criteria. Despite regular and prolonged sun exposure, many outdoor workers fail to engage in sufficient sun protection behaviors. Correlates of outdoor workers’ sun protection behaviors include being female, older age, being white, personal skin cancer history, time (hours/years spent at work, sun safety training, perceived prioritization of sun protection, concern about sun exposure, workplace support, families’ expectations, and familial information giving. However, limited attention is given to designing theoretically grounded studies to identify factors to inform future research. There is a need to conduct research based on solid theoretical foundations that explains the relationships among the factors in this domain.

  1. Rational SU(N) Gaudin Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏

    2001-01-01

    We propose the eigenstates and eigenvalues of Hamiltonians of the rational SU(N) Gaudin model based onthe quasi-classical limit of the SU ( N) chain under the periodic boundary condition. Using the quantum inversescattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generation function of the rational SU ( N) Gaudin model.

  2. Asymmetric dark matter and the Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sarkar, Subir

    2010-01-01

    Cold dark matter particles with an intrinsic matter-antimatter asymmetry do not annihilate after gravitational capture by the Sun and can affect its interior structure. The rate of capture is exponentially enhanced when such particles have self-interactions of the right order to explain structure...

  3. SunPy - Python for Solar Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Community, The SunPy; Christe, Steven; Pérez-Suárez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y; Inglis, Andrew R; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Freij, Nabil; Meszaros, Tomas; Bennett, Samuel M; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J; Robitaille, Thomas P; Mampaey, Benjamin; Campos-Rozo, Jose Iván; Kirk, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualisation and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specialising in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from mis...

  4. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ve Got Skin in the Game Anti-Aging Vitamin D Related: What Is Skin Cancer? | True Stories | Ask the Experts Blog Events ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Golf: You've Got Skin in the Game expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter ...

  5. Sino-Sun Architects & Engineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Sino-Sun is an A-Class state architectural design company organized by a group of experts who have returned to China after studying abroad. In the 10 yearssince its establishment, it has grown into an outstanding andwell-known design team, which has influence in the national archi-tectural design field.

  6. Ulysses Passes South Pole of Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程林

    1995-01-01

    On the 14th of September,1994, the fastest scientific instrument in space passed the south pole of the Sun,a place where no human-made object has been before. A spaceprobe called Ulysses made the polar pass at about midday as it continued to collect data on the solar wind,a stream of high-energy sub-atomic

  7. Isotopes Tell Sun's Origin and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, O.; Kamat, Sumeet A.; Mozina, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Modern versions of Aston's mass spectrometer enable measurements of two quantities - isotope abundances and masses - that tell the Sun's origin and operation. Isotope analyses of meteorites, the Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, the solar wind, and solar flares over the past 45 years indicate that fresh, poorly-mixed, supernova debris formed the solar system. The iron-rich Sun formed on the collapsed supernova core and now itself acts as a magnetic plasma diffuser, as did the precursor star, separating ions by mass. This process covers the solar surface with lightweight elements and with the lighter isotopes of each element. Running difference imaging provides supporting evidence of a rigid, iron-rich structure below the Sun's fluid outer layer of lightweight elements. Mass measurements of all 2,850 known nuclides expose repulsive interactions between neutrons that trigger neutron-emission at the solar core, followed by neutron-decay and a series of reactions that collectively generate solar luminosity, solar neutrinos, the carrier gas for solar mass separation, and an outpouring of solar-wind hydrogen from the solar surface. Neutron-emission and neutron-decay generate ~ 65% of solar luminosity; H-fusion ~ 35%, and ~ 1% of the neutron-decay product survives to depart as solar-wind hydrogen. The energy source for the Sun and other ordinary stars seems to be neutron-emission and neutron-decay, with partial fusion of the decay product, rather than simple fusion of hydrogen into helium or heavier elements.

  8. Sun Baiqiu Fights for the Human Cause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    SUN Baiqiu liked to read well known literature from all over the world when she was a little girl. She sympathized with the good-hearted characters and hated the greedy and the evil. She imagined that she would become like a fairy godmother, holding a magic wand and helping the poor but kind people in distress. In 1963 she graduated from Haerbin

  9. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Güdel, M

    2007-01-01

    (abridged) The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have...

  10. What Is the Source of Quiet Sun Transition Region Emission?

    CERN Document Server

    Schmit, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Dating back to the first observations of the on-disk corona, there has been a qualitative link between the photosphere's magnetic network and enhanced transition-temperature plasma emission. These observations led to the development of a general model that describes emission structures through the partitioning of the atmospheric volume with different magnetic loop geometries that exhibit different energetic equilibria. Does the internetwork produce transition-temperature emission? What fraction of network flux connects to the corona? How does quiet sun emission compare with low-activity Sun-like stars? In this work, we revisit the canonical model of the quiet sun, with high-resolution observations from IRIS and HMI in hand, to address those questions. We use over 900 deep exposures of Si IV 1393A from IRIS along with nearly simultaneous HMI magnetograms to quantify the correlation between transition-temperature emission structures and magnetic field concentrations through a number of novel statistics. Our obs...

  11. School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

  12. Interstellar Clouds Near the Sun, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Priscilla C.

    We propose to continue a study of interstellar sight-lines with low total column densities in order to determine the nature (temperature, density, fractional ionization) of the low density gas near the Sun and within the interior of the local superbubble. IUE data, combined with previous Copernicus observations, can be used to delimit the filling factor of nearby low density warm gas, and by default restrict the filling factor of 10^6 K plasma. In the proposed program, observations of MgI and ZnII(and in one region CIV) are combined with cloud maps and ground-based NaI observations (from a separate program) to restrict gas temperature, spatial and electron densities. The Welty et al. (1986) technique for removing fixed pattern noise through observations of a template star (used to flat-field the target stars on a pixel-by-pixel basis) is used to enable 3sigma absorption line detections at the 6-9 mA level, depending on the number of exposures involved. The ultimate goal of both the IUE and ground-based program is to map out the local interstellar medium. Apart from the intrinsic interest of this problem, it will help define regions where ultraviolet sources can be observed with FUSE/Lyman at lambda<912 A.

  13. Observing the Sun with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a space telescope primarily designed to detect high-energy X-rays from faint, distant astrophysical sources. Recently, however, its occasionally been pointing much closer to home, with the goal of solving a few longstanding mysteries about the Sun.Intensity maps from an observation of a quiet-Sun region near the north solar pole and an active region just below the solar limb. The quiet-Sun data will be searched for small flares that could be heating the solar corona, and the high-altitude emission above the limb may provide clues about particle acceleration. [Adapted from Grefenstette et al. 2016]An Unexpected TargetThough we have a small fleet of space telescopes designed to observe the Sun, theres an important gap: until recently, there was no focusing telescope making solar observations in the hard X-ray band (above ~3 keV). Conveniently, there is a tool capable of doing this: NuSTAR.Though NuSTARs primary mission is to observe faint astrophysical X-ray sources, a team of scientists has recently conducted a series of observations in which NuSTAR was temporarily repurposed and turned to focus on the Sun instead.These observations pose an interesting challenge precisely because of NuSTARs extreme sensitivity: pointing at such a nearby, bright source can quickly swamp the detectors. But though the instrument cant be used to observe the bright flares and outbursts from the Sun, its the perfect tool for examining the parts of the Sun weve been unable to explore in hard X-rays before now such as faint flares, or the quiet, inactive solar surface.In a recently published study led by Brian Grefenstette (California Institute of Technology), the team describes the purpose and initial results of NuSTARs first observations of the Sun.Solar MysteriesWhat is NuSTAR hoping to accomplish with its solar observations? There are two main questions that hard X-ray observations may help to answer.How are particles accelerated in

  14. Epidemiological study of sun exposure and visual field damage in children in Primorsko-Goranska County--the risk factors of earlier development of macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojniković, Bozo; Synek, Svatopluk; Mićović, Vladimir; Telezar, Mirna; Linsak, Zeljko

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible harmful effects of solar exposure on visual field damage in children living in Primorsko-Goranska County. Our previous work has shown noxious influence on visual field in children with anamnesis long term exposure to sunlight. This is an extended study, including children in Novi Vinodolski and Gorski kotar. We measured possible defect in isopteric visual field and macular-meridian thresholds. In the area of island of Rab these changes were the biggest, subsequently is Novi Vinodolski and at least Gorski kotar with the smallest range of eye complicates according to exposure to sunlight. These damages correlate with the areas of great solar emission. Damages in periphery isopters of visual field have shown the characteristics of periphery defect invagination, while increased macular thresholds in complete visual field was from 5 to 15Asb. We can conclude that there is direct connection between increased sunlight and long-term exposure to sunlight on one side, and on the other side, damages of retinal perception. Increased sun exposure may represent very important factors in early occurrence and develop of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). It is recommended the children protection in summer months, as well as taking derivates of vitamin A and antioxidants. Nowadays, AMD is one of the most important causes of damaged visual field, pretend to be national problem if we don't use the adequate prevention. World Health Organization has to begin with prevention of AMD, including these risk factors.

  15. The measurement of constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation and estimation of sun exposure in Caucasians with basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1998-01-01

    In two identical and simultaneously performed case-control studies of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) with age-matched, sex-matched and residence-matched controls, skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance spectroscopy in 145 BCC patients...... by all subjects. There were no statistically significant differences in constitutive skin pigmentation at the buttocks between BCC patients and controls (P = 0.96) or between CMM patients and controls (P = 0.13). Facultative skin pigmentation in ultraviolet-exposed sites was not significantly different...... between BCC patients and controls except that women patients had higher pigmentation at the lateral side of the upper arm. For CMM, men patients had higher pigmentation at the lateral side of the upper arm. Self-estimations of sun exposure did not show differences between patients and controls...

  16. A Tracking Sun Photometer Without Moving Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is small, lightweight, and consumes very little electricity as it measures the solar energy attenuated by gases and aerosol particles in the atmosphere. A Sun photometer is commonly used on the Earth's surface, as well as on aircraft, to determine the solar energy attenuated by aerosol particles in the atmosphere and their distribution of sizes. This information is used to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, as well as their distribution sizes. The design for this Sun photometer uses a combination of unique optics and a charge coupled device (CCD) array to eliminate moving parts and make the instrument more reliable. It could be selfcalibrating throughout the year. Data products would be down-welling flux, the direct-diffuse flux ratio, column abundance of gas phase constituents, aerosol optical depth at multiple-wavelengths, phase functions, cloud statistics, and an estimate of the representative size of atmospheric particles. These measurements can be used to obtain an estimate of aerosol size distribution, refractive index, and particle shape. Incident light is received at a light-reflecting (inner) surface, which is a truncated paraboloid. Light arriving from a hemispheric field of view (solid angle 2 steradians) enters the reflecting optic at an entrance aperture at, or adjacent to, the focus of the paraboloid, and is captured by the optic. Most of this light is reflected from an inner surface. The light proceeds substantially parallel to the paraboloid axis, and is detected by an array detector located near an exit aperture. Each of the entrance and exit apertures is formed by the intersection of the paraboloid with a plane substantially perpendicular to the paraboloid axis. Incident (non-reflected) light from a source of limited extent (the Sun) illuminates a limited area on the detector array. Both direct and diffuse illumination may be reflected, or not reflected, before being received on

  17. UV photography, masculinity, and college men's sun protection cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the impact of an ultraviolet (UV) photography intervention and masculinity on college men's sun protection cognitions, including: perceived vulnerability to skin damage, attitudes toward sun protection, willingness to engage in sun protection behaviors, and intentions to receive a skin cancer exam. After completing a baseline survey, participants (N = 152) viewed a black-and-white photo of their face. Half also viewed a photo showing their UV damage. Participants then completed a second survey assessing sun protection cognitions. Regressions revealed that masculinity predicted lower sun protection cognitions, and men in the UV photograph condition reported higher sun protection cognitions. Masculinity by condition interactions showed that the positive effect of UV photography was stronger among masculine men. Negative associations between masculinity and sun protection cognitions were significant only among men who did not receive the intervention. Findings suggest that UV photography is a promising sun protection intervention among masculine men.

  18. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, Mattias, E-mail: emb@kth.se [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Edsjoe, Joakim, E-mail: edsjo@physto.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ohlsson, Tommy, E-mail: tommy@theophys.kth.se [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    The prospects to detect neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes.

  19. How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... other options to prevent UV damage. Too Much Sun Hurts Turning pink? Unprotected skin can be damaged ...

  20. Blinded by the light the secret life of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    1991-01-01

    An investigation into the secrets and the new scientific developments which are changing our perceptions of the sun. The book tackles such questions as: does the sun breathe?; can it make sound?; is its centre ice-cold? The new research in sun science will alter our perception not only of the sun, but of the whole universe and add to the understanding of how the world works. The author has also written "Hothouse Earth" and "The Hole in the Sky".

  1. Observing the sun a pocket field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive solar observing guide for use at the telescope by amateur astronomers at all three levels: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. Users will find invaluable information for identifying features through photos, charts, diagrams in a logical, orderly fashion and then interpreting the observations. Because the Sun is a dynamic celestial body in constant flux, astronomers rarely know for certain what awaits them at the eyepiece. All features of the Sun are transient and sometimes rather fleeting. Given the number of features and the complex life cycles of some solar features, it can be a challenging hobby, and this guide provides all of the guidance necessary to inform observers about the sights and events unfolding before their eyes on the most active and powerful member of our Solar System.

  2. Power producing sun shades; Elproducerende solafskaermninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.; Soerensen, Henrik; Katic, I.; Schmidt-Petersen, H.; AAroe, D.

    2012-01-15

    Integrating photovoltaics into sun shades takes advantage of the best opportunities to capture and utilize solar energy when the shades are most needed to shield users from solar radiation. The report describes results of a development project for solar shading in the form of broad, horizontal and rotating lamellae with solar cells and an integrated control function that simultaneously is optimized based on energy consumption and thermal and visual indoor climate. The project idea was to meet the needs for effective sun protection in the present office, commercial and public buildings, where glass facades are dominant. The conclusion of the development project is that it rarely would be optimal to integrate solar cells into movable shades. This will normally only be relevant in cases where it is justified by architectural considerations. (LN)

  3. Hierarchical analysis of the quiet Sun magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, A Asensio

    2014-01-01

    Standard statistical analysis of the magnetic properties of the quiet Sun rely on simple histograms of quantities inferred from maximum-likelihood estimations. Because of the inherent degeneracies, either intrinsic or induced by the noise, this approach is not optimal and can lead to highly biased results. We carry out a meta-analysis of the magnetism of the quiet Sun from Hinode observations using a hierarchical probabilistic method. This model allows us to infer the statistical properties of the magnetic field vector over the observed field-of-view consistently taking into account the uncertainties in each pixel due to noise and degeneracies. Our results point out that the magnetic fields are very weak, below 275 G with 95% credibility, with a slight preference for horizontal fields, although the distribution is not far from a quasi-isotropic distribution.

  4. A new perspective on quiet Sun magnetism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LITES; Bruce; William

    2009-01-01

    The Hinode mission has provided us with a new, quantitative view of the magnetism of the quiet Sun. It has revealed that the quiet internetwork areas are blanketed by horizontal fields that appear at first sight to have more flux than the vertical fields resolved on the same 0.3 size scale. These measurements point to the possibility that the horizontal fields might be the primary source of the "hidden turbulent flux" of the quiet Sun anticipated from Hanle effect depolarization. In this paper, evidence is presented suggesting that the "seething" horizontal fields observed by Harvey in 2007 and the horizontal fields revealed by Hinode are the same phenomenon. Because the seething fields appear to be of uniform fluctuation over the whole disk, the phenomenon is most likely not associated with the dynamo source of solar activity. Thus, the small-scale "hidden turbulent flux" lends support to the notion of a local solar dynamo acting on granular sizes and time scales.

  5. Under the Lens: Investigating the Sun's Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, William; Klotz, Irene

    2008-11-01

    Sometime around 2012, the waxing 11-year solar cycle once again will reach its peak. Between now and then, magnetically turbulent sunspots, spawned by some still mysterious process, will form near the poles in increasing numbers and migrate toward the Sun's faster-rotating equator in pairs of opposite polarity. Titanic magnetic storms will rage as immense flux tubes rise to the surface in active regions around sunspots and spread out in a boiling sea of electric charge. Magnetic field lines across an enormous range of scales will arc and undulate, rip apart and reconnect, heating the Sun's upper atmosphere and occasionally triggering brilliant flares and multibillion-megaton coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that travel through the solar wind and slam into Earth.

  6. Wreathes of Magnetism in Rapidly Rotating Suns

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Benjamin P; Brun, Allan Sacha; Toomre, Juri

    2009-01-01

    When our Sun was young it rotated much more rapidly than now. Observations of young, rapidly rotating stars indicate that many possess substantial magnetic activity and strong axisymmetric magnetic fields. We conduct simulations of dynamo action in rapidly rotating suns with the 3-D MHD anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code to explore the complex coupling between rotation, convection and magnetism. Here we study dynamo action realized in the bulk of the convection zone for two systems, rotating at three and five times the current solar rate. We find that substantial organized global-scale magnetic fields are achieved by dynamo action in these systems. Striking wreathes of magnetism are built in the midst of the convection zone, coexisting with the turbulent convection. This is a great surprise, for many solar dynamo theories have suggested that a tachocline of penetration and shear at the base of the convection zone is a crucial ingredient for organized dynamo action, whereas these simulations do not includ...

  7. How plants LINC the SUN to KASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Meier, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Linkers of the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes formed by SUN and KASH proteins are conserved eukaryotic protein complexes that bridge the nuclear envelope (NE) via protein-protein interactions in the NE lumen. Revealed by opisthokont studies, LINC complexes are key players in multiple cellular processes, such as nuclear and chromosomal positioning and nuclear shape determination, which in turn influence the generation of gametes and several aspects of development. Although comparable processes have long been known in plants, the first plant nuclear envelope bridging complexes were only recently identified. WPP domain-interacting proteins at the outer NE have little homology to known opisthokont KASH proteins, but form complexes with SUN proteins at the inner NE that have plant-specific properties and functions. In this review, we will address the importance of LINC complex-regulated processes, describe the plant NE bridging complexes and compare them to opisthokont LINC complexes.

  8. International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Series of three US satellites designed to study the solar wind and its interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. ISEE-1 and 2 were placed into highly elliptical Earth orbits. ISEE-3 was placed in a halo orbit at the L1 Lagrangian point between the Sun and Earth. It gave advance warning of solar storms heading towards Earth. (See also INTERNATIONAL COMETARY EXPLORER and EXPLORER.)...

  9. Operational Art and the Rising Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-16

    shall run wild for the first six months or a year, but I have utterly no confidence for the second or third ’Potter, p. 46; Michael Slackman, Target...attack that no american carriers in 26Joseph K. Taussig , "A Tactical View of Pearl Harbor", Paul Stillwell, ed., Air Raid: Pearl Harbor! (Annapolis, MD...Weiner, 1991. Slackman, Michael . Target: Pearl Harbor. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990. Stephan, John J. Hawaii Under the Rising Sun

  10. Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying-Tian; LIM Boon-Han; LIM Chern-Sing

    2006-01-01

    A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuthelevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

  11. Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Tian; Lim, Boon-Han; Lim, Chern-Sing

    2006-01-01

    A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuth-elevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

  12. Outdoor Workers' Use of Sun Protection at Work and Leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This high-participation rate cohort helps characterize sun protection behaviors among outdoor workers. Workers practiced better sun protection at work than on weekends, suggesting that workplace policies supportive of sun protection could be useful for skin cancer prevention in the construction industry.

  13. ON FELICITOUS CHARACTER OF GENERALIZED SUN-GRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Si-hua; YAO Bing; YAO Ming

    2015-01-01

    Felicitous character of some generalized sun-graphs is investigated in this note, and furthermore the exact felicitous labellings of two classes of generalized sun-graphs are obtained by analyzing the structures of the generalized sun-graphs. And the constructed graph theory models in coding theory, communication networks, logistics and other aspects have important applications.

  14. Design and Fabrication of an Albedo Insensitive Analog Sun Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Leijtens, J.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    A sun sensor is usually included in a satellite for optically measuring the position relative to the sun. The accuracy of a conventional sun sensor is affected by reflected sunlight at the nearby earth atmosphere: the albedo radiation. The part of the spectrum at near IR (1.5 μm) is not included in

  15. Exploring Young People's Beliefs and Images about Sun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. M.; Robinson, N. G.; Young, R. McD.; Anderson, P. J.; Hyde, M. K.; Greenbank, S.; Keane, J.; Rolfe, T.; Vardon, P.; Baskerville, D.

    2008-01-01

    To understand young people's low levels of sun protection behaviour, 145 young people (aged 12 to 20 years) were recruited from Queensland, to participate in a one-hour focus group where they discussed issues related to sun protection and images of tanned and non-tanned people. Responses were content analysed to identify common sun protection…

  16. Keeping Cool Close to the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    The germanium detector in the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft is only the size and weight of a can of peaches but will play a critical role in investigating Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun. The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft travels at about 38 kilometers per second and is named after the scientific goals of the mission. It is the first spacecraft to visit Mercury since 1975. MESSENGER must take an oblique route to approach Mercury so that it does not fly past the planet and fall directly into the Sun. The spacecraft will travel 7.9 billion kilometers, flying by Earth once, Venus twice, and Mercury three times before settling into orbit around this mysterious planet. Of all the terrestrial planets, which include Venus, Earth, and Mars, Mercury is the smallest and the densest; its days are 176 Earth days long, two complete orbits of the planet around the Sun. Temperatures range from a high of 450 C on the Sun side during its long day to a low of -185 C on its night side. By studying this extreme planet, scientists hope to better understand how Earth formed and evolved. The GRS, one of the seven lightweight scientific instruments on MESSENGER, will be used to help scientists determine the abundance of elements in Mercury's crust, including the materials that might be ice at its poles. Livermore engineer Norman Madden led the West Coast team effort to design and build the GRS in a collaboration led by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL). The team included Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories as well as University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). The JHUAPL MESSENGER project is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Mission. Because the detector needs to operate at very low temperatures and MESSENGER is close to the Sun, the thermal design to protect the detector was

  17. Watching the Sun to Improve Exoplanet Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Looking for stars that wobble is one of the key ways by which we detect exoplanets: the gravitational pull of planets cause tiny variations in stars radial velocities. But our ability to detect Earth twins is currently limited by our ability to distinguish between radial-velocity variations caused by exoplanets, and those caused by noise from the star itself. A team of scientists has recently proposed that the key to solving this problem may be to examine our own star.Precision Amid NoiseThe radial-velocity technique works well for detecting large planets on close orbits, but detecting an Earth twin requires being able to detect star motion on the order of 10 cm/s! This precision is hard to reach, because activity on the stellar surface i.e., sunspots, plages (bright spots), or granulation can also cause variations in the measured radial velocity for the star, obscuring the signature of a planet.Because the stars were examining arent resolved, we cant track the activity on their surfaces so how can we better understand the imprint that stellar activity has on radial-velocity measurements? A team of scientists has come up with a clever approach: examine the Sun as though it were a distant star.Wealth of InformationThe team, led by Xavier Dumusque (Branco-Weiss Fellow at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and David F. Phillips (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), has begun a project to observe the Sun with a ground-based solar telescope. The telescope observes the full disk of the Sun and feeds the data into the HARPS-N spectrograph in Spain, a spectrograph normally used for radial-velocity measurements of other stars in the hunt for exoplanets.But the team has access to other data about the Sun, too: information from satellites like the Solar Dynamics Observatory and SORCE about the solar activity and total irradiance during the time when the spectra were taken. Dumusque and collaborators have combined all of this information, during a week

  18. The Sun: the Earth light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrilli, Francesco; Giovannelli, Luca; Del Moro, Dario; Piazzesi, Roberto; Catena, Liu` Maria; Amicucci, Giordano; Vittorio, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    We have implemented at Department of Physics of University of Rome Tor Vergata a project called "The Sun: the Earth light source". The project obtained the official endorsement from the IAU Executive Committee Working Group for the International Year of Light. The project, specifically designed for high school students, is focused on the "scientific" study of Sun light by means of a complete acquisition system based on "on the shelf" appropriately CMOS low-cost sensor with free control s/w and self-assembled telescopes. The project (hereafter stage) plan is based on a course of two weeks (60 hours in total). The course contains 20 hours of theoretical lectures, necessary to learn basics about Sun, optics, telescopes and image sensors, and 40 hours of laboratory. During the course, scientists and astronomers share with high schools students, work activities in real research laboratories. High schools teachers are intensely involved in the project. Their role is to share activities with university teachers and realize outreach actions in the home institutions. Simultaneously, they are introduced to innovative teaching methods and the project in this way is regarded as a professional development course. Sun light analysis and Sun-Earth connection through light are the main scientific topics of this project. The laboratory section of the stage is executed in two phases (weeks): First phase aims are the realization of a keplerian telescope and low-cost acquisition system. During this week students are introduced to astronomical techniques used to safety collect and acquire solar light; Second phase aims is the realization of a low-cost instrument to analyse sunlight extracting information about the solar spectrum, solar irradiance and Sun-Earth connection. The proposed stage has been already tested in Italy reached the fifth edition in 2014. Since 2010, the project has been a cornerstone outreach program of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, the Italian Ministry of

  19. Monitoring Holes in the Sun's Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Coronal holes are where the fast solar wind streams out of the Suns atmosphere, sending charged particles on rapid trajectories out into the solar system. A new study examines how the distribution of coronal holes has changed over the last 40 years.Coronal holes form where magnetic field lines open into space (B) instead of looping back to the solar surface (A). [Sebman81]Source of the Fast Solar WindAs a part of the Suns natural activity cycle, extremely low-density regions sometimes form in the solar corona. These coronal holes manifest themselves as dark patches in X-ray and extreme ultraviolet imaging, since the corona is much hotter than the solar surface that peeks through from underneath it.Coronal holes form when magnetic field lines open into space instead of looping back to the solar surface. In these regions, the solar atmosphere escapes via these field lines, rapidly streaming away from the Suns surface in whats known as the fast solar wind.Coronal Holes Over Space and TimeAutomated detection of coronal holes from image-based analysis is notoriously difficult. Recently, a team of scientists led by Kenichi Fujiki (ISEE, Nagoya University, Japan) has developed an automated prediction technique for coronal holes that relies instead on magnetic-field data for the Sun, obtained at the National Solar Observatorys Kitt Peak between 1975 and 2014. The team used these data to produce a database of 3335 coronal hole predictions over nearly 40 years.Latitude distribution of 2870 coronal holes (each marked by an x; color indicates polarity), overlaid on the magnetic butterfly map of the Sun. The low-latitude coronal holes display a similar butterfly pattern, in which they move closer to the equator over the course of the solar cycle. Polar coronal holes are more frequent during solar minima. [Fujiki et al. 2016]Examining trends in the coronal holes distribution in latitude and time, Fujiki and collaborators find a strong correlation between the total area covered

  20. [Research on absolute calibration of sun channel of sun photometer using laser raster scanning method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Bin; Li, Jian-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Bing

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, a new calibration method of absolute spectral irradiance responsivity of sun channel of sun photometer was developed. A tunable laser was used as source and a standard tranfer detector, calibrated against cryogenic absolute radiometer, was used to measure laser beam power. By raster scanning of a single collimated laser beam to generate the uniform irradiance field at the plane of effective aperture stop of sun photometer, the absolute irradiance responsivity of center wavelength of the 870 nm unpolarized sun channels of sun photometer was obtained accurately. The relative spectral irradiance responsivity of corresponding channel was obtained by using lamp-monochromator system and then used to acquire the absolute spectral irradiance responsivity in the laboratory. On the basis of the above results, the top-of-the-atmosphere responsive constant V0 was obtained by integration with extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance data. Comparing the calibration result with that from GSFC, NASA in 2009, the difference is only 3.75%. In the last, the uncertainties of calibration were evaluated and reached to 2.06%. The principle feasibility of the new method was validated.

  1. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma: a study based on ultraviolet radiation measurements and sun diary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2013-02-01

    It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to assess sun exposure after diagnosis of CMM by objective measurements to substantiate advice about sun behaviour. The study population consisted of 24 patients recently diagnosed with CMM during the 7 months preceding the start of the study; 51 controls who matched these recently diagnosed patients in age, sex, occupation and constitutive skin type; and 29 patients diagnosed with CMM between 12 months and 6 years before the start of the study. During a summer season participants filled in sun exposure diaries daily and wore personal electronic UVR dosimeters in a wristwatch that continuously measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema dose. The UVR dose of recently diagnosed patients on days with body exposure was one-third lower, and the number of days using sunscreen was double that of matched controls. However, in patients diagnosed more than 12 months earlier, the UVR dose on days with body exposure was one-third higher and the number of days using sunscreen was half that of recently diagnosed patients. Patients with CMM limited their UVR dose on days with body exposure, and by using sunscreen further reduced UVR reaching the skin, although only immediately after diagnosis. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. The Sun's interior structure and dynamics, and the solar cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Broomhall, A -M; Howe, R; Norton, A A; Thompson, M J

    2014-01-01

    The Sun's internal structure and dynamics can be studied with helioseismology, which uses the Sun's natural acoustic oscillations to build up a profile of the solar interior. We discuss how solar acoustic oscillations are affected by the Sun's magnetic field. Careful observations of these effects can be inverted to determine the variations in the structure and dynamics of the Sun's interior as the solar cycle progresses. Observed variations in the structure and dynamics can then be used to inform models of the solar dynamo, which are crucial to our understanding of how the Sun's magnetic field is generated and maintained.

  3. The Apsidal Precession for Low Earth Sun Synchronized Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkelzen Cakaj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By nodal regression and apsidal precession, the Earth flattering at satellite low Earth orbits (LEO is manifested. Nodal regression refers to the shift of the orbit’s line of nodes over time as Earth revolves around the Sun. Nodal regression is orbit feature utilized for circular orbits to be Sun synchronized. A sun¬-synchronized orbit lies in a plane that maintains a fixed angle with respect to the Earth-Sun direction. In the low Earth Sun synchronized circular orbits are suited the satellites that accomplish their photo imagery missions. Nodal regression depends on orbital altitude and orbital inclination angle. For the respective orbital altitudes the inclination window for the Sun synchronization to be attained is determined. The apsidal precession represents major axis shift, respectively the argument of perigee deviation. The apsidal precession simulation, for inclination window of sun synchronized orbital altitudes, is provided through this paper.

  4. Grand Challenges in the Physics of the Sun and Sun-like Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The study of stellar structure and evolution is one of the main building blocks of astrophysics, and the Sun has an importance both as the star that is most amenable to detailed study and as the star that has by far the biggest impact on the Earth and near-Earth environment through its radiative and particulate outputs. Over the past decades, studies of stars and of the Sun have become somewhat separate. But in recent years, the rapid advances in asteroseismology, as well as the quest to better understand solar and stellar dynamos, have emphasized once again the synergy between studies of the stars and the Sun. In this article I have selected two "grand challenges" both for their crucial importance and because I thnk that these two problems are tractable to significant progress in the next decade. They are (i) understanding how solar and stellar dynamos generate magnetic field, and (ii) improving the predictability of geo-effective space weather.

  5. Carousel Trackers with 1-Sun or 3-Sun Modules for Commercial Building Rooftops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Huang, H, [JX Crystals, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    The goal is lower cost solar electricity. Herein, two evolutional steps are described toward achieving this goal. The first step is to follow the sun with a solar tracker. Herein, a carousel tracker is described for mounting on commercial building flat rooftops in order to produce more kWh per kW relative to fixed PV modules. The second evolutionary improvement is to produce lower cost 3-sun CPV modules where two thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon material is replaced by less expensive mirror material. This paper describes the performance and durability of two prototype installations demonstrating these evolutionary innovations. In the first case, the installation and operation of 2 carousels equipped with traditional flat plate modules is described. In the second case, the operation of a carousel equipped with new 3-sun CPV modules is described. Both systems have been operating as expected for several months through the winter of 2007.

  6. Performance of 3-Sun Mirror Modules on Sun Tracking Carousels on Flat Roof Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Hurt, Rick A [ORNL; Boehm, Robert F [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  7. Performance of 3-sun mirror modules on sun tracking carousels on flat roof buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Lewis; Avery, James; Minkin, Leonid; Maxey, Curt; Gehl, Tony; Hurt, Rick; Boehm, Robert

    2008-08-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  8. Response of container-grown flowering dogwood cultivars to sun/shade production regime, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering dogwood, Cornus florida, ‘Cherokee Brave™’ and ‘Cherokee Princess’ were grown in #5 nursery containers in an amended 100% bark substrate. Treatments were assigned based on exposure time to a full sun/shade condition during the growing season: 1) plants grown in full sun, 2) plants grown in...

  9. Protecting Your Skin from the Sun%防晒护肤之道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋艳君

    2006-01-01

    @@ Protecting your skin Most skin cancer can be prevented. Use the following tips to protect your skin from the sun. You may decrease your chances of developing skin cancer and help prevent wrinkles1. ● Limit your exposure to the sun, especially midday between 10 a.m.and 3 p.m. Seek shady areas,and avoid direct sunlight.

  10. “Prescribing sunshine”: a national, cross-sectional survey of 1,089 New Zealand general practitioners regarding their sun exposure and vitamin D perceptions, and advice provided to patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeder Anthony

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health effects of ultraviolet radiation vary according to wavelength, timing and pattern of exposure, personal characteristics and practices. Negative effects include skin cancers, eye diseases and immune suppression; positive effects primarily relate to endogenous vitamin D production which protects against bone disease. Drafting comprehensive guidelines regarding appropriate sun protective behaviours and vitamin D sufficiency is challenging. Advice given by general practitioners is potentially influential because they are widely respected. Methods A survey instrument was developed, pre-tested and provided to practising GP’s, either by on-line link or mailed, reply paid hard-copy. Odds ratios, differences in means, or ratios of geometric means from regression models are reported for potential predictor variables with 95% confidence intervals. Results Data (demographic, training, practicing, information accessing, confidence in vitamin D knowledge suitable for analysis were obtained from 1,089 GPs (32% participation. Many (43% were ‘not at all confident’ about their vitamin D knowledge. Recent information led 29% to recommend less sun protection during winter months and 10% less all year. Confidence was positively associated with non-‘Western’ medical training, information sources read and practising in a metropolitan centre with a medical school. Reading the Melanoma Clinical Practice Guidelines was associated with lower estimates of the amount of summer sun exposure required to obtain adequate vitamin D. Increasing years in practice was negatively associated with provision of recommended advice about summer and winter sun protection. Greater concern about vitamin D than skin cancer was expressed by females and those in practice longer. Conclusions Concern about the potentially negative impact of skin cancer prevention on vitamin D status may undermine appropriate sun protective recommendations. Reading some

  11. "Prescribing sunshine": a national, cross-sectional survey of 1,089 New Zealand general practitioners regarding their sun exposure and vitamin D perceptions, and advice provided to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony Ivor; Jopson, Janet Ann; Gray, Andrew Robert

    2012-08-17

    The health effects of ultraviolet radiation vary according to wavelength, timing and pattern of exposure, personal characteristics and practices. Negative effects include skin cancers, eye diseases and immune suppression; positive effects primarily relate to endogenous vitamin D production which protects against bone disease. Drafting comprehensive guidelines regarding appropriate sun protective behaviours and vitamin D sufficiency is challenging. Advice given by general practitioners is potentially influential because they are widely respected. A survey instrument was developed, pre-tested and provided to practising GP's, either by on-line link or mailed, reply paid hard-copy. Odds ratios, differences in means, or ratios of geometric means from regression models are reported for potential predictor variables with 95% confidence intervals. Data (demographic, training, practicing, information accessing, confidence in vitamin D knowledge) suitable for analysis were obtained from 1,089 GPs (32% participation). Many (43%) were 'not at all confident' about their vitamin D knowledge. Recent information led 29% to recommend less sun protection during winter months and 10% less all year. Confidence was positively associated with non-'Western' medical training, information sources read and practising in a metropolitan centre with a medical school. Reading the Melanoma Clinical Practice Guidelines was associated with lower estimates of the amount of summer sun exposure required to obtain adequate vitamin D. Increasing years in practice was negatively associated with provision of recommended advice about summer and winter sun protection. Greater concern about vitamin D than skin cancer was expressed by females and those in practice longer. Concern about the potentially negative impact of skin cancer prevention on vitamin D status may undermine appropriate sun protective recommendations. Reading some educational resources was associated with confidence about vitamin D

  12. Autonomous Sun-Direction Estimation Using Partially Underdetermined Coarse Sun Sensor Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.

    In recent years there has been a significant increase in interest in smaller satellites as lower cost alternatives to traditional satellites, particularly with the rise in popularity of the CubeSat. Due to stringent mass, size, and often budget constraints, these small satellites rely on making the most of inexpensive hardware components and sensors, such as coarse sun sensors (CSS) and magnetometers. More expensive high-accuracy sun sensors often combine multiple measurements, and use specialized electronics, to deterministically solve for the direction of the Sun. Alternatively, cosine-type CSS output a voltage relative to the input light and are attractive due to their very low cost, simplicity to manufacture, small size, and minimal power consumption. This research investigates using coarse sun sensors for performing robust attitude estimation in order to point a spacecraft at the Sun after deployment from a launch vehicle, or following a system fault. As an alternative to using a large number of sensors, this thesis explores sun-direction estimation techniques with low computational costs that function well with underdetermined sets of CSS. Single-point estimators are coupled with simultaneous nonlinear control to achieve sun-pointing within a small percentage of a single orbit despite the partially underdetermined nature of the sensor suite. Leveraging an extensive analysis of the sensor models involved, sequential filtering techniques are shown to be capable of estimating the sun-direction to within a few degrees, with no a priori attitude information and using only CSS, despite the significant noise and biases present in the system. Detailed numerical simulations are used to compare and contrast the performance of the five different estimation techniques, with and without rate gyro measurements, their sensitivity to rate gyro accuracy, and their computation time. One of the key concerns with reducing the number of CSS is sensor degradation and failure. In

  13. Magnetic Patches in Internetwork Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wijn, Alfred; Lites, B.; Berger, T.; Shine, R.; Title, A.; Katsukawa, Y.; Tsuneta, S.; Suematsu, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Hinode Team

    2007-05-01

    We study strong flux elements in the quiet sun in the context of the nature of quiet-sun magnetism, its coupling to chromospheric, transition-region and coronal fields, and the nature of a local turbulent dynamo. Strong, kilogauss flux elements show up intermittently as small bright points in G-band and Ca II H images. Although bright points have been extensively studied in the magnetic network, internetwork magnetism has only come under scrutiny in recent years. A full spectrum of field strengths seems to be ubiquitously present in the internetwork at small spatial scales, with the stronger elements residing in intergranular lanes. De Wijn et al. (2005) found that bright points in quiet sun internetwork areas appear recurrently with varying intensity and horizontal motion within long-lived patches that outline cell patterns on mesogranular scales. They estimate that the "magnetic patches" have a mean lifetime of nine hours, much longer than granular timescales. We use multi-hour sequences of G-band and Ca II H images as well as magnetograms recorded by the Hinode satellite to follow up on their results. The larger field of view, the longer sequences, the addition of magnetograms, and the absence of atmospheric seeing allows us to better constrain the patch lifetime, to provide much improved statistics on IBP lifetime, to compare IBPs to network bright points, and to study field polarity of IBPs in patches and between nearby patches. Hinode is an international project supported by JAXA, NASA, PPARC and ESA. We are grateful to the Hinode team for all their efforts in the design, build and operation of the mission.

  14. Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable suns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Baudon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph \\(G = (V,E\\ is arbitrarily vertex decomposable if for any sequence \\(\\tau\\ of positive integers adding up to \\(|V|\\, there is a sequence of vertex-disjoint subsets of \\(V\\ whose orders are given by \\(\\tau\\, and which induce connected graphs. The aim of this paper is to study the recursive version of this problem on a special class of graphs called suns. This paper is a complement of [O. Baudon, F. Gilbert, M. Woźniak, Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable graphs, research report, 2010].

  15. The radiation belt of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    For a given solar magnetic field, the near-Sun (phase-space) density of cosmic ray electrons and positrons of energy above about 10GeV can be calculated from first principles, without any assumptions about the cosmic ray diffusion. This is because the sunlight Compton drag must be more important than diffusion. If the solar magnetic field has an appreciable dipole component, the electron/positron density should have a belt-like dent, perhaps extending to several solar radii. The belt structure appears because the quasi-bound orbits are depopulated by the sunlight Compton drag.

  16. Search for Neutrinos from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1968-09-01

    A solar neutrino detection system has been built to observe the neutrino radiation from the sun. The detector uses 3,900,000 liters of tetrachloroethylene as the neutrino capturing medium. Argon is removed from the liquid by sweeping with helium gas, and counted in a small low level proportional counter. The recovery efficiency of the system was tested with Ar{sup 36} by the isotope dilution method, and also with Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by fast neutrons. These tests demonstrate that Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by neutrino capture can be removed with a 95 percent efficiency by the procedure used.

  17. Dual Axis Light Sensor for Tracking Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Miki; Tambo, Toyokazu

    We have developed convenient light sensors to control a platform of solar cell panel. Dual axis light sensor in the present paper has structure of 5 PD (photodiode) light sensor which is composed of 5 photodiodes attached on a frustum of pyramid(1). Light source can be captured in front of the sensor by rotating the X and Y axis as decreasing the output deviation between two pairs of outside photodiodes. We here report the mechanism of sun tacking using the dual axis 5 PD light sensor and the fundamental results performed in the dark room.

  18. Hinode, the Sun, and public outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaji, K.; Tonooka, H.; Shimojo, M.; Tokimasa, N.; Suzuki, D.; Nakamichi, A.; Shimoikura, I.

    2015-03-01

    Extended Abstract Hinode is a solar observation satellite in Japan and its launch was in September 2006. Its name means ``SUNRISE`` in Japanese. It has three instruments onboard in visible light, X-ray, EUV to solve mystery of coronal heating and origins of magnetic fields. Hinode has been providing us with impressive solar data, which are very important for not only investigating solar phenomena but also giving new knowledge about the sun to the public. In order to efficiently communicate Hinode data to the public, we organized working group for public use of Hinode data. which are composed of both researchers and educators in collaboration. As follow, we introduce our activities in brief. For the public use of Hinode data, at first, we produced two DVDs introducing Hinode observation results. In particular, second DVD contains a movie for kids, which are devloped to picturebook. Now, it is under producing an illustrated book and a planetarium program. It turn out that the DVDs help the public understand the sun from questionnaire surveys. Second, we developed teaching materials from Hinode data and had a science classroom about the sun, solar observations, practice with PC such as imaging software at junior high school. As the results, they had much interests in Hinode data. Third, we have joint observations with high school students and so on in a few years. The students compare their own data with Hinode data and have a presentation at science contests. The joint observations make their motivation higher in their activities. It is important to record and report our activities in some ways. So, we positively publish papers and have presentions in domestic/international meetings. Though we are supported in budget, resources and so on by NAOJ Hinode Team, we apply research funds for promoting our EPO activities and acquire some funds such as NAOJ Joint Research Expenses and Grands-Aid for Scientific Research Funds since the launch. This way, since its launch, we

  19. Selective factors in sun-weather research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the correlations between solar wind/IMF disturbances and subsequent winter troposphere vorticity changes (denoted SV) are reviewed to investigate sun-weather relationships. Uncertainties in the research attempting to link short-term solar variations and associated changes in the lower atmosphere are discussed, and it is noted that such analyses have generally not addressed either the choice of parameters or the selective factors involved in the physical relationships existing between parameters. It is suggested that the identification of a viable mechanism scenario would require a detailed multiparameter selective factor analysis, extending to the investigation of the atmospheric data as well as the solar wind/IMF parameters.

  20. Investigation of possible sun-weather relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Businger, S

    1978-01-01

    Statistical correlations between anomalous solar activity (as denoted by large solar flares, active plages, and interplanetary magnetic sector boundaries) and the circulation of the troposphere are reviewed. Two indices (measuring atmospheric vorticity and mean zonal geostrophic flow in the northern hemisphere) are analyzed in an effort to reveal possible sun-weather relationships. The result of this analysis provides no additional statistical evidence for a connection between solar activity and the weather. Finally, physical mechanisms that have been suggested to explain the claimed correlations are discussed.

  1. Sun-Earth Day Connects History, Culture and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, T.; Thieman, J.

    2003-12-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education forum annually promotes and event called Sun-Earth Day: a national celebration of the Sun, the space around the Earth (geospace), and how all of it affects life on our planet. For the past 3 years this event has provided a venue by which classrooms, museums, planetaria, and at NASA centers have had a sensational time sharing stories, images, and activities related to the Sun-Earth connections and the views o fthe Sun from Earth. Each year we select a different theme by which NASA Space Science can be further related to cross-curricular activities. Sun-Earth Day 2002, "Celebrate the Equinox", drew parallels between Native American Cultures and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection research via cultural stories, interviews, web links, activities and Native American participation. Sun-Earth Day 2003, "Live From the Aurora", shared the beauty of the Aurora through a variety of activities and stories related to perspectives of Northern Peoples. Sun-Earth Day 2004 will share the excitement of the transit of Venus through comparisons of Venus with Earth and Mars, calculations of the distances to nearby stars, and the use of transits to identify extra-solar planets. Finally, Sun-Earth Day 2005 will bring several of these themes together by turning our focus to the history and culture surrounding ancient observatories such as Chaco Canyon, Machu Picchu, and Chichen Itza.

  2. The Sun and the Earth's Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigh Joanna D.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Variations in solar activity, at least as observed in numbers of sunspots, have been apparent since ancient times but to what extent solar variability may affect global climate has been far more controversial. The subject had been in and out of fashion for at least two centuries but the current need to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change has brought it again to the forefront of meteorological research. The absolute radiometers carried by satellites since the late 1970s have produced indisputable evidence that total solar irradiance varies systematically over the 11-year sunspot cycle, relegating to history the term “solar constant”, but it is difficult to explain how the apparent response to the Sun, seen in many climate records, can be brought about by these rather small changes in radiation. This article reviews some of the evidence for a solar influence on the lower atmosphere and discusses some of the mechanisms whereby the Sun may produce more significant impacts than might be surmised from a consideration only of variations in total solar irradiance.

  3. Seismic Sounding of Convection in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Shravan; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

    2015-01-01

    Our Sun, primarily composed of ionized hydrogen and helium, has a surface temperature of 5777~K and a radius $R_\\odot \\approx 696,000$ km. In the outer $R_\\odot/3$, energy transport is accomplished primarily by convection. Using typical convective velocities $u\\sim100\\,\\rm{m\\,s^{-1}}$ and kinematic viscosities of order $10^{-4}$ m$^{2}$s$^{-1}$, we obtain a Reynolds number $Re \\sim 10^{14}$. Convection is thus turbulent, causing a vast range of scales to be excited. The Prandtl number, $Pr$, of the convecting fluid is very low, of order $10^{-7}$\\,--\\,$10^{-4}$, so that the Rayleigh number ($\\sim Re^2 Pr$) is on the order of $10^{21}\\,-\\,10^{24}$. Solar convection thus lies in extraordinary regime of dynamical parameters, highly untypical of fluid flows on Earth. Convective processes in the Sun drive global fluid circulations and magnetic fields, which in turn affect its visible outer layers ("solar activity") and, more broadly, the heliosphere ("space weather"). The precise determination of the depth of sola...

  4. Exoplanets Clue to Sun's Curious Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    A ground-breaking census of 500 stars, 70 of which are known to host planets, has successfully linked the long-standing "lithium mystery" observed in the Sun to the presence of planetary systems. Using ESO's successful HARPS spectrograph, a team of astronomers has found that Sun-like stars that host planets have destroyed their lithium much more efficiently than "planet-free" stars. This finding does not only shed light on the lack of lithium in our star, but also provides astronomers with a very efficient way of finding stars with planetary systems. "For almost 10 years we have tried to find out what distinguishes stars with planetary systems from their barren cousins," says Garik Israelian, lead author of a paper appearing this week in the journal Nature. "We have now found that the amount of lithium in Sun-like stars depends on whether or not they have planets." Low levels of this chemical element have been noticed for decades in the Sun, as compared to other solar-like stars, and astronomers have been unable to explain the anomaly. The discovery of a trend among planet-bearing stars provides a natural explanation to this long-standing mystery. "The explanation of this 60 year-long puzzle is for us rather simple," adds Israelian. "The Sun lacks lithium because it has planets." This conclusion is based on the analysis of 500 stars, including 70 planet-hosting stars. Most of these stars were monitored for several years with ESO's High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher. This spectrograph, better known as HARPS, is attached to ESO's 3.6-metre telescope and is the world's foremost exoplanet hunter. "This is the best possible sample available to date to understand what makes planet-bearing stars unique," says co-author Michel Mayor. The astronomers looked in particular at Sun-like stars, almost a quarter of the whole sample. They found that the majority of stars hosting planets possess less than 1% of the amount of lithium shown by most of the other stars

  5. A new perspective on quiet Sun magnetism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LITES Bruce William

    2009-01-01

    The Hinode mission has provided us with a new, quantitative view of the magnetism of the quiet Sun. It has revealed that the quiet internetwork areas are blanketed by horizontal fields that appear at first sight to have more flux than the vertical fields resolved on the same 0.3″ size scale. These measurements point to the possibility that the horizontal fields might be the primary source of the "hidden turbulent flux" of the quiet Sun anticipated from Hanle effect depolarization. In this paper, evidence is presented suggesting that the "seething" horizontal fields observed by Harvey in 2007 and the horizontal fields revealed by Hinode are the same phenomenon. Because the seething fields appear to be of uniform fluctuation over the whole disk, the phenomenon is most likely not associated with the dynamo source of solar activity. Thus, the small-scale "hidden turbulent flux" lends support to the notion of a local solar dynamo acting on granular sizes and time scales.

  6. Light Work: Contemporary Artists Consider the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Modern day life and timekeepers have profoundly affected the way we conceptualize time and our position in the universe. Over the past year, I have been investigating the apparent movement of the Sun both sculpturally and photographically. In this paper, I discuss my collaborations with Woody Sullivan and highlight several of the sundials, both gigantic and intimate, created by University of Washington students in the class Where is Noon? Regarding Giant Sundials that we co-taught in Spring 2003. I have continued to develop artistic approaches to solar events. Some of these sunworks have not been designed specifically to measure the exact time of day as a classic sundial does, but to stimulate a greater awareness of our subjective and paradoxical relationship to nature and technology. Other, almost domestic, poetic, humorous or intimate ways of interacting with science and technology are being actively explored. I will also provide a background to previous works I have done in relation to the Sun and optics, and briefly mention artists who are using astronomical events as a point of departure.

  7. Two sun-like superflare stars rotating as slow as the Sun*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Daisaku; Notsu, Yuta; Honda, Satoshi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari

    2014-04-01

    We report on the results of high dispersion spectroscopy of two "superflare stars," KIC 9766237 and KIC 9944137 with Subaru/HDS. Superflare stars are G-type main sequence stars, but show gigantic flares compared to the Sun, which have recently been discovered in the data obtained with the Kepler spacecraft. Though most of these stars are thought to have a rotation period shorter than 10 d on the basis of photometric variabilities, the two targets of the present paper are estimated to have rotation periods of 21.8 d and 25.3 d. Our spectroscopic results clarified that these stars have stellar parameters similar to those of the Sun in terms of the effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity. The projected rotational velocities derived by us are consistent with the photometric rotation period, indicating a fairly high inclination angle. The average strength of the magnetic field on the surface of these stars are estimated to be 1-20 G, by using the absorption line of Ca II 8542. We could not detect any hint of binarity in our spectra, although more data are needed to firmly rule out the presence of an unseen low-mass companion. These results claim that the spectroscopic properties of these superflare stars are very close to those of the Sun, and support the hypothesis that the Sun might cause a superflare.

  8. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among women of child-bearing age in Lahore Pakistan, associating with lack of sun exposure and illiteracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid, Kashaf; Rehman, Abdul; Jolliffe, David A; Wood, Kristie; Martineau, Adrian R

    2015-10-12

    Vitamin D status is a key determinant of maternal and neonatal health. Deficiency has been reported to be common in Pakistani women, but information regarding environmental and genetic determinants of vitamin D status is lacking in this population. We conducted a cross-sectional study among three groups of healthy women living in Lahore, Pakistan: university students, students or employees of Medrasas or Islamic Institutes, and employees working in office, hospital or domestic settings. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify environmental and genetic determinants of vitamin D status: polymorphisms in genes encoding the vitamin D receptor, vitamin D 25-hydroxylase enzyme CYP2R1 and vitamin D binding protein [DBP] were investigated. We also conducted analyses to identify determinants of body ache and bone pain in this population, and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of testing for hypocalcaemia and raised serum alkaline phosphatase to screen for vitamin D deficiency. Of 215 participants, 156 (73 %) were vitamin D deficient (serum 25[OH]D illiteracy (adjusted OR 4.0, 95 % CI 1.03-15.52, P = 0.04), illiteracy, decreased sun exposure and lack of multivitamin intake are risk factors.

  9. Suberythemal Sun Exposures at Swedish Schools Depend on Sky Views of the Outdoor Environments - Possible Implications for Pupils' Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagels, Peter; Wester, Ulf; Söderström, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    More scheduled outdoor stay is increasingly advocated for school children. This study measured 2nd, 5th and 8th graders' erythemal UV-exposure in September, March and May at four Swedish schools. We related those exposures, as fractions of total available ambient radiation, to the schools outdoor...... of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for hazard evaluation of UVR but were potentially enough for adequate Vitamin D formation according to a cited model calculation - as illustrated in the results and discussed. The school environments, typical in southern and middle Sweden......, offer enough shade to protect children from overexposure during seasons with potentially harmful solar UV radiation. Pupils' outdoor stay may be extended during September and March. In May extended outdoor stay of the youngest pupils requires a more UVR-protective environment....

  10. Perry, Kelvin, and the age of the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2013-04-01

    Lord Kelvin argued that the Sun had to be between 20 and 100 million years old, based on the assumption that the Sun's energy source was gravitational contraction. As everyone now knows, the Sun's actual power source is the thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium. But Kelvin's number is based on a physical assumption for which he could give no justification: the Sun's density is approximately constant. Had Kelvin assumed instead that the Sun had a small core near a black hole radius - an assumption allowed by the knowledge of physicists at the end of the nineteenth century - he would have obtained an age for the Sun as long as 10 trillion years, completely consistent with the long time scale required for evolution. Conversely, had Kelvin accepted the geologists' time scale, he would have been forced to acknowledge the existence of very dense objects, making it easier for twentieth century astronomers to accept the existence of black holes and neutron stars.

  11. Scalar model of SU(N) glueball \\`a la Heisenberg

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Nonperturbative model of glueball is studied. The model is based on the nonperturbative quantization technique suggested by Heisenberg. 2- and 4-point Green functions for a gauge potential are expressed in terms of two scalar fields. The first scalar field describes quantum fluctuations of a subgroup $SU(n) \\subset SU(N)$, and the second one describes quantum fluctuations of coset $SU(N) / SU(n)$. An effective Lagrangian for the scalar fields is obtained. The coefficients for all terms in the Lagrangian are calculated, and it is shown that they depend on $\\dim SU(n), \\dim SU(N)$. It is demonstrated that spherically symmetric solution describing the glueball does exist.

  12. Sun One Portal Server体系架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇泉

    2003-01-01

    目前,门户市场上存在着国内外多种多样的产品,本文主要介绍Sun公司的Sun ONE Portal Servero Sun ONE Portal Server到目前为止,在全球拥有400多个客户,分布于金融、电信、政府、汽车、制造、教育等行业。Sun ONE Portal Server是Sun ONE的重要组成部分。首先,让我们来看看Sun ONE(Sun Open Net Environment)的

  13. Planning for a brighter future: a review of sun protection and barriers to behavioral change in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlani, Chicky; Orlow, Seth J

    2008-09-15

    Skin cancer is one of the most preventable groups of malignancies; however, skin cancer incidence continues to rise in the United States. The relationship between skin cancer and ultraviolet (UV) radiation is well known. Many interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to UV radiation have been employed throughout the United States. Studies show an increase in knowledge and awareness regarding sun exposure and skin cancer. Unfortunately, sun protection interventions are slow at effecting behavioral change. In this review, we examine current barriers facing youth today in regards to sun protection practices, appropriate age groups to target for intervention, proposed methods of sun protection, the influence of role models in changing sun protective behavior, the stages of behavioral change, and characteristics and techniques of sun protection programs that can not only increase knowledge but actually elicit changes in sun protection behavior.

  14. Multi-Aperture CMOS Sun Sensor for Microsatellite Attitude Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Grassi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the high precision digital sun sensor under development at the University of Naples. The sensor determines the sun line orientation in the sensor frame from the measurement of the sun position on the focal plane. It exploits CMOS technology and an original optical head design with multiple apertures. This allows simultaneous multiple acquisitions of the sun as spots on the focal plane. The sensor can be operated either with a fixed or a variable number of sun spots, depending on the required field of view and sun-line measurement precision. Multiple acquisitions are averaged by using techniques which minimize the computational load to extract the sun line orientation with high precision. Accuracy and computational efficiency are also improved thanks to an original design of the calibration function relying on neural networks. Extensive test campaigns are carried out using a laboratory test facility reproducing sun spectrum, apparent size and distance, and variable illumination directions. Test results validate the sensor concept, confirming the precision improvement achievable with multiple apertures, and sensor operation with a variable number of sun spots. Specifically, the sensor provides accuracy and precision in the order of 1 arcmin and 1 arcsec, respectively.

  15. Sun Protection Belief Clusters: Analysis of Amazon Mechanical Turk Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Schnur, Julie B; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed (i) to determine whether people could be differentiated on the basis of their sun protection belief profiles and individual characteristics and (ii) explore the use of a crowdsourcing web service for the assessment of sun protection beliefs. A sample of 500 adults completed an online survey of sun protection belief items using Amazon Mechanical Turk. A two-phased cluster analysis (i.e., hierarchical and non-hierarchical K-means) was utilized to determine clusters of sun protection barriers and facilitators. Results yielded three distinct clusters of sun protection barriers and three distinct clusters of sun protection facilitators. Significant associations between gender, age, sun sensitivity, and cluster membership were identified. Results also showed an association between barrier and facilitator cluster membership. The results of this study provided a potential alternative approach to developing future sun protection promotion initiatives in the population. Findings add to our knowledge regarding individuals who support, oppose, or are ambivalent toward sun protection and inform intervention research by identifying distinct subtypes that may best benefit from (or have a higher need for) skin cancer prevention efforts.

  16. Interstellar Dust Close to the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, Priscilla C

    2012-01-01

    The low density interstellar medium (ISM) close to the Sun and inside of the heliosphere provides a unique laboratory for studying interstellar dust grains. Grain characteristics in the nearby ISM are obtained from observations of interstellar gas and dust inside of the heliosphere and the interstellar gas towards nearby stars. Comparison between the gas composition and solar abundances suggests that grains are dominated by olivines and possibly some form of iron oxide. Measurements of the interstellar Ne/O ratio by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer spacecraft indicate that a high fraction of interstellar oxygen in the ISM must be depleted onto dust grains. Local interstellar abundances are consistent with grain destruction in ~150 km/s interstellar shocks, provided that the carbonaceous component is hydrogenated amorphous carbon and carbon abundances are correct. Variations in relative abundances of refractories in gas suggest variations in the history of grain destruction in nearby ISM. The large observed ...

  17. Imaging convection and magnetism in the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Shravan

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the field of helioseismology and its outstanding challenges and also offers a detailed discussion of the latest computational methodologies. The focus is on the development and implementation of techniques to create 3-D images of convection and magnetism in the solar interior and to introduce the latest computational and theoretical methods to the interested reader. With the increasing availability of computational resources, demand for greater accuracy in the interpretation of helioseismic measurements and the advent of billion-dollar instruments taking high-quality observations, computational methods of helioseismology that enable probing the 3-D structure of the Sun have increasingly become central. This book will benefit students and researchers with proficiency in basic numerical methods, differential equations and linear algebra who are interested in helioseismology.

  18. Choosing an expected sun protection factor value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, John R; Caswell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sun protection factor, SPF, is a measure of the efficacy of a topical sunscreen product; the higher the SPF, the greater the blockage of ultraviolet-induced erythema. While there are several methods to determine SPF, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) methods are unique. The FDA methods define the label SPF value as the largest whole integer after subtracting an "A" value from the mean SPF. The A value, composed of the product of the upper 5% point of the t-distribution and the standard deviation (SD), divided by √(n), where n equals the number of subjects, has a significant impact on the label SPF value. Two examples explore this impact. Development of strategies to mitigate the impact of A using expected SPF values are explored using historical clinical trial data. A more enlightened choice of expected SPF values is shown to lead to higher label SPF values.

  19. Coronal Mass Ejections: From Sun to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsourakos, S.

    2016-06-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are gigantic expulsions of magnetized plasmas from the solar corona into the interplanetary (IP) space. CMEs spawn ~ 1015 gr of mass and reach speeds ranging between several hundred to a few thousand km/s (e.g., Gopalswamy et al. 2009; Vourlidas et al. 2010). It takes 1-5 days for a CME to reach Earth. CMEs are one of the most energetic eruptive manifestations in the solar system and are major drivers of space weather via their magnetic fields and energetic particles, which are accelerated by CME-driven shocks. In this review we give a short account of recent, mainly observational, results on CMEs from the STEREO and SDO missions which include the nature of their pre-eruptive and eruptive configurations and the CME propagation from Sun to Earth. We conclude with a discussion of the exciting capabilities in CME studies that will soon become available from new solar and heliospheric instrumentation.

  20. An Encounter between the Sun and Venus

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The astronomical event of the year will take place on Tuesday, 8 June, when Venus transits across the disk of the sun. In the framework of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations, the CERN Astronomy Club and the Orion Club invite you to attend their observation of the event on the car park of the Val-Thoiry shopping centre (France) between 7.15 a.m. and 1.30 p.m. Various instruments will be set up in a special tent so that the event can be observed without any risk of damage to the eyes. As the observation of this astronomical event will depend on the weather forecast, confirmation of the above arrangements will be given on the 50th anniversary website the day before.

  1. Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2009-01-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting Cataclysmic Variable (CV) Dwarf Novae systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar and black hole systems. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our a...

  2. Convectively driven vortex flows in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bonet, J A; Almeida, J Sanchez; Cabello, I; Domingo, V

    2008-01-01

    We have discovered small whirlpools in the Sun, with a size similar to the terrestrial hurricanes (<~0.5 Mm). The theory of solar convection predicts them, but they had remained elusive so far. The vortex flows are created at the downdrafts where the plasma returns to the solar interior after cooling down, and we detect them because some magnetic bright points (BPs) follow a logarithmic spiral in their way to be engulfed by a downdraft. Our disk center observations show 0.009 vortexes per Mm^2, with a lifetime of the order of 5 min, and with no preferred sense of rotation. They are not evenly spread out over the surface, but they seem to trace the supergranulation and the mesogranulation. These observed properties are strongly biased by our type of measurement, unable to detect vortexes except when they are engulfing magnetic BPs.

  3. Substructure of Quiet Sun Bright Points

    CERN Document Server

    Andic, Aleksandra; Goode, Phillip R

    2010-01-01

    Since photospheric bright points (BPs) were first observed, there has been a question as to how are they structured. Are they just single flux tubes or a bundle of the flux-tubes? Surface photometry of the quiet Sun (QS) has achieved resolution close to 0.1" with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. This resolution allowed us to detect a richer spectrum of BPs in the QS. The smallest BPs we observed with TiO 705.68 nm were 0.13", and we were able to resolve individual components in some of the BPs clusters and ribbons observed in the QS, showing that they are composed of the individual BPs. Average size of observed BPs was 0.22".

  4. Cartography of the sun and the stars

    CERN Document Server

    Neiner, Coralie

    2016-01-01

    The mapping of the surface of stars requires diverse skills, analysis techniques and advanced modeling, i.e. the collaboration of scientists in various specialties. This volume gives insights into new techniques allowing for the first time to obtain resolved images of stars. It takes stock of what has been achieved so far in Chile, on the ESO VLTI instrument or, in the States, on the CHARA instrument. In recent times interferometry, combined with adaptive optics has allowed to reconstruct images of stars. Besides the Sun (of course) by now five stars have been resolved in detail. In addition to interferometry, this book highlights techniques used for mapping the surfaces of stars using photometry made by space observatories; Zeeman- and Doppler Imaging; mapping the surface element abundances via spectroscopy. This book will also take stock of the best images of the  solar surface, made by connecting the differential rotation to the underlying physical parameters derived from helioseismology. Recent measureme...

  5. What Is the Source of Quiet Sun Transition Region Emission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, D. J.; De Pontieu, Bart

    2016-11-01

    Dating back to the first observations of the on-disk corona, there has been a qualitative link between the photosphere’s magnetic network and enhanced transition-temperature plasma emission. These observations led to the development of a general model that describes emission structures through the partitioning of the atmospheric volume with different magnetic loop geometries that exhibit different energetic equilibria. Does the internetwork produce transition-temperature emission? What fraction of network flux connects to the corona? How does quiet Sun emission compare with low-activity Sun-like stars? In this work, we revisit the canonical model of the quiet Sun, with high-resolution observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and HMI in hand, to address those questions. We use over 900 deep exposures of Si iv 1393 Å from IRIS along with nearly simultaneous HMI magnetograms to quantify the correlation between transition-temperature emission structures and magnetic field concentrations through a number of novel statistics. Our observational results are coupled with analysis of the Bifrost MHD model and a large-scale potential field model. Our results paint a complex portrait of the quiet Sun. We measure an emission signature in the distant internetwork that cannot be attributed to network contribution. We find that the dimmest regions of emission are not linked to the local vertical magnetic field. Using the MHD simulation, we categorize the emission contribution from cool mid-altitude loops and high-altitude coronal loops and discuss the potential emission contribution of spicules. Our results provide new constraints on the coupled solar atmosphere so that we can build on our understanding of how dynamic thermal and magnetic structures generate the observed phenomena in the transition region.

  6. Sun protection use behaviour among University students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sun protection use behaviour among university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 18,687 undergraduate university students aged 18-30 years (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8) from 26 universities in 25 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 57.2% of university students reported liking to sunbathe and of those only 48.1% used sun protection when sunbathing. In multivariate logistic regression, younger age, being female, coming from a wealthy or quite well off economic family background, living in an upper middle or high income country, lighter skin tone, and other health behaviours were found to be associated with sun protection use behaviour. Low sun protection use calls for health promotion programmes to prevent unprotected sun exposure.

  7. Examining young recreational sportswomen's intentions to engage in sun-protective behavior: the role of group and image norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Natalie G; White, Katherine M; Hamilton, Kyra

    2013-01-01

    Researchers examined the sun-protective intentions and behavior of young, Caucasian, Australian sportswomen aged between 17 and 35 years (N = 100). The study adopted a 2 x 2 experimental design, comparing group norms (supportive vs. non-supportive) and image norms (tanned vs. pale) related to sun protection and taking into account group identification with friends and peers in the sport. While no significant findings emerged involving image norms, regression analyses revealed a significant two-way interaction for group norm x identification on recreational sportswomen's intentions to engage in sun protection in the next fortnight. Participants identifying strongly with their group had stronger intentions to engage in sun protection when exposed to a norm reflecting fellow recreational sportswomen engaging in sun-protective actions in comparison to those exposed to a non-supportive group. In addition, while prior intentions to engage in sun protection were not significantly related to sun-protection behavior, post-manipulation intentions after exposure to the sun-protective information that was provided were significantly related to follow-up behavior. Overall, the findings supported the importance of group-based social influences, rather than tanned media images, on sun-protective decisions among young recreational sportswomen and provided a targeted source for intervention strategies encouraging sun safety among this at-risk group for repeated sun exposure.

  8. Sun-Earth Day 2005: Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Hawkins, I.; Odenwald, S.; Mayo, L.

    2005-05-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) annually promotes an event called Sun-Earth Day. For Sun-Earth Day 2005 SECEF has selected a theme called "Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge. This year's Sun-Earth Day theme is your ticket to a fascinating journey through time as we explore centuries of sun watching by a great variety of cultures. From ancient solar motion tracking to modern solar activity monitoring the Sun has always occupied an important spot in mankind's quest to understand the Universe. Sun-Earth Day events usually are centered on the spring equinox around March 21, but this year there has already been a webcast from the San Francisco Exploratorium and the Native American ruins at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico on the day of winter solstice 2004. There will be another webcast on March 20 live from Chichen Itza, Mexico highlighting the solar alignment that makes a serpent appear on one of the ancient pyramids. The website http://sunearthday.nasa.gov has been developed to provide the necessary resources and opportunities for participation by scientists and educators in giving school or general public programs about Sun-Earth Day. The goal is to involve as much of the student population and the public in this event as possible and to help them understand the importance of the Sun for ancient and modern peoples. Through engaging activities available on the website, classrooms and museums can create their own event or participate in one of the opportunities we make available. Scientists, educators, amateur astronomers, and museums are invited to register on the website to receive a free packet of materials about Sun-Earth Day for use in making presentations or programs about the event. Past and future Sun-Earth Days will be discussed as well.

  9. Are sun- and shade-type anatomy required for the acclimation of Neoregelia cruenta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Fernanda; Leal-Costa, Marcos V; Junqueira, Nícia E; Tavares, Eliana S

    2013-01-01

    Sun and shade plants are often discriminated by a number of sun- and shade-type anatomies. Nonetheless, we propose that among tank-bromeliads, changes in rosette architecture satisfy the requirements for coping with contrasting light levels. The tank-bromeliad Neoregelia cruenta naturally colonises sub-habitats ranging from full exposure to direct sunlight, to shaded environments in sand ridge plains. We quantified anatomical and morphological traits of leaves and rosettes of N. cruenta grown under sun and shade conditions. Cells with undulated lateral walls within the water parenchyma are for the first time described for the family. Under high light, leaf blades were wider, shorter, and yellowish. The rosette diameter of sun plants was less than half that of shade plants. Sun leaves overlapped with neighbouring leaves for most of their length, forming a cylindrical rosette where water accumulates. Shade leaves only overlapped in the centre of the rosette. Most anatomical traits were similar under both growth conditions. Stomata were absent from the base of sun leaves, which is probably explained by limited gas exchange at the base of the tight sun-type rosette. Data suggest that the ability of N. cruenta to acclimate to sun and shade is better explained by changes in rosette architecture than by leaf anatomy.

  10. Are sun- and shade-type anatomy required for the acclimation of Neoregelia cruenta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDA REINERT

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sun and shade plants are often discriminated by a number of sun- and shade-type anatomies. Nonetheless, we propose that among tank-bromeliads, changes in rosette architecture satisfy the requirements for coping with contrasting light levels. The tank-bromeliad Neoregelia cruenta naturally colonises sub-habitats ranging from full exposure to direct sunlight, to shaded environments in sand ridge plains. We quantified anatomical and morphological traits of leaves and rosettes of N. cruenta grown under sun and shade conditions. Cells with undulated lateral walls within the water parenchyma are for the first time described for the family. Under high light, leaf blades were wider, shorter, and yellowish. The rosette diameter of sun plants was less than half that of shade plants. Sun leaves overlapped with neighbouring leaves for most of their length, forming a cylindrical rosette where water accumulates. Shade leaves only overlapped in the centre of the rosette. Most anatomical traits were similar under both growth conditions. Stomata were absent from the base of sun leaves, which is probably explained by limited gas exchange at the base of the tight sun-type rosette. Data suggest that the ability of N. cruenta to acclimate to sun and shade is better explained by changes in rosette architecture than by leaf anatomy.

  11. Protecting Yourself from Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing with a tight weave or high-SPF clothing. ■■ Wear wide-brimmed hats and sunglasses with UV protection and side panels. ■■ Take breaks in shaded areas. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National ...

  12. Polar Magnetic Field Reversals of the Sun in Maunder Minimum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. I. Makarov; A. G. Tlatov

    2000-09-01

    A possible scenario of polar magnetic field reversal of the Sun during the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) is discussed using data of magnetic field reversals of the Sun for 1880-1991 and the 14C content variations in the bi-annual rings of the pine-trees in 1600-1730 yrs.

  13. Quadrant to Measure the Sun's Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, A Morgan, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The changing altitude of the Sun (either over the course of a day or longer periods) is a phenomenon that students do not normally appreciate. However, the altitude of the Sun affects many topics in disciplines as diverse as astronomy, meteorology, navigation, or horology, such as the basis for seasons, determination of latitude and longitude, or…

  14. Sun avoidance strategies at the Large Millimeter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souccar, Kamal; Smith, David R.; Schloerb, F. Peter; Wallace, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope observatory is extending its night time operation to the day time. A sun avoidance strategy was therefore implemented in the control system in real-time to avoid excessive heating and damage to the secondary mirror and the prime focus. The LMT uses an "on-the-fly" trajectory generator that receives as input the target location of the telescope and in turn outputs a commanded position to the servo system. The sun avoidance strategy is also implemented "on-the-fly" where it intercepts the input to the trajectory generator and alters that input to avoid the sun. Two sun avoidance strategies were explored. The first strategy uses a potential field approach where the sun is represented as a high-potential obstacle in the telescope's workspace and the target location is represented as a low-potential goal. The potential field is repeatedly calculated as the sun and the telescope move and the telescope follows the induced force by this field. The second strategy is based on path planning using visibility graphs where the sun is represented as a polygonal obstacle and the telescope follows the shortest path from its actual position to the target location via the vertices of the sun's polygon. The visibility graph approach was chosen as the favorable strategy due to the efficiency of its algorithm and the simplicity of its computation.

  15. Relationship Factors and Couples' Engagement in Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, S. L.; Coups, E. J.; Kashy, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals may be more motivated to adopt health practices if they consider the benefits of these behaviors for their close relationships. The goal of this study was to examine couple concordance with sun protection and use the interdependence and communal coping theory to evaluate the role of relationship factors in sun protection. One hundred…

  16. Regular Biology Students Learn Like AP Students with SUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiza, Ann; Luo, Wen; Zhang, Bo; Gruhl, Mary; Nelson, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Ning, Ling; Roberts, Marisa; Knopp, Jonathan; Harrington, Tom; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Marcey, David

    2016-01-01

    The SUN approach to biological energy transfer education is fundamentally different from past practices that trace chemical and energy inputs and outputs. The SUN approach uses a hydrogen fuel cell to convince learners that electrons can move from one substance to another based on differential attraction. With a hydrogen fuel cell, learners can…

  17. Wien's Law and the Temperature of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Mark L.; Katz, Debora M.; Aho, Robert; Diaz-Barriga, James; Petron, Jerome

    2002-10-01

    A simple approach is used in an attempt to determine the temperature of the sun by modeling the sun as a blackbody radiator and applying Wein's Law. Apparently excellent results are obtained, but the results are false as a consequence of two corrections which cancel out.

  18. Mr. Sun Laiyan Appointed as Administrator of CNSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The State Council of the People's Republic of China announced on April 23, 2004 that Mr. Sun Laiyan was appointed to be the Administrator of China National Space Administration (CNSA). Mr. Luan Enjie was announced to retire from the office. Mr. Sun Laiyan, born in October 1957, graduated from Xian Communication

  19. Growth and morphogenesis of sun and shade plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corre, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    A number of species of sun and shade plants in the vegetative phase were grown in different light intensities, different light qualities (r/fr ratio) and different combinations of light intensity and nutrient supply. Sun and shade species were also grown at various plant densities and in interspecif

  20. Description of the Sun as a Star: General Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Theresa; Crannell, Carol Jo

    2000-01-01

    Numerical parameters characterizing the size and energy output of the sun are presented. These values are the standard yardstick by which other stars are measured. The large number of significant digits tabulated here serve mainly to illustrate the precision to which these parameters are known. Also listed are parameters characterizing the earth's orbit around the sun and the intensity of the sun's radiation at the mean orbital distance. The appearance of the sun depends critically on how it is observed. Each type of radiation observed carries specific information about the physical processes at work on the sun. Special types of instruments reveal aspects otherwise invisible. Coronagraphs reveal the dimmer outer regions of the sun's atmosphere otherwise visible only during total solar eclipses. Spectroscopy can reveal motions, magnetic field strengths, temperatures and densities. In situ measurements have revealed the characteristics of the solar wind and extended our knowledge of the solar magnetic field both near the earth and beyond the orbits of the planets. As an example, the sun's disk observed almost simultaneously in six different wavelengths of light is shown. In visible light we can see the white disk of the sun with the dark spots known as sunspots. By analyzing the spectral lines produced by the sun we can measure the strength of the sun's magnetic field at its surface, producing a magnetogram. This magnetogram reveals that the sunspots are regions of intense magnetic field. Further images of the sun reveal that the sunspot regions are just the bases of systems of hot loops which emit radio-waves, ultraviolet light and X-rays. The sun imaged in a spectral line of hydrogen known as "H alpha" is shown. In this line we also see the long dark "filaments". These filaments form in long channels between areas of opposing magnetic field. Such channels can be seen in the ultraviolet image. Data concerning the sun are obtained with many different kinds of

  1. The Sun is Condensed Matter and has a Real Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2014-03-01

    The idea that the Sun was a gaseous in nature was born from 1858-65. At that time, a group of men, including Herbert Spencer, Father Angelo Secchi, Warren de la Rue, Balfour Stewart, and Benjamin Loewy, advanced that the Sun was a ball of gas. In 1865, Hervé Faye was the first to argue that the solar surface was merely an illusion. Dismissing all signs to the contrary, solar physics has promoted this idea to the present day, as manifested by the Standard Solar Model. In this work, overwhelming observational evidence will be presented that the Sun does indeed possess a distinct surface (see P.M. Robitaille, Forty Lines of Evidence for Condensed Matter -- The Sun on Trial: Liquid Metallic Hydrogen as a Solar Building Block, Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 4, 90-143). Our telescopes and satellites are sampling real structures on the surface of the Sun.

  2. Exotic World Blisters Under the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept shows a Jupiter-like planet soaking up the scorching rays of its nearby 'sun.' NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope used its heat-seeking infrared eyes to figure out that a gas-giant planet like the one depicted here is two-faced, with one side perpetually in the cold dark, and the other forever blistering under the heat of its star. The illustration portrays how the planet would appear to infrared eyes, showing temperature variations across its surface. The planet, called Upsilon Andromedae b, was first discovered in 1996 around the star Upsilon Andromedae, located 40 light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. This star also has two other planets orbiting farther out. Upsilon Andromedae b is what's known as a 'hot-Jupiter' planet, because it is made of gas like our Jovian giant, and it is hot, due to its tight, 4.6-day-long jaunt around its star. The toasty planet orbits at one-sixth the distance of Mercury from our own sun. It travels in a plane that is seen neither edge- nor face-on from our solar system, but somewhere in between. Scientists do not know how fast Upsilon Andromedae b is spinning on its axis, but they believe that it is tidally locked to its star, just as our locked moon forever hides its 'dark side' from Earth's view. Spitzer observed Upsilon Andromedae b at five points during the planet's trip around its star. The planet's light levels went up or down, as detected by Spitzer, depending on whether the planet's sunlit or dark side was pointed toward Earth. These data indicate that the temperature difference between the two hemispheres of the planet is about 1,400 degrees Celsius (2,550 degrees Fahrenheit). According to astronomers, this means that the side of the planet that faces the star is always as hot as lava, while the other side could potentially be as cold as ice. Specifically, the hot side of the planet ranges from about 1,400 to 1,650 degrees Celsius (2,550 to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit), and the cold side from about

  3. Evaluation of a sun safety education programme for primary school students in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinau, Daphne; Meier, Christoph R; Gerber, Nathalie; Surber, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The incidence of skin cancer has increased worldwide, with rates being especially high in Switzerland compared with other European countries. Extensive sun exposure during childhood is considered a key factor for skin carcinogenesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of a school-based sun safety education programme developed by the Swiss Cancer Leagues on primary school students' sun-related knowledge, protective behaviours and sunburn rates. In summer 2011, 1-h sun safety education sessions were held at 33 primary schools throughout the Canton of Zurich (North-Eastern Switzerland). Children in the participating school classes (first, second and third graders) answered a questionnaire on their sun-related knowledge, behaviours and sunburn experience shortly before and 1 year after the intervention. Overall, 3110 completed pretest and 1738 post-test questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The evaluation of pretest data showed considerable room for improvement in terms of sun-related knowledge, considering that merely a good half of the children were conscious that the sun may present a hazard to health. Overall, more than 95% of students benefited from the protection of sunscreen (application by parents: 73%; application by child: 66%), but only 36% stated that they generally sought shade on sunny days. After the intervention, knowledge increased considerably and significantly (P<0.0001), but there was no change in sun-protective behaviours (use of sunscreen, seeking shade). However, we observed a nonsignificant trend towards decreased sunburn rates. The brief one-time sun safety education sessions were effective in sustainably improving children's sun-related knowledge and possibly to some extent in decreasing their sunburn rates.

  4. The Chemical Composition of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Martin; Grevesse, Nicolas; Sauval, A. Jacques; Scott, Pat

    2009-09-01

    The solar chemical composition is an important ingredient in our understanding of the formation, structure, and evolution of both the Sun and our Solar System. Furthermore, it is an essential reference standard against which the elemental contents of other astronomical objects are compared. In this review, we evaluate the current understanding of the solar photospheric composition. In particular, we present a redetermination of the abundances of nearly all available elements, using a realistic new three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent hydrodynamical model of the solar atmosphere. We have carefully considered the atomic input data and selection of spectral lines, and accounted for departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) whenever possible. The end result is a comprehensive and homogeneous compilation of the solar elemental abundances. Particularly noteworthy findings are significantly lower abundances of C, N, O, and Ne compared to the widely used values of a decade ago. The new solar chemical composition is supported by a high degree of internal consistency between available abundance indicators, and by agreement with values obtained in the Solar Neighborhood and from the most pristine meteorites. There is, however, a stark conflict with standard models of the solar interior according to helioseismology, a discrepancy that has yet to find a satisfactory resolution.

  5. Framing the Sun and Buildings as Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. S. Brownson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study frames integration of Solar Energy Conversion Systems (SECS with the built environment, addressing on-site limitations for resource allocation in the urban context. The Sun, buildings, and solar technologies are investigated as resource systems within Ostrom’s framework of the commons and shared governance, with associated goods (as resource units appropriated from light conversion (products of daylight, heat, power, shade, money. Light is transient and unevenly distributed across the hours of the day across the year. Building surfaces utilized to convert light into useful products such as electricity are often “area-constrained” and cannot provide total power to all occupants in urban structures. Being unevenly distributed over time and being area-constrained makes the appropriated goods from the solar resource system scarce to commercial buildings and multi-family residences. Scarce commodities require management strategies to distribute the variable returns derived from technologies such as PV and solar hot water. The balance between sustainable urban communities and limited surface area to deliver solar products to all occupants will soon drive communities to consider how the solar goods are managed and allocated. Examples demonstrate management of solar resource and associated goods through collective actions of local communities via utility sponsored models, solar gardens, and crowd-sourced investment.

  6. Supersonic Magnetic Flows in the Quiet Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Borrero, J M; Schlichenmaier, R; Schmidt, W; Berkefeld, T; Solanki, S K; Bonet, J A; Iniesta, J C del Toro; Domingo, V; Barthol, P; Gandorfer, A

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we describe some recent observations of high-speed magnetized flows in the quiet Sun granulation. These observations were carried out with the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) onboard the stratospheric balloon {\\sc Sunrise}, and possess an unprecedented spatial resolution and temporal cadence. These flows were identified as highly shifted circular polarization (Stokes $V$) signals. We estimate the LOS velocity responsible for these shifts to be larger than 6 km s$^{-1}$, and therefore we refer to them as {\\it supersonic magnetic flows}. The average lifetime of the detected events is 81.3 s and they occupy an average area of about 23\\,000 km$^2$. Most of the events occur within granular cells and correspond therefore to upflows. However some others occur in intergranular lanes or bear no clear relation to the convective velocity pattern. We analyze a number of representative examples and discuss them in terms of magnetic loops, reconnection events, and convective collapse.

  7. Observing the Sun with Coronado telescopes telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The Sun provides amateur astronomers with one of the few opportunities for daytime astronomy. In order to see the major features of our nearest star, special telescopes that have a very narrow visible bandwidth are essential. The bandwidth has to be as narrow as 1 A- 10-10 m (1 Angstrom) and centred on the absorption line of neutral hydrogen. This makes many major features of the Suna (TM)s chromosphere visible to the observer. Such narrow-band "Fabry-Perot etalon filters" are high technology, and until the introduction of the Coronado range of solar telescopes, were too expensive for amateur use. The entry-level Coronado telescope, the PST (Personal Solar Telescope) costs under 500. Solar prominences (vast columns of plasma, best seen at the edge of the solar disk), filaments, flares, sunspots, plage and active regions are all visible and can be imaged to produce spectacular solar photographs. Philip Pugh has assembled a team of contributors who show just how much solar work can be done with Coronado telesco...

  8. South Australian adolescent ophthalmic sun protective behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakrou, N; Casson, R; Fung, S; Ferdowsi, N; Lee, G; Selva, D

    2008-06-01

    To study student's knowledge of the effects of sunlight on the eyes, as well as their sun protective behaviours. In total, 640 [corrected] students aged 13-18 years were surveyed in South Australia, during August-September 2004, using a standardized previously used survey. Scores were calculated regarding knowledge about ultraviolet light, sunlight effects on eyes, as well as eye and body protection. Risk factor scores were produced for each student. The data were analysed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA), as well as the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel methods. Results were compared to the same survey conducted in 1995 in Queensland Australia. This group demonstrated a moderate level of knowledge, similar to the 1995 survey. Students in the older age groups demonstrated significantly higher knowledge. The majority of students (74%) owned a pair of sunglasses; however, 44.5% almost never wore their glasses. The reported frequency of wearing sunglasses was significantly related to advertising, believing sunglasses protect the eyes, as well as personal, family, and peer attitudes towards wearing sunglasses. The results of our survey suggest no significant change in knowledge and behaviours of students, compared to the 1995 survey. We feel it is imperative that adolescents be made more aware of the damaging effects of sunlight and the benefits of eye protection. Health promotion campaigns should target the youth and consider that as a group, they are significantly influenced by the media, peers, and family attitudes.

  9. Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role which clouds could play in resolving the Faint Young Sun Paradox (FYSP). Lower solar luminosity in the past means that less energy was absorbed on Earth (a forcing of -50 Wm-2 during the late Archean), but geological evidence points to the Earth being at least as warm as it is today, with only very occasional glaciations. We perform radiative calculations on a single global mean atmospheric column. We select a nominal set of three layered, randomly overlapping clouds, which are both consistent with observed cloud climatologies and reproduce the observed global mean energy budget of Earth. By varying the fraction, thickness, height and particle size of these clouds we conduct a wide exploration of how changed clouds could affect climate, thus constraining how clouds could contribute to resolving the FYSP. Low clouds reflect sunlight but have little greenhouse effect. Removing them entirely gives a~forcing of +25 Wm-2 whilst more modest reduction in their efficacy gives a forcing of +10 ...

  10. Saturation of Stellar Winds from Young Suns

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Takeru K; Kataoka, Ryuho; Kato, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Takuma; Miyahara, Hiroko; Tsuneta, Saku

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged)We investigate mass losses via stellar winds from sun-like main sequence stars with a wide range of activity levels. We perform forward-type magnetohydrodynamical numerical experiments for Alfven wave-driven stellar winds with a wide range of the input Poynting flux from the photosphere. Increasing the magnetic field strength and the turbulent velocity at the stellar photosphere from the current solar level, the mass loss rate rapidly increases at first owing to the suppression of the reflection of the Alfven waves. The surface materials are lifted up by the magnetic pressure associated with the Alfven waves, and the cool dense chromosphere is intermittently extended to 10-20% of the stellar radius. The densities of the corona and transition region above the chromosphere is also high, which leads to efficient radiative losses. Eventually most of the input Poynting energy from the stellar surface escapes by the radiation. As a result, there is no more sufficient energy remained for the kinetic energy...

  11. Catastrophic rotational braking among Sun-like stars. A model of the Sun's rotation evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondoin, P.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Observations of young open clusters show a bimodal distribution of stellar rotation. In those clusters, Sun-like stars group into two main populations of fast and slow rotators. Beyond an age of approximately 600 Myr, the two populations converge towards a single sequence of slow rotators. Aims: The present study addresses the origin of this bimodal distribution and the cause of its observed evolution. Methods: New prescriptions of mass-loss rate and Alfven radius dependences on Rossby number suggested by observations are implemented in a phenomenological model of angular-momentum loss and redistribution. The obtained model is used to calculate the time evolution of a rotation-period distribution of solar-mass stars similar to that observed in the 5 Myr-old NGC 2362 open cluster. The simulated distributions at subsequent ages are compared with those of h Per, the Pleiades, M 50, M 35, and M 37. Results: The model is able to reproduce the appearance and disappearance of a bimodal rotation-period distribution in open clusters providing that a brief episode of large-angular-momentum loss is included in the early evolution of Sun-like stars. Conclusions: I argue that a transitory episode of large-angular-momentum loss occurs on Sun-like stars with Rossby numbers between 0.13 and 0.3. This phenomenon of enhanced magnetic braking by stellar wind would be mainly driven by a rapid increase of mass loss at a critical rotation rate. This scenario accounts for the bimodal distribution of stellar rotation in open clusters with ages between 20-30 Myr and approximately 600 Myr. The mass-loss rate increase could account for a significant fraction of the X-ray luminosity decay of Sun-like stars in the 0.13-0.3 Rossby number range where a transition from the saturated to the non-saturated regime of X-ray emission is observed. Observed correlations between Li abundance and rotation sequences in the Pleiades and M 34 clusters support this scenario.

  12. Traditions of the Sun, One Model for Expanding Audience Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Paglierani, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Internet is a powerful tool with which to expand audience access, bringing students, teachers and the public to places and resources they might not otherwise visit or make use of. We will present Traditions of the Sun, an experiential Web site that invites exploration of the world's ancient observatories with special emphasis on Chaco Culture National Historic Park in the Four Corners region of the US and several sites in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Traditions of the Sun includes resources in English and Spanish along with a unique trilingual on-line book, "Traditions of the Sun, A Photographic Journal," containing explanatory text in Yucatec Maya as well. Traditions of the Sun offers rich opportunities for virtual visits to ancient sites used for solar observing while learning about current NASA research on the Sun and indigenous solar practices within a larger historical and cultural context. The site contains hundreds of photographs, historic images and rich multimedia to help tell the story of the Sun-Earth Connection. Visitors to the site can zoom in on the great Mayan cities of Chichen Itza, Uxmal, Dzibilchaltun, and Mayapan to learn about Mayan astronomy, history, culture, and science. They can also visit Chaco Canyon to watch sunrise over Pueblo Bonito on the summer solstice, take a virtual reality tour of the great kiva at Casa Rinconada or see panoramic vistas from Fajada Butte, an area which, for preservation purposes, is restricted to the public. Traditions of the Sun provides one model of how exploration and discovery can come to life for both formal and informal audiences via the Internet. Traditions of the Sun is a collaborative project between NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum, the National Park Service, Instituto National de Antropologia e Historia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, and Ideum.

  13. THE UBV(RI){sub C} COLORS OF THE SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, I. [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400 Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Michel, R.; Schuster, W. J. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 877, Ensenada, B.C., CP 22800 (Mexico); Sefako, R.; Van Wyk, F. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Tucci Maia, M. [UNIFEI, DFQ-Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Itajuba MG (Brazil); Melendez, J. [Departamento de Astronomia do IAG/USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Sao Paulo, 05508-900 SP (Brazil); Casagrande, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Postfach 1317, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Castilho, B. V. [Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofisica/MCT, Rua Estados Unidos 154, 37504-364 Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2012-06-10

    Photometric data in the UBV(RI){sub C} system have been acquired for 80 solar analog stars for which we have previously derived highly precise atmospheric parameters T{sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H] using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra. UBV and (RI){sub C} data for 46 and 76 of these stars, respectively, are published for the first time. Combining our data with those from the literature, colors in the UBV(RI){sub C} system, with {approx_equal} 0.01 mag precision, are now available for 112 solar analogs. Multiple linear regression is used to derive the solar colors from these photometric data and the spectroscopically derived T{sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H] values. To minimize the impact of systematic errors in the model-dependent atmospheric parameters, we use only the data for the 10 stars that most closely resemble our Sun, i.e., the solar twins, and derive the following solar colors: (B - V){sub Sun} = 0.653 {+-} 0.005, (U - B){sub Sun} = 0.166 {+-} 0.022, (V - R){sub Sun} = 0.352 {+-} 0.007, and (V - I){sub Sun} = 0.702 {+-} 0.010. These colors are consistent, within the 1{sigma} errors, with those derived using the entire sample of 112 solar analogs. We also derive the solar colors using the relation between spectral-line-depth ratios and observed stellar colors, i.e., with a completely model-independent approach, and without restricting the analysis to solar twins. We find (B - V){sub Sun} = 0.653 {+-} 0.003, (U - B){sub Sun} = 0.158 {+-} 0.009, (V - R){sub Sun} = 0.356 {+-} 0.003, and (V - I){sub Sun} = 0.701 {+-} 0.003, in excellent agreement with the model-dependent analysis.

  14. CUNY Sun-Earth Research, Space Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, D. E.; Cheung, T. D.; Marchese, P. J.; Johnson, L. P.; Austin, S.; Tremberger, G.

    2007-05-01

    Faculty and students at Queensborough Community College and Medgar Evers College of the City University of New York (CUNY) have, over several years now, employed simple software familiar to most undergraduate students to perform useful calculations, including statistical analyses, regarding various geophysical phenomena. Topics have included Space Weather, Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) direction and strength fluctuations, geomagnetic and ionospheric responses to solar flares, and Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) events. Our statistical analyses have utilized second-order measures of fluctuation of the IMF strength, especially what we now call the Cheung number: the number of times that the value of Sigma-B, as provided by the ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) data, has exceeded 0.5nT during a 6 hour interval. We have also utilized the Higuchi fractal dimension of various somewhat random fluctuations, including Sigma-B and the brightness or strength of adjacent pixels or data points in somewhat random data sequences in time or spatial dimension, including IMF fluctuations and SOHO (Solar Heliographic Observer) images of the Sun. These we have correlated with each other and with such variables as SEP (Solar Energetic Particle) peak flux, TEC (Total Electron Content) of the ionosphere, and Dst (Disturbance storm-time) in the geomagnetic field. Recent results indicate that the IMF fluctuation measures are well correlated with the SEP peak flux, the Dst, and TEC. Higuchi fractal analysis of SOHO photospheric ultraviolet brightness indicates, consistent with concomitant increased chaos or randomness of photospheric brightness, an increased likelihood of solar flare events or CME affecting interplanetary space and the earth's magnetosphere/ionosphere/atmosphere.

  15. Synthetic Spectroscopy and Photometry for the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. A.

    1993-05-01

    The availability of a digital version of the solar line spectrum (Kitt Peak Preliminary Solar Atlas, Brault & Testerman 1972) has made it possible to carry out detailed comparisons of observed and synthetic spectra. The more accurately the spectrum of the Sun, and other standard stars, can be reproduced, the more likely the line list is to give reliable results in other applications. Detailed comparisons have been made using three lists. The first two are: 1) One which has been used repeatedly by the author and collaborators e.g. Bell, Dickens & Gustafsson (ApJ,229,604,1979); Tripicco & Bell (AJ,103,1285,1992); 2) One derived from Kurucz (Stellar Atmospheres: Beyond Classical Models, Kluwer, Dordrecht, p408,1991) for elements between Ca and Ni, supplemented with lines for other elements from Kurucz & Peytremann (SAO Spec Rept 362,1975) and molecular lines from the author's list (e.g. Bell & Gustafsson MNRAS,236,653,1989). The Kurucz list predicts many lines in the solar spectrum which are either not seen or are observed to be far weaker. The errors in oscillator strength may exceed a factor of 10. On the other hand, there are not a corresponding number of lines which are observed but which are not present in the synthetic spectra. Needless to say, this excess in the computed line absorption will affect the calculation of both model atmospheres and synthetic magnitudes. For example, the computed U-B colors will be too red. In view of these errors, and the much better fit which spectra calculated using the author's lists give to the solar line spectrum, the Kurucz list has been used only to fill in gaps in the author's list, thereby creating a third list. This list also incorporates new laboratory gf values (e.g. O'Brian et al. JOSA B,8,1185,1991). Detailed comparisons of observed and synthetic solar spectra from the different lists are shown.

  16. AsteroFLAG - from the Sun to the stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplin, W J; Elsworth, Y [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Appourchaux, T; Baudin, F [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), Batiment 121, F-91405, Orsay Cedex (France); Arentoft, T; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Kjeldsen, H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ballot, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Postfach 1317, 85741, Garching (Germany); Bazot, M [Centro de AstrofIsica Universidade do Porto, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Bedding, T R [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Creevey, O L [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Duez, V; Garcia, R A [DAPNIA/CEA, CE Saclay, FR-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Fletcher, S T [Faculty of Arts, Computing, Engineering and Sciences, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Gough, D O; Houdek, G [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Jimenez, A; Jimenez-Reyes, S J [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Lazrek, M [LPHEA, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco); Leibacher, J W, E-mail: w.j.chaplin@bham.ac.uk (and others)

    2008-10-15

    We stand on the threshold of a critical expansion of asteroseismology of Sun-like stars, the study of stellar interiors by observation and analysis of their global acoustic modes of oscillation. The Sun-like oscillations give a very rich spectrum allowing the internal structure and dynamics to be probed down into the stellar cores to very high precision. Asteroseismic observations of many stars will allow multiple-point tests of crucial aspects of stellar evolution and dynamo theory. The aims of the asteroFLAG collaboration are to help the community to refine existing, and to develop new, methods for analysis of the asteroseismic data on the Sun-like oscillators.

  17. On the Observations of the Sun in Polynesia

    CERN Document Server

    Rjabchikov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    The role of the Polynesian sun god Tagaloa has been studied. The Polynesian characters Maui-tikitiki, Tane and Tiki were related to the sun as well. The solar data of Easter Island are essential indeed. The rongorongo text on the Santiago staff about the solar eclipse of December 20, 1805 A.D. has been decoded. The Mataveri calendar was probably incised on a rock in 1775 A.D. So, a central event during the bird-man festval was the day of vernal equinox. The priests-astronomers watched not only the sun and the moon, but also some stars of the zodiacal constellations and other bright stars.

  18. Spacecraft Attitude Determination with Earth Albedo Corrected Sun Sensor Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan

    This thesis focuses on advanced modeling of the Earth albedo experienced by satellites in Earth orbit. The model of the Earth albedo maintains directional information of the Earth albedo irradiance from each partition on the Earth surface. This allows enhanced modeling of Sun sensor current outputs......-Method, Extended Kalman Filter, and Unscented Kalman Filter algorithms are presented and the results are compared. Combining the Unscented Kalman Filter with Earth albedo and enhanced Sun sensor modeling allows for three-axis attitude determination from Sun sensor only, which previously has been perceived...

  19. Human eye and the sun hot and cold light

    CERN Document Server

    Vavilov, S I

    1965-01-01

    The Human Eye and the Sun, """"Hot"""" and """"Cold"""" Light is a translation from the Russian language and is a reproduction of texts from Volume IV of S.I. Vavilov, president of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. The book deals with theoretical and practical developments in lighting techniques. The text gives a brief introduction on the relationship of the human eye and the sun, describing the properties of light, of the sun, and of the human eye. The book describes hot (incandescence) and cold light (luminescence) as coming from different sources. These two types of light are compared. The

  20. System modeling based measurement error analysis of digital sun sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; M; insong; XING; Fei; WANG; Geng; YOU; Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Stringent attitude determination accuracy is required for the development of the advanced space technologies and thus the accuracy improvement of digital sun sensors is necessary.In this paper,we presented a proposal for measurement error analysis of a digital sun sensor.A system modeling including three different error sources was built and employed for system error analysis.Numerical simulations were also conducted to study the measurement error introduced by different sources of error.Based on our model and study,the system errors from different error sources are coupled and the system calibration should be elaborately designed to realize a digital sun sensor with extra-high accuracy.

  1. Balloon-Borne System Would Aim Instrument Toward Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system including digital control computer, control sensors, and control actuators aims telescope or other balloon-borne instrument toward Sun. Pointing system and instrument flown on gondola, suspended from balloon. System includes reaction wheel, which applies azimuthal control torques to gondola, and torque motor to apply low-frequency azimuthal torques between gondola and cable. Three single-axis rate gyroscopes measure yaw, pitch, and roll. Inclinometer measures roll angle. Two-axis Sun sensor measures deviation, in yaw and pitch, of attitude of instrument from line to apparent center of Sun. System provides initial coarse pointing, then maintains fine pointing.

  2. The Iconography and Symbolism of Sun God in Urartian Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Gayane

    2016-12-01

    The predominating symbol of the winged sun disc in Urartian religious iconography testifies the significant role and importance of the sun in worship. The stylistic variation and peculiar iconographic features of the winged discs, sacred animals and divine images associated with solar deity shows the relationship between the cult of the sun god, sequence of the different phases of the year and constellations in Urartian culture. Such kind of iconography is possibly formed and stylized in result of interaction of ancient human imaginations, influence of rock paintings and religious beliefs.

  3. Study of Black Consciousness in A Raisin in The Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Kousar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work explores Black Consciousness in A Raisin in the Sun by Hansberry. Black Consciousness elaborates an awareness of and pride in one’s identity as a black person. It analyzes A Raisin in the Sun by applying the theory of Black Consciousness under the perspective of Fanon. This study analysis the drama at three levels: sense of pride on black culture and identity, struggle against Apartheid and Blacks’ resolution to accept the challenges of White Community. Keywords: Black Consciousness, Apartheid, Identity, Culture, A Raisin in the Sun, cross – cultural studies, diasporic, African Literature

  4. The Maunder minimum and the variable sun-earth connection

    CERN Document Server

    Wei Hock Soon, Willie

    2003-01-01

    This book takes an excursion through solar science, science history, and geoclimate with a husband and wife team who revealed some of our sun's most stubborn secrets. E Walter and Annie S D Maunder's work helped in understanding our sun's chemical, electromagnetic and plasma properties. They knew the sun's sunspot migration patterns and its variable, climate-affecting, inactive and active states in short and long time frames. An inactive solar period starting in the mid-seventeenth century lasted approximately seventy years, one that E Walter Maunder worked hard to make us understand: the Maun

  5. Nearest star the surprising science of our sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2014-01-01

    How did the Sun evolve, and what will it become? What is the origin of its light and heat? How does solar activity affect the atmospheric conditions that make life on Earth possible? These are the questions at the heart of solar physics, and at the core of this book. The Sun is the only star near enough to study in sufficient detail to provide rigorous tests of our theories and help us understand the more distant and exotic objects throughout the cosmos. Having observed the Sun using both ground-based and spaceborne instruments, the authors bring their extensive personal experience to this sto

  6. Ultraviolet radiation, sun damage and preventing; Ultrafiolett straaling, solskader og forebygging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, B.; Christensen, T.; Nilsen, L.T.; Hannevik, M.

    2013-03-01

    The report focuses on the large impact of health damages due to excessive UV exposure from natural sun. The first part of the report gives background information on factors significantly affecting the intensity of UV radiation. The second part gives an overview of health effects related to UV exposure, with recommendations on how to avoid excessive UV exposure and still enjoy the positive sides of outdoor activity. The report is intended to contribute to informational activities about sun exposure as recommended by the World Health Organisation and the World Meteorology Organisation. (Author)

  7. Two Sun-like Superflare Stars Rotating as Slow as the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Nogami, Daisaku; Honda, Satoshi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari

    2014-01-01

    We report on the results of high dispersion spectroscopy of two `superflare stars', KIC 9766237, and KIC 9944137 with Subaru/HDS. Superflare stars are G-type main sequence stars, but show gigantic flares compared to the Sun, which have been recently discovered in the data obtained with the Kepler spacecraft. Though most of these stars are thought to have a rotation period shorter than 10 days on the basis of photometric variabilities, the two targets of the present paper are estimated to have a rotation period of 21.8 d, and 25.3 d. Our spectroscopic results clarified that these stars have stellar parameters similar to those of the Sun in terms of the effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity. The projected rotational velocities derived by us are consistent with the photometric rotation period, indicating a fairy high inclination angle. The average strength of the magnetic field on the surface of these stars are estimated to be 1-20 G, by using the absorption line of Ca II 8542. We could not det...

  8. Sun, the Earth, and Near-Earth Space: A Guide to the Sun-Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In a world of warmth and light and living things we soon forget that we are surrounded by a vast universe that is cold and dark and deadly dangerous, just beyond our door. On a starry night, when we look out into the darkness that lies around us, the view can be misleading in yet another way: for the brightness and sheer number of stars, and their chance groupings into familiar constellations, make them seem much nearer to each other, and to us, that in truth they are. And every one of them--each twinkling, like a diamond in the sky--is a white-hot sun, much like our own. The nearest stars in our own galaxy--the Milky Way-- are more than a million times further away from us than our star, the Sun. We could make a telephone call to the Moon and expect to wait but a few seconds between pieces of a conversation, or but a few hours in calling any planet in our solar system.

  9. Sun protection provided by regulation school uniforms in Australian schools: an opportunity to improve personal sun protection during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sun exposure is linked to excessive pigmented mole development and melanoma risk. Clothing provides a physical barrier, protecting skin from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Extending sleeves to elbow length and shorts to knee length has been shown to significantly reduce mole acquisition in preschoolers from tropical Queensland. We used publicly available uniform images and guidelines from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.25°S, n = 43 schools), Cairns (16.87°S, n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.26°S, n = 23) in tropical Australia to objectively determine the body surface proportion covered by regulation school uniforms. Uniforms of nongovernment, large (≥800 students), urban, educationally advantaged schools with comprehensive sun protection policies covered more skin than those of government schools (63.2% vs 62.0%; P schools (63.4% vs 62.3%; P = 0.009), rural (62.7% vs 61.9%; P = 0.002) and educationally disadvantaged schools (62.8% vs 62.3%; P school uniforms covered identical body surface proportions (62.4%, P = 0.084). Although wearing regulation school uniforms is mandatory at most Australian primary schools, this opportunity to improve children's sun protection is largely overlooked. Recent evidence suggests that even encouraging minor alterations to school uniforms (e.g. slightly longer sleeves/dresses/skirts/shorts) to increase skin coverage may reduce mole acquisition and melanoma risk, especially in high-risk populations.

  10. Low Frequency Radio Emission from the 'Quiet' Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Ramesh

    2000-09-01

    We present observations of the 'quiet' Sun close to the recent solar minimum (Cycle 22), with the Gauribidanur radioheliograph. Our main conclusion is that coronal streamers also influence the observed radio brightness temperature.

  11. On Sun-to-Earth Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ying D; Lugaz, Noé; Möstl, Christian; Davies, Jackie A; Bale, Stuart D; Lin, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how coronal mass ejections (CMEs) propagate through, and interact with, the inner heliosphere between the Sun and Earth, a key question in CME research and space weather forecasting. CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics are constrained by combining wide-angle heliospheric imaging observations, interplanetary radio type II bursts and in situ measurements from multiple vantage points. We select three events for this study, the 2012 January 19, 23, and March 7 CMEs. Different from previous event studies, this work attempts to create a general picture for CME Sun-to-Earth propagation and compare different techniques for determining CME interplanetary kinematics. Key results are obtained concerning CME Sun-to-Earth propagation. Our comparison between different techniques (and data sets) also has important implications for CME observations and their interpretations. Future CME observations and space weather forecasting are discussed based on these results. See detail in the PDF.

  12. Clothing reduces the sun protection factor of sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Haedersdal, M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF)....

  13. Some Melanoma Survivors Still Seek Out the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163887.html Some Melanoma Survivors Still Seek Out the Sun 1 in ... Even after surviving the potentially deadly skin cancer melanoma, some people continue to go out in the ...

  14. A New Way that Planets can Affect the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Charles; Patrone, Paul

    2010-01-01

    As planets orbit the Sun, the Sun also has to move to keep the total momentum of the solar system constant. The Sun's small orbital motion plus its 25 day rotation about its axis combine to invigorate some solar instabilities. Occasional convection cells at the proper phase in their short life can be strengthened by factors of two or more. This local burst of extra kinetic energy eventually reaches the surface where it can increase the intensity of solar activity. It might explain some reports in the last century of how planetary positions correlate with solar activity. This is the first effect of planets that is large enough to cause a significant response on the Sun.

  15. Science Experimenter: Observing the Sun and Solar Eclipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Forrest M., III

    1991-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of simple optical aids that allow the amateur scientist to safely observe sunspots and solar eclipses and also to measure the sun's rotation. (five references) (JJK)

  16. Thermal evaluation of a sun tracking solar cooker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif El-Tous, Omar. O. Badran, Anwar Al-Mofleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is one of many important types of renewable energy. Jordan is of great needs for renewable energy systems applications since it depends totally in generation of its required energy on imported oil. This study is an experimental work of tracking system developed for enhancing the solar heating using solar cooker. An electronic sun tracking device was used for rotating the solar heater with the movement of the sun. A comparison between fixed and sun tracked cooker showed that the use of sun tracking increased the heating temperature by 36% due to the increase in radiation concentration and using internal mirror reflectors. The programming method used for tracking control works efficiently in all weather conditions regardless of the presence of clouds. It can be used as backup control circuit in which relays are the essential control devices.

  17. A Short Proof to Some Results of Sun and Wang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Cao

    2007-01-01

    We give a short proof to some results of Sun and Wang on counting the number of solutions of a class of equations over finite fields. Our proof is elementary and only based on matrix properties and recursion techniques.

  18. 'Eye Freckles' May Predict Sun-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167479.html 'Eye Freckles' May Predict Sun-Related Problems The spots ... on the iris -- the colored part of the eye -- aren't cancerous, but these "eye freckles" could ...

  19. With Summer Sun Comes Heightened Skin Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_166481.html With Summer Sun Comes Heightened Skin Cancer Risk Doctor shares tips for prevention, recognition To ... skies comes a warning to protect yourself from skin cancer. "Skin cancer, like all types of cancer, is ...

  20. Sunscreen Keeps People Out In Dangerous Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maggie; Fox; 陈鸣煜

    1999-01-01

    本文最吸引读者、最值得回味的是标题。其含义和主题句一致,彼此呼应。但是,标题更简洁、更精彩,它是一句具有拟人色彩的非人称主语句(ImpersonalSubject Sentence)。标题是否可译为:防晒露将人们置于“毒日”之下! 防晒霜的作用本来是 shield people from the sun’s burning rays。 然而,为什么 people who use sunscreen have higher rates of skin cancer andalso develop more moles(痣). which can become cancerous(致癌的)? 值得好好研究!原来,原因之一是防晒霜使用者的微妙的心理在起作用: …people feel a false sense of security when they use sunscreen. 另一个原因是:本来只能使用4次的一瓶防晒霜,不少人却使用了整整一个夏季。自然, 防晒霜就没有能够发挥其作用。为此,作者出语诙谐: Sunscreen should be something on your weekly or monthly grocery list. 文章的末句是: People should be warned to avoid the sun,period, and told sunscreen is foruse when they have to be out,she added. 其中出现的period不是名词,而是感叹词。它常用于美国口语,意思是:就是这么回事。用于叙述事实或看法后表示强调。另如: I could have prevented them,and I didn’t.Period. 我本可以拦住?

  1. Grid Modeling for the SunShot Vision Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Ela, E.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Mowers, M.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the use of production cost modeling in the SunShot Vision study, including methods used to create the SunShot Vision scenarios, their implementation in the Gridview model, and assumptions regarding transmission system and operation of each generator type. It also describes challenges and limitations of modeling solar generation technologies in production cost models, and suggests methods for improving their representation in current models.

  2. Tactile Sun: Bringing an Invisible Universe to the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, G. M.; Pantoja, C. A.

    2014-07-01

    A tactile model of the Sun has been created as a strategy for communicating astronomy to the blind or visually impaired, and as a useful outreach tool for general audiences. The model design was a collaboration between an education specialist, an astronomy specialist and a sculptor. The tactile Sun has been used at astronomy outreach events in Puerto Rico to make activities more inclusive and to increase public awareness of the needs of those with disabilities.

  3. Exact solution of an su(n) spin torus

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, Kun; Li, Guang-Liang; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng

    2016-01-01

    The trigonometric su(n) spin chain with anti-periodic boundary condition (su(n) spin torus) is demonstrated to be Yang-Baxter integrable. Based on some intrinsic properties of the R-matrix, certain operator product identities of the transfer matrix are derived. These identities and the asymptotic behavior of the transfer matrix together allow us to obtain the exact eigenvalues in terms of an inhomogeneous T-Q relation via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz.

  4. Clothing reduces the sun protection factor of sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Haedersdal, M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF).......Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF)....

  5. Exact solution of an su(n) spin torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kun; Cao, Junpeng; Li, Guang-Liang; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng

    2016-07-01

    The trigonometric su(n) spin chain with anti-periodic boundary condition (su(n) spin torus) is demonstrated to be Yang-Baxter integrable. Based on some intrinsic properties of the R-matrix, certain operator product identities of the transfer matrix are derived. These identities and the asymptotic behavior of the transfer matrix together allow us to obtain the exact eigenvalues in terms of an inhomogeneous T  -  Q relation via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz.

  6. Space Science for Children: All about the Sun [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This 23-minute videotape aims to give children, grades K-4, a broad understanding of the center of our solar system, the sun. It explains how the sun provides us with life-giving light and heat, how it's responsible for our seasons and weather, and why it's the primary source of energy on Earth. A hands-on activity in which children create their…

  7. What does the Sun teach us about properties of matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.

    2003-05-01

    Helioseismology has proved to be an extremely powerful tool to study the structure and dynamics of the Sun. This technique also allows the Sun to be used as a laboratory to study the properties of matter. In this talk I shall discuss how we use helioseismology to study properties of matter, and what we have learned so far. In particular, I shall concentrate on neutrinos and stellar equations of state.

  8. Magnetic Bipoles in Emerging Flux Regions on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C. S.; Livi, S. H. B.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT. We analyse magnetograms and H-alpha filtergrams of an Emerging Flux Region. Small bipoles have been observed on the magnetograms emerging between opposite polarities. Separation velocities of the opposite poles for 45 bipoles observed on June 9, 1985 have been measured and are in the range 0.5 contribuciones de los bipolos emergentes. Key words: SUN-CHROMOSPHERE - SUN-MAGNETIC FIELDS

  9. 孙美琳的礼物%Sun Meilin's Gift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sun Meilin was thinking about the time when she lived in Guangzhou with her husband. Their marriage was a happy one, until one day when she came home early from work and found her husband in bed, making love to an old friend of hers. Sun had walked into her apartment using her key to get in, and then into her room, expecting nothing out of the ordinary.

  10. The EUV emission from sun-grazing comets

    OpenAIRE

    Bryans, Paul; Pesnell, W Dean

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has observed two sun-grazing comets as they passed through the solar atmosphere. Both passages resulted in a measurable enhancement of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiance in several of the AIA bandpasses. We explain this EUV emission by considering the evolution of the cometary atmosphere as it interacts with the ambient solar atmosphere. Molecules in the comet rapidly sublimate as it approaches the Sun. They are th...

  11. Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure Pyramids and the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the orientation of the Egyptian pyramids at Giza with respect to sunrises and sunsets, using SunCalc.net software. We can see that Khufu and Khafre pyramids had been positioned in a manner that, from each pyramid, it was always possible to observe the points of the horizon where the sun was rising and setting on each day of the year. A discussion for the Menkaure pyramid is also proposed.

  12. SunShot Vision Study: February 2012 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the SunShot Vision Study is to provide an in-depth assessment of the potential for solar technologies to meet a significant share of electricity demand in the United States during the next several decades. Specifically, it explores a future in which the price of solar technologies declines by about 75% between 2010 and 2020 - in line with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's targets.

  13. Sun Basking in Red Wood Ants Formica polyctena (Hymenoptera, Formicidae): Individual Behaviour and Temperature-Dependent Respiration Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadochová, Štěpánka; Frouz, Jan; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    In early spring, red wood ants Formica polyctena are often observed clustering on the nest surface in large numbers basking in the sun. It has been hypothesized that sun-basking behaviour may contribute to nest heating because of both heat carriage into the nest by sun-basking workers, and catabolic heat production from the mobilization of the workers' lipid reserves. We investigated sun-basking behaviour in laboratory colonies of F. polyctena exposed to an artificial heat source. Observations on identified individuals revealed that not all ants bask in the sun. Sun-basking and non-sun-basking workers did not differ in body size nor in respiration rates. The number of sun-basking ants and the number of their visits to the hot spot depended on the temperature of both the air and the hot spot. To investigate whether sun basking leads to a physiological activation linked with increased lipolysis, we measured respiration rates of individual workers as a function of temperature, and compared respiration rates of sun-basking workers before and two days after they were allowed to expose themselves to a heat source over 10 days, at self-determined intervals. As expected for ectothermic animals, respiration rates increased with increasing temperatures in the range 5 to 35°C. However, the respiration rates of sun-basking workers measured two days after a long-term exposure to the heat source were similar to those before sun basking, providing no evidence for a sustained increase of the basal metabolic rates after prolonged sun basking. Based on our measurements, we argue that self-heating of the nest mound in early spring has therefore to rely on alternative heat sources, and speculate that physical transport of heat in the ant bodies may have a significant effect.

  14. Sun Basking in Red Wood Ants Formica polyctena (Hymenoptera, Formicidae): Individual Behaviour and Temperature-Dependent Respiration Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadochová, Štěpánka; Frouz, Jan; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    In early spring, red wood ants Formica polyctena are often observed clustering on the nest surface in large numbers basking in the sun. It has been hypothesized that sun-basking behaviour may contribute to nest heating because of both heat carriage into the nest by sun-basking workers, and catabolic heat production from the mobilization of the workers’ lipid reserves. We investigated sun-basking behaviour in laboratory colonies of F. polyctena exposed to an artificial heat source. Observations on identified individuals revealed that not all ants bask in the sun. Sun-basking and non-sun-basking workers did not differ in body size nor in respiration rates. The number of sun-basking ants and the number of their visits to the hot spot depended on the temperature of both the air and the hot spot. To investigate whether sun basking leads to a physiological activation linked with increased lipolysis, we measured respiration rates of individual workers as a function of temperature, and compared respiration rates of sun-basking workers before and two days after they were allowed to expose themselves to a heat source over 10 days, at self-determined intervals. As expected for ectothermic animals, respiration rates increased with increasing temperatures in the range 5 to 35°C. However, the respiration rates of sun-basking workers measured two days after a long-term exposure to the heat source were similar to those before sun basking, providing no evidence for a sustained increase of the basal metabolic rates after prolonged sun basking. Based on our measurements, we argue that self-heating of the nest mound in early spring has therefore to rely on alternative heat sources, and speculate that physical transport of heat in the ant bodies may have a significant effect. PMID:28114396

  15. Sun position calculator (SPC) for Landsat imagery with geodetic latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Jeong C.

    2015-12-01

    Landsat imagery comes with sun position information such as azimuth and sun elevation, but they are available only at the center of a scene. To aid in the use of Landsat imagery for various solar radiation applications such as topographic correction, solar power, urban heat island, agriculture, climate and vegetation, it is necessary to calculate the sun position information at every pixel. This research developed a PC application that creates sun position data layers in ArcGIS at every pixel in a Landsat scene. The SPC program is composed of two major routines - converting universal transverse Mercator (UTM) projection coordinates to geographic longitudes and latitudes, and calculating sun position information based on the Meeus' routine. For the latter, an innovative method was also implemented to account for the Earth's flattening on an ellipsoid. The Meeus routine implemented in this research showed about 0.2‧ of mean absolute difference from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Position Algorithm (SPA) routine when solar zenith and azimuth angles were tested with every 30 min data at four city locations (Fairbanks, Atlanta, Sydney and Rio Grande) on June 30, 2014. The Meeus routine was about ten times faster than the SPA routine. Professionals who need the Sun's position information for Landsat imagery will benefit from the SPC application.

  16. CONCEPTUAL STEPS TOWARDS EXPLORING THE FUNDAMENTAL NATURE OF OUR SUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Grandpierre

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic questions of solar research is the nature of the Sun. We show here how the plasma nature of the Sun leads to the self-generation of solar activity. The release of magnetic, rotational, gravitational, nuclear energies and that of the gravity mode oscillations deviate from uniformity and spherical symmetry. Through instabilities they lead to the emergence of sporadic and localized regions like flux tubes, electric filaments, magnetic elements and high temperature regions. A systematic approach exploring the solar collective degrees of freedom, extending to ordering phenomena of the magnetic features related to Higgs fields, is presented. Handling solar activity as transformations of energies from one form to another one presents a picture on the network of the energy levels of the Sun, showing that the Sun is neither a mere "ball of gas" nor a "quiescent steady-state fusion-reactor machine", but a complex self-organizing system. Since complex self-organizing systems are similar to living systems (and, by some opinion, identical with them, we also consider what arguments indicate the living nature of the Sun. Thermodynamic characteristics of the inequilibrium Sun are found important in this respect and numerical estimations of free energy rate densities and specific exergies are derived.

  17. The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

    2011-01-01

    Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a…

  18. From 1 Sun to 10 Suns c-Si Cells by Optimizing Metal Grid, Metal Resistance, and Junction Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant A. Chaudhari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of a solar cell in concentrator PV technology requires reduction in its series resistance in order to minimize the resistive power losses. The present paper discusses a methodology of reducing the series resistance of a commercial c-Si solar cell for concentrator applications, in the range of 2 to 10 suns. Step by step optimization of commercial cell in terms of grid geometry, junction depth, and electroplating of the front metal contacts is proposed. A model of resistance network of solar cell is developed and used for the optimization. Efficiency of unoptimized commercial cell at 10 suns drops by 30% of its 1 sun value corresponding to resistive power loss of about 42%. The optimized cell with grid optimization, junction optimization, electroplating, and junction optimized with electroplated contacts cell gives resistive power loss of 20%, 16%, 11%, and 8%, respectively. An efficiency gain of 3% at 10 suns for fully optimized cell is estimated.

  19. Magnetic cycles of Sun-like stars with different levels of coronal and chromospheric activity — comparison with the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanovskaya, Elena; Bruevich, Vasiliy; Bruevich, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars is analyzed involving observations from the HK-project at the Mount Wilson Observatory, the California and Carnegie Planet Search Program at the Keck and Lick Observatories and the Magellan Planet Search Program at the Las Campanas Observatory. We show that for stars of F, G and K spectral classes, the cyclic activity, similar to the 11-yr solar cycle, is different: it becomes more prominent in K-stars. Comparative study of Sun-like stars with different levels of chromospheric and coronal activity confirms that the Sun belongs to stars with a low level of chromospheric activity and stands apart among these stars by its minimum level of coronal radiation and minimum level of variations in photospheric flux.

  20. Magnetic cycles of Sun-like stars with different levels of coronal and chromospheric activity -- comparison with the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bruevich, E A; Shimanovskaya, E V

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars is analyzed involving observations from HK-project at the Mount Wilson Observatory, the California and Carnegie Planet Search Program at the Keck and Lick Observatories and the Magellan Planet Search Program at the Las Campanas Observatory. We show that for stars of F, G and K spectral classes, the cyclic activity, similar to the 11-yr solar cycles, is different: it becomes more prominent in K-stars. Comparative study of Sun-like stars with different levels of the chromospheric and coronal activity confirms that the Sun belongs to stars with the low level of the chromospheric activity and stands apart among these stars by the minimum level of its coronal radiation and the minimum level of its variations of the photospheric flux.

  1. Efficacy of a dose range of simulated sunlight exposures in raising vitamin D status in South Asian adults: implications for targeted guidance on sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Mark D; Webb, Ann R; Kift, Richard; Durkin, Marie T; Allan, Donald; Herbert, Annie; Berry, Jacqueline L; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2013-06-01

    Vitamin D is essential for bone health, and cutaneous synthesis is an important source. South Asians cannot attain adequate amounts of vitamin D by following general recommendations on summer sunlight exposure at northerly latitudes, and increased exposure may be appropriate for improving their vitamin D status. We examined the efficacy of a dose range of simulated summer sunlight exposures in raising vitamin D status in UK adults of South Asian ethnicity. In a dose-response study, healthy adults of South Asian ethnicity (n = 60; 20-60 y old) received 1 of 6 ultraviolet exposures ranging from 0.65 to 3.9 standard erythema doses (SEDs), which were equivalent to 15-90 min unshaded noontime summer sunlight at 53.5°N (Manchester, United Kingdom), 3 times/wk for 6 wk, while wearing casual clothes that revealed a 35% skin area. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured weekly, and dietary vitamin D was estimated. At baseline, all completing participants (n = 51) were vitamin D insufficient [25(OH)D concentrations exposures ≥1.95 SEDs (equivalent to 45 min unshaded sunlight; n = 33) attained a mean (±SD) 25(OH)D concentration of 15.7 ± 5 ng/mL (mean rise: 8.7 ± 5.7 ng/mL; 95% CI: 6.8, 10.6 ng/mL; P 10 ng/mL. Targeted guidance on sunlight exposure could usefully enhance vitamin D status to avoid deficiency [25(OH)D concentration >10 ng/mL] in South Asians living at latitudes distant from the equator. This trial was registered at the ISRCTN Register (www.isrctn.org) as 07565297.

  2. New Suns in the Cosmos II: Differential rotation in $Kepler$ Sun-like stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chagas, M L Das; Costa, A D; Lopes, C E Ferreira; Sobrinho, R Silva; Paz-Chinchón, F; Leão, I C; Valio, A; de Freitas, D B; Martins, B L Canto; Lanza, A F; De Medeiros, J R

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the discovery of Sun-like stars, namely main-sequence stars with $T_{\\rm eff}$, $\\log g$ and rotation periods $P_{rot}$ similar to solar values, presenting evidence of surface differential rotation. An autocorrelation of the time series was used to select stars presenting photometric signal stability from a sample of 881 stars with light curves collected by the $Kepler$ space-borne telescope, in which we have identified 17 stars with stable signals. A simple two-spot model together with a Bayesian information criterion were applied to these stars in the search for indications of differential rotation; in addition, for all 17 stars, it was possible to compute the spot rotation period $P$, the mean values of the individual spot rotation periods and their respective colatitudes, and the relative amplitude of the differential rotation.

  3. New Suns in the Cosmos II: differential rotation in Kepler Sun-like stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Chagas, M. L.; Bravo, J. P.; Costa, A. D.; Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Silva Sobrinho, R.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Leão, I. C.; Valio, A.; de Freitas, D. B.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Lanza, A. F.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    The present study reports the discovery of Sun-like stars, namely main-sequence stars with Teff, log g and rotation periods Prot similar to solar values, presenting evidence of surface differential rotation (DR). An autocorrelation of the time series was used to select stars presenting photometric signal stability from a sample of 881 stars with light curves collected by the Kepler space-borne telescope, in which we have identified 17 stars with stable signals. A simple two-spot model together with a Bayesian information criterion were applied to these stars in the search for indications of DR; in addition, for all 17 stars, it was possible to compute the spot rotation period P, the mean values of the individual spot rotation periods and their respective colatitudes, and the relative amplitude of the DR.

  4. A 3-Year Follow-up of Sun Behavior in Patients With Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Luise Winkel; Datta, Pameli; Heydenreich, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE UV radiation (UVR) exposure is the primary environmental risk factor for developing cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). OBJECTIVE To measure changes in sun behavior from the first until the third summer after the diagnosis of CMM using matched controls as a reference. DESIGN, SETTING...... that measured time-related UVR in standard erythema dose (SED) and corresponding sun diaries (mean, 74 days per participant each participation year). RESULTS Patients' daily UVR dose and UVR dose in connection with various behaviors increased during follow-up (quantified as an increase in daily UVR dose each...... suggest that patients with CMM do not maintain a cautious sun behavior in connection with an increase in UVR exposure, especially on days with body exposure, when abroad, and on holidays....

  5. A cluster randomized trial to evaluate a health education programme "Living with Sun at School".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Pereira, Bruno; Césarini, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Over-exposure to sunlight increases the risk of skin cancers, particularly when exposure occurs during childhood. School teachers can play an active role in providing an education programme that can help prevent this. "Living with the Sun," (LWS) is a sun safety education program for school children based on a handy guide for classroom activities designed to improve children's knowledge, but moreover to positively modify their sun safety attitudes and behaviours. The goal of our study was to determine the effectiveness of this programme by examining children's knowledge, attitude and sun exposure behaviours prior to and after the completion of the programme. We carried out a cluster randomised trial in which the classes were randomly assigned to one of two groups; one using the LWS programme and another that didn't, serving as the control. Data was collected before completion of the programme and an additional three times in the year after completion. The 70 participating classes (1,365 schoolchildren) were distributed throughout France. Statistical analysis confirmed that knowledge of sun risk increased significantly in the LWS classes (p < 0.001). Both groups positively changed their attitudes when considering the best sun protection, but the LWS group proved to consistently be more convinced (p = 0.04). After the summer holidays, differences between the two groups decreased throughout the year but stayed globally significant. We also observed some significant behaviour modification during the holidays. For instance, the LWS group applied sunscreen more frequently than the control group, and were more likely to wear a hat (72% versus 59%) and use a sun umbrella on the beach (75% versus 64%).

  6. Effect of hair color and sun sensitivity on nevus counts in white children in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalborg, Jenny; Morelli, Joseph G; Byers, Tim E; Mokrohisky, Stefan T; Crane, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    It has been widely reported that individuals with a light phenotype (ie, light hair color, light base skin color, and propensity to burn) have more nevi and are at greater risk for developing skin cancer. No studies have systematically investigated how phenotypic traits may interact in relation to nevus development. We sought to systematically examine whether any combinations of phenotype are associated with a greater or lesser risk for nevus development in white children. In the summer of 2007, 654 children were examined to determine full body nevus counts, skin color by colorimetry, and hair and eye color by comparison with charts. Interviews of parents were conducted to capture sun sensitivity, sun exposure, and sun protection practices. Among 9-year-old children with sun sensitivity rating type II (painful burn/light tan), those with light hair had lower nevus counts than did those with dark hair (P value for interaction = .03). This relationship was independent of eye color, presence of freckling, sex, usual daily sun exposure, sunburn in 2004 to 2007, sun protection index, and waterside vacation sun exposure. The difference in nevus counts was further determined to be specific to small nevi (<2 mm) and nevi in intermittently exposed body sites. Geographic and genetic differences in other study populations may produce different results. The standard acceptance that dark phenotype is a marker for low melanoma risk and light phenotype a marker for high risk may need to be reevaluated. In non-Hispanic white children, dark-haired individuals who burn readily and then tan slightly are more prone to nevus development, and may therefore be a previously underrecognized high-risk group for melanoma. Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. JPSS-1 VIIRS solar diffuser stability monitor response versus sun angle of incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgai, Vijay; Yu, Kristie; Nelson, Neil; McCarthy, James

    2015-09-01

    The Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite in orbit as well as for the upcoming Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). VIIRS collects Earth radiometry and imagery in 22 spectral from 0.4 to 12.5 μm. Radiometric calibration of the reflective bands in the 0.4 to 2.5 μm wavelength range is performed by measuring the sunlight reflectance from Solar Diffuser Assembly (diffuser is Spectralon®). Spectralon® is known to solarize due to sun UV exposure at the blue end of the spectrum (~0.4 - 0.6+ μm) as seen by laboratory tests as well as on orbit data from MODIS and NPP. VIIRS uses a Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM) to monitor the change in the Solar Diffuser reflectance in the 0.4 - 0.94 μm wavelength range to correct the calibration constants. The SDSM measures the ratio of sun light reflecting from the Solar Diffuser to a direct view of the sun. As the intensity of the light reaching the SDSM in both Solar Diffuser view and sun view is a function of the sun's angle of incidence (AOI), the SDSM response to sun AOI has to be characterized. This paper presents details of the test setup including an extended collimated source simulating the sun across all SDSM bands. The prelaunch characterization results for the JPSS-1 (J1) VIIRS SDSM are presented. Comparison with NPP on orbit yaw maneuver SDSM results shows similar behavior demonstrating that the J1 test successfully characterized the SDSM response to sun AOI.

  8. A Community Python Library for Solar Physics (SunPy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Steven; Shih, A. Y.; Ireland, J.; Perez-Suarez, D.; Mumford, S.; Hughitt, V. K.; Hewett, R.; Mayer, F.; SunPy Dev Team

    2013-07-01

    Python, a free, cross platform, general purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community resulting in the availability of a large range of software, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning to spectral analysis and visualization (Matplotlib). SunPy is a data analysis toolkit specializing in providing the software necessary to analyze solar and heliospheric datasets in Python. It aims to provide a free and open-source alternative to the IDL-based SolarSoft (SSW) solar data analysis environment. We present the latest release of SunPy (0.3). This release includes a major refactor of the main SunPy code to improve ease of use for the user as well as a more consistent interface. SunPy provides downloading capability through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) and the the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK). It can open image fits files from major solar missions (SDO/AIA, SOHO/EIT, SOHO/LASCO, STEREO) into WCS-aware maps. SunPy provides advanced time-series tools for data from mission such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and Proba2/LYRA as well as support for radio spectra (e.g. e-Callisto). We present examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing data analysis tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy.

  9. Photometric Variations In The Sun And Solar-Type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampapa, Mark

    The rich array of solar magnetic field-related phenomena we see occurs not only on stellar counterparts of our Sun but in stars that represent significant departures in their fundamental parameters from those of the Sun. Though these phenomena appear energetically negligible when compared to the total luminosity of stars, they nevertheless govern the angular momentum evolution and modulate the radiative and particle output of the Sun and late-type stars. The term "The Solar-Stellar Connection" has been coined to describe the solar-stellar synergisms in the investigation of the generation, emergence and coupling of magnetic fields with the outer solar-stellar atmosphere to produce what we broadly refer to as magnetic activity. With the discovery of literally thousands of planets beyond our solar system, the Solar-Stellar-Planet Connection is quickly emerging as a new area of investigation of the impacts of magnetic activity on exoplanet atmospheres. In parallel with this rapid evolution in our perspectives is the advent of transformative facilities for the study of the Sun and the dynamic Universe. The primary focus of this invited talk will be on photometric variations in solar-type stars and the Sun. These brightness variations are associated with thermal homogeneities typically defined by magnetic structures that are also spatially coincident with key radiative proxies. Photometric variability in solar-type stars and the Sun includes transient brightening, rotational modulation by cool spots and cycle-related variability, each with a characteristic signature in time and wavelength. The emphasis of this presentation will be on the relationship between broadband photometric variations and magnetic field-related activity in solar-type stars and the Sun. Facets of this topic will be discussed both retrospectively and prospectively as we enter a revolutionary, new era for astronomy.

  10. Estudo de distribuição e morfologia dos melanócitos em pele com e sem exposição solar Melanocytes distribution and morphology analysis in skin with and without sun exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mayumi Takano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: Acredita-se que a exposição solar possa alterar número, distribuição e morfologia dos melanócitos na pele humana, muitas vezes dificultando a interpretação de biópsias de pele, principalmente para o diagnóstico de lesões melanocíticas iniciais e para a avaliação precisa de margens de ressecção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os melanócitos da pele humana em área exposta e não exposta ao sol. MÉTODOS: Realizada análise histológica de 60 fragmentos de biópsias de pele obtidas do antebraço (área fotoexposta e região glútea (área coberta de cadáveres do Serviço de Verificação de Óbitos de Recife-PE. A estatística foi realizada com o SPSS Windows versão 12.0. RESULTADOS: Observou-se um número bastante variável de melanócitos nos fragmentos de pele, com maior concentração destes na região do antebraço (área de maior fotoexposição (p INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: It is believed that sun exposure can change the number, distribution and morphology of melanocytes in human skin, which often hinders the interpretation of skin biopsies, mainly as to diagnosis of initial melanocytic lesions and accurate assessment of resection margins. Our objective was to evaluate melanocytes in sun-exposed and non-exposed skin. METHODS: It was conducted the histological analysis of 60 skin biopsy samples resected from cadaver forearm (sun-exposed skin and cadaver buttock (non-exposed skin from the Death Verification Service (Serviço de Verificação de Óbitos of Recife, state of Pernambuco. The statistical analysis was performed with SPSS Windows version 12.0. RESULTS: There was considerable variability in melanocyte density, with a higher concentration of these cells in sun-exposed areas (p < 0.001. There was also an irregular distribution of melanocytes along the epidermal basal layer, occasionally with cells arranged side by side. This confluence was identified with a higher frequency in sun

  11. Smartphone mobile application delivering personalized, real-time sun protection advice: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Lantz, Kathy; Buller, Mary Klein; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Liu, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Mobile smartphones are rapidly emerging as an effective means of communicating with many Americans. Using mobile applications (apps), they can access remote databases, track time and location, and integrate user input to provide tailored health information. A smartphone mobile app providing personalized, real-time sun protection advice was evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. The trial was conducted in 2012 and had a randomized pretest-posttest controlled design with a 10-week follow-up. Data were collected from a nationwide population-based survey panel. A sample of 604 non-Hispanic and Hispanic adults from the Knowledge Panel 18 years or older who owned an Android smartphone were enrolled. The mobile app provided advice on sun protection (ie, protection practices and risk of sunburn) and alerts (to apply or reapply sunscreen and get out of the sun), hourly UV Index, and vitamin D production based on the forecast UV Index, the phone's time and location, and user input. Percentage of days using sun protection and time spent outdoors (days and minutes) in the midday sun and number of sunburns in the past 3 months were collected. Individuals in the treatment group reported more shade use (mean days staying in the shade, 41.0% vs 33.7%; P = .03) but less sunscreen use (mean days, 28.6% vs 34.5%; P = .048) than controls. There was no significant difference in number of sunburns in the past 3 months (mean, 0.60 in the treatment group vs 0.62 for controls; P = .87). Those who used the mobile app reported spending less time in the sun (mean days keeping time in the sun to a minimum, 60.4% for app users vs 49.3% for nonusers; P = .04) and using all protection behaviors combined more (mean days, 39.4% vs 33.8%; P = .04). The mobile app improved some sun protection. Use of the mobile app was lower than expected but associated with increased sun protection. Providing personalized advice when and where people are in the sun may help reduce sun exposure.

  12. The Effect of Sun Radiation on the Course of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abas Azarian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sStudies have described immunomedulatory effects of sun exposure and ultraviolet radiation on infectious and neoplastic diseases. Here the effect of exposure to low potency radiation of sun on the course of leishmaniasis in mice was studied. Materials and MethodsFifteen BALB/c mice were exposed to suberythemogenic doses of sun (mean 180 mJ/cm2/day of UVB 2 months before and 4 months after Leishmania major inoculation to food pad. Control group was kept in the sun protected environment. From 2nd to 17th week after inoculation, size of the lesion was recorded in each group weekly and at last week the parasite burden in spleen was detected. Results were compared between two groups. ResultsSeven mice from case group and 9 mice from control group survived up to last week. The mean lesion size was 0.90±0.59 cm in exposed and 4.01±3.59 cm in unexposed mice (P= 0.037. Parasite burden in spleen of case and control groups were 5.5±4.61 and 106.94±279.76 respectively (P= 0.006.ConclusionChronic exposure of BALB/c mice to suberythemogenic doses of sun suppressed skin lesion and decreased the extension of L. major to spleen.

  13. SOHO reveals violent action on the quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    SOHO's scientists are impressed by the vigorous action that they see going on every day, because the Sun is in the very quietest phase of its eleven-year cycle of activity. To ground-based observatories it appears extremely calm just now. The early indications of SOHO's performance amply justify the creation of a sungazing spacecraft capable of observing ultraviolet emissions that are blotted out by the Earth's atmosphere. Apart from the imager, two ultraviolet spectrometers and an ultraviolet coronagraph (an imager for the outer atmosphere) are busy analysing the violent processes at a wide range of wavelengths. Between them, these instruments should cure long-lasting ignorance concerning the Sun, especially about why the atmosphere is so hot and what drives the solar wind that blows non-stop into the Solar System. Scientists from other experimental teams use SOHO to explore the Sun from its deep interior to the far reaches of the solar wind. They have watched the supposedly quiet Sun belching huge masses of gas into space. They have mapped a hole burnt by the solar wind in a breeze of gas coming from the stars. And they have detected currents of gas flowing just below the visible surface. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between the European Space Agency and NASA. The spacecraft was built in Europe and instrumented by scientists on both sides of the Atlantic. NASA launched SOHO on 2 December 1995, and also provides the ground stations and an operations centre near Washington. The first results are the more remarkable because SOHO arrived at its vantage point 1,500,000 kilometres out in space only in February, and formally completed its commissioning on 16 April. It has a long life ahead of it. All scientific instruments are working well. The luminosity oscillation imager belonging to the VIRGO experiment had trouble with its lens cover. When opened, the cover rebounded on its hinges and closed again. Commands were devised that gave a shorter impulse

  14. Low-Power Low-Noise CMOS Imager Design: in Micro-Digital Sun Sensor Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, N.

    2012-01-01

    A digital sun sensor is superior to an analog sun sensor in aspects of resolution, albedo immunity, and integration. The proposed Micro-Digital Sun Sensor (µDSS) is an autonomous digital sun sensor which is implemented by means of a CMOS image sensor, which is named APS+. The µDSS is designed speci

  15. Ancient cults of the sun (German Title: Antike Sonnenkulte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rahlf

    In ancient astronomy, the heliocentric system of Aristarchus of Samos did not meet universal approval. Contrary to that, the cult of the sun gained immense importance in the Roman Empire. Relics of this significance we still find e.g. in the meaning of the Sunday in the week and in the date of Christmas. The rise of the sun cults is characterised by the merging of different gods from various cultures. Already in classical Greece the god of the sun, Helios, almagated with the god of light, Apollo. The resulting entity was regarded as the harmonic guide of the visible universe, symbolized by Apoll. As well as he plays the lyre, he conducts the cosmos harmonically as the sun. Plato recommends to politicians to study musical harmonics and astronomy in order to get a feeling of the right way to rule the state. In consequence to the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Babylonian star religion was mingled with Greek cosmology and the concept of transmigration of souls. The astrology resulting therefrom spread out over the whole Hellenistic world and was very common in the Roman Empire. The calendar with its religious division of time as the days of the week, following the principle of the gods of the planets governing the hour, was well known. The god of the sun was graded up by the adoption of the calendar of the sun from Egypt by Caesar. Augustus chose Apoll as his guardian god and built with “his” sundial a symbol of the god of the sun, which was visible from a long distance. Augustus used more astral symbols as propaganda of leadership. During the competition with the Parthians, another large empire, for world domination the focus fell on an Iranian god: the Iranian god of light and contract - Mithras. Shortly before 100 A.D., a new cult of mysteries arose in the Roman Empire, called cult of Mithras, and spread quickly. It combined the attributes of a classical sun-god with a religion of salvation, guaranteed by baptism, communion and seven degrees to be passed

  16. Sun-Earth Day - Teaching Heliophysics Through Education Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.

    2010-01-01

    Sun-Earth Day (SED) is an Education and Outreach program supported by the U.S, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The intent of the program is to teach students and the general public about Heliophysics (the science of the study of the Sun, how it varies, and how solar dynamics affect the rest of the solar system, especially the Earth). The program was begun ten years ago. Each year since that time a particular day has been designated as "Sun-Earth Day ,,. Usually the day of the spring equinox (March 20 or 21) is Sun-Earth Day, but other days have been used as well. Each year a theme is chosen relating to Heliophysics and events reflecting that theme are planned not only for Sun-Earth Day, but for the entire year. From the very beginning educational technology was emphasized in the events in order to effectively reach wide audiences with the SED message. The main approach has been to have a "webcast" related to each year's theme, often from a location that supports the theme as well. For example, a webcast took place from the Mayan pyramids at Chichen Itza, Mexico to highlight the theme of "Ancient Observatories, Timeless Knowledge". Webcasts were not the only technology employed, however. Many of the themes centered on the dynamic nature of the Sun and the effects that solar storms can have on interplanetary space and in our day-to-day life on Earth. Activities for tracking when solar storms happen and how they affect the Earth were developed and brought together in an educational package called Space Weather Action Centers. This project is explained in more detail in another presentation in this session being given by Norma Teresinha Oliveira Reis. Recent Sun-Earth Days have utilized "social networking" technologies to reach widespread groups on the internet. Podcasts, Vodcasts, Facebook, Twitter, and Second Life are the types of network technologies being employed now. The NASA Distance learning Network is another method for bringing Sun

  17. A High Temperature Liquid Plasma Model of the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a liquid model of the Sun is presented wherein the entire solar mass is viewed as a high density/high energy plasma. This model challenges our current understanding of the densities associated with the internal layers of the Sun, advocating a relatively constant density, almost independent of radial position. The incompressible nature of liquids is advanced to prevent solar collapse from gravitational forces. The liquid plasma model of the Sun is a non-equilibrium approach, where nuclear reactions occur throughout the solar mass. The primary means of addressing internal heat transfer are convection and conduction. As a result of the convective processes on the solar surface, the liquid model brings into question the established temperature of the solar photosphere by highlighting a violation of Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission. Along these lines, the model also emphasizes that radiative emission is a surface phenomenon. Evidence that the Sun is a high density/high energy plasma is based on our knowledge of Planckian thermal emission and condensed matter, including the existence of pressure ionization and liquid metallic hydrogen at high temperatures and pressures. Prior to introducing the liquid plasma model, the historic and scientific justifications for the gaseous model of the Sun are reviewed and the gaseous equations of state are also discussed.

  18. Was Lepenski Vir an ancient Sun or Pleiades observatory?

    CERN Document Server

    Pankovic, Vladan; Krmar, Miodrag

    2015-01-01

    In this work we consider some old hypotheses according to which remarkable mesolithic village Lepenski Vir (9500 -- 5500 BC) at the right (nearly west) Danube riverside in the Iron gate in Serbia was an ancient (one of the oldest) Sun observatory. We use method recently suggested by A. C. Sparavigna, concretely we use "freely available software" or local Sun radiation direction simulation computer programs. In this way we obtain and discuss pictures of the sunrise in the Lepenski Vir during winter and summer solstice and spring and autumn equinox in relation to position of the mountains, especially Treskavac (Trescovat) and Kukuvija at left (nearly east) Danube riverside (in Romania). While mountain Kukuvija represents really the marker for the Sun in date of the winter solstice, mountain Treskavac, in despite to usual opinions, does not represent a real marker for the Sun in date of the summer solstice. Sun rises behind Treskavac, roughly speaking, between 22.April and 1. May. It corresponds to year period w...

  19. Low-frequency heliographic observations of the quiet Sun corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislavsky, A. A.; Koval, A. A.; Konovalenko, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present new results of heliographic observations of quiet-Sun radio emission fulfilled by the UTR-2 radio telescope. The solar corona investigations have been made close to the last solar minimum (Cycle 23) in the late August and early September of 2010 by means of the two-dimensional heliograph within 16.5-33 MHz. Moreover, the UTR-2 radio telescope was used also as an 1-D heliograph for one-dimensional scanning of the Sun at the beginning of September 2010 as well as in short-time observational campaigns in April and August of 2012. The average values of integral flux density of the undisturbed Sun continuum emission at different frequencies have been found. Using the data, we have determined the spectral index of quiet-Sun radio emission in the range 16.5-200 MHz. It is equal to -2.1±0.1. The brightness distribution maps of outer solar corona at frequencies 20.0 MHz and 26.0 MHz have been obtained. The angular sizes of radio Sun were estimated. It is found that the solar corona at these frequencies is stretched-out along equatorial direction. The coefficient of corona ellipticity varies slightly during above period. Its mean magnitudes are equal to ≈ 0.75 and ≈ 0.73 at 20.0 MHz and 26.0 MHz, respectively. The presented results for continuum emission of solar corona conform with being ones at higher frequencies.

  20. Sun exposure and sun protection habits in high school students from a city south of the country Práticas de exposição e proteção solar em estudantes do ensino médio de uma cidade do sul do país

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Dupont

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective solar protection is an uncommon practice among young people, increasing the likelihood of sunburn, sunstroke and skin cancers. This fact is more significant in the south of Brazil, where the prevalence of white skinned population is larger, being more prone to sun damage. OBJECTIVES: To study the practices of sun exposure and sun protection in high school students from the city of Carlos Barbosa - RS. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 775 students, enrolled on the first half of 2010, who had signed the consent form. We used a non-identifiable, self-administered questionnaire, with questions about related topics. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square or Fisher exact and t-Student tests. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee under the number 2010-115H. RESULTS: Most students are exposed to the sun at the more critical periods, remaining exposed for more than an hour. Five hundred and seventy-six students (74,3% reported using sunscreen, but less than 10% did it during all months of the year. Female teenagers are most likely to use sunscreen (p FUNDAMENTOS: A proteção solar efetiva é uma prática incomum entre os jovens, aumentando a probabilidade de queimaduras solares, insolações e cânceres de pele. Esse fato é mais significativo na Região Sul do Brasil, onde a prevalência da população branca é maior, sendo mais propensa aos danos causados pelo sol. OBJETIVOS: Estudar as práticas de exposição e proteção solar em estudantes do ensino médio da cidade de Carlos Barbosa, RS. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, envolvendo 775 estudantes matriculados no primeiro semestre de 2010, que tiveram o termo de consentimento assinado. Utilizou-se um questionário não identificável, autoaplicável, com perguntas abordando tópicos relacionados ao tema. Na análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e o teste t-Student. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comit

  1. Children´s sun protection need not conflict with health promoting physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderström, Margareta; Boldemann, Cecilia; Wester, Ulf

    ABSTRACT: Preschool children´s sun exposure was measured 2009 with UV-dosimeters at nine preschools in Malmö 55°N, in southern Sweden and at two in Raleigh 36°N, North Carolina, USA at comparable seasons. Outdoor playground environment was explored how play facilities, available space and vegetat......ABSTRACT: Preschool children´s sun exposure was measured 2009 with UV-dosimeters at nine preschools in Malmö 55°N, in southern Sweden and at two in Raleigh 36°N, North Carolina, USA at comparable seasons. Outdoor playground environment was explored how play facilities, available space...... Raleigh in April also indicate that vegetation is sunprotective when children play. Favourable outdoor environment may promote both sun protection and physical activity in a Nordic spring or summer climate, while for physical activity, this might not be so pronounced at a southern mid-latitude due...

  2. An Introduction to Waves and Oscillations in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, A Satya

    2013-01-01

    Astrophysicists and others studying the Sun will find this expansive coverage of what we know about waves and oscillations in our nearest star an informative introduction to a hot contemporary topic. After a section summarizing the Sun's physical characteristics, the volume moves on to explore the basics of electrodynamics, which in turn facilitate a discussion of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The material also details the often complex nature of waves and oscillations in uniform and non-uniform media, before categorizing the observational signatures of oscillations and exploring the instabilities in fluid, dealing with a range of known forms. Lastly, a section on helioseismology explores our growing familiarity with the internal structure of the Sun. This book is a unified portal to a thorough grounding in solar waves that includes a wealth of explanatory vignettes demystifying concepts such as flux tubes, current-free and force-free magnetic fields, the prominences, and the relationship between the vorticity ...

  3. Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount Spar and Sun End

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard Skylab (1973-1979). The ATM contained eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to x-rays. This image depicts the sun end and spar of the ATM flight unit showing individual telescopes. All solar telescopes, the fine Sun sensors, and some auxiliary systems are mounted on the spar, a cruciform lightweight perforated metal mounting panel that divides the canister lengthwise into four equal compartments. The spar assembly was nested inside a cylindrical canister that fit into a complex frame named the rack, and was protected by the solar shield.

  4. Results of I Love My Sun Project 2014-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosna, Zbysek; Macusova, Eva; Kouba, Daniel; Blanch, Estefania; Humlova, Danka

    2016-08-01

    I Love My Sun is educational project for 4-11 years old children (primary schools). It started as European COST 724 project developed by the team of prof. Dr. Y. Tulunay. During the event, children first draw their idea of the Sun. After that, about 20 min long presentation and discussion is performed by a young scientist in the field of Space and Plasma Physics. Finally, the children use new knowledge, draw their new idea of the Sun and the pictures "before" and "after" are compared. Czech version of the project has been performed since September 2014 in 16 classes of Czech primary schools. Spanish version of the project has been performed at the Ebro Observatory with 60 pre-school children. Up to now we collected more than 300 pairs of pictures.

  5. The Sun. A typical star in the solar neighborhood?

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Sun is used as the fundamental standard in chemical abundance studies, thus it is important to know whether the solar abundance pattern is representative of the solar neighborhood. Albeit at low precision (0.05 - 0.10 dex) the Sun seems to be a typical solar-metallicity disk star, at high precision (0.01 dex) its abundance pattern seems abnormal when compared to solar twins. The Sun shows a deficiency of refractory elements that could be due to the formation of terrestrial planets. The formation of giant planets may also introduce a signature in the chemical composition of stars. We discuss both planet signatures and also the enhancement of neutron-capture elements in the solar twin 18 Sco.

  6. Dimming of the Mid-20th Century Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Foukal, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Advances in understanding of the white light faculae measured at the Royal Greenwich Observatory from 1874 to 1976 suggest that they offer a more direct measure of solar brightening by small diameter photospheric magnetic flux tubes than do chromospheric proxies. Proxies such as the area of Ca K plages, the Mg index or the microwave flux include many dark photospheric structures as well as pores and sunspots. Our reconstruction of variation in total solar irradiance,TSI,based on the faculae indicates that the sun dimmed by almost 0.1 percent in the mid- twentieth century rather than brightening as represented in previous reconstructions. This dimmimg at the sun's highest activity level since the seventeenth century is consistent with the photometric behavior observed in somewhat younger sun like stars. The prolonged TSI decrease may have contributed more to the cooling of climate between about 1940 and 1970 than present models indicate.

  7. The Real Reasons for Seasons--Sun-Earth Connections: Unraveling Misconceptions about the Earth and Sun. Grades 6-8. Teacher's Guide. LHS GEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Alan; Willard, Carolyn; Pompea, Stephen

    This guide is aimed at helping students arrive at a clear understanding of seasons as they investigate the connections between the sun and the earth. Activities include: (1) "Name the Season"; (2) "Sun-Earth Survey"; (3) "Trip to the Sun"; (4) "What Shape is Earth's Orbit?"; (5) "Temperatures around the…

  8. The Sun as you never saw it before

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The remarkable images come from SOHO's visible-light coronagraph LASCO. It masks the intense rays from the Sun's surface in order to reveal the much fainter glow of the solar atmosphere, or corona. Operated with its widest field of view, in its C3 instrument, LASCO's unprecedented sensitivity enables it to see the thin ionized gas of the solar wind out to the edges of the picture, 22 million kilometres from the Sun's surface. Many stars are brighter than the gas, and they create the background scene. The results alter human perceptions of the Sun. Nearly 30 years ago, Apollo photographs of the Earth persuaded everyone of what until then they knew only in theory, that we live on a small planet. Similarly the new imagery shows our motion in orbit around the Sun, and depicts it as one star among - yet close enough to fill the sky emanations that engulf us. For many centuries even astrologers knew that the Sun was in Sagittarius in December and drifting towards the next zodiacal constellation, Capricornus. This was a matter of calculation only, because the Sun's own brightness prevented a direct view of the starfield. The SOHO-LASCO movie makes this elementary point of astronomy a matter of direct observation for the first time. The images are achievable only from a vantage point in space, because the blue glow of the Earth's atmosphere hides the stars during the day. A spacial allocation of observing time, and of data tranmission from the SOHO spacecraft, enabled the LASCO team to obtain large numbers of images over the period 22-28 December 1996. Since then, a sustained effort in image processing, frame by frame, has achieved a result of high technical and aesthetic quality. Only now is the leader of the LASCO team, Guenter Brueckner of the US Naval Research Laboratory, satisfied with the product and ready to authorize its release. "I spend my life examining the Sun," Brueckner says, "but this movie is a special thrill. For a moment I forget the years of effort that

  9. Simple transfer calibration method for a Cimel Sun-Moon photometer: calculating lunar calibration coefficients from Sun calibration constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqiang; Li, Kaitao; Li, Donghui; Yang, Jiuchun; Xu, Hua; Goloub, Philippe; Victori, Stephane

    2016-09-20

    The Cimel new technologies allow both daytime and nighttime aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. Although the daytime AOD calibration protocols are well established, accurate and simple nighttime calibration is still a challenging task. Standard lunar-Langley and intercomparison calibration methods both require specific conditions in terms of atmospheric stability and site condition. Additionally, the lunar irradiance model also has some known limits on its uncertainty. This paper presents a simple calibration method that transfers the direct-Sun calibration constant, V0,Sun, to the lunar irradiance calibration coefficient, CMoon. Our approach is a pure calculation method, independent of site limits, e.g., Moon phase. The method is also not affected by the lunar irradiance model limitations, which is the largest error source of traditional calibration methods. Besides, this new transfer calibration approach is easy to use in the field since CMoon can be obtained directly once V0,Sun is known. Error analysis suggests that the average uncertainty of CMoon over the 440-1640 nm bands obtained with the transfer method is 2.4%-2.8%, depending on the V0,Sun approach (Langley or intercomparison), which is comparable with that of lunar-Langley approach, theoretically. In this paper, the Sun-Moon transfer and the Langley methods are compared based on site measurements in Beijing, and the day-night measurement continuity and performance are analyzed.

  10. Multispectral Emission of the Sun during the First Whole Sun Month: Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the corona can model its global plasma density and temperature structure with sufficient accuracy to reproduce many of the multispectral properties of the corona observed in extreme ultraviolet (EW) and X-ray emission. The key ingredient to this new type of global MHD model is the inclusion of energy transport processes (coronal heating, anisotropic thermal conduction, and radiative losses) in the energy equation. The calculation of these processes has previously been confined to one-dimensional loop models, idealized two-dimensional computations, and three-dimensional active region models. We refer to this as the thermodynamic MHD model, and we apply it to the time period of Carrington rotation 1913 (1996 August 22 to September 18). The form of the coronal heating term strongly affects the plasma density and temperature of the solutions. We perform our calculation for three different empirical heating models: (1) a heating function exponentially decreasing in radius; (2) the model of Schrijver et al.; and (3) a model reproducing the heating properties of the quiet Sun and active regions. We produce synthetic emission images from the density and temperature calculated with these three heating functions and quantitatively compare them with observations from E W Imaging Telescope on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and the soft X-ray telescope on Yohkoh. Although none of the heating models provide a perfect match, heating models 2 and 3 provide a reasonable match to the observations.

  11. SOHO starts a revolution in the science of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    In addition, SOHO has found clues to the forces that accelerate the solar wind of atomic particles blowing unceasingly through the Solar System. By relating the huge outbursts called coronal mass ejections to preceding magnetic changes in the Sun, SOHO scientists hope to predict such events which, in the Earth's vicinity, endanger power supplies and satellites. SOHO sees differences in the strength of the solar wind in various directions, by mapping a cavity in the cloud of interstellar hydrogen surrounding the Sun. As a bonus, SOHO secured remarkable images of Comet Hyakutake, by ultraviolet and visible light. The revolution in solar science will seem more complete when all the pieces and actions of the Sun, detected by twelve different instruments, are brought together in observations and concepts. Fundamental questions will then be open to re-examination, about the origin of the Sun's magnetism, the cause of its variations in the 11-year cycle of sunspot activity, and the consequences for the Solar System at large. SOHO is greater than the sum of its parts. "SOHO takes solar science by storm," says Roger Bonnet, the European Space Agency's Director of Science, "thanks to its combination of instruments. Unprecedented results from individual telescopes and spectrometers are impressive, of course, but what is breathtaking is SOHO's ability to explore the Sun all the way from its nuclear core to the Earth's vicinity and beyond. We can expect a completely new picture of how agitation inside the Sun, transmitted through the solar atmosphere, directly affects us on the Earth." SOHO is a project of international cooperation between the European Space Agency and NASA. The spacecraft was built in Europe and instrumented by scientists on both sides of the Atlantic. NASA launched SOHO and provides the ground stations and an operations centre at the Goddard Space Flight Center near Washington. SOHO has an uninterrupted view of the Sun from a halo orbit around Lagrangian

  12. Purification and Structural Analysis of SUN and KASH Domain Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esra Demircioglu, F; Cruz, Victor E; Schwartz, Thomas U

    2016-01-01

    Molecular tethers span the nuclear envelope to mechanically connect the cytoskeleton and nucleoskeleton. These bridge-like tethers, termed linkers of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes, consist of SUN proteins at the inner nuclear membrane and KASH proteins at the outer nuclear membrane. LINC complexes are central to a variety of cell activities including nuclear positioning and mechanotransduction, and LINC-related abnormalities are associated with a spectrum of tissue-specific diseases, termed laminopathies or envelopathies. Protocols used to study the biochemical and structural characteristics of core elements of SUN-KASH complexes are described here to facilitate further studies in this new field of cell biology.

  13. Cosmic Ray Sun Shadow in Soudan 2 Underground Muon Flux

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, W W M; Ayres, D S; Barrett, W L; Bode, C; Border, P M; Brooks, C B; Cobb, J H; Cotton, R J; Courant, H; Demuth, D M; Fields, T H; Gallagher, H R; García-García, C; Goodman, M C; Gran, R; Joffe-Minor, T M; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M; Leeson, W; Lichtfield, P J; Longley, N P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Milburn, R H; Miller, W H; Mualem, L M; Napier, A; Oliver, W P; Pearce, G F; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Price, L E; Ruddick, K; Sánchez, M; Schneps, J; Schub, M H; Seidlein, R; Stassinakis, A; Thron, J L; Vasilev, V; Villaume, G; Wakely, S P; West, N; Wall, D

    1999-01-01

    The absorption of cosmic rays by the sun produces a shadow at the earth. The angular offset and broadening of the shadow are determined by the magnitude and structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IPMF) in the inner solar system. We report the first measurement of the solar cosmic ray shadow by detection of deep underground muon flux in observations made during the entire ten-year interval 1989 to 1998. The sun shadow varies significantly during this time, with a $3.3\\sigma$ shadow observed during the years 1995 to 1998.

  14. Wilson loop expectations in $SU(N)$ lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jafarov, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    This article gives a rigorous formulation and proof of the $1/N$ expansion for Wilson loop expectations in strongly coupled $SU(N)$ lattice gauge theory in any dimension. The coefficients of the expansion are represented as absolutely convergent sums over trajectories in a string theory on the lattice, establishing a kind of gauge-string duality. Moreover, it is shown that in large $N$ limit, calculations in $SU(N)$ lattice gauge theory with coupling strength $2\\beta$ corresponds to those in $SO(N)$ lattice gauge theory with coupling strength $\\beta$ when $|\\beta|$ is sufficiently small.

  15. Presenting the science of the Sun to the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, Arnab Rai

    2016-07-01

    Although the science behind the Sun is so fascinating, there has not been sufficient worldwide effort in presenting this science to the general public. My recently published popular science book "Nature's Third Cycle: A Story of Sunspots" (Oxford University Press, 2015) is probably the first popular science book introducing the phenomenology of the solar cycle along with a non-technical account of dynamo theory. I shall discuss my perspective of the challenges involved in presenting the science of the Sun to the public. The Amazon link of my book is: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Natures-Third-Cycle-Story-Sunspots/dp/0199674752/

  16. ON SUN-TO-EARTH PROPAGATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying D. [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Luhmann, Janet G.; Moestl, Christian; Bale, Stuart D.; Lin, Robert P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lugaz, Noe [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Davies, Jackie A., E-mail: liuxying@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-20

    We investigate how coronal mass ejections (CMEs) propagate through, and interact with, the inner heliosphere between the Sun and Earth, a key question in CME research and space weather forecasting. CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics are constrained by combining wide-angle heliospheric imaging observations, interplanetary radio type II bursts, and in situ measurements from multiple vantage points. We select three events for this study, the 2012 January 19, 23, and March 7 CMEs. Different from previous event studies, this work attempts to create a general picture for CME Sun-to-Earth propagation and compare different techniques for determining CME interplanetary kinematics. Key results are obtained concerning CME Sun-to-Earth propagation: (1) the Sun-to-Earth propagation of fast CMEs can be approximately formulated into three phases: an impulsive acceleration, then a rapid deceleration, and finally a nearly constant speed propagation (or gradual deceleration); (2) the CMEs studied here are still accelerating even after the flare maximum, so energy must be continuously fed into the CME even after the time of the maximum heating and radiation has elapsed in the corona; (3) the rapid deceleration, presumably due to interactions with the ambient medium, mainly occurs over a relatively short timescale following the acceleration phase; and (4) CME-CME interactions seem a common phenomenon close to solar maximum. Our comparison between different techniques (and data sets) has important implications for CME observations and their interpretations: (1) for the current cases, triangulation assuming a compact CME geometry is more reliable than triangulation assuming a spherical front attached to the Sun for distances below 50-70 solar radii from the Sun, but beyond about 100 solar radii we would trust the latter more; (2) a proper treatment of CME geometry must be performed in determining CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics, especially when the CME propagation direction is far away from the

  17. Researching on Database Hot Standby Software SUN CLUSTER%SUN CLUSTER数据库双机热备研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗江华; 刘瑞宏

    2012-01-01

    介绍了双机热备的工作原理,Sun cluster的系统需求,构造Sun cluster系统的基本步骤以及在Solaris环境下,采用Sun cluster配置Oracle 10g数据库双机热备系统的情况并对双机切换进行了测试.应用表明,采用了双机热备的数据库系统能有效地避免数据库服务器宕杌而导致的应用系统拒绝服务,从而使应用系统运行更加稳定、可靠.

  18. Could Ultracool Dwarfs Have Sun-Like Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    Solar-like stars exhibit magnetic cycles; our Sun, for instance, displays an 11-year period in its activity, manifesting as cyclic changes in radiation levels, the number of sunspots and flares, and ejection of solar material. Over the span of two activity cycles, the Suns magnetic field flips polarity and then returns to its original state.An artists illustration comparing the Sun to TRAPPIST-1, an ultracool dwarf star known to host several planets. [ESO]But what about the magnetic behavior of objects near the cooler end of the stellar main sequence do they exhibit similar activity cycles?Effects of a Convecting InteriorDwarf stars have made headlines in recent years due to their potential to harbor exoplanets. Because these cooler stars have lower flux levels compared to the Sun, their habitable zones lie much closer to the stars. The magnetic behavior of these stars is therefore important to understand: could ultracool dwarfs exhibit solar-like activity cycles that would affect planets with close orbits?The differences in internal structure between different mass stars. Ultracool dwarfs have fully convective interiors. [www.sun.org]Theres a major difference between ultracool dwarfs (stars of spectral type higher than M7 and brown dwarfs) and Sun-like stars: their internal structures. Sun-like stars have a convective envelope that surrounds a radiative core. The interiors of cool, low-mass objects, on the other hand, are fully convective.Based on theoretical studies of how magnetism is generated in stars, its thought that the fully convective interiors of ultracool dwarfs cant support large-scale magnetic field formation. This should prevent these stars from exhibiting activity cycles like the Sun. But recent radio observations of dwarf stars have led scientist Matthew Route (ITaP Research Computing, Purdue University) to question these models.A Reversing Field?During observations of the brown dwarf star J1047+21 in 20102011, radio flares were detected with

  19. The Eclipse of the Sun: Sun-dials, Clocks and Natural Time in the Late Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The Sun, in the early seventeenth century was, as it always had been, the ultimate arbiter of time-measurement In the last quarter of the century however this role was called into question as the new precision of post-Huygenian clocks revealed that natural time and the artificial mean time of the clock were not the same. Initially the question was little understood by the general public. The paper examines some early attempts to explain why "Sun-time" in 1700 was no longer "true-time."

  20. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  1. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  2. Effect of sun elevation upon remote sensing of ocean color over an acid waste dump site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Photographic flights were made over an ocean acid waste dump site while dumping was in progress. The flights resulted in wide angle, broadband, spectral radiance film exposure data between the wavelengths of 500 to 900 nanometers for sun elevation angles ranging from 26 to 42 degrees. It is shown from densitometer data that the spectral signature of acid waste discharged into ocean water can be observed photographically, the influence of sun elevation upon remotely sensed apparent color can be normalized by using a single spectral band ratioing technique, and photographic quantification and mapping of acid waste through its suspended iron precipitate appears possible.

  3. Seismology of the Sun : Inference of Thermal, Dynamic and Magnetic Field Structures of the Interior

    CERN Document Server

    Hiremath, K M

    2012-01-01

    Recent overwhelming evidences show that the sun strongly influences the Earth's climate and environment. Moreover existence of life on this Earth mainly depends upon the sun's energy. Hence, understanding of physics of the sun, especially the thermal, dynamic and magnetic field structures of its interior, is very important. Recently, from the ground and space based observations, it is discovered that sun oscillates near 5 min periodicity in millions of modes. This discovery heralded a new era in solar physics and a separate branch called helioseismology or seismology of the sun has started. Before the advent of helioseismology, sun's thermal structure of the interior was understood from the evolutionary solution of stellar structure equations that mimicked the present age, mass and radius of the sun. Whereas solution of MHD equations yielded internal dynamics and magnetic field structure of the sun's interior. In this presentation, I review the thermal, dynamic and magnetic field structures of the sun's inter...

  4. Analysis of meiosis in SUN1 deficient mice reveals a distinct role of SUN2 in mammalian meiotic LINC complex formation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Link

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available LINC complexes are evolutionarily conserved nuclear envelope bridges, composed of SUN (Sad-1/UNC-84 and KASH (Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne/homology domain proteins. They are crucial for nuclear positioning and nuclear shape determination, and also mediate nuclear envelope (NE attachment of meiotic telomeres, essential for driving homolog synapsis and recombination. In mice, SUN1 and SUN2 are the only SUN domain proteins expressed during meiosis, sharing their localization with meiosis-specific KASH5. Recent studies have shown that loss of SUN1 severely interferes with meiotic processes. Absence of SUN1 provokes defective telomere attachment and causes infertility. Here, we report that meiotic telomere attachment is not entirely lost in mice deficient for SUN1, but numerous telomeres are still attached to the NE through SUN2/KASH5-LINC complexes. In Sun1(-/- meiocytes attached telomeres retained the capacity to form bouquet-like clusters. Furthermore, we could detect significant numbers of late meiotic recombination events in Sun1(-/- mice. Together, this indicates that even in the absence of SUN1 telomere attachment and their movement within the nuclear envelope per se can be functional.

  5. Small-scale eruptive filaments on the quiet sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Linda M.; Martin, Sara F.

    1986-01-01

    A study of a little known class of eruptive events on the quiet sun was conducted. All of 61 small-scale eruptive filamentary structures were identified in a systematic survey of 32 days of H alpha time-lapse films of the quiet sun acquired at Big Bear Solar Observatory. When fully developed, these structures have an average length of 15 arc seconds before eruption. They appear to be the small-scale analog of large-scale eruptive filaments observed against the disk. At the observed rate of 1.9 small-scale eruptive features per field of view per average 7.0 hour day, the rate of occurence of these events on the sun were estimated to be greater than 600 per 24 hour day.. The average duration of the eruptive phase was 26 minutes while the average lifetime from formation through eruption was 70 minutes. A majority of the small-scale filamentary sturctures were spatially related to cancelling magnetic features in line-of-sight photospheric magnetograms. Similar to large-scale filaments, the small-scale filamentary structures sometimes divided opposite polarity cancelling fragments but often had one or both ends terminating at a cancellation site. Their high numbers appear to reflect the much greater flux on the quiet sun. From their characteristics, evolution, and relationship to photospheric magnetic flux, it was concluded that the structures described are small-scale eruptive filaments and are a subset of all filaments.

  6. On the Physical Constitution of the Sun — Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye H.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Patrice Robitaille (TAV College, Montreal, Canada provides a translation of Herv ́ e August Etienne Albans Faye’s classic report Sur la constitution physique du soleil , as it appeared in February 1865 within Les Mondes ,1865, v.7, 293–306. Herv ́ e Faye (Oc- tober 1, 1814 – July 4, 1902 led a distinguished life, both in science and public ser- vice. He was widely regarded as one of the premier astronomers of his day. He had studied under the great Franc ̧ois Arago. In 1843, he became a Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur and, in 1877, served as the French Minister of Education (Catholic Ency- clopedia, 1913. Faye’s report On the Physical Constitution of the Sun was a crucial milestone in the history of astronomy. It was through this paper, that the Sun became viewed as devoid of a distinct surface. The work was also interesting as it presented Faye’s early conception of the gaseous Sun. In addition, through its submission, Faye had sought the approbation of Father Secchi relative to claims of simultaneous discov- ery (see P.M.Robitaille. A Thermodynamic History of the Solar Constitution — I: The Journey to a Gaseous Sun. Progr. Phys. , 2011, v.3, 3–25. Faye’s work would continue to impact solar physics until the 1920s.

  7. Daidzein: A review of pharmacological effects | Sun | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meng-Yao Sun, Ying Ye, Ling Xiao, Khalid Rahman, Wei Xia, Hong Zhang ... is an isoflavone with extensive nutritious value and is mainly extracted from soy plants. ... Results: Daidzein is reported to play a significant role in the prevention and ...

  8. Sun Tzu's Art of War and competition and cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    rule, state sovereignty and territorial integrity and economic and social development. In line with Sun Tzu’s concepts of strategy, these objectives are attempted achieved by means of a defensive strategy designed to change the status quo in China’s favour. A new status quo involves obtaining...

  9. The Sun's Corona Observed by the Skylab Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    The Sun's corona stretches far beyond the dense, irner corona seen in x-rays and ultraviolet light, and beyond the limits of what we normally see in the dark sky of a total solar eclipse. Its farthest reaches are delineated by tapered streamers that stretch into interplanetary space, extending the domain of our nearest star much farther than its visible disk. We see the outer corona briefly at total eclipses of the Sun, where it appears white and delicate against the starry background of a temporarily darkened, daytime sky. Even then, Earth's intervening atmosphere is bright enough to limit our view of the outer corona. At Skylab's orbital altitude, where almost no air was left and where the sky was starkly black, the outer corona was at last clearly seen. In the thousands of coronal portraits made by Skylab, in which the corona was observed more extensively than in all the centuries of humanity's interest in the Sun, the corona was constantly altering its form, ever adjusting to the shifting magnetic fields from the Sun's surface that so obviously gave it its distinctive shape. Skylab's coronagraph observations coupled with x-ray pictures of the inner corona helped establish the origin of the corona's varied forms and the important connection between coronal holes and high-speed streams in the solar wind.

  10. Teaching "A Raisin in the Sun": Literature and Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Charles

    1989-01-01

    One approach to teaching literature combines a work of drama or fiction with a popular text on human needs and relationships. Virginia Satir's "Peoplemaking," a book on family dynamics, provides a theoretical framework in which to evaluate the decisions of the characters in Lorraine Hansberry's "A Raisin in the Sun." (MSE)

  11. Conceptual Steps towards Exploring the Fundamental Nature of our Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Grandpierre, A

    2004-01-01

    One of the basic questions of solar research is the nature of the Sun. We show here how the plasma nature of the Sun leads to the self-generation of solar activity. The release of magnetic, rotational, gravitational, nuclear energies and that of the gravity mode oscillations deviate from uniformity and spherical symmetry. Through instabilities they lead to the emergence of sporadic and localized regions like flux tubes, electric filaments, magnetic elements and high temperature regions. A systematic approach exploring the solar collective degrees of freedom, extending to ordering phenomena of the magnetic features related to Higgs fields, is presented. Handling solar activity as transformations of energies from one form to another one presents a picture on the network of the energy levels of the Sun, showing that the Sun is neither a mere "ball of gas" nor a "quiescent steady-state fusion-reactor machine", but a complex self-organizing system. Since complex self-organizing systems are similar to living system...

  12. Nilaja Sun's "No Child"...: Revealing Teaching and Learning through Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Lois

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of Nilaja Sun's one-woman play, "No Child" . . ., that applies the Studio Habits of Mind framework to reveal essential features of great teaching artistry and great teaching. The play conveys much about twenty-first century schools and the policies that control them; about respect, equity, justice, and the lack of…

  13. DOE SunShot System Integration Program. Accomplishments and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boynton, Shannon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    During FY15, Sandia National Laboratories executed research and development (R&D) work on a portfolio of 16 SunShot Program Systems Integration (SI) agreements, with a total FY15 budget of $13.2 million. This document summarizes the impact of the Sandia contributions based on Sandia’s direct contributions by DOE.

  14. SunShot Catalyst Prize Competition Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Catalyst Energy Innovation Prize, an open innovation program launched in 2014 by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This program aims to catalyze the rapid creation and development of products and solutions that address near-term challenges in the U.S. solar energy marketplace.

  15. Micro digital sun sensor: system in a package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, C.W. de; Leijtens, J.A.P.; Duivenbode, L.M.H. van; Heiden, N. van der

    2004-01-01

    A novel micro Digital Sun Sensor (μDSS) is under development in the frame of a micro systems technology (MST) development program (Microned) from the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. Use of available micro system technologies in combination with the implementation of a dedicated solarcell for pow

  16. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  17. Mechanical Sun-Tracking Technique Implemented for Maximum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The solar panel is allowed to move from east to west and back forth with a maximum allowable angle of 180o. Its movement is in only one axis. The prototype built carries the panel from eastward to westward tracking the sun movement from ...

  18. The interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun -- a new perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gry, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We offer a new, simpler picture of the local interstellar medium around the Sun (LISM) made of a single continuous cloud enveloping the Sun. This new outlook enables the description of a diffuse cloud from within and brings to light some unexpected properties. Methods: We re-examine the kinematics and abundances of the local interstellar medium, as revealed by the published results for the ultraviolet absorption lines of MgII, FeII and HI. Results: In contrast to previous representations, our new picture of the LISM consists of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions and accounts for most of the matter present in the first 50 parsecs around the Sun. The cloud fills the space around us out to about 9 pc in most directions, although its boundary is very irregular with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. The cloud does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions per...

  19. Application of new control strategy for sun tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, F.R.; Ortega, M.G.; Gordillo, F.; Lopez-Martinez, M. [Depto. Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The application of high concentration solar cells technology allows a significant increase in the amount of energy collected by solar arrays per unit area. However, to make it possible, more severe specifications on the sun pointing error are required. In fact, the performance of solar cells with concentrators decreases drastically if this error is greater than a small value. These specifications are not fulfilled by simple tracking systems due to different sources of errors (e.g., small misalignments of the structure with respect to geographical north) that appear in practice in low cost, domestic applications. This paper presents a control application of a sun tracker that is able to follow the sun with high accuracy without the necessity of either a precise procedure of installation or recalibration. A hybrid tracking system that consists of a combination of open loop tracking strategies based on solar movement models and closed loop strategies using a dynamic feedback controller is presented. Energy saving factors are taken into account, which implies that, among other factors, the sun is not constantly tracked with the same accuracy, to prevent energy overconsumption by the motors. Simulation and experimental results with a low cost two axes solar tracker are exposed, including a comparison between a classical open loop tracking strategy and the proposed hybrid one. (author)

  20. Teaching "A Raisin in the Sun": Literature and Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Charles

    1989-01-01

    One approach to teaching literature combines a work of drama or fiction with a popular text on human needs and relationships. Virginia Satir's "Peoplemaking," a book on family dynamics, provides a theoretical framework in which to evaluate the decisions of the characters in Lorraine Hansberry's "A Raisin in the Sun." (MSE)

  1. Rejuvenating the sun and avoiding other global catastrophes

    CERN Document Server

    Beech, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Canadian academic Martin Beech has written a text that crosses the line between science fiction and science fact. Put simply, his book details a method that just might be able to stop the Sun from losing its power and, ultimately, save humanity and the Earth itself.

  2. The New Woman in "The Sun Also Rises"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoping

    2010-01-01

    Hemingway is a famous American writer and a spokesman of the Lost Generation. His life attitude of the characters in the novels influenced the whole world. His first masterpiece "The Sun Also Rises" contributes a lot to the rise of feminism and make the world began to be familiar with a term: The New Woman through the portrayal of Brett.…

  3. Tree Leaf Shadows to the Sun's Density: A Surprising Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2013-01-01

    Rays of sunlight that strike raindrops produce rainbows that provide information about the spectrum of sunlight. Rays of sunlight that strike airborne ice crystals produce halos, sun pillars, and many other patterns of light and color in the sky. Analysis of those patterns makes it possible to determine the types and orientations of the ice…

  4. Distant future of the Sun and Earth revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Schroder, Klaus-Peter

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the distant future of the Sun and the solar system, based on stellar models computed with a thoroughly tested evolution code. For the solar giant stages, mass-loss by the cool (but not dust-driven) wind is considered in detail. Using the new and well-calibrated mass-loss formula of Schroder & Cuntz (2005, 2007), we find that the mass lost by the Sun as an RGB giant (0.332 M_Sun, 7.59 Gy from now) potentially gives planet Earth a significant orbital expansion, inversely proportional to the remaining solar mass. According to these solar evolution models, the closest encounter of planet Earth with the solar cool giant photosphere will occur during the tip-RGB phase. During this critical episode, for each time-step of the evolution model, we consider the loss of orbital angular momentum suffered by planet Earth from tidal interaction with the giant Sun, as well as dynamical drag in the lower chromosphere. We find that planet Earth will not be able to escape engulfment, despite the positive effect o...

  5. Tree Leaf Shadows to the Sun's Density: A Surprising Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2013-01-01

    Rays of sunlight that strike raindrops produce rainbows that provide information about the spectrum of sunlight. Rays of sunlight that strike airborne ice crystals produce halos, sun pillars, and many other patterns of light and color in the sky. Analysis of those patterns makes it possible to determine the types and orientations of the ice…

  6. The Early Years: The Earth-Sun System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    We all experience firsthand many of the phenomena caused by Earth's Place in the Universe (Next Generation Science Standard 5-ESS1; NGSS Lead States 2013) and the relative motion of the Earth, Sun, and Moon. Young children can investigate phenomena such as changes in times of sunrise and sunset (number of daylight hours), Moon phases, seasonal…

  7. Are the majority of Sun-like stars single?

    CERN Document Server

    Whitworth, A P

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that, in the field, $\\sim\\!\\!56\\%$ of Sun-like stars ($0.8\\,{\\rm M}_{_\\odot}\\lesssim M_\\star\\lesssim 1.2\\,{\\rm M}_{_\\odot}$) are single. We argue here that this suggestion may be incorrect, since it appears to be based on the multiplicity frequency of systems with Sun-like primaries, and therefore takes no account of Sun-like stars that are secondary (or higher-order) components in multiple systems. When these components are included in the reckoning, it seems likely that only $\\sim\\!46\\%$ of Sun-like stars are single. This estimate is based on a model in which the system mass function has the form proposed by Chabrier, with a power-law Salpeter extension to high masses; there is a flat distribution of mass ratios; and the probability that a system of mass $M$ is a binary is $\\,0.50 + 0.46\\log_{_{10}}\\!\\left(M/{\\rm M}_{_\\odot}\\right)\\,$ for $\\,0.08\\,{\\rm M}_{_\\odot}\\leq M\\leq 12.5\\,{\\rm M}_{_\\odot}$, $\\,0\\,$ for $\\,M12.5\\,{\\rm M}_{_\\odot}$. The constants in this last relation ar...

  8. Micro digital sun sensor: system in a package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, C.W. de; Leijtens, J.A.P.; Duivenbode, L.M.H. van; Heiden, N. van der

    2004-01-01

    A novel micro Digital Sun Sensor (μDSS) is under development in the frame of a micro systems technology (MST) development program (Microned) from the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. Use of available micro system technologies in combination with the implementation of a dedicated solarcell for pow

  9. Micro digital sun sensor: system in a package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, C.W. de; Leijtens, J.A.P.; Duivenbode, L.M.H. van; Heiden, N. van der

    2004-01-01

    A novel micro Digital Sun Sensor (μDSS) is under development in the frame of a micro systems technology (MST) development program (Microned) from the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. Use of available micro system technologies in combination with the implementation of a dedicated solarcell for

  10. MuSun: muon capture on the deuteron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the MuSun experiment at PSI is to measure the rate of muon capture on the deuteron with a precision of 1.5%. This rate will be used to fix the low-energy constant that describes the two-nucleon weak axial current in Chiral perturbation theory. It will therefore calibrate evaluations of solar proton-proton fusion and neutrino-deuteron scattering(SNO experiment. MuSun forms part of the systematic program to achieve a new level of precision in confronting the theories of weak interactions, QCD and few body physics. MuSun inherits some of the well developed techniques and apparatus from a successful measurement of the rate for muon capture on the proton, the MuCap experiment, also performed at PSI. As in MuCap, MuSun uses a TPC as an active target. To optimize the molecular kinetics, its ultra-pure deuterium gas is kept at 31K. The status of the hardware and details of the data analysis for a high statistics run taken in 2013 will be presented.

  11. HIV/AIDS Universal Precaution Practices in Sun Dance Ceremonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Jennifer; Takehara, Joan; Asetoyer, Charon; Welty, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Aberdeen (South Dakota) Area Indian Health Service has sponsored educational projects to reduce risk of HIV transmission via skin piercing and flesh offerings during traditional Sun Dance ceremonies. Projects emphasized universal precautions, provided medical supplies, and respected the sacredness of the ceremony. Evaluation indicates that…

  12. Oculocutaneous albinism in sub-Saharan Africa: adverse sun-associated health effects and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Norval, Mary; Hertle, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically inherited autosomal recessive condition. Individuals with OCA lack melanin and therefore are susceptible to the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation, including extreme sun sensitivity, photophobia and skin cancer. OCA is a grave public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa with a prevalence as high as 1 in 1000 in some tribes. This article considers the characteristics and prevalence of OCA in sub-Saharan African countries. Sun-induced adverse health effects in the skin and eyes of OCA individuals are reviewed. Sun exposure behavior and the use of photoprotection for the skin and eyes are discussed to highlight the major challenges experienced by these at-risk individuals and how these might be best resolved. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  13. Revival of the "Sun Festival": An educational and outreach project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montabone, Luca

    2016-10-01

    In ancient times, past civilisations used to celebrate both the winter and summer solstices, which represented key moments in the periodical cycle of seasons and agricultural activities. In 1904, the French astronomer Camille Flammarion, the engineer Gustave Eiffel, the science writer Wilfrid de Fonvielle and the Spanish astronomer Josep Comas i Solà decided to celebrate the summer solstice with a festival of science, art and astronomical observations opened to the public at the Eiffel tower in Paris. For ten consecutive years (1904-1914) on the day of the summer solstice, the "Sun Festival" (Fête du Soleil in French) included scientific and technological lectures and demostrations, celestial observations, music, poetry, danse, cinema, etc. This celebration was interrupted by the First World War, just to resume in Barcelona, Spain, between 1915 and 1937, and in Marseille, France, in the 1930s. It was the founders' dream to extend this celebration to all cities in France and elsewhere.It is only during the International Year of Astronomy in 2009, to our knowledge, that the "Sun Festival" was given another chance in France, thanks to the joint effort of several scientific and cultural centers (Centres de Culture Scientifique, Technique et Industrielle, CCSTI) and the timely support of the European Space Agency (ESA). In this occasion again, the festival was characterized by the combination of science, art and technological innovation around a common denominator: our Sun!We have recently revived the idea of celebrating the summer solstice with a "Sun Festival" dedicated to scientific education and outreach about our star and related topics. This project started last year in Aix-les-Bains, France, with the "Sun and Light Festival" (2015 was the International Year of Light), attended by about 100 people. This year's second edition was in Le Bourget-du-Lac, France. Following the COP21 event, the specific theme was the "Sun and Climate Festival", and we had about 250

  14. Recent Progress in Understanding the Sun's Magnetic Dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David. H.

    2004-01-01

    100 years ago we thought that the Sun and stars shone as a result of slow gravitational contraction over a few tens of millions of years - putting astronomers at odds with geologists who claimed that the Earth was much, much older. That mystery was solved in the 1920s and 30s with the discovery of nuclear energy (proving that the geologists had it right all along). Other scientific mysteries concerning the Sun have come and gone but three major mysteries remain: 1) How does the Sun produce sunspots with an 11-year cycle? 2) What produces the huge explosions that result in solar flares, prominence eruptions, and coronal mass ejections? and 3) Why is the Sun's outer atmosphere, the corona, so darned hot? Recent progress in solar astronomy reveals a single key to understanding all three of these mysteries.The 11-year time scale for the sunspot cycle indicates the presence of a magnetic dynamo within the Sun. For decades this dynamo was though to operate within the Sun's convection zone - the outmost 30% of the Sun where convective currents transport heat and advect magnetic lines of force. The two leading theories for the dynamo had very different models for the dynamics of the convection zone. Actual measurements of the dynamics using the techniques of helioseismology showed that both of these models had to be wrong some 20 years ago. A thin layer of strongly sheared flow at the base of the convection zone (now called the tachocline) was then taken to be the seat of the dynamo. Over the last 10 years it has become apparent that a weak meridional circulation within the convection zone also plays a key role in the dynamo. This meridional circulation has plasma rising up from the tachocline in the equatorial regions, spreading out toward the poles at a top speed of about 10-20 m/s at the surface, sinking back down to the tachocline in the polar regions, and then flowing back toward the equator at a top speed of about 1-2 m/s in the tachocline itself. Recent dynamo

  15. Recent Progress in Understanding the Sun's Magnetic Dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David. H.

    2004-01-01

    100 years ago we thought that the Sun and stars shone as a result of slow gravitational contraction over a few tens of millions of years - putting astronomers at odds with geologists who claimed that the Earth was much, much older. That mystery was solved in the 1920s and 30s with the discovery of nuclear energy (proving that the geologists had it right all along). Other scientific mysteries concerning the Sun have come and gone but three major mysteries remain: 1) How does the Sun produce sunspots with an 11-year cycle? 2) What produces the huge explosions that result in solar flares, prominence eruptions, and coronal mass ejections? and 3) Why is the Sun's outer atmosphere, the corona, so darned hot? Recent progress in solar astronomy reveals a single key to understanding all three of these mysteries.The 11-year time scale for the sunspot cycle indicates the presence of a magnetic dynamo within the Sun. For decades this dynamo was though to operate within the Sun's convection zone - the outmost 30% of the Sun where convective currents transport heat and advect magnetic lines of force. The two leading theories for the dynamo had very different models for the dynamics of the convection zone. Actual measurements of the dynamics using the techniques of helioseismology showed that both of these models had to be wrong some 20 years ago. A thin layer of strongly sheared flow at the base of the convection zone (now called the tachocline) was then taken to be the seat of the dynamo. Over the last 10 years it has become apparent that a weak meridional circulation within the convection zone also plays a key role in the dynamo. This meridional circulation has plasma rising up from the tachocline in the equatorial regions, spreading out toward the poles at a top speed of about 10-20 m/s at the surface, sinking back down to the tachocline in the polar regions, and then flowing back toward the equator at a top speed of about 1-2 m/s in the tachocline itself. Recent dynamo

  16. A Physical Model of Phaethon, a Near-Sun Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Daniel C.; Benkhoff, J.; Huebner, W. F.

    2013-10-01

    Physico-chemical modeling is central to understand the important physical processes that occur in small solar system bodies. We have developed a computer code, SUSEI, that includes the physico-chemical processes relevant to comets within a global modeling framework to better understand observations and in situ measurements and to provide valuable insights into the intrinsic properties of their nuclei. SUISEI includes a 3D model of gas and heat transport in porous sub-surface layers in the interior of the nucleus. We have successfully used this model in our study of previous comets at normal heliocentric distances [e.g., 46P/Wirtanen, D/1993 F2 (Shoemaker-Levy 9)]. We have adapted SUISEI to model near-Sun objects to reveal significant differences in the chemistry and dynamics of their comae (atmosphere) with comets that don’t closely approach the Sun. At small heliocentric distances, temperatures are high enough to vaporize surface materials and dust, forming a source of gas. Another important question concerns the energy balance at the body’s surface, namely what fraction of incident energy will be conducted into the interior versus that used for sublimation. This is important to understand if the interior stays cold and is relatively unaltered during each perihelion passage or is significantly devolatilized. This also bears upon the regimes where sublimation and ablation due to ram pressure dominate in the erosion or eventual destruction of sun-grazers. The resulting model will be an important tool for studying sungrazing comets and other near-Sun objects. We will present results on the application of SUISEI to the near-Sun object, Phaethon. Acknowledgements: We appreciate support from the SwRI IR&D and the NSF Planetary Astronomy Programs.

  17. SunPy 0.8 - Python for Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Andrew; Bobra, Monica; Christe, Steven; Hewett, Russell; Ireland, Jack; Mumford, Stuart; Martinez Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Perez-Suarez, David; Reardon, Kevin P.; Savage, Sabrina; Shih, Albert Y.; Ryan, Daniel; Sipocz, Brigitta; Freij, Nabil

    2017-08-01

    SunPy is a community-developed open-source software library for solar physics. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language which is being increasingly adopted throughout the scientific community. Python is one of the top ten most often used programming languages, as such it provides a wide array of software packages, such as numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy), machine learning (scikit-learn), signal processing (scikit-image, statsmodels) to visualization and plotting (matplotlib, mayavi). SunPy aims to provide the software for obtaining and analyzing solar and heliospheric data. This poster introduces a new major release of SunPy (0.8). This release includes two major new functionalities, as well as a number of bug fixes. It is based on 1120 contributions from 34 unique contributors. Fido is the new primary interface to download data. It provides a consistent and powerful search interface to all major data sources provides including VSO, JSOC, as well as individual data sources such as GOES XRS time series and and is fully pluggable to add new data sources, i.e. DKIST. In anticipation of Solar Orbiter and the Parker Solar Probe, SunPy now provides a powerful way of representing coordinates, allowing conversion between coordinate systems and viewpoints of different instruments, including preliminary reprojection capabilities. Other new features including new timeseries capabilities with better support for concatenation and metadata, updated documentation and example gallery. SunPy is distributed through pip and conda and all of its code is publicly available (sunpy.org).

  18. Our Dynamic Sun (Hannes Alfvén Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The Sun, an object of worship for early civilisations, is the main source of light and life on Earth and of our space weather, with many subtle effects on our environment. The lecture will introduce you to the Sun and its dynamic phenomena, and will aim to show how our understanding of many aspects of the Sun has been revolutionized over the past few years by current spacecraft observations and models. Much of the dynamic behaviour is driven by the magnetic field since, in the outer atmosphere (or corona), it represents by far the largest source of energy. The interior of the Sun, revealed by solar seismology, possesses a strong shear layer at the base of the convection zone, where sunspot magnetic fields are generated. But a small-scale dynamo is also operating near the surface of the Sun, generating magnetic fields that thread the lowest layer of the solar atmosphere, the photosphere, in a turbulent convective state. Above the photosphere lies the highly dynamic fine-scale chromosphere and beyond that the rare corona at high temperatures exceeding one million degrees K. Magnetic mechanisms for heating the corona (an intriguing puzzle) will be described. Other puzzles include the structure of giant flux ropes, known as prominences, which have complex fine structure. Occasionally, they erupt and produce huge ejections of mass and magnetic field (coronal mass ejections), which can disrupt the space environment of the Earth. When such eruptions originate in active regions around sunspots, they are also associated with solar flares, where magnetic energy is converted to kinetic, heat and fast particle energy. A new theory will be presented for the origin of the twist that is observed in erupting prominences.

  19. The sun--our friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Silny, Wojciech; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Olek-Hrab, Karolina; Mańkowski, Bartosz; Osmola, Krzysztof; Hojan-Jezierska, Dorota; Kubisz, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    Sunlight is the major source of the energy on Earth. Visible light, ultraviolet and infrared radiation are necessary to sustain life on our planet. However, besides the range of positive effects, such as photosynthesis in plants, warmth, vision, and synthesis of vitamin D, sunlight may also be responsible for negative biologic effects - sunburn, induction of photodermatoses or carcinogenesis. Ultraviolet is regarded as the major environmental, physical hazard to the human skin. The acute clinical effect of ultraviolet involves melanogenesis, i.e. tanning, which protects from sunburn if exposure is overdosed. A single exposure, as well as acute suberythemal irradiation, suppresses sensitization of the contact hypersensitivity. The chronic biological effects are photoageing and skin cancer, especially squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vitamin D synthesis is regarded as a benefit of natural acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet. Ultraviolet also plays an important role in aetiology of the group of disorders characterized by photosensitivity. On the other hand ultraviolet is a known inducer of immunosuppression in the skin; therefore, phototherapy is a therapeutic option for patients with activation of dermal immunity. Without sunlight, the existence of life on Earth is not possible. On the other hand, UVR radiation is regarded as representing one of the most important environmental hazards for human skin. For a better understanding of the mechanisms related to the influence of UVR on human skin, and the most dangerous chronic effects of carcinogenesis, it is necessary to undertake some protective activities. Moreover, UVR may become our ally in the treatment of selected skin disorders.

  20. Retraction: "Oral Polypodium leucomotos increases the anti-inflammatory and melanogenic responses of the skin to different modalities of sun exposures: a pilot study" by Calzavara-Pinton PG, Rossi MT, Zanca A, Arisi M, Gonzalez S, and Venturini M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The above article, published online on November 6, 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Thomas M. Ruenger, MD PhD and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as the clinical trial reported in this manuscript was not approved by the local Ethics Committee. Reference Calzavara-Pinton PG, Rossi MT, Zanca A, Arisi M, Gonzalez S, Venturini M. Oral Polypodium leucomotos increases the anti-inflammatory and melanogenic responses of the skin to different modalities of sun exposures: a pilot study. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2016; 32: 22-27. doi: 10.1111/phpp.12209.

  1. Relationship between interferon regulatory factor 4 genetic polymorphisms, measures of sun sensitivity and risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathany, Allison H; Hartge, Patricia; Davis, Scott; Cerhan, James R; Severson, Richard K; Cozen, Wendy; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chanock, Stephen J; Wang, Sophia S

    2009-10-01

    Sun exposure and sensitivity, including pigmentation, are associated with risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). One variant in the immune regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) gene (rs12203592) is associated with pigmentation, and a different IRF4 variant (rs12211228) is associated with NHL risk. We evaluated the independent roles of these IRF4 polymorphisms and sun sensitivity in mediating NHL risk and explored whether they are confounded or modified by each other. Genotyping of tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IRF4 gene was conducted in 990 NHL cases and 828 controls from a multi-center US study. Measures of sun sensitivity and exposure were ascertained from computer-assisted personal interviews. We used logistic regression to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for NHL in relation to sun exposures, sun exposures in relation to IRF4 genotypes, and NHL in relation to sun exposures. We further assessed the effects of sun exposures in relation to IRF4 genotypes. As previously reported, we found significant associations between IRF4 rs12211228 and NHL and between hair and eye color and NHL. The IRF4 rs12203592 polymorphism (CT/TT genotype) was statistically significantly associated with eye color and particularly with hair color (OR(Light Blonde) = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.11-0.50, overall Chi square p = 0.0002). Analysis of joint effects between eye and hair color with the IRF4 rs12203592 SNP did not reveal statistically significant p-interactions although NHL risk did decline with lighter hair color and presence of the variant IRF4 rs12203592 allele, compared to those without a variant allele and with black/brown hair color. Our data do not statistically support a joint effect between IRF4 and sun sensitivity in mediating risk for NHL. Further evaluation of joint effects in other and larger populations is warranted.

  2. A state of the science on influential factors related to sun protective behaviors to prevent skin cancer in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy F. Bruce, MSN, RN, NE-BC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer rates have risen over the past decades, making it imperative that adults understand the need for protection from sun exposure. Though some risk factors have been identified as predictive for skin cancers, there is a lack of synthesized information about factors that influence adults in their decisions to engage in sun protective behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to present the current state of the science on influential factors for sun protective behaviors in the general adult population. A rigorous literature search inclusive of a generally White, Caucasian, and non-Hispanic adult population was performed, and screening yielded 18 quantitative studies for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that modifiable and non-modifiable factors are interdependent and play a role in sun protective behaviors. This study resulted in a proposed conceptual model for affecting behavioral change in sun protection including the following factors: personal characteristics, cognitive factors, family dynamics, and social/peer group influences. These factors are introduced to propose tailored nursing interventions that would change current sun protective behavior practice. Key implications for nursing research and practice focus on feasibility of annual skin cancer screening facilitated by advanced practice nurses, incorporating the identified influential factors to reduce skin cancer risk and unnecessary sun exposure.

  3. SunSmart: Evaluation of a Pilot School-Based Sun Protection Intervention in Hispanic Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. A.; Langholz, B. M.; Ly, T.; Harris, S. C.; Richardson, J. L.; Peng, D. H.; Cockburn, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma is rising among Hispanic populations in the United States. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of a pilot sun safety educational intervention conducted from 2006 to 2012 on Hispanic early adolescents in a high ultraviolet environment. Nineteen schools with high Hispanic enrollment were recruited from urban…

  4. ULYSSES comes full circle, before revisiting the Sun's poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    From its unique perspective, Ulysses has provided scientists with the very first all-round map of the heliosphere, the huge bubble in space filled by the Sun's wind. The Earth swims deep inside the heliosphere, and gusts and shocks in the solar wind can harm satellites, power supplies and ommunications. They may also affect our planet's weather. A better grasp of the solar weather in the heliosphere is therefore one of the major aims of ESA's science programme. In a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA, Ulysses was launched towards Jupiter in October 1990 by the US space shuttle Discovery. Arriving in February 1992, Ulysses stole energy from the giant planet in a slingshot manoeuvre and was propelled back towards the Sun in an elongated orbit almost at right angles to the ecliptic plane, where the Earth and other planets circle the Sun. "This month Ulysses returns to the point in space where its out-of-ecliptic journey began, but Jupiter isn't there," explains Richard Marsden, ESA's project scientist for Ulysses. "Following its own inexorable path around the Sun, Jupiter is far away on the opposite side of the Solar System. So Ulysses' course will not be changed a second time. The spacecraft is now in effect a man-made comet, forever bound into a 6-year polar orbit around the Sun." Ulysses now starts its second orbit. It will travel over the poles of the Sun in 2000-2001 just as the count of dark sunspots is expected to reach a maximum. With its operational life extended for the Ulysses Solar Maximum Mission, the spacecraft will find the heliosphere much stormier than during its first orbit. Discoveries so far Like its mythical namesake, Ulysses has already had an eventful voyage of discovery. Its unique trajectory has provided the scientific teams with a new perspective, from far out in space and especially in the previously unknown regions of the heliosphere over the Sun's poles. Passing within 9.8 degrees of the polar axis, the highly

  5. Nutritional Rickets among Children in a Sun Rich Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study describes the magnitude and characteristics of nutritional rickets and associated risk factors among children in Qatar. Subjects. A consecutive sample of 730 healthy subjects who visited the primay health care clinics were approached and 540 (73.9% subjects gave consent. Mehods. Nutritional rickets diagnosis was based on clinical radiologic and biochemical parameters and normalization of alkaline phosphatase level after 6 weeks course of daily vitamin D therapy. Results. The study revealed that 23.9% of the studied children had nutritional rickets. The mean SD age of those with rickets (3.76 years 1.51 was slightly higher than those without rickets (3.57 years 1.45. Family history of vitamin D deficiency (44.2%; P = .001 and diabetes mellitus (53.5%; P = .002 were significantly higher in rachitic children than in nonrachitic children. The children with rickets spent a significantly shorter average duration (26.86 minutes 19.94 under the sun than those without rickets (30.59 minutes 15.72; . A significantly larger proportion of rachitic children was afflicted with vitamin D deficiency (75.2% versus 62.2%; , secondary hypothyroidism (100% versus 7.5%; P = .009 and muscular weakness (56.6% versus 26.3%; . Conclusion. The most important risk factors were low vitamin D and calcium intakes, lack of exposure to sunlight, prolonged breast feeding without supplementation of vitamin D.

  6. Lip sun protection factor of a lipstick sunscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard, B; Ademola, J

    2001-01-01

    There is a well-documented need for effective human UVA and UVB photoprotection. Since there are important anatomical variations, the sun protection factor (SPF) of a lipstick sunscreen was measured on the anatomical site intended for use. The SPF tests were performed according to Federal US and European COLIPA guidelines. Prior to performing a test on the lip, the minimal erythemal dose (MED) of the unprotected back skin was determined. Subsequently, the sunscreen SPF was measured on the anatomical target site (lip). The evaluator was blinded with respect to scoring the SPF of each sunscreen treatment. Individual test sites were assigned to one of the following treatment conditions: (1) no treatment (MED of unprotected skin); (2) test formulation; (3) reference standard. The MED on unprotected back skin was found to be 25% lower than on unprotected lip skin. The SPF of the lipstick sunscreen was measured 2 units lower than the SPF determined in the classical way on the back skin. It was hypothesized that the higher MED of the lower lip compared with back skin was due to the adaptation of this tissue to the continuous exposure to UV radiation. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. [Historical origin of Jiu Tangshu·biography of Sun Simiao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen-Min

    2012-09-01

    The book Datang Xinyu·Sun Simiao was compiled by Liu Su according to the original national historical papers of the Tang Dynasty which basically kept the features of national history. Based on this book and Binglishufu Xu (written by Lu Zhaolin) and Tanbinlu·Sun Simiao, Zhang Du sorted out the data about Sun Simiao and compiled the book Xuanshizhi·Sun Simiao (in which the three stories of his lifetime were made up). Jiu Tangshi·Sun Simiao was edited by historiographers in the Hou-Jin Dynasty according to the biography of Sun Simiao in Tang national history, and referring to the Datang Xinyu·Sun Simiao, Xuanshizhi·Sun Simiao, in which they only made a few adjustments on the basis of Xuanshizhi. Du Guangting compiled Xianzhuan Shiyi·Sun Simiao and Xuanshizhi·Sun Simiao and added three stories of gods and spirits about Sun Simiao after he became immortal. Taipingguangji of the North Song Dynasty was compiled according to Xianzhuan Shiyi·Sun Simiao and Xuanshizhi·Sun Simiao.

  8. Solar ultraviolet radiation in South Africa and sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours among South African adults: pilot study results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available While some sun exposure induces a sense of well-being and synthesis of vitamin D excess sun exposure has been associated with skin cancer, immune suppression and ocular cataracts. In South Africa, approximately 30% of all histologically...

  9. Demographic Differences in Sun Protection Beliefs and Behavior: A Community-Based Study in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Yan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We want to know the attitudes and behaviors towards UV protection and we want to analyze the difference between different Chinese demographic groups in this study. Methods: A community-based study was undertaken in Shanghai from October 2009 to January 2010. The participants, ages 20–60 years old, were screened by cluster sampling and were investigated through interviews at their own homes. Personal basic information and questions pertaining to their knowledge and attitudes towards sunlight and sun protective activities were included in the questionnaire. Results: We completed 5964 questionnaires (2794 men and 3170 women. Eighty-six percent of the respondents belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Knowledge about UV-induced risks was known by more than half of the participants. However, only one-third of the participants thought they needed sun protection in winter and indoors or in vehicles, and 27% of the participants acknowledged tanning was not favorable. The attitudes towards sun exposure varied greatly, showing significant differences based on gender, age, socioeconomic groups and skin type groups (p < 0.05. Fifty-five percent of the participants never use an umbrella under sunlight, only 26.5% of the respondents wear hats, and 21.3% of the participants applied sunscreen. Females and individuals of a younger age and higher education level were more likely to perform sun-protective behaviors than males and those of an older age and lower education level (p < 0.001. Conclusion: There is a deficit in the use of sun protection existing in our surveyed Chinese population, especially in males and lower socioeconomic population, which could allow for planning prevention campaigns and exploring sun-preventive products.

  10. The COST example for outreach to the general public: I love my Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulunay, Yurdanur; Crosby, Norma Bock; Tulunay, Ersin; Calders, Stijn; Parnowski, Aleksei; Sulic, Desanka

    2013-01-01

    It is important to educate children about the important role that the Sun has in their lives. This paper presents an educational outreach tool entitled "I Love My Sun" that has been developed for school children in the approximate age range of 7 through 11 years. The main objective of this tool is to make children aware of space weather, the Sun, Sun-Earth relations and how they, the children, are part of this global picture. Children are given a lecture about the Sun. The lecture is preceded and followed by the children drawing a picture of the Sun. In this paper the background behind the "I Love My Sun" initiative is given and it is described how to perform an "I Love My Sun". The main results from events in Turkey, Belgium, Ukraine and Serbia are presented.

  11. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of a theory-based online intervention to improve sun safety among Australian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, Cathy M; White, Katherine M; Young, Ross McD; Hawkes, Anna L; Leske, Stuart; Starfelt, Louise C; Wihardjo, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation are a significant concern in Australia which has one of the highest incidences of skin cancer in the world. Despite most skin cancers being preventable by encouraging consistent adoption of sun-protective behaviours, incidence rates are not decreasing. There is a dearth of research examining the factors involved in engaging in sun-protective behaviours. Further, online multi-behavioural theory-based interventions have yet to be explo...

  12. Are sun- and shade-type anatomy required for the acclimation of Neoregelia cruenta?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Sun and shade plants are often discriminated by a number of sun- and shade-type anatomies. Nonetheless, we propose that among tank-bromeliads, changes in rosette architecture satisfy the requirements for coping with contrasting light levels. The tank-bromeliad Neoregelia cruenta naturally colonises sub-habitats ranging from full exposure to direct sunlight, to shaded environments in sand ridge plains. We quantified anatomical and morphological traits of leaves and rosettes of N. cruenta grown...

  13. Structure and expression of the maize (Zea mays L. SUN-domain protein gene family: evidence for the existence of two divergent classes of SUN proteins in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Carl R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear envelope that separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm provides a surface for chromatin attachment and organization of the cortical nucleoplasm. Proteins associated with it have been well characterized in many eukaryotes but not in plants. SUN (Sad1p/Unc-84 domain proteins reside in the inner nuclear membrane and function with other proteins to form a physical link between the nucleoskeleton and the cytoskeleton. These bridges transfer forces across the nuclear envelope and are increasingly recognized to play roles in nuclear positioning, nuclear migration, cell cycle-dependent breakdown and reformation of the nuclear envelope, telomere-led nuclear reorganization during meiosis, and karyogamy. Results We found and characterized a family of maize SUN-domain proteins, starting with a screen of maize genomic sequence data. We characterized five different maize ZmSUN genes (ZmSUN1-5, which fell into two classes (probably of ancient origin, as they are also found in other monocots, eudicots, and even mosses. The first (ZmSUN1, 2, here designated canonical C-terminal SUN-domain (CCSD, includes structural homologs of the animal and fungal SUN-domain protein genes. The second (ZmSUN3, 4, 5, here designated plant-prevalent mid-SUN 3 transmembrane (PM3, includes a novel but conserved structural variant SUN-domain protein gene class. Mircroarray-based expression analyses revealed an intriguing pollen-preferred expression for ZmSUN5 mRNA but low-level expression (50-200 parts per ten million in multiple tissues for all the others. Cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA for a PM3-type maize gene, ZmSUN4, is described. Peptide antibodies to ZmSUN3, 4 were used in western-blot and cell-staining assays to show that they are expressed and show concentrated staining at the nuclear periphery. Conclusions The maize genome encodes and expresses at least five different SUN-domain proteins, of which the PM3

  14. Understanding Space Weather: The Sun as a Variable Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Keith; Saba, Julia; Kucera, Therese

    2012-01-01

    The Sun is a complex system of systems and until recently, less than half of its surface was observable at any given time and then only from afar. New observational techniques and modeling capabilities are giving us a fresh perspective of the solar interior and how our Sun works as a variable star. This revolution in solar observations and modeling provides us with the exciting prospect of being able to use a vastly increased stream of solar data taken simultaneously from several different vantage points to produce more reliable and prompt space weather forecasts. Solar variations that cause identifiable space weather effects do not happen only on solar-cycle timescales from decades to centuries; there are also many shorter-term events that have their own unique space weather effects and a different set of challenges to understand and predict, such as flares, coronal mass ejections, and solar wind variations.

  15. Research and application of devices for synchronously tracking the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Ming; Sun, Youhong; Wang, Qinghua; Wu, Xiaohan [Jilin Univ. Changchun (China). College of Construction Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper introduces a concept of apparent motion orbit of the sun, and put forward the theory of synchronous (linear) tracking the sun. Using solarium mechanism to trail the running path of solar hour angel, and using modified sine function framework to trace solar apparent declination path, and then connect these two mechanisms with linear transmission chain. More than 45%{proportional_to}122% electricity can be output by the synchronous tracking photovoltaic (PV) devices compare with those fixed PV ones with the same area between the spring equinox to the summer solstice. The 17m{sup 2} heat collector of synchronous tracking, its static wind-driven power consumption is less than 3.5W (0.2W/m{sup 2}), and the gale consumption is less than 7W(0.34W/m{sup 2}). The apparatus can be utilized widely in solar power, heating, lighting systems and other solar energy utilization. (orig.)

  16. HARPS-N observes the Sun as a star

    CERN Document Server

    Dumusque, Xavier; Phillips, David F; Buchschacher, Nicolas; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Cecconi, Massimo; Charbonneau, David; Cosentino, Rosario; Ghedina, Adriano; Latham, David W; Li, Chih-Hao; Lodi, Marcello; Lovis, Christophe; Molinari, Emilio; Pepe, Francesco; Udry, Stephane; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Radial velocity perturbations induced by stellar surface inhomogeneities including spots, plages and granules currently limit the detection of Earth-twins using Doppler spectroscopy. Such stellar noise is poorly understood for stars other than the Sun because their surface is unresolved. In particular, the effects of stellar surface inhomogeneities on observed stellar radial velocities are extremely difficult to characterize, and thus developing optimal correction techniques to extract true stellar radial velocities is extremely challenging. In this paper, we present preliminary results of a solar telescope built to feed full-disk sunlight into the HARPS-N spectrograph, which is in turn calibrated with an astro-comb. This setup enables long-term observation of the Sun as a star with state-of-the-art sensitivity to radial velocity changes. Over seven days of observing in 2014, we show an average 50\\cms radial velocity rms over a few hours of observation. After correcting observed radial velocities for spot and...

  17. SU(N) multi-Skyrmions at finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canfora, Fabrizio [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Casilla, Valdivia (Chile); Di Mauro, Marco; Naddeo, Adele [Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E.R. Caianiello' ' , Fisciano, SA (Italy); Kurkov, Maxim A. [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Matematica e Applicazioni ' ' R. Caccioppoli' ' , Napoli (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    We study multi-soliton solutions of the fourdimensional SU(N) Skyrme model by combining the hedgehog ansatz for SU(N) based on the harmonic maps of S{sup 2} into CP{sup N-1} and a geometrical trick which allows to analyze explicitly finite-volume effects without breaking the relevant symmetries of the ansatz. The geometric set-up allows to introduce a parameter which is related to the ft Hooft coupling of a suitable large N limit, in which N → ∞ and the curvature of the background metric approaches zero, in such a way that their product is constant. The relevance of such a parameter to the physics of the system is pointed out. In particular, we discuss how the discrete symmetries of the configurations depend on it. (orig.)

  18. On the Path to SunShot - Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    The halfway mark of the SunShot Initiative’s 2020 target date is a good time to take stock: How much progress has been made? What have we learned? What barriers and opportunities must still be addressed to ensure that solar technologies achieve cost parity in 2020 and realize their full potential in the decades beyond? To answer these questions, the Solar Energy Technology Office launched the On the Path to SunShot series in early 2015 in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and with contributions from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The reports focus on the areas of technology development, systems integration, and market enablers.

  19. Radio emission of the sun at millimeter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagnibeda, V. G.; Piotrovich, V. V.

    This review article deals with the radio emission originating from different solar atmospheric regions - the quiet solar atmosphere, active regions and solar flares. All experimental data of the quiet Sun brightness temperature at the region of 0.1 - 20 mm wavelength are summarized. The quiet Sun brightness distributions across the disk and values of the solar radio radius are reviewed. The properties of the sources of sunspot-associated active region emission and radio brightness depression associated with Hα-filaments are considered in comparison with observations at centimetre and optical domains. The observational properties of millimetre wave bursts and their correlations with similar phenomena at other domains are reviewed. Special reference is devoted to nearly 100% correlation impulsive radio bursts with hard X-ray bursts. Existence of the fine temporal structure containing many spikes with time scales up to 10 ms as well as observations of quasi-periodic millisecond oscillations are discussed.

  20. Quest for finding the lost siblings of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C; Feltzing, S; Martínez-Barbosa, C A; Bensby, T; Brown, A G A; Zwart, S F Portegies

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to find lost siblings of the Sun by analyzing high resolution spectra. Finding solar siblings will enable us to constrain the parameters of the parental cluster and the birth place of the Sun in the Galaxy. The solar siblings can be identified by accurate measurements of metallicity, stellar age and elemental abundances for solar neighbourhood stars. The solar siblings candidates were kinematically selected based on their proper motions, parallaxes and colours. Stellar parameters were determined through a purely spectroscopic approach and partly physical method, respectively. Comparing synthetic with observed spectra, elemental abundances were computed based on the stellar parameters obtained using a partly physical method. A chemical tagging technique was used to identify the solar siblings. We present stellar parameters, stellar ages, and detailed elemental abundances for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni for 32 solar sibling candidates. Our abundances analysis shows that four ...

  1. SunDial: embodied informal science education using GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. Halpern

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Science centers serve a number of goals for visitors, ideally providing experiences that are educational, social, and meaningful. This paper describes SunDial, a handheld application developed for families to use at a science center. Inspired by the idea of geocaching, the high-tech treasure hunting game that utilizes GPS technologies, SunDial asks families to use a single handheld device to locate and participate in a series of learning modules around the museum. Observations of 10 families suggest that it supports rich informal science education experiences, provides insights about families’ interaction patterns around and with single handheld devices, and demonstrates the value of navigation as an educational experience. Further, using recently released guidelines for Informal Science Education (ISE experiences to inform the design process proved valuable, tying features of the technology to educational and social goals, and giving evidence that explicit reference to these guidelines can improve ISE experiences and technologies.

  2. Exact Diagonalization of Heisenberg SU(N) models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataf, Pierre; Mila, Frédéric

    2014-09-19

    Building on advanced results on permutations, we show that it is possible to construct, for each irreducible representation of SU(N), an orthonormal basis labeled by the set of standard Young tableaux in which the matrix of the Heisenberg SU(N) model (the quantum permutation of N-color objects) takes an explicit and extremely simple form. Since the relative dimension of the full Hilbert space to that of the singlet space on n sites increases very fast with N, this formulation allows us to extend exact diagonalizations of finite clusters to much larger values of N than accessible so far. Using this method, we show that, on the square lattice, there is long-range color order for SU(5), spontaneous dimerization for SU(8), and evidence in favor of a quantum liquid for SU(10).

  3. Evidence That Solar Flares Drive Global Oscillations in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoff, C.; Kjeldsen, H.

    2008-05-01

    Solar flares are large explosions on the Sun's surface caused by a sudden release of magnetic energy. They are known to cause local short-lived oscillations traveling away from the explosion like water rings. Here we show that the energy in the solar acoustic spectrum is correlated with flares. This means that the flares drive global oscillations in the Sun in the same way that the entire Earth is set ringing for several weeks after a major earthquake such as the 2004 December Sumatra-Andaman one. The correlation between flares and energy in the acoustic spectrum of disk-integrated sunlight is stronger for high-frequency waves than for ordinary p-modes which are excited by the turbulence in the near-surface convection zone immediately beneath the photosphere.

  4. The impact of Sun-weather research on forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    The possible impact of Sun-weather research on forecasting is examined. The type of knowledge of the effect is evaluated to determine if it is in a form that can be used for forecasting purposes. It is concluded that the present understanding of the effect does not lend itself readily to applications for forecast purposes. The limits of present predictive skill are examined and it is found that skill is most lacking for prediction of the smallest scales of atmospheric motion. However, it is not expected that Sun-weather research will have any significant impact on forecasting the smaller scales since predictability at these scales is limited by the finite grid size resolution and the time scales of turbulent diffusion. The predictability limits for the largest scales are on the order of several weeks although presently only a one week forecast is achievable.

  5. The Surprising History of Claims for Life on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Michael J.

    2011-11-01

    Because astronomers are now convinced that it is impossible for life, especially intelligent life, to exist on the Sun and stars, it might be assumed that astronomers have always held this view. This paper shows that throughout most of the history of astronomy, some intellectuals, including a number of well-known astronomers, have advocated the existence of intelligent life on our Sun and thereby on stars. Among the more prominent figures discussed are Nicolas of Cusa, Giordano Bruno, William Whiston, Johann Bode, Roger Boscovich, William Herschel, Auguste Comte, Carl Gauss, Thomas Dick, John Herschel, and François Arago. One point in preparing this paper is to show differences between the astronomy of the past and that of the present.

  6. [Experience of professor Sun Liuhe in treating facial peripheral paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mei; Zhang, Huan-huan; Zhang, Hui-fang

    2009-06-01

    Professor Sun Liuhe is engaged in medical service for over 40 years. He is deeply involved in research on intractable and complicated diseases. Especially, in treating facial paralysis, he makes diagnosis and treatment based on overall analysis of symptoms and causes, differentiation of syndrome for etiology. Without confining himself to ancient treatment methods, by applying both acupuncture and Chinese medicine, selecting auxiliary acupoints according to differentiation of meridians related to illness, as well as considering anatomy. Professor Sun holds ancient and modern therapeutic methods, brings forth ideas of using new acupoints to prevent perversion based on pulse tracings, and uses cutting therapy for the cases suffering from facial paralysis for a long time. This method can shorten treatment courses, to a great extent, and achieve good therapeutic effects on intractable facial paralysis, which has revealed distinctness of acupuncture therapy.

  7. The Role of the Magnetorotational Instability in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We calculate growth rates for nonaxisymmetric instabilities including the magnetorotational instability (MRI) throughout the Sun. We first derive a dispersion relation for nonaxisymmetric instability including the effects of shear, convective buoyancy, and three diffusivities (thermal conductivity, resistivity, and viscosity). We then use a solar model evolved with the stellar evolution code MESA and angular velocity profiles determined by Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) helioseismology to determine the unstable modes present at each location in the Sun and the associated growth rates. The overall instability has unstable modes throughout the convection zone and also slightly below it at middle and high latitudes. It contains three classes of modes: large-scale hydrodynamic convective modes, large-scale hydrodynamic shear modes, and small-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shear modes, which may be properly called MRI modes. While large-scale convective modes are the most rapidly growing modes in most o...

  8. HARPS-N OBSERVES THE SUN AS A STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumusque, Xavier; Glenday, Alex; Phillips, David F.; Charbonneau, David; Latham, David W.; Li, Chih-Hao; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Buchschacher, Nicolas; Lovis, Christophe; Pepe, Francesco; Udry, Stéphane [Observatoire Astronomique de l’Université de Genève, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cameron, Andrew Collier [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Cecconi, Massimo; Cosentino, Rosario; Ghedina, Adriano; Lodi, Marcello; Molinari, Emilio, E-mail: xdumusque@cfa.harvard.edu [INAF—Fundación Galileo Galilei, Rambla José Ana Fernández Pérez 7, E-38712 Breña Baja (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    Radial velocity (RV) perturbations induced by stellar surface inhomogeneities including spots, plages and granules currently limit the detection of Earth-twins using Doppler spectroscopy. Such stellar noise is poorly understood for stars other than the Sun because their surface is unresolved. In particular, the effects of stellar surface inhomogeneities on observed stellar radial velocities are extremely difficult to characterize, and thus developing optimal correction techniques to extract true stellar radial velocities is extremely challenging. In this paper, we present preliminary results of a solar telescope built to feed full-disk sunlight into the HARPS-N spectrograph, which is in turn calibrated with an astro-comb. This setup enables long-term observation of the Sun as a star with state-of-the-art sensitivity to RV changes. Over seven days of observing in 2014, we show an average 50 cm s{sup −1} RV rms over a few hours of observation. After correcting observed radial velocities for spot and plage perturbations using full-disk photometry of the Sun, we lower by a factor of two the weekly RV rms to 60 cm s{sup −1}. The solar telescope is now entering routine operation, and will observe the Sun every clear day for several hours. We will use these radial velocities combined with data from solar satellites to improve our understanding of stellar noise and develop optimal correction methods. If successful, these new methods should enable the detection of Venus over the next two to three years, thus demonstrating the possibility of detecting Earth-twins around other solar-like stars using the RV technique.

  9. Capturing small asteroids into a Sun-Earth Lagrangian point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lladó, Neus; Ren, Yuan; Masdemont, Josep J.; Gómez, Gerard

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we address the feasibility of capturing small Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) into the vicinity of the Sun-Earth L2 libration point using a continuous-thrust propulsion system assumed to be attached to the asteroid. The vicinity of this libration point is a gateway to the Earth-Moon neighborhood and using it for capture, or for transit, small NEAs could be interesting for mining or science purposes.

  10. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  11. AV-95 Sun Devil: High-Speed Military Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The AV-95 Sun Devil must combine helicopter capabilities, such as vertical takeoff and landings (VTOL) and rotor-powered flight, along with long-duration cruise and high-speed dash capabilities unobtainable by conventional helicopters. To be able to perform both tasks, and perform them well, the AV-95 Sun Devil design incorporates several unconventional devices; the AV-95 uses two convertible turbofan engines, able to provide both shaft power for the main rotor and tall fan as well as jet thrust either separately or simultaneously. Other devices used for the AV-95 include a variable diameter main rotor and a blown flap. In helicopter mode, the AV-95 Sun Devil performs like a winged helicopter. The addition of wings to an attack helicopter results in two significant advantages. First, the addition of wings makes a helicopter more maneuverable than a wingless, but otherwise similar helicopter. Second, since the wings produce lift, rotor stall and compressibility effects can be significantly delayed at high tip velocities. In fixed-wing mode, the main rotor is completely off-loaded but slightly powered, and the rotor diameter has been minimized. The AV-95 Sun Devil has many advantages over other VTOL aircraft. The conversion process is simple and fast; conversion does not make the AV-95 vulnerable to enemy attack during conversion such as a tilt-wing or a tilt-rotor. Stop-rotor aircraft and a stowed rotor aircraft require heavy breaking of the rotor for conversion; this adds time for conversion and weight to the aircraft. Because the AV-95 never stops the rotor in flight, much weight is spared, and conversion is much simpler and faster.

  12. Estimation of surface insolation using sun-synchronous satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Wayne L.; Staylor, W. Frank; Gupta, Shashi K.; Denn, Fred M.

    1988-01-01

    A technique is presented for estimating insolation at the earth's surface using only sun-synchronous satellite data. The technique was tested by comparing the insolation results from year-long satellite data sets with simultaneous ground-measured insolation taken at five continental United States sites. Monthly average insolation values derived from the satellite data showed a standard error of 4.2 W/sq m, or 2.7 percent of the average ground insolation value.

  13. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun

    OpenAIRE

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-01-01

    Liquid metallic hydrogen provides a compelling material for constructing a condensed matter model of the Sun and the photosphere. Like diamond, metallic hydrogen might have the potential to be a metastable substance requiring high pressures for forma- tion. Once created, it would remain stable even at lower pressures. The metallic form of hydrogen was initially conceived in 1935 by Eugene Wigner and Hillard B. Huntington who indirectly anticipated its elevated critical temper...

  14. [Textual research on Newly Carved sun Zhenren's Qian jin fang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, L

    1995-01-01

    As one of the ancient edition of Qian jin fang, this Newly Carved Sun Zhenren's Qian Jin Fang is far more authentic in the structure of its contents and its text, as compared to those editions of the Song Dynasty, and is, of course, closer to its original form and more reliable with textual significance. This article explores the distribution, characters of the edition and time of carving.

  15. Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation: A Path to Good Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation is an ancient and sacred yogic technique of India for expressing gratitude to the Sun. Surya Namaskar is a set of 12 Asanas (postures, It is done preferably in the morning while facing the rising sun. There are numerous health benefits of Surya Namaskar for different system of the body specially musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, nervous system, respiratory and endocrinal. The heart, liver, intestine, stomach, chest, throat, legs and backbone are main benefited organs. By practicing Surya Namaskar each and every cell of body get revitalize and regenerated, therefore it is highly recommended by all yoga experts for healthy routine life. The regular practice of Surya Namaskar improves blood circulation throughout the body, maintains health and makes the body disease-free. Regular practice of Surya Namaskar gives strength, flexibility and vitality to the body. Sun Salutation asanas help to burn extra body fat on belly, buttocks and back by modulating endocrinal system. It also helps to regulate menstrual cycles among women and also facilitate an easy childbirth. Apart from these benefits of Surya Namaskar also help to keep the mind stress free, calm and illuminated. Thus, a regular practice of Surya Namaskar is highly recommended to keep the body and mind healthy. Though the Surya Namaskar steps are very scientific and practical science ancient time but still it needs advance modern scientific justification to spread it globally, keeping this thing into the mind the present review has been framed to revalidate sacred steps of Surya Namaskar on the basis of available evidence based studies.

  16. Searching for Chambers and Caves in Teotihuacan's Sun Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, R.; Arrieta, E.; Barba P., L.; Becerril, A. D.; Belmont, E.; Carrillo, I.; Cabrera M., J. I.; Esquivel, O.; Grabski, V.; López R., J. M.; Manzanilla N., L.; Martínez D., A.; Menchaca R., A.; Moreno, M.; Núñez C., R.; Plascencia, J. C.; Rangel, M.; Villoro, M.

    2003-06-01

    In this work a status report of a search for caves in the Sun pyramid in Teotihuacan, México is presented. From an archeological perspective the main goal is to gather evidence to determine whether the pyramid was a state or a funerary temple. The general layout of the detector that is being built is an updated version of the one originally proposed by Alvarez et al..

  17. Spring on the Sun: A New Cycle of Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Irene

    2008-05-01

    Amateur German astronomer Samuel Heinrich Schwabe was searching for a planet inside Mercury's orbit when he made the serendipitous discovery of the Sun's cycle in 1843. Scientists later figured out that the cycle supplies the energy that drives space weather. But anticipating the start of a new 11-year solar cycle is a bit like waiting for spring: It's hard to tell sometimes when will be the year's final winter chill.

  18. Chemistry, sun, energy and environment; Chimie, soleil, energie et environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchy, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Chimiques (ENSIC), 54 - Villers-les-Nancy (France); Enea, O. [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France); Flamant, G. [IMP-Odeillo-CNRS (France)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    This document provides the 35 papers presented at the 'Chemistry, Sun, Energy and Environment' meeting, held February 3-4, 2000 in Saint-Avold, France. The main studied topic was the use of solar radiation for water treatment, volatile organic compounds decomposition and in some thermochemical processes. These research subjects are tackled in a fundamental and practical point of view. (O.M.)

  19. Sun Tzu’s Art of War for Telecom : Telecom vs OTT from a Daoistic Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Strijkers, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sun Tzu's Art of War is a work of Chinese philosophy. It can be seen as a manual for warfare, but at the same time it is so much more. Sun Tzu's Art of War describes how the ultimate victory is one won without fighting. Any sector, including the telecommunications sector, may learn from Sun Tzu's wo

  20. Sun Tzu and the Art of Business Six Strategic Principles for Managers

    CERN Document Server

    McNeilly, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    More than two millennia ago the famous Chinese general Sun Tzu wrote the classic work on military strategy, The Art of War. Now, in a new edition of Sun Tzu and the Art of Business, Mark McNeilly shows how Sun Tzu's strategic principles can be applied to