WorldWideScience

Sample records for sulphur dioxide effects

  1. Biochemical and cytological effects of sulphur dioxide on plant metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, S S; Hocking, D

    1976-01-01

    Biochemical effects of sulfur dioxide arise from its unique ability to act as an oxidizing or a reducing agent. Among some of the important metabolic effects are direct interference with photosynthetic CO/sub 2/ fixation (competitive inhibiton of ribulose diphosphate carbosylase by SO/sub 3/) and with energy metabolism (inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production by SO/sub 3//sup =/). Many indirect effects result from formation of sulfites and organic sulfonates with other cell constituents. These compounds can cause inhibition of a variety of metabolic enzyme systems. All these factors are probably instrumental in the gross disruption of chloroplast and mitochondrial ultrastructure. Injurious effects result when sulfur dioxide is taken up in excess of the capacity of the tissue to incorporate sulfur into the normal metabolic activities. The ubiquitous presence of small amounts of SO/sub 2/ and the subtle and varied nature of its biochemical effects suggest that crop losses to SO/sub 2/ pollution may be more widespread and serious than is generally suspected.

  2. Effects of sulphur dioxide on the forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blauel, R A; Malhorta, S S

    1977-01-01

    In situ recovery of oil from sulfur-bearing deposits and subsequent processing to produce petroleum products necessitates the removal, handling, and disposal of sulfur by-products. Due to the nature of sulfur in oil deposits and the processes employed for oil extract, part of the sulfur is converted to SO/sub 2/ and is emitted into the atmosphere. Environmentalist concerns over the emissions are discussed with regard to increasingly acidic precipitation, increasingly greater emissions of sulfur and other acid-forming compounds into the atmosphere, association of the acidity trend with both indigenous and remote sources, deposition of acidifying pollutants on the land in both wet and dry forms, effects of acid precipitation, changes in ecosystems, and long-term effects on the biosphere. A suggested procedure for impact assessment of atmospheric sulfur compounds is presented, employing measurement and determination of environmental effect.

  3. Muon transfer to sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulhauser, F.; Schneuwly, H.

    1993-01-01

    A systematic study of muon capture and muon transfer has been performed in seven different H 2 + SO 2 gas mixtures. From the single-exponential time structure of the muonic sulphur x-rays, one determines the lifetime of the μp atoms under the given experimental conditions. The reduced muon transfer rates to the sulphur dioxide molecule, deduced from these lifetimes, all agree well with each other. The muonic oxygen time spectra show an additional structure as if μp atoms of another kind were present. Comparable time structures are observed in a D 2 + SO 2 mixture. (author)

  4. Germicidal effects of free and combined sulphur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, M

    1948-01-01

    Yeasts have been exposed to SO/sub 2/ in nutrient solutions with two concentrations of dextrose; chosen so as to induce the same rate of growth in the yeast, but to combine with quite different proportions of the SO/sub 2/ added. It was found that the behavior of the yeast was related to the concentration of free (i.e. iodine-titratable) SO/sub 2/, and not to the amounts of SO/sub 2/ combined or added. In another experiment, a correlation was demonstrated between the rate of growth of yeasts in concentrated orange juice and the concentration of free SO/sub 2/, but not with the combined or total SO/sub 2/; in this experiment however, larger quantities of free SO/sub 2/ were involved than in the first. It is concluded that in relation to the preservative action of SO/sub 2/ the quantities added and going into combination are irrelevant, such action being exerted only through the proportion remaining ''free''. It is nevertheless clear that there are present in fruit juices factors which reduce the effectiveness even of the ''free'' SO/sub 2/.

  5. Respiratory effects of sulphur dioxide : a hierarchical multicity analysis in the APHEA 2 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunyer, J; Atkinson, R; Ballester, F; Le Tertre, A; Ayres, JG; Forastiere, F; Forsberg, B; Vonk, JM; Bisanti, L; Anderson, RH; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    Background: Sulphur dioxide (SO2) was associated with hospital admissions for asthma in children in the original APHEA study, but not with other respiratory admissions. Aims: To assess the association between daily levels of SO2 and daily levels of respiratory admissions in a larger and more recent

  6. Effects of fluorides and sulphur dioxide on pollen germination and growth of the pollen tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Mejnartowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of fluorides and sulphur dioxides from emissions from a phosphate fertilizer factory significantly reduced the germination of Scots pine pollen grains. The pollen tube length indicated that its growth is uninhibited even though the pollen was collected under conditions of air-pollution. There are statistically significant differences showing longer tubes in the sensitive trees pollen grains. l he ageing of pollen from the sensitive trees occurs probably more rapidly than in the tolerant trees.

  7. Effects of ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel and diesel oxidation catalysts on nitrogen dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachulak, J.S.; Zarling, D.

    2010-01-01

    Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) are used on diesel equipment in underground mines to reduce exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (C) and odour that are associated with gaseous HCs. New catalysts have also been formulated to minimize sulphate production, but little is know about their effects on nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) emissions. DOCs are known to oxidize nitric oxide (NO) to NO 2 , which is more toxic than NO at low levels. Vale Inco uses ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel for its underground diesel equipment. Although ULSD is a cleaner burning fuel, its impact on the emissions performance of DOCs is not fully known. Technical material gathered during a literature review suggested that ULSD fuel may increase NO 2 production if DOCs are used, but that the increase would be small. This paper presented the results of a laboratory evaluation of DOCs with varying amounts of time-in service in Vale Inco mines. The 4 Vale Inco DOCs were found to produce excess NO 2 during some test conditions. In both steady-state and transient testing, there were no obvious trends in NO 2 increases with increasing DOC age. Two possibilities for these observations are that the DOCs may have been well within their useful life or their initial compositions differed. Future studies will make use of improved instrumentation, notably NO 2 analyzers, to definitely determine the influence of DOCs on NO 2 formation. 13 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  8. Ozone and sulphur dioxide effects on leaf water potential of Petunia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkiey, T.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    Three cultivars of Petunia hydrida Vilm., of differing ozone visible injury sensitivity, were exposed to 40 parts per hundred million (pphm) ozone and/or 80 pphm SO/sub 2/ for 4 h to study the relationships of leaf water potential, pollutant exposure, and cultivar sensitivity. Ozone substantially decreased leaf water potential in cv White Cascade but not in cv Capri or White Magic. Sulphur dioxide did not affect leaf water potential but delayed ozone-induced changes. Cultivar sensitivity to ozone-induced changes in leaf water potential was not related to cultivar sensitivity to ozone-induced visible injury.

  9. Effects of changes in the UK energy demand and environmental legislation on atmospheric pollution by sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakemore, F.B.; Davies, C.; Isaac, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Ninety-nine percent of the sulphur dioxide generated over the period 1970 to 1994 arose from the combustion of fossil fuels in the energy sector. The annual mass emission of sulphur dioxide has fallen by 58% over this period, due to the reductions in outputs from coal and petroleum fired plants. The influence of natural-gas power generation has played an important part in this reduction. Four major pieces of environmental legislation have been enacted to control sulphur-dioxide emissions: the Control of Pollution Act 1974, and three EEC Directives are discussed. The UK emissions in 1994 were 49% below the 1980 baseline and 9% ahead of the 1998 EU target level. The protocol on the reduction of sulphur-dioxide emissions, adopted in 1985, required a cut in the total SO 2 emissions of 30% by 1993, based on 1980 levels. The UK achieved a reduction of 37% by the end of 1993. Sulphur-dioxide emissions are predicted to fall according to the six scenarios in Energy paper 65 as a reference case. The predicted decline is in line with the UNECE targets set for 2010. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. The mineralogical composition of sandstone and its effect on sulphur dioxide deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller, Urs

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollutants often accelerate stone deterioration in historical buildings and monuments in urban areas. The pollutants are themselves the products of fossil fuel combustion and intensive farming. While this trend seems to have been curbed by strict emission laws in the European Union, in most developing and emerging countries air pollution is an ongoing process due to increasing energy needs and vehicle traffic. Many factors condition natural stone behaviour with respect to gaseous pollutants. Two of the more prominent of such factors are the composition of the atmosphere and the type of stone. Due to their porosity, sandstones are particularly vulnerable to air pollutant attack. Many of the reactions between non-carbonaceous sandstones and these gases are not well understood, however. The present study aimed to acquire an understanding of the processes and factors governing sandstone behaviour when exposed to sulphur dioxide. Seven different sandstones from southern and eastern Germany were analyzed for the study. The binder composition of the stones varied significantly. They also exhibited completely different behaviour in connection with SO2 sorption. Interestingly, while the amount of SO2 deposited was unrelated to the specific surface area of the sandstones, this parameter was closely correlated to the iron oxide content. Iron oxide phases are believed to act as a catalyst in the oxidation of SO2 to SO3. The type and amount of clay mineral, in turn, was found to have no significant impact on initial SO2 deposition in sandstones.Los contaminantes atmosféricos son con frecuencia responsables de la aceleración de la degradación de la piedra en los edificios y monumentos históricos de las zonas urbanas. Los contaminantes en sí son productos de reacción procedentes de la combustión de los hidrocarburos y de la agricultura intensiva. Dentro de la Comunidad Europea, el avance parece haberse ralentizado mediante restrictivas leyes sobre

  11. Acute effects of low-level sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide exposures on the respiratory tract of susceptible subjects in cold environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, R O; Randell, J T; Haelinen, A I; Pennanen, A S [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Kosma, V M [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Pathology; Pekkarinen, H [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physiology; Ruuskanen, J [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Tukiainen, H [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Pulmonary Diseases

    1996-12-31

    Several recent epidemiological studies from Finland have suggested that sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) cause adverse health effects in susceptible population groups, such as children and asthmatic patients, at much smaller concentrations than the present guideline values of the World Health Organization. One possible explanation of these findings is that the relatively long winter-time increases the sensitivity of the respiratory tract to irritant pollutants. This hypothesis is supported by experimental human and animal studies, which have shown obstruction and inflammatory changes in the conducting airways after ventilation of cold and dry air. Asthmatic patients are much more sensitive than healthy subjects to the irritating effects of cold and dry air and of air pollutants. The airways of many non-asthmatic a topic subjects are also sensitive to cold air, but these subjects are poorly defined as a potential susceptible population group to air pollutants. The aims of this project are: (1) to construct experimental human and animal facilities and protocols for short-term studies on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} exposures at subfreezing temperatures, (2) to apply advanced lung function methodologies and symptom assessment for characterisation of short-term respiratory responses of asthmatic and a topic subjects to these exposures, (3) to apply well-established pulmonary physiological, cytological and morphological methods for characterisation of short-term responses to and mechanisms of these exposures in the guinea-pig lower airways. (author)

  12. Acute effects of low-level sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide exposures on the respiratory tract of susceptible subjects in cold environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, R.O.; Randell, J.T.; Haelinen, A.I.; Pennanen, A.S. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Kosma, V.M. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Pathology; Pekkarinen, H. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physiology; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Tukiainen, H. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Pulmonary Diseases

    1995-12-31

    Several recent epidemiological studies from Finland have suggested that sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) cause adverse health effects in susceptible population groups, such as children and asthmatic patients, at much smaller concentrations than the present guideline values of the World Health Organization. One possible explanation of these findings is that the relatively long winter-time increases the sensitivity of the respiratory tract to irritant pollutants. This hypothesis is supported by experimental human and animal studies, which have shown obstruction and inflammatory changes in the conducting airways after ventilation of cold and dry air. Asthmatic patients are much more sensitive than healthy subjects to the irritating effects of cold and dry air and of air pollutants. The airways of many non-asthmatic a topic subjects are also sensitive to cold air, but these subjects are poorly defined as a potential susceptible population group to air pollutants. The aims of this project are: (1) to construct experimental human and animal facilities and protocols for short-term studies on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} exposures at subfreezing temperatures, (2) to apply advanced lung function methodologies and symptom assessment for characterisation of short-term respiratory responses of asthmatic and a topic subjects to these exposures, (3) to apply well-established pulmonary physiological, cytological and morphological methods for characterisation of short-term responses to and mechanisms of these exposures in the guinea-pig lower airways. (author)

  13. Effect of sodium hydroxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide on the composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Ghedalia, D.; Miron, J.

    1981-01-01

    Wheat straw was treated with 5% sodium hydroxide, ozone, and 5% sulphur dioxide at 70 C for 72 h, and the effect of treatments on the composition and the in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) by rumen microorganisms was studied. Ozone and SO/sub 2/ solubilised most or all of the straw hemicellulose, converting it into cell solubles, whereas sodium hydroxide exerted a limited effect in this direction. The level of cell solubles increased from 31.8 to 48.2 and 52.2% and that of the reducing sugars from 2.2 to 15.6 and 24.3%, by ozone and SO/sub 2/ treatments, respectively. The IVOMD of straw was significantly increased by 80% (from 44 to 80%) with SO/sub 2/, whereas NaOH and ozone improved the IVOMD by only 50% (from 44 to 66%). The initial digestibility (ID at 6 h) suggested to represent substrate fermentability was significantly increased by SO/sub 2/ from 7.4 to 29.3%. In the present study, SO/sub 2/ was found to be the most efficient treatment for wheat straw in terms of overall degradability and fermentability. The technological advantage of the proposed treatment lies in the low moisture content (40%) and the moderate temperature required (70/sup 0/C), conditions which could be attained by solar systems. 19 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Short term effects of ambient sulphur dioxide and particulate matter on mortality in 12 European cities : Results from time series data from the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsouyanni, K; Touloumi, G; Spix, C; Schwartz, J; Balducci, F; Medina, S; Rossi, G; Wojtyniak, B; Sunyer, J; Bacharova, L; Schouten, JP; Ponka, A; Anderson, HR

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To carry out a prospective combined quantitative analysis of the associations between all cause mortality and ambient particulate matter and sulphur dioxide. . Design: Analysis of time series data on daily number of deaths from all causes and concentrations of sulphur dioxide and

  15. Comparison of the effect of gamma irradiation, heat-radiation combination, and sulphur dioxide generating pads on decay and quality of grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul; Brij Bhushan; Joshi, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation, heat-radiation combination and in-package sulphur dioxide fumigation on fungal decay, and quality of seedless grape cultivars, Thompson, Sonaka and Tas-A-Ganesh was evaluated under different storage regimes. Irradiation at 2 kGy or a combination of hot water dip (50 degC, 5 min), plus irradiation (1 kGy) showed less spoilage due to Rhizopus spp. and Botrytis spp. in grapes packaged in tissue paper lined boxes and stored at 4 deg, 15 deg and 25 degC. Storage in polyethylene lined boxes increased the fungal rot. In-package sulphur dioxide generating pad was most effective for control of decay in polyethylene lined boxes stored at 10 deg and 20 degC, but caused berry bleaching. Irradiation at 2.5 or 3.5 kGy controlled decay at 10 degC, but not so effectively at 20 degC. Organoleptic quality, berry firmness, and soluble solids were not affected by irradiation, but decreases in titratable acids and ascorbic acid were recorded. Packaging in polyethylene lined boxes retained berry turgidity, while slight shrivelling occurred in tissue paper lined boxes. The results indicate that gamma irradiation has potential as an alternative to sulphur dioxide fumigation for decay control during shipping and storage. (author). 20 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Effect of the synthetic zeolite modification on its physicochemical and catalytic properties in the preparation of the catalysts effectively removing sulphur dioxide from exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcewicz-Kuba Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the research results of the influence of modification deSONOx type catalyst of the sulfur dioxide emissions in the process of the hard coal combustion. The addition of zeolite catalysts modified by transition metal ions: V, Mg, activated by zinc sorbent with or without graphite addition caused the deeper burning of coal grains. The addition of the deSOx catalysts to the coal resulted in lowered sulphur dioxide emission. The addition of unmodified zeolite to coal during combustion reduced sulphur dioxide emission at about 5%. The modification of the support by both V and Mg reduced the amount of sulphur dioxide significantly. The obtained results of SO2 removal from exhaust gases were from 34.5% for Sip/Mg to 68.3% for Sip/V.

  17. Further studies on the effect of sulphur dioxide on lichens and bryophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, O L

    1970-01-01

    After comparing sixteen aspects of their biology it is clear that despite wide differences in botanical affinity bryophytes and lichens are outstandingly similar in their response to SO/sub 2/. This suggests that these lower plants can only colonize inhospitable habitats by adaptations which carry with them an inherent susceptibility to air pollution. Extensive laboratory and field work has emphasized the controlling influence of habitat on the survival of species. Among the strongest modifying influences are shelter, the pH, and buffer capacity of the substratum. Water relations were found to have little effect. The extreme sensitivity of most epiphytes and the problems raised by resistant species are discussed.

  18. Vapor mercury uptake with sulphur impregnated active carbons derived using sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, S.; Methta, H.; Ahmed, I.; Morris, E.; Fuentes de Maria, L.; Jia, C.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Active carbon adsorption is the primary technology used for removal of vapour mercury from flue gases in coal-fired power plants, municipal solid waste combustors, and other sources. It can be carried out using two different processes, notably injection of powder active carbon into flue gas streams upstream of the particulate collection devices, and filtration with a granular active carbon fixed bed downstream of the flue gas desulphurization units and/or particulate collectors. This paper presented an investigation of vapour mercury uptake performance of laboratory-made sulphur impregnated active carbons (SIACs) using a fixed bed reactor in a temperature range of 25 to 200 degrees Celsius. The materials and methods as well as the properties of activated carbons studied were presented. The experimental set-up was also described. The paper discussed the effects of initial concentration, the flow rate, the loading amount of SIACs, temperature, and the sulphur impregnation on the mercury uptake performance. The study showed that SIACs produced with sulphur dioxide exhibited a more complicated behaviour when temperature was varied, implying a mixed adsorption mechanism. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs

  19. Relationship between sulphate and sulphur dioxide in the air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugas, M; Gentilizza, M

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between the sulphate in suspended particulates and sulphur dioxide in the air was studied in various urban and industrial areas. The relationship is best described by the equation y = ax/sup b/, where y is the percentage of the sulphate S in the total S (sulphate and sulphur dioxide) and x is the concentration of the total S in the air. The regression coefficients a and b seem to be characteristics of the area. In urban areas studied so far a was between 316 and 378 and b between -0.74 and -0.83. In industrial areas polluted by dust which contains elevated concentrations of metals a was between 91 and 107 and b between -0.35 and -0.49. In the area polluted by cement dust there was practically no correlation between the sulphate S (%) and the total S, but a relatively high correlation between absolute amounts of the sulphate S and the total S. The relations indicate that the limitation of SO/sub 2/ conversion is influenced by aerosol composition. Aerosols containing certain metals may promote the conversion by a catalytic effect while alkaline substances by increasing the pH. Whether this can only happen in the plume or in the air as well remains to be clarified.

  20. SULPHUR DIOXIDE LEACHING OF URANIUM CONTAINING MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunaes, A.; Rabbits, F.T.; Hester, K.D.; Smith, H.W.

    1958-12-01

    A process is described for extracting uranlum from uranium containing material, such as a low grade pitchblende ore, or mill taillngs, where at least part of the uraniunn is in the +4 oxidation state. After comminuting and magnetically removing any entrained lron particles the general material is made up as an aqueous slurry containing added ferric and manganese salts and treated with sulfur dioxide and aeration to an extent sufficient to form a proportion of oxysulfur acids to give a pH of about 1 to 2 but insufficient to cause excessive removal of the sulfur dioxide gas. After separating from the solids, the leach solution is adjusted to a pH of about 1.25, then treated with metallic iron in the presence of a precipitant such as a soluble phosphate, arsonate, or fluoride.

  1. Effect of oxygen potential on sulphur dioxide activation of oil sands fluid coke and characteristics of activated coke in mercury adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E.A.; Jia, C.Q.; Tong, S.

    2007-01-01

    A sulphur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) technology was modified for use in copper smelters in order to mitigate mercury and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions. Elemental sulphur was captured as a co-product. The study examined the feasibility of reducing levels of SO 2 using fluid coke in the copper smelter flue. SIAC properties were optimized in order to capture vapour phase mercury. Raw fluid coke samples were used to measure SO 2 flow rates. Gas composition was varied to mimic concentrations found during normal operation of copper converters. Gas chromatography was used to analyze reactions products and to prove the hypothesis that mercury capacity is influenced by the oxygen potential of the activation gas due to changes in surface sulphur types developed from reduced sulphur species. Results of the study showed that oxygen levels at 5 per cent did not play a significant role in pore development. It was concluded that increased residence times contributed to reductions in SO 2 and elemental S yields. 13 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  2. Synergetic effect of sulphur and nitrogen oxides on corrosion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synergetic effect of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) on corrosion of galvanized iron roofing sheets has been investigated. The field studies were conducted in Ibeno and Ebocha (Niger Delta, Nigeria). Specimens of the roofing sheets were exposed for one year to outdoor environment to record the ...

  3. Effects of sonication on co-precipitation synthesis and activity of copper manganese oxide catalyst to remove methane and sulphur dioxide gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Yeow Hong; Lim, Mitchell S W; Lee, Zheng Yee; Lai, Kar Chiew; Jamaal, Muhamad Ashraf; Wong, Farng Hui; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Lim, Siew Shee; Tiong, T Joyce

    2018-01-01

    The utilisation of ultrasound in chemical preparation has been the focus of intense study in various fields, including materials science and engineering. This paper presents a novel method of synthesising the copper-manganese oxide (Hopcalite) catalyst that is used for the removal of volatile organic compounds and greenhouse gases like carbon monoxide. Several samples prepared under different conditions, with and without ultrasound, were subjected to a series of characterisation tests such as XRD, BET, FE-SEM, EDX, TPR-H 2 , TGA and FT-IR in order to establish their chemical and physical properties. A series of catalytic tests using a micro-reactor were subsequently performed on the samples in order to substantiate the aforementioned properties by analysing their ability to oxidise compressed natural gas (CNG), containing methane and sulphur dioxide. Results showed that ultrasonic irradiation of the catalyst led to observable alterations in its morphology: surfaces of the particles were noticeably smoothed and an increased in amorphicity was detected. Furthermore, ultrasonic irradiation has shown to enhance the catalytic activity of Hopcalite, achieving a higher conversion of methane relative to non-sonicated samples. Varying the ultrasonic intensity also produced appreciable effects, whereby an increase in intensity results in a higher conversion rate. The catalyst sonicated at the highest intensity of 29.7W/cm 2 has a methane conversion rate of 13.5% at 400°C, which was the highest among all the samples tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective methods for polyphenols and sulphur dioxide determination in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guzmán, Juan J; Hernández-Artiga, María P; Palacios-Ponce de León, Lourdes; Bellido-Milla, Dolores

    2015-09-01

    A critical review to the methods recommended by international bodies and widely used in the winery industry and research studies was performed. A Laccase biosensor was applied to the selective determination of polyphenols in wines. The biosensor response was characterised and it responds mainly to o-diphenols which are the principal polyphenols responsible for the stability and sensory qualities of wines. The spectrophotometric method to determine free and total sulphur dioxide recommended for beers was applied directly to wines. A sampling of 14 red and white wines was performed and they were analysed for biosensor polyphenol index (IBP) and sulphur dioxide concentration (SO2). The antioxidant capacity by the ABTS(+) spectrophotometric method was also determined. A correlation study was performed to elucidate the influence of the polyphenols and SO2 on the wines stability. High correlations were found between IBP and antioxidant capacity and low correlation between SO2 and antioxidant capacity. To evaluate the benefits of wine drinking a new parameter (IBP/SO2) is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Uptake and metabolism of sulphur dioxide by Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, T.A.W.; De Kok, L.J.; Haneklaus, S.; Schnug, E.

    Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. was exposed to various concentrations of SO2 during almost the entire life cycle. No negative effects of SO2 on shoot biomass production were observed. There was a linear relation between the deposition of SO2 and the atmospheric SO2 concentration. Sulphur

  6. Effects of sulphur dioxide (SO2) on growth and flowering of SO2-tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes of Phleum pratense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapperton, M J; Reid, D M

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the growth and interaction of clipping and sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) exposure on SO(2)-tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes of Phleum pratense at two field sites along an SO(2)-concentration gradient. Sulphur-dioxide-tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes of Phleum pratense were identified from indigenous populations that had been collected along the same SO(2)-concentration gradient in southern Alberta, Canada. Physiological differences between the two genotypes were confirmed by supplying leaves with (14)CO(2) and examining the assimilate partitioning between the genotypes. For the field experiment, clones of each genotype and seedlings grown from commercial seed were planted at two different field sites along an SO(2)-emission gradient. There were no differences in growth between the genotypes at the two field sites after the first year except that the SO(2)-tolerant clones had a greater percentage of root length colonised by vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi. After the second growing season, there was a significant decrease in the number of inflorescences produced by plants exposed to SO(2), particularly by the non-tolerant genotype. The added stress of defoliation appeared to increase the sensitivity of flowering to SO(2), again particularly in the non-tolerant genotype. The results of the field study showed that flowering as opposed to vegetative plant growth was more sensitive to long-term low-concentration SO(2) exposure and that this sensitivity was compounded by the stress interaction of defoliation.

  7. Sulphur self–retention and sulphur dioxide capture with active calcium minerals in mineral–rich coals / Mchabe, D.

    OpenAIRE

    Mchabe, Dursman

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide information for the development of clean coal technology, the sulphur self–retention and sulphur dioxide capturing properties of minerals present in low grade coals was investigated. This study consisted of detailed mineral analyses of coal and ash samples using results obtained from QEMSCAN and separate retention (coal) and capture (ash) experiments with laboratory scale reactors. Typical South African coal samples were used in this study. The ash content v...

  8. Effectiveness of Higher Fatty Acids C8, C10 and C12, Dimethyl Dicarbonate and Sulphur Dioxide for Inhibition of Re-fermentation and Malolactic Activities in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojmír Baroň

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of preventing the re-fermentation and protection against undesirable malolactic fermentation (MLF in order to safe content of acids in wine is very complicated. In this paper the saturated higher fatty acids (HFA – C8, C10 and C12, dimethyldicarbonate (DMDC and sulphur dioxide (SO2 were tested. The re-fermentation test showed the strongest inhibition power at ratio 2:8, 1:9 and 0:10 as C8:C10 acids – 65 days without re-fermentation. MLF experiments confirmed that addition of SO2 into the fermenting media causes rapid inhibition of lactic acid bacteria metabolic activity. Malic acid concentrations were proportionally decreasing during 6 days of experiment and at the end the content of this acid varied between 0.16 and 0.22 g/L, the only exception formed a variant with the addition of SO2 (1.57 g/L of malic acid. After calculation of the average consumption rate of malic acid, the results showed the inhibition power – SO2 (81.05% followed by variant of 40 mg/L mixture of HFA (40.76%, a variant of 200 mg/L of DMDC (31.98% and a variant of 20 mg/L mixture of HFA (12.59%. The addition of HFA can significantly reduce the dosage of other preservatives, especially SO2. Based on results, this method can be recommend in the production of wines with residual sugar and also wines made from over-mature material to prevent undesirable MLF.

  9. Qualitative scale for estimating sulphur dioxide air pollution in England and Wales using epiphytic lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawksworth, D L; Rose, F

    1970-01-01

    The sulphur dioxide in the air can be estimated qualitatively by studying the lichens growing on trees. A ten-point scale has been constructed and used in pilot surveys in England and Wales, Southeast England and the city of Leicester.

  10. Tracer-aided studies on the fate and effects of sulphur dioxide in Spinacia oleracea L. and Triticum vulgare. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided studies of atmospheric sulphur pollutant - plant interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plesnicar, M.

    1982-06-01

    Wheat, Triticum vulgare and spinach, Spinacia oleracea plants were exposed to two different concentrations of 35 SO 2 - released by lactic acid from Na 2 35 SO 3 - for 45 minutes, and distribution of radioactivity was studied in leaves, stem and roots. After 24 hours, the specific activity of the leaves of both plants was reduced while that of the roots was increased, suggesting 35 S translocation from leaves to roots. Translocation to the stem and roots of 35 S products was much higher in wheat than in spinach. In leaves of both plant species, ethanol-soluble products were much higher than the ethanol-insoluble fraction during the first 6 hours of exposure. The ethanol-soluble fraction contained sulphate, sulphite and unidentified material. The study suggests that SO 2 is metabolized in preference to endogenous S, that the wheat plant is more susceptible to SO 2 , and that tolerance is related to the capacity of converting SO 2 to sulphate and reducing its further conversion. Uptake of 35 SO 2 by young and old wheat and spinach plants was studied with a view to determining susceptibility to SO 2 exposure as a function of the developmental stage of the plant. In wheat, young plants metabolize endogenous sulphur in preference to absorbed SO 2 while older plants are active in converting absorbed sulphur into organic (ethanol-insoluble) form. In spinach, young plants are more active in transporting 35 S products from leaves to roots and older plants show higher incorporation percentage of 35 S into the organic fraction of leaves. Uptake of 1- 14 C-acetate by lipids of leaf discs from spinach and wheat was investigated in normal and SO 2 -stressed plants. The incorporation of radioacetate into lipids of leaf tissues of both plants was strongly inhibited in SO0 plants. Also U- 14 C-lysine incorporation into proteins of leaf tissue was significantly inhibited by 0.2-2.0 ppm aqueous SO 2

  11. Satellite-based detection of volcanic sulphur dioxide from recent eruptions in Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Loyola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions can emit large amounts of rock fragments and fine particles (ash into the atmosphere, as well as several gases, including sulphur dioxide (SO2. These ejecta and emissions are a major natural hazard, not only to the local population, but also to the infrastructure in the vicinity of volcanoes and to aviation. Here, we describe a methodology to retrieve quantitative information about volcanic SO2 plumes from satellite-borne measurements in the UV/Visible spectral range. The combination of a satellite-based SO2 detection scheme and a state-of-the-art 3D trajectory model enables us to confirm the volcanic origin of trace gas signals and to estimate the plume height and the effective emission height. This is demonstrated by case-studies for four selected volcanic eruptions in South and Central America, using the GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 instruments.

  12. Sulphate sulphur concentration in vegetable crops, soil and ground water in the region affected by the sulphur dioxide emission from Plock oil refinery (central Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikula, W.

    1995-01-01

    Research was carried out in 1984-1990 in the region affected by the sulphur dioxide emission from one of the greatest oil refineries in Europe (Plock, central Poland). The sulphate sulphur concentration in the vegetable crops (red beet, carrot, parsley, bean, cabbage and dill), the soil and in ground water was defined in selected allotment gardens of Plock city and in a household garden located in the rural area about 25 km from the town. The highest amount of sulphur was found in the vegetable crops cultivated in the garden situated in the closest vicinity of the refinery. Sulphate sulphur contents harmful for plants (above 0.50 per cent d.m.) were noted in cabbage and carrot leaves in almost all the gardens (except one). The soil in all examined gardens was characterised by high sulphate sulphur concentration, which considerably exceeds the maximum amount admissible for light soil in Poland, i.e. 0.004 per cent d.m. The sulphate sulphur concentration in ground water in all the gardens exceeded the highest permissible content in drinking water in Poland. The sulphate sulphur content in the soil and ground water was not significantly dependent on the garden's distance from the refinery. Generally, the above normal sulphate sulphur concentrations occurred quite universally in the examined region and they concerned all the considered environmental components (vegetable crops, soil, ground water) and all the gardens. 22 refs., 6 tabs

  13. Determination of hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide in a mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, S.S.; Rao, V.R.S.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for the determination of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide in a mixture. The method is based on the quantitative oxidation of sulfide and sulfite with an excess of radiochloramine-T in alkaline medium (0.1N NaOH). The released chloride activity is proportional to the total amount of sulfide and sulfite present. Addition of 1% CdSO 4 solution to the mixture of sulfide and sulfite precipitates sulfide and sulfite in the filtrate determined by the reagent. From the difference in activities, the amount of sulfide can be calculated. This method can be employed for the determination of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide in air samples. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  14. Forest fuel and sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundborg, A.

    1994-10-01

    This report illustrates the sulphur cycle in forest fuel and in the forest ecosystem. The hypothesis is that sulphur dioxide from combustion of forest fuel is not more acidifying than sulphur that is mineralized from tree biomass if it is left in the forest instead of being burnt. The report gives an overview of the sulphur cycle in general together with the acidifying effect of sulphur. The sulphur content in wood biomass is about 1 mg/g in the needles and 0.2-0.3 mg/g in wood. Chipped forest fuel contains 0.2-0.5 mg S/g. A removal of 40 tonnes of felling residues per hectare may contain about 8-30 kg S. The sulphur occurs both in organic, often reduced, form and as sulphate. In situations of high availability to sulphur there will be an increased proportion of sulphate. After combustion some, perhaps half, of the sulphur is left in the ashes, most of which appears to be sulphate. In mineralisation of reduced organic sulphur, of type R-SH, the sulphur is released in the form of sulphide. Hydrogen sulphide, H2S, can be oxidised by microbes to sulphate, which should be acidifying (2 H+ will remain). A very rough estimate suggests that emissions of sulphur dioxide from forest fuel, spread over the period the trees are growing, and on the area from which the trees are taken, corresponds to 0.5% of the sulphur deposition in southern Sweden. Sulphur emissions from biofuel combustion are much lower than Sweden's and the EU's most stringent emission limits for coal. Whole-tree removal with return of ashes will theoretically give a considerable reduction in soil acidity since large quantities of nitrogen are removed and thus the acidifying effect of nitrogen will not occur. This should be of greater importance for forest acidification than the effect of biomass sulphur. 80 refs, numerous tabs

  15. New method of measuring lichen respiration: response of selected species to temperature, pH and sulphur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baddeley, M S; Ferry, B W; Finegan, E J

    1971-01-01

    The respiration of selected lichens and their response to temperature, pH and sulphur dioxide concentration were investigated in aqueous solution using an oxygen electrode. Respiration rates increased to a maximum at 40/sup 0/ C although some individual species showed variations from this general pattern. The optimal pH for respiration was found to be 4.2 except in Hypogymnia physodes (3.2) and Ramalina fastigiata (5.2). Sulfur dioxide at concentrations similar to those likely to be encountered in heavily polluted areas in nature had marked inhibitory effects of the respiration rate of all species investigated but as these variations did not entirely correspond to the tolerances of the species in the field some other factors must also be involved in the sensitivity of lichens to sulphur dioxide pollution. The advantages of using an oxygen electrode rather than manometric or other techniques in studies on the respiration rate of lichens are discussed. 29 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards: Part II. Validation of satellite-derived Volcanic Sulphur Dioxide Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouli, MariLiza; Balis, Dimitris; Dimopoulos, Spiros; Clarisse, Lieven; Carboni, Elisa; Hedelt, Pascal; Spinetti, Claudia; Theys, Nicolas; Tampellini, Lucia; Zehner, Claus

    2014-05-01

    The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in the spring of 2010 turned the attention of both the public and the scientific community to the susceptibility of the European airspace to the outflows of large volcanic eruptions. The ash-rich plume from Eyjafjallajökull drifted towards Europe and caused major disruptions of European air traffic for several weeks affecting the everyday life of millions of people and with a strong economic impact. This unparalleled situation revealed limitations in the decision making process due to the lack of information on the tolerance to ash of commercial aircraft engines as well as limitations in the ash monitoring and prediction capabilities. The European Space Agency project Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards, was introduced to facilitate the development of an optimal End-to-End System for Volcanic Ash Plume Monitoring and Prediction. This system is based on comprehensive satellite-derived ash plume and sulphur dioxide [SO2] level estimates, as well as a widespread validation using supplementary satellite, aircraft and ground-based measurements. The validation of volcanic SO2 levels extracted from the sensors GOME-2/MetopA and IASI/MetopA are shown here with emphasis on the total column observed right before, during and after the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptions. Co-located ground-based Brewer Spectrophotometer data extracted from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre, WOUDC, were compared to the different satellite estimates. The findings are presented at length, alongside a comprehensive discussion of future scenarios.

  17. An evaluation of ambient sulphur dioxide concentrations from passive degassing of the Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia geothermal system: Implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Erouscilla P.; Beckles, Denise M.; Cox, Leonette; Jackson, Viveka B.; Alexander, Dominic

    2015-10-01

    Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia is a site of energetic geothermal activity associated with the potentially active Soufrière Volcanic Centre. The Park is one of Saint Lucia's most important tourist attractions, and is marketed as the 'world's only drive-in volcano'. It has an on-site staff of tour guides and vendors, as well as over 200,000 visitors annually. There are also a number of residents living in the areas bordering the Park. Recreational use is made of the geothermal waters for bathing, application of mud masques, and in some cases drinking. As part of the University of the West Indies, Seismic Research Centre's (UWI-SRC's) overall volcano monitoring programme for Saint Lucia, the volcanic emissions at Sulphur Springs (hot springs, mud pools and fumaroles) have been regularly monitored since 2001. In recent years, visitors, staff, and management at the Park have expressed concern about the health effects of exposure to volcanic emissions from the hydrothermal system. In response to this, SRC has expanded its regular geothermal monitoring programme to include a preliminary evaluation of ambient sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations in and around the Park, to assess the possible implications for human health. Passive diffusion tubes were used to measure the atmospheric SO2 concentrations at various sites in Sulphur Springs Park (SSP), in the town of Soufrière and in the capital of Castries. Measurements of average monthly ambient SO2 with the passive samplers indicated that during the dry season period of April to July 2014 concentration at sites closest to the main vents at SSP (Group 1), which are routinely used by staff and visitors, frequently exceeded the WHO 10-minute AQG for SO2 of 500 μg/m3. However, for sites that were more distal to the main venting area (Groups 2 and 3), the average monthly ambient SO2 did not exceed the WHO 10-minute AQG for SO2 of 500 μg/m3 during the entire monitoring period. The measured concentrations and dispersion

  18. Preliminary assessment of air quality for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and lead in the Netherlands under European legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugel PB van; Buijsman E; LLO

    2001-01-01

    The current air quality in the Netherlands for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and lead has been assessed in the context of limit values, margins of tolerance and the assessment thresholds used in the first daughter directive for air quality of the European

  19. Potential to reduce emissions of sulphur dioxide through reducing sulphur levels in heavy and light fuel oils - a discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushingham, M.; Bellamy, J.

    2001-01-01

    Background information on the sulphur levels in light fuel oil (used in residential heating) and heavy fuel oil (used as industrial fuel oil) is provided. In addition to the description of sulphur levels in light and heavy fuel oils, the report also provides a summary of regulatory limits in Canada and elsewhere, and a description of the emission benefits of decreasing sulphur in fuels. 4 refs., 10 tabs., 12 figs

  20. Coal desulphurisation as a method of sulphur dioxide emission control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelton, R.L.; Cockshott, A.R.

    1983-11-01

    Three methods of washing power station coal are first described and their effectiveness is discussed. The following wet and dry flue gas desulphurisation processes are discussed briefly: alkali injection, adsorption processes, Davy/Wellman-Lord, lime/limestone, double alkali, citrate, aqueous carbonate, spray absorption and magnesium oxide.

  1. MOLECULAR COMPLEXES OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE WITH N,O-CONTAINING ORGANIC BASES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Khoma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature data on the synthesis, stoichiometry, structure and relative stability of molecular  complexes of sulphur dioxide with N,O-containing organic bases have been systematized and  generalized. It was shown that the yield of the reaction product of sulfur dioxide with organic  bases (such as amines are strongly influenced by the conditions of synthesis: the nature of  the solvent (basicity, polarity, the temperature and SO2:L ratio in the reaction medium. The stoichiometry of SO2*nL molecular complexes depends on ligand denticity, as well as its  ability to H-bonding. The reaction of the sulfur oxide (IV with organic bases can give S←N and S←O complexes. With the increase of the value of base proton affinity the decrease ΔrSN values has been marked. Characteristic parameter Δr SN = r SN – a1(rS+ rN (where rSNis the S←N donor-acceptor bond length has been determined by microwave spectroscopy and X-ray analysis, rSand rNwere the tabulated values of the homopolar covalent radii of sulphur and nitrogen heteroatoms. The dependence of formation enthalpy of molecular complexes of basic amines and spectral characteristics has been noted; enthalpy-entropy compensation for S←N and S←O complex-es has been stated. Despite the limited experimental data on the thermodynamics of complex formation and the lengths of donor-acceptor bonds for the same compounds it has been found bond S←N strength in SO2 molecular complexes to depend on the intrinsic value of ΔrSN. The contribution of van der Waals forces and charge transfer forces to the formation of molecular complexes of sulphur dioxide has been stated.

  2. Automatic colorimetric determination of low concentrations of sulphate for measuring sulphur dioxide in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, G A

    1966-01-01

    An automatic colorimetric method for the determination of low concentrations of sulphate (0-10 microgram/ml) using the thoron indicator is described. Total amounts of sulphate as small as 0.3 micrograms can be determined. The sulphate is precipitated with barium perchlorate and the excess of barium is indicated with 1-(o-arsenophenylazo)-2-naphthol-3-6-disulfonic acid(thoron). The procedure is worked out primarily for the determination of sulphur dioxide in air after absorption in diluted hydrogen peroxide.

  3. A novel approach to mitigating sulphur dioxide emissions and producing a mercury sorbent material using oil-sands fluid coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E.; Jia, C.Q.; Tong, S.

    2008-01-01

    Pyrometallurgical smelting operations are a major source of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) which is a precursor to acid rain and increased levels of UV-B penetration in boreal lakes. Mercury is also released in copper smelter off-gas, which can bioaccumulate and cause neurological disorders and death in humans. Fluid coke is produced in massive quantities as a by-product of bitumen upgrading at Syncrude Canada's facility in Fort McMurray, Alberta. Oilsands fluid coke can be used to reduce SO 2 and produce elemental sulphur as a co-product. This process was dubbed SOactive. The reaction physically activates the fluid coke to produce a sulphur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) which is known as ECOcarbon. Some studies have indicated that SIAC is well suited for the removal of vapour phase mercury, mainly due to the formation of stable mercuric sulphide species. This paper discussed the findings made to date in relation to the SOactive process and the characterization of ECOcarbons. The paper discussed the use of fluid coke for reducing SO 2 emissions while producing elemental sulphur as well as coke-SO 2 -oxygen (O 2 ) and coke-SO 2 -water (H 2 O) systems. The paper also examined the production of SIAC products for use in capturing vapour phase mercury. The paper presented the materials and methodology, including an illustration of the apparatus used in reduction of SO 2 and activation of fluid coke. It was concluded that more work is still needed to analyse the effect of O 2 and SO 2 reduction and SIAC properties under smelter flue gas conditions. 10 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  4. Evaluation of modified atmosphere bag and sulphur dioxide concentrations applied on highbush blueberries fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cv. Emerald

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Mario; Wyss, Anddy; Hormazábal, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to evaluate techniques for modified atmosphere and application of sulphur anhydride upon parameters of quality of postharvest on blueberry fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cv. Emerald, an experiment of six treatments was conducted, given by the combination of two factors, modified atmosphere (with and without) and different concentrations of sulphur dioxide (generated by 0, 1 and 2 g of sodium metabisulphite) during 7, 14, 21 and 28 days at 0 °C. The dose of 2 g of modified atmosphere s...

  5. Bromine monoxide / sulphur dioxide ratios in relation to volcanological observations at Mt. Etna 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giuffrida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over a 3-yr period, from 2006 to 2009, frequent scattered sunlight DOAS measurements were conducted at Mt. Etna at a distance of around 6 km downwind from the summit craters. During the same period and in addition to these measurements, volcanic observations were made by regularly visiting various parts of Mt. Etna. Here, results from these measurements and observations are presented and their relation is discussed. The focus of the investigation is the bromine monoxide/sulphur dioxide (BrO / SO2 ratio, and its variability in relation to volcanic processes. That the halogen/sulphur ratio can serve as a precursor or indicator for the onset of eruptive activity was already proposed by earlier works (e.g. Noguchi and Kamiya 1963; Menyailov, 1975; Pennisi and Cloarec, 1998; Aiuppa et al., 2002. However, there is still a limited understanding today because of the complexity with which halogens are released, depending on magma composition and degassing conditions. Our understanding of these processes is far from complete, for example of the rate and mechanism of bubble nucleation, growth and ascent in silicate melts (Carroll and Holloway, 1994, the halogen vapour-melt partitioning and the volatile diffusivity in the melt (Aiuppa et al., 2009. With this study we aim to add one more piece to the puzzle of what halogen/sulphur ratios might tell about volcanic activities. Our data set shows an increase of the BrO / SO2 ratio several weeks prior to an eruption, followed by a decline before and during the initial phase of eruptive activities. Towards the end of activity or shortly thereafter, the ratio increases to baseline values again and remains more or less constant during quiet phases. To explain the observed evolution of the BrO / SO2 ratio, a first empirical model is proposed. This model suggests that bromine, unlike chlorine and fluorine, is less soluble in the magmatic melt than sulphur. By using the DOAS method to determine SO2, we actually

  6. Effect of sulphur forms on colour and residue of sulphur during the storage at drying grapes by sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boztepe Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is the world leader in the manufacture and export of seedless raisins. Requirement of golden bleached raisins is increasing in food Industry of especially cake, bread and pastry year by year. In this research, the lowest residual value and the practical realization of such production was intended to determine by drying grapes with application of sulphur. In this case, sulphur residue and colour situations were determined during 12-mounth-storage according to sulphur forms. In this study sulphur studies were applied by Vitis Vinifera cv. “Sultani Çekirdeksiz” with Na2S2O5, which is liquid source of sulphur and SO2, which is gas source of sulphur. SO2 application were studied during 3, 6 and 8 hours and liquid form of sulphur is Na2S2O5 that was used during by 10, 20 and 30 minutes. Applications were prepared with 3 replicates which contain 20 kg fresh grape in each replicate. In conclusion, changes in dried grape have been identified in point of colour (chroma and hue and the sulphur content was determined according to sulphur forms in packing. Gas form of sulphur (SO2 which was applied 3 hours, gave the best result during 12-mounth-storage for colour and sulphur residue.

  7. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    234-8034714355. 8034714355. 1. EFFECTS OF SULPHUR ADDITION ON. ADDITION ON. 2. AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES O. 3. 4. C. W. Onyia. 5. 1DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS. 6. 2, 4DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL ...

  8. Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and tap water pretreatments in the greenhouse and open field conditions on germination of bladder-Senna ( Colutea armena Boiss. and Huet.) seeds.

  9. Being green on sulphur: Targets, measures and side-effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    to sea to reduce congestion, and might ultimately (under certain circumstances) increase the overall level of CO2 emissions along the entire supply chain. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the potential effect of sulphur regulations on the share of cargo transported by the waterborne mode vis......Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are not the only emissions of concern to the international transport community. SOx emissions are non-GHG emissions that are caused by the presence of sulphur in the fuel. As the maximum percentage of sulphur in automotive and aviation fuels is strictly regulated...

  10. Physical and chemical processes of sulphur dioxide in the plume from an oil-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flyger, H.; Lewin, E.; Lund Thomsen, E.; Fenger, J.; Lyck, E.; Gryning, S.E.

    1977-03-01

    The Danish contribution to the EUROCOP COST 61a project is described. Work concerned the physical and chemical reactions of sulphur dioxide released from a power station. The investigation was based on the application of two tracers. Inactive, inert SF 6 is used to monitor the dispersion of and deposition from the plume; it was intended to use radioactive 35 SO 2 to determine the degree of oxidation of sulphur released from the stack; so far, however, public reaction has prevented the use of a release of activity in field experiments. The report describes the construction and testing of airborne instruments for continuous registration of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone and the tracer SF 6 , as well as for measurements of temperature and humidity. Sulphur samples were collected on filter paper in a specially constructed low volume air sampler, and the subsequent chemical analysis in the laboratory is described. Finally, the problem of navigation is treated. It is shown that nitrogen oxides may be used as an internal tracer in plume experiments. Preliminary experiments based on inactive analysis only indicated an overall half-life for SO 2 in the plume of about half an hour. (author)

  11. Air quality in the Kootenays: fine particulate (PM10) airborne metals and sulphur dioxide levels, 1993-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    Air quality monitoring data collected in the Kootenays over a seven year period from 1993 to 1999 are summarized in an effort to inform the public about air quality in the Kootenays and to assist them in understanding air quality monitoring results. Data includes hourly (TEOM) and weekly (NAPS) data for particulate matter (PM 1 0) airborne metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc) and sulphur dioxide. Analysis of monitoring data showed that particulate matter levels remained constant in most communities, with Johnson Lake and Slocan reporting the lowest levels, while Golden had the highest values during this period. Trail-Butler Park showed a clear declining trend in PM 1 0. Airborne metals and sulphur dioxide levels have decreased in the Kootenays during the seven year period, with only occasional exceedances of both Level A and B air quality objectives in some communities. The report includes a detailed description of the sampling methodology and the analyzed results for PM 1 0, airborne metals and sulphur dioxide for 10 communities in the region. 6 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs., 1 map

  12. Sulphur dioxide removal by turbulent transfer over grass, snow, and water surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelpdale, D M; Shaw, R W

    1974-01-01

    Vertical gradients of sulphur dioxide concentration have been measured over grass, snow, and water surfaces in order to assess the importance of these surfaces as SO/sub 2/ sinks. Concentrations were usually found to be lower near the surface indicating that removal occurs there. Vertical concentration gradients, normalized with repect to the concentration at 8 m, were generally greatest over water and least over snow, independent of meteorological conditions, suggesting that a water surface is the strongest SO/sub 2/ sink, with grass next, and snow weakest. The turbulent transfer of SO/sub 2/ to the interface is discussed in relation to stability of the lower atmosphere and physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. Using a bulk aerodynamic transfer approach similar to that for water vapour, values of SO/sub 2/ flux averaged over periods of from one to several hours were found to be of the order of 1 microgram/M/sup 2//S to the water and grass surfaces, and an order of magnitude smaller to the snow surface. Deposition velocities were found to be of the order of 1 cm/s.

  13. Anthropogenic Sulphur Dioxide Load over China as Observed from Different Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouli, M. E.; Balis, D. S.; Johannes Van Der A, Ronald; Theys, N.; Hedelt, P.; Richter, A.; Krotkov, N.; Li, Can; Taylor, M.

    2016-01-01

    China, with its rapid economic growth and immense exporting power, has been the focus of many studies during this previous decade quantifying its increasing emissions contribution to the Earth's atmosphere. With a population slowly shifting towards enlarged power and purchasing needs, the ceaseless inauguration of new power plants, smelters, refineries and industrial parks leads infallibly to increases in sulphur dioxide, SO2, emissions. The recent capability of next generation algorithms as well as new space-borne instruments to detect anthropogenic SO2 loads has enabled a fast advancement in this field. In the following work, algorithms providing total SO2 columns over China based on SCIAMACHY/Envisat, OMI/Aura and GOME2/MetopA observations are presented. The need for post-processing and gridding of the SO2 fields is further revealed in this work, following the path of previous publications. Further, it is demonstrated that the usage of appropriate statistical tools permits studying parts of the datasets typically excluded, such as the winter months loads. Focusing on actual point sources, such as megacities and known power plant locations, instead of entire provinces, monthly mean time series have been examined in detail. The sharp decline in SO2 emissions in more than 90% - 95% of the locations studied confirms the recent implementation of government desulphurisation legislation; however, locations with increases, even for the previous five years, are also identified. These belong to provinces with emerging economies which are in haste to install power plants and are possibly viewed leniently by the authorities, in favour of growth. The SO2 load seasonality has also been examined in detail with a novel mathematical tool, with 70% of the point sources having a statistically significant annual cycle with highs in winter and lows in summer, following the heating requirements of the Chinese population.

  14. Sorption of sulphur dioxide in calcium chloride and nitrate chloride liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzepierczynska, I.; Gostomczyk, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Flue gas desulphurization via application of suspensions has one inherent disadvantage: fixation of sulphur dioxide is very poor. This should be attributed to the low content of calcium ions which results from the solubility of the sorbing species. The solubility of sparingly soluble salts (CaO, CaCO 3 ) may be increased by decreasing the pH of the solution; yet, there is a serious limitation in this method: the corrosivity of the scrubber. The objective of this paper was to assess the sorbing capacity of two soluble calcium salts, calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, as a function of calcium ion concentration in the range of 20 to 82 kg/m 3 . It has been found that sorbing capacity increases with the increasing calcium ion concentration until the calcium concentration in the calcium chloride solution reaches the level of 60 kg/m 3 which is equivalent to the chloride ion content of ∼ 110 kg/m 3 . Addition of calcium hydroxide to the solutions brings about an increase in the sorbing capacity up to 1.6 kg/m 3 and 2.2 kg/m 3 for calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, respectively, as a result of the increased sorbent alkalinity. The sorption capacity of the solutions is considerably enhanced by supplementing them by acetate ions (2.8 to 13.9 kg/m 3 ). Increase in the sorption capacity of calcium nitrate solutions enriched with calcium acetate was approximately 30% as high as that of the chloride solutions enriched with calcium acetate was approximately 30% as high as that of the chloride solutions supplemented in the same way. (author). 12 refs, 7 refs, 4 tabs

  15. Effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on the germination of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L). Seeds were placed on moistened filter papers in 28 cm diameter Petri dishes under laboratory condition for germination. 330 seeds of T. indica (10 seeds per Petri dish) with ...

  16. Effects of sulphuric acid, mechanical scarification and wet heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different treatment methods on the germination of seeds of Parkia biglobosa (mimosaceae) were carried out. Prior treatment of seeds with sulphuric acid, wet heat and mechanical scarification were found to induce germination of the dormant seeds. These methods could be applied to raise seedlings of the plant for ...

  17. Effect of irrigation frequency and application levels of sulphur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi during the crop season of 2007 to 2008 and 2008 to 2009 to study the effect of irrigation and sulphur on yield and water use efficiency of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea var. PusaJagannath). The experiment was carried out in split plot ...

  18. Electron capture detection of sulphur gases in carbon dioxide at the parts-per-billion level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pick, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    A gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector has been used to determine sulphur gases in CO 2 at the parts-per-billion level, with particular application to the analysis of coolant from CO 2 cooled nuclear reactors. For COS, CS 2 , CH 3 SH, H 2 S and (CH 3 ) 2 S 2 the detector has a sensitivity comparable with the more commonly used flame photometric detector, but it is much less sensitive towards (CH 3 ) 2 S and thiophene. In addition, the paper describes a simple method for trapping sulphur gases which might enable detection of sub parts-per-billion levels of sulphur compounds. (Auth.)

  19. Effects of sulphur ion implantation on the electrochemical behaviour of two stainless steels in sulphuric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader-Roux, J.; Becdelievre, A.M. de; Gaillard, F.; Roux, R.; Becdelievre, J. de

    1986-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour in sulphuric acid of two austenitic stainless steels (AISI 304 L and AISI 321) modified by sulphur ion implantation has been studied. Surface analysis of oxygen and sulphur by LEEIXS and XRFS were performed before and after polarization on unimplanted and on implanted samples. I/E curves with implanted steels reveal an important corrosion peak (α peak) recovering widely the active peak of unimplanted samples. For high implanted doses, another peak (β peak) appears in the passive range. High doses implanted steels polarized in the range of the α peak exhibit a sulphur enriched black surface layer. SEM examination of this layer shows it is constituted by flakes rolling up themselves. The formation of a superficial non-protective sulphide layer and the internal stresses of this layer explain the corrosion enhancement of sulphur implanted materials. After dissolution of this layer the behaviour of unimplanted steels is found again. (author)

  20. Effects of Different Forms and Doses of Sulphur Application on Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erdem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of sulphur (S is an important limiting factor of plant growth for sustainable agricultural production. The decline in sulphur dioxide emission, decrease in S-containing fertilizer consumption due to the high cost of S-fertilizers, breeding of new high yielding species are the well known causes of S-deficiency. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of several doses of K2SO4-S, CaSO4-S and elemental-S applied on growth, shoot dry matter yield, S and N concentrations of wheat cultivar. The experiments were conducted in three soils differed from available S concentrations. Effects of different S-treatments (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg S kg-1 and S-forms had significant effects on shoot dry matter yields of plants. Sulphur from different S-sources did not increase shoot S-concentrations in Eskisehir and Konya soils, but increase was significant obtained in the Harran soil. Shoot S-concentration in Harran soil for zero K2SO4 treatment was 0.09%, the values were 0.22, 0.26 and 0.27% respectively for 25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 treatments. The results indicated significant effects of S-treatments on plant growth and yield mostly based on soil properties, especially the available S-levels

  1. Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India. Part 1 - Fossil fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekar Reddy, M.; Venkataraman, C.

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive, spatially resolved (0.25 o x 0.25 o ) fossil fuel consumption database and emissions inventory was constructed, for India, for the first time. Emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents were estimated for 1996-1997 and extrapolated to the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) study period (1998-1999). District level consumption of coal/lignite, petroleum and natural gas in power plants, industrial, transportation and domestic sectors was 9411 PJ, with major contributions from coal (54%) followed by diesel (18%). Emission factors for various pollutants were derived using India specific fuel characteristics and information on combustion/air pollution control technologies for the power and industrial sectors. Domestic and transportation emission factors, appropriate for Indian source characteristics, were compiled from literature. SO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion for 1996-1997 were 4.0Tg SO 2 yr -1 , with 756 large point sources (e.g. utilities, iron and steel, fertilisers, cement, refineries and petrochemicals and non-ferrous metals), accounting for 62%. PM 2.5 emitted was 0.5 and 2.0Tgyr -1 for the 100% and the 50% control scenario, respectively, applied to coal burning in the power and industrial sectors. Coal combustion was the major source of PM 2.5 (92%) primarily consisting of fly ash, accounting for 98% of the 'inorganic fraction' emissions (difference between PM 2.5 and black carbon + organic matter) of 1.6Tgyr -1 . Black carbon emissions were estimated at 0.1Tgyr -1 , with 58% from diesel transport, and organic matter emissions at 0.3Tgyr -1 , with 48% from brick-kilns. Fossil fuel consumption and emissions peaked at the large point industrial sources and 22 cities, with elevated area fluxes in northern and western India. The spatial resolution of this inventory makes it suitable for regional-scale aerosol-climate studies. These results are compared to previous studies and differences discussed. Measurements of

  2. Meteorological and sulphur dioxide dispersion modelling for an industrial complex near Mexico city metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, V.R.; Sosa, G.; Molina, M.M.; Palmerin-ruiz, M.E.; Melgarejo-flores, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Major sulphur dioxide emissions in Mexico are due largely to fuel of oil refining and coal combustion. In Tula-Vito-Apasco industrial corridor (TVA) are located two important sources of SO/sub 2/: the 'Miguel Hidalgo' refinery and the 'Francisco Perez Rios' power plant. Due to from March 25 to April 22 of 2006 a major field campaign took place as part of a collaborative research program called MILAGRO. Data collected around the Industrial Complex were used to: a) evaluate the air quality to local and regional scale; b) study the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (BL); and c) validate meteorological and dispersion models. In this study we presented the behaviour of daytime BL, and the results of meteorological and dispersion modelling for selected episodes of high sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and the Hybrid and Particle Concentration Transport Model (HYPACT) were used to evaluate the impact of SO/sub 2/ emissions to regional scale. For modelling, we selected the days where higher mean daily levels of SO/sub 2 /surface concentrations were observed, these corresponded to March 31 and April 6. The results indicate that: The daytime BL in TVA, exhibited a normal behavior, a stable layer or thermal inversion close to surface was observed at 0800 LST (up to 80% of the cases), then the mixing height (MH) growths, with a growth rate of 313 m h-1 (between 0800 to 1200 LST). The most rapid MH growth happened between 1200 to 1500 LST;. The maximum MH was observed at 1500 LST (90% of the cases); the mean maximum MH was close to 2794 m AGL; Potential temperature and humidity profiles showed a normal behavior; High persistence in wind direction (> 0.6) close to surface up to 500 m AGL, was observed at 1500, and 1800 LST, at the same time, a low level jet, penetrating from the NE, with wind speed between 6 to 8 m s/sup -1/ was observed. Meteorological modelling was used to determine the circulation patterns in the region

  3. High pressure treatments accelerate changes in volatile composition of sulphur dioxide-free wine during bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mickael C; Nunes, Cláudia; Rocha, M Angélica M; Rodrigues, Ana; Rocha, Sílvia M; Saraiva, Jorge A; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-12-01

    The impact of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments on volatile composition of sulphur dioxide-free wines during bottle storage was studied. For this purpose, white and red wines were produced without sulphur dioxide (SO2) and, at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, the wines were pressurised at 500 MPa and 425 MPa for 5 min. Wine with 40 ppm of SO2 and a wine without a preservation treatment were used as controls. More than 160 volatile compounds, distributed over 12 chemical groups, were identified in the wines by an advanced gas chromatography technique. The pressurised wines contained a higher content of furans, aldehydes, ketones, and acetals, compared with unpressurised wines after 9 months of storage. The changes in the volatile composition indicate that HHP treatments accelerated the Maillard reaction, and alcohol and fatty acid oxidation, leading to wines with a volatile composition similar to those of faster aged and/or thermally treated wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In situ Raman spectra of the discharge products of calcium and lithium-anoded thionyl chloride cells — sulphur dioxide generation in oxyhalide systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, W. P.; Sargeant, D. G.

    A cell has been constructed that allows a calcium or lithium-anoded oxyhalide cell of conventional composition to be analysed for catholyte-soluble discharge products using laser Raman spectroscopy. Both cells showed the presence of sulphur dioxide solvated by thionyl chloride. Species of the type M(SOCl 2)(SO 2) n+ (AlCl 4) n- could only be detected in cells having calcium or lithium anodes with LiAlCl 4 as the supporting electrolyte in thionyl chloride. Vapour pressure measurements of discharging cells confirmed that Ca(AlCl 4) 2 was less likely to form a complex with sulphur dioxide than the analogous lithium salt.

  5. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengl, Vaclav; Bludska, Jana; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. → 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. → New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn 4+ content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn 4+ content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn 3 7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn 5 with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  6. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Bludska, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. {yields} 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. {yields} New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn{sup 4+} content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn{sup 4+} content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn{sub 3}7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn{sub 5} with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  7. Mitigation of the effects of sulphur pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, B.; Wilson, R.

    1976-07-05

    As an introduction to the discussion of mitigation of the effects of SO/sub 2/, its health effect on man and the use of sulfates as indicators of the health hazard are first considered. The use of tall chimney stacks and intermittent control and other schemes to reduce the SO/sub 2/ release to the atmosphere are discussed. The problems of administration and forecasting are analyzed and legal problems associated with SO/sub 2/ control are reviewed. In an appendix an analysis of federal jurisdiction over interstate pollution and possible avenues of litigation open to the states is presented. (JSR)

  8. Physico-chemical conversion of sulphur dioxide in a power plant plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, E.E.

    1978-03-01

    A review is given of the actual knowledge of SO 2 atmospheric processes gained from laboratory and field experiments. Implementation is described of the instrumentation, operational procedures and analytical methods in connection with a field study of the conversion and dispersion of SO 2 in an oil-fired power plant plume. Furthermore, the preliminary results are included of five experiments performed until the end of 1976. Measurements were performed from an aircraft and included continuous registration of NOsub(x), SO 2 , SF 6 , and particle concentrations, as well as temperature and humidity. It was planned to label sulphur from the source in question with sulphur-35. However, this part of the experiment had to be abandoned because of public opinion on the use of radioactive tracers. Sulphur hexafluoride was used as an internal tracer for the plume. A half-life for SO 2 of about 30 min was determined from one of the experiments. In this connection the possibility of using NOsub(x) as a conservative tracer is shown. Possible ways of removal are discussed and the rate of two of the processes is calculated by means of a model describing the chemical conversion in a dispersing plume. (author)

  9. Probable damage to tundra biota through sulphur dioxide destruction of lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, E; Hamilton, W L

    1970-01-01

    Lichens, which are important components of many Arctic ecosystems, are extremely sensitive to SO/sub 2/ pollution. Recent oilfield development in Arctic North America seems likely to eliminate lichens from large areas because of a unique combination of biological and meteorological factors. Probable future oilfield development in Greenland and the Soviet Union indicates that SO/sub 2/ pollution will become an increasingly serious threat to Arctic ecosystems. Therefore, uncontrolled burning of crude oil, fuel oil, and natural gas, should be avoided, and adequate sulphur-extraction facilities should be installed.

  10. The use of Sphagnum recurvum Pal. Beauv. as biological tests for determination of the level of pollution with fluorine compounds and sulphur dioxide in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Świeboda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The green parts of the peat moss Sphagnum recurvum Pal. Beauv. were used as a biological test to evaluate the pollution level of the natural environment in the region of the aluminium works "Skawina" (Southern Poland with fluorine compounds and sulphur dioxide. The moss samples were placed in nylon nets and exposed to the polluted air for 6 weeks, then the fluorine and sulphur content in them was determined. The results demonstrated the usefulness of this method for the purpose of establishing the range of influence of the emitted industrial pollution.

  11. Increasing the efficiency of sulphur dioxide in wine by using of saturated higher fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Bábíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed on stopping of alcoholic fermentation to leave residual sugar and the possibility of sulfur dioxide reduction in wine technology and storage. As a very good opportunity showed mixture of higher saturated fatty acids with a reduced dose of sulfur dioxide. Experiments have confirmed that the concentration of viable yeasts in 1 ml of wine for variants treated with a mixture of fatty acids is significantly lower than in variants treated with sulfur dioxide alone. Then was monitored the influence of fatty acids on stored wine with residual sugar. At this point a dramatically prolongation of interval to secondary fermentation (depreciation of wine in the bottle was confirmed. Finally, attention was paid to influence on the organoleptic characteristics of wine treated this way. In this case, it is possible to consider the recommended concentration of fatty acid below the threshold of susceptibility.

  12. Improving retrieval of volcanic sulphur dioxide from backscattered UV satellite observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Kai; Krotkov, N.A.; Krueger, A.J.; Carn, S.A.; Bhartia, P.K.; Levelt, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    Existing algorithms that use satellite measurements of solar backscattered ultraviolet (BUV) radiances to retrieve sulfur dioxide (SO2) vertical columns underestimate the large SO2 amounts encountered in fresh volcanic eruption clouds. To eliminate this underestimation we have developed a new

  13. Sulphur poisoning of palladium catalysts used for methane combustion: Effect of the support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escandon, Lara S.; Ordonez, Salvador; Vega, Aurelio; Diez, Fernando V.

    2008-01-01

    Four different supported palladium catalysts (using alumina, silica, zirconia and titania as supports), prepared by incipient wetness impregnation, were tested as catalysts for methane oxidation in presence of sulphur dioxide. The catalyst supported on zirconia showed the best performance, whereas the silica-supported one showed the fastest deactivation. Temperature-programmed desorption experiments of the poisoned catalysts suggest that SO 2 adsorption capacity of the support plays a key role in the catalyst poisoning. In order to study the effect of promoters, expected to improve the thermal stability and thioresistance of the catalyst, commercial zirconia modified by yttrium and lantane was tested as supports. It was found that the presence of these promoters does not improve the performance of the zirconia-supported catalyst. A deactivation model - considering two different active sites (fresh and poisoning), pseudo-first order dependence on methane concentration and poisoning rate depending on sulphur concentration and fraction of non-poisoned palladium - was used for modelling the deactivation behaviour

  14. SULPHUR CONTAINING LICKS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amounts of sulphur, there are some of particular importance such as the vitamins thiamine and biotin. Sulphur is also ingested in the inorganic sulphide and sulphate forms, fractions of which are utilized in metabolic processes, whereas substantial portions are also excreted. It has been determined that thiol cornpounds.

  15. Remote sensing of sulphur dioxide emissions of sea-going vessels through lidar; Zwaveldioxide-uitstoot van zeeschepen op afstand gemeten met lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhout, A J.C.; Swart, D P.J.; Van der Hoff, G R; Bergwerff, J B

    2011-12-15

    RIVM developed an instrument to measure from the shore sulphur dioxide emissions of passing sea-going vessels. This instrument uses the lidar technique (Light Detection And Ranging). The instrument uses a laser beam to scan the exhaust plume from a passing ship and determine the emission, unnoticed. It was used from 2006 to 2008 to measure sulphur dioxide emissions from a large number of ships sailing on the Westerscheldt estuary and on the North Sea Canal. The highest measured emission was 37 gram per second. The total emission of sulphur dioxide in the Netherlands has been declining for many years. Since 2006, emissions from ocean shipping are declining as well, but not as fast as those from other sources. Therefore, the contribution from ocean shipping is gaining importance. In 2010, 55 percent of the Dutch sulphur dioxide emissions originated with sea-going vessels. In 1990, this was 21 percent. Sea-going ships are not allowed to use sulphur-rich fuel in territorial waters and at the North Sea. This relatively cheap fuel may be on board, though, for use elsewhere at sea. To what extent ship owners comply with this ban is not known. Traditional measurement methods involve taking fuel samples on board. This requires someone boarding the ship. The crew therefore knows a measurement is taking place and can adjust the type of fuel used. Moreover, with traditional methods, only a few ships per day can be checked. Lidar is not yet recognised as a law enforcement instrument. Therefore, no fines can be imposed based on lidar measurements only. The lidar may be used, though, to identify possible offenders. A law enforcement official may then board that ship to ascertain that the law was breached. When used in this way, the use of the lidar is cost-effective even now. This is because the lidar can measure almost all passing ships. Expensive patrol ships can then be directed to only visit those ships that are the most likely offenders. Moreover, this greatly increases the

  16. Air quality in the Kootenays: fine particulate (PM{sub 1}0) airborne metals and sulphur dioxide levels, 1993-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    Air quality monitoring data collected in the Kootenays over a seven year period from 1993 to 1999 are summarized in an effort to inform the public about air quality in the Kootenays and to assist them in understanding air quality monitoring results. Data includes hourly (TEOM) and weekly (NAPS) data for particulate matter (PM{sub 1}0) airborne metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc) and sulphur dioxide. Analysis of monitoring data showed that particulate matter levels remained constant in most communities, with Johnson Lake and Slocan reporting the lowest levels, while Golden had the highest values during this period. Trail-Butler Park showed a clear declining trend in PM{sub 1}0. Airborne metals and sulphur dioxide levels have decreased in the Kootenays during the seven year period, with only occasional exceedances of both Level A and B air quality objectives in some communities. The report includes a detailed description of the sampling methodology and the analyzed results for PM{sub 1}0, airborne metals and sulphur dioxide for 10 communities in the region. 6 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs., 1 map.

  17. submitter Aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone in cloud droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyle, C R; Järvinen, E; Saathoff, H; Dias, A; El Haddad, I; Gysel, M; Coburn, S C; Tröstl, J; Bernhammer, A -K; Bianchi, F; Breitenlechner, M; Corbin, J C; Craven, J; Donahue, N M; Duplissy, J; Ehrhart, S; Frege, C; Gordon, H; Höppel, N; Heinritzi, M; Kristensen, T B; Molteni, U; Nichman, L; Pinterich, T; Prévôt, A S H; Simon, M; Slowik, J G; Steiner, G; Tomé, A; Vogel, A L; Volkamer, R; Wagner, A C; Wagner, R; Wexler, A S; Williamson, C; Winkler, P M; Yan, C; Amorim, A; Dommen, J; Curtius, J; Gallagher, M W; Flagan, R C; Hansel, A; Kirkby, J; Kulmala, M; Möhler, O; Stratmann, F; Worsnop, D R; Baltensperger, U

    2016-01-01

    The growth of aerosol due to the aqueous phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide by ozone was measured in laboratory-generated clouds created in the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Experiments were performed at 10 and −10 °C, on acidic (sulfuric acid) and on partially to fully neutralised (ammonium sulfate) seed aerosol. Clouds were generated by performing an adiabatic expansion – pressurising the chamber to 220 hPa above atmospheric pressure, and then rapidly releasing the excess pressure, resulting in a cooling, condensation of water on the aerosol and a cloud lifetime of approximately 6 min. A model was developed to compare the observed aerosol growth with that predicted using oxidation rate constants previously measured in bulk solutions. The model captured the measured aerosol growth very well for experiments performed at 10 and −10 °C, indicating that, in contrast to some previous studies, the oxidation rates of SO2 in ...

  18. Contribution to the study of the physical stability of the suspensions of zinc oxide, titanium dioxide and precipitated sulphur employing emulsified solid greases like vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras Navarro, Martha

    2001-01-01

    This research evaluated the physical stability of the suspensions of zinc oxide, precipitated sulphur and titanium dioxide. By using emulsified vehicles of three solid greases: stearilic alcohol, stearic acid and beeswax. That varies the concentration of solid grease (2%, 4%, 6 %) and the velocity of agitation for the emulsified vehicle's preparation (250, 500, 750 revolutions by minutes). That got 81 suspensions, 27 for every grease employed. The following effects there were evaluated like indicators of the physical stability of the suspensions: volume of sediment, apparent viscosity, facility of resuspension. There was effected an analysis of the varying of two controlled factors to establish the importance since the statistical viewpoint of the variants of the process over the volume of the sediment. This study indicates that the selection of solid grease is an parameter which influence is significant, what supports the got data through the research. By giving as a result that the stearilic alcohol is the most competent vehicle for the preparation of these suspensions. (Author) [es

  19. Nitrogen and Sulphur Relations in Effecting Yield and Quality of Cereals and Oilseed Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Nad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen and sulphur, both vital structural elements, are especially needed for the synthesis of proteins and oils. Investigations revealed the required application of sulphur is one half to one third the amount of nitrogen, and the ratio becomes narrower in mustard (Brassica juncea L., followed by wheat and rice. The efficiency of an increased level of nitrogen required a proportionately higher amount of sulphur. A critical investigation on the effective utilization of applied vis-à-vis absorbed nitrogen in wheat and mustard envisaged accumulation of NO3-N in vegetative parts when sulphur remained proportionately low. Application of sulphur hastened the chemical reduction of absorbed NO3– for its effective utilization. The effect was more pronounced in mustard than in wheat. Easily available forms of sulphur, like ammonium sulphate and gypsum, as compared to pyrite or elemental sulphur, maintained adequate N to S ratio in rice, resulting in a reduction in the percent of unfilled grain, a major consideration in rice yield. A narrow N to S ratio, with both at higher levels, increased the oil content but raised the saponification value of the oil, a measure of free fatty acids. Whereas, a proportionately narrow N to S ratio at moderate dose resulted in adequately higher seed and oil yield with relatively low saponification value, associated with increased iodine value of the oil, indicating respectively low free fatty acids and higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, an index for better quality of the oil.

  20. Effect of Sulphur Fertilization on Grain Quality and Protein Composition of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Pompa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of atmosphere emission of SO2 and the massive use of fertilizers high in nitrogen and phosphorus resulted in a decrease of the sulphur content in the soil. In durum wheat cultivation, sulphur supply plays a key role not only for plant growth, but also for grain quality. Sulphur is an essential macronutrient primarily used to synthesize methionine and cysteine and it is also involved in establishing protein structures by disulphide bonds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sulphur nutrition on grain quality and protein composition of durum wheat cultivars grown under water deficit conditions, typical of Mediterranean areas. To this purpose, in the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 crop seasons a field trial was carried out by comparing two water regimes (irrigated and rainfed, two sulphur fertilizer levels and two durum wheat cultivars. Under our experimental conditions, an increase in protein and gluten content in the rainfed treatment and a positive effect of sulphur fertilization on quality parameters were observed. Few changes were observed in protein composition in response to sulphur fertilization.

  1. Effect of Thiobacillus thioparus 1904 and sulphur addition on odour emission during aerobic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenjie; Sun, Wen; Lu, Yusheng; Li, Xia; Xu, Peizhi; Xie, Kaizhi; Sun, Lili; Wu, Hangtao

    2018-02-01

    The effects of sulphur and Thiobacillus thioparus 1904 on odour emissions during composting were studied. Results indicated that the sulphur addition reduced the pH and decreased cumulative emission of ammonia and the nitrogen loss by 47.80% and 44.23%, respectively, but the amount of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) and the sulphur loss increased. The addition of T. thioparus 1904 effectively reduced the cumulative emissions of H 2 S, methyl sulphide, methanethiol, dimethyl disulphide and the sulphur loss by 33.24%, 81.24%, 32.70%, 54.22% and 54.24%, respectively. T. thioparus 1904 also limited the nitrogen loss. The combined application of sulphur and T. thioparus 1904 resulted in the greatest amount of nitrogen retention. The accumulation of ammonia emissions was reduced by 63.33%, and the nitrogen loss was reduced by 71.93%. The combined treatment did not increase the emission of VSCs. The application of sulphur and T. thioparus 1904 may help to control the odour of compost. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The effect of nitrogen and sulphur on the agronomical and water use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of nitrogen and sulphur on the agronomical and water use efficiencies of canola (Brassica napus L.) grown in selected localities of the Western Cape province, South Africa. Wonder Ngezimana, Gert A. Agenbag ...

  3. Effects of acid conditions on element distribution beneath a sulphur basepad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, J.H.; Fennell, J.W.; Sharma, A.

    1997-04-01

    A reconnaissance-scale study was conducted to determine the extent of acid conditions beneath a sulphur basepad at Canadian Occidental's Balzac sour gas plant and to examine the effects of acid conditions on element distribution in the subsurface. Sulphur which is extracted from sour natural gas is stored in large blocks directly on the ground. The elemental sulphur will oxidize to H 2 SO 4 under aerobic conditions and with the proper microorganisms can result in possible removal of metals from the soil and transportation in the groundwater. The basepad at the sour gas plant is 36 years old and is covered by about 1 metre of elemental sulphur. EM31 terrain conductivity and electrical resistivity tomography geophysical surveys were conducted to determine aerial and subsurface bulk electrical conductivity. The objective was to locate the indurated layer using the geophysical techniques and soil boring. The extent of acid conditions beneath the sulphur block was determined. Migration rates for the site were also estimated. Results suggested that minimal soil and groundwater impact can be expected from sulphur blocks overlying properly buffered soils, and that synthetic liners beneath sulphur blocks may not be a necessary measure at sour gas plants in Alberta. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs., 5 appendices

  4. Effect of sulphur on the strengthening of a Zr-Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.I.; Hong, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of sulphur on the strengthening and the thermally activated deformation of cold-worked Zr-1 Nb alloy was investigated. In the present study, the sulphur strengthening was observed even at room temperature unlike the previous study of Ferrer et al. The flow stress increased by 65 MPa at room temperature with the addition of sulphur as little as 20 ppm. With further increase of sulphur content up to 300 ppm, negligible change of the flow stress was observed. The additive strengthening behavior in which the entire stress-strain curve shift upward by the friction stress due to the addition of sulphur was observed in the Zr-Nb alloy of the present study. The activation volume decreased slightly (from 110b 3 to 80b 3 ) with the addition of 300 ppm sulphur at room temperature. The rate-controlling mechanism of the deformation can best be explained by the dislocation interaction mechanism in which the segregation of alloying elements such as oxygen and sulphur atoms affects the activation length of dislocations

  5. Effects of sulphur addition on modification and mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CW Onyia, BA Okorie, NI Amalu, SI Neife ... The results showed that the addition of sulphur to Al-12wt%Si alloy modified the Al-Si eutectic ... of the eutectic silicon structure with significant decrease in mechanical properties of the alloy and this ...

  6. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    on the microstructure and mechanical properties of sand cast been investigated ... owed that the addition of sulphur to Al-12wt%Si alloy. 12wt%Si alloy .... 28 materials. 29. Element. Aluminum. Silicon. Al. Si. Ca. Fe. Cu. Zn. Mn. Mg. Cr. B. 99.71.

  7. An economic analysis of tradeable emission permits for sulphur dioxide emissions in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruitwagen, S.

    1996-01-01

    7.1 Introduction
    This study has examined the question of whether a system of tradeable emission permits can contribute to a cost-effective reduction of SO 2 emissions in Europe, taking into account

  8. An economic analysis of tradeable emission permits for sulphur dioxide emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruitwagen, S.

    1996-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is the analysis of the applicability of tradeable emission permits for cost-effective SO2 reduction in Europe. First, an economic theoretical background is presented based on a literature study. Second, integrated assessment models are presented and compared. One of these models is selected for simulation. Third, a new permit trading systems is developed and analysed by detailed simulations of trading schemes, including their economic and environmental implications. Chapter 2 discusses some general economic aspects of pollution control. Attention is paid to the cost effectiveness of pollution control, to the international dimension of acid rain policy and to the need for cooperation. Some general game theoretic concepts are reviewed. Also attention is paid to the alternative policy instruments for emission control, focusing on tradeable emission permits. The theory of tradeable emission permits is elaborated in Chapter 3. Permit trading for pollutants that are non-uniformly mixing is thoroughly discussed and illustrated by some empirical studies. After discussing both emission permit and deposition permit trading systems, alternative systems of tradeable permits for this kind of pollutants are examined. Two main aspects in examining permit trading systems concern (1) the kind of trading process assumed, involving the distinction between simultaneous multilateral permit trading versus bilateral sequential permit trading, and (2) the initial distribution of emission permits. The thorough discussion on tradeable permits contributes to a better understanding of this policy instrument and sheds light on the implications of permit trading for non-uniformly mixing pollutants. The findings of this chapter indicate that a new permit trading system has to be developed. Chapter 4 describes and compares integrated assessment models for simulation of acid rain control. First, three integrated assessment models for the European acid rain problem

  9. Effects of phosphorus and sulphur on dry matter yield of maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A screen-house experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) on maize dry-matter yield (MDY) in soils of five locations (Obantoko I, II, Alabata I, II, and III) in Abeokuta, Ogun State of Nigeria. Three levels of sulphur (0, 10 and 20 kg S ha–1) and phosphorus (0, 30 and 45 kg P ha–1) ...

  10. Sulphur Nutrition and its Effect on Yield and Oil Content of Oilseed Rape (Brassica Napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Varényiová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to study the importance of sulphur in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. nutrition as well as the effect of rising doses of sulphur in combination with nitrogen on yield, oiliness, oil production, nutrients content in seed and nutrients uptake by rapeseed. The plot–scale experiment was established in years 2013/14 and 2014/15 within the agricultural cooperative in Mojmírovce. There were four fertilization treatments on 600 m2 experimental plots in three replications in this experiment. The first treatment was unfertilized control. Other three treatments were fertilized by the same nitrogen dose of 160 kg.ha−1 and by increasing doses of sulphur. The second treatment was fertilized by a dose of 15 kg.ha−1 S, the third by a dose of 40 kg.ha−1 and a dose of 65 kg.ha−1 S was applied at the fourth treatment. The highest average yield 3.96 t.ha-1 was found when a dose of 40 kg.ha−1 S was applied. The application of sulphur in a dose of 65 kg.ha−1 was accompanied by a yield decrease by 11.4 % as compared to the treatment where a sulphur dose of 40 kg.ha−1 was used. An average oil content of 45.1, 45.5, and 44.0 % was found in treatments in which the doses of sulphur of 15, 40 and 65 kg.ha−1 were applied. No significant difference among the treatments fertilized by sulphur was found. The average oil production reached 1809, 1802 and 1595 kg.ha−1 in cases of treatments fertilized by sulphur doses of 15, 40 and 65 kg.ha−1.

  11. Dose-response relationships of acute exposure to sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englehardt, F.R.; Holliday, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Acute toxicity effects of sulphur dioxide are reviewed, and the derivation of a dose-lethality curve (presented as LC 50 vs. time) for human exposure to sulphur dioxide is attempted for periods ranging from ten seconds to two hours. As an aid to assessment of the hazards involved in operating heavy water manufacturing facilities, the fact that sulphur dioxide would be produced by the combustion of hydrogen sulphide was briefly considered in an appendix. It is suggested that sulphuric acid, a much more toxic substance than sulphur dioxide, may also be formed in such an event. It is concluded, therefore, that an overall hazard evaluation may have to address the contributory effects of sulphuric acid. (author)

  12. Three-decade changes in chemical composition of precipitation in Guangzhou city, southern China: has precipitation recovered from acidification following sulphur dioxide emission control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunting Fang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined if precipitation had recovered from acidification in Guangzhou, the third biggest city in China, and if sulphur deposition in precipitation had decreased, and to what extent if yes, following abatement strategies in sulphur dioxide (SO2 emission and energy use implemented since 2001. SO2 emissions were decreasing steadily since 2001, but a marked recovery of precipitation acidity occurred only since 2005; precipitation pH values decreased from 4.65 in 2001 to 4.34 in 2005 and then increased to 5.08 in 2010, while in the same period acid rain (pH<5.6 frequency increased from 70% to 81% and then decreased to 48%. During this period, the change in pH value and sulphate concentration more reflected the patterns of SO2 emission at provincial and national scales than at the local scale, suggesting that precipitation chemical composition was largely controlled by the emissions of pollutants from surrounding areas of the study city. Since 2001, sulphate deposition in precipitation decreased significantly (by 40% but nitrogen deposition remained unaltered. More importantly, the current sulphur (43 kg S ha−1 yr−1 as sulphate and nitrogen depositions (35 kg N ha−1 yr−1 as ammonium plus nitrate in 2010 were still among the highest in China. These results highlight the fact that ambient sulphur and nitrogen deposition still pose a threat to the health of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Precipitation may become more acidified in the future because the deposition of alkaline dusts containing calcium is also likely to decrease with stricter SO2 emission control policy and reduced construction activities. Additionally, we recommend that a reduction of emissions of nitrogen and chlorine bearing pollutants is urgently required for complete control on acid deposition.

  13. Acute effects of sulfur dioxide on the circulation of animals as well as on the contractility of isolated blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laszt, L; Schaad, R

    1974-01-01

    In support of earlier work on exhaust gases experiments were carried out to determine the acute effects of sulphur dioxide on the circulation of the cat and dog. Inhalation of SO/sub 2/ during 30 min at concentrations of up to 1000 ppm caused no circulatory reaction. Such a reaction first appeared after infusion of larger quantities of SO/sub 2/. The action of sulphur dioxide on systemic and pulmonar circulation is different. A difference was also observed for the contractility of the corresponding isolated vessels.

  14. Effect of NPK fertilization and elemental sulphur on growth and yield of lowbush blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. STARAST

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of fertilizers on the pH of former arable soils and on the growth and the yield of the lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.. Lowbush blueberry fertilization experiments were established in 1999 at two locations – at Kärla, Saaremaa, West Estonia and at Vasula, Tartu County, South Estonia. Experimental sites were situated on different soils: soil pHKCl at Kärla was 5.5 and at Vasula 6.2. Elemental sulphur and acidifying fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate and superphosphate were used in both plantations. Fertilizers were applied based on nutrient in the soil and sulphur was applied at 100 g m–2. Plant growth was recorded in 2001, 2002 and 2003. A positive influence of NPK fertilization on yield was found in both Kärla and Vasula, and yield were 336 g and 41 g higher compared to the control, respectively. The vegetative growth and yield of blueberry depended significantly on soil pH. Elemental sulphur increased soil acidity and on loamy sand soil did not increase plant productivity. The sulphur effect on soil pH began to decrease three years after application. Sulphur can be recommended to increase soil acidity in nutrient-rich soil but, not nutrient poor soil with light texture, where only NPK fertilizers were effective.;

  15. Impurity photovoltaic effect in silicon solar cell doped with sulphur: A numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzouzi, Ghania; Chegaar, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The impurity photovoltaic effect (IPV) has mostly been studied in various semiconductors such as silicon, silicon carbide and GaAs in order to increase infrared absorption and hence cell efficiency. In this work, sulphur is used as the IPV effect impurity incorporated in silicon solar cells. For our simulation we use the numerical device simulator (SCAPS). We calculate the solar cell performances (short circuit current density J sc , open circuit voltage V oc , conversion efficiency η and quantum efficiency QE). We study the influence of light trapping and certain impurity parameters like impurity concentration and position in the gap on the solar cell performances. Simulation results for IPV effect on silicon doped with sulphur show an improvement of the short circuit current and the efficiency for sulphur energy levels located far from the middle of the band gap especially at E c -E t =0.18 eV.

  16. Effects of phosphorus, silicon and sulphur on microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steels during electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuya, K.; Nakahigashi, S.; Ozaki, S.; Shima, S.

    1991-01-01

    Fe-18Cr-9Ni-1,5Mn austenitic alloys containing phosphorus, silicon and sulphur were irradiated by 1 MeV electrons at 573-773 K. Phosphorus increased the interstitial loop nucleation and decreased the void swelling by increasing void number density and suppressing void growth. Silicon had a similar effect to phosphorus but its effect was weaker than phosphorus. Sulphur enhanced void swelling through increasing the void density. Nickel enrichment at grain boundaries was suppressed only in the alloy containing phosphorus. These phosphorus effects may be explained by a strong interaction with interstitials resulting in a high density of sinks for point defects. (orig.)

  17. Effect of sulphur fertilisation on yield and quality of white mustard seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ryant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the effect of different forms of sulphur on yields and qualitative parameters of white mustard seeds. This topic was studied in 2004 in the form of a pot trial in a vegetation hall and linked up with an identical experiment with spring wheat conducted in 2003. Besides the control variant not fertilised with sulphur (1 we fertilised the soil with elemental sulphur (2, ammonium sulphate (3 and gypsum (4 and applied foliar dressing of elemental sulphur with bentonite (5. For all variants the nitrogen dose was 0.9 g per pot (0.15 g . kg−1 of soil and for va­riants 2 to 4 it was 1 g of sulphur per pot (0.17 g. kg−1 of soil. Foliar dressing of elemental sulphur (S0 was not applied until the stage of six true leaves in a dose of 10 kg per ha (0.032 g per pot.Significantly higher yields of white mustard seeds were achieved after foliar application of S0 which can be also due to its fungicide action. The variants where gypsum was applied showed the highest average number of branches and pods and also straw yields. After gypsum fertilisation or foliar application of S0 the oil content in the mustard seeds exceeded 25%; this is the minimal content required for the production of good quality mustard. The 1000-seed weight was significantly higher after foliar application of S0. The proportion of seeds greyish on the surface, a sign of mildew, significantly decreased after fertilisation with all forms of sulphur, but most of all after foliar application of S0.Fertilisation with ammonium sulphate reduced the exchangeable soil reaction after harvest. On the other hand gypsum alkalised the soil environment and increased the content of available calcium and water-soluble sulphur. The soil of the variant where foliar dressing of S0 was applied had a higher content of available calcium after harvest. The least amount of available sulphur and phosphorus in the soil was seen after foliar

  18. Solving the sulphur situation : research assesses viability of burying sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proce, B.

    2006-01-01

    Oil sands mining companies are looking for ways to manage growing levels of sulphur production from the Athabasca region. Infrastructure is not in place to economically transport the sulphur even though there is a global market for it. Sulphur cannot be stockpiled indefinitely as it can react with air to produce sulphur dioxide. Although above-ground sulphur storage has been regulated for more than 30 years, the underground storage of sulphur is still in a research and development phase. Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd. is currently conducting an ongoing experiment in which 100 tonne test blocks have been buried above and below the water table so that surrounding areas could be monitored over a period of years. A series of tests is being conducted to examine changes in pH in water and sulphate levels. A multi-layered engineering casing to contain the sulphur and prevent seepage is also being investigated. Once stored underground, operators also have to consider how the sulphur will be accessed in the future, as it is subject to government royalties. The storage of sulphur may have economic benefits as the product can be sold when prices are high. Most sulphur produced in Alberta is sold as an export product in the United States for use in products such as fertilizer. Shell Canada penetrated the Chinese market in 2001 and has since become one of Canada's largest sulphur exporters. Shell has also introduced a number of products using sulphur, including fertilizers, enhanced asphalt, and concrete. It was concluded that companies must take action now to mitigate future losses and to utilize current markets in order to remain competitive. 3 figs

  19. Effects of sulphur preservative on phytochemical and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, peels of six selected mango cultivars (Tommy Atkins, Peach, Saber, Sunshine, Keitt and ... had effect on composition of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of mango peels, reaching a plateau at 50 ppm. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  20. Effect of soil moisture on sulphur accumulation in overground plant organs and their harm in emmission conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navara, J; Horvath, I; Hauskrecht, I

    1972-01-01

    The effect of different soil moisture on sulphur accumulation in the overground organs of Fagopyrum esculentum, moench in immission conditions is dealt with in this paper. The results obtained have shown that even under equal soil conditions, equal nutrient supply and age evenness of the analyzed material the total sulphur content of leaves grown in immission conditions (sulphur oxides, hydrogen sulphide, carbon disulphide, etc.) at equal soil moisture was essentially higher when compared with unirrigated plants and corresponded also to the degree of harm and crop reduction of the experimental plants. Therefore it is necessary when utilizing sulphur content of indicating plants, which serves for a large-area diagnosis of vegetation harm with immissions, to take into consideration, in addition to other factors (soil, nutrition, age of plants), the soil moisture as well.

  1. Effects of geothermal energy utilization on stream biota and water quality at The Geysers, California. Final report. [Big Sulphur, Little Sulphur, Squaw, and Pieta Creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeGore, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The discussion is presented under the following section headings: biological studies, including fish, insects, and microbiology; stream hydrology; stream water quality, including methods and results; the contribution of tributaries to Big Sulphur Creek, including methods, results, and tributary characterization; standing water at wellheads; steam condensate quality; accidental discharges; trout spawning bed quality; major conclusions; list of references; and appendices. It is concluded that present operational practices at Geysers geothermal field do not harm the biological resources in adjacent streams. The only effects of geothermal development observed during the study were related to operational accidents. (JGB)

  2. Effect of drought stress and sulphur fertilizer on quantity and quality yield of psyllium (Plantago ovata L. in Baluchestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mousavi nik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of chemical fertilizers application is very important issues on environment and plant yield especially in arid and-semi arid region. In order to determine the effects of drought stresses and fertilizer levels on quantity and quality yields of psyllium (Plantago ovata L., a study was conducted as split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications at the Natural Resources and Agriculture Researches Center of Balouchestan, Iran, during growing season of 2009-2010. Treatments included different irrigation regimes (three, five and eight times irrigation during the growing season as main plots and four levels of sulphur fertilizer (0, 75, 150 and 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur as sub plot. The results showed that the irrigation regimes and sulphur fertilizer had significant effects on seed and biological yield of psyllium, so the highest seed and biological yields obtained in eight times irrigation. Also, the maximum of these factors were achieved in 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur. The highest harvest index and 1000- seed weight, No. seed per spike and No. spike per plant were observed in eight times irrigation and 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur. The highest plant height was obtained in eight times irrigation and 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur and the maximum mucilage percentage and proline content were obtained in three times irrigation. The maximum mucilage yield and carbohydrate content were achieved in eight times irrigation. Among sulphur fertilizer, the highest amounts for all factors were achieved in 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur. There was positive and significant correlation between seed yield with spike No. per plant, Seed No. per spike, 1000-Seed, biological yield and mucilage yield.

  3. Carbon dioxide: emissions and effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, I M

    1982-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive guide to work carried out since 1978 in the many disciplines involved in this complex issue. Possible scenarios for carbon dioxide emissions, sources and sinks in the carbon cycle and for climatic changes are examined. The current concensus (by no means unanimous) of specialists on this issue appears to be that a continuation of reduced trends in energy consumption since 1973 is likely to double the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration to 600 ppmv during the latter part of the next century. However, a higher demand scenario, requiring an upper limit of coal production, would bring forward the doubling to about the middle of the next century. Current climatic models predict that such a concentration of carbon dioxide would cause an average global warming of from 1.0 to 4.5/sup 0/C which might be delayed by the thermal inertia of the oceans. A warming due to estimated increases in carbon dioxide should, if the model results are correct, become apparent at the end of this century. Regional climatic changes are likely to vary considerably and prove disadvantageous to some regions and beneficial to others. Different strategies for dealing with the carbon dioxide issue are considered: no response, alleviation, countermeasures and prevention. It is concluded that uncertainties do not justify either the use of carbon dioxide disposal and other technical fixes at present or a policy of no further growth in fossil fuel consumption. On the other hand, major efforts to conserve energy would give more time to adapt to changes. The alleviation of climatic impacts and other desirable dual-benefit measures are advocated in addition to continuing international, interdisciplinary research on all aspects.

  4. Sumpor u ugljenu (Sulphur in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulphur in coal possesses important environmetal problems in its usage. The sulphur dioxide (S02 emissions produced during coal combustion account for a significant proportion of the total global output of anthropogenic SO2. The extent of sulphur separation depends on several variables such as the form of sulphur in coal, intimacy of contact between minerals and the products of devolatilization. The total sulphur in coal varies in the range of 0.2 - 11 wt %, although in most cases it is beetwen 1 and 3 wt %. Sulphur occurs in a variety of both inorganic and organic forms. Inorganic sulphur is found mainly as iron pyrite, marcasite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopirite and as sulphates (rarely exceeds w = 0,1 %. Organic sulphur is found in aromatic rings and aliphatic functionalities usually as mercaptans, aliphatic and aryl sulfides, disulfides and thiophenes. Organic and pyritic sulphur quantities depend on coal rank. Higher rank coals tend to have a high proportion of labile sulphur. All the organic sulphur is bivalent and it is spread throughout the organic coal matrix. Sulphur occurs in all the macerals and most minerals. Vitrinite contains the major part of organic sulphur and metals. Elemental sulphur is produced during coal weathering. The depolymerization methods as pyrolysis and hydrogenation are very drastic methods wich change the structure of the coal and the sulphur groups. In the case of pyrolysis, high levels of desulphurization, in chars and additional production of liquid hydrocarbon can be achieved. Thiophenes and sulphides were the major sulphur components of tars from coal pyrolysis. Hyrdogen sulphide and the lower mercaptans and sulphides were found in the volatile matters. Hydrogen sulphide and thiophenes are practically the only sulphur products of coal hydrogenation. H2S is produced in char hydrodesulphurization. A number of options are available for reducing sulphur emissions including the

  5. Removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Torsten; Riemann, Christian; Bartling, Karsten; Rigby, Sean Taylor; Coleman, Luke James Ivor; Lail, Marty Alan

    2014-04-08

    A process for removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream, such as flue gas, comprising: providing a non-aqueous absorption liquid containing at least one hydrophobic amine, the liquid being incompletely miscible with water; treating the fluid stream in an absorption zone with the non-aqueous absorption liquid to transfer at least part of the sulphur oxides into the non-aqueous absorption liquid and to form a sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex; causing the non-aqueous absorption liquid to be in liquid-liquid contact with an aqueous liquid whereby at least part of the sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex is hydrolyzed to release the hydrophobic amine and sulphurous hydrolysis products, and at least part of the sulphurous hydrolysis products is transferred into the aqueous liquid; separating the aqueous liquid from the non-aqueous absorption liquid. The process mitigates absorbent degradation problems caused by sulphur dioxide and oxygen in flue gas.

  6. Effects of sulfur dioxide on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, G S

    1939-11-11

    A discussion is presented on the effects of sulfur dioxide on vegetation as observed at Trail, British Columbia. The investigation was carried out over a period of eight years, 1929 to 1937. The concentration of sulfur dioxide at the United States border was carefully determined throughout the crop season at a point 16 miles from the source of sulfur dioxide. Maximum and average concentrations in part per million are given. The sulfur content of vegetation was determined and was found to diminish as the distance from the smelter increased. It was determined that the sulfur content may rise to four times the normal amount without injurious effect. This is particularly so with prolonged low concentration. The effect on the soil was determined by measuring soluble sulfate, pH and exchangeable bases. The soil near the plant was affected, but this fell off rapidly with increase in distance so that eight miles from the smelter the soil was substantially normal. No effect on water supplies was found. An appreciable retardation in growth, as determined by annular rings, was noted for trees exposed to the sulfur dioxide. This effect was lost following installation of sulfur dioxide control at Trail. Conifers were found more susceptible during periods of active growth than when dormant. Also, transplanted conifers were more severly affected than native trees. Seedlings were less resistant that older trees.

  7. Absolute photoabsorption oscillator strengths by electron energy loss methods: the valence and S 2p and 2s inner shells of sulphur dioxide in the discrete and continuum regions (3.5-260 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, R.; Cooper, G.; Burton, G.R.; Brion, C.E.; Avaldi, L.

    1999-01-01

    Absolute photoabsorption oscillator strengths (cross-sections) for the valence shell discrete and continuum regions of sulphur dioxide from 3.5 to 51 eV have been measured using high resolution (∼0.05 eV FWHM) dipole (e,e) spectroscopy. A wide-range spectrum, covering both the valence shell and the S 2p and 2s inner shells, has also been obtained from 5 to 260 eV at low resolution (∼1 eV FWHM), and this has been used to determine the absolute oscillator strength scale using valence shell TRK (i.e., S(0)) sum-rule normalization. The present measurements have been undertaken in order to investigate the recently discovered significant quantitative errors in our previously published low resolution dipole (e,e) work on sulphur dioxide (Cooper et al., Chem. Phys. 150 (1991) 237; 150 (1991) 251). These earlier measurements were also in poor agreement with other previously published direct photoabsorption measurements. We now report new absolute photoabsorption oscillator strengths using both high and low resolution dipole (e,e) spectroscopies. These new measurements cover a wider energy range and are much more consistent with the previously published direct photoabsorption measurements. The accuracy of our new measurements is confirmed by an S(-2) dipole sum-rule analysis which gives a static dipole polarizability for sulphur dioxide in excellent agreement (within 3.5%) with previously reported polarizability values. Other dipole sums S(u) (u=-1,-3 to -6,-8,-10) and logarithmic dipole sums L(u) (u=-1 to -6) are also determined from the presently reported absolute oscillator strength distributions. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Environmental effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, W.; Baliunas, S.L.; Robinson, A.B.; Robinson, Z.W.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the literature concerning the environmental consequences of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide leads to the conclusion that increases during the 20th century have produced no deleterious effects upon global climate or temperature. Increased carbon dioxide has, however, markedly increased plant growth rates as inferred from numerous laboratory and field experiments. There is no clear evidence, nor unique attribution, of the global effects of anthropogenic CO 2 on climate. Meaningful integrated assessments of the environmental impacts of anthropogenic CO 2 are not yet possible because model estimates of global and regional climate changes on interannual, decadal and centennial timescales remain highly uncertain.(author)

  9. Remote sensing of sulphur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, P M [Central Electricity Research Lab., Leatherhead, England; Varey, R H; Millan, M M

    1978-01-01

    A discussion showed that only correlation spectrometry and differential lidar are sensitive enough to measure trace amounts of SO/sub 2/. The correlation spectrometer measures line integrals of concentration, or burdens, by analyzing incident uv radiation for absorption by SO/sub 2/. It has been widely used to measure vertical burdens against a skylight background and emission rates from traverses of a plume near its source, which are limited by the accuracy of the associated wind speed rather than by the spectrometer. Comprehensive measurements of horizontal dispersion and its dependence on times of travel and sampling have also been obtained from traverses farther downwind. The differential lidar provides range-resolved measurements of concentration by reflecting pulses of laser light at two wavelengths with different absorption coefficients from particles along the line of sight. It offers a sensitivity of a few ppB to ranges over 1 km with resolution in space and time of 1000 m and 10 sec. The instrument has already been demonstrated in prototype form and is now being developed for operational use. Table, graphs, and 39 references are included.

  10. Cost benefit analysis of European air quality targets for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and fine and suspended particulate matter in cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsthoorn, X.; Dorland, K.; Jansen, H.; Amann, M.; Cofala, J.; Bartonova, A.; Clench-Aas, J.; Guerreiro, C.; Henriksen, J.; Larssen, S.

    1999-01-01

    The European Commission has proposed air quality standards for NO 2 , SO 2 and PM 10 to be in force by 2010. The present paper presents a study that gauged their costs and benefits. An analysis of the expected emissions for 2010 (reference emission scenario), using simplified air quality models, showed that non-compliance with these standards will occur in cities only, not in rural areas. Most compliance problems are expected for PM 10 , least for SO 2 . Central estimates of the costs to meet standards range from 21 MECU (SO 2 ), to 79 MECU (NO 2 ) to 87-225 MECU (PM 10 ). The estimated benefits are 83-3783 MECU (SO 2 ), 408-5900 MECU (NO 2 ), and 5007- 51247 MECU (PM 10 ). Uncertainties are high, due to errors and incertitude in various steps of the methodology, mainly the estimation of the human health effects, in particular effects on mortality, and in the valuation of a statistical life. In the case of PM 10 , additional uncertainty results from the small size of the air quality database. Notwithstanding the uncertainties, the indications are that the benefits exceed the costs. 28 refs

  11. Effect of Schiff's Bases as Corrosion Inhibitors on Mild Steel in Sulphuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Upadhyay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass loss and thermometric methods have been used to study the corrosion inhibitory effect of synthesised Schiff's bases viz. N-(furfurilidine – 4- methoxy aniline (SB1, N-(furfurilidine – 4- methylaniline (SB2, N-(salicylidine – 4- methoxy aniline (SB3, N-(cinnamalidine – 4 –methoxy aniline (SB4 and N-(cinnamalidine - 2-methylaniline (SB5 on mild steel in sulphuric acid solutions. Results show that both methods have good agreement with each other and inhibition efficiency depends upon the concentration of inhibitor as well as that of acid. Maximum inhibition efficiency is shown at highest concentration of Schiff's bases at the highest strength of acid.

  12. Adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds onto modified activated carbons: Effect of oxygen functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Esther; Lemus, Jesús; Anfruns, Alba; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Palomar, José; Martin, María J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • HNO 3 oxidation incorporates a higher amount of functionalities than O 3 oxidation. • The loss of porosity is compensated by the massive incorporation of oxygen groups. • HNO 3 oxidation increases OH groups in AC and the ETM and DMS adsorption capacities. • The oxygen functional groups in the AC surface did not affect the DMDS adsorption. • COSMO-RS predicts the important role of OH groups for VSC adsorption. -- Abstract: The effect of physical and chemical properties of activated carbon (AC) on the adsorption of ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide was investigated by treating a commercial AC with nitric acid and ozone. The chemical properties of ACs were characterised by temperature programme desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. AC treated with nitric acid presented a larger amount of oxygen functional groups than materials oxidised with ozone. This enrichment allowed a significant improvement on adsorption capacities for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide but not for dimethyl disulphide. In order to gain a deeper knowledge on the effect of the surface chemistry of AC on the adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds, the quantum-chemical COSMO-RS method was used to simulate the interactions between AC surface groups and the studied volatile sulphur compounds. In agreement with experimental data, this model predicted a greater affinity of dimethyl disulphide towards AC, unaffected by the incorporation of oxygen functional groups in the surface. Moreover, the model pointed out to an increase of the adsorption capacity of AC by the incorporation of hydroxyl functional groups in the case of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide due to the hydrogen bond interactions

  13. Adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds onto modified activated carbons: Effect of oxygen functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Esther, E-mail: esther@lequia.udg.cat [LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Girona, Catalonia E-17071 (Spain); Lemus, Jesús [Universidad de Madrid, Sección de Ingeniería Química, Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Anfruns, Alba; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael [LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Girona, Catalonia E-17071 (Spain); Palomar, José [Universidad de Madrid, Sección de Ingeniería Química, Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Martin, María J. [LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Girona, Catalonia E-17071 (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • HNO{sub 3} oxidation incorporates a higher amount of functionalities than O{sub 3} oxidation. • The loss of porosity is compensated by the massive incorporation of oxygen groups. • HNO{sub 3} oxidation increases OH groups in AC and the ETM and DMS adsorption capacities. • The oxygen functional groups in the AC surface did not affect the DMDS adsorption. • COSMO-RS predicts the important role of OH groups for VSC adsorption. -- Abstract: The effect of physical and chemical properties of activated carbon (AC) on the adsorption of ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide was investigated by treating a commercial AC with nitric acid and ozone. The chemical properties of ACs were characterised by temperature programme desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. AC treated with nitric acid presented a larger amount of oxygen functional groups than materials oxidised with ozone. This enrichment allowed a significant improvement on adsorption capacities for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide but not for dimethyl disulphide. In order to gain a deeper knowledge on the effect of the surface chemistry of AC on the adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds, the quantum-chemical COSMO-RS method was used to simulate the interactions between AC surface groups and the studied volatile sulphur compounds. In agreement with experimental data, this model predicted a greater affinity of dimethyl disulphide towards AC, unaffected by the incorporation of oxygen functional groups in the surface. Moreover, the model pointed out to an increase of the adsorption capacity of AC by the incorporation of hydroxyl functional groups in the case of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide due to the hydrogen bond interactions.

  14. Air pollution, land price development and assessment of immission control needs in urban development plans. The impact of immission pollution by sulphur dioxide and dust precipitation on property prices in residential areas of Dortmund and Duisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chenjai.

    1993-01-01

    Air pollution, land price development and assessment of immission control needs in urban development plans. The impact of immission pollution by sulphur dioxide and dust precipitation on property prices in residential areas of Dortmund and Duisburg. The focus of this thesis is on studying the links between property prices and air pollution. The ground rent theory which goes back to the 16th century provides the theoretical basis for this work. RICARDO put forward the theory, that air may, under certain circumstances, - as for instance different local air pollution levels or sensitivity of locals to air quality -, which did not apply 200 years ago actually produce rent. These circumstances do indeed apply widely today - different air pollution levels in urban areas are just a case in point. Various empiricial studies in the U.S. proved that air pollution with different substances does actually influence the value of property. The ground rent influenced by air pollution is called ''air rent''. This study contains empirical studies on the influence of air pollution by sulphur dioxide SO 2 and dust precipitation on general property prices in residential areas of Dortmund between 1979 and 1989 and Duisburg between 1981 and 1989. (orig./UA) [de

  15. Effect of both sulphur content and deoxidation degree on the hot ductility of resulphurized austenitic stainless steels in the solidified state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botella, J.; Sanchez, R.

    1998-01-01

    The manufacture of free machining austenitic stainless steels features a specific drawback derived from their high sulphur content, which is needed for generating, into the austenitic matrix inclusions to optimize the different machining operations. However, sulphur has ahamfull effect on hot workability. This paper deals with assessing the effect of sulphur content and deoxidation level on the hot ductility of resulphurized austenitic stainless steels in as cast condition. Hot tensile tests were conducted on a Gleeble machine, at temperatures between 1,150 and 1,250 degree celsius, studying a suctility factor as a function of sulphur content, deoxidation degree, as well as type, size and distribution of sulfides. Results point out the harmful effect of increasing sulphur and oxygen contents on the hot workability of resulphurized austenitic stainless steels, and the need to control carefully the level of oxides of these steels. (Author) 5 refs

  16. Effect of dietary molybdenum and sulphur on the copper status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in all groups receiving supplementary Mo. A dietary supplement of 70 mg Mo for a restricted period is ... Keywords: Sheep nutrition, copper toxicity, molybdenum toxicity, sulphur. ..... observation supports the suggestion by Dick, et af. (1975).

  17. Fractal and variability analysis of simulations in ozone level due to oxides of nitrogen and sulphur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Rashmi; Pruthi, Dimple

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution refers to the release of pollutants into the air. These pollutants are detrimental to human the planet as a whole. Apart from causing respiratory infections and pulmonary disorders, rising levels of Nitrogen Dioxide is worsening ozone pollution. Formation of Ground-level ozone involves nitrogen oxides and volatile gases in the sunlight. Volatile gases are emitted from vehicles primarily. Ozone is harmful gas and its exposure can trigger serious health effects as it damages lung tissues. In order to decrease the level of ozone, level of oxides leading to ozone formation has to be dealt with. This paper deals with the simulations in ozone due to oxides of nitrogen and sulphur. The data from Central Pollution Control Board shows positive correlation for ozone with oxides of sulphur and nitrogen for RK Puram, Delhi in India where high concentration of ozone has been found. The correlation between ozone and sulphur, nitrogen oxides is moderate during summer while weak during winters. Ozone with nitrogen and sulphur dioxide follow persistent behavior as Hurst exponent is between 0.5 and 1. The fractal dimension for Sulphur dioxide is 1.4957 indicating the Brownian motion. The behavior of ozone is unpredictable as index of predictability is close to zero.

  18. Effect of feedstock end boiling point on product sulphur during ultra deep diesel hydrodesulphurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratiev, D.; Ivanov, A.; Jelyaskova, M. [Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas AD, Bourgas (Bulgaria)

    2004-12-01

    An investigation was carried out to test the feasibility of producing 50 and 10 ppm sulphur diesel in a conventional hydrotreating unit operating at low pressure conditions by varying the feedstock end boiling point. Middle distillate fractions distilled from a mixture of Ural crude oil, reduced crude, vacuum gas oil, naphtha and low sulphur crude oils with 95% vol. points of 274, 359, 343, 333, and 322 C (ASTM D-86 method) and sulphur contents of 0.36, 0.63, 0.99, 0.57, and 0.47%, respectively, were hydrotreated using the Akzo Nobel Stars family Co-Mo KF-757 catalyst in a trickle bed pilot plant at following conditions: reactor inlet temperature range of 320-360 C; liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) range of 1-2 h{sup -1}; total reactor pressure of 3.5 MPa; treating gas: feedstock ratio of 250 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was found that the determinant factor for the attainment of ultra low sulphur levels during middle distillate hydrodesulphurization was not the total sulphur content in the feed but the content of the material boiling above 340 C (according to TBP). For all LHSVs and reactor inlet temperatures studied the product sulphur dependence on the feed 340 C+ fraction content was approximated by second order power law. The specification of 50 ppm sulphur was achieved with all studied feedstocks. However the 10ppm sulphur limit could be met only by feedstocks with 95% vol. points below 333 C, which is accompanied by about 10% reduction of the diesel potential. The hydrotreatment tests on a blend 80% straight run gas oil (ASTM D-86 95% vol. of 274 C)/20%FCC LCO (ASTM D-86 95% vol. of 284 C) showed product sulphur levels which were not higher than those obtained by hydrotreatment of the straight run gas oil, indicating that undercutting the FCC LCO gives the refiner the opportunity to increase the potential for the production of 10 ppm sulphur diesel at the conditions of the conventional hydrotreating unit operating at low pressure. The product cetane index was

  19. Biological effects data: Fluoride and sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Holton, R.L.; Ulbricht, R.J.; Morgan , J.B.

    1975-04-01

    The Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation has proposed construction of an aluminum reduction facility near Youngs Bay at Warrenton, Oregon. This report comprises one part of the final report to Alumax on a research project entitled, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies of Youngs Bay.'' It presents data pertaining to the potential biological effects of fluoride and sulfur dioxide, two potentially hazardous plant-stack emissions, on selected aquatic species of the area. Companion volumes provide a description of the physical characteristics the geochemistry, and the aquatic animals present in Youngs Bay and adjacent ecosystems. An introductory volume provides general information and maps of the area, and summarizes the conclusions of all four studies. The data from the two phases of the experimental program are included in this report: lethal studies on the effects of selected levels of fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the survival rate of eleven Youngs Bay faunal species from four phyla, and sublethal studies on the effects of fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the rate of primary production of phytoplankton. 44 refs., 18 figs., 38 tabs.

  20. Effect of postreatment on the corrosion behaviour of tartaric-sulphuric anodic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rubio, M. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906 Getafe (Spain); Lara, M.P. de [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ocon, P. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: pilar.ocon@uam.es; Diekhoff, S. [Fraunhofer-IFAM, Lesumer Heerstrasse 36, 28717 Bremen (Germany); Beneke, M. [Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Deutschland, GmbH Hunefeldstr. 1-5, 28199 Bremen (Germany); Lavia, A.; Garcia, I. [Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906 Getafe (Spain)

    2009-08-30

    Unclad and clad AA2024 T3 specimens were anodised in a chromium-free tartaric-sulphuric acid bath (TSA) and subsequently postreated by different processes including impregnation in a cold, concentrated chromate solution, Cr-free hot-water sealing, and dichromate hot-water sealing. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the classical postreatments used in the aircraft industry on the TSA-anodic films and their corrosion resistance behaviour. TSA-anodic films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their thicknesses were measured by SEM and the eddy current method. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to characterise the barrier and porous layers, and jointly with potentiodynamic polarisation allowed the evaluation of corrosion resistance parameters with immersion time in NaCl solution for anodised and postreated specimens. In all cases the postreatments increased the resistance of the barrier layer against degradation. However, the NaCl electrolyte easily penetrated TSA-anodised porous layers when they were not postreated, while penetration was slightly more difficult in cold-postreated specimens. The effective pore plugging was observed in the sealed TSA specimens resulting in an improved corrosion resistance. On the other hand, unsealed clad AA2024 specimens showed a self-sealing process of the TSA-anodic layer, which was slower for the cold chromate solution-postreated specimens.

  1. Effect of postreatment on the corrosion behaviour of tartaric-sulphuric anodic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rubio, M.; Lara, M.P. de; Ocon, P.; Diekhoff, S.; Beneke, M.; Lavia, A.; Garcia, I.

    2009-01-01

    Unclad and clad AA2024 T3 specimens were anodised in a chromium-free tartaric-sulphuric acid bath (TSA) and subsequently postreated by different processes including impregnation in a cold, concentrated chromate solution, Cr-free hot-water sealing, and dichromate hot-water sealing. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the classical postreatments used in the aircraft industry on the TSA-anodic films and their corrosion resistance behaviour. TSA-anodic films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their thicknesses were measured by SEM and the eddy current method. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to characterise the barrier and porous layers, and jointly with potentiodynamic polarisation allowed the evaluation of corrosion resistance parameters with immersion time in NaCl solution for anodised and postreated specimens. In all cases the postreatments increased the resistance of the barrier layer against degradation. However, the NaCl electrolyte easily penetrated TSA-anodised porous layers when they were not postreated, while penetration was slightly more difficult in cold-postreated specimens. The effective pore plugging was observed in the sealed TSA specimens resulting in an improved corrosion resistance. On the other hand, unsealed clad AA2024 specimens showed a self-sealing process of the TSA-anodic layer, which was slower for the cold chromate solution-postreated specimens.

  2. Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hayato; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji; Onuki, Kaoru

    2007-01-01

    Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water, which is a unit reaction in the IS process for thermochemical hydrogen production, was studied experimentally at 323 K under iodine saturation. Quasi-equilibrium state was observed in the presence of sulfur dioxide gas at constant pressure. The composition of the poly-hydriodic acid solution formed was discussed assuming an ideal desulfurization by the reverse reaction of the Bunsen reaction. The value of HI/(HI+H 2 O) of the desulfurized solution was large at high sulfur dioxide pressure and reached the maximum of 15.7 ± 0.3 mol%. (author)

  3. Sulphur in liquid fuels 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, J. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Fuels Div., Oil, Gas and Energy Branch ; Sabourin, R. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    Environment Canada has developed new regulations for sulphur content in fuels in an effort to align with requirements recently passed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report summarizes data regarding sulphur content in liquid fuels for the year 2002. The requirements of the Sulphur in Gasoline Regulation came into effect in 2002, limiting the average sulphur content of gasoline to 150 mg/kg. In January 2005, a 30 mg/kg average limit will come into effect. Also, in July 2002, the Sulphur in Diesel Fuel Regulation stipulated a maximum limit of 500 mg/kg for on-road diesel fuel. The new regulation continues this limit until mid-2006 at which time a 15 mg/kg limit will come into effect for on-road diesel fuel. Nationally, the average sulphur content in gasoline in 2002 was 246 mg/kg, which was 14.3 per cent lower than in 2001. The data covers the period from January 1 to December 31, 2002 and was obtained from petroleum refineries and importing companies that are required to submit quarterly information to the regional office of Environment Canada. Failure to comply results in penalties. The report includes data for aviation turbo fuel, motor gasoline, aviation gasoline, kerosene oil, low-sulphur diesel fuel, diesel fuel, light fuel oil, and heavy fuel oil. 16 tabs., 17 figs., 7 appendices.

  4. Metabolic effects of Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic effects of Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation during laparoscopic surgery: changes in pH, arterial partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide (PaCo 2 ) and End Tidal Carbon Dioxide (EtCO 2 ) ... Respiratory adjustments were done for EtCO2 levels above 60mmHg or SPO2 below 92% or adverse haemodynamic changes.

  5. Effect of sulfur dioxide on proteins of the vegetable organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckendorfer, P; Beran, F

    1931-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of sulfur dioxide on red clover in a controlled environment. An increase in the concentration of sulfur dioxide caused a significant decrease in the digestible protein. However, after the sulfur dioxide was discontinued, there was a decrease in the indigestible protein. The leaves showed an increase in spotting with an increase in sulfur dioxide concentration. Chemical analysis of the soil revealed a higher sulfur content in these experiments.

  6. The lichen Parmelia physodes (L. Ach. as indicator for determination of the degree of atmospheric air pollution in the area contaminated by flourine and sulphur dioxide emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Świeboda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the area involved in the influence of conteminations emitted by the aluminium works and electric power plant, the degree of atmospheric air pollution was evaluated on the basis of the behaviour of healthy thallus of the lichen Parmelia physodes, analysis of fluorine and sulphur content in this thallus and in the bark substrate and the F and SO2 concentrations in the air.

  7. Effects of sulphuric acid pollution on the biology of streams in the Transvaal, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A D

    1958-01-01

    Strongly acid effluents or drainage waters are produced during gold and coal mining activities in the Transvaal. Sulphuric acid is produced during oxidation of pyrites exposed by mining operations and much of it finds its way into streams and creates serious pollution problems. The object of this paper is to give a short account of the effects of this acid pollution on the biology of these streams. The first streams considered are the Klip and Klipspruit near their confluence at Olifantsvlei, near Johannesburg. These were studied during a two-year investigation of the area. Both receive acid pollution from gold mine dumps and slimes dams, the seepages from which have pH values as low as 2.3. Both streams run over dolomite formations so the acid is gradually neutralised but highly mineralised, permanently hard water results. The Klip and the Klipspruit join in the middle of a y-shaped, swampy area, each stream coming down one of the upper arms of the y. A sampling station was set up on each where it runs slowly through the swamp just before confluence.

  8. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on conductivity behaviour of needle crystals of iodine and oxygen doped niobium-sulphur compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balla, D.D.; Bondarenko, A.V.; Obolenskij, M.A.; Beletskij, V.I.; Chashka, Kh.B.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of the hydrostatic pressures up to 11 kbar on conductivity behaviour of the needle crystal of iodine and oxygen doped niobium-sulphur compounds were studied in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. It is shown that in the temperature range 110-300 K conductivity is thermal activated (P=1 bar). Below 110 K the Mott characteristic is observed. Under hydrostatic pressure the deviations from Mott characteristic occurs. The analysis of data suggested that crystals are doped semiconductors

  9. Reinforced sulphur concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced sulphur concrete wherein one or more metal reinforcing members are in contact with sulphur concrete is disclosed. The reinforced sulphur concrete comprises an adhesion promoter that enhances the interaction between the sulphur and the one or more metal reinforcing members.

  10. Effect of elemental sulphur and compost on pH, electrical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safir

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... 42/34. T.N.V. 4.5. P (mg kg-1) ... and extracted with 2.0 M HCl) were measured with similar methods ... react with carbonate in calcareous soil and neutralize it. Neilson ... oxidation in soil, the sulphuric acid formed reacted with.

  11. Effect of aliphatic, monocarboxylic, dicarboxylic, heterocyclic and sulphur-containing amino acids on Leishmania spp. chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, E; Zacarias, A K; Pérez, S; Vanegas, O; Köhidai, L; Padrón-Nieves, M; Ponte-Sucre, A

    2015-11-01

    In the sand-fly mid gut, Leishmania promastigotes are exposed to acute changes in nutrients, e.g. amino acids (AAs). These metabolites are the main energy sources for the parasite, crucial for its differentiation and motility. We analysed the migratory behaviour and morphological changes produced by aliphatic, monocarboxylic, dicarboxylic, heterocyclic and sulphur-containing AAs in Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis and demonstrated that L-methionine (10-12 m), L-tryptophan (10-11 m), L-glutamine and L-glutamic acid (10-6 m), induced positive chemotactic responses, while L-alanine (10-7 m), L-methionine (10-11 and 10-7 m), L-tryptophan (10-11 m), L-glutamine (10-12 m) and L-glutamic acid (10-9 m) induced negative chemotactic responses. L-proline and L-cysteine did not change the migratory potential of Leishmania. The flagellum length of L. braziliensis, but not of L. amazonensis, decreased when incubated in hyperosmotic conditions. However, chemo-repellent concentrations of L-alanine (Hypo-/hyper-osmotic conditions) and L-glutamic acid (hypo-osmotic conditions) decreased L. braziliensis flagellum length and L-methionine (10-11 m, hypo-/hyper-osmotic conditions) decreased L. amazonensis flagellum length. This chemotactic responsiveness suggests that Leishmania discriminate between slight concentration differences of small and structurally closely related molecules and indicates that besides their metabolic effects, AAs play key roles linked to sensory mechanisms that might determine the parasite's behaviour.

  12. Effects of elemental sulphur on heavy metal uptake by plants growing on municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Gulgun; Ozdemir, Saim

    2016-01-15

    In this study experiment was carried out to determine the phytoextraction potential of six plant species (Conium maculatum, Brassica oleraceae var. oleraceae, Brassica juncea, Datura stramonium, Pelargonium hortorum and Conyza canadensis) grown in a sewage sludge medium amended with metal uptake promoters. The solubility of Cu, Cd and Pb was significantly increased with the application of elemental S due to decrease of pH. Faecal coliform number was markedly decreased by addition of elemental sulphur. The extraction of Cu, Cr and Pb from sewage sludge by using B. juncea plant was observed as 65%, 65% and 54% respectively that is statistically similar to EDTA as sulphur. The bioaccumulation factors were found higher (>1) in the plants tested for Cu and Pb like B. juncea. Translocation index (TI) calculated values for Cd and Pb were greater than one (>1) in both C. maculatum and B. oleraceae var. oleraceae. The results cleared that the amendment of sludge with elemental sulphur showed potential to solubilize heavy metals in phytoremediation as much as EDTA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adverse effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Mpho Bosupeng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions for the period from 1997 to 2010 for diverse economies, as well as the relationships between carbon dioxide discharges and output. The study applies cointegration and causality tests to validate these associations. The results of the Johansen cointegration test depict long-run associations between the quantity of passenger cars and carbon dioxide emissions in France, Sweden, Spain, Hungary and Japa...

  14. Effect of sulphurous gas and γ-radiation upon nitricreductase activity in the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, I.A.; Nifontova, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    A study was made on damaging effect of sulphurous gas and γ-radiation on nitric-reductase activity in the lichen lobaria pulmonaria, sensitive to contamination. The lowest gas concentration (2.0 mg/l) increased the enzyme activity by 32.5%; concentration growth up to 20.3 and 40.6 mg/l caused the enzyme inhibition. Gamma-irradiation dose of 50000 Gy reduced practically twice the activity of nitric reductase, if dry thalli were irradiated. Irradiation of wet lichen by 500 Gy dose activated the enzyme, by 5000 Gy dose - decreased it's activity; nitrate reduction was almost terminated under irradiation by 40000 Gy dose

  15. Effects of carbon dioxide on Penicillium chrysogenum: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, A.G.; Ho, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Previous research has shown that dissolved carbon dioxide causes significant changes in submerged penicillin fermentations, such as stunted, swollen hyphae, increased branching, lower growth rates, and lower penicillin productivity. Influent carbon dioxide levels of 5 and 10% were shown through the use of autoradiography to cause an increase in chitin synthesis in submerged cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum. At an influent 5% carbon dioxide level, chitin synthesis is ca. 100% greater in the subapical region of P. chrysogenum hyphae than that of the control, in which there was no influent carbon dioxide. Influent carbon dioxide of 10% caused an increase of 200% in chitin synthesis. It is believed that the cell wall must be plasticized before branching can occur and that high amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide cause the cell to lose control of the plasticizing effect, thus the severe morphological changes occur

  16. Effect of high pressurized carbon dioxide on Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon dioxide at high pressure can retard microbial growth and sometimes kill microorganisms depending on values of applied pressure, temperature and exposure time. In this study the effect of high pressurised carbon dioxide (HPCD) on Escherichia coli was investigated. Culture of E. coli was subjected to high ...

  17. Effect of Nitric and Oxalic Acid Addition on Hard Anodizing of AlCu4Mg1 in Sulphuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Sieber

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The anodic oxidation process is an established means for the improvement of the wear and corrosion resistance of high-strength aluminum alloys. For high-strength aluminum-copper alloys of the 2000 series, both the current efficiency of the anodic oxidation process and the hardness of the oxide coatings are significantly reduced in comparison to unalloyed substrates. With regard to this challenge, recent investigations have indicated a beneficial effect of nitric acid addition to the commonly used sulphuric acid electrolytes both in terms of coating properties and process efficiency. The present work investigates the anodic oxidation of the AlCu4Mg1 alloy in a sulphuric acid electrolyte with additions of nitric acid as well as oxalic acid as a reference in a full-factorial design of experiments (DOE. The effect of the electrolyte composition on process efficiency, coating thickness and hardness is established by using response functions. A mechanism for the participation of the nitric acid additive during the oxide formation is proposed. The statistical significance of the results is assessed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA. Eventually, scratch testing is applied in order to evaluate the failure mechanisms and the abrasion resistance of the obtained conversion coatings.

  18. Sulphur in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seman Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland belongs to one of the last countries with native sulphur mining. Its history begun in 15th century. Deposit area of Tarnobrzeg re-presents 80% of all known sulphur reserves in this country. All of explored deposits in this area were created by metasomatic alteration of sulphur bearing limestones with sulphur mineralised liquids, which arised from melt gypsum. The average content is 25 - 30% of sulphur in Tarnobrzeg area. Considerable parts of deposits are created by calcite and native sulphur. Gypstone, baryte and stroncianite have only minera-logic occurencies. The extensive native sulphur deposits account for 88% of the country´s sulphur production. There were five sulphur mines in operation: Jeziórko, Grêbów, Machów I, Machów II and Basznia, but operations in Basznia were ended in 1992 and Machów and Machów II were liquidated. The sixth mine Osiek is currently producing. Only the Machów I mine operated an open-pit extraction and refining process, the other four mines producing sulphur using a modified Frasch method that gives elemental sulphur of up to 99,9% purity. Sulphur is an important export commodity with foreign sales totalling around 1.5 - 2.5 Mt/y. Modern benefication methods, which allowing to achieve sulphur from hydrocarbons, are causing decrease of native sulphur prices in the world and bringing about reduction of mining activities for this raw material in Poland.

  19. A novel bioreactor system for simultaneous mutli-metal leaching from industrial pyrite ash: Effect of agitation and sulphur dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sandeep; Akcil, Ata; Mishra, Srabani; Erust, Ceren

    2018-01-15

    Simultaneous multi-metal leaching from industrial pyrite ash is reported for the first time using a novel bioreactor system that allows natural diffusion of atmospheric O 2 and CO 2 along with the required temperature maintenance. The waste containing economically important metals (Cu, Co, Zn & As) was leached using an adapted consortium of meso-acidophilic Fe 2+ and S oxidising bacteria. The unique property of the sample supported adequate growth and activity of the acidophiles, thereby, driving the (bio) chemical reactions. Oxido-reductive potentials were seen to improve with time and the system's pH lowered as a result of active S oxidation. Increase in sulphur dosage (>1g/L) and agitation speed (>150rpm) did not bear any significant effect on metal dissolution. The consortium was able to leach 94.01% Cu (11.75% dissolution/d), 98.54% Co (12.3% dissolution/d), 75.95% Zn (9.49% dissolution/d) and 60.80% As (7.6% dissolution/d) at 150rpm, 1g/L sulphur, 30°C in 8days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on growth and production of volatile sulphur compounds by oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Talita Signoreti; Calil, Caroline Morini; Sartoratto, Adilson; Franco, Gilson César Nobre; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Cogo-Müller, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Halitosis can be caused by microorganisms that produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs), which colonize the surface of the tongue and subgingival sites. Studies have reported that the use of natural products can reduce the bacterial load and, consequently, the development of halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the growth and volatile sulphur compound (VSC) production of oral bacteria compared with chlorhexidine. The effects of these substances were evaluated by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) in planktonic cultures of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis. In addition, gas chromatography analyses were performed to measure the concentration of VSCs from bacterial cultures and to characterize M. alternifolia oil components. The MIC and MBC values were as follows: M. alternifolia - P. gingivalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%), P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%=0.5%); chlorhexidine - P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=1.5 mg/mL). M. alternifolia significantly reduced the growth and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by P. gingivalis (pendodontalis (pendodontalis. For P. gingivalis, the production of H2S and CH3SH decreased (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet). M. alternifolia can reduce bacterial growth and VSCs production and could be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine.

  1. Effects of sulfur dioxide on conifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govi, G.; Tagliani, F.; Cimino, A.

    1974-01-01

    Trials on the resistance of several conifer and oak species to the effects of sulfur dioxide at different concentrations and moisture levels were conducted. 72 combinations were experimented. The damages began to appear under the following conditions: Abies alba: 0.3 ppm, 25/sup 0/C, 70% ur after 24 hours; Picea excelsa: 0.3 ppm, 15/sup 0/C, 70-95% ur after 24 hours; Cedrus deodara: 0.3 ppm, 15/sup 0/C, 95% ur after 48 hours; Pinus pinea: 0.3 ppm, 15/sup 0/C, 70-95% after 72 hours; Pinus strobus 0.3 ppm, 25/sup 0/C, 70-95%, after 48 hours; Pinus pinaster: similar to the former; Pinus nigra: 2 ppm, 25/sup 0/C, 70-95%, ur after 5 days; Cupressus arizonica and C. semperivirens: 2 ppm, 25%/sup 0/C, 90% ur after 72 hours; Quercus robur: 5 ppm, 25/sup 0/C, 90% ur, after 10 days. 6 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  2. Adverse effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho Bosupeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions for the period from 1997 to 2010 for diverse economies, as well as the relationships between carbon dioxide discharges and output. The study applies cointegration and causality tests to validate these associations. The results of the Johansen cointegration test depict long-run associations between the quantity of passenger cars and carbon dioxide emissions in France, Sweden, Spain, Hungary and Japan. In addition, significant relations were observed between output and carbon dioxide discharges in Spain, Canada, India and Japan. Changes in output had substantial impact on emissions in Germany, Canada and India. The results also show that the number of passenger cars influences the magnitude of emissions in multiple economies. In conclusion, the automotive industry has to be considered in policies that aim to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  3. Effect of vermicomposting on calcium, sulphur and some heavy metal content of different biodegradable organic wastes under liming and microbial inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debabrata; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Ghosh, B C; Banik, Pabitra

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the changes in total calcium and sulphur and some heavy metal (Zn, Cu, and Pb) concentration of different organic wastes affected by liming and microorganism inoculation. Vermicomposting was an effective technology for disposal of organic substrates like municipal solid wastes (MSW), possessing comparatively higher concentration of heavy metals. The addition of lime in initial organic substrates significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased total calcium and total sulphur content of vermicomposts. Inoculation of microorganisms significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the heavy metal content of final products as compared to control. Fungal strains were comparatively more effective in detoxification of heavy metals than B. polymyxa.

  4. The effect of sulphur-terminated GaAs substrates on the MOVPE growth of CuGaS{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, P.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)]. E-mail: pearl.berndt@nmmu.ac.za; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Branch, M.S. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Leitch, A.W.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Kirmse, H. [Institute of Physics, Chair of Crystallography, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Neumann, W. [Institute of Physics, Chair of Crystallography, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Weber, J. [Institute for Applied Physics-Semiconductor Physics, University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2007-05-31

    In this study, various CuGaS{sub 2} layers were grown on GaAs (001) substrates using metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy, for the purpose of studying the effect of sulphur-termination of the substrate on layer quality. The resultant films were investigated using X-ray diffractometry, and transmission electron microscopy, with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy providing additional insights into crystallite growth on the control substrates. This paper will demonstrate that sulphur-termination limits substrate degradation. In the absence of sulphur-termination, atypical three-dimensional MOVPE growth is observed, with epitaxial crystallites varying in size from 10 nm to 200 nm. Substrate degradation inhibits lateral growth at the interface resulting in amorphous regions, cavities, and epitaxial crystallites demonstrating overgrowth into mushroom-like structures.

  5. The effect of sulphur-terminated GaAs substrates on the MOVPE growth of CuGaS2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, P.R.; Botha, J.R.; Branch, M.S.; Leitch, A.W.R.; Kirmse, H.; Neumann, W.; Weber, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, various CuGaS 2 layers were grown on GaAs (001) substrates using metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy, for the purpose of studying the effect of sulphur-termination of the substrate on layer quality. The resultant films were investigated using X-ray diffractometry, and transmission electron microscopy, with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy providing additional insights into crystallite growth on the control substrates. This paper will demonstrate that sulphur-termination limits substrate degradation. In the absence of sulphur-termination, atypical three-dimensional MOVPE growth is observed, with epitaxial crystallites varying in size from 10 nm to 200 nm. Substrate degradation inhibits lateral growth at the interface resulting in amorphous regions, cavities, and epitaxial crystallites demonstrating overgrowth into mushroom-like structures

  6. THE EFFECT OF SULPHURIC ACID CONCENTRATION ON SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ReO4 - BY THE LONG-CHAIN ALIPHATIC TERTIARY AMINES AND ALCOHOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander G. Kasikov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sulphuric acid concentration on solvent extraction of ReO4- by the long-chain aliphatic tertiary amines and alcohols in a wide range of H2SO4 concentrations in initial solutions is discussed. It has been established that the influence of the sulphuric acid concentration on rhenium solvent extraction is largely due to the extraction process mechanism. In the case of the anion-exchange mechanism, ReO4- is best extracted from weakly acidic solutions, whereas when the hydrate-solvate mechanism takes place – from solutions containing 4-7 mole/l H2SO4.

  7. Assessment of pollution due to oxides of sulphur and nitrogen at Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheendran, V.; Pimple, K.G.; Rao, D.D.; Chandramouli, S.; Iyer, R.S.; Hegde, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    An Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL) was established in 1964 to monitor and assess the dispersion of radioactive releases from the power station in the environmental matrices. ESL has been making measurements of ambient sulphur dioxide concentration in the atmosphere at a few selected locations since 1984. The residential areas which are in the vicinity of the chemical zone experience acute effects of sulphur dioxide pollution from time to time depending upon the seasonal variations of meteorological parameters. The proposed commissioning of a thermal power station in the region (Dahanu) gives added importance to the estimation of SO 2 and NO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The paper presents data and assessment of the prevailing status with respect to above pollutants close to the industrial zone. (author). 5 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  8. Development of the floating sulphur biofilm reactor for sulphide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of the floating sulphur biofilm reactor for sulphide oxidation in biological water treatment systems. ... The effect of influent sulphide concentrations, flow rate and reactor dimensions on the sulphur biofilm formation were investigated for the optimisation of elemental sulphur recovery and sulphide removal ...

  9. In vitro effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on growth and production of volatile sulphur compounds by oral bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Signoreti GRAZIANO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Halitosis can be caused by microorganisms that produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs, which colonize the surface of the tongue and subgingival sites. Studies have reported that the use of natural products can reduce the bacterial load and, consequently, the development of halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the growth and volatile sulphur compound (VSC production of oral bacteria compared with chlorhexidine. Material and Methods The effects of these substances were evaluated by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC in planktonic cultures of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis. In addition, gas chromatography analyses were performed to measure the concentration of VSCs from bacterial cultures and to characterize M. alternifolia oil components. Results The MIC and MBC values were as follows: M. alternifolia - P. gingivalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%, P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%=0.5%; chlorhexidine - P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=1.5 mg/mL. M. alternifolia significantly reduced the growth and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S by P. gingivalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet and the H2S and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH levels of P. endodontalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet. Chlorhexidine reduced the growth of both microorganisms without altering the production of VSC in P. endodontalis. For P. gingivalis, the production of H2S and CH3SH decreased (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet. Conclusion M. alternifolia can reduce bacterial growth and VSCs production and could be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine.

  10. Uranium dioxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawidzki, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    Sintered uranium dioxide pellets composed of particles of size > 50 microns suitable for power reactor use are made by incorporating a small amount of sulphur into the uranium dioxide before sintering. The increase in grain size achieved results in an improvement in overall efficiency when such pellets are used in a power reactor. (author)

  11. The immunomodulatory effects of titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Courtney M

    2015-11-01

    Due to their characteristic physical, chemical and optical properties, titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles are attractive tools for use in a wide range of applications. The use of nanoparticles for biological applications is, however, dependent upon their biocompatibility with living cells. Because of the importance of inflammation as a modulator of human health, the safe and efficacious in vivo use of titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles is inherently linked to a favorable interaction with immune system cells. However, both titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles have demonstrated potential to exert immunomodulatory and immunotoxic effects. Titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles are readily internalized by immune system cells, may accumulate in peripheral lymphoid organs, and can influence multiple manifestations of immune cell activity. Although the factors influencing the biocompatibility of titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles with immune system cells have not been fully elucidated, nanoparticle core composition, size, concentration and the duration of cell exposure seem to be important. Because titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles are widely utilized in pharmaceutical, commercial and industrial products, it is vital that their effects on human health and immune system function be more thoroughly evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sulphur recirculation for reduced boiler corrosion; Minskad pannkorrosion med svavelrecirkulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven; Karlsson, Martin (Goetaverken Miljoe AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Blomqvist, Evalena; Baefver, Linda; Claesson, Frida; Davidsson, Kent (SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden)); Froitzheim, Jan; Pettersson, Jesper; Steenari, Britt-Marie (Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Oorganisk miljoekemi, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    Sulphur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation, which was demonstrated in full-scale tests performed at the Renova Waste to Energy plant at Saevenaes in Goeteborg (Sweden). Sulphur is recirculated from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, which reduces the chloride content of the deposits, which in turn reduces boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. Sulphur dioxide was separated from the flue gas in a wet scrubber by adding hydrogen peroxide, producing sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid was injected into the furnace using nozzles with atomization air, surrounded by recirculated flue gas for improved mixing. By recirculating the sulphur, the sulphur dioxide concentration was increased in the boiler. Each sulphur atom passed the boiler several times and no external sulphur had to be added. Dioxin, ash, deposits and particle samplings together with 1000 h corrosion probe measurements were performed for normal operation (reference) and with sulphur recirculation respectively. During spring 2009, reference measurements were made and the recirculation system was installed and tested. During autumn 2009, a long term test with sulphur recirculation was made. An SO{sub 2} concentration of approximately 800 mg/m3 (n, d.g.) was maintained in the boiler by the system except during a period of extremely low sulphur content in the waste. The sulphur dioxide stack concentrations have been far below the emission limit. Sulphuric acid dew point measurements have shown that the sulphuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO{sub 3} concentrations, which may otherwise lead to low temperature corrosion. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulphur content increased during the sulphur recirculation tests. The molar chlorine/sulphur ratio (Cl/S) decreased by two thirds in the fly ash as well as in the boiler ash, except for one sample. With sulphur recirculation in operation, the deposit growth was

  13. Investigation on the effect of heavy diesel fraction properties on product sulphur during ultra deep diesel hydrodesulphurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratiev, D.; Tzingov, T. [Research and Development Dept., Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas, Bourgas (Bulgaria); Galkin, V. [Future Development Dept., Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas, Bourgas (Bulgaria)

    2006-02-01

    This work investigates the hydrotreatment of heavy diesel fractions in order to achieve product sulphurs of 50 and 10 ppm. The heavy diesel fractions were obtained in the Lukoil Neftochim Bulgaria (LNB) crude distillation and vacuum distillation units (SRGO1, SRGO2, AGO, LVGO ASTM D-86 95%vol. of 360, 392 395, and 377 C respectively) by distillation of crude oil type ''Ural'', containing some quantities of naphtha, atmospheric residue, vacuum gas oil and low sulphur crude oil, in the mild hydrocracking unit (MHC diesel 95%vol. of 389 C) and in the fluid catalytic cracking unit - heavy cycle oil (FCC HCO; 95%vol. of 360 C). The diesel fractions were hydrotreated in a trickle bed pilot plant at following conditions: reactor inlet temperature range of 300-380 C; liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) range of 0.5-3.0 h{sup -1}, total reactor pressure range of 3.5- 7.0 MPa; treating gas/feedstock ratio of 250 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was found that in the investigated range of operating conditions the product sulphur depended linearly on the LHSV. As a measure of the diesel hydrodesulphurization (HDS) reactivity the LHSV at 360 C reactor inlet temperature was interpolated at a constant product sulphur level of 50 ppm and extrapolated at 10 ppm sulphur. It was found that the most refractory feedstock was the diesel mixture 80%SRGO1 / 20%FCCHCO (LHSV of 0.4 h{sup -1} for 50 ppm and 0.2 h{sup -1} for 10 ppm sulphur). The catalyst volume increase required to reduce the product sulphur from 50 to 10 ppm was found to be as high as twice for all diesel fractions except the MHC diesel. This material required five times the catalyst volume for the product sulphur reduction from 50 to 10 ppm. The total reactor pressure was found to have less impact on the product sulphur than the LHSV. Doubling the reactor pressure from 3.5 to 7.0 MPa by hydrotreatment of LVGO reduced the product sulphur as low as twice while the reduction of the LHSV from 1 to 0.5 h{sup -1} at a

  14. Sulphurous mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphurous waters contain at least 1mg H2S, HS, S or thiosulphate per liter or complex colloidal sulfur water is presented as of simple or mixed sulphide (alkali, carbonated, chlorinated sodium.In the sulphurous waters, sulfur is found in several forms (hydrogen sulfide, free sulfide, sulfide groups, polysulfides acids. Yellow, opalescent white precipitate and deposit a glass of water on the bottom of sulphur oxidation by indicates the intensity of the wateroxidation process by oxygen in the air.

  15. Sulphurous Mineral Waters: New Applications for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Carbajo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphurous mineral waters have been traditionally used in medical hydrology as treatment for skin, respiratory, and musculoskeletal disorders. However, driven by recent intense research efforts, topical treatments are starting to show benefits for pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, peptic ulcer, and acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. The beneficial effects of sulphurous mineral waters, sulphurous mud, or peloids made from sulphurous mineral water have been attributed to the presence of sulphur mainly in the form of hydrogen sulphide. This form is largely available in conditions of low pH when oxygen concentrations are also low. In the organism, small amounts of hydrogen sulphide are produced by some cells where they have numerous biological signalling functions. While high levels of hydrogen sulphide are extremely toxic, enzymes in the body are capable of detoxifying it by oxidation to harmless sulphate. Hence, low levels of hydrogen sulphide may be tolerated indefinitely. In this paper, we review the chemistry and actions of hydrogen sulphide in sulphurous mineral waters and its natural role in body physiology. This is followed by an update of available data on the impacts of exogenous hydrogen sulphide on the skin and internal cells and organs including new therapeutic possibilities of sulphurous mineral waters and their peloids.

  16. Carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect: an unresolved problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, I M

    1978-01-01

    This paper evaluates current scientific literature concerned with the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The extent and possible causes of natural variations in global climate are outlined as a background to potential variations due to human activity. Estimates are given on relative contributions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to fossil fuel combustion, deforestation and other land modifications. The possibility of a rise in global temperature as a result of increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is discussed including model predictions, natural factors which could compensate for or emphasize a warming effect, and the implications if extensive warming actually occurred. Carbon dioxide disposal is discussed but there appears to be no practicable long-term means of accomplishing this. It is concluded that there is no evidence of a rise in global temperature due to carbon dioxide at present. Predictions, which involve a high degree of uncertainty, indicate that the global temperature could rise appreciably in the next century. An increase in precipitation rate is also expected.

  17. Carbon dioxide and the 'greenhouse effect': an unresolved problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, I

    1978-01-01

    This executive review evaluates current scientific literature concerned with the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The extent and possible causes of natural variations in global climate are outlined as a background to potential variations due to human activity. Estimates are given on relative contributions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to fossil fuel combustion, deforestation and other land modifications. The possibility of a rise in global temperature as a result of increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is dicusssed including model predictions, natural factors which could compensate for or emphasize a warming effect, and the implications if extensive warming actually occurred. Carbon dioxide disposal is discussed, but there appears to be no practicable long-term means of accomplishing this. It is concluded that there is no evidence of a rise in global temperature due to carbon dioxide at present. Predictions, which involve a high degree of uncertainty, indicate that the global temperature could rise appreciably in the next century. An increase in precipitation rate is also expected. If these changes result in a redistribution of climatic zones, there may be problems in adapting agricultural belts in some regions. Complete melting of all the ice sheets would take several millenia. A partial melting of continental ice sheets would not necessarily occur in view of the increase in precipitation rates, but if it did, there would be a rise in sea level of a few metres. Melting of the Arctic sea ice would affect climate, but not sea level.

  18. [Therapeutic effect of the association between pulmonary ventilation and aerosol--inhalation with sulphureous mineral water in the chronic bronchopneumopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, M; Proia, A R; Fraioli, A; Serio, A; Cammarella, I; Petraccia, L; Grassi, M

    2004-04-01

    Our research evaluates the efficacy of the inalation therapy by mineral sulphureous water in patients suffering from cronic bronchopneumopathy. From August to October 2002, two groups of patients, randomly selected, suffering from cronic bronchopneumonopathy, were studied at spa center "Pompeo" in Ferentino (FR). Every patient was treated daily during a cycle of twelve days. The first group was treated by pneumonic mechanical ventilation associated to sulphureous water aerosolinalation, the second by mechanical pulmonary ventilation associated to sulphureous water aerosol-inalation medicated with flunisolide. Every patient carried out spirometry, before and after treatment, and the measurement of FEV1 was considered a good parameter to evaluate the respiratory function. All patients reported an improvement in symptoms as dyspnea and cough. Results obtained show a significant functional improvement of respiratory function in both groups, evaluated by FEV1. Equal efficacy treating the patients by medicated and not medicated treatments stress the therapeutic role of mineral sulphureous waters in chronic bronchopneumopathies. Our research points out the usefullness of pneumonic ventilation associated with sulphureous water aerosol-inalation in patients suffering from chronic bronchopneumopathies.

  19. Sulphur uptake and yield of soybean as influenced by sulphur fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamima, N.; Farid, A. T. M.

    2005-01-01

    Effect of sulphur fertilization (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg/ha) on sulphur uptake and seed yield was studied in sohag and Bangladesh soybean-4 varieties in the field of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur during the winter (rabi) seasons of 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 in grey Terrace soil (Albaquept). Addition of slphur fertilizer exerted significant influence on the yield attributes of soybean varieties. Sulphur uptake also significantly responded to the application of sulphur fertilizer. Variety Bangladesh soybean-4 was found superior to sohag in respect of sulphur uptake and yield. Greater sulphur utilization was observed at lower levels of fertilizer application. Seed yield and sulphur uptake were increased with the application of 40 kg/ ha for sohag and 60 kg/ha for Bangladesh soybean-4. Response of seed yield to added sulphur was quadratic. The economic optimum doses were found to be 49 kg s/ha for sohag and 52 kg s/ha for Bangladesh soybean-4, yielding 2060 and 2354 kg/ha, respectively. (author)

  20. Daylong Effect of Rinsing with Water Diluted Antiplaque®Toothpaste Combined with Toothbrushing on Volatile Sulphur Compound Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandina Irmagita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis, complained by most adult population, is a common oral condition. About 8%% of the cases happened because of the microbia activity in the oral cavity that produces Volatile Sulphur Compound (VSC which has unpleasant odour. Daily oral prophylaxis can reduce the oral VSC levels. Objective: to determine the daylong effect of Antiplque® toothpaste in daily oral prophylaxis: as dentrifice for tooth brushing and, in modified way, as oral rinse; on the VSC level. Methods: a double blind, clinical experimental study, involving 120 subjects with or without halitosis complain, divided in 2 treatment groups (oral rinse group and the combination of tooth brushing and oral rinse group, using Antiplaque® toothpaste and 2 control groups (same procedure using placebo toothpaste. The daylong VSC levels measure with halimeter were taken twice, in the afternoon day I and day II. Results: there are significant reduction of daylong VSC levels (Wilcoxon signed rank test P<0.0%, but not in the treatment groups using the placebo toothpaste. The result on conbination of tooth brushing and oral rinse using Antiplaque® toothpaste are significant compared to the oral rinse treatment using Antiplaque® toothpaste alone (Mann Whitney, P<0.05. Conclusion: tooth brushing with Antiplaque® toothpaste combined with oral rinse using the modified Antiplaque® toothpaste can significantly reduce daylong VSC levels.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.94

  1. Marketable permits for controlling sulphur dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, D.R.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe research sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) into the nature of the auctions described in the bills. The research was undertaken at the request of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce to assess how various provisions in the bills might affect the workings of the market. Because the project called for the analysis of market mechanisms that do not now exist, a ''laboratory'' approach was applied in which artificial markets are created using computerized trading, volunteer subjects, and cash incentives to mimic the markets being studied. Dr. Mark Isaac, at the University of Arizona, and Dr. Jamie Kruse, at the University of Colorado, led teams that designed and conducted the laboratory experiments. 4 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Influence of ambient sulphur dioxide on chlorophyll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahare, C.B.; Varshney, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    For the evaluation of the injury due to SO 2 from Indraprashtha (IP) Thermal Power Plant, eight species of trees were selected. Experiment was divided in two sections. Section one include transplanted tree saplings of Bauhinia variegata, Delonix regia, Flcus benghalensis, Putranjiwa roxburghii, Morus indica, Polyalthia longifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tabernaemontana coronaria. Here one set of plants was transplanted to polluted site of IP and other set was maintained at non polluted site of Jawaharlal Nehru University (Ecological Nursery). Second section of the study have naturally growing trees of the same species in the vicinity of the transplanted plants. Findings of the present study show that tree species were not safe at polluted site. Maximum chlorophyll reduction occurred in Bauhinia variegata, that is 32.05% (transplanted saplings). In naturally growing trees up to 35.70% reduction was seen in B. variegata. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Removal of sulphur dioxide from flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.

    1999-08-01

    Mixtures of Ca(OH){sub 2} and different siliceous materials such as fly ash, bentonite, silica fume, and diatomite were hydrated to produce reactive SO{sub 2} sorbents. It was observed that these sorbents showed a better reactivity toward SO{sub 2} than the Ca(OH){sub 2} itself. This behavior is closely related to the pozzolanic nature of the hydrated sorbents and to the greater surface area. The reactivity of the sorbents was strongly influenced by the source of siliceous material and the hydration conditions. The total sulphation capacities of the sorbents were determined at 338 K with a synthetic gaseous mixture containing 5,000 ppm SO{sub 2} and 55% relative humidity. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the sorbents, the SO{sub 2} captures ranged from 1.20 to 5.58 mmol SO{sub 2}/g sorbent. The amount of SO{sub 2} capture increased with the increasing surface area of the sorbent. The utilization of Ca(OH){sub 2} with SO{sub 2} improved significantly when Ca(OH){sub 2} was hydrated with siliceous materials first and later exposed to SO{sub 2}. (author)

  4. Removal of sulphur dioxide from flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.

    1999-01-01

    Mixtures of Ca(OH) 2 and different siliceous materials such as fly ash, bentonite, silica fume, and diatomite were hydrated to produce reactive SO 2 sorbents. It was observed that these sorbents showed a better reactivity toward SO 2 than the Ca(OH) 2 itself. This behavior is closely related to the pozzolanic nature of the hydrated sorbents and to the greater surface area. The reactivity of the sorbents was strongly influenced by the source of siliceous material and the hydration conditions. The total sulphation capacities of the sorbents were determined at 338 K with a synthetic gaseous mixture containing 5,000 ppm SO 2 and 55% relative humidity. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the sorbents, the SO 2 captures ranged from 1.20 to 5.58 mmol SO 2 /g sorbent. The amount of SO 2 capture increased with the increasing surface area of the sorbent. The utilization of Ca(OH) 2 with SO 2 improved significantly when Ca(OH) 2 was hydrated with siliceous materials first and later exposed to SO 2 . (author)

  5. Sulphur output from oil sands : dramatically changing Alberta's sulphur balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Aquin, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discussed sulphur production from Alberta's gas and oil sands industries. While sulfur derived from natural gas production in the province is expected to decline as natural gas reserves diminish, Alberta's oil sands contain high amounts of sulphur. It is not yet known how much sulphur will be produced from the province's oil sands facilities. Alberta had considerable stockpiles of sulphur in the 1970s. By 1980, inventories began to decline. By 1996, output had increased to 7.1 million tonnes. Alberta's sulphur inventory reached 9.7 million tonnes following the collapse of the Soviet Union's government mandated fertilizer industry. In 2006, sulphur supplies in Alberta reached 12 million tonnes. Reduced global output has now lowered sulphur stockpiles. Increases in sulphur prices tend to reduce market demand, and lower prices will not typically change the volume of sulphur produced as a byproduct of oil and gas operations. Bitumen-derived sulphur output is expected to exceed gas-derived sulphur output in the near future. Sulphur from oil sands processing is expected to increase by 5 million tonnes by 2017. Increased sulphur production levels in Alberta will present a significant challenge for all sectors of the hydrocarbon industry. It was concluded that developing a plan for storing, selling or disposing of the sulphur will help to ensure the profitability of oil sands operations

  6. The effect of carbon dioxide at high pressure under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates. J. Insect Sci. 9: 58-61. George NM, Sonny BR (1998). Comparative effect of short term exposures of Callosobruchus subinnotatus to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, or low temperature on behaviour and fecundity. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Vol. 89, No.

  7. Study of effect of chromium on titanium dioxide phase transformation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Study of effect of chromium on titanium dioxide phase transformation by A Bellifa (pp 669–677). Figure S1. Structural ... 4 × 1⋅9486; 2 × 1⋅9799. Octahedral packing. 2 × 2 shared edges. 8 free edges. 3 shared edges. 4 corners. 5 free edges. 2 parallel shared edges. 2 corners. 10 free edges. O. O. Coordination scheme.

  8. Combined effect of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide gases on mold fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochurova, A.I.; Karpova, T.N.

    1974-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide at 0.08% killed Penicillium expansum, Stemphylium macrosporium, and Botrytis cinerea within 24 hours. At 0.2%, it killed P. citrinum, Alternaria tenuis, and Fusarium moniliforme. Sulfur dioxide (at 0.04%) and Sulfur dioxide-carbon dioxide mixtures (at 0.02 and 5% respectively) completely suppressed the growth of P. citrinum, P. expansum, P. rubrum, A. tenuis, S. macrosporium, B. cinerea, and F. moniliforme in laboratory experiments. 1 table.

  9. A new technology aimed at re-establishing a global sulphur supply/demand balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavens, A.F.; Jorgensen, C.; Ogg, D.

    2009-01-01

    The world's sulphur supply is mainly determined by involuntary production of elemental sulphur during the processing of oil and gas. As a result, sulphur supply is decoupled from demand, resulting in an imbalance between the two. For almost two decades, sulphur supply has exceeded demand, which has raised significant concerns for oil and gas producers such as where to store all of the excess sulphur, and how to transport a low-value commodity to market in an economically attractive fashion. Black and Veatch is involved in the development of a new technology called sulphur to energy process (STEP TM ) which has the potential to assist in balancing global sulphur supply and demand, as well as affording other benefits such as low-emission energy production. This paper presented the potential merits of the STEP as a means to reestablish a global sulphur supply/demand balance for the world trading market. It explored the other potential benefits that may result from the use of this new technology and compared STEP to other technologies and operating schemes that regulate sulphur supply. It was concluded that STEP has the potential to allow the processor to produce elemental sulphur when demand is high, or to provide safe and ecological disposal when demand is low, with the added benefits of energy recovery from the sulphur combustion process, and sour gas reservoir sweetening over time as sulphur dioxide reacts with hydrogen sulphide present in the reservoir. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 22 figs

  10. A comparison of decontamination effects of commercially available detergents in rats pre-exposed to topical sulphur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misik, Jan; Jost, Petr; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Vodakova, Eva; Cabal, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil

    2013-06-01

    The genotoxic vesicant sulphur mustard [bis-2-(chloroethyl)sulphide] is a chemical warfare agent which is easily available due to its relatively simple synthesis. Thus, sulphur mustard is a potential agent for mass contamination. In this study, we focused on sulphur mustard toxicity and decontamination in a rat model using commercially available detergent mixtures for dermal decontamination. Male Wistar rats were percutaneously treated with sulphur mustard and subjected to wet decontamination 2 min postexposure. Commercially produced detergents Neodekont™, Argos™, Dermogel™ and FloraFree™ were tested for their decontamination efficacy against an exposed group and their protective ratios determined. The results showed that all tested detergent solutions produced an increase in the median lethal dose [LD(50) = 9.83 (5.87-13.63) mg·kg(-1)] in comparison to controls, which led to increased survival of experimental animals. In general, all tested detergents provided modest decontamination efficacy (PR = 2.0-5.7). The highest protective ratio (5.7) was consistently achieved with Argos™. Accordingly, Argos™ should be considered in further investigation of mass casualty decontamination.

  11. Energetic and exergetic life cycle analysis to explain the hidden costs and effects of current sulphur utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Typically life cycle analyses of the fertiliser industry are based on averages of outdated technology. Sulphur is a major element, emerging as a primary nutrient on its own accord and as a feed for other fertiliser production, namely phosphoric acid. Recent developments sparked by governmental

  12. Sulphur Extraction at Bryan Mound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Carolyn L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, Anna C. Snider [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Bryan Mound caprock was subjected to extens ive sulphur mining prior to the development of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Undoubtedl y, the mining has modified the caprock integrity. Cavern wells at Bryan Mound have been subject to a host of well integr ity concerns with many likely compromised by the cavernous capro ck, surrounding corrosive environment (H 2 SO 4 ), and associated elevated residual temperatures al l of which are a product of the mining activities. The intent of this study was to understand the sulphur mining process and how the mining has affected the stability of the caprock and how the compromised caprock has influenced the integrity of the cavern wells. After an extensiv e search to collect pert inent information through state agencies, literature sear ches, and the Sandia SPR librar y, a better understanding of the caprock can be inferred from the knowledge gaine d. Specifically, the discovery of the original ore reserve map goes a long way towards modeling caprock stability. In addition the gained knowledge of sulphur mining - subs idence, superheated corrosive wa ters, and caprock collapse - helps to better predict the post mi ning effects on wellbore integrity. This page intentionally left blank

  13. On the effects of organic matter and sulphur-containing compounds on the CCN activation of combustion particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petzold

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The European PartEmis project (Measurement and prediction of emissions of aerosols and gaseous precursors from gas turbine engines was focussed on the characterisation and quantification of exhaust emissions from a gas turbine engine. The combustion aerosol characterisation included on-line measurements of mass and number concentration, size distribution, mixing state, thermal stability of internally mixed particles, hygroscopicity, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activation potential, and off-line analysis of chemical composition. Based on this extensive data set, the role of sulphuric acid coating and of the organic fraction of the combustion particles for the CCN activation was investigated. Modelling of CCN activation was conducted using microphysical and chemical properties obtained from the measurements as input data. Coating the combustion particles with water-soluble sulphuric acid, increases the potential CCN activation, or lowers the activation diameter, respectively. The adaptation of a Köhler model to the experimental data yielded coatings from 0.1 to 3 vol-% of water-soluble matter, which corresponds to an increase in the fraction of CCN-activated combustion particles from ≤10−4 to ≌10−2 at a water vapour saturation ratio Sw=1.006. Additional particle coating by coagulation of combustion particles and aqueous sulphuric acid particles formed by nucleation further reduces the CCN activation diameter. In contrast, particles containing a large fraction of non-volatile organic compounds grow significantly less at high relative humidity than particles with a lower content of non-volatile OC. The resulting reduction in the potential CCN activation with an increasing fraction of non-volatile OC becomes visible as a trend in the experimental data. While a coating of water-soluble sulphuric acid increases the potential CCN activation, or lowers the activation diameter, respectively, the non-volatile organic compounds, mainly found at

  14. Effects of maternally administered sulphur-35 on the pre- and postnatal mortality and development in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyanarayana Reddy, K.; Reddy, P.P.; Reddi, O.S.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was taken up to screen the effects of 35 S on the prenatal development of mouse. Pregnant mice of CBA strain were injected intraperitoneally with a doze of 20 μCi of 35 S on 10.5 days of gestation and allowed to go to term. No mortality was observed in treated animals. However, a slight reduction in the number of fertile matings was noted in 35 S group. But the reduction was statistically insignificant. A significant decrease in litter size was noted in 35 S -treated group. While the litter size was 7.5/female in the control, it was 5.9/female in 35 S group. The reduced litter size might be due to 35 S-induced prenatal mortality. A further reduction in litter size was noted at weaning. This reduction was due to a significant increase in the neo- and postnatal mortality of F 1 progeny in the treated group. There was no effect of 35 S on the sex ratio and body weights of F 1 progeny. (auth.)

  15. The Inhibition Effect of Potassium Iodide on the Corrosion of Pure Iron in Sulphuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Attar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of inorganic inhibitors as an alternative to organic compounds is based on the possibility of degradation of organic compounds with time and temperature. The inhibition effect of potassium iodide on the corrosion of pure iron in 0.5 M H2SO4 has been studied by weight loss. It has been observed from the results that the inhibition efficiency (IE% of KI increases from 82.17% to 97.51% with the increase in inhibitor concentration from 1·10−4 to 2·10−3 M. The apparent activation energy (Ea and the equilibrium constant of adsorption (Kads were calculated. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the pure iron surface is in agreement with Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  16. The effect of cysteine on the corrosion of 304L stainless steel in sulphuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.B.; Agostinho, S.M.L.; Barcia, O.E.; Cordeiro, G.G.O.; D'Elia, E.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of cysteine on the corrosion of 304L stainless steel in 1 mol l -1 H 2 SO 4 was studied using open-circuit potential measurements, anodic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the electrochemical measurements obtained in the presence of low cysteine concentration (10 -6 -10 -5 mol l -1 ) presented the same behaviour as those obtained in the absence of cysteine, a passivated steel surface. However, for higher cysteine concentrations (10 -4 -10 -2 mol l -1 ), a different behaviour was observed: the corrosion potential stabilized at a more negative value; an active region was observed in the anodic polarization curves and the electrochemical impedance diagrams showed an inductive loop at lower frequencies and a much lower polarization resistance. These results show that the presence of cysteine at high concentration turns the surface of 304L stainless steel electrochemically active, probably dissolving the passivation layer and promoting the stainless steel anodic dissolution. SEM experiments performed after immersion experiments at corrosion potential were in good agreement with the electrochemical results

  17. The effect of carbon dioxide therapy on composite graft survival

    OpenAIRE

    Durães, Eliana Ferreira Ribeiro; Durães, Leonardo de Castro; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; Lino Júnior, Ruy de Souza; Sousa, João Batista de

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of carboxytherapy in auricular composite grafts in rabbits. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted using 20 rabbits randomly assigned to a treatment group of carboxytherapy or a control group of saline solution. In each ear, a circular graft with 1.5 cm or 2 cm of diameter was amputated and reattached. Animals underwent carbon dioxide or saline injection four times during the experiment. We analyzed clinical evolution of the animals, grafts survival, h...

  18. Short-term effects of repeated olfactory administration of homeopathic sulphur or pulsatilla on electroencephalographic alpha power in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Iris R; Brooks, Audrey J; Howerter, Amy; Jackson, Nicholas; Schwartz, Gary E

    2011-10-01

    Homeopathic pathogenetic trials usually rely on symptom self report measures. Adding objective biomarkers could enhance detection of subtle initial remedy effects. The present feasibility study examined electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of repeated olfactory administration of two polycrest remedies. College student volunteers (ages 18-30, both sexes) from an introductory psychology course were screened for good health and relatively elevated Sulphur or Pulsatilla symptom scores on the Homeopathic Constitutional Type Questionnaire (CTQ). Subjects underwent a series of 3 once-weekly double-blind sessions during which they repeatedly sniffed the remedy matched to their CTQ type and solvent controls. Each remedy was given in a 6c, 12c, and 30c potency, one potency per week, in randomly assigned order. Solvent controls included both plain distilled water and a water-ethanol (95%) solution. All sniff test solutions were further diluted just prior to laboratory sessions (0.5 ml test solution in 150 ml distilled water). Within a session, remedies and control solvents were administered via 2-s sniffs (8 sniffs of each of 4 different succussion levels for the potency in randomized order). Primary outcome variable was relative EEG power (alpha 1 8-10 Hz; alpha 2 10-12 Hz) averaged over 19 electrode sites, including all succussions for a given potency. Mixed-effect models revealed significant main effects for remedy type (Sulphur >Pulsatilla) in both alpha bands, controlling for gender, baseline resting EEG alpha, and solvent control responses. Additional analyses showed significant nonlinear interactions between dilution and time (weekly session) in alpha 2 for both remedies and alpha 1 for Sulphur. EEG alpha offers an objective biomarker of remedy effects for future studies and potential method for distinguishing time-dependent effects of specific remedies and remedy potencies from one another. Copyright © 2011 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  19. Economic effects of restricting carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaparanta, P.; Jerkkola, J.; Pohjola, J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the economy-wide effects of reducing CO 2 emissions. NO x and SO 2 emissions can also be included. The policy questions can be approached either by estimating the emission taxes needed to achieve the given levels of emissions or by estimating the level of emissions given the level of taxes. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) is used in this analysis. The general equilibrium models deal with long-run effects, after all markets have equilibrated and all resources are optimally used. They are particularly well-suited to analyze long-run resource allocation, welfare losses and income distribution, beyond the short-run macroeconomic disturbances and business cycle phenomena. As the general equilibrium framework integrates all main economic sectors, the feedbacks and interrelationships between the various sectors are taken into account

  20. Effective closed form mathematical approach to determine kinetic constants of NR vulcanized with sulphur and accelerators at different concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, Gabriele, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it, E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Hanel, Thomas; Donetti, Raffaella [Pirelli Tyre, Via Alberto e Piero Pirelli 25, 20126 Milan (Italy); Milani, Federico [CHEMCO Consultant, Via J.F. Kennedy 2, 45030 Occhiobello (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    The basic reaction scheme due to Han and co-workers for NR vulcanized with sulphur is adopted and modified taking into account the single contributions of the different accelerators, focusing in particular on some experimental data ad hoc obtained at Pirelli’s laboratories, where NR was vulcanized at different temperatures (from 150 to 180 °C) and concentrations of sulphur, using TBBS and DPG in the mixture as co-agents. Typically, the chain reactions are initiated by the formation of macro-compounds that are responsible of the formation of the unmatured crosslinked polymer. This first reaction depends on the reciprocal concentrations of all components and their chemical nature. In presence of two accelerators, it was considered that the reactions between each single accelerator and the NR raw material occur in parallel, making the reasonable assumption that there are no mutual reactions between the two accelerators. From the kinetic scheme adopted, a closed form solution was found for the crosslink density, with the only limitation that the induction period is excluded from computations. Even kinetic constants are evaluated in closed form, avoiding a numerically demanding least-squares best fitting on rheometer experimental data. Two series of experiments available, relying into rheometer curves at different temperatures and different concentrations of sulphur and accelerator, are utilized to evaluate the fitting capabilities of the mathematical model. Very good agreement between numerical output and experimental data is experienced in all cases analysed.

  1. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles derived from ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased manufacture of TiO2 nano-products has caused concern about the potential toxicity of these products to the environment and in public health. Identification and confirmation of the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles derived from consumer products as opposed to industrial TiO2 NPs warrants examination in exploring the significance of their release and resultant impacts on the environment. To this end we examined the significance of the release of these particles and their toxic effect on the marine diatom algae Thalassiosira pseudonana. Our results indicate that nano-TiO2 sunscreen and toothpaste exhibit more toxicity in comparison to industrial TiO2, and inhibited the growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. This inhibition was proportional to the exposure time and concentrations of nano-TiO2. Our findings indicate a significant effect, and therefore further research is warranted in evaluation and assessment of the toxicity of modified nano-TiO2 derived from consumer products and their physicochemical properties. Submit to journal Environmental Science and Pollution Research.

  2. The effect of carbon dioxide therapy on composite graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durães, Eliana Ferreira Ribeiro; Durães, Leonardo de Castro; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; Lino, Ruy de Souza; Sousa, João Batista de

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effect of carboxytherapy in auricular composite grafts in rabbits. An experimental study was conducted using 20 rabbits randomly assigned to a treatment group of carboxytherapy or a control group of saline solution. In each ear, a circular graft with 1.5 cm or 2 cm of diameter was amputated and reattached. Animals underwent carbon dioxide or saline injection four times during the experiment. We analyzed clinical evolution of the animals, grafts survival, histopathology features and histomorphometry of collagen. The treated group had a significantly lower weight gain (p=0.038). Histopathology was not significantly different between groups. There was an increase in amount of collagen in 2 cm grafts submitted to carbon dioxide therapy (p=0.003). Carboxytherapy didn't influence graft survival rate for 1.5 cm grafts or 2 cm grafts (p=0.567 and p=0.777, respectively). Carbon dioxide therapy increased the amount of collagen in 2 cm grafts. CO2 was not significantly different from saline infusion on composite grafts survival, but this study suggests that there is a mechanical effect caused by distension which favored graft survival.

  3. The effects of added sulphur amino acids, threonine and an ideal amino acid ratio on nitrogen metabolism in mature, overweight dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohaty, Robin E; de Godoy, Maria R C; McLeod, Kyle R; Harmon, David L

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of added essential amino acids in conjunction with a dietary lysine/MJ of 0.72 on nitrogen (N) metabolism in dogs. Treatments were; a control diet, a diet that provided an ideal amino acid profile (IAA), a diet with added total sulphur amino acids (TSAA), and a diet with added TSAA and threonine (TT). Diets were fed to eight overweight, mature, female hounds using a replicated 4 x 4 Latin Square design. Food intake was similar across treatments, however, food N intake was higher (p dogs formulated to provide a 0.72 g lysine/MJ ME ratio.

  4. Use of stable sulphur isotopes to monitor directly the behaviour of sulphur in coal during thermal desulphurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Li; Hackley, Keith C.; Coleman, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been developed using stable sulphur isotope analyses to monitor the behaviour of sulphur forms in a coal during thermal desulphurization. In this method, the natural stable isotopic composition of the pyritic and organic sulphur in coal is used as a tracer to follow their mobility during the desulphurization process. This tracer method is based on the fact that the isotopic compositions of pyritic and organic sulphur are significantly different in some coals. Isotopic results of pyrolysis experiments at temperatures ranging from 350 to 750 ??C indicate that the sulphur released with the volatiles is predominantly organic sulphur. The pyritic sulphur is evolved in significant quantities only when pyrolysis temperatures exceed 500 ??C. The presence of pyrite seems to have no effect on the amount of organic sulphur evolved during pyrolysis. The chemical and isotopic mass balances achieved from three different samples of the Herrin (No. 6) coal of the Illinois Basin demonstrate that this stable isotope tracer method is quantitative. The main disadvantage of this tracing technique is that not all coals contain isotopically distinct organic and pyritic sulphur. ?? 1987.

  5. Biomass fuels - effects on the carbon dioxide budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, H.; Hallsby, G.

    1992-02-01

    It is highly desirable that the effects on the carbon dioxide balance of alternative energy sources are evaluated. Two important alternatives studied in Sweden are the extraction of logging residues left in the forest and willow production on farmland. Considered in isolation, a conversion from stem-wood harvest to whole-tree harvest has a negative effect on the carbon dioxide balance, because the amount of soil organic matter decreases. With the assumption that it takes 20 years for the logging residues to decompose, the net decrease in emissions that would result from the replacement of fossil fuels by logging residues appear moderate after 20 years. However, it will grow significantly as time passes. After 100 years with an annual combustion of logging residues the emissions are 12% of those associated with the production of an equivalent amount of energy through oil combustion. Corresponding values for 300 and 500 years are 4% and 2.5% respectively. In less than 100 years there should be a considerable reduction in the Swedish CO 2 -C emissions even if only every second new logging residue-produced TWH replaces a fossil-fuel-produced TWh. From a long-term perspective, effects on carbon reservoirs in Sweden, caused by conversions to whole-tree harvesting in forestry and to willow production on redundant farmland, can be considered negligible in terms of their influence on the carbon dioxide budget of Sweden. The orders of magnitude of influencing fluxes is exemplified in the following: The annual production of 50 TWh, whereof 40 TWh from logging residues, 8 TWh from willow and 2 TWh from annual crops is estimated to cause a total net decrease of the carbon reservoirs within Sweden corresponding to 32 Tg CO 2 -C, whereas the annual production of 50 TWh from oil combustion should emit 1200 Tg CO 2 -C in 300 years, 2000 Tg CO 2 -C in 500 years and so on. (au). 17 refs., 4 tabs

  6. Effects of sulfur dioxide pollution on bark epiphytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, P D

    1967-01-01

    The destructive effects of sulfur dioxide pollution on epiphytic bryophytes is seen to be due to chlorophyll degradation and the impairment of cell structure and function through plasmolysis. Morphological changes noted by Pearson and Skye (1965) in lichens were not seen, although stunting and infertility are evident in epiphyte remnants in polluted areas. The investigation of the ion exchange and buffer capacities of sycamore bark indicates a loss of both in approximate proportion to the degree of pollution. Smoke and aerosol particles are not considered to be of particular importance at the present time although they may well have been important in the past.

  7. Effect of minor addition of titanium- and molybdenum dioxides on thermodynamic properties of vanadium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' eva, I A; Sulejmenova, G S

    1984-07-01

    The effect of minor additions (0.5 and 1%) of TiO2 and MoO2 on the partial thermodynamic functions of oxygen in vanadium dioxide was studied by the method of electromotive force with solid electrolyte on the base of stabilized ZrO2 possessing the oxygen conductivity. Investigations were conducted at 1050-1360 K for single-phase samples of monoclinic crystal structure. The addition MoO2 to VO2 is shown to reduce the equilibrium oxygen pressure above the Vsub(1-x) Msub(x)Osub(1.998) (M=Mo, Ti) thiosulfate ion in aqueous solution. Three thiosulfates of monovalent indium were isolated in solid state: In2S2O3x2H2O, In2S2O3xInOHx2H2O and In2S2O3x2InNO3x2H2O. Infrared spectra were investigated and thermal decomposition of prepared compounds was studied.

  8. Effects of sulphur pollution on forest floor invertebrates (community structure, structural heterogeneity, edge effects, decomposition, Callioplus euoplus, Pterostichus adstrictus, Scaphinotus marginatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcamo, H. A.

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of insects and other invertebrates was studied in forests under varying regimes of exposure to sulfur compounds in the vicinity of two sour gas plants and at sharp acidification gradients in pine and aspen forests located near a sulfur block. Results showed no effect on most invertebrates at moderate levels of sulfur deposition. At this level, structural heterogeneity of the forest floor was more influential than sulfur levels in determining the macroarthropoid community structure. By contrast, high sulphur contamination and subsequent acidification had a clear negative effect on earthworms, and various species of spiders. Ground beetles and certain epigeic spiders along the sharp acidification gradient at the pine forest were considered vulnerable but resistant and favoured. These results suggested that ecological specialists were most vulnerable to acidification effects, while ecological generalists have been more successful in resisting the effects of acidification. It was also shown that indirect effects at the landscape, habitat or forest type, and microhabitat level, were more important in the case of most of the arthropods than the direct effects. Only earthworms, snails and some Collembola were negatively affected through direct acidity effects

  9. Effects of sulphur pollution on forest floor invertebrates (community structure, structural heterogeneity, edge effects, decomposition, Callioplus euoplus, Pterostichus adstrictus, Scaphinotus marginatus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcamo, H. A.

    1997-12-31

    The distribution of insects and other invertebrates was studied in forests under varying regimes of exposure to sulfur compounds in the vicinity of two sour gas plants and at sharp acidification gradients in pine and aspen forests located near a sulfur block. Results showed no effect on most invertebrates at moderate levels of sulfur deposition. At this level, structural heterogeneity of the forest floor was more influential than sulfur levels in determining the macroarthropoid community structure. By contrast, high sulphur contamination and subsequent acidification had a clear negative effect on earthworms, and various species of spiders. Ground beetles and certain epigeic spiders along the sharp acidification gradient at the pine forest were considered vulnerable but resistant and favoured. These results suggested that ecological specialists were most vulnerable to acidification effects, while ecological generalists have been more successful in resisting the effects of acidification. It was also shown that indirect effects at the landscape, habitat or forest type, and microhabitat level, were more important in the case of most of the arthropods than the direct effects. Only earthworms, snails and some Collembola were negatively affected through direct acidity effects.

  10. Numerical simulation of carbon dioxide effects in geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, S.L.; Iglesias, E.R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-03-01

    We developed and coded a new equation of state (EOS) for water-carbon dioxide mixtures and coupled it to the TOUGH numerical simulator. This EOS is valid up to 350{degrees}C and 500 bar. Unlike previous thermodynamical models, it rigorously considers the non-ideal behavior of both components in the gaseous mixture and formally includes the effect of the compressibility of the liquid phase. We refer to the coupling of this EOS with TOUGH as TOUGH-DIOX. To complement this enhancement of TOUGH, we added indexed output files for easy selection and interpretation of results. We validated TOUGH-DIOX against published results. Furthermore we used TOUGH-DIOX to explore and compare mass and energy inflow performance relationships of geothermal wells with/without carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Our results include the effects of a broad range of fluid and formation properties, initial conditions and history of reservoir production. This work contributes with generalized dimensionless inflow performance relationships appropriate for geothermal use.

  11. Effect of different proportion of sulphur treatments on the contents of glucosinolate in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) commonly consumed in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ye-Jin; Lee, Hye-Min; Shin, MinJung; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Chung, Doug Young; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2018-02-01

    Kale ( Brassica oleracea L. Acephala Group) is the rich source of medicinal value sulphur compounds, glucosinolates (GLSs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different proportion of sulphur (S) supplementation levels on the accumulation of GLSs in the leaves of the kale cultivar ('TBC'). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation method guided to identify and quantify six GSLs including three aliphatic (progoitrin, sinigrin and gluconapin) and three indolyl (glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin and neoglucobrasscin) respectively. Analysis of these distinct levels of S supplementation revealed that the accumulation of individual and total GLSs was directly proportional to the S concentration. The maximum levels of total GLSs (26.8 µmol/g DW) and glucobrassicin (9.98 µmol/g DW) were found in lower and upper parts of the leaves supplemented with 1 mM and 2 mM S, respectively. Interestingly, aliphatic GSLs were noted predominant in all the parts (50.1, 59.3 and 56% of total GSLs). Among the aliphatic and indolyl GSLs, sinigrin and glucobrassicin account 35.3 and 30.88% of the total GSLs. From this study, it is concluded that supply of S enhance the GSLs accumulation in kale.

  12. Effect of different proportion of sulphur treatments on the contents of glucosinolate in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala commonly consumed in Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Jin Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kale (Brassica oleracea L. Acephala Group is the rich source of medicinal value sulphur compounds, glucosinolates (GLSs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different proportion of sulphur (S supplementation levels on the accumulation of GLSs in the leaves of the kale cultivar ('TBC'. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC separation method guided to identify and quantify six GSLs including three aliphatic (progoitrin, sinigrin and gluconapin and three indolyl (glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin and neoglucobrasscin respectively. Analysis of these distinct levels of S supplementation revealed that the accumulation of individual and total GLSs was directly proportional to the S concentration. The maximum levels of total GLSs (26.8 µmol/g DW and glucobrassicin (9.98 µmol/g DW were found in lower and upper parts of the leaves supplemented with 1 mM and 2 mM S, respectively. Interestingly, aliphatic GSLs were noted predominant in all the parts (50.1, 59.3 and 56% of total GSLs. Among the aliphatic and indolyl GSLs, sinigrin and glucobrassicin account 35.3 and 30.88% of the total GSLs. From this study, it is concluded that supply of S enhance the GSLs accumulation in kale.

  13. Changes in the content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil after an application of straw and elemental sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ryant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil after the application of straw and elemental sulphur (ES were explored in a 2-year vegetation pot experiment. The following variants were included in the experiment: 1 unfertilised control; 2 wheat straw; 3 rape straw; 4 ES; 5 wheat straw + ES; 6 rape straw + ES. The two types of straw were applied in a dose of 32 g of dry matter and elemental sulphur was applied in a dose of 0.42 g per pot, i.e. 6 kg of soil. The unsatisfactory C:N ratio in the straw was optimised to 25:1 by adding nitrogen in urea. Soil samples were taken prior to sowing of the model plant (spring wheat in 2005 and white mustard in 2006 and then in regular monthly intervals until harvesting (5 times a year. The content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil was evaluated by multifactorial analysis of variance monitoring the effect of the crop, date of soil sampling, application of straw and elemental sulphur.The contents of water-soluble sulphur differed statistically significantly (P > 0.999 when growing the individual model plants. When growing white mustard in 2006 the amount of available sulphur was by 1/5 higher and could have been partly affected by the warm year 2006, as compared to 2005 when spring wheat was grown. Significant differences (P > 0.999 were also discovered among the dates of soil sampling; higher values were detected before the sowing of model plants, i.e. after incubation in the winter, during vegetation the content of water-soluble sulphur decreased and sulphur showed the significantly highest values at the harvest of model plants. When wheat straw was applied the sulphur content did not increase and this may be associated with the wide C:S ratio, whereas after the application of rape straw the content of water-soluble sulphur increased by one third more than in the unfertilised control. The application of elemental sulphur also significantly increased the amount of water-soluble sulphur in

  14. Sulphur loading of respirable and inhalable dust at a platinum smelter / Swanepoel J.D.

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, Johannes Deon.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution that sulphur, in the form of sulphates, has on ill health is still a focal point of many a study, especially in environmental studies depicting the effects that particulate air pollution has on health. Although the implication of sulphur on particulate matter is not yet well defined, numerous studies do state that the presence of sulphur on particulate matter contributes to poor health. Sulphur adhered to dust has been associated with cardiovascular mortality and the ability ...

  15. Effect of calcinations temperature of CuO nanoparticle on the kinetics of decontamination and decontamination products of sulphur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, T H; Singh, Beer; Srivastava, A K; Prasad, G K; Srivastava, A R; Ganesan, K; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2011-09-15

    Present study investigates the potential of CuO nanoparticles calcined at different temperature for the decontamination of persistent chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 ± 2 °C). Nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation method and characterized by using SEM, EDAX, XRD, and Raman Spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were tested as destructive adsorbents for the degradation of HD. Reactions were monitored by GC-FID technique and the reaction products characterized by GC-MS. It was observed that the rate of degradation of HD decreases with the increase in calcination temperature and there is a change in the percentage of product of HD degradation. GC-MS data indicated that the elimination product increases with increase in calcination temperature whereas the hydrolysis product decreases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of sulphur fumigation on the chemistry of ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Ying; Kong, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Long, Fang; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jin-Di; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin

    2018-01-15

    Ginger (Zingiberis Rhizoma), a commonly-consumed food supplement, is often sulphur-fumigated during post-harvest handling, but it remains unknown if sulphur fumigation induces chemical transformations in ginger. In this study, the effects of sulphur fumigation on ginger chemicals were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS)-based metabolomics. The results showed that sulphur fumigation significantly altered the holistic chemical profile of ginger by triggering chemical transformations of certain original components. 6-Gingesulphonic acid, previously reported as a naturally-occurring component in ginger, was revealed to be a sulphur fumigation-induced artificial derivative, which was deduced to be generated by electrophilic addition of 6-shogaol to sulphurous acid. Using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS extracting ion analysis with 6-gingesulphonic acid as a characteristic chemical marker, all the commercial ginger samples inspected were determined to be sulphur-fumigated. The research outcomes provide a chemical basis for further comprehensive safety and efficacy evaluations of sulphur-fumigated ginger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribution of sulphur into products from waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, D.; Haydary, J.; Markos, J.

    2012-01-01

    Tire pyrolysis is getting growing attention as an effective waste tire disposal method in comparison to environmentally less friendly methods like dumping or incineration. But the scrap tire sulphur content can be a potential obstacle to scrap tire utilization as a fuel. In this paper the distribution of sulphur into tire pyrolysis yields, solid (char) and liquid (tar), was investigated. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out under different conditions to determine the partitioning of sulphur into pyrolysis products. The influence of different temperatures and reaction times was investigated in a laboratory flow reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Solid and liquid residues were collected and analyzed by elemental analysis. The sulphur content in residual char and tar was determined using an elemental analyzer and the sulphur forms in tar were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (Authors)

  18. Oxidation of inorganic compounds of sulphur by various sulphur bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, C D; Prisk, J

    1953-01-01

    Cultures of thiobacillus thiooxidans, Th. thioparus, Th. novellus, Thiobacillus b strains t and kand Th. concretivorus, Thiobacillus x and the m strains, organisms isolated from concrete were examined to elucidate the mode of oxidation and to establish the identity of the organisms recently isolated from corroded concrete. Thiosulphate was oxidized by all these bacteria. Th. thiooxidans, Th. concretivorus and Thiobacillus x first converted it to tetrathionate and sulphate and then oxidized the tetrathionate to sulphate and free sulphuric acid. Thiobaciullus x differed from the other two in that, owing to a lesser acid tolerance, some tetrathionate was found in the final products of oxidation. Th. Thioparus converted thiosulphate to sulphate and sulphur, followed by partial oxidation of the sulphur to sulphuric acid. Th. novellus produced sulphate and sulphuric acid. Thiobacillus b, the t and k strains and the m strains formed sulphate and tetrathionate with temporary increase in pH value; only Thiobacillus x oxidized tetrationate, yielding sulphate and sulphuric acid. Elementary sulphur was oxidized by Th. thiooxidans, th. Concretivorus, thiobacillus x and Th. thioparus; the rates of oxidation decreased in that order, and the only product was sulphuric acid. Hydrogen sulphide was oxidized only at low concentrations and only by th. Concretivorus and Thiobacillus x; sulphuric acid was the end-product, and elementary sulphur may have been an intermediate. Thiobacillus x differed from Th. thiooxidans in pH range for growth and from Th. thioparus in its method of oxidation of thiosulphate, tetrathionate and H/sub 2/S. The m strains were similar to thiobacillus b and the t and k strains of trautwein.

  19. Probing into the effects of a magnetic field on the electrode processes of iron in sulphuric acid solutions with dichromate based on the fundamental electrochemistry kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhanpeng; Huang Delun; Yang Wu

    2005-01-01

    The effects of an applied magnetic field on the electrode processes of iron in sulphuric acid solutions with dichromate have been investigated by electrochemical measurements. Open circuit potentials, cathodic and anodic polarisation curves, values of polarisation resistance were measured in the presence or absence of a 0.4 T horizontal magnetic field (HMF). A potentiostatic polarisation plus magnetic field perturbation technique was used to study the effect of the magnetic field on open circuit corrosion. Cathodic reaction rates at open circuit potentials for iron in sulphuric acid solutions containing dichromate ions are controlled by both the electron-transfer process and the diffusion process. A magnetic field made the open circuit potential move in the positive direction, and changes of the open circuit potentials due to the magnetic field increase with increasing dichromate concentration. When iron was potentiostatically polarised at open circuit potentials in the absence of a magnetic field, a cathodic current was observed after a magnetic field was imposed. Such cathodic currents induced by the magnetic field increases with increasing dichromate concentration. The positive shifts of open circuit potential, the decrease of polarisation resistance, and the occurrence of cathodic currents induced by the magnetic field are caused by the accelerating effect of magnetic field on the cathodic diffusion process. Measured current densities showed lower, equal, or higher values in the presence of the magnetic field than those in the absence of a magnetic field at certain anodic potentials. This effect of the magnetic field is related to the contribution of the cathodic and anodic reactions to the measured current and the types of rate-determining steps for each reaction at certain potentials. The applied magnetic field significantly decreased the polarisation resistance. The experimental results in this paper are formulated based on the fundamental electrochemistry

  20. Nuclear physical express analysis of solid fuel sulphur content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Yu.; Ponomaryova, M

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Sulphur content is an important qualitative coal parameter. The problem of coal sulphur content determining remains one of the most important both in Kazakhstan and in other coal-mining countries. The traditional method of sampling, the final stage of which is chemical analysis of coal for sulphur, is characterized by high labour intensity and low productivity. That's why it is ineffective for mass express analytical quality control and technological schemes of coal processing control. In this connection it is very urgent to develop a method of coal sulphur content on the base of a series nuclear-geophysical equipment with an isotope source of primary radiation, allowing to increase analysis representativity and maximally take into account coal real composition inconstancy. To solve the problem set it is necessary to study the main laws of X-ray-radiometric method applied to the coal quality analysis for working out instrumental methods of speed determining of coal sulphur content with satisfactory accuracy for technological tasks, to determine laws of changing the flows of characteristic X-ray and scattered radiation from coal sulphur content of various real composition and to optimize methodical and hardware parameters, providing minimal error of sulphur content control. On the base of studying laws of real composition coal components and their interconnections with sulphur content there has been substantiated the expediency of using hardware functions of calcium and iron to control coal sulphur contents; there has been suggested a model to estimate the methodical error of coal sulphur content determining on the base of the data about sensitivity to sulphur and effecting factors using ultimate methods of coal components substitution methods allowing to optimize sulphur control parameters; there has been worked out an algorithm of X-ray-radiometric control of sulphur content based on the sequential radiating the analyzed coal with gamma-radiation of

  1. Experimental Investigations of Effect of Sulphur on Beach Sand–Fly Ash–Asphalt (S-F-A Paving Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakumar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main components of the flexible pavements are asphalt and aggregates. But in most of the places in India there is shortage of the good quality aggregates (especially coarse aggregates, at the same time beach sand is available in plenty in many regions. Due to relative abundance of beach sand, the studies on the utilities of the beach sand in paving mixes are worth taking up. But beach Sand-Asphalt mix alone is not suitable for pavement construction, because of its low stability and high air voids. In the present study, Sand-Fly ash-Asphalt-Sulphur (S-F-A-S mixes are being made in different proportions and tested for their properties. Fatigue strength, stability, water sensitivity, stiffness modulus and dynamic modulus tests are carried out at standard test conditions and the results are analyzed for drawing conclusions. This study investigates the potential use of abundant ingredients, which may replace the ones which are scarce in nature.

  2. Effects of chlorine and sulphur on particle formation in wood combustion performed in a laboratory scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olli Sippula; Terttaliisa Lind; Jorma Jokiniemi [University of Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland). Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences

    2008-09-15

    Fine particle formation in wood combustion was studied in a laboratory scale laminar flow reactor at various flue gas chlorine and sulphur concentrations. Aerosol samples were quenched at around 850{sup o}C using a porous tube diluter. Fine particle number concentrations, mass concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions were measured. In addition, flue gas composition, including SO{sub 2} and HCl, was monitored. Experimental results were interpreted by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Addition of HCl clearly raised fine particle mass concentration (PM1.0) which was because of increased release of ash-forming material to fine particles. Especially the release of K, Na, Zn and Cd to fine particles increased. These species form chlorides which apparently increases their volatilization from the fuel. When a sufficient amount of SO{sub 2} was supplied in a chlorine rich combustion (S/Cl molar ratio from 4.7 to 7.5), most of the HCl stayed in the gas phase, release of ash-forming elements decreased and also fine particle concentrations dropped significantly. The sulphation of alkali metals is suggested to play a key role in the observed decrease in the fine particle concentration. It seems that the formation of sulphates leads to alkali metal retention in the coarse particle fraction. 27 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Temperature Effects on Stainless Steel 316L Corrosion in the Environment of Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu Arwati, I. G.; Herianto Majlan, Edy; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Shyuan, Loh Kee; Arifin, Khuzaimah Binti; Husaini, Teuku; Alfa, Sagir; Ashidiq, Fakhruddien

    2018-03-01

    In its application, metal is always in contact with its environment whether air, vapor, water, and other chemicals. During contact, chemical interactions emerge between metals and their respective environments such that the metal surface corrodes. This study aims to determine the corrosion rate of 316L stainless steel sulphuric acid environment (H2SO4) with weight loss and electrochemical methods. The corrosion rate (CR) is value of 316L stainless steel by weight loss method with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with concentration of 0.5 M. The result obtained in conjunction with the increase of temperature the rate of erosion obtained appears to be larger, with a consecutive 3 hour the temperature of 50°C is 0.27 mg/cm2h, temperature 70°C 0.38 mg/cm2h, and temperature 90 °C 0.52 mg/cm2h. With the electrochemical method, the current value increases by using a C350 potentiostal tool. The higher the current, the longer the time the corrosion rate increases, where the current is at 90 °C with a 10-minute treatment time of 0.0014736 A. The 316L stainless steel in surface metal morphology is shown by using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

  4. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and N2 fixation of young Robinia pseudoacacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Z; Flessa, H.; Dyckmans, J.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on carbon and nitrogen uptake and nitrogen source partitioning were determined in one year-old locust trees using a dual 13 C and 15 N continuous labelling experiment. Elevated carbon dioxide increased the fraction of new carbon in total carbon, but it did not alter carbon partitioning among plant compartments. Elevated carbon dioxide also increased the fraction of new nitrogen in total nitrogen. This was coupled with a shift in nitrogen source partitioning toward nitrogen fixation. Soil nitrogen uptake was not affected, but nitrogen fixation was markedly increased by elevated carbon dioxide treatment. The increased nitrogen fixation tended to decrease the C/N ratio in the presence of elevated carbon dioxide. Total dry mass of root nodules doubled in response to elevated carbon dioxide, however, this effect was not considered significant because of the great variability in root nodule formation. Overall, it was concluded that the growth of locust trees in an elevated carbon dioxide environment will not primarily be limited by nitrogen availability, giving the R. pseudoacacia species a competitive advantage over non-nitrogen-fixing tree species. It was also suggested that the increase in nitrogen fixation observed in response to elevated carbon dioxide treatment may play a key role in the growth response of forest ecosystems to elevated carbon dioxide by improving nitrogen availability for non-nitrogen-fixing trees. 51 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  5. Uranium dioxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawidzki, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a sintered, high density, large crystal grain size uranium dioxide pellet is described which involves: (i) reacting a uranyl nitrate of formula UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O with a sulphur source, at a temperature of from about 300 deg. C to provide a sulphur-containing uranium trioxide; (ii) reacting the thus-obtained modified uranium trioxide with ammonium nitrate to form an insoluble sulphur-containing ammonium uranate; (iii) neutralizing the thus-formed slurry with ammonium hydroxide to precipitate out as an insoluble ammonium uranate the remaining dissolved uranium; (iv) recovering the thus-formed precipitates in a dry state; (v) reducing the dry precipitate to UO 2 , and forming it into 'green' pellets; and (vi) sintering the pellets in a hydrogen atmosphere at an elevated temperature

  6. Effect of fO2 on phase relationship in basaltic andesites during magmatic differentiation: Control of fO2 and sulphur speciation in piston cylinder experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Tattitch, Brian; Blundy, Jonathan D.; Skora, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    Within the mantle wedge above subduction zones, oxidation reaction take place by interaction of reduced mantle rocks with more oxidized, hydrous fluids, which can cause a local drop of the solidus, resulting in partial melting (2,6,7). The resultant melts are more oxidized that their ocean floor counterparts, which has implications for their subsequent differentiation paths, the speciation of multivalent elements and the solubility and transport of chemical compounds in magmatic systems (1,4,5). We present a series of sulphur-doped high-pressure experiments conducted to investigate the effect of oxygen fugacity on phase relationships and the behaviour of sulphur in silicate melts. Natural aphyric andesite (FM37) erupted from Laguna del Maule volcano, Chile (3) was selected as a starting composition. Experiments were carried out at 5kbar, 950-1150° C and variable oxygen fugacity conditions. New experiments buffered at Co-CoO and Ni-NiO buffer conditions have been performed using a new "MTB capsule design" developed in order to accurately control fO2 by means of a double capsule containing metal-oxide buffers and a pyrex sleeve to minimise H2 diffusion. This new design constrains oxygen fugacity to within ±0.1-0.2logfO2 units of the target value. Before conducting these experiments, the assemblage was tested multiple times at 10kbar, 1000° C over 24-48 hours and demonstrated consistent, accurate fO2 control. Analyses of the preliminary experimental run products, from a related Chilean basaltic andesite starting composition, demonstrate a clear effect of fO2 on phase relationships and the proportion of melt generated during experiments. Under oxidized conditions, as temperature decreased from 1150° C to 1050° C, the amount of melt decreased from 100% to ~80%, due to the formation of orthopyroxene, anhydrite and plagioclase. In contrast, in reduced runs the system remains nearly liquid (~5% crystals) down to 950° C due to the change in sulphur speciation and

  7. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Clayton; Iyer, Anand Krishnan V; Wang, Liying; Wu, Nianqiang; Yakisich, Juan S; Rojanasakul, Yon; Azad, Neelam

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is a ubiquitous whitening compound widely used in topical products such as sunscreens, lotions and facial creams. The damaging health effects of TiO 2 inhalation has been widely studied in rats, mice and humans showing oxidative stress increase, DNA damage, cell death and inflammatory gene upregulation in lung and throat cells; however, the effects on skin cells from long-term topical use of various products remain largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the effect of specific TiO 2 nanoparticles (H 2 TiO 7 ) on a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). We performed a comparative analysis using three TiO 2 particles varying in size (Fine, Ultrafine and H 2 TiO 7 ) and analyzed their effects on HaCaTs. There is a clear dose-dependent increase in superoxide production, caspase 8 and 9 activity, and apoptosis in HaCaTs after treatment with all three forms of TiO 2 ; however, there is no consistent effect on cell viability and proliferation with either of these TiO 2 particles. While there is data suggesting UV exposure can enhance the carcinogenic effects of TiO 2 , we did not observe any significant effect of UV-C exposure combined with TiO 2 treatment on HaCaTs. Furthermore, TiO 2 -treated cells showed minimal effects on VEGF upregulation and Wnt signaling pathway thereby showing no potential effect on angiogenesis and malignant transformation. Overall, we report here an increase in apoptosis, which may be caspase 8/Fas-dependent, and that the H 2 TiO 7 nanoparticles, despite their smaller particle size, had no significant enhanced effect on HaCaT cells as compared to Fine and Ultrafine forms of TiO 2 .

  8. Effects of the transcutaneous electrode temperature on the accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line C; Brage-Andersen, Lene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    The harmful effect of hypocapnia on the neonatal brain emphasizes the importance of monitoring arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). Transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) reduces the need for arterial blood sampling. Drawbacks are high electrode temperature causing risks of skin...

  9. Sulphur highways : value-added solutions to create sulphur demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, R.

    2010-09-15

    Producers generally view sulphur as a nuisance with essentially no benefit. In Alberta, a greater portion of sulphur production will shift from natural gas to the oilsands producing areas where there is limited infrastructure to move it out. Increased amounts of sour oil and gas production together with greater fuel desulphurization have also led to more sulphur being produced. In order to address the inevitable storage issue, Shell is considering value-added uses for the product, such as sulphur asphalt. The company developed Thiopave, a sulphur-based product for use in asphalt paving mixtures that can improve the mechanical performance of asphalt. The sulphur can be added to the asphalt mix as a solid pellet, which helps reduce the emission of sulphur vapour, odour and eye irritation. Twenty Thiopave projects are planned for the 2010 paving season in 9 U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces. Sulphur Enhanced Asphalt Modifier (SEAM) was the first generation of Thiopave developed in 2003. SEAM replaces 20 to 25 percent by volume of the bitumen in asphalt mix. The properties allow Thiopave-enhanced roads to perform better than conventional roads in both consistently high temperature regions and climates with wide temperature variations. In 2007, an asphalt mix containing 40 percent by mass of Thiopave was used in a trial in Qatar. The Thiopave asphalt mix was compared with a conventional mix at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40 degrees C to determine the stiffness ratio. It was determined that Thiopave mixes containing high-penetration bitumen can be used to build temperature resistant roads that are stiffer in hot summer temperatures while improving the pavement's cold weather cracking performance. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  10. Biological parameters in technogenic soils of a former sulphur mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwik-Ziomek, Anetta; Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Lemanowicz, Joanna; Koper, Jan; Szarlip, Paweł

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted on the soils originating from a reclamation area of the former sulphur mine in Tarnobrzeg, Poland. Soil was sampled 16 years after the completion of mining works with the open-pit method at Machów, as well as 7 years after sulphur mining via the `smelting' method in the Jeziórko mine was abandoned. Several biological parameters were examined: soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and the activity of rhodanese and arylsulphatase enzymes taking part in sulphur transformation within the site's soils. The soils showed a high total sulphur and sulphates content. The SO42- constituted a large fraction of total sulphur, in some cases, exceeding 80% or even 95% of total sulphur. The soil pH decreased due to the degrading effects of sulphur mining. In the soils studied from the locations with the lowest soil pH value, no activity of arylsulphatase was reported and the activity of rhodanese was lowest. The highest soil respiration values were recorded from the 0-5 cm layer in the areas covered with forest vegetation. A high soil respiration value at the waste heap at Machów wherein a very high concentration of Stot and SO42- was observed can be due to the ability of fungi to produce hyphal strands and to survive unfavourable conditions.

  11. The effect of cutting on carbon dioxide absorption and carbohydrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grass) and Osteospermun sinuatum (Karoo-bush) plants during the flag leaf and flower bud stages respectively resulted in a sharp decline in net carbon dioxide absorption. As new photosynthetic material was produced the total carbon ...

  12. Effects of boric acid and borax on titanium dioxide genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkez, Hasan

    2008-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is a potential carcinogenic/mutagenic agent although it is used in many areas including medical industries and cosmetics. Boron (as boric acid and borax) has also well-described biological effects and therapeutic benefits. In a previous study, sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN) rates were assessed in control and TiO(2)-treated (1, 2, 3, 5, 7.5 and 10 microm) human whole blood cultures. The results showed that the rates of SCE (at 2, 3, 5, 7.5 and 10 microm) and MN (at 5, 7.5 and 10 microm) formation in peripheral lymphocytes were increased significantly by TiO(2) compared with the controls. The present study also investigated the genetic effects of boric acid and borax (2.5, 5 and 10 microm) on cultures with and without TiO(2) addition. No significant increase in SCE and MN frequencies were observed at all concentrations of boron compounds. However, TiO(2)-induced SCE and MN could be reduced significantly by the presence of boric acid and borax. In conclusion, this study indicated for the first time that boric acid and borax led to an increased resistance of DNA to damage induced by TiO(2). 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  13. Sulphur levels in saliva as an estimation of sulphur status in cattle: a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dermauw, V.; Froidmont, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Boever, de J.L.; Vyverman, W.; Debeer, A.E.; Janssens, G.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Effective assessment of sulphur (S) status in cattle is important for optimal health, yet remains difficult. Rumen fluid S concentrations are preferred, but difficult to sample under practical conditions. This study aimed to evaluate salivary S concentration as estimator of S status in cattle.

  14. Hypothermia reduces sulphur mustard toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Lei; Gong Wenrong; Nelson, Peggy; Martin, Leanne; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of sulphur mustard (HD)-induced toxicity was investigated in first passage cultures of human skin keratinocytes and on hairless guinea pig skin. When cells exposed to HD were incubated at 37 deg. C, a concentration-dependent decline in viability was observed that was maximal by 2 days. In contrast, no significant HD-induced toxicity was evident up to 4 days posttreatment when the cells were incubated at 25 deg. C. However, these protective effects were lost by 24 h when the cells were switched back to 37 deg. C. The protective effects of hypothermia were also demonstrated when apoptotic endpoints were examined. The HD concentration-dependent induction of fragmented DNA (as quantitated using soluble DNA and the TUNEL reaction), morphology, and p53 expression were all significantly depressed when cell cultures were incubated at 25 deg. C compared to 37 deg. C. When animals were exposed to HD vapour for 2, 4, and 6 min and left at room temperature, lesions were produced whose severity was dependent on exposure time and that were maximal by 72 h posttreatment. Moderate cooling (5-10 deg. C) of HD exposure sites posttreatment (4-6 h) significantly reduced the severity of the resultant lesions. However, in contrast to the in vitro results, these effects were permanent. It appears that the early and noninvasive act of cooling HD-exposed skin may provide a facile means of reducing the severity of HD-induced cutaneous lesions

  15. K lines in the sulphur isonuclear sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmeri, P.; Mendoza, C.; Bautista, M.A.; Garcia, J.; Kallman, T.R.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate and complete sets of atomic data are being computed for the radiative and Auger processes giving rise to K lines in ions of sulphur. AUTOSTRUCTURE, HFR and BPRM codes are used, taking into account configuration interaction, core relaxation and relativistic effects so as to generate data following an approach used in our previous studies on iron and oxygen. Level energies, wavelengths, A-values and Auger rates are compared with available measurements and previous calculations

  16. THE SOLUBILITY OF MILAS BAUXITE ORE IN SULPHURIC ACI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa GULFEN

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of calcination conditions,sulphuric acid concentrations and dissolvingtemperature and period as parameters to thesolubility of the bauxite ore from Gobekdagı reservesin Mugla-Milas region were investigated. The bauxitesamples were calcined in different periods at differenttemperatures. Then the solubility of the calcinedbauxite samples in sulphuric acid solution wasexamined. Dissolving activation energy (Ea wascalculated using the optimum kinetics equation andthe results obtained from the solubility studiesexamined dissolving temperatures and periods

  17. Daylong Effect of Tooth Brushing or Combination Tooth Brushing and Tongue Cleaning Using Antiplaque®Toothpaste on Volatile Sulphur Compound Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriasti Indah Wardhany

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the daylong effect of Antiplaque® toothpaste active copound and the effect of tooth brushing or combination of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning on Volatile Sulphur Compounds (VSC levels. Methods: Clinical experimental double blinded microbiological and clinical examination. Subjects mainly from dental faculty student with or without a chief complain of halitosis. One hundred and twenty subjects were divided into four groups that consist of thirty samples each group. Two group are treatment subjects were divided into four groups that consist thirty samples each group. Two groups are treatment groups using Antiplaque® toothpaste and two groups are control groups using placebo toothpaste. The daylong effects of VSC levels are measured by Halimeter and organoleptic. The intraoral status were measured including periodontal status and tongue index. Result: There are a reduction of VSC levels in both treatment and control group, but the reduction only significant in group using Antiplaque® toothpaste (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.05. There are a reduction of VSC levels in both treatment using Antiplaque® toothpaste, but the combination of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning reduced VSC levels significantly lower than tooth brushing treatment (Mann Whitney U test, P,0.05. Conclusion: Tooth brushing and tongue cleaning using Antiplaque® toothpaste significantly reduced VSC levels.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.95

  18. Computational investigation of the co-doping effect of sulphur and nitrogen on the electronics of CsTaWO6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuxie Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available CsTaWO6 is a typical AMWO6-type compound and the photocatalysis of the pure and doped phases has been extensively studied experimentally. In this work, the electronic structures of sulphur (S and nitrogen (N co-doped CsTaWO6 have been studied in the framework of density functional theory, in particular the S/N co-doping effect has been investigated. It is found that, (i S/N co-dopants prefer to be separated; (ii middle-gap states are introduced by N and S-dopant at the edges of valence band and conduction band; and (iii Co-doping not only narrows the band gap, but also promotes the separation of photo-excited electrons and holes. Feature (iii has been identified as a key reason why S/N co-doped CsTaWO6 is more efficient in photocatalytic water-splitting. A general doping strategy has been further suggested: co-dopants which can dominate the frontier states and favour to be separated can offer excellent photocatalysis performance.

  19. Effect of Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation on Depth of Anaesthesia during and after Isoflurane Anaesthesia in Sulphur-Crested Cockatoos (Cacatua galerita galerita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Chemonges

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV on the depth of inhalation anaesthesia in parrots. Anaesthesia was induced with 3.0% isoflurane in six Sulphur-crested Cockatoos (Cacatua galerita galerita and maintained using either 1.5% or 3.0% during spontaneous ventilation (SV or IPPV at 6 (IPPV-6 or 12 (IPPV-12 breaths per minute. The time taken for the appearance of somatic reflexes and the return of SV after IPPV was recorded. During recovery, the body jerk, beak, eye, and shivering reflexes appeared after 126 ± 27 s, 133 ± 26 s, 165 ± 34 s, and 165 ± 44 s, respectively. All cockatoos developed apnoea after IPPV-12 and only some did after IPPV-6. Return of SV after IPPV-12 was delayed compared to IPPV-6. Recovery times after the SV runs were significantly different between 1.5% and 3.0% isoflurane anaesthesia. Similarly, after IPPV, the recovery times were significantly different between 1.5% and 3.0% isoflurane anaesthesia. Recovery times after 3.0% inhaled isoflurane were longer than those of 1.5% inhaled isoflurane. In conclusion, cockatoos recovering from isoflurane anaesthesia are likely to exhibit body jerk, beak, eye, and shivering reflexes in that order. IPPV increases the depth of anaesthesia in a rate and dose-related manner and prolongs recovery.

  20. The effect of zinc (Zn) content to cell potential value and efficiency aluminium sacrificial anode in 0.2 M sulphuric acid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akranata, Ahmad Ridho; Sulistijono, Awali, Jatmoko

    2018-04-01

    Sacrificial anode is sacirifial component that used to protect steel from corrosion. Generally, the component are made of aluminium and zinc in water environment. Sacrificial anode change the protected metal structure become cathodic with giving current. The advantages of aluminium is corrosion resistance, non toxicity and easy forming. Zinc generally used for coating in steel to prevent steel from corrosion. This research was conducted to analyze the effect of zinc content to the value of cell potential and efficiency aluminium sacrificial anode with sand casting method in 0.2 M sulphuric acid environment. The sacrificial anode fabrication made with alloying aluminium and zinc metals with variation composition of alloy with pure Al, Al-3Zn, Al-6Zn, and Al-9Zn with open die sand casting process. The component installed with ASTM A36 steel. After the research has been done the result showed that addition of zinc content increase the cell potential, protection efficiency, and anode efficiency from steel plate. Cell potential value measurement and weight loss measurement showed that addition of zinc content increase the cell potential value into more positive that can protected the ASTM A36 steel more efficiently that showed in weight loss measurement where the protection efficiency and anodic efficiency of Al-9Zn sacrificial anode is better than protection efficiency and anodic efficiency of pure Al. The highest protection efficiency gotten by Al-9Zn alloy

  1. Effective utilization technology of carbon dioxide. CO sub 2 no yuko riyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibusuki, T. (National Research Inst. for pollution and Resources, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-03-12

    As carbon dioxide-related environmental measures, method was explained to chemically convert and utilize carbon dioxide. Synthesis is possible of methanol, carbon monoxide, different carbohydrates, etc. by catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide, using hydrogen produced by the electrolysis of water. Task consists of heightening in both convertibility and selectivity, and abundant supply of low cost hydrogen. Methane, alcohol, etc. can be synthesized by electrochemical reducion of carbon dioxide. Because of effectively inserting multiple electron, discssion is being made of catalyst, intergrated with electrode, and electron transmitter. The photoelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide can be also made by utilizing photoelectric current, generated upon photoradiation on the semiconductive electrode. However, task consists of heightening in both efficiency and selectivity. Photochemical reduction of carbon dioxide, actually made by green plant, consists of oxidationlike decomposition of water and reduction of carbon dioxide. Both those reactions are skillfully separated by intermediation of very quick electron transmission system. Reduction is being studied with semiconductor, metallic colloid, enzyme, metallic complex and other various catalysts. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Utilization of activated carbon loaded with sulphur for sulphur fertilization in agriculture; Verwertung von mit Schwefel beladener Aktivkohle als Schwefelduenger in der Landwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirfel, Kristina; Hoffmann, Heide [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). AG Agraroekologie und Oekologischer Landbau

    2013-01-15

    Due to the decrease of atmospheric sulphur deposition, sulphur fertilization has gained significance for agriculture in recent years. Carbon-sulphur-pellets (CSP), activated carbon pellets loaded with sulphur, previously used for desulphurization in biogas plants, are up to now disposed of as waste. In this context the question arises if CSP could be of use for sulphur fertilization of agricultural crops. The objective of this study was to test sulphur release and plant availability from, and plant tolerance towards CSP. A pot experiment using Zea mays with different shares of CSP was carried out. Leaf green intensity of vital plants, indicating plants' current nutritional status, was measured and differences in plant development were documented regularly. At the end of the trial period biomass and elemental contents of the test plants, as well as electrical conductivity and pH-value of the substrate-CSP-mixtures were determined. Amendments of 0.2 m.-% to 1.0 m.-% had a positive effect on plants' dry mass yield; higher shares led to considerable yield losses. By addition of CSP, sulphur content in the plant dry mass increased compared to the control without sulphur fertilization. This result indicates that sulphur adsorbed to activated carbon becomes plant available when applicated to cultural substrate. (orig.)

  3. Sulphur removal in IGCC projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, F. (Parsons (United Kingdom))

    1998-01-01

    The technology for recovering elemental sulphur from H[sub 2]S bearing gases is well established. The modified Claus Process is the principal work-horse in sulphur recovery and can customarily achieve conversion efficiencies of 95% or better. Nowadays, such a level of recovery is no longer sufficient in most instances and sulphur recovery facility must then include some form of enhanced recovery, usually by treating the Claus tail gas. A number of processes have been introduced to enable the overall recovery to be increased. Recoveries in excess of 99% are both feasible and economic. Use of oxygen in place has become very popular in cases where oxygen is available cheaply or where capacity increases are designed. Most IGCC projects needing an air separation plant would automatically benefit from extending the use of oxygen to the sulphur recovery plant. The most popular route to minimising sulphur emissions in the context of IGCC projects has involved an oxygen based Claus plant followed by tail gas hydrogenation, hydrogen sulphide recovery and its recycle to the Claus section. The recovery of H[sub 2]S from the Claus tail gas can be integrated with the main gas treating system in the gasification plant. The cost advantage of doing so is significant. Parsons has been involved with the technology since 1949 and has been responsible for developments such as the ammonia burning Claus and jointly with Unocal, the BSRP tail gas process and Selectox processes. Recent innovations in response changing environmental and production requirements have included catalytic and tail gas processes which reduce sulphur emissions. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Sulphur removal in IGCC projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, F. [Parsons (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The technology for recovering elemental sulphur from H{sub 2}S bearing gases is well established. The modified Claus Process is the principal work-horse in sulphur recovery and can customarily achieve conversion efficiencies of 95% or better. Nowadays, such a level of recovery is no longer sufficient in most instances and sulphur recovery facility must then include some form of enhanced recovery, usually by treating the Claus tail gas. A number of processes have been introduced to enable the overall recovery to be increased. Recoveries in excess of 99% are both feasible and economic. Use of oxygen in place has become very popular in cases where oxygen is available cheaply or where capacity increases are designed. Most IGCC projects needing an air separation plant would automatically benefit from extending the use of oxygen to the sulphur recovery plant. The most popular route to minimising sulphur emissions in the context of IGCC projects has involved an oxygen based Claus plant followed by tail gas hydrogenation, hydrogen sulphide recovery and its recycle to the Claus section. The recovery of H{sub 2}S from the Claus tail gas can be integrated with the main gas treating system in the gasification plant. The cost advantage of doing so is significant. Parsons has been involved with the technology since 1949 and has been responsible for developments such as the ammonia burning Claus and jointly with Unocal, the BSRP tail gas process and Selectox processes. Recent innovations in response changing environmental and production requirements have included catalytic and tail gas processes which reduce sulphur emissions. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Discontinuities in Jovian sulphur plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekler, Y [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (USA); Eviatar, A; Siscoe, G L

    1979-10-01

    In recent years, the Jovian sulphur nebula, which is the only component of the thermal plasma in the magnetosphere of Jupiter which emits in the visible, has been the subject of considerable study. A large number of investigators have come up with widely differing models for the density, composition and temperature of the Jovian magnetospheric plasma. In this paper a different characteristic of the sulphur emission, namely its radial distribution is discussed and an attempt is made to assess its implications for the plasma and magnetic field configuration of the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter.

  6. Effects of carbon dioxide on turkey poult performance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândido, M G L; Xiong, Y; Gates, R S; Tinôco, I F F; Koelkebeck, K W

    2018-04-14

    Appropriate ventilation of poultry facilities is critical for achieving optimum performance. Ventilation promotes good air exchange to remove harmful gases, excessive heat, moisture, and particulate matter. In a turkey brooder barn, carbon dioxide (CO2) may be present at higher levels during the winter due to reduced ventilation rates to maintain high temperatures. This higher CO2 may negatively affect turkey poult performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of subjecting tom turkey poults (commercial Large White Hybrid Converters) to different constant levels of atmospheric CO2 on their growth performance and behavior. In three consecutive replicate trials, a total of 552 poults were weighed post-hatch and randomly placed in 3 environmental control chambers, with 60 (Trial 1) and 62 (Trials 2 and 3) poults housed per chamber. They were reared with standard temperature and humidity levels for 3 wks. The poults were exposed to 3 different fixed CO2 concentrations of 2,000, 4,000, and 6,000 ppm throughout each trial. Following each trial (replicate), the CO2 treatments were switched and assigned to a different chamber in order to expose each treatment to each chamber. At the end of each trial, all poults were sent to a local turkey producer to finish growout. For each trial, individual body weight and group feed intake were measured, and mortality and behavioral movement were recorded. Wk 3 and cumulative body weight gain of poults housed at 2,000 ppm CO2 was greater (P < 0.05) than those exposed to 4,000 and 6,000 ppm CO2. Feed intake and feed conversion were unaffected by the different CO2 concentrations. No significant difference in poult mortality was found between treatments. In addition, no effect of CO2 treatments was evident in the incidence of spontaneous turkey cardiomyopathy for turkeys processed at 19 wk of age. Poults housed at the lower CO2 level (2,000 ppm) demonstrated reduced movement compared with those exposed to

  7. Assessing the suitability of Norway spruce wood as an environmental archive for sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrelet, T.; Ulrich, A.; Rennenberg, H.; Zwicky, C.N.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of Norway spruces (Picea abies L. Karst.) as an environmental archive for sulphur. For this purpose spruce trees were sampled in two distinct regions of Switzerland: the Alps and the Swiss Plateau, which differ significantly with respect to S immission. Wood samples were measured using two methods: LASER Ablation high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-HR-ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. Independently corroborated by previous measurements of sulphur in peat bogs, the rise and fall of sulphur dioxide pollution in Switzerland appears to be reflected in spruce wood sulphur content. While the wood sulphur content profile of trees sampled in the Alps is relatively flat, the profiles of trees located on the Swiss Plateau display a characteristic sulphur peak. This corresponds to air pollution data in the different regions and indicates that the trees reacted on the changing S supply and recorded a pollution signal in the wood. - Norway spruce is a suitable archive for sulphur when physiological aspects and limitations are taken into account

  8. Effects of the transcutaneous electrode temperature on the accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line C; Brage-Andersen, Lene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    The harmful effect of hypocapnia on the neonatal brain emphasizes the importance of monitoring arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). Transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) reduces the need for arterial blood sampling. Drawbacks are high electrode temperature causing risks of skin...... burning. The aim was to determine the accuracy and precision of tcPCO2 at reduced electrode temperature....

  9. Effects of fuel and forest conservation on future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J C; Kasting, J F

    1992-01-01

    We develop a numerical simulation of the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon that works over time scales extending from years to millions of years. The ocean is represented by warm and cold shallow water reservoirs, a thermocline reservoir, and deep Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific reservoirs. The atmosphere is characterized by a single carbon reservoir and the global biota by a single biomass reservoir. The simulation includes the rock cycle, distinguishing between shelf carbonate and pelagic carbonate precipitation, with distinct lysocline depths in the three deep ocean reservoirs. Dissolution of pelagic carbonates in response to decrease in lysocline depth is included. The simulation is tuned to reproduce the observed radiocarbon record resulting from atomic weapon testing. It is tuned also to reproduce the distribution of dissolved phosphate and total dissolved carbon between the ocean reservoirs as well as the carbon isotope ratios for both 13C and 14C in ocean and atmosphere. The simulation reproduces reasonably well the historical record of carbon dioxide partial pressure as well as the atmospheric isotope ratios for 13C and 14C over the last 200 yr as these have changed in response to fossil fuel burning and land use changes, principally forest clearance. The agreements between observation and calculation involves the assumption of a carbon dioxide fertilization effect in which the rate of production of biomass increases with increasing carbon dioxide partial pressure. At present the fertilization effect of increased carbon dioxide outweighs the effects of forest clearance, so the biota comprises an overall sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide sufficiently large to bring the budget approximately into balance. This simulation is used to examine the future evolution of carbon dioxide and its sensitivity to assumptions about the rate of fossil fuel burning and of forest clearance. Over times extending up to thousands of years, the results are insensitive to the

  10. Effect Of Geothermal Heat Pump On Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed F. Atwan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research the calculations of carbon dioxide emissions CO2 in summer May to September 150 day and winter seasons December to February 90 day were performed by using the coefficient of performance for each air and ground source heat pump. The place of study case take relative to solar path in to account and the study case was three halls men women and surgery halls in Al-Musayyib hospital in Babylon.

  11. Home interventions are effective at decreasing indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Paulin, L. M.; Diette, G. B.; Scott, M.; McCormack, M. C.; Matsui, E. C.; Curtin-Brosnan, J.; Williams, D. L.; Kidd-Taylor, A.; Shea, M.; Breysse, P. N.; Hansel, N. N.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a by-product of combustion produced by indoor gas appliances such as cooking stoves, is associated with respiratory symptoms in those with obstructive airways disease. We conducted a three-armed randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing indoor NO2 concentrations in homes with unvented gas stoves: (i) replacement of existing gas stove with electric stove; (ii) installation of ventilation hood over existing gas stove; and (iii) placemen...

  12. Effect of different sulphur precursors on morphology and band-gap on the formation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) particles with microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patro, Bharati; Vijaylakshmi, S., E-mail: vlakshmi@iitb.ac.in [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India); Sharma, Pratibha [Department of Energy Sciences and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India)

    2016-05-23

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) is a promising semiconductor material for ecological cost effective thin film Photovoltaic (PV) devices. As it contains earth abundant and non-toxic elements, it has the advantages over commercially available CIGS and CdTe thin film PV devices. In the present work, the pure phase Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} particles were successfully synthesised with microwave irradiation. The morphology and phase study was carried out for the samples prepared with two different sulphur precursors viz. thiourea and thioacetamide (TAA). CZTS particles with thiourea as sulphur precursor are more crystalline than CZTS particles with TAA. The band gap of 1.654 eV and 1.713 eV were calculated for the samples prepared with thiourea and TAA respectively.

  13. Sulphur cement pre-composition and process for preparing such sulphur cement pre-composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the preparation of a sulphur cement pre-composition comprising reacting sulphur modifier with polysulphide-containing organosilane to obtain in the presence of sulphur the sulphur cement pre-composition, wherein the organosilane has the general molecular formula:

  14. Using diatom assemblages and sulphur in sediments to uncover the effects of historical mining on Lake Arnoux (Quebec, Canada: A retrospective of economic benefits versus environmental debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brian Hamilton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring changes in environmental conditions is increasingly important as the Canadian economic infrastructure ramps up exploration and mining development in the more inaccessible northern regions of Canada. Governments are concurrently assessing effects from past mining activities and absorbing the economic cost to society with on-going remediation and monitoring initiatives. The abandoned Aldermac mine in northwestern Quebec, mined from 1932–1943, is an excellent case study for assessing the state of environmental and economic effects of past mining operations. A paleolimnological approach, using diatoms as environmental proxies, was used to evaluate the spatial and temporal impacts on aquatic receiving environments. Based on the inferences drawn from diatom assemblages in Lake Arnoux, prior to mining activity, lake water pH was similar to that of surrounding lakes (circumneutral to weakly acidic. After mining operations terminated, changes in pH and alkalinity in Lake Arnoux coincided with distinct increases in sediment sulphur content. Across a 30- to 40-year span (circa 1940 to 1970s a significant decline in phytoplankton flora coincided with lake acidification and increased clarity of the water column. This resulted in an increase in the benthic diatom population (>90%, replacing the planktonic diatoms. Observed shifts in environmental proxies are concurrent with one, and possibly two, reported tailings pond breaches at the abandoned mine site. Adverse effects of the abandoned Aldermac mine on nearby ecosystems, combined with pressure from local citizens and environmental groups, forced responsible accountability for site restoration led by the Quebec government. Based on the historical period of economic growth, the financial benefits of the Aldermac mine were significant and justify the current pay-it-backward costs for environmental remediation. However, it has now been documented that the pay-it-backward model is not sustainable in

  15. Increased energy efficiency and the rebound effect: Effects on consumption and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braennlund, Runar; Ghalwash, Tarek; Nordstroem, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine how exogenous technological progress, in terms of an increase in energy efficiency, affects consumption choice by Swedish households and thereby emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxide (NO x ). The aim of the paper is closely related to the discussion of what is termed the 'rebound effect'. To neutralise the rebound effect, we estimate the necessary change in CO 2 tax, i.e. the CO 2 tax that keeps CO 2 emissions at their initial level. In addition, we estimate how this will affect emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicate that an increase in energy efficiency of 20% will increase emissions of CO 2 by approximately 5%. To reduce the CO 2 emissions to their initial level, the CO 2 tax must be raised by 130%. This tax increase will reduce the emissions of sulphur dioxide to below their initial level, but will leave the emissions of nitrogen oxides at a higher level than initially. Thus, if marginal damages from sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are non-constant, additional policy instruments are needed

  16. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  17. Carbon Dioxide: Surprising Effects on Decision Making and Neurocognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The occupants of modern submarines and the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common as far as their air quality is concerned. Air is polluted by materials offgassing, use of utility compounds, leaks of systems chemicals, and anthropogenic sources. The primary anthropogenic compound of concern to submariners and astronauts has been carbon dioxide (CO2). NASA and the US Navy rely on the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRC-COT) to help formulate exposure levels to CO2 that are thought to be safe for exposures of 3-6 months. NASA calls its limits Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). Years of experience aboard the ISS and a recent publication on deficits in decision making in ground-based subjects exposed briefly to 0.25% CO2 suggest that exposure levels that have been presumed acceptable to preserve health and performance need to be reevaluated. The current CO2 exposure limits for 3-6 months set by NASA and the UK Navy are 0.7%, and the limit for US submariners is 0.5%, although the NRC-COT recommended a 90-day level of 0.8% as safe a few years ago. NASA has set a 1000-day SMAC at 0.5% for exploration-class missions. Anecdotal experience with ISS operations approaching the current 180-day SMAC of 0.7% suggest that this limit is too high. Temporarily, NASA has limited exposures to 0.5% until further peer-reviewed data become available. In the meantime, a study published last year in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives (Satish U, et al. 2012) demonstrated that complexdecision- making performance is somewhat affected at 0.1% CO2 and becomes "dysfunctional" for at least half of the 9 indices of performance at concentrations approaching 0.25% CO2. The investigators used the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) method of testing for decisionmaking ability, and the results were so surprising to the investigators that they declared that their findings need to be independently confirmed. NASA has responded to the

  18. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentrations on stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughner, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the past several years, much attention has been focused on the destruction of ozone by anthropogenic pollutants such as the nitrogen oxides and chlorofluoromethane. Little or no attention has been given to the influence on ozone of an increased carbon dioxide concentration for which a measurable growth has been observed. Increased carbon dioxide can directly affect ozone by perturbing atmospheric temperatures, which will alter ozone production, whose rate displays a fairly strong temperature dependence. This paper presents one-dimensional model results for the steady state ozone behavior when the CO 2 concentration is twice its ambient level which account for coupling between chemistry and temperature. When the CO 2 level doubled, the total ozone burden increased in relation to the ambient burden by 1.2--2.5%, depending on the vertical diffusion coefficient used. Above 30 km. In this region the relation variations were insensitive to the choice of diffusion coefficient. Below 30 km, ozone concentrations were smaller than the unperturbed values and were sensitive to the vertical diffusion profile in this region (10--30 km). Ozone decreases in the lower stratosphere because of a reduction in ozone-producing solar radiation, which results in smaller downward ozone fluxes from the region at 25--30 km relative to the flux values for the ambient atmosphere. These offsetting changes occurring in the upper and lower stratosphere act to minimize the variation in total ozone

  19. The effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on the yield and content of sulforaphane and nitrates in cauliflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Čekey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field experiment with cauliflower, we investigated the effect of four different variants of nitrogen and suplhur fertilization on quantity and quality of cauliflower in the term of sulforaphane content and nitrate accumulation. The influence of fertilization was statistically significant between control variant and fertilization variants and in both experimental years within all parameters of cauliflower yield. The highest yield of cauliflower was reached at the variant 4 when it was fertilized on the level of nutrients N:S = 250:60 kg.ha−1. The increase of yield against control variant represented value 26.6%. The applied fertilization positively affected on the accumulation sulforaphane in the cauliflower. Its highest content was determined at the variant 4 (N:S = 250:60 kg.ha−1. In comparison with control variant, the sulforaphane content was increased about 18.4%. On the other side, applied nutrition resulted in increased accumulation of nitrates in the cauliflower. The most increase of nitrate content, compared to the control variant, was also ascertained at the variant 4 (about 31.4%.The gathered data point towards to the possibility and way how we could effect on the increased accumulation of sulforaphane in cauliflower florets. This sphere of fertilization effect on the sulforaphane content is not sufficiently explored well. Our aim is to continue in this research subject and to find way how to cultivate vegetables with higher content of health-promoting compounds.

  20. Yeast strains role on the sulphur dioxyde combinations of wines obtained from noble rot and raisining grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Masneuf-Pomarède

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of four industrial and indigenous yeast strains on the sulphur dioxide combinations of wines obtained from noble rot and raisining grapes is studied in different growth of the Sauternes area and one growth in the Jurançon area. The analysis of ketonic compounds (pyruvic acid and 2-oxo-glutaric acid, acetaldehyde and PC50 on the wines clearly showed significant statistical difference between the yeast strains for the sulphur dioxide combination. By adding the same dosage of sulphiting, the free SO2 levels are variable depending on the yeast strain used. One strain (Zymaflore ST, isolated from a spontaneous fermentation of a botrytised must, giving wines with low PC50 values, is well adapted for the noble rot must vinification. The choice of the yeast strain is a parameter of importance to limit the sulphur dioxide amount in the wines.

  1. Effect of foliar nitrogen and sulphur application on aromatic expression of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Lacroux

    2008-09-01

    Significance and impact of the study: Vine nitrogen deficiency can negatively impact on grape aroma potential. Soil nitrogen application can increase vine nitrogen status, but it has several drawbacks: it increases vigour and enhances Botrytis susceptibility. This study shows that foliar N and foliar N + S applications can improve vine nitrogen status and enhance aroma expression in Sauvignon blanc wines without the negative impact on vigour and Botrytis susceptibility. Although this study was carried out on Sauvignon blanc vines, it is likely that foliar N or foliar N + S applications will have similar effects on other grapevine varieties containing volatile thiols (Colombard, Riesling, Petit Manseng and Sémillon.

  2. Monitoring Persistent Volcanic Emissions from Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia: A Community Approach to Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Cox, L.; Jackson, V. B.; Alexander, D.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic and geothermal emissions are known natural sources of volatiles to the atmosphere. Volcanogenic air pollutants known to cause the most serious impact are carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Some studies into the potential for volcanic emissions to produce chronic diseases in humans indicate that areas of major concern include respiratory problems, particularly silicosis (Allen et al. 2000; Baxter et al. 1999; Buist et al. 1986), psychological stress (Shore et al. 1986), and chemical impacts of gas or ash (Giammanco et al. 1998). Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia has a very high recreational value with >200,000 visitors annually, while the nearby town of Soufrière has >8,400 residents. Residents and visitors have raised concerns about the volcanic emissions and its health effects. As part of the volcanic surveillance programme undertaken by the UWI, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in Saint Lucia, a new monitoring network has been established for quantifying the ambient SO2 in air, to which staff and visitors at the volcanic park are exposed to. The implementation and continued operation of this network has involved the training of local personnel in the active field sampling and analytical techniques required for the assessment of ambient SO2 concentrations, using a low cost monitor as well as commercial passive samplers. This approach recognizes that environmental hazards are a usual part of life and productive livelihoods, and to minimize post-disaster response and recovery it is beneficial to promote preparedness and mitigation, which is best achieved at the local level with community involvement. It is also intended that the volcanic emissions monitoring network could be used as a method to establish and maintain community-based initiatives that would also be helpful when volcanic threat manifests.

  3. Sulphur-containing Amino Acids: Protective Role Against Free Radicals and Heavy Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colovic, Mirjana B; Vasic, Vesna M; Djuric, Dragan M; Krstic, Danijela Z

    2018-01-30

    Sulphur is an abundant element in biological systems, which plays an important role in processes essential for life as a constituent of proteins, vitamins and other crucial biomolecules. The major source of sulphur for humans is plants being able to use inorganic sulphur in the purpose of sulphur-containing amino acids synthesis. Sulphur-containing amino acids include methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and taurine. Methionine and cysteine are classified as proteinogenic, canonic amino acids incorporated in protein structure. Sulphur amino acids are involved in the synthesis of intracellular antioxidants such as glutathione and N-acetyl cysteine. Moreover, naturally occurring sulphur-containing ligands are effective and safe detoxifying agents, often used in order to prevent toxic metal ions effects and their accumulation in human body. Literature search for peer-reviewed articles was performed using PubMed and Scopus databases, and utilizing appropriate keywords. This review is focused on sulphur-containing amino acids - methionine, cysteine, taurine, and their derivatives - glutathione and N-acetylcysteine, and their defense effects as antioxidant agents against free radicals. Additionally, the protective effects of sulphur-containing ligands against the toxic effects of heavy and transition metal ions, and their reactivation role towards the enzyme inhibition are described. Sulphur-containing amino acids represent a powerful part of cell antioxidant system. Thus, they are essential in the maintenance of normal cellular functions and health. In addition to their worthy antioxidant action, sulphur-containing amino acids may offer a chelating site for heavy metals. Accordingly, they may be supplemented during chelating therapy, providing beneficial effects in eliminating toxic metals. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Effect of Different Levels of Sulphur Bentonite on Yield and Yield Components of Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rahimi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of different levels of sulfur bentonite on yield and yield components of canola a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications in Mashhad in 2009-2010 growing season. Factors included four levels of sulfur bentonite (0, 300, 400 and 500 kg.h-1 and two varieties of canola (Modena and Zarfam. The result showed that the increase in sulfur increased some vegetative traits such as leaf area index and plant height. Using sulfur caused increased pod number, seed weight, in addition of oil and protein content and seed yield. Grain yield increase was due to seed weight and LAI. Two varieties were different to responses the sulfur. While in no sulfur application there was no significant difference in seed yield, in 500 Kg sulfur application yield of Zarfam compared to Modena increased about 29.63. According to the results there are significant differences between cultivars in terms of response to the sulfur fertilizer. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate effect of sulfur application of canola productivity in different climate conditions of Iran.

  5. Effect of sulphur-doping on the formation of deep centers in n-type InP under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kol'chenko, T.I.; Lomako, V.M.; Moroz, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    Effect of sulfur-doping on the efficiency of electron trap formation in InP under irradiation was studied using deep level capacity nonstationary spectroscopy method (DLCNS). Structures with Schottky barrier based on epitaxial InP films with ∼10μm thickness (n 0 =8x10 14 -6x10 17 cm -3 ) were irradiated with 60 Co γ-quanta at 40 deg C; the particle flux intensity made up ∼10 12 cm -2 xs -1 . Experimental results presented allow one to conclude that InP doping with sulfur up to n 0 =6x10 17 cm -3 in contrast to the case of silicon doping does not produce a notable effect on the electron trap formation efficiency under irradiation. The observed reduction of configuration-bistable M-center introduction rate in samples with n 0 >10 16 cm -3 is explained by the change of filling of E c -0.12 eV level belonging to unknown X defect

  6. Effects of Nitrification Inhibitors and Sulphur Coated Urea(SCU on Different Nitrogen Sources and Wheat Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yong-qiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is essential for plant growth and health, and it is also a limiting factor for the growth in most agricultural systems. Intensive N fertilizer application has become the traditional habit for agricultural producers in China because of its importance to plant productivity and agricultural land profitability. But some problems have appeared with the increase of the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied, urea used in crops is easy to lose from volatilization or leaching. Therefore, current crop management practices lead to a highly nitrifying soil environments. Nitrogen emission is the main source of soil acidity and environmental pollution. Several methods for the use of slow controlled release urea have been reported to be used to control the pollution and to enhance nitrogen use efficiency. There is a growing interest in the formulations of coated chemical fertilizers with both urease inhibitor and nitrification inhibitor. Urease inhibitor and nitrification inhibitor may improve urea N-use efficiency and minimize N losses by gaseous emissions of ammonia(NH3 to the atmosphere and nitrate(NO3- leaching into the surface and ground water. Dicyandiamide(DCD is a nitrification inhibitor that has been studied for many years, it can effectively inhibit nitrification and N2O emission in many agricultural ecosystems. However, limited information is available on the use of the combination of nitrification inhibitor and urease inhibitor applied with urea fertilizer, especially for thiourea(THU and thiourea formaldehyde resin(TFR applications. Therefore the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of urea with different inhibitors to improve the efficiency of nitrogen utilization. A field pot experiment was conducted to explore how to increase the concentration of DCD/THU/TFR/sulfur-coated urea(SCU to affect the transformation of soil nitrogen and wheat yield. The experiment was designed for twelve treatments which included no nitrogen

  7. Effects of low sulfur dioxide concentrations on bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of Aglianico red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Morena; Gerardi, Chiara; Lucejko, Jeannette J; Longo, Vincenzo; Pucci, Laura; Domenici, Valentina

    2018-04-15

    This study analyzed the effect of low sulfur dioxide concentrations on the chromatic properties, phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Aglianico red wines with respect to wines produced from conventional winemaking. We determined the phytochemical composition by spectrophotometric methods and HPLC-DAD analysis and the in vitro antioxidant activity of different wine samples by the ORAC assay. The main important classes of fluorophore molecules in red wine were identified by Front-Face fluorescence spectroscopy, and the emission intensity trend was investigated at various sulfur dioxide concentrations. Lastly, we tested the effects of both conventional and low sulfite wines on ex vivo human erythrocytes under oxidative stimulus by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay and the hemolysis test. The addition of sulfur dioxide, which has well-known side effects, increased the content of certain bioactive components but did not raise the erythrocyte antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of sulphuric acid and acidifying ammonium deposition on water quality and vegetation of simulated soft water ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuurkes, J.A.A.R.; Heck, I.C.C; Hesen, P.L.G.M.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    1986-11-01

    In a greenhouse, seven identical mini-ecosystems, simulating soft water ponds, were exposed to different types of artificial rain water. The effects of rain water containing H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and nitrate, and rain water containing ammonium sulphate on water quality and vegetation were studied and compared. Causal relations were established between rain water quality, water chemistry and changes in floristic composition. Ammonium sulphate deposition, particularly, strongly affected water quality and vegetation development. Although ammonium sulphate deposition was only slightly acid, due to nitrification it acted as an important acid source, causing acidification to pH 3.8. Under acidified conditions, ammonium sulphate deposition led to a luxuriant growth of Juncus bulbosus and Agrostis canina. In the mini-ecosystems, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ deposition with a pH of 3.5 only decreased the pH of the water to 5.1 within 1 yr, the acidification of water appeared to be coupled with changes in alkalinity, sulphate, Al, Cd, Ca, Mg, K and inorganic-N. It is concluded that in NH/sub 3/-affected regions in The Netherlands, the high atmospheric deposition of ammonium sulphate probably contributes to a large extent in the acidification, eutrophication and floristic changes of oligotrophic soft waters. 10 references.

  9. Effects of sulphuric acid and acidifying ammonium deposition on water quality and vegetation of simulated soft water ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuurkes, J.A.; Heck, I.C.; Hesen, P.L.; Leuven, R.S.; Roelofs, J.G.

    1986-11-01

    In a greenhouse, seven identical mini-ecosystems, simulating soft water ponds, were exposed to different types of artificial rain water. The effects of rain water containing H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and nitrate, and rain water containing ammonium sulfate on water quality and vegetation were studied and compared. Causal relations were established between rain water quality, water chemistry and changes in floristic composition. Ammonium sulfate deposition, particularly, strongly affected water quality and vegetation development. Although ammonium sulfate deposition was only slightly acid, due to nitrification it acted as an important acid source, causing acidification to pH = 3.8. Under acidified conditions, ammonium sulfate deposition lead to a luxuriant growth of Juncus bulbosus and Agrostis canina. In the mini-ecosystems, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ deposition with a pH of 3.5 only decreased the pH of the water to 5.1 within 1 yr. The acidification of water appeared to be coupled with changes in alkalinity, sulfate, Al, Cd, Ca, Mg, K and inorganic-N. It is concluded that in NH/sub 3/-affected regions in The Netherlands, the high atmospheric deposition of ammonium sulfate probably contributes to a large extent in the acidification, eutrophication and floristic changes of oligotrophic soft waters. 10 refs.

  10. Sulphur output from oil sands : dramatically changing Alberta's sulphur balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aquin, G. [Con-Sul Inc., Bigfork, MT (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed sulphur production from Alberta's gas and oil sands industries. While sulfur derived from natural gas production in the province is expected to decline as natural gas reserves diminish, Alberta's oil sands contain high amounts of sulphur. It is not yet known how much sulphur will be produced from the province's oil sands facilities. Alberta had considerable stockpiles of sulphur in the 1970s. By 1980, inventories began to decline. By 1996, output had increased to 7.1 million tonnes. Alberta's sulphur inventory reached 9.7 million tonnes following the collapse of the Soviet Union's government mandated fertilizer industry. In 2006, sulphur supplies in Alberta reached 12 million tonnes. Reduced global output has now lowered sulphur stockpiles. Increases in sulphur prices tend to reduce market demand, and lower prices will not typically change the volume of sulphur produced as a byproduct of oil and gas operations. Bitumen-derived sulphur output is expected to exceed gas-derived sulphur output in the near future. Sulphur from oil sands processing is expected to increase by 5 million tonnes by 2017. Increased sulphur production levels in Alberta will present a significant challenge for all sectors of the hydrocarbon industry. It was concluded that developing a plan for storing, selling or disposing of the sulphur will help to ensure the profitability of oil sands operations.

  11. Home interventions are effective at decreasing indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, L M; Diette, G B; Scott, M; McCormack, M C; Matsui, E C; Curtin-Brosnan, J; Williams, D L; Kidd-Taylor, A; Shea, M; Breysse, P N; Hansel, N N

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), a by-product of combustion produced by indoor gas appliances such as cooking stoves, is associated with respiratory symptoms in those with obstructive airways disease. We conducted a three-armed randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing indoor NO2 concentrations in homes with unvented gas stoves: (i) replacement of existing gas stove with electric stove; (ii) installation of ventilation hood over existing gas stove; and (iii) placement of air purifiers with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and carbon filters. Home inspection and NO2 monitoring were conducted at 1 week pre-intervention and at 1 week and 3 months post-intervention. Stove replacement resulted in a 51% and 42% decrease in median NO2 concentration at 3 months of follow-up in the kitchen and bedroom, respectively (P = 0.01, P = 0.01); air purifier placement resulted in an immediate decrease in median NO2 concentration in the kitchen (27%, P kitchen (20%, P = 0.05). NO2 concentrations in the kitchen and bedroom did not significantly change following ventilation hood installation. Replacing unvented gas stoves with electric stoves or placement of air purifiers with HEPA and carbon filters can decrease indoor NO2 concentrations in urban homes. Several combustion sources unique to the residential indoor environment, including gas stoves, produce nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and higher NO2 concentrations, are associated with worse respiratory morbidity in people with obstructive lung disease. A handful of studies have modified the indoor environment by replacing unvented gas heaters; this study, to our knowledge, is the first randomized study to target unvented gas stoves. The results of this study show that simple home interventions, including replacement of an unvented gas stove with an electric stove or placement of HEPA air purifiers with carbon filters, can significantly decrease indoor NO2 concentrations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A

  12. Effect of sequences of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on plant dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ozone (O3) is the most important gaseous air pollutant in the world because of its adverse effects on vegetation in general and crop plants in particular. Since nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a precursor of ozone, studying the implication of sequences of these two gases is very important. Hence, the effects of sequences of ...

  13. Sulphur self as a bioindicator of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihelska, N.; Semerad, M.; Cernansky, S.; Ruzickova, J.; Takacova, A.

    2015-01-01

    Road transport is one of the major sources of air polluting emissions. An average passenger car produces emissions of 228 g/km, trucks produce emissions of around 317 g/km. Emissions from combustion engines contain carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide and various solids. Emissions also contain compounds of toxic metals/metalloids - arsenic, cadmium, chrome, nickel and lead. To detect metal/metalloid contamination from vehicle emissions, samples were collected and analyzed from biomass and soil near Bratislava's busiest road. We focused our attention on concentration of metals/metalloids in Laetiporus sulphureus because it's a very popular edible mushroom. Mushrooms are very good proxies for the state of nearby environment because of their excellent accumulation ability. (authors)

  14. The effect of electrolytes on the aggregation kinetics of titanium dioxide nanoparticle aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih Yanghsin; Zhuang Chengming; Tso Chihping; Lin Chenghan

    2012-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are receiving increasing attention due to their increased industrial production and potential hazardous effect. The process of aggregation plays a key role in the fate of NPs in the environment and the resultant health risk. The aggregation of commercial titanium dioxide NP powder (25 nm) was investigated with various environmentally relevant solution chemistries containing different concentrations of monovalent (Na + , K + ) and divalent (Ca 2+ ) electrolytes. Titanium dioxide particle size increased with the increase in ion concentration. The stability of titanium dioxide also depended on the ionic composition. Titanium dioxide aggregated to a higher degree in the presence of divalent cations than monovalent ones. The attachment efficiency of NPs was constructed through aggregation kinetics data, from which the critical coagulation concentrations for the various electrolytes are determined (80, 19, and 1 meq/L for Na + , K + , and Ca 2+ , respectively). Our results suggest that titanium dioxide NP powders are relatively unstable in water and could easily be removed by adding multivalent cations so hazardous potentials decrease in aquatic environment.

  15. Separation of uranium, molibdenum and vanadium in sulphuric solutions by extraction with alamine 336

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floh, B.

    1976-01-01

    Alamine 336 - varsol - sulphuric acid-water system used for uranium, molibdenum and vanadium extraction, from sulphuric leaching and an appropriate plan for fractioning those elements are investigated. The behavior of cited elements in pure solutions followed by interaction that occurs in both bynary and tertiary systems are studied. Distribution coefficient is regarded for measuring such effects [pt

  16. Influences of packaging design on antimicrobial effects of gaseous chlorine dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas is an effective surface disinfectant, for it has the ability to reach and inactivate bacterial cells in biofilms which are attached to inaccessible sites on produce surfaces. One of the most promising applications of gaseous ClO2 is to be included in the headspace of foo...

  17. Effects of dissolved carbon dioxide on energy metabolism and stress responses in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, G.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Capelle, J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated carbon dioxide concentrations reduce feed intake and growth in several fish species and induce stress responses. In this study, the effects of moderately elevated CO2 levels on performance, energy partitioning, swimming activity and stress response in European seabass were assessed.

  18. Experimental studies on the injurious effect of sulfur dioxide upon the rice cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, T; Takahashi, T

    1952-01-01

    From experimental studies on the injurious effect of sulfur dioxide upon the cultivation of rice it was ascertained that SO2 strongly affects the pollen and the ovary. The pollen and the matured grain showed a decrease in fertility when the plant is fumigated at the flowering and boot stage.

  19. The effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide elevation on plant growth in freshwater ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Vermaat, J.; Klein, de J.J.M.; Mooij, W.M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors developed a dynamic model to investigate the effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) increase on plant growth in freshwater ecosystems. Steady-state simulations were performed to analyze the response of phytoplankton and submerged macrophytes to atmospheric CO2 elevation from 350 to

  20. The effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide elevation on plant growth in freshwater ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Vermaat, J.E.; de Klein, J.; Mooij, W.M.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a dynamic model to investigate the effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) increase on plant growth in freshwater ecosystems. Steady-state simulations were performed to analyze the response of phytoplankton and submerged macrophytes to atmospheric CO2 elevation from 350 to 700 ppm.

  1. Hot atom chemistry of sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovski, D. S.; Koleva, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt to cover all papers dealing with the hot atom chemistry of sulpphur is made. Publications which: a) only touch the problem, b) contain some data, indirectly connected with sulphur hot atom chemistry, c) deal with 35 S-production from a chloride matrix, are included as well. The author's name and literature source are given in the original language, transcribed, when it is necessary, in latine. A number of primery and secondary documents have been used including Chemical Abstracts, INIS Atomindex, the bibliographies of A. Siuda and J.-P. Adloff for 1973 - 77, etc. (authors)

  2. J. . Sulphur dioxide sensitivity in South African asthmatic children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dried fruit snacks. Dried or canned soups. Molasses, pancake syrup, corn or maple syrup. We would like to acknowledge Sisters Ann Toerien and. Rika van der Vyfer, and Bev Pepper for assistance with the trial, Mr J. M. Stokol at State Health Laboratories and. Bromor Foods for chemical analysis, and Professor Eugene.

  3. Response of tropical trees to sulphur dioxide stress and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartshney, C.K.; Mitra, I. [Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India). School of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Ethylene emission, ascorbic acid content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity were measured in four tropical tree species. Six month old saplings of Morus alba Linn., Azadirachta indica A.Juss., Melia-azadirach Linn. and Syzgium jambolina Lamk, were exposed to 0.5 ppm SO{sub 2} for four hours for six consecutive days. Recovery from SO{sub 2} stress was followed for twelve days after termination of the fumigation. SO{sub 2} induced foliar ethylene emission increased during fumigation but declined following termination of fumigation. SO{sub 2} fumigation enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in all four species. Their activities, however, declined on withdrawal of SO{sub 2} stress. Ascorbic acid content decreased due to SO{sub 2} stress but exhibited recovery on termination of fumigation. The response of the four plant species was widely different both during the fumigation period and during post-fumigation recovery regime. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Optimisation of Dilute Sulphuric Acid Hydrolysis of Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dilute sulphuric acid hydrolysis of waste paper was investigated in this study. The effects of acid concentration, time, temperature and liquid to solid ratio on the total reducing sugar concentration were studied over three levels using a four variable Box-Behnken design (BBD). A statistical model was developed for the ...

  5. Effect of the sulphur atom on geometry and spectra of the biomolecule 2-thiouracil and in the WC base pair 2-thiouridine-adenosine. Influence of water in the first hydration shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcolea Palafox, M; Rastogi, V K; Singh, S P

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the sulphur atom on 2-thiouracil (2TU) and 2-thiouridine molecules, as compared with uracil and uridine molecules, respectively, was carried out in several environments. The predicted IR spectrum of 2TU in the isolated state was compared with that obtained for uracil molecule and with those reported experimentally in matrix isolation. Its crystal unit cell in the solid state was simulated through a tetramer form using DFT methods for the first time. The calculated Raman spectrum was compared to the experimental ones in the solid state. A linear scaling procedure was used for this task. The first hydration shell was simulated by explicit number of water molecules surrounding 2TU up to 30 and was compared with that obtained in uracil molecule. Water molecules 'distributed' around 2TU was preferred over that 'clustering', because it can better reproduce the hydration and their effects on different parameters of the molecular structure of 2TU and uracil. The total atomic charges and several calculated thermodynamic parameters were discussed. The effect of the sulphur atom on the Watson-Crick (WC) and reverse WC base pair uridine-adenosine was estimated, and the CP corrected interaction energies were calculated. 2-thiouridine has a weaker WC pair than that with uridine, although its slight higher dipole moment (μ) facilitates the interaction with the water molecules. Several helical parameters were determined.

  6. Development of a Linear Flow Channel Reactor for sulphur removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-23

    Sep 23, 2013 ... gation of sulphur production in floating sulphur biofilms as a means for addressing this problem. These 50 µm ... Preliminary studies on the use of the FSB system for sulphur removal in Integrated Managed Passive Treatment ...

  7. Oil Contact Angles in a Water-Decane-Silicon Dioxide System: Effects of Surface Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shijing; Wang, Jingyao; Wu, Jiazhong; Liu, Qingjie; Sun, Chengzhen; Bai, Bofeng

    2018-04-19

    Oil wettability in the water-oil-rock systems is very sensitive to the evolution of surface charges on the rock surfaces induced by the adsorption of ions and other chemical agents in water flooding. Through a set of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal the effects of surface charge on the oil contact angles in an ideal water-decane-silicon dioxide system. The results show that the contact angles of oil nano-droplets have a great dependence on the surface charges. As the surface charge density exceeds a critical value of 0.992 e/nm 2 , the contact angle reaches up to 78.8° and the water-wet state is very apparent. The variation of contact angles can be confirmed from the number density distributions of oil molecules. With increasing the surface charge density, the adsorption of oil molecules weakens and the contact areas between nano-droplets and silicon dioxide surface are reduced. In addition, the number density distributions, RDF distributions, and molecular orientations indicate that the oil molecules are adsorbed on the silicon dioxide surface layer-by-layer with an orientation parallel to the surface. However, the layered structure of oil molecules near the silicon dioxide surface becomes more and more obscure at higher surface charge densities.

  8. Optimal sulphuric acid production using Acidithiobacillus caldus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... oxygen uptake rate of 1.35 g/L.day (OUR), 52% sulphur conversion at a rate of 0.83 ... achieving a sulphuric acid production rate of 2.76 g/L.day (dP/dt), while the ...

  9. Dissolution testing of intermediary products in uranium dioxide production by the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melichar, F.; Landspersky, H.; Urbanek, V.

    1979-01-01

    A method was developed of dissolving polyuranates and uranium dioxides in sulphuric acid and in carbonate solutions for testing intermediate products in the sol-gel process preparation of uranium dioxide. A detailed granulometric analysis of spherical particle dispersion was included as part of the tests. Two different production methods were used for the two types of studied materials. The test results show that the test method is suitable for determining temperature sensitivity of the materials to dissolution reaction. The geometrical distribution of impurities in the spherical particles can be determined from the dissolution kinetics. The method allows the determination of the effect of carbon from impurities on the process of uranium dioxide leaching and is thus applicable for testing materials prepared by the sol-gel method. (Z.M.)

  10. Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Its Complications in Iranian Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beeta Balali-Mood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard is a chemical warfare agent, which was largelyused during the World War One and in Iraq-Iran conflict. It mayalso be used as a chemical terrorism agent. Therefore, medicalprofessions should have sufficient knowledge and be preparedfor medical intervention of any such chemical attack.Sulphur mustard exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin,and respiratory tract, with subsequent systemic actions on thenervous, immunologic, hematologic, digestive, and reproductivesystems. It is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis andthus, delayed complications have been considered since theWorld War One. Cases of malignancies in the target organs particularlyin hematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systemswere reported. Common delayed respiratory complications includechronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia,and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deterioratewith time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction ofnatural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infectionsand malignancies are also among the most distressing long-termconsequences of sulphur mustard intoxication. However, despiteextensive research that has been conducted on Iranian veteransduring the past decades, major gaps continue to remain in thesulphur mustard literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunctionsand the relationship between exposure to sulphur mustardand mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity areimportant fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranianveterans with chronic health problems caused by sulphurmustard poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on themedical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of sulphurmustard poisoning, a subject that greatly challenges themedical professions.

  11. Effect of carbon dioxide on the rate of iodine vapor absorption by aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Wataru; Adachi, Motonari; Miyake, Yoshikazu

    1978-01-01

    There is always carbon dioxide in the atmosphere as an impurity. Since this is an acid gas similar to iodine, each absorption rate seems to be affected by the other due to the coexistence of these two. Experiments have been conducted to clarify the absorption rate and absorption mechanism of iodine in the simultaneous absorption of iodine and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide coexisting with gas phases as an impurity decreases the absorption rate of iodine in the removal by washing with water of iodine mixed in the air. The first cause of this is that the diffusion coefficient of iodine in gas phase decreases with the carbon dioxide content in the gas phase. The second cause is that coexistent carbon dioxide is an acid gas, dissociates by dissolving into the absorbing solution, increases hydrogen ion concentration together with the formation of negative ions of bicarbonate and carbonate, and reduces hydroxyl ion concentration as a result. It is more important that existence of iodine has a catalytic effect to the rate of basic catalytic hydrolysis of carbon dioxide simultaneously dissolved in water phase, and accelerates this reaction rate. The mechanism of catalytic effect of iodine for the hydrolysis of carbon dioxide can not be clarified in detail only by this experiment, but the simultaneous absorption rate of iodine and carbon dioxide can be explained satisfactorily. (Wakatsuki, Y

  12. Microwave Effect for Glycosylation Promoted by Solid Super Acid in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Maeda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of microwave irradiation (2.45 GHz, 200 W on glycosylation promoted by a solid super acid in supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated with particular attention paid to the structure of the acceptor substrate. Because of the symmetrical structure and high diffusive property of supercritical carbon dioxide, microwave irradiation did not alter the temperature of the reaction solution, but enhanced reaction yield when aliphatic acceptors are employed. Interestingly, the use of a phenolic acceptor under the same reaction conditions did not show these promoting effects due to microwave irradiation. In the case of aliphatic diol acceptors, the yield seemed to be dependent on the symmetrical properties of the acceptors. The results suggest that microwave irradiation do not affect the reactivity of the donor nor promoter independently. We conclude that the effect of acceptor structure on glycosylation yield is due to electric delocalization of hydroxyl group and dielectrically symmetric structure of whole molecule.

  13. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone - experimental results from the U. S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Reimann, K.J.; Sciammarella, C.A. (US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

    1992-06-01

    Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried limestone and marble have been exposed to the environment to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Erosion due to grain loss did not seem to be influenced by rainfall acidity, but may be influenced by dry deposition of sulphur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions suggest that around 30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulphur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining 70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in 'clean' rain. 17 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    the efficiency of machinery systems. The wet sulphuric acid process is an effective way of removing flue gas sulphur oxides from land-based coal-fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper describes the design...... that an ORC placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase the combined cycle thermal efficiency by 2.6%. The findings indicate that the technology has potential in marine applications regarding both energy...... and modeling of a highly efficient machinery system which includes the removal of exhaust gas sulphur oxides. The system consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal, a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an ORC. Results of numerical modeling efforts suggest...

  15. Distribution of sulphur and trace elements in peat. A literature survey with some additional sulphur analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S; Karhu, M

    1981-01-01

    A survey on the literature and contemporary research was made on peat sulphur and trace element studies. Marked variance between different peatlands and peat types has been noted. The available information is still inadequate for generalizations or statistical analysis mainly due to methodological variations and temporal and spatial variations in results. At the moment, the criteria applied in peatland inventories and evaluations are inadequate with respect to peat quality determinations. To some extent the quality of fuel peat should be determined in a mire inventory prior to peatland utilization. The areas over sulphide clay and some sulphate depositions may considerably increase the peat sulphur content. A proposal has been made to include the sulphur content monitoring in the cases where it exceeds 0.3 per cent. The trace elements may also bring about an increase in peat emissions if the deepest peat layers or polluted layers are burnt. The most important elements in this respect are Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, V, Ni, Hg, Cu, Cr, as well as As and U. The first ten because of the relatively high concentrations and last two because of pollution or toxocity and ore deposit factors. The peat hydrogen ion concentration has a positive correlation with copper and vanadium. The correlation is positive with the cobalt and nickel contents when the pH is low, and negative at a higher pH. A general peat type correlation shows maximum trace element contents in basal Carex peats with subsoil effects. The peat ash content and the Ti, Pb, V, Cr, Ni, and S contents have positive correlations. (Refs. 290).

  16. Distribution of sulphur and trace elements in peat. [Literature survey with some additional sulphur analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S; Karhu, M

    1981-01-01

    A survey on the literature and contemporary research was made on peat sulphur and trace element studies. Marked variance between different peatlands and peat types has been noted. The available information is still inadequate for generalizations or statistical analysis mainly due to methodological variations and temporal and spatial variations in results. At the moment, the criteria applied in peatland inventories and evaluations are inadequate with respect to peat quality determinations. To some extent the quality of fuel peat should be determined in a mire inventory prior to peatland utilization. The areas over sulphide clay and some sulphate depositions may considerably increase the peat sulphur content. A proposal has been made to include the sulphur content monitoring in the cases where it exceeds 0.3 per cent. The trace elements may also bring about an increase in peat emissions if the deepest peat layers or polluted layers are burnt. The most important elements in this respect are Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, V, Ni, Hg, Cu, Cr, as well as As and U. The first ten because of the relatively high concentrations and last two because of pollution or toxocity and ore deposit factors. The peat hydrogen ion concentration has a positive correlation with copper and vanadium. The correlation is positive with the cobalt and nickel contents when the pH is low, and negative at a higher pH. A general peat type correlation shows maximum trace element contents in basal Carex peats with subsoil effects. The peat ash content and the Ti, Pb, V, Cr, Ni and S contents have positive correlations.

  17. Antimicrobial polymers - The antibacterial effect of photoactivated nano titanium dioxide polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppmann, T., E-mail: teresa.huppmann@tum.de; Leonhardt, S., E-mail: stefan.leonhardt@mytum.de, E-mail: erhard.krampe@tum.de; Krampe, E., E-mail: stefan.leonhardt@mytum.de, E-mail: erhard.krampe@tum.de; Wintermantel, E., E-mail: wintermantel@tum.de [Institute of Medical and Polymer Engineering, Technische Universität München (Germany); Yatsenko, S., E-mail: s.yatsenko@skz.de; Radovanovic, I., E-mail: i.radovanovic@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de; Bastian, M., E-mail: i.radovanovic@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de [SKZ- German Plastics Center, Würzburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    To obtain a polymer with antimicrobial properties for medical and sanitary applications nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) particles have been incorporated into a medical grade polypropylene (PP) matrix with various filler contents (0 wt %, 2 wt %, 10 wt % and 15 wt %). The standard application of TiO{sub 2} for antimicrobial efficacy is to deposit a thin TiO{sub 2} coating on the surface. In contrast to the common way of applying a coating, TiO{sub 2} particles were applied into the bulk polymer. With this design we want to ensure antimicrobial properties even after application of impact effects that could lead to surface defects. The filler material (Aeroxide® TiO{sub 2} P25, Evonik) was applied via melt compounding and the compounding parameters were optimized with respect to nanoscale titanium dioxide. In a next step the effect of UV-irradiation on the compounds concerning their photocatalytic activity, which is related to the titanium dioxide amount, was investigated. The photocatalytic effect of TiO{sub 2}-PP-composites was analyzed by contact angle measurement, by methylene blue testing and by evaluation of inactivation potential for Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria. The dependence of antimicrobial activity on the filler content was evaluated, and on the basis of different titanium dioxide fractions adequate amounts of additives within the compounds were discussed. Specimens displayed a higher photocatalytic and also antimicrobial activity and lower contact angles with increasing titania content. The results suggest that the presence of titania embedded in the PP matrix leads to a surface change and a photocatalytic effect with bacteria killing result.

  18. Antimicrobial polymers - The antibacterial effect of photoactivated nano titanium dioxide polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppmann, T.; Leonhardt, S.; Krampe, E.; Wintermantel, E.; Yatsenko, S.; Radovanovic, I.; Bastian, M.

    2014-01-01

    To obtain a polymer with antimicrobial properties for medical and sanitary applications nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) particles have been incorporated into a medical grade polypropylene (PP) matrix with various filler contents (0 wt %, 2 wt %, 10 wt % and 15 wt %). The standard application of TiO 2 for antimicrobial efficacy is to deposit a thin TiO 2 coating on the surface. In contrast to the common way of applying a coating, TiO 2 particles were applied into the bulk polymer. With this design we want to ensure antimicrobial properties even after application of impact effects that could lead to surface defects. The filler material (Aeroxide® TiO 2 P25, Evonik) was applied via melt compounding and the compounding parameters were optimized with respect to nanoscale titanium dioxide. In a next step the effect of UV-irradiation on the compounds concerning their photocatalytic activity, which is related to the titanium dioxide amount, was investigated. The photocatalytic effect of TiO 2 -PP-composites was analyzed by contact angle measurement, by methylene blue testing and by evaluation of inactivation potential for Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria. The dependence of antimicrobial activity on the filler content was evaluated, and on the basis of different titanium dioxide fractions adequate amounts of additives within the compounds were discussed. Specimens displayed a higher photocatalytic and also antimicrobial activity and lower contact angles with increasing titania content. The results suggest that the presence of titania embedded in the PP matrix leads to a surface change and a photocatalytic effect with bacteria killing result

  19. Study of effect of chromium on titanium dioxide phase transformation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    the other hand, the effect of solution pH in phase stability .... pore size of anatase phase decreases with increase of ... range of 0–200 °C, corresponding to desorption of water .... The correlation revealed a straight line with a slope equal to 1 for ...

  20. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    sensitivity increases more rapidly under high doses of irra- diation than under low doses of irradiation. The electron beam irradiation effects were simulated and the mecha- nism was discussed. Acknowledgements. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the MOST 973 program, grant no. 2006CB705604 ...

  1. Measuring and modelling of the combined thermodynamic promoting effect of tetrahydrofuran and cyclopentane on carbon dioxide hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Daraboina, Nagu; Thomsen, Kaj

    2014-01-01

    This work documents both experimental data, and by thermodynamic modelling, the synergistic effect occurring in promoted carbon dioxide hydrate systems at the simultaneous presence of tetrahydrofuran and cyclopentane.Cyclopentane has previously been considered a reference among gas hydrate promot...

  2. Direct effects of increasing carbon dioxide on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strain, B R; Cure, J D [eds.

    1985-12-01

    CO/sub 2/ is an essential environmental resource. It is required as a raw material of the orderly development of all green plants. As the availability of CO/sub 2/ increases, perhaps reaching two or three times the concentration prevailing in preindustrial times, plants and all other organisms dependent on them for food will be affected. Humans are releasing a gaseous fertilizer into the global atmosphere in quantities sufficient to affect all life. This volume considers the direct effects of global CO/sub 2/ fertilization on plants and thus on all other life. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  3. Radioisotopic determination methods of sulphur dispersion and sulphur blooming in rubber compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goraczka, W.; Koczorowska, E.

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that the concentration of sulphur in rubber compounds essentially effects the structure of the vulkanizate network. But there are no efficient and accurate methods to estimate the dispersion and migration (blooming) of curatives in raw rubber. In the work radioisotope methods have been analyzed to study the dispersion of curatives, physical and chemical processes in rubber and to optimize technical conditions of tire production. The radioactivity of the 35 S isotope introduced into rubber compounds has been measured by volumetric and surface methods. It was proved that the radioisotopic methods can be used in the studies. Experimental data of the effect of selected technological factors on these processes are presented. Rubber compounds containing soluble sulphur were made for such investigations. These methods permit detection of concentrations 10 -6 g of the radioactive isotope per 0.1 g of rubber compound. The sensitivity of these methods enables the investigation of radioisotope behaviour in rubber compounds during processing on an industrial scale without any hazards for workers

  4. Carbon dioxide effects: research and assessment program. Workshop on the global effects of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, W P; Machta, L [eds.

    1979-05-01

    Current knowledge of the CO/sub 2/ cycle and the consequences of increases in CO/sub 2/ content of the atmosphere are discussed. Significant gaps in our understanding are identified and actions to fill these gaps are recommended. Reports on panel discussions on the following topics are presented: atmospheric CO/sub 2/, biological effects, ocean geochemistry, and climate effects. Each invited paper has been abstracted and indexed for ERA/EDB. (JGB)

  5. Trading sulphur emissions under the Second Sulphur Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foersund, Finn R.; Naevdal, Eric

    1997-07-01

    Emission trading is a potent policy instrument in theoretical analyses of environmental policy. However, trading in emission quotas of non-uniformly dispersed pollutants requires that the offsetting quantities vary with location of sources. Such a system is not yet in use. The Second Sulphur Protocol for Europe makes it possible to try out a system of ``exchange rates`` through a clause allowing ``joint implementation`` of emission reductions. In this report, the authors investigate some properties of a system with exogenous exchange rates within a simultaneous trade model based on cost efficiency. Incorporation of constraints on depositions in third party countries may be necessary in order to get third party country cooperation. It is demonstrated that imposition of constraints is feasible, but it is also revealed what demands such incorporation places on the design of the institutional setting. Constraints on trade should only be introduced when the concern for the environment of the various receptors fail to be captured adequately by the calibration of the exchange rates. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program: Proceedings of the carbon dioxide and climate research program conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, L E [ed.

    1980-12-01

    Papers presented at the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Research Program Conference are included in this volume. Topics discussed are: the carbon cycle; modeling the carbon system; climatic response due to increased CO2; climate modeling; the use of paleoclimatic data in understanding climate change; attitudes and implications of CO2; social responses to the CO2 problem; a scenario for atmospheric CO2 to 2025; marine photosynthesis and the global carbon cycle; and the role of tropical forests in the carbon balance of the world. Separate abstracts of nine papers have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  7. Hematological effects of inhaled plutonium dioxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Park, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    A life-span study indicated that plutonium activity in the thoracic lymph nodes is a contributor to development of lymphopenia in beagles exposed to 239 PuO 2 . Significant lymphopenia was found in 67 (58%) beagles given a single nose-only exposure to 239 PuO 2 to result in mean initial lung depositions ranging from 0.69 to 213.3 kBq. Lymphoid atrophy and sclerosis of the thoracic lymph nodes and lymphopenia were observed in exposure-level groups with initial lung depositions ≥2.5 kBq. Those dogs with final plutonium concentrations in the thoracic lymph nodes ≥0.4 kBq/g and dose rates ≥0.01 Gy/day developed lymphopenia. Marked differences existed between chronically lymphopenic dogs and intermittently lymphopenic dogs with regard to initial lung deposition, time to lymphopenic events and absolute lymphocyte concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed moderate correlation between reduction in lymphocyte values and initial lung deposition, in both magnitude and time of appearance after exposure. Cumulative dose and dose rate appeared to act together to produce initial effects on lymphocyte populations, while dose rate alone appeared to be responsible for the maintenance and subsequent cycles of lymphopenia seen over the life span. No primary tumors were associated with the thoracic lymph nodes in this study, although 70% of the lymphopenic dogs developed lung tumors. 28 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Effects of carbon dioxide on pyrolysis of peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jechan; Yang, Xiao; Song, Hocheol; Ok, Yong Sik; Kwon, Eilhann E.

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the mechanistic understanding of effects of CO 2 on pyrolysis of peat. To do this, three pyrolytic products (i.e., syngas: H 2 and CO, pyrolytic oil (tar), and biochar) were characterized. Thermal cracking of volatile organic carbons (VOCs) generated from pyrolysis of peat was enhanced in the presence of CO 2 . Besides the enhanced thermal cracking of VOCs, unknown reaction between CO 2 and VOCs was also identified. Accordingly, CO 2 played a role in enhancing syngas production and in reducing tar formation in pyrolysis of peat. This study also reveals that peat-biochar produced in CO 2 exhibited a larger surface area than that produced in N 2 . The results shown in this paper would be used for various applications such as energy recovery from peat using a potent greenhouse gas (for example, CO 2 ). - Highlights: • More CO can be produced from pyrolysis of peat in CO 2 than in N 2 . • Less amount of tar produced from pyrolysis of peat in CO 2 than in N 2 . • Surface area of peat-biochar made in CO 2 is larger than that made in N 2 . • CO 2 can modify the quantity/quality of pyrolytic products from peat.

  9. Effect of substrate temperature on thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films sputtered from vanadium target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiba, I. G.; Kotsedi, L.; Ngom, B. D.; Khanyile, B. S.; Maaza, M.

    2018-05-01

    Vanadium dioxide films have been known as the most promising thermochromic thin films for smart windows which self-control the solar radiation and heat transfer for energy saving, comfort in houses and automotives. Such an attractive technological application is due to the fact that vanadium dioxide crystals exhibit a fast semiconductor-to-metal phase transition at a transition temperature Tc of about 68 °C, together with sharp optical changes from high transmitive to high reflective coatings in the IR spectral region. The phase transition has been associated with the nature of the microstructure, stoichiometry and stresses related to the oxide. This study reports on the effect of the crystallographic quality controlled by the substrate temperature on the thermochromic properties of vanadium dioxide thin films synthesized by reactive radio frequency inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering from vanadium target. The reports results are based on X-ray diffraction, Atomic force microscopy, and UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The average crystalline grain size of VO2 increases with the substrate temperature, inducing stress related phenomena within the films.

  10. Effect of additives on enhanced sintering and grain growth in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, L.

    1992-06-01

    The use of sintering additives has been the most effective way of promoting grain growth of uranium dioxide. We have established a same mechanism for additives which belongs to corundum structure: chromium, aluminium, vanadium and titanium sesquioxides. Study of thermodynamical stabilities of dopants has lead to define suitable sintering atmospheres in order to enhance grain growth. Low solubility limits have been defined at T=1700 deg C for four additives, from variations of final grain size versus initial dopant concentration Identification of second phase after cooling has been done from electronic diffraction patterns. It appears that these solubilities decrease sharply as positive deviation from stoichiometry of uranium dioxide increases. Dilatometric analysis of sintering of doped uranium dioxide has shown in certain cases some enhancement in densification rates, at the point of onset of abnormal grain growth, which is believed to be the source. Nevertheless, the following growth is accompanied with pores coalescence mechanisms and pores entrapment inside grains. Increased thermal stability, during standard annealing, is expected, limiting thereby redensification of nuclear fuel in reactors. Finally, from investigations of additives vaporizations, Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 , oxygen exchanges between additives and matrix are believed to occur, which should lead to enhance pore mobility. (Author)., refs., figs., tabs

  11. Data on short-term effect of nitrogen dioxide on cardiovascular health in Wallonia, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Collart

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Data presented in this article are related to the research paper entitled “Short-term effects of nitrogen dioxide on hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in Wallonia, Belgium.” (Collart et al., in press [1].Nitrogen dioxide concentrations showed a strong seasonal pattern with higher levels in the cold period than in the warm period. A minimum of 13.1 µg/m3 in July and a maximum of 26.9 µg/m3 in January were observed. The coldest months are December, January and February and the hottest months are June, July and August. Temperature and nitrogen dioxide were negatively correlated in the cold period and positively correlated in the warm period.For the period 2008–2011 there were 113 147 hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. Forty-five percent of patients were women and 66.5% were 65 and older. Heart rhythm disorders account for the majority of hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. Our data confirms the existence of an association between NO2 and cardiovascular disease. Apart from haemorrhagic stroke, the strongest association between NO2 concentrations and number of hospital admissions is observed at lag 0. For haemorrhagic stroke, the association is strongest with a delay of 2 days. All associations calculated without stratification are statistically significant and range from an excess relative risk of 2.8% for myocardial infarction to 4.9% for haemorrhagic strokes.

  12. Effects of structural and textural grain characteristics on leaching of sulphide minerals from a polymetallic concentrate by sodium nitrate and sulphuric acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić Miroslav D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of structural and textural characteristics of sulfide minerals on their leaching from a polymetallic concentrate by sulfuric acid and sodium nitrate solution is presented. The starting material was Pb–Zn–Cu sulphide polymetallic concentrate enriched during the flotation of a polymetallic ore in the "Rudnik" flotation plant (Rudnik – Serbia. Leaching experiments were carried out in a closed glass reactor, which provides stable hermetic conditions and allows heating at constant temperature. Chemical, XRD, qualitative and quantitative microscopic and SEM/EDX analyses were used to characterizes samples of the polymetallic concentrate and leach residue. It was determined that chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, pyrrhotite and quartz were present in the polymetallic concentrate. The content of sulphide minerals was 69.5%, of which 60.9% occurred as liberated grains: 88.3% of chalcopyrite, 59.3% of sphalerite, 25.1% of galena and 51.6% of pirrhotite. The rest of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena and pirrhotite grains were in the forms of inclusions, impregnations, and simple and complex intergrowths. During the leaching process by sodium nitrate and sulphuric acid solution, it was shown previously that the leaching rate of sulphide minerals decreased with time while a part of the sulphide minerals remained in the leach residue. After leaching at 80°C for 120 min, the yields were 69.8, 82.7 and 67.1% for Cu, Zn and Fe, respectively. Lead, in the form of insoluble anglesite, remained in the leach residue. In addition to the anglesite, unleached sulfide minerals and quartz, elemental sulfur was found in the solid residue. The content of sulphide minerals was 35% of which 33.7% minerals occur independently. In specific, 54.7% of chalcopyrite, 31.9% of sphalerite, 8.2% of galena and 37.6% of pyrrhotite appear as separate grains with highly corroded surfaces. Therefore, the structural assembly of sulphide grains in the

  13. Sulphur isotope variations in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, L.; Krouse, H.R.; Grinenko, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    The measurement of the isotope ratios of sulphur and oxygen can in principal be used to assess sulphur inputs into, transformation within, and removal from the atmosphere. Major inputs arise from both anthropogenic and biogenic activities. Transformations arise from oxidation, neutralization, and other chemical reactions. Advection causes dilution and the main removal processes are dry deposition (governed by gravitation and diffusion) and rain. The admixture of sources can be discerned from their isotopic signatures whereas transformations and removal can be followed from the isotopic fractionation that might occur. In this chapter, the atmospheric sulphur cycle and the associated chemistry are summarized. Also presented is information on natural isotopic variations and fundamental concepts relating to the use of isotopic data to delineate anthropogenic S in the atmosphere. Examples of successful applications of these concepts are given. Finally, consideration is given to the potential of using isotopically enriched sulphur to study transport and transformation of atmospheric S compounds. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Sulphur recovery and sulphur emissions at Alberta sour gas plants : annual report for 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The sulphur recovery of Alberta's grandfathered sour gas plants is monitored by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board. This report provides an annual summary of industry performance for sulphur recovery at large acid gas flaring sour gas plants, and sulphur recovery at all acid gas injection sour gas plants. It follows Interim Directive (ID) 2001-3 which stipulates guidelines for sulphur recovery for the province of Alberta. It includes a list of grandfathered and non grandfathered plants in Alberta. Grandfathered sulphur recovery plants that exceed expectations have the option to file a sulphur emission performance credit report and can use the credits to meet some of their sulphur requirement in the future. Acid gas flaring plants face more stringent requirements and cannot earn credits. Several plants have degrandfathered in the past 5 years. Eleven have made upgrades, 4 have been relicensed to meet the requirements for new plants, and 4 have shut down. Forty-one grandfathered plants remain. Sulphur emissions have decreased 39 per cent for grandfathered acid gas flaring plants, and 28 per cent for grandfathered sulphur recovery plants. 10 tabs., 3 figs

  15. An empirical determination of the heating of the earth by the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyt, D V

    1979-11-22

    Models that were developed to describe global warming trends caused by increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are reviewed. Described is a new model that permits empirical determination of temperature increases caused by the greenhouse effect. The model is used to evaluate atmospheric CO2 data for 1880-1970. According to the new technique, the global temperature increase caused by the greenhouse effect was /sup 1/m gr /sup 1/x0.40..cap alpha..C during that period. (3 graphs, 33 references)

  16. Atmospheric emissions in metropolitan France: compounds related to the increase of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents and comments statistical data and indicators on emissions of compounds involved in the greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), hydro-fluorocarbon compounds (HFCs), per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). For these compounds, the report indicates and comments world and French emission data, their evolution, and the shares of different sectors and their evolutions. It also comments the evolution of the global warming potential (GWP)

  17. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Dab, W; Medina, S; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; Thelot, B; Monteil, C; Lameloise, P; Pirard, P; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and ...

  18. Inhibitory effect of non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series on the corrosion of carbon steel in sulphuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs-Godec, R.

    2007-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition characteristics of non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series, known as TRITON-X-100 and TRITON-X-405, on stainless steel (SS) type X4Cr13 in sulphuric acid were investigated by potentiodynamic polarisation measurements. It was found that these surfactants act as good inhibitors of the corrosion of stainless steel in 2 mol L -1 H 2 SO 4 solution, but the inhibition efficiency strongly depends on the electrode potential. The polarisation data showed that the non-ionic surfactants used in this study acted as mixed-type inhibitors and adsorb on the stainless steel surface, in agreement with the Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherm. Calculated ΔG ads values are -57.79 kJ mol -1 for TRITON-X-100, and -87.5 kJ mol -1 for TRITON-X-405. From the molecular structure it can be supposed that these surfactants adsorb on the metal surface through two lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atoms of the hydrophilic head group, suggesting a chemisorption mechanism

  19. Air pollution, lagged effects of temperature, and mortality: The Netherlands 1979-87

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackenbach, J. P.; Looman, C. W.; Kunst, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To explore whether the apparent low threshold for the mortality effects of air pollution could be the result of confounding. DESIGN--The associations between mortality and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were analysed taking into account potential confounding factors. SETTING--The Netherlands,

  20. Determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium by ion chromatography and its application to PFBR sodium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshmi, S.; Ushalakshmi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical method using ion chromatography was developed for the determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium. In this method, sodium was dissolved in water and various sulphur species present in the sample was oxidized to sulphate using hydrogen peroxide. Carbon dioxide gas was passed through the solution to convert sodium hydroxide to carbonate solution. The resulting sample solution was analysed using suppressed Ion chromatography employing carbonate eluent. This method was applied to the analysis of sodium samples procured for prototype fast breeder reactor. (author)

  1. Titanium dioxide nanotube membranes for solar energy conversion: effect of deep and shallow dopants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2017-04-12

    Nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has been intensively investigated as a material of choice for solar energy conversion in photocatalytic, photoelectrochemical, photovoltaic, and other photosensitized devices for converting light into chemical feedstocks or electricity. Towards management of light absorption in TiO 2 , while the nanotubular structure improves light absorption and simultaneous charge transfer to mitigate problems due to the indirect bandgap of the semiconductor, typically dopants are used to improve light absorption of incident solar irradiation in the wide bandgap of TiO 2 . While these dopants can be critical to the success of these solar energy conversion devices, their effect on photophysical and photoelectrochemical properties and detailed photokinetics are relatively under-studied. Here, we show the effect of deep and shallow metal dopants on the kinetics of photogenerated charged carriers in TiO 2 and the resulting effect on photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical processes using these nanotube membranes. We performed a detailed optical, electronic, voltammetry and electrochemical impedance study to understand the effect of shallow and deep metal dopants (using undoped and niobium- and copper-doped TiO 2 nanotubes) on light absorption, charge transport and charge transfer processes. Using wireless photocatalytic methylene blue degradation and carbon dioxide reduction, and wired photoelectrochemical device measurements, we elucidate the effect of different dopants on solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency and simultaneously describe the photokinetics using a model, to help design better energy conversion devices.

  2. Effect of shrapnel penetration on lithium-carbon monofluoride and lithium-manganese dioxide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, W. N. C.

    National BR2/3A lithium-carbon monofluoride and Duracell DL2/3A lithium-manganese dioxide batteries were subjected to simulated shrapnel penetration using a projectile from an M16 rifle. Trials were conducted on batteries in various states of charge (0, 50, and 100 percent discharged) in both wet and dry environments. Only one fully charged Duracell Battery (under wet conditions) caught fire during the test. The effects of environmental conditions, the chemical reactions involved, and the state of charge of the batteries on the probability of the batteries igniting are discussed.

  3. Extended Le Chatelier's formula for carbon dioxide dilution effect on flammability limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shigeo; Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki

    2006-11-02

    Carbon dioxide dilution effect on the flammability limits was measured for various flammable gases. The obtained values were analyzed using the extended Le Chatelier's formula developed in a previous study. As a result, it has been found that the flammability limits of methane, propane, propylene, methyl formate, and 1,1-difluoroethane are adequately explained by the extended Le Chatelier's formula using a common set of parameter values. Ethylene, dimethyl ether, and ammonia behave differently from these compounds. The present result is very consistent with what was obtained in the case of nitrogen dilution.

  4. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root architecture and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee-Ho, E.; Walton, L.J.; Reid, D.M.; Yeung, E.C.; Kurepin, L.V.

    2007-01-01

    Plant root growth is known to be influenced by higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Roots of some species grown in hydroponics under elevated CO 2 concentrations may be more competitive sinks for photosynthetic assimilates than roots grown under lower CO 2 conditions. Root branching patterns may also be influenced by elevated CO 2 concentrations. Studies have also shown that factors such as soil compaction, salinity and the availability of nitrate, phosphorous, oxygen and water also influence root growth, and the effects of higher CO 2 on roots can be confounded by such environmental factors. This study evaluated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root growth, morphology, and architecture. Both ambient and elevated CO 2 levels were used along with various sucrose concentrations. The study revealed that A. thaliana plants grown on a phytagar medium in small chambers with elevated CO 2 had longer roots, more lateral root growth than plants grown in ambient CO 2 . Roots in elevated CO 2 were found to have wider root diameters, and more secondary growth. The addition of sucrose to the media closely resembled the effects of elevated CO 2 . In addition, the increase in sucrose concentration had a bigger effect on root morphology under ambient, than elevated CO 2 . Therefore, both elevated CO 2 and increased sucrose concentrations promote root growth by increasing their number, length, and diameter. The dichotomy branching index (DBI) also dropped resulting in a more dichotomous branching pattern. 34 refs., 5 figs

  5. Effects of Nano-Titanium Dioxide on Freshwater Algal Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulacki, Konrad J.; Cardinale, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    To make predictions about the possible effects of nanomaterials across environments and taxa, toxicity testing must incorporate not only a variety of organisms and endpoints, but also an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie nanoparticle toxicity. Here, we report the results of a laboratory experiment in which we examined how titanium dioxide nanoparticles impact the population dynamics and production of biomass across a range of freshwater algae. We exposed 10 of the most common species of North American freshwater pelagic algae (phytoplankton) to five increasing concentrations of n-TiO2 (ranging from controls to 300 mg n-TiO2 L−1). We then examined the effects of n-TiO2 on the population growth rates and biomass production of each algal species over a period of 25 days. On average, increasing concentrations of n-TiO2 had no significant effects on algal growth rates (p = 0.376), even though there was considerable species-specific variation in responses. In contrast, exposure to n-TiO2 tended to increase maximum biomass achieved by species in culture (p = 0.06). Results suggest that titanium dioxide nanoparticles could influence certain aspects of population growth of freshwater phytoplankton, though effects are unlikely at environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:23071735

  6. Catalysts macroporosity and their efficiency in sulphur sub-dew point Claus tail gas treating processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsybulevski, A.M.; Pearson, M. [Alcoa Industrial Chemicals, 16010 Barker`s Point Lane, Houston, TX (United States); Morgun, L.V.; Filatova, O.E. [All-Russian Research Institute of Natural Gases and Gas Technologies VNIIGAZ, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sharp, M. [Porocel Corporation, Westheimer, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-10-08

    The efficiency of 4 samples of alumina catalyst has been studied experimentally in the course of the Claus `tail gas` treating processes at the sulphur sub-dew point (TGTP). The samples were characterized by the same chemical and crystallographic composition, the same volume of micropores, the same surface area and the same catalytic activity but differed appreciably in the volume of macropores. An increase in the effective operation time of the catalysts before breakthrough of unrecoverable sulphur containing compounds, with the increasing macropore volume has been established. A theoretical model of the TGTP has been considered and it has been shown that the increase in the sulphur capacity of the catalysts with a larger volume of macropores is due to an increase in the catalysts efficiency factor and a slower decrease in their diffusive permeability during filling of micropores by sulphur

  7. Sedative and hypnotic effects of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction from Schisandra chinensis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Zhu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for treating insomnia and neurasthenia for centuries. Lignans, which are considered to be the bioactive components, are apt to be extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. This study was conducted to investigate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of S. chinensis (SFES in mice and the possible mechanisms. SFES exhibited an obvious sedative effect on shortening the locomotor activity in mice in a dose-dependent (10–200 mg/kg manner. SFES (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg, intragstrically showed a strong hypnotic effect in synergy with pentobarbital in mouse sleep, and reversal of insomnia induced by caffeine, p-chlorophenylalanine and flumazenil by decreasing sleep latency, sleep recovery, and increasing sleeping time. In addition, it produced a synergistic effect with 5-hydroxytryptophan (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. The behavioral pharmacological results suggest that SFES has significant sedative and hypnotic activities, and the mechanisms might be relevant to the serotonergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic system.

  8. Do human beings contribute to the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stordal, Frode

    1999-01-01

    The various sources to and aspects of the greenhouse gas effect were discussed. The gas and pollutant contributions were estimated and the added amounts of methane, nitrogen dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons emissions were approximately equal to that of carbon dioxide. Problems connected to sulphur dioxide emissions were mentioned. The problems of UV and IR radiation were discussed. The sun shine intensity fluctuation was also considered as well as other factors that have influenced the climate before the industrial era. It was concluded that human activities have contributed to the alterations in the greenhouse effect in last century

  9. The effects of low level chlorination and chlorine dioxide on biofouling control in a once-through service water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, W.E. Jr.; Laylor, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Continuous chlorination has been successfully used for the control of Corbicula at a nuclear power plant located on the Chattahoochee River in southeastern Alabama, since 1986. The purpose of this study was to investigate further minimization of chlorine usage and determine if chlorine dioxide is a feasible alternative. Four continuous biocide treatments were evaluated for macro and microfouling control effectiveness, operational feasibility, and environmental acceptability. One semi-continuous chlorination treatment was also evaluated for macrofouling control effectiveness. Higher treatment residuals were possible with chlorine dioxide than with chlorination due to the river discharge limitations. At the levels tested, continuous chlorine dioxide was significantly more effective in providing both macro and microfouling control. Semi-continuous chlorination was just as effective as continuous chlorination for controlling macrofouling. The Corbicula treatment programs that were tested should all provide sufficient control for zebra mussels. Chlorine dioxide was not as cost effective as chlorination for providing macrofouling control. The semi-continuous treatment save 50% on chemical usage and will allow for the simultaneous treatment of two service water systems. Chlorite levels produced during the chlorine dioxide treatments were found to be environmentally acceptable. Levels of trihalomethanes in the chlorinated service water were less than the maximum levels allowed in drinking water

  10. Effects of some anaesthetics on honeybees: nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, ammonium nitrate smoker fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J

    1954-08-01

    Honeybees were apparently unaffected by atmospheric oxygen concentrations between 7% and 100%, and only became motionless when the oxygen concentration was less than 2%. The effects of nitrous oxide-oxygen mixtures differed little, if at all, from those nitrogen-oxygen mixtures. Bees were not visibly affected by carbon dioxide concentrations up to 10-15% but they became motionless if the concentration exceeded 40-45%. Fumes produced by adding ammonium nitrate to the fuel in a beekeeper's smoker were found to contain hydrogen cyanide or cyanogen. Their effectiveness as an anaesthetic may be due to this or to some unidentified component, but not to nitrous oxide. All three anaesthetics caused foraging bees to stop collecting pollen, and accelerated the retrogression of the pharyngeal glands of young bees. Anaesthesia of a few bees in a colony with nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, or ammonium nitrate smoker fumes did not appear to inhibit their drift back to the original site when their hive was moved, nor was any reduction in drifting observed when a whole colony was moved while anaesthetized with ammonium nitrate smoker fumes. 4 tables.

  11. Analysing the causes of chronic cough: relation to diesel exhaust, ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and other environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Ulrich

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution remains a leading cause of many respiratory diseases including chronic cough. Although episodes of incidental, dramatic air pollution are relatively rare, current levels of exposure of pollutants in industrialized and developing countries such as total articles, diesel exhaust particles and common cigarette smoke may be responsible for the development of chronic cough both in children and adults. The present study analyses the effects of common environmental factors as potential causes of chronic cough. Different PubMed-based researches were performed that related the term cough to various environmental factors. There is some evidence that chronic inhalation of diesel can lead to the development of cough. For long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2, children were found to exhibit increased incidences of chronic cough and decreased lung function parameters. Although a number of studies did not show that outdoor pollution directly causes the development of asthma, they have demonstrated that high levels pollutants and their interaction with sunlight produce ozone (O3 and that repeated exposure to it can lead to chronic cough. In summary, next to the well-known air pollutants which also include particulate matter and sulphur dioxide, a number of other indoor and outdoor pollutants have been demonstrated to cause chronic cough and therefore, environmental factors have to be taken into account as potential initiators of both adult and pediatric chronic cough.

  12. Pyroclastic sulphur eruption at Poas Volcano, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, P.W.; Thorpe, R.S.; Brown, G.C.; Glasscock, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent Voyager missions to Jupiter have highlighted the role of sulphur in volcanic processes on io. Although fumarolic sulphur and SO/sub 2/ gas are almost universal in terrestrial active volcanoes, and rare instances of sulphur lava flows have been reported, sulphur in a pyroclastic form has only been described from Poas Volcano, Costa Rica. Here we amplify the original descriptions by Bennett and Raccichini and describe a recent eruption of pyroclastic sulphur scoria and ejected blocks that are characterised by miniature sulphur stalactites and stalagmites.

  13. Recent Development of Carbonaceous Materials for Lithium–Sulphur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Gu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change are just beginning to be felt, and as such, society must work towards strategies of reducing humanity’s impact on the environment. Due to the fact that energy production is one of the primary contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, it is obvious that more environmentally friendly sources of power are required. Technologies such as solar and wind power are constantly being improved through research; however, as these technologies are often sporadic in their power generation, efforts must be made to establish ways to store this sustainable energy when conditions for generation are not ideal. Battery storage is one possible supplement to these renewable energy technologies; however, as current Li-ion technology is reaching its theoretical capacity, new battery technology must be investigated. Lithium–sulphur (Li–S batteries are receiving much attention as a potential replacement for Li-ion batteries due to their superior capacity, and also their abundant and environmentally benign active materials. In the spirit of environmental harm minimization, efforts have been made to use sustainable carbonaceous materials for applications as carbon–sulphur (C–S composite cathodes, carbon interlayers, and carbon-modified separators. This work reports on the various applications of carbonaceous materials applied to Li–S batteries, and provides perspectives for the future development of Li–S batteries with the aim of preparing a high energy density, environmentally friendly, and sustainable sulphur-based cathode with long cycle life.

  14. The great terror of the year 2005: carbon dioxide - Another approach of the Greenhouse Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre Lutgen

    1997-01-01

    The report speaks of a new vision about the greenhouse effect and its possible consequences in the planet. An increase of the CO2 in the atmosphere doesn't have disastrous effects, the study made in 475 varieties of plants shows that its speed of growth would increase in 50% if the CO2 passed from 350 ppm to 650 ppm; the CO2 not only feeds the plants but rather it assures the daily bread to many scientists. The apocalyptic reports of the IPCC on those which the pathetic call of justice et Pa will be made are refuted every time but for scientific. The scientific bases of the greenhouse effect due to the dioxide of carbon are questionable and they don't justify precipitate and drastic actions

  15. Crystal field effect in light actinide dioxides and oxychalcogenides - a unified phenomenological description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajek, Z. E-mail: gajek@int.pan.wroc.pl

    2004-05-01

    The electronic properties of the actinide ions in the series of semi-conducting, antiferromagnetic compounds: dioxides, AnO{sub 2} and oxychalcogenides, AnOY, where An=U, Np and Y=S, Se, are re-examined from the point of view of the consistency of the crystal field (CF) model. The discussion is based on the supposition that the effective metal-ligand interaction solely determines the net CF effect in non-metallic compounds. The main question we address here is, whether a reliable, consistent description of the CF effect in terms of the intrinsic parameters can be achieved for this particular family of compounds. Encouraging calculations reported previously for the AnO{sub 2} and UOY series serve as a reference data in the present estimation of electronic structure parameters for neptunium oxychalcogenides.

  16. Crystal field effect in light actinide dioxides and oxychalcogenides-a unified phenomenological description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Z.

    2004-05-01

    The electronic properties of the actinide ions in the series of semi-conducting, antiferromagnetic compounds: dioxides, AnO2 and oxychalcogenides, AnOY, where An=U, Np and Y=S, Se, are re-examined from the point of view of the consistency of the crystal field (CF) model. The discussion is based on the supposition that the effective metal-ligand interaction solely determines the net CF effect in non-metallic compounds. The main question we address here is, whether a reliable, consistent description of the CF effect in terms of the intrinsic parameters can be achieved for this particular family of compounds. Encouraging calculations reported previously for the AnO2 and UOY series serve as a reference data in the present estimation of electronic structure parameters for neptunium oxychalcogenides.

  17. Crystal field effect in light actinide dioxides and oxychalcogenides - a unified phenomenological description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajek, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The electronic properties of the actinide ions in the series of semi-conducting, antiferromagnetic compounds: dioxides, AnO 2 and oxychalcogenides, AnOY, where An=U, Np and Y=S, Se, are re-examined from the point of view of the consistency of the crystal field (CF) model. The discussion is based on the supposition that the effective metal-ligand interaction solely determines the net CF effect in non-metallic compounds. The main question we address here is, whether a reliable, consistent description of the CF effect in terms of the intrinsic parameters can be achieved for this particular family of compounds. Encouraging calculations reported previously for the AnO 2 and UOY series serve as a reference data in the present estimation of electronic structure parameters for neptunium oxychalcogenides

  18. Algal testing of titanium dioxide nanoparticles - Testing considerations, inhibitory effects and modification of cadmium bioavailability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; von der Kammer, F.; Hofmann, T.

    2010-01-01

    The ecotoxicity of three different sizes of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles (primary particles sizes: 10, 30, and 300 nm) to the freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was investigated in this study. Algal growth inhibition was found for all three particle types...... surfaces. It is also believed that heteroaggregation, driven by algal exopolymeric exudates, is occurring and could influence the concentration-response relationship. The ecotoxicity of cadmium to algae was investigated both in the presence and absence of 2 mg/LTiO(2). The presence of TiO(2) in algal tests......(II) species, indicating a possible carrier effect, or combined toxic effect of TiO(2) nanoparticles and cadmium. These results emphasize the importance of systematic studies of nanoecotoxicological effects of different sizes of nanoparticles and underline the fact that, in addition to particle toxicity...

  19. Abatements of reduced sulphur compounds, colour, and organic matter from indigo dyeing effluents by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tünay, Olcay; Simşeker, Merve; Kabdaşli, Isik; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the treatability of indigo dyeing effluents by the electrocoagulation (EC) process using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The samples used were concentrated with main pollutant parameters of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (1000-1100 mg/L), reduced sulphur species (over 2000 mg SO2-(3)/L), and colour (0.12-0.13 1/cm). The study focused on the effect of main operation parameters on the EC process performance in terms of abatement of reduced sulphur compounds as well as decolourization and organic matter reduction. Results indicated that the performance of EC proved to be high providing total oxidation of the reduced sulphur compounds, almost complete decolourization, and COD removal up to 90%. Increasing applied current density from 22.5 to 45 mA/cm2 appreciably improved abatement of the reduced sulphur compounds for Sample I, but a further increase in the applied current density to 67.5 mA/cm2 did not accelerate the conversion rate to sulphate. The process performance was adversely affected by increasing initial concentration of the reduced sulphur compounds. Decolourization and organic matter removal efficiency enhanced with increasing applied current density. The main removal mechanism of the reduced sulphur compounds by EC was explained as conversion to sulphate via oxidation. Conversion rate to sulphate fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well.

  20. The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowder, Mark L. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2012-06-20

    The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

  1. The effect of phosphorus on the formation of tungsten dioxide: A novel morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegedus, E.; Neugebauer, J.

    1999-01-01

    The industrial production of tungsten is based on the hydrogen reduction of tungsten oxides, ammonium paratungstate (APT) or ammonium tungsten oxide bronze (ATOB). Hydrogen reduction is applied when high purity tungsten is required and when the addition of other elements or compounds (dopants) is desired for modification of the properties of the metal powder. The first stage of the reduction is finished when WO 2 is formed and it seems that the efficient incorporation of the additives starts mainly at this reduction step. The study reported here was undertaken to investigate the effect of phosphorus dope on the morphology of the intermediate tungsten dioxide and analyze its influence on the grain size of the final tungsten metal powder. The authors observed star shaped morphology of WO 2 , a structure which has not been describe in the literature. Contrary to the well-known cauliflower shaped tungsten dioxide, these starlets are not pseudomorphic to the initial ATOB particles; they grow separately and have a great influence on the grain size of the final metal powder

  2. Role of sulphur in rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, Pamila; Sachdev, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sulphur is an essential plant nutrient growing in international importance. Rice farmers usually apply nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium at high rates to the crop. Whenever there is an imbalance between off take and input of nutrients, it may lead to a decline in soil fertility and increase incidence of deficiencies of certain plant nutrients especially sulphur and zinc. On the basis of available information, nutritional requirement, uptake values, crop response and measures to overcome S deficiency are some of the aspects critically dealt with

  3. Influence of experimental pulmonary emphysema on the toxicological effects from inhaled nitrogen dioxide and diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Bice, D.E.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gillett, N.A.; Henderson, R.F.; Pickrell, J.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    This project examined the influence of preexisting, experimentally induced pulmonary emphysema on the adverse health effects in rats of chronic inhalation exposure to either nitrogen dioxide or automotive diesel-engine exhaust. Previous reports indicated that humans with chronic lung disease were among those most severely affected by episodic exposures to high concentrations of airborne toxicants. There were no previous reports comparing the effects of chronic inhalation exposure to components of automotive emissions in emphysematous and normal animals. The hypothesis tested in this project was that rats with preexisting pulmonary emphysema were more susceptible than rats with normal lungs to the adverse effects of the toxicant exposures. Young adult rats were housed continuously in inhalation exposure chambers and exposed seven hours per day, five days per week, for 24 months to nitrogen dioxide at 9.5 parts per million (ppm)2, or to diesel exhaust at 3.5 mg soot/m3, or to clean air as control animals. These concentrations were selected to produce mild, but distinct, effects in rats with normal lungs. Pulmonary emphysema was induced in one-half of the rats by intratracheal instillation of the proteolytic enzyme elastase six weeks before the toxicant exposures began. Health effects were evaluated after 12, 18, and 24 months of exposure. The measurements included respiratory function, clearance of inhaled radiolabeled particles, pulmonary immune responses to instilled antigen, biochemistry and cytology of airway fluid, total lung collagen, histopathology, lung morphometry, and lung burdens of diesel soot. The significance of influences of emphysema and toxicant exposure, and interactions between influences of the two treatments, were evaluated by analysis of variance

  4. Ozone and/or sulfur dioxide effects on tissue permeability of petunia leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkiey, T.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements were made of potassium (K ) and total electrolyte leakage from leaf discs of 42-day old petunia plants exposed to 40 pphm ozone (O3) and/or 80 pphm sulfur dioxide (SO2). In an O3-sensitive cultivar White Cascade, K leakage was not affected by O3 or O3 and SO2 after 4 h exposure, but greatly increased by 4 h day exposure for 4 days to O3, SO2, or O3 and SO2. There was an indication of decreased K leakage from plants exposed for 4 h to SO2. Total electrolyte leakage was greater from leaf discs of White Cascade and White Magic, an intermediate sensitivity cultivar, than for Capri, the least O3-sensitive cultivar, when exposed to O3 for 4 h, while SO2 had little effect on total electrolyte leakage. There was also little effect on total K content of the leaves. 21 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  5. A study on the isotope effects in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senegacnik, M.

    1957-06-01

    We have determined the isotope effects which occur in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc. It has been shown that in the case of irreversible surface reactions, Bernstein's equation which permits the calculation of the fractionation factor is still valid. These experimental factors are in good agreement with those obtained by calculating the partition functions of the adsorbed activated complexes. In the reaction mechanism used, the model of the activated complex corresponds to the dissociation of one of the carbon oxygen bonds CO 2 → CO + O. Perturbations arising from the slight reversibility of the reaction Zn + CO 2 ↔ ZnO + CO on the isotope effects on the carbon and oxygen atoms have also been calculated. (author) [fr

  6. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root architecture and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee-Ho, E.; Walton, L.J.; Reid, D.M.; Yeung, E.C.; Kurepin, L.V. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2007-03-15

    Plant root growth is known to be influenced by higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Roots of some species grown in hydroponics under elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations may be more competitive sinks for photosynthetic assimilates than roots grown under lower CO{sub 2} conditions. Root branching patterns may also be influenced by elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations. Studies have also shown that factors such as soil compaction, salinity and the availability of nitrate, phosphorous, oxygen and water also influence root growth, and the effects of higher CO{sub 2} on roots can be confounded by such environmental factors. This study evaluated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root growth, morphology, and architecture. Both ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} levels were used along with various sucrose concentrations. The study revealed that A. thaliana plants grown on a phytagar medium in small chambers with elevated CO{sub 2} had longer roots, more lateral root growth than plants grown in ambient CO{sub 2}. Roots in elevated CO{sub 2} were found to have wider root diameters, and more secondary growth. The addition of sucrose to the media closely resembled the effects of elevated CO{sub 2}. In addition, the increase in sucrose concentration had a bigger effect on root morphology under ambient, than elevated CO{sub 2}. Therefore, both elevated CO{sub 2} and increased sucrose concentrations promote root growth by increasing their number, length, and diameter. The dichotomy branching index (DBI) also dropped resulting in a more dichotomous branching pattern. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  7. The effect of transcutaneous application of carbon dioxide (CO2) on skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oe, Keisuke; Ueha, Takeshi; Sakai, Yoshitada; Niikura, Takahiro; Lee, Sang Yang; Koh, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Takumi; Tanaka, Masaya; Miwa, Masahiko; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → PGC-1α is up-regulated as a result of exercise such as mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle fiber-type switching, and up-regulation of VEGF. → We demonstrated transcutaneous application of CO 2 up-regulated the gene expression of PGC-1α, SIRT1 and VEGF, and instance of muscle fiber switching. → Transcutaneous application of CO 2 may cause similar effect to aerobic exercise in skeletal muscle. -- Abstract: In Europe, carbon dioxide therapy has been used for cardiac disease and skin problems for a long time. However there have been few reports investigating the effects of carbon dioxide therapy on skeletal muscle. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) is up-regulated as a result of exercise and mediates known responses to exercise, such as mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle fiber-type switching, and neovascularization via up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It is also known that silent mating type information regulation 2 homologs 1 (SIRT1) enhances PGC-1α-mediated muscle fiber-type switching. Previously, we demonstrated transcutaneous application of CO 2 increased blood flow and a partial increase of O 2 pressure in the local tissue known as the Bohr effect. In this study, we transcutaneously applied CO 2 to the lower limbs of rats, and investigated the effect on the fast muscle, tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. The transcutaneous CO 2 application caused: (1) the gene expression of PGC-1α, silent mating type information regulation 2 homologs 1 (SIRT1) and VEGF, and increased the number of mitochondria, as proven by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, (2) muscle fiber switching in the TA muscle, as proven by isolation of myosin heavy chain and ATPase staining. Our results suggest the transcutaneous application of CO 2 may have therapeutic potential for muscular strength recovery resulting from disuse atrophy in post-operative patients and the elderly population.

  8. Reactions of sulphur mustard on impregnated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G K; Singh, Beer

    2004-12-31

    Activated carbon of surface area 1100 m2/gm is impregnated with 4% sodium hydroxide plus 3% Cr(VI) as CrO3 with and without 5% ethylene diamine (EDA), 4% magnesium nitrate and 5% ruthenium chloride by using their aqueous solutions. These carbons are characterized for surface area analysis by BET conventional method and exposed to the vapours of sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 degrees C). After 24 h, the reaction products are extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hemisulphur mustard, thiodiglycol, 1,4-oxathiane are observed to be the products of reaction between sulphur mustard and NaOH/CrO3/C system, whereas on NaOH/CrO3/EDA/C system HD reacted to give 1,4-thiazane. On Mg(NO3)2/C system it gave hemisulphur mustard and thiodiglycol. On RuCl3/C system it degraded to divinyl sulphone. Residual sulphur mustard is observed along with reaction products in all systems studied. Reaction mechanisms are also proposed for these interesting surface reactions. Above-mentioned carbons can be used in filtration systems for protection against hazardous gases such as sulphur mustard.

  9. Reactions of sulphur mustard on impregnated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, G.K.; Singh, Beer

    2004-01-01

    Activated carbon of surface area 1100 m 2 /gm is impregnated with 4% sodium hydroxide plus 3% Cr(Vi) as CrO 3 with and without 5% ethylene diamine (EDA), 4% magnesium nitrate and 5% ruthenium chloride by using their aqueous solutions. These carbons are characterized for surface area analysis by BET conventional method and exposed to the vapours of sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 deg. C). After 24 h, the reaction products are extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hemisulphur mustard, thiodiglycol, 1,4-oxathiane are observed to be the products of reaction between sulphur mustard and NaOH/CrO 3 /C system, whereas on NaOH/CrO 3 /EDA/C system HD reacted to give 1,4-thiazane. On Mg(NO 3 ) 2 /C system it gave hemisulphur mustard and thiodiglycol. On RuCl 3 /C system it degraded to divinyl sulphone. Residual sulphur mustard is observed along with reaction products in all systems studied. Reaction mechanisms are also proposed for these interesting surface reactions. Above-mentioned carbons can be used in filtration systems for protection against hazardous gases such as sulphur mustard

  10. Sulphur oxidising bacteria in mangrove ecosystem: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sulphur-oxidizing bacteria such as photoautotrophs, chemolithotrophs and heterotrophs play an important role in the mangrove environment for the oxidation of the toxic sulphide produced by sulphur reducing bacteria and act as a key driving force behind all sulphur transformations in the mangrove ecosystem which is ...

  11. The useful application of sulphur-bound waste materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, M.M.C.; Koene, J.I.A.

    1996-01-01

    An immobilization process is described which is based on sulphur (instead of cement) as a binding agent for the treatment of hazardous waste materials. Elemental sulphur is able to bind chemically metals such as mercury and, to a lesser extent, lead as metal sulphides. Furthermore, sulphur forms a

  12. Effect of quantum confinement on thermoelectric properties of vanadium dioxide nanofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, G.R.; Ahmad, Bilal [National Institute of Technology Srinagar, Nanotech Research Lab, Department of Physics, Kashmir (India)

    2017-12-15

    The quantum confinement effect on thermoelectric properties of pristine vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) nanofilms across semiconductor to metal phase transition (SMT) has been demonstrated by studying VO{sub 2} nanofilms of 15 nm thickness in comparison to microfilms of 290 nm thickness synthesized via inorganic sol-gel method casted on glass substrates by spin coating technique. The ebbing of phase transition temperature in nanofilms across SMT was consistent with the results obtained from resistance-temperature hysteresis contour during SMT dynamics of the nanofilms. The temperature dependent Hall and Seebeck measurements revealed that electrons were the charge carriers in the nanofilms and that the value of charge carrier concentration increased as much as 4 orders of magnitude while going across SMT which stood responsible almost entirely for resistance variations. The decline in carrier mobility and escalation in Seebeck coefficient in the low temperature semiconducting region were splendidly witnessed across SMT. (orig.)

  13. Effects of supercritical carbon dioxide on immobile bound polymer chains on solid substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Mani; Asada, Mitsunori; Jiang, Naisheng; Endoh, Maya K.; Akgun, Bulent; Satija, Sushil; Koga, Tadanori

    2013-03-01

    Adsorbed polymer layers formed on flat solid substrates have recently been the subject of extensive studies because it is postulated to control the dynamics of technologically relevant polymer thin films, for example, in lithography. Such adsorbed layers have been reported to hinder the mobility of polymer chains in thin films even at a large length scale. Consequently, this bound layer remains immobile regardless of processing techniques (i.e. thermal annealing, solvent dissolution, etc). Here, we investigate the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a novel plasticizer for bound polystyrene layers formed on silicon substrates. In-situ swelling and interdiffusion experiments using neutron reflectivity were performed. As a result, we found the anomalous plasticization effects of scCO2 on the bound polymer layers near the critical point where the anomalous adsorption of CO2 molecules in polymer thin films has been reported previously. Acknowledgement: We acknowledge the financial support from NSF Grant No. CMMI-084626.

  14. Effect of vanadium on the obtaining of the titanium dioxide by Sol-Gel Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granado, S.R.; Silva, D.W.; Lopes, S.A.; Cavalheiro, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The obtaining of transition metal modified titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) can be a promising path to promote changes in crystal structure of anatase phase in order to displace the band gap toward frequencies near to visible region. The insertion of the heterovalent ions such as vanadium can be shift the titanium coordination number in the anatase matrix, leading to important changes in the photonic characteristics of the material. In Sol-Gel method, the presence of the non alkoxide precursors can affects the stability of the solution and the gelifying process, with consequences on the characteristics of the material. In this work, it was investigated the effect of 5mol% of vanadium by thermal analysis of the dried gel and XRD and adsorption isotherm in the samples obtained at different temperatures. The decomposition steps of the precursor were associated to phase formation in the material, leading to conclusion that the presence of vanadium affects the stability of anatase phase. (author)

  15. Synthesis of zirconium dioxide by ultrasound assisted precipitation: effect of calcination temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Krishnamurthy; Pinjari, D V; Pandit, A B; Mhaske, S T

    2011-09-01

    Nanostructured zirconium dioxide was synthesized from zirconyl nitrate using both conventional and ultrasound assisted precipitation in alkaline medium. The synthesized samples were calcinated at temperatures ranging from 400°C to 900°C in steps of 100°C. The ZrO(2) specimens were characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The thermal characteristics of the samples were studied via Differential Scanning Calorimetry-Thermo-Gravimetry Analysis (DSC-TGA). The influence of the calcination temperature on the phase transformation process from monoclinic to tetragonal to cubic zirconia and its consequent effect on the crystallite size and % crystallinity of the synthesized ZrO(2) was studied and interpreted. It was observed that the ultrasound assisted technique helped to hasten to the phase transformation and also at some point resulted in phase stabilization of the synthesized zirconia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Economic effects of restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions. Scenarios for Sweden to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    Simulations have been performed of the effect of carbon dioxide-restrictions related to the Kyoto-protocol on the Swedish economy. Using the Environmental Medium Term Economic model three scenarios have been simulated where Sweden: 1. increases the CO 2 emissions by 4%; 2. decreases the CO 2 emissions by 2%; 3. decreases the CO 2 emissions by 8% in year 2010 compared to year 1990. In a fourth scenario, a tax of 0.60 SEK (about 0.06 USD) is imposed on each emitted kg CO 2 . Results of the simulations show that certain structure-changes take place in the economy, but that the GDP growth will not be influenced in any larger degree (-0.3, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.1 % compared to the reference scenario for 1997-2010 resp.). The refinery sector will be most heavily influenced, with a production reduction of 4 to 10 %

  17. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H.; Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R.

    2004-01-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  18. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H. [University of Freiburg, Inst. of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Freiburg (Germany); Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R. [Technische Universitat Munchen, Dept. of Ecology and Ecophysiology of Plants, Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  19. The effects of immune modulation on plutonium dioxide lung carcinogenesis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, D.; Discour, M.; Masse, R.; Lafuma, J.

    1979-01-01

    After inhalation of radioactive particles only some rats developed lung tumors. It was interesting to see whether this was a random effect or the result of different individual susceptibilities. Among the possible individual differences, cell mediated mechanisms and genetic factors have been reported. The relationships between cancerogenesis and host immune status are tested on rats submitted to an inhalation of plutonium dioxide particles after depression by azathioprine, hydrocortisone or thymectomy. The effects of immuno stimulation by BCG are also studied. The influence of genetic factors is studied with the same protocol on two strains of Wistar rats outbred or inbred. The incidence, nature, size, extension and metastases of tumors are compared between the groups. Results give a good evidence that AZA treated rats and thymectomized rats have a greater incidence of spontaneous tumors. This effect is observed at different levels in the two strains of rats. According to strain used, immunodepression have no or weak enhancing effect on PuO 2 tumor induction, but significant effect of development of tumors is always observed. A shift towards bronchogenic type is also observed. BCG have also an enhancing effect on development of tumors and no protective effect on their incidence

  20. Ionic dependence of sulphur mustard cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, Thomas W.; Nelson, Peggy; Bjarnason, Stephen; Vair, Cory; Shei Yimin; Tenn, Catherine; Lecavalier, Pierre; Burczyk, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ionic environment on sulphur mustard (bis 2-chloroethyl sulphide; HD) toxicity was examined in CHO-K1 cells. Cultures were treated with HD in different ionic environments at constant osmolar conditions (320 mOsM, pH 7.4). The cultures were refed with fresh culture medium 1 h after HD exposure, and viability was assessed. Little toxicity was apparent when HD exposures were carried out in ion-free sucrose buffer compared to LC 50 values of ∼ 100-150 μM when the cultures were treated with HD in culture medium. Addition of NaCl to the buffer increased HD toxicity in a salt concentration-dependent manner to values similar to those obtained in culture medium. HD toxicity was dependent on both cationic and anionic species with anionic environment playing a much larger role in determining toxicity. Substitution of NaI for NaCl in the treatment buffers increased HD toxicity by over 1000%. The activity of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in recovering from cytosolic acidification in salt-free and in different chloride salts did not correlate with the HD-induced toxicity in these buffers. However, the inhibition by HD of intracellular pH regulation correlated with its toxicity in NaCl, NaI and sucrose buffers. Analytical chemical studies and the toxicity of the iodine mustard derivative ruled out the role of chemical reactions yielding differentially toxic species as being responsible for the differences in HD toxicity observed. This work demonstrates that the early events that HD sets into motion to cause toxicity are dependent on ionic environment, possibly due to intracellular pH deregulation.

  1. The effects of titanium dioxide coatings on light-derived heating and transdermal heat transfer in bovine skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartle, S J; Thomson, D U; Gehring, R; van der Merwe, B. D.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of titanium dioxide coatings of bovine hides on light absorption and transdermal transfer of light-derived heat were investigated. Four hair-on rug hides from Holstein cattle were purchased. Twelve samples about 20 cm on a side were cut from each hide; nine from the black-colored areas,

  2. Experimental investigation of the effect of titanium dioxide and barium titanate additives on DC transient currents in low density polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, M.S; Henk, Peter O; Henriksen, Mogens

    1988-01-01

    The effect of titanium dioxide as a semiconductive additive and barium titanate as a highly polar additive on the DC transient currents in low-density polyethylene is investigated. Experiments were made using thick specimens under a high electric field (>25×106 V/m) and a constant temperature of 40...

  3. Comparative study on effects of two different types of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on human neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Costa, Carla; Sharma, Vyom; Kiliç, Gözde; Pásaro, Eduardo; Teixeira, João Paulo; Dhawan, Alok; Laffon, Blanca

    2013-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) are among most frequently used nanoparticles (NPs). They are present in a variety of consumer products, including food industry in which they are employed as an additive. The potential toxic effects of these NPs on mammal cells have been extensively studied. However, studies regarding neurotoxicity and specific effects on neuronal systems are very scarce and, to our knowledge, no studies on human neuronal cells have been reported so far. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to investigate the effects of two types of TiO₂ NPs, with different crystalline structure, on human SHSY5Y neuronal cells. After NPs characterization, a battery of assays was performed to evaluate the viability, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative damage in TiO₂ NP-exposed SHSY5Y cells. Results obtained showed that the behaviour of both types of NPs resulted quite comparable. They did not reduce the viability of neuronal cells but were effectively internalized by the cells and induced dose-dependent cell cycle alterations, apoptosis by intrinsic pathway, and genotoxicity not related with double strand break production. Furthermore, all these effects were not associated with oxidative damage production and, consequently, further investigations on the specific mechanisms underlying the effects observed in this study are required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interspecific differences in the effects of sulfur dioxide on angiosperm sexual reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBay, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to test the potential direct effects of SO 2 on sexual reproduction in several plant species with different reproductive structures and processes. In marked contrast to the sensitivity to SO 2 reported by other investigators for pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro, and recorded for Lepidium virginicum in this study, 4 of 5 species tested were tolerant with respect to fruit and seed set after exposure to 0.6 ppm SO 2 for 8 hours during flowering. Seed set in the one sensitive species, Geranium carolinianum, was reduced 40% from the control after exposure to SO 2 , but only when relative humidity (RH) was at or above 90%. The effect of SO 2 on Lepidium pollen germination in vitro was greater than the effect of SO 2 on sexual reproduction in vivo. Sulfur dioxide reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control. The same concentration of SO 2 , at 90% Rh, reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but had no effect on seed set. Predictions of effects of SO 2 on reproduction in vivo based on effects of SO 2 on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro are not valid

  5. Coordinated programme on isotopic tracer-aided studies of the biological side effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture. Study of sulfur dioxide effects on phosphorus metabolism in plants using 32-P as indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plesnicar, M.

    1977-07-01

    Exposure of bean plants to low sulphur dioxide concentrations (0.02-0.32 ppm, up to 72 hours) stimulated the incorporation of 32 P into RNA, DNA, phospholipids and the acid soluble fraction, without altering the total phosphorus content. Statistically significant 32 P increases were only observed with RNA. Uptake of 35 SO 2 (14 ppm) by bean leaves was shown to be fairly rapid and the radioactivity was translocated in the roots within 1 to 6 hours following exposure. Subcellular leaf fractions showed that the supernatant contained 60-90% of the absorbed radioactivity. The chloroplasts and microsomes showed higher 35 S content than the mitochondrial fraction. In vitro studies on pea-derived chloroplasts included photosynthetic phosphorylation and electron transport. Phosphorylation was found to be inhibited in presence of SO 2 (I 50 =3.7 mM). The nature of inhibition seems to be of the reversible-competitive type with an apparent inhibitor constant (Ki) of 1.5 mM. The electron transport system remained unaffected. It is maintained that the identification of some lesions in this study would contribute to a better understanding of the nature of the complex interactions between cultivated plants and sulphur dioxide

  6. Effects of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide on vegetation. Progress report, 1 June 1977--28 February 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, L.H.; McCune, D.C.; MacLean, D.C.

    1978-02-01

    The areas of research selected are related to fossil fuel combustion and are believed or are known to occur in the field: the mode of action of SO/sub 2/ in relation to its metabolic fate; the influence of NO/sub 2/ on the phytotoxicity of SO/sub 2/, and the combined effects of these pollutants on crop yield under field conditions; the effect of SO/sub 2/ on the plant with respect to its susceptibility to plant diseases; and the effect of SO/sub 2/ on the behavior and development of the Mexican bean beetle on soybean and on the production of volatile terpenoids in conifers with respect to their suitability for colonization by insects.

  7. Modified sulphur cement: A low porosity encapsulation material for low, medium and alpha waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalen, A. van; Rijpkema, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Modified sulphur cement, available under the trade name Chement 2000, is a thermoplastic candidate material for the matrix of low, intermediate and alpha radioactive waste. The main source of sulphur is the desulphurization of fossil fuels. In view of the future increase of this product a modified compound of sulphur has been developed at the US Bureau of Mines. Modified sulphur cement as matrix material has properties in common with Portland or blast furnace cement and bitumen. The mechanical strength is comparable to hydraulic cement products. The process to incorporate waste materials is identical to bitumization. The leachability and the resistance to attack by chemicals is nearly the same as for bituminized products. This study showed also that the radiation resistance is high without radiolytic gas production and without change in dimensions (swelling). The rigidity of the matrix is a disadvantage when internal pressures are built up. The thermal conductivity and the heat of combustion of sulphur is low resulting in slow damage to the waste form under fire conditions, even when the temperature of self ignition in air is 220 0 C. The low leachability, the very slow effective diffusion of H 2 O and HTO, and the low permeability is due to the small pore diameters in the modified sulphur matrix. The loading capacity of modified sulphur cement depends on grain size and distribution and is for ungraded ashes, precipitates, dried sludges, etc., in the order of 40-50% of weight. The price of Chement 2000 per tonne is equal to those of blown bitumen

  8. Strange and non-strange baryon and antibaryon production in sulphur-tungsten and sulphur-sulphur interactions at 200 A Gev/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holme, A.K.

    1995-11-01

    The author has studied production of strange and multistrange baryons and antibaryons in central sulphur-tungsten, sulphur-sulphur, and lead-lead interactions at relativistic energies. The spectra of strange baryons and antibaryons provide information about the dynamics of hadronic matter under the extreme conditions realised in these collisions. The particle ratios allow the degree and the nature of the flavour equilibrium to be studied, while the transverse mass distributions provide independent information of the temperatures achieved. 143 refs.

  9. Strange and non-strange baryon and antibaryon production in sulphur-tungsten and sulphur-sulphur interactions at 200 A Gev/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holme, A.K.

    1995-11-01

    The author has studied production of strange and multistrange baryons and antibaryons in central sulphur-tungsten, sulphur-sulphur, and lead-lead interactions at relativistic energies. The spectra of strange baryons and antibaryons provide information about the dynamics of hadronic matter under the extreme conditions realised in these collisions. The particle ratios allow the degree and the nature of the flavour equilibrium to be studied, while the transverse mass distributions provide independent information of the temperatures achieved. 143 refs

  10. Effects of decoupling of carbon dioxide emission by Chinese nonferrous metals industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shenggang; Hu Zhen

    2012-01-01

    We adopted the refined Laspeyres index approach to explore the impacts of industry scale, energy mix, energy intensity and utility mix on the total carbon dioxide emissions from the Chinese nonferrous metals industry for the period 1996–2008. In addition, we calculated the trend of decoupling effects in nonferrous metals industry in China by presenting a theoretical framework for decoupling. As the results suggest, Chinese nonferrous metals industry has gone through four decoupling stages: strong negative decoupling stage (1996–1998), weak decoupling stage (1999–2000), expensive negative decoupling stage (2001–2003) and weak decoupling stage (2004–2008). We have analyzed the reasons for each phase. Generally speaking, the rapid growth of the industry is the most important factor responsible for the increase of CO 2 emissions, and the change in energy mix was mainly due to the increased proportion of electric energy consumption that has contributed to the increase of CO 2 emissions. Reduction of energy intensity has contributed significantly to emissions decrease, and the utility mix effect has also contributed to the emission decrease to some extent. - Highlights: ► We calculate the decoupling effects of CO 2 from Chinese nonferrous metals industry. ► Results demonstrate that the industry has gone through four decoupling stages. ► The output effect is most important for the increase of CO 2 emissions. ► Reduction of energy intensity has contributed significantly to emissions decrease.

  11. Toxic effects of the interaction of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with chemicals or physical factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui; Lin, Xialu; Zhao, Jinshun

    2013-01-01

    Due to their chemical stability and nonallergic, nonirritant, and ultraviolet protective properties, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in industries such as electronics, optics, and material sciences, as well as architecture, medicine, and pharmacology. However, increasing concerns have been raised in regards to its ecotoxicity and toxicity on the aquatic environment as well as to humans. Although insights have been gained into the effects of TiO2 NPs on susceptible biological systems, there is still much ground to be covered, particularly in respect of our knowledge of the effects of the interaction of TiO2 NPs with other chemicals or physical factors. Studies suggest that interactions of TiO2 NPs with other chemicals or physical factors may result in an increase in toxicity or adverse effects. This review highlights recent progress in the study of the interactive effects of TiO2 NPs with other chemicals or physical factors. PMID:23901269

  12. The effect of doping titanium dioxide nanoparticles on phase transformation, photocatalytic activity and anti-bacterial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzby, Scott Edward

    Nanosized titanium dioxide has a variety of important applications in everyday life including a photocatalyst for pollution remediation, photovoltaic devices, sunscreen, etc. This study focuses on the various properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles doped with various cation and anion species. Samples were produced by various methods including metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), plasma assisted metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PA-MOCVD) and sol-gel. Numerous techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron microscopy both scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) were used for physical characterization. Photocatalytic properties were determined by the oxidation of methylene blue dye and 2-chlorophenol in water as well as gaseous formic acid with results analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultra violet - visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). For the purpose of enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, the effect of anion doping and the anatase-rutile phase ratio were studied. Although anatase, rutile and mixed crystallite phases all show some degree of activity in photocatalytic reactions, these results show that anatase is better suited for the degradation of organic compounds in an aqueous medium any advantage in photocatalytic activity gained through the enhancement in optical response from the smaller band gap by addition of rutile was overcome by the negatives associated with the rutile phase. Furthermore substitutional nitrogen doping showed significant improvement in UV photocatalysis as well as allowing for visible light activation of the catalyst. Further studies on the phase transitions in titanium dioxide nanoparticles were carried out by synthesizing various cation doped samples by sol-gel. Analysis of the phases by XRD showed an inverse relationship between dopant size and rutile percentage

  13. Use of 0.1% chlorine dioxide to inhibit the formation of morning volatile sulphur compounds (VSC Uso do enxaguatório de dióxido de cloro a 0,1% para inibir a formação matinal de compostos sulfurosos voláteis (CSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cristina Peruzzo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the VSC-inhibiting effect of a commercially available mouthrinse (0.1% chlorine dioxide when compared to its placebo. A 2-step double blind, crossover, randomised study was conducted with 14 dental students with healthy periodontium, who refrained from any mechanical plaque and tongue coating control during two 4-day experimental periods. The subjects were instructed to rinse 3 times daily with the assigned product during each period. A 7-day washout interval was established. VSCs levels were measured by a sulphide monitor at the beginning (baseline and at the end of each experimental period. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilcoxon's and Mann-Whitney's non-parametric tests. At baseline, intragroup analysis revealed that VSCs levels did not differ between groups (p > 0.05; at day 5, the use of the chlorine dioxide mouthrinse did not change the baseline VSCs scores in the control group (p > 0.05, while a 2-fold increase was observed with the use of the placebo mouthrinse (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito inibitório do enxaguatório de dióxido de cloro a 0,1% sobre a formação dos CSVs, quando comparados a um placebo. Um estudo randomizado, cruzado, duplo cego foi conduzido com 14 estudantes de odontologia apresentando saúde periodontal, os quais se abstiveram dos hábitos de escovação dentária e limpeza da língua durante dois períodos experimentais de 4 dias. Os voluntários foram orientados a utilizar o enxaguatório designado 3 vezes ao dia conforme indicado no rótulo. Um intervalo de 7 dias foi estabelecido entre os períodos experimentais. No início ("baseline" e no final de cada período experimental, os níveis de CSVs foram medidos com o uso do monitor de sulfetos. Análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se os testes não-paramétricos de Wilcoxon e Mann-Whitney. No "baseline", uma análise intragrupo revelou que os níveis de CSVs não diferiram entre os

  14. Quantitative Aspects of Sulphur Metabolism in the Ruminant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, J. [Institut fuer Tierernaehrung, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1968-07-01

    In a series of four experiments {sup 35}S sulphate was given intra-ruminally to lactating dairy goats at feeding times (twice daily) during periods of 10 to 11 d. Rumen contents were sampled on the 8th, 9th and 10th day of {sup 35}S application. Radioactivity was determined in the volatile sulphur fraction (sulphide-sulphur) and in protein-bound sulphur (fraction insoluble in trichloroacetic acid). The ratio between the specific activities of protein sulphur and of sulphide sulphur was considered to be an estimate for that fraction of sulphur-containing amino acids present in the proteins of rumen contents, which was synthesized by microorganisms. This interpretation is based on the assumption that sulphide is the most important source of inorganic sulphur for the synthesis of sulphur amino acids and that incorporation of inorganic sulphur compounds of a a higher state of oxidation into organic molecules may quantitatively be neglected. In three experiments the animals received rations containing 16% to 17% crude protein. In these experiments the ratio of specific activities of protein and sulphide sulphur was found to vary from 0.32 to 0.41. According to the assumptions mentioned above, this would indicate that 32 to 41% of the total amount of protein-bound sulphur amino acids were synthesized by microorganisms from inorganic (sulphide) sulphur. In the fourth experiment the animal received a ration containing only 10% protein but supplemented with urea to bring the total crude protein content to 13%. In this experiment the ratio of specific activities was 0.70, indicating a much higher contribution of microbial synthesis of sulphur amino acids than in the experiments with a more abundant protein supply. The time course of the specific activity of protein-bound-sulphur in the milk is taken as a reference base for an interpretation of labelling of body proteins in terms of turnover rates.

  15. Effect of Aloe vera, chlorine dioxide, and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingivitis: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeturu, Sravan Kumar; Acharya, Shashidhar; Urala, Arun Sreenivas; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Aloe vera, chlorine dioxide, and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingivitis in orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods A randomized single-center, single-blind, parallel group, controlled trial was conducted among 90 subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. The subjects were randomly divided into one of the three study groups (Aloe vera, chlorhexidine, chlorine dioxide). Plaque and gingivitis were assessed using modified Silness and Loe Plaque Index and Gingival Index at baseline and at follow-up after 15 days. Paired t-test and ANOVA with post hoc Dunnett test were used. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 85 participants completed the study; among them, 40 were male and 45 were female. There was significant reduction in mean plaque and gingival scores in all the 3 groups at follow-up when compared to baseline. A significantly higher reduction (plaque and gingival scores) was found in chlorhexidine when compared with the Aloe vera group. However, no significant difference was seen between chlorhexidine and chlorine dioxide with respect to mean reduction in plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion Chlorine dioxide can be a suitable and economical alternative for chlorhexidine. Further long-term studies are recommended for evaluating their effectiveness. PMID:26937371

  16. Effects of carbon dioxide therapy on the healing of acute skin wounds induced on the back of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vitória Carmo Penhavel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the healing effect of carbon dioxide therapy on skin wounds induced on the back of rats. METHODS: Sixteen rats underwent excision of a round dermal-epidermal dorsal skin flap of 2.5 cm in diameter. The animals were divided into two groups, as follows: carbon dioxide group - subcutaneous injections of carbon dioxide on the day of operation and at three, six and nine days postoperatively; control group - no postoperative wound treatment. Wounds were photographed on the day of operation and at six and 14 days postoperatively for analysis of wound area and major diameter. All animals were euthanized on day 14 after surgery. The dorsal skin and the underlying muscle layer containing the wound were resected for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between groups in the percentage of wound closure, in histopathological findings, or in the reduction of wound area and major diameter at 14 days postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Under the experimental conditions in which this study was conducted, carbon dioxide therapy had no effects on the healing of acute skin wounds in rats.

  17. Effect of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Carbon Assimilation under Fluctuating Light

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holišová, Petra; Zitová, Martina; Klem, Karel; Urban, Otmar

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2012), s. 1931-1938 ISSN 0047-2425 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0340; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA AV ČR IAA600870701 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : carbon * light * beech * spruce * carbon assimilation * elevat e carbon * dioxide concentration * mol * photosynthetic * assimilation * carbon dioxide * dioxide * concentracion * leave * photosynthetic efficiency Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012

  18. Effect of cerium dioxide, titanium dioxide, silver, and gold nanoparticles on the activity of microbial communities intended in wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Ana; Delgado, Lucía; Torà, Josep A.; Casals, Eudald; González, Edgar; Puntes, Víctor; Font, Xavier; Carrera, Julián; Sánchez, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Toxicity of TiO 2 , CeO 2 , Ag and Au nanoparticles (NP) has been studied. ► NP were synthesized in the lab and stabilized to prevent agglomeration. ► Toxicity was studied in all the communities used for the wastewater treatment. ► Heterotrophic, nitrifying and anaerobic organisms were studied for nanotoxicology. ► Au and TiO 2 NP were not toxic, but Ag and CeO 2 NP were inhibitory. - Abstract: Growth in production and use of nanoparticles (NPs) will result increased concentrations of these in industrial and urban wastewaters and, consequently, in wastewater-treatment facilities. The effect of this increase on the performance of the wastewater-treatment process has not been studied systematically and including all the microbial communities involved in wastewater treatment. The present work investigates, by using respiration tests and biogas-production analysis, the inhibitory effect of four different commonly used metal oxide (CeO 2 and TiO 2 ) and zero-valent metal (Ag and Au) nanoparticles on the activity of the most important microbial communities present in a modern wastewater-treatment plant. Specifically, the actions of ordinary heterotrophic organisms, ammonia oxidizing bacteria, and thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic bacteria were tested in the presence and absence of the nanoparticles. In general, CeO 2 nanoparticles caused the greatest inhibition in biogas production (nearly 100%) and a strong inhibitory action of other biomasses; Ag nanoparticles caused an intermediate inhibition in biogas production (within 33–50%) and a slight inhibition in the action of other biomasses, and Au and TiO 2 nanoparticles caused only slight or no inhibition for all tested biomasses.

  19. Carbon dioxide emissions effects of grid-scale electricity storage in a decarbonizing power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael T.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2018-01-01

    While grid-scale electricity storage (hereafter ‘storage’) could be crucial for deeply decarbonizing the electric power system, it would increase carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in current systems across the United States. To better understand how storage transitions from increasing to decreasing system CO2 emissions, we quantify the effect of storage on operational CO2 emissions as a power system decarbonizes under a moderate and strong CO2 emission reduction target through 2045. Under each target, we compare the effect of storage on CO2 emissions when storage participates in only energy, only reserve, and energy and reserve markets. We conduct our study in the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system and use a capacity expansion model to forecast generator fleet changes and a unit commitment and economic dispatch model to quantify system CO2 emissions with and without storage. We find that storage would increase CO2 emissions in the current ERCOT system, but would decrease CO2 emissions in 2025 through 2045 under both decarbonization targets. Storage reduces CO2 emissions primarily by enabling gas-fired generation to displace coal-fired generation, but also by reducing wind and solar curtailment. We further find that the market in which storage participates drives large differences in the magnitude, but not the direction, of the effect of storage on CO2 emissions.

  20. Bactericidal effect of the photocatalystic reaction of titanium dioxide using visible wavelengths on Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Hee; Lee, Eun-Song; Kang, Si-Mook; de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Kim, Baek-Il

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) photocatalysis induced by the application of clinically acceptable visible light at 405nm on the growth of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were grown on a hydroxyapatite (HA) disk and deposited in a rutile-type TiO 2 solution at a concentration of 0.1mg/mL. TiO 2 photocatalysis was measured for exposure to visible light (405nm) and ultraviolet (UV) light (254nm) produced by light-emitting diodes for 10, 20, 30, and 40min. After two treatments, the number of colonies formed in the final S. mutans biofilm on the HA disk were measured to confirm their viability, and the morphological changes of S. mutans were evaluated using scanning electronic microscopy. The bactericidal effects of 254- and 405-nm light resulted in > 5-log and 4-log reductions, respectively (p7-log reduction after 40min of treatment in both treatment groups relative to the control group. It was confirmed that the antibacterial effect could be shown by causing the photocatalytic reaction of TiO 2 in S. mutans biofilm even at the wavelength of visible light (405nm) as at the wavelength of ultraviolet light (254nm). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibition Improves the Effectiveness of Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Balazs; Kiss, Istvan; Jencsik, Timea; Peter, Ivan; Kreska, Zita; Koszegi, Tamas; Miseta, Attila; Kustan, Peter; Boncz, Imre; Laczo, Andrea; Ajtay, Zeno

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) therapy on the nitric oxide (NO) pathway by monitoring plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations. Forty-seven hypertensive patients who underwent transcutaneous CO 2 therapy were enrolled. Thirty healthy individuals were recruited for the control group. Blood samples were taken one hour before, as well as one hour, 24 hours and 3 weeks after the first CO 2 treatment. Controls did not undergo CO 2 treatment. Plasma ADMA levels were measured by ELISA. ADMA levels decreased significantly one hour after the first CO2 treatment compared to the baseline concentrations (p=0.003). Significantly greater reduction was found among patients in whom angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) were administered (p=0.019). The short- and long-term decrease of ADMA levels suggests that CO 2 is not only a vasodilator, but also has a beneficial effect on the NO pathway. ACE inhibition seems to enhance the effect of CO 2 treatment. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. NA35: sulphur-gold collision

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    In this image the real particles produced by the collision of a 6400 GeV sulphur ion with a gold target can be seen as they pass through a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. The NA35 experiment, which was in operation in the 1980s, was part of CERN's ongoing heavy ion project.

  3. Sulphur mountain: Cosmic ray intensity records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, D.; Mathews, T.

    1985-01-01

    This book deals with the comic ray intensity registrations at the Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Laboratory. The time series of intensity form a valuable data-set, for studying cosmic ray intensity variations and their dependence on solar activity. The IGY neutron monitor started operating from July 1, 1957 and continued through 1963. Daily mean values are tabulated for the period and these are also represented in plots. This monitor was set up by the National Research Council of Canada

  4. Quantum Chemical Study of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Effects on Combustion Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunov, Artëm E; Wait, Elizabeth E; Atlanov, Arseniy A; Vasu, Subith S

    2017-05-18

    In oxy-fuel combustion, the pure oxygen (O 2 ), diluted with CO 2 is used as oxidant instead air. Hence, the combustion products (CO 2 and H 2 O) are free from pollution by nitrogen oxides. Moreover, high pressures result in the near-liquid density of CO 2 at supercritical state (sCO 2 ). Unfortunately, the effects of sCO 2 on the combustion kinetics are far from being understood. To assist in this understanding, in this work we are using quantum chemistry methods. Here we investigate potential energy surfaces of important combustion reactions in the presence of the carbon dioxide molecule. All transition states and reactant and product complexes are reported for three reactions: H 2 CO + HO 2 → HCO + H 2 O 2 (R1), 2HO 2 → H 2 O 2 + O 2 (R2), and CO + OH → CO 2 + H (R3). In reaction R3, covalent binding of CO 2 to the OH radical and then the CO molecule opens a new pathway, including hydrogen transfer from oxygen to carbon atoms followed by CH bond dissociation. Compared to the bimolecular OH + CO mechanism, this pathway reduces the activation barrier by 5 kcal/mol and is expected to accelerate the reaction. In the case of hydroperoxyl self-reaction 2HO 2 → H 2 O 2 + O 2 the intermediates, containing covalent bonds to CO 2 are found not to be competitive. However, the spectator CO 2 molecule can stabilize the cyclic transition state and lower the barrier by 3 kcal/mol. Formation of covalent intermediates is also discovered in the H 2 CO + HO 2 → HCO + H 2 O 2 reaction, but these species lead to substantially higher activation barriers, which makes them unlikely to play a role in hydrogen transfer kinetics. The van der Waals complexation with carbon dioxide also stabilizes the transition state and reduces the reaction barrier. These results indicate that the CO 2 environment is likely to have a catalytic effect on combustion reactions, which needs to be included in kinetic combustion mechanisms in supercritical CO 2 .

  5. In situ effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on community structure of freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Boris; Milošević, Djuradj; Piperac, Milica Stojković; Savić, Ana

    2016-06-01

    For the first time in the current literature, the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on the community structure of macroinvertebrates has been investigated in situ. Macroinvertebrates were exposed for 100 days to an environmentally relevant concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles, 25 mg kg(-1) in sediment. Czekanowski's index was 0.61, meaning 39% of the macroinvertebrate community structure was affected by the TiO2 treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) visualized the qualitative and quantitative variability of macroinvertebrates at the community level among all samples. A distance-based permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) revealed the significant effect of TiO2 on the macroinvertebrate community structure. The indicator value analysis showed that the relative frequency and abundance of Planorbarius corneus and Radix labiata were significantly lower in the TiO2 treatment than in the control. Meanwhile, Ceratopogonidae, showed a significantly higher relative frequency and abundance in the TiO2 treatment than in the control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Short-term effects of carbon dioxide on carnation callus cell respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palet, A.; Ribas-Carbo, M.; Argiles, J.M.; Azcon-Bieto, J.

    1991-01-01

    The addition of potassium bicarbonate to the electrode cuvette immediately stimulated the rate of dark O 2 uptake of photomixotrophic and heterotrophic carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) callus, of Elodea canadensis (Minchx) leaves, and of other plant tissues. This phenomenon occurred at pH values lower than 7.2 to 7.8, and the stimulation depended on the concentration of gaseous CO 2 in the solution. These stimulatory responses lasted several minutes and then decreased, but additional bicarbonate or gaseous CO 2 again stimulated respiration, suggesting a reversible effect. Carbonic anhydrase in the solution increased the stimulatory effect of potassium bicarbonate. The CO 2 /bicarbonate dependent stimulation of respiration did not occur in animal tissues such as rat diaphragm and isolated hepatocytes, and was inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid in carnation callus cells and E. canadensis leaves. This suggested that the alternative oxidase was engaged during the stimulation in plant tissues. The cytochrome pathway was severely inhibited by CO 2 /bicarbonate either in the absence or in the presence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase of callus tissue homogenates was also inhibited by CO 2 /bicarbonate. The results suggested that high carbon dioxide levels (mainly free CO 2 ) partially inhibited the cytochrome pathway (apparently at the oxidase level), and this block in electron transport elicited a large transient engagement of the alternative oxidase when present uninhibited

  7. Effects of High Carbon Dioxide Level on the Emergence of Oil Palm Pollinating Weevil, Elaeidobius Kamerunicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanina, N.S.; Hasnudin, M.Y.; Haniff, M.H.; Roslan, M.N.; A'fifah, A.R.; Ramle, M.

    2016-01-01

    Elaeidobius kamerunicus is the main pollinating insect of oil palm in Malaysia. The increase of ambient carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) may promote greater crop growth and yield of oil palm. However, E. kamerunicus' adaptability and survival under high CO 2 level are still unknown. An oil palm weevil emergence study was conducted in plant growth chambers with two CO 2 levels, 400 Parts Per Million and 800 Parts Per Million. The plant growth chambers were set at 27 degree celcius and 70% relative humidity for the entire study period. Spikelets were taken from apical, middle and basal regions of anthesising male inflorescences from 6-year old DxP palms under normal field conditions. The sampled spikelets were placed in clear plastic tubes with both open ends covered with muslin cloth. The emergence of adults was observed at two-day interval until 10 days after incubation. The total number of weevils which emerged from the spikelets at 400 Parts Per Million and 800 Parts Per Million CO 2 levels were 240 and 233 individuals, respectively. Doubling the ambient CO 2 level to 800 Parts Per Million had no effect on E. kamerunicus emergence in controlled condition. Further study on oil palm weevil adaptability and survival under high CO 2 level is needed to provide information on the effects of future climate change scenario and oil palm yield. (author)

  8. The effect of dense phase carbon dioxide on the conformation of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenjie; Xie, Yangyang; Wang, Xiaoxi; Jia, Fei; Li, Xingmin

    2018-04-01

    Dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) sterilization is a non-thermal sterilization technology used to process heat-sensitive foods. Although nutritional and sensorial quality of food is preserved while unwanted microbial activity is reduced during DPCD sterilization, the effect on protein structure remains unclear. In this work, the effect of DPCD on the higher order structure and fluorescence properties of Hemoglobin (Hb) was investigated. The different conditions assessed during DPCD processing included variation in pressure, pH and heating conditions. Results from this study showed an inversely proportional correlation between α-helical content of Hb and pressure. As the pressure was lowered, the levels of α-helical content increased. The increased levels of α-helix correlated with a lower fluorescence intensity and a limited redshift in the fluorescence emission wavelength. TEM imaging showed that DPCD processing resulted in Hb with larger molecular diameters, which became smaller as the pressure increased. Interestingly, after 7-day storage at 4 °C, an increase in α-helical content was observed. Results from this work show that DPCD sterilization does impact the conformation of hemoglobin, with a notable impact on secondary and tertiary structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbon dioxide emissions from Deccan volcanism and a K/T boundary greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ken; Rampino, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    A greenhouse warming caused by increased emissions of carbon dioxide from the Deccan Traps volcanism has been suggested as the cause of the terminal Cretaceous extinctions on land and in the sea. Total eruptive and noneruptive CO2 output by the Deccan eruptions (from 6 to 20 x 10 to the 16th moles) over a period of several hundred thousand years is estimated based on best estimates of the CO2 weight fraction of the original basalts and basaltic melts, the fraction of CO2 degassed, and the volume of the Deccan Traps eruptions. Results of a model designed to estimate the effects of increased CO2 on climate and ocean chemistry suggest that increases in atmospheric pCO2 due to Deccan Traps CO2 emissions would have been less than 75 ppm, leading to a predicted global warming of less than 1 C over several hundred thousand years. It is concluded that the direct climate effects of CO2 emissions from the Deccan eruptions would have been too weak to be an important factor in the end-Cretaceous mass extinctions.

  10. Effects of oral administration of titanium dioxide fine-sized particles on plasma glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ning; Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Wang, Changlin; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an authorized additive used as a food colorant, is composed of nano-sized particles (NP) and fine-sized particles (FP). Previous study reported that oral administration of TiO2 NPs triggers an increase in plasma glucose of mice. However, no previous studies have focused on toxic effects of TiO2 FPs on plasma glucose homeostasis following oral administration. In the current study, mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs greater than 100 nm in size (64 mg/kg body weight per day), and effects on plasma glucose levels examined. Our results showed that titanium levels was not changed in mouse blood, livers and pancreases after mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose and ROS levels were not affected by TiO2 FPs. Histopathological results showed that TiO2 FPs did not induce pathology changes in organs, especially plasma glucose homeostasis regulation organs, such as pancreas and liver. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 FPs did not induce insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver. These results showed that, TiO2 FPs cannot be absorbed via oral administration and affect plasma glucose levels in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxicological effects of nanometer titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lanzhou; Zhou, Lina; Liu, Yongding; Deng, Songqiang; Wu, Hao; Wang, Gaohong

    2012-10-01

    The toxicological effects of nanometer titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) on a unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were assessed by investigating the changes of the physiology and cyto-ultrastructure of this species under treatment. We found that nano-TiO2 inhibited photosynthetic efficiency and cell growth, but the content of chlorophyll a content in algae did not change, while carotenoid and chlorophyll b contents increased. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content reached maximum values after 8h exposure and then decreased to a moderately low level at 72 h. Electron microscopy images indicated that as concentrations of nano-TiO2 increased, a large number of C. reinhardtii cells were noted to be damaged: the number of chloroplasts declined, various other organelles were degraded, plasmolysis occurred, and TiO2 nanoparticles were found to be located inside cell wall and membrane. It was also noted that cell surface was surrounded by TiO2 particles, which could present an obstacle to the exchange of substances between the cell and its surrounding environment. To sum up, the effect of nano-TiO2 on C. reinhardtii included cell surface aggregation, photosynthesis inhibition, lipid peroxidation and new protein synthesis, while the response of C. reinhardtii to nano-TiO2 was a rapid process which occurs during 24 h after exposing and may relate to physiological stress system to mitigate damage. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of high carbon dioxide storage and gamma irradiation on membrane deterioration in cauliflower florets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voisine, R.; Hombourger, C.; Willemot, C.; Castaigne, F.; Makhlouf, J.

    1993-01-01

    Controlled atmospheres and gamma irradiation are technologies which extend storage-life of fruits and vegetables. Separate and combined effects of high CO 2 storage and gamma irradiation on cell membranes from cauliflower florets (Brassica oleracea L., Botrytis group) were investigated. Storage of the florets for 8 days at 13°C, either under 15% carbon dioxide or in air after irradiation at 2 kGy, accelerated the deterioration of microsomal membranes during storage. Both treatments caused an early loss in lipid phosphate. Irradiation enhanced the free fatty acid content of the membranes during storage and caused an extensive protein loss. When irradiation and high CO 2 storage were combined, electrolyte leakage significantly increased while protein loss was considerably reduced. The results indicate that high CO 2 and irradiation accelerate membrane degradation through different mechanisms. The combined effects of the treatments were not additive, but membrane yield was apparently reduced. CO 2 protected the membranes from protein loss induced by irradiation. The apparent increase in electrolyte leakage after irradiation may be caused by the release of ions following cell wall deterioration

  13. Effect of some climatic parameters on tropospheric and total ozone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide) that are collected from India Meteo- rological Department .... and the upper troposphere is not only able to absorb ... lar traffic, thermal power plants, very busy ports, small and ...

  14. Effect of the calcium, boron and sulphur in pre harvest applications over the severity of anthracnose(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) and the fruit's quality of two papaya's varieties in Perez Zeledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montealegre Perez, Eduardo Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This research established the effect of the calcium, boron and sulphur in pre harvest applications over the severity of anthracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) and the fruit's quality of two papaya's varieties, one creole and a hibrido in Perez Zeledon. The treatments were the folloguings: oxide of calcium plus dolomite, oxide of calcium plus boric acid plus dolomite, boric acid plus sulphate of potassium and dolomite, boric acid less dolomite and witness. The utilized sources were nitrate of calcium, boric acid and sulphate of potassium. The evaluations were realized both in the rainy season like in the dry season. There were evaluated: severity of anthracnosis, weight of the fruits, total soluble solids, shell's hardness, and stability of the flesh. The experimental design utilized was a complete block at random. There were got that the applications of oxide of calcium and boric acid less dolomite decreased the severity of the disease in the papaya's fruits, while that the boric acid plus sulphate tend to increase the disease. The treatment of boric acid plus sulphate decreased the weight of the fruits both in the rainy and dry season. Besides this treatment decreased the hardness of the shell, while that the treatments with boron increased that. Also the treatments with boric acid plus dolomite and boric acid less dolomite, increased the levels of total soluble solids in the papaya's fruits in the two varieties. Finally; the treatments: oxide of calcium plus boric acid and boric acid plus sulphate decreased the stability of the flesh in both varieties and both evaluated seasons, while the treatment with oxide of calcium increased the stability of the flesh in the hibrido during the dry season. (Author) [es

  15. Impact of pedospheric and atmospheric sulphur nutrition on sulphur metabolism of Allium cepa L., a species with a potential sink capacity for secondary sulphur compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, M.; De Kok, L.J.

    Onion (Afflum cepa L.) was able to use atmospheric H2S as sole sulphur source for growth. The foliarly absorbed H2S was rapidly metabolized into water-soluble, non-protein thiol compounds, including cysteine, and subsequently into other sulphur compounds in the shoots. In H2S-exposed plants, the

  16. Optimizing the photocatalytic properties and the synergistic effects of graphene and nano titanium dioxide immobilized on cotton fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, Loghman; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad Esmail; Khajavi, Ramin; Rashidi, Abosaeed; Mirjalili, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Producing superior photo-active cotton fabric using graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite. • Optimizing processing conditions using response surface methodology. • Obtaining significant photo-activity properties on cotton fabric by this method under sun irradiation. • Possessing excellent antimicrobial activity with low cytotoxicity on human fibroblasts. - Abstract: A new facile route based on cotton fabric coated with graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite is reported to produce photo-active cellulose textiles. A thin layer of graphene oxide has been produced on cotton fabrics by a dip-dry process. The graphene oxide-coated cotton fabrics were then immersed in titanium trichloride aqueous solution to yield a fabric coated with graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite. The photo-activity efficiency of the coated fabrics was tested by degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution under UV and sunlight irradiations. To obtain the optimum condition, the response surface methodology (RSM) through the central composite design was applied and the role of both graphene oxide and titanium trichloride concentrations on photo-activity efficiency was investigated. The physicochemical properties of the prepared samples has been characterized by a series of techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of the application of graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite on the physical properties of the cotton fabric, such as tensile strength, bending rigidity and crease recovery angle has been analyzed. Other characteristics of treated fabrics such as antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxicity were also investigated. Cotton fabric coated with optimum concentrations of graphene oxide and titanium trichloride obtained significant photo-activity efficiency under UV and sunlight irradiations. Moreover, the graphene

  17. The implications of the new sulphur limits on the European Ro-Ro sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zis, Thalis; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the environmental impacts of maritime transportation, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) designated special Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECAs) where ships are required to use low-sulphur fuel. In January 2015, the sulphur limit within SECAs was lowered to 0...... and the redistribution of transport. Recommendations to mitigate and reverse the negative side-effects of such environmental legislation are proposed....... analyses on market share data, cargo values, freight rates, and haulers rates are conducted. Emissions inventories are constructed to assess the environmental efficacy of the SECA regulation. The novelty of the proposed model lies in the examination of the ex-post implications of shutting down a service...

  18. The effect of a phase out of nuclear power in OECD countries on demand for fossil fuel and on sulphur precipitation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This report has been prepared to evaluate the effect of a phase out of nuclear generating capacity in OECD countries on the demand for, and price of, coal and oil in 1990 and 1995, and to assess the effect of increased use of fossil fuels on pollution from sulfur precipitation in Sweden. Our forecasts are based on the model which is shown diagrammatically. We begin with overall energy demand and in particular with forecasts of electricity demand in the key OECD countries. Demand is related to existing capacity and to current plans to install new capacity. The fuel demand resulting from these present plans has been calculated - this provides the base case. Existing and planned non-nuclear capacity is then related to demand and the nuclear capacity which must be retained in 1990 and the new non nuclear capacity which must be constructed for 1995 has been estimated. Fuel demand under these new conditions has then been computed and the increase resulting from a nuclear phase out has been calculated. The effect of this increase has been related to overall world demand for fuels and the effect on prices has been predicted. The emission, transport and precipitation of sulfur in Sweden and its neighbours has been considered. The increase in precipitation which will occur as a result of this greater use of fossil fuels has been calculated

  19. Effects of 7.5% carbon dioxide inhalation on anxiety and mood in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S; Ataya, Alia F; Bailey, Jayne E; Lightman, Stafford L; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with elevated risk of anxiety and mood disorder. Using the 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation model of anxiety induction, we examined the effects of smoking status and abstinence from smoking on anxiety responses. Physiological and subjective responses to CO2 and medical air were compared in smokers and non-smokers (Experiment One) and in overnight abstinent and non-abstinent smokers (Experiment Two). CO2 induced greater increases in blood pressure in non-smokers compared with smokers (ps affect (p = 0.054) in non-abstinent compared with abstinent smokers. CO2 increased physiological and subjective indices of anxiety. There were differences across smoking groups indicating that the CO2 inhalation model is a useful tool for examining the relationship between smoking and anxiety. The findings suggested that both acute smoking and acute abstinence may protect against anxious responding. Further investigation is needed in long-term heavy smokers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Ozone effects on Sphagnum mosses, carbon dioxide exchange and methane emission in boreal peatland microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, Riikka; Holopainen, Toini; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Silvola, Jouko

    2002-01-01

    Microcosms of a boreal peatland originating from an oligotrophic fen in Eastern Finland were fumigated under four ozone concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 ppb O 3 ) in laboratory growth chambers during two separate experiments (autumn and summer) for 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Ozone effects on Sphagnum mosses and the fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane were evaluated. In both experiments, the three Sphagnum species studied showed only a few significant responses to ozone. In the autumn experiment, membrane permeability of S. angustifolium, measured as conductivity and magnesium leakage, was significantly higher under ozone fumigation (P=0.005 and 2 exchange during the 6-week-long summer experiment, but dark ecosystem respiration was transiently increased by ozone concentration of 100 ppb after 14 days of exposure (P<0.05). Fumigation with 100 ppb of ozone, however, more than doubled (P<0.05) methane emission from the peatland monoliths. Our results suggest that increasing tropospheric ozone concentration may cause substantial changes in the carbon gas cycling of boreal peatlands, even though these changes are not closely associated with the changes in Sphagnum vegetation

  1. Effect of carbon dioxide inhalation on pulmonary hypertension induced by increased blood flow and hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chun Chuang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available There is now increasing evidence from the experimental and clinical setting that therapeutic hypercapnia from intentionally inspired carbon dioxide (CO2 or lower tidal volume might be a beneficial adjunct to the strategies of mechanical ventilation in critical illness. Although previous reports indicate that CO2 exerts a beneficial effect in the lungs, the pulmonary vascular response to hypercapnia under various conditions remains to be clarified. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the pulmonary vascular response to CO2 under the different conditions of pulmonary hypertension secondary to increased pulmonary blood flow and secondary to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Isolated rat lung (n = 32 was used to study (1 the vasoactive action of 5% CO2 in either N2 (hypoxic-hypercapnia or air (normoxic-hypercapnia at different pulmonary arterial pressure levels induced by graded speed of perfusion flow and (2 the role of nitric oxide (NO in mediating the pulmonary vascular response to hypercapnia, hypoxia, and flow-associated pulmonary hypertension. The results indicated that inhaled CO2 reversed pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia but not by flow alteration. Endogenous NO attenuates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction but does not augment the CO2-induced vasodilatation. Acute change in blood flow does not alter the endogenous NO production.

  2. Modeling effects of traffic and landscape characteristics on ambient nitrogen dioxide levels in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skene, Katherine J.; Gent, Janneane F.; McKay, Lisa A.; Belanger, Kathleen; Leaderer, Brian P.; Holford, Theodore R.

    2010-12-01

    An integrated exposure model was developed that estimates nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) concentration at residences using geographic information systems (GIS) and variables derived within residential buffers representing traffic volume and landscape characteristics including land use, population density and elevation. Multiple measurements of NO 2 taken outside of 985 residences in Connecticut were used to develop the model. A second set of 120 outdoor NO 2 measurements as well as cross-validation were used to validate the model. The model suggests that approximately 67% of the variation in NO 2 levels can be explained by: traffic and land use primarily within 2 km of a residence; population density; elevation; and time of year. Potential benefits of this model for health effects research include improved spatial estimations of traffic-related pollutant exposure and reduced need for extensive pollutant measurements. The model, which could be calibrated and applied in areas other than Connecticut, has importance as a tool for exposure estimation in epidemiological studies of traffic-related air pollution.

  3. Sustainable Carbon Dioxide Photoreduction by a Cooperative Effect of Reactor Design and Titania Metal Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Olivo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective process based on the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to face on the one hand, the crucial problem of environmental pollution, and, on the other hand, to propose an efficient way to product clean and sustainable energy sources has been developed in this work. Particular attention has been paid to the sustainability of the process by using a green reductant (water and TiO2 as a photocatalyst under very mild operative conditions (room temperature and atmospheric pressure. It was shown that the efficiency in carbon dioxide photoreduction is strictly related to the process parameters and to the catalyst features. In order to formulate a versatile and high performing catalyst, TiO2 was modified by oxide or metal species. Copper (in the oxide CuO form or gold (as nanoparticles were employed as promoting metal. Both photocatalytic activity and selectivity displayed by CuO-TiO2 and Au-TiO2 were compared, and it was found that the nature of the promoter (either Au or CuO shifts the selectivity of the process towards two strategic products: CH4 or H2. The catalytic results were discussed in depth and correlated with the physicochemical features of the photocatalysts.

  4. Ammonia modification of activated carbon to enhance carbon dioxide adsorption: Effect of pre-oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafeeyan, Mohammad Saleh; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan; Houshmand, Amirhossein; Arami-Niya, Arash

    2011-02-01

    A commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) was subjected to thermal treatment with ammonia for obtaining an efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorbent. In general, CO2 adsorption capacity of activated carbon can be increased by introduction of basic nitrogen functionalities onto the carbon surface. In this work, the effect of oxygen surface groups before introduction of basic nitrogen functionalities to the carbon surface on CO2 adsorption capacity was investigated. For this purpose two different approaches of ammonia treatment without preliminary oxidation and amination of oxidized samples were studied. Modified carbons were characterized by elemental analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to study the impact of changes in surface chemistry and formation of specific surface groups on adsorption properties. The texture of the samples was characterized by conducting N2 adsorption/desorption at -196 °C. CO2 capture performance of the samples was investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that in both modification techniques, the presence of nitrogen functionalities on carbon surface generally increased the CO2 adsorption capacity. The results indicated that oxidation followed by high temperature ammonia treatment (800 °C) considerably enhanced the CO2 uptake at higher temperatures.

  5. Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Red Clover and Its Rhizobial Symbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Janine; Okupnik, Annette; Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Widmer, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are in consideration to be used in plant protection products. Before these products can be placed on the market, ecotoxicological tests have to be performed. In this study, the nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium trifolii and red clover were exposed to two TiO2 NPs, i.e., P25, E171 and a non-nanomaterial TiO2. Growth of both organisms individually and their symbiotic root nodulation were investigated in liquid and hydroponic systems. While 23 and 18 mg l-1 of E171 and non-nanomaterial TiO2 decreased the growth rate of R. trifolii by 43 and 23% respectively, P25 did not cause effects. Shoot length of red clover decreased between 41 and 62% for all tested TiO2 NPs. In 21% of the TiO2 NP treated plants, no nodules were found. At high concentrations certain TiO2 NPs impaired R. trifolii as well as red clover growth and their symbiosis in the hydroponic systems.

  6. Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Red Clover and Its Rhizobial Symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Moll

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs are in consideration to be used in plant protection products. Before these products can be placed on the market, ecotoxicological tests have to be performed. In this study, the nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium trifolii and red clover were exposed to two TiO2 NPs, i.e., P25, E171 and a non-nanomaterial TiO2. Growth of both organisms individually and their symbiotic root nodulation were investigated in liquid and hydroponic systems. While 23 and 18 mg l-1 of E171 and non-nanomaterial TiO2 decreased the growth rate of R. trifolii by 43 and 23% respectively, P25 did not cause effects. Shoot length of red clover decreased between 41 and 62% for all tested TiO2 NPs. In 21% of the TiO2 NP treated plants, no nodules were found. At high concentrations certain TiO2 NPs impaired R. trifolii as well as red clover growth and their symbiosis in the hydroponic systems.

  7. Sulfur dioxide emissions and market effects under the Clean Air Act Acid Rain Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipper, C.E.; Gilroy, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) established a national program to control sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions from electricity generation. CAAA90's market-based approach includes trading and banking of SO 2 -emissions allowances. The paper presents an analysis of data describing electric utility SO 2 emissions in 1995, the first year of the program's Phase I, and market effects over the 1990-95 period. Fuel switching and flue-gas desulfurization were the dominant means used in 1995 by targeted generators to reduce emissions to 51% of 1990 levels. Flue-gas desulfurization costs, emissions allowance prices, low-sulfur coal prices, and average sulfur contents of coals shipped to electric utilities declined over the 1990-95 period. Projections indicate that 13-15 million allowances will have been banked during the programs' Phase I, which ends in 1999, a quantity expected to last through the first decade of the program's stricter Phase II controls. In 1995, both allowance prices and SO 2 emissions were below pre-CAAA90 expectations. The reduction of SO 2 emissions beyond pre-CAAA90 expectations, combined with lower-than-expected allowance prices and declining compliance costs, can be viewed as a success for market-based environmental controls. 21 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Effect of hypotension and carbon dioxide changes in an improved genuine closed cranial window rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K A; Dyrby, Lone; Williamson, D

    2005-01-01

    The genuine closed cranial window model, in which the thinned parietal bone constitutes the covering of the preparation, has contributed to a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in migraine. In its present form, only measurements of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) are perf......The genuine closed cranial window model, in which the thinned parietal bone constitutes the covering of the preparation, has contributed to a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in migraine. In its present form, only measurements of the middle meningeal artery (MMA......) are performed. The aim of this study was, in addition, to measure pial artery/arteriole (PA) diameter and cortical cerebral blood flux in the same cranial window. The model was evaluated by studying the effects of hypotension and changes in arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2), because these parameters......-induced hypotension (-64+/-0.8 mmHg) caused an increase of MMA diameter of 11.8+/-8.4%, PA diameter of 61.2+/-7.7% and a decrease in LCBF(Flux) of -36.4+/-2.5%. The decrease in blood pressure did not significantly change the MMA (P=0.38); however, the PA diameter and the LCBF(Flux) were affected (P

  9. Effect of Vertical Annealing on the Nitrogen Dioxide Response of Organic Thin Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihui Hou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 sensors based on organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs were fabricated by conventional annealing (horizontal and vertical annealing processes of organic semiconductor (OSC films. The NO2 responsivity of OTFTs to 15 ppm of NO2 is 1408% under conditions of vertical annealing and only 72% when conventional annealing is applied. Moreover, gas sensors obtained by vertical annealing achieve a high sensing performance of 589% already at 1 ppm of NO2, while showing a preferential response to NO2 compared with SO2, NH3, CO, and H2S. To analyze the mechanism of performance improvement of OTFT gas sensors, the morphologies of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl-pentacene (TIPS-pentacene films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM in tapping mode. The results show that, in well-aligned TIPS-pentacene films, a large number of effective grain boundaries inside the conducting channel contribute to the enhancement of NO2 gas sensing performance.

  10. Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Salinity on the Microbial Diversity in Lithifying Microbial Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Ahrendt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2 are rising at an accelerated rate resulting in changes in the pH and carbonate chemistry of the world’s oceans. However, there is uncertainty regarding the impact these changing environmental conditions have on carbonate-depositing microbial communities. Here, we examine the effects of elevated CO2, three times that of current atmospheric levels, on the microbial diversity associated with lithifying microbial mats. Lithifying microbial mats are complex ecosystems that facilitate the trapping and binding of sediments, and/or the precipitation of calcium carbonate into organosedimentary structures known as microbialites. To examine the impact of rising CO2 and resulting shifts in pH on lithifying microbial mats, we constructed growth chambers that could continually manipulate and monitor the mat environment. The microbial diversity of the various treatments was compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The results indicated that elevated CO2 levels during the six month exposure did not profoundly alter the microbial diversity, community structure, or carbonate precipitation in the microbial mats; however some key taxa, such as the sulfate-reducing bacteria Deltasulfobacterales, were enriched. These results suggest that some carbonate depositing ecosystems, such as the microbialites, may be more resilient to anthropogenic-induced environmental change than previously thought.

  11. Effects of ion implantation on charges in the silicon--silicon dioxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Learn, A.J.; Hess, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Structures consisting of thermally grown oxide on silicon were implanted with boron, arsenic, or argon ions. For argon implantation through oxides, an increased fixed oxide charge (Q/sub ss/) was observed with the increase being greater for than for silicon. This effect is attributed to oxygen recoil which produces additional excess ionized silicon in the oxide of a type similar to that arising in thermal oxidation. Fast surface state (N/sub st/) generation was also noted which in most cases obscured the Q/sub ss/ increase. Of various heat treatments tested, only a 900 degreeC anneal in hydrogen annihilated N/sub st/ and allowed Q/sub ss/ measurement. Such N/sub st/ apparently arises as a consequence of implantation damage at the silicon--silicon dioxide interface. With the exception of boron implantations into thick oxides or through aluminum electrodes, reduction of the mobile ionic charge (Q/sub o/) was achieved by implantation. The reduction again is presumably damage related and is not negated by high-temperature annealing but may be counterbalanced by aluminum incorporation in the oxide

  12. Antibacterial effect of hydrogen peroxide-titanium dioxide suspensions in the decontamination of rough titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmer, David; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Lönn-Stensrud, Jessica; Tiainen, Hanna

    2017-07-01

    The chemical decontamination of infected dental implants is essential for the successful treatment of peri-implantitis. The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial effect of a hydrogen peroxide-titanium dioxide (H 2 O 2 -TiO 2 ) suspension against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. Titanium (Ti) coins were inoculated with a bioluminescent S. epidermidis strain for 8 h and subsequently exposed to H 2 O 2 with and without TiO 2 nanoparticles or chlorhexidine (CHX). Bacterial regrowth, bacterial load and viability after decontamination were analyzed by continuous luminescence monitoring, live/dead staining and scanning electron microscopy. Bacterial regrowth was delayed on surfaces treated with H 2 O 2 -TiO 2 compared to H 2 O 2 . H 2 O 2 -based treatments resulted in a lower bacterial load compared to CHX. Few viable bacteria were found on surfaces treated with H 2 O 2 and H 2 O 2 -TiO 2 , which contrasted with a uniform layer of dead bacteria for surfaces treated with CHX. H 2 O 2 -TiO 2 suspensions could therefore be considered an alternative approach in the decontamination of dental implants.

  13. The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on neuroinflammation response in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissa, Intissar; Guezguez, Sabrine; Ezzi, Lobna; Chakroun, Sana; Sallem, Amira; Kerkeni, Emna; Elghoul, Jaber; El Mir, Lassaad; Mehdi, Meriem; Cheikh, Hassen Ben; Haouas, Zohra

    2016-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) are widely used for their whiteness and opacity in several applications such as food colorants, drug additives, biomedical ceramic, and implanted biomaterials. Research on the neurobiological response to orally administered TiO 2 NPs is still limited. In our study, we investigate the effects of anatase TiO 2 NPs on the brain of Wistar rats after oral intake. After daily intragastric administration of anatase TiO 2 NPs (5-10 nm) at 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 60 days, the coefficient of the brain, acethylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, the level of interleukin 6 (IL-6), and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were assessed to quantify the brain damage. The results showed that high-dose anatase TiO 2 NPs could induce a downregulated level of AChE activities and showed an increase in plasmatic IL-6 level as compared to the control group accompanied by a dose-dependent decrease inter-doses, associated to an increase in the cerebral IL-6 level as a response to a local inflammation in brain. Furthermore, we observed elevated levels of immunoreactivity to GFAP in rat cerebral cortex. We concluded that oral intake of anatase TiO 2 NPs can induce neuroinflammation and could be neurotoxic and hazardous to health.

  14. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangjian; Wang, Yun; Zhuo, Lin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Lin; Luan, Xianguo; Wang, Haifang; Jia, Guang

    2015-12-03

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been widely used in various consumer products, especially food and personal care products. Compared to the well-characterized adverse cardiovascular effect of inhaled ambient ultrafine particles, research on the health response to orally administrated TiO2 NPs is still limited. In our study, we performed an in vivo study in Sprague-Dawley rats to understand the cardiovascular effect of TiO2 NPs after oral intake. After daily gastrointestinal administration of TiO2 NPs at 0, 2, 10, 50 mg/kg for 30 and 90 days, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, blood biochemical parameters and histopathology of cardiac tissues was assessed to quantify cardiovascular damage. Mild and temporary reduction of HR and systolic blood pressure as well as an increase of diastolic blood pressure was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 30 days. Injury of cardiac function was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 90 days as reflected in decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) and creatine kinase (CK). Increased white blood cells count (WBC) and granulocytes (GRN) in blood as well as increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the serum indicated inflammatory response initiated by TiO2 NPs exposure. It was hypothesize that cardiac damage and inflammatory response are the possible mechanisms of the adverse cardiovascular effects induced by orally administrated TiO2 NPs. Data from our study suggested that even at low dose of TiO2 NPs can induce adverse cardiovascular effects after 30 days or 90 days of oral exposure, thus warranting concern for the dietary intake of TiO2 NPs for consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and nitrogen fixation in Alnus glutinosa in a long-term field experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temperton, V. M.; Jackson, G.; Barton, C. V. M.; Jarvis, P. G. [Edinburgh Univ., Inst. of Ecology and Resource Management, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Grayston, S. J. [Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Plant-Soil Interaction Group, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-01

    Total biomass, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area and net photosynthetic rate of nitrogen-fixing were measured in common alder trees, grown for three years in open-top chambers in the presence of either ambient or elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, and in two soil nitrogen regimes: i.e. full nutrient solution or no fertilizer. The objective was to clarify the relationship between elevated carbon dioxide and the rate of nitrogen fixation of nodulated trees growing under field conditions. Results showed that growth in elevated carbon dioxide stimulated net photosynthesis and total biomass accumulation. However, relative growth rate was not significantly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Leaf area and leaf phosphorus concentration were also unaffected. Nodule mass on roots of unfertilized trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide increased, compared with fertilized trees exposed to ambient carbon dioxide levels. Since neither in the fertilized, nor the unfertilized trees was there any evidence of effects on growth, biomass and photosynthesis that could be attributed to the interaction of fertilizer and elevated carbon dioxide interaction, it was concluded that both types exhibit similar carbon dioxide-induced growth and photosynthetic enhancements. 40 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and nitrogen fixation in Alnus glutinosa in a long-term field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperton, V. M.; Jackson, G.; Barton, C. V. M.; Jarvis, P. G.; Grayston, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    Total biomass, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area and net photosynthetic rate of nitrogen-fixing were measured in common alder trees, grown for three years in open-top chambers in the presence of either ambient or elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, and in two soil nitrogen regimes: i.e. full nutrient solution or no fertilizer. The objective was to clarify the relationship between elevated carbon dioxide and the rate of nitrogen fixation of nodulated trees growing under field conditions. Results showed that growth in elevated carbon dioxide stimulated net photosynthesis and total biomass accumulation. However, relative growth rate was not significantly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Leaf area and leaf phosphorus concentration were also unaffected. Nodule mass on roots of unfertilized trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide increased, compared with fertilized trees exposed to ambient carbon dioxide levels. Since neither in the fertilized, nor the unfertilized trees was there any evidence of effects on growth, biomass and photosynthesis that could be attributed to the interaction of fertilizer and elevated carbon dioxide interaction, it was concluded that both types exhibit similar carbon dioxide-induced growth and photosynthetic enhancements. 40 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  17. CLINSULF sub-dew-point process for sulphur recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisel, M.; Marold, F.

    1988-01-01

    In a 2-reactor system, the CLINSULF process allows very high sulphur recovery rates. When operated at 100/sup 0/C at the outlet, i.e. below the sulphur solidification point, a sulphur recovery rate of more than 99.2% was achieved in a 2-reactor series. Assuming a 70% sulphur recovery in an upstream Claus furnace plus sulphur condenser, an overall sulphur recovery of more than 99.8% results for the 2-reactor system. This is approximately 2% higher than in conventional Claus plus SDP units, which mostly consist of 4 reactors or more. This means the the CLINSULF SSP process promises to be an improvement both in respect of efficiency and low investment cost.

  18. Effects of elevated ozone, carbon dioxide, and the combination of both on the grain quality of Chinese hybrid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yunxia; Song, Qiling; Frei, Michael; Shao, Zaisheng; Yang, Lianxin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of CO 2 and/or O 3 elevation on rice grain quality were investigated in chamber experiments with gas fumigation performed from transplanting until maturity in 2011 and 2012. Compared with the control (current CO 2 and O 3 concentration), elevated CO 2 caused a tendency of an increase in grain chalkiness and a decrease in mineral nutrient concentrations. In contrast, elevated O 3 significantly increased grain chalkiness and the concentrations of essential nutrients, while changes in starch pasting properties indicated a trend of deterioration in the cooking and eating quality. In the combination of elevated CO 2 and O 3 treatment, only chalkiness degree was significantly affected. It is concluded that the O 3 concentration projected for the coming few decades will have more substantial effects on grain quality of Chinese hybrid rice than the projected high CO 2 concentration alone, and the combination of two gases caused fewer significant changes in grain quality than individual gas treatments. - Highlights: • We investigated the effects of carbon dioxide and/or ozone elevation on rice grain quality. • Elevated ozone concentration had substantial effects on grain quality under current carbon dioxide concentration. • Elevated carbon dioxide concentration mitigated the impact of elevated ozone concentration on rice grain quality. - Exposure of Chinese hybrid rice to elevated ozone and CO 2 during growth causes fewer changes in grain quality than ozone exposure alone

  19. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Penetration into the Skin and Effects on HaCaT Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Crosera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs suspensions (concentration 1.0 g/L in synthetic sweat solution were applied on Franz cells for 24 h using intact and needle-abraded human skin. Titanium content into skin and receiving phases was determined. Cytotoxicity (MTT, AlamarBlue® and propidium iodide, PI, uptake assays was evaluated on HaCat keratinocytes after 24 h, 48 h, and seven days of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, no titanium was detectable in receiving solutions for both intact and damaged skin. Titanium was found in the epidermal layer after 24 h of exposure (0.47 ± 0.33 μg/cm2 while in the dermal layer, the concentration was below the limit of detection. Damaged skin, in its whole, has shown a similar concentration (0.53 ± 0.26 μg/cm2. Cytotoxicity studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that TiO2NPs induced cytotoxic effects only at very high concentrations, reducing cell viability after seven days of exposure with EC50s of 8.8 × 10−4 M (MTT assay, 3.8 × 10−5 M (AlamarBlue® assay, and 7.6 × 10−4 M (PI uptake, index of a necrotic cell death. Our study demonstrated that TiO2NPs cannot permeate intact and damaged skin and can be found only in the stratum corneum and epidermis. Moreover, the low cytotoxic effect observed on human HaCaT keratinocytes suggests that these nano-compounds have a potential toxic effect at the skin level only after long-term exposure.

  20. Algal testing of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-Testing considerations, inhibitory effects and modification of cadmium bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, N.B.; Von der Kammer, F.; Hofmann, T.; Baalousha, M.; Ottofuelling, S.; Baun, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ecotoxicity of three different sizes of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) particles (primary particles sizes: 10, 30, and 300 nm) to the freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was investigated in this study. Algal growth inhibition was found for all three particle types, but the physiological mode of action is not yet clear. It was possible to establish a concentration/dose-response relationship for the three particle sizes. Reproducibility, however, was affected by concentration-dependent aggregation of the nanoparticles, subsequent sedimentation, and possible attachment to vessel surfaces. It is also believed that heteroaggregation, driven by algal exopolymeric exudates, is occurring and could influence the concentration-response relationship. The ecotoxicity of cadmium to algae was investigated both in the presence and absence of 2 mg/L TiO 2 . The presence of TiO 2 in algal tests reduced the observed toxicity due to decreased bioavailability of cadmium resulting from sorption/complexation of Cd 2+ ions to the TiO 2 surface. However, for the 30 nm TiO 2 nanoparticles, the observed growth inhibition was greater than what could be explained by the concentration of dissolved Cd(II) species, indicating a possible carrier effect, or combined toxic effect of TiO 2 nanoparticles and cadmium. These results emphasize the importance of systematic studies of nanoecotoxicological effects of different sizes of nanoparticles and underline the fact that, in addition to particle toxicity, potential interactions with existing environmental contaminants are also of crucial importance in assessing the potential environmental risks of nanoparticles.

  1. In vivo and in vitro toxicological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassinari, Roberta; La Rocca, Cinzia; Tait, Sabrina; De Berardis, Barbara; Ammendolia, Maria Grazia; Iosi, Francesca; Di Virgilio, Antonio; Martinelli, Andrea; Maranghi, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.maranghi@iss.it [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Stecca, Laura [European Commission-Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection Chemical assessment and Testing Unit, Via E. Fermi, 2749I-21027 Ispra (Italy)

    2015-06-23

    In European Union, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) as bulk material is a food additive (E171) and - as nanoparticle (NP) - is used as a white pigment in several products (e.g. food, cosmetics, drugs). E171 contains approximately 36% of particles less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and TiO{sub 2} NP exposure is estimated fairly below 2.5 mg/person/day. The gastrointestinal tract is a route of entry for NPs, thus representing a potential target of effects. In in vivo study, the effects of TiO{sub 2} NP in adult rat small intestine have been evaluated by oral administration of 0 (CTRL), 1 and 2 mg/kg body weight per day - relevant to human dietary intake. Detailed quali/quantitative histopathological analyses were performed on CTRL and treated rat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed on small intestine. An in vitro study on Caco-2 cells was also used in order to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects directly on enterocytes through the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Suspensions of TiO{sub 2} NPs for in vitro and in vivo study were characterized by EM. Histomorphometrical data showed treatment-related changes of villus height and widths in male rats. Significantly different from CTRL decreased LDH levels in the medium were detected in vitro at 24h with 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 µg/cm{sup 2} levels of TiO{sub 2} NPs. SEM analysis showed no damaged areas. Overall the results showed that enterocytes may represent a target of TiO{sub 2} NP toxicity by direct exposure both in vivo and in vitro models.

  2. In vivo and in vitro toxicological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinari, Roberta; La Rocca, Cinzia; Stecca, Laura; Tait, Sabrina; De Berardis, Barbara; Ammendolia, Maria Grazia; Iosi, Francesca; Di Virgilio, Antonio; Martinelli, Andrea; Maranghi, Francesca

    2015-06-01

    In European Union, titanium dioxide (TiO2) as bulk material is a food additive (E171) and - as nanoparticle (NP) - is used as a white pigment in several products (e.g. food, cosmetics, drugs). E171 contains approximately 36% of particles less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and TiO2 NP exposure is estimated fairly below 2.5 mg/person/day. The gastrointestinal tract is a route of entry for NPs, thus representing a potential target of effects. In in vivo study, the effects of TiO2 NP in adult rat small intestine have been evaluated by oral administration of 0 (CTRL), 1 and 2 mg/kg body weight per day - relevant to human dietary intake. Detailed quali/quantitative histopathological analyses were performed on CTRL and treated rat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed on small intestine. An in vitro study on Caco-2 cells was also used in order to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects directly on enterocytes through the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Suspensions of TiO2 NPs for in vitro and in vivo study were characterized by EM. Histomorphometrical data showed treatment-related changes of villus height and widths in male rats. Significantly different from CTRL decreased LDH levels in the medium were detected in vitro at 24h with 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 µg/cm2 levels of TiO2 NPs. SEM analysis showed no damaged areas. Overall the results showed that enterocytes may represent a target of TiO2 NP toxicity by direct exposure both in vivo and in vitro models.

  3. In vivo and in vitro toxicological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassinari, Roberta; La Rocca, Cinzia; Tait, Sabrina; De Berardis, Barbara; Ammendolia, Maria Grazia; Iosi, Francesca; Di Virgilio, Antonio; Martinelli, Andrea; Maranghi, Francesca; Stecca, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In European Union, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) as bulk material is a food additive (E171) and - as nanoparticle (NP) - is used as a white pigment in several products (e.g. food, cosmetics, drugs). E171 contains approximately 36% of particles less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and TiO 2 NP exposure is estimated fairly below 2.5 mg/person/day. The gastrointestinal tract is a route of entry for NPs, thus representing a potential target of effects. In in vivo study, the effects of TiO 2 NP in adult rat small intestine have been evaluated by oral administration of 0 (CTRL), 1 and 2 mg/kg body weight per day - relevant to human dietary intake. Detailed quali/quantitative histopathological analyses were performed on CTRL and treated rat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed on small intestine. An in vitro study on Caco-2 cells was also used in order to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects directly on enterocytes through the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Suspensions of TiO 2 NPs for in vitro and in vivo study were characterized by EM. Histomorphometrical data showed treatment-related changes of villus height and widths in male rats. Significantly different from CTRL decreased LDH levels in the medium were detected in vitro at 24h with 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 µg/cm 2 levels of TiO 2 NPs. SEM analysis showed no damaged areas. Overall the results showed that enterocytes may represent a target of TiO 2 NP toxicity by direct exposure both in vivo and in vitro models

  4. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Penetration into the Skin and Effects on HaCaT Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosera, Matteo; Prodi, Andrea; Mauro, Marcella; Pelin, Marco; Florio, Chiara; Bellomo, Francesca; Adami, Gianpiero; Apostoli, Pietro; De Palma, Giuseppe; Bovenzi, Massimo; Campanini, Marco; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2015-08-07

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) suspensions (concentration 1.0 g/L) in synthetic sweat solution were applied on Franz cells for 24 h using intact and needle-abraded human skin. Titanium content into skin and receiving phases was determined. Cytotoxicity (MTT, AlamarBlue(®) and propidium iodide, PI, uptake assays) was evaluated on HaCat keratinocytes after 24 h, 48 h, and seven days of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, no titanium was detectable in receiving solutions for both intact and damaged skin. Titanium was found in the epidermal layer after 24 h of exposure (0.47 ± 0.33 μg/cm(2)) while in the dermal layer, the concentration was below the limit of detection. Damaged skin, in its whole, has shown a similar concentration (0.53 ± 0.26 μg/cm(2)). Cytotoxicity studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that TiO2NPs induced cytotoxic effects only at very high concentrations, reducing cell viability after seven days of exposure with EC50s of 8.8 × 10(-4) M (MTT assay), 3.8 × 10(-5) M (AlamarBlue(®) assay), and 7.6 × 10(-4) M (PI uptake, index of a necrotic cell death). Our study demonstrated that TiO2NPs cannot permeate intact and damaged skin and can be found only in the stratum corneum and epidermis. Moreover, the low cytotoxic effect observed on human HaCaT keratinocytes suggests that these nano-compounds have a potential toxic effect at the skin level only after long-term exposure.

  5. Interaction effect of calcium and sulphur on the growth and nutrient composition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Pers), using 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulakh, M.S.; Dev, G.

    1978-01-01

    In a pot culture experiment, application of S or Ca alone increased dry matter production, S content and total S removal per pot. With graded levels of applied S, the S in plant derived from the fertilizer as well as from the native soil source increased. Ca content in alfalfa increased with successive levels of applied Ca. A positive signficant interaction was found between Ca and S; with increase in level of Ca from 0 to 25 ppm in presence of various S levels, the total S content and its removal, N content and utilization of fertilizer S continued to increase and at 50 ppm Ca, this effect was lost. A combination of 25 ppm Ca and 20 ppm S produced maximum efficiency of applied S with a constant N : S ratio of 11 : 1 in the plants. (Auth.)

  6. Indomethacin lowers optic nerve oxygen tension and reduces the effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibition and carbon dioxide breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T; Stefánsson, E

    2004-01-01

    Prostaglandins are important in blood flow regulation. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) breathing and carbonic anhydrase inhibition increase the oxygen tension in the retina and optic nerve. To study the mechanism of this effect and the role of cyclo-oxygenase in the regulation of optic nerve oxygen tension...... (ONPO(2)), the authors investigated how indomethacin affects ONPO(2) and the ONPO(2) increases caused by CO(2) breathing and carbonic anhydrase inhibition in the pig....

  7. Effect of sulphuric acid concentration on electroosmotic flow through polymer electrolyte membranes in PEM fuel cells. Paper no. IGEC-1-061

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, G.; Li, X.

    2005-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are highly efficient and environmentally clean, and hence one of the most promising power sources for both stationary and mobile applications. The operations of PEM fuel cells are complicated by the electroosmotic flow of water from anode to cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane leading to the membrane dehydration and fuel cell performance degradations. In this study, electro osmotic flow in polymer electrolyte membranes is modeled by incorporating the electro kinetic effects in the presence of euphoric acid. The governing Poisson-Boatman and the Nervier-Stokes equations were solved numerically for a single membrane pore to determine the electro osmotic flow distributions through the membrane over a wide range of acid concentrations. The presence of euphoric acid modifies the protons distribution in the membrane and hence alters the driving force for electroosmotic drag. Numerical results indicate that the electro osmotic flow increases steadily with acid concentration. The water transport due to electro osmosis is almost doubled at 2 M acid concentration compared with that of non-doped membrane. The value of electroosmotic drag coefficient however falls steadily with acid concentration due to the presence of a larger number of protons in the electrolyte. (author)

  8. Effect of pressure on f-electron delocalization and oxidation in actinide dioxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, L., E-mail: leon.petit@stfc.ac.uk [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Szotek, Z.; Temmerman, W.M. [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Stocks, G.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division and Center for Defect Physics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Svane, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-08-01

    Using first principles calculations, we have investigated f-electron delocalization and oxidation in the actinide dioxides under pressure. Whilst UO{sub 2} is found on the verge of an insulator to metal transition at the equilibrium volume, increasingly larger pressures are required to delocalize f-electrons in NpO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2}, and AmO{sub 2}, respectively 49, 112, and 191 GPa. Compared to this broad range of pressures, the experimentally observed structural transitions, in all four dioxides, occur between 30 and 40 GPa, which leads us to conclude that the associated volume collapse is not due to f-electron delocalization. In contrast, oxidation of the dioxides is found to be linked to the degree of f-electron localization, but it emerges that for naturally occurring pressures (<10 GPa), higher oxides only exist for UO{sub 2}.

  9. The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on pulmonary surfactant function and ultrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Armin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary surfactant reduces surface tension and is present at the air-liquid interface in the alveoli where inhaled nanoparticles preferentially deposit. We investigated the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanosized particles (NSP and microsized particles (MSP on biophysical surfactant function after direct particle contact and after surface area cycling in vitro. In addition, TiO2 effects on surfactant ultrastructure were visualized. Methods A natural porcine surfactant preparation was incubated with increasing concentrations (50-500 μg/ml of TiO2 NSP or MSP, respectively. Biophysical surfactant function was measured in a pulsating bubble surfactometer before and after surface area cycling. Furthermore, surfactant ultrastructure was evaluated with a transmission electron microscope. Results TiO2 NSP, but not MSP, induced a surfactant dysfunction. For TiO2 NSP, adsorption surface tension (γads increased in a dose-dependent manner from 28.2 ± 2.3 mN/m to 33.2 ± 2.3 mN/m (p min slightly increased from 4.8 ± 0.5 mN/m up to 8.4 ± 1.3 mN/m (p 2 NSP concentrations. Presence of NSP during surface area cycling caused large and significant increases in both γads (63.6 ± 0.4 mN/m and γmin (21.1 ± 0.4 mN/m. Interestingly, TiO2 NSP induced aberrations in the surfactant ultrastructure. Lamellar body like structures were deformed and decreased in size. In addition, unilamellar vesicles were formed. Particle aggregates were found between single lamellae. Conclusion TiO2 nanosized particles can alter the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant. Particle size and surface area respectively play a critical role for the biophysical surfactant response in the lung.

  10. Nano-sized titanium dioxide toxicity in rat prostate and testis: Possible ameliorative effect of morin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Nancy N; Mohamed, Maha M

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of short-term oral exposure to nano-sized titanium dioxide (nTiO 2 ) on Wistar rat prostate and testis, and the associating reproductive-related alterations. The study also evaluated the potential ameliorative effect of the natural flavonoid, morin, on nTiO 2 -induced aberrations. Intragastric administration of nTiO 2 (50mg/kg/day for 1, 2 and 3weeks) increased testicular gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) activity and decreased testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and c-kit gene expression, serum testosterone level and sperm count. nTiO 2 -treated rats also exhibited prostatic and testicular altered glutathione levels, elevated TNF-α levels, up-regulated Fas, Bax and caspase-3 gene expression, down-regulated Bcl-2 gene expression and enhanced prostatic lipid peroxidation. Sperm malformation and elevated testicular acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and malondialdehyde level, serum prostatic acid phosphatase activity, prostate specific antigen (PSA), gonadotrophin and estradiol levels occurred after the 2 and 3week regimens. Morin (30mg/kg/day administered intragastrically for 5weeks) mitigated nTiO 2 -induced prostatic and testicular injury as evidenced by lowering serum PSA level, testicular γ-GT and ACP activities and TNF-α level, along with hampering both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, morin alleviated prostatic lipid peroxidation, raised prostatic glutathione level, and relieved testicular reductive stress. Additionally, morin increased testicular StAR and c-kit mRNA expression, raised the sperm count, reduced sperm deformities and modified the altered hormone profile. Histopathological evaluation supported the biochemical findings. In conclusion, morin could ameliorate nTiO 2 -induced prostatic and testicular injury and the corresponding reproductive-related aberrations via redox regulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, promoting steroidogenesis and

  11. Acute effects of total suspended particles and sulfur dioxides on preterm delivery: a community-based cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X.P.; Ding, H.; Wang, X.B. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1995-11-01

    The acute effects of air pollution on preterm delivery were examined in a prospective cohort in Beijing, China. From early pregnancy until delivery in 1988, we followed all registered pregnant women who lived in four residential areas of Beijing. Information for both mothers and infants was collected. Daily air pollution and meteorological data were obtained independently. The sample for analysis included 25 370 resident women who gave first live births in 1988. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to estimate the effects of air pollution on gestational age and preterm delivery (i.e. {lt} 37 wk), with adjustment for outdoor temperature and humidity, day of the week, season, maternal age, gender of child, and residential area. Very high concentrations of ambient sulfur dioxide (mean = 102 {mu}g/m{sup 3}), (maximum = 630 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and total suspended particulates (mean = 375 {mu}g/m{sup 3}), (maximum =1 003 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) were observed in these areas. There was a significant dose-dependent association between gestational age and sulfur dioxide and total suspended particulate concentrations. The estimated reduced duration of gestation was 0.075 wk (12.6 h) and 0.042 wk (7.1 h) for each 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} increase in sulfur dioxide and total suspended particulates 7-d lagged moving average, respectively. We concluded that high levels of total suspended particulates and sulfur dioxide, or of a more complex pollution mixture associated with these pollutants, appear to contribute to excess risk of preterm delivery in this population. Further work needs to be carried out, with more detailed information on personal exposure and effect modifiers.

  12. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens: focus on their safety and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smijs TG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Threes G Smijs1–3, Stanislav Pavel4 1Faculty of Science, Open University in The Netherlands, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2University of Leiden, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden, The Netherlands; 3Erasmus MC, Center for Optical Diagnostics and Therapy, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 4Charles University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Pilsen, Czech Republic Abstract: Sunscreens are used to provide protection against adverse effects of ultraviolet (UVB (290–320 nm and UVA (320–400 nm radiation. According to the United States Food and Drug Administration, the protection factor against UVA should be at least one-third of the overall sun protection factor. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 and zinc oxide (ZnO minerals are frequently employed in sunscreens as inorganic physical sun blockers. As TiO2 is more effective in UVB and ZnO in the UVA range, the combination of these particles assures a broad-band UV protection. However, to solve the cosmetic drawback of these opaque sunscreens, microsized TiO2 and ZnO have been increasingly replaced by TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs (<100 nm. This review focuses on significant effects on the UV attenuation of sunscreens when microsized TiO2 and ZnO particles are replaced by NPs and evaluates physicochemical aspects that affect effectiveness and safety of NP sunscreens. With the use of TiO2 and ZnO NPs, the undesired opaqueness disappears but the required balance between UVA and UVB protection can be altered. Utilization of mixtures of micro- and nanosized ZnO dispersions and nanosized TiO2 particles may improve this situation. Skin exposure to NP-containing sunscreens leads to incorporation of TiO2 and ZnO NPs in the stratum corneum, which can alter specific NP attenuation properties due to particle–particle, particle–skin, and skin–particle–light physicochemical interactions. Both sunscreen NPs induce (photocyto- and genotoxicity and have been sporadically observed in viable

  13. Modification of oxide inclusions in calcium-treated Al-killed high sulphur steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gollapalli, Veerababu; Rao, M.B.Venkata; Karamched, P.S.; Borra, C.R.; Roy, G.G.; Srirangam, Prakash

    2018-01-01

    A study has been carried out to understand the modification of alumina inclusions in Al-killed high sulphur steel with calcium treatment. For calcium treatment to be effective, a general practice is to desulphurise the steel to prevent the formation of solid CaS inclusions that are harmful to

  14. Sulphur capture by co-firing sulphur containing fuels with biomass fuels - optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, A.

    1992-12-01

    Previous results concerning co-firing of high sulphur fuels with biomass fuels have shown that a significant part of the sulphur can be absorbed in the ash by formation of harmless sulphates. The aim of this work has been to (i) determine the maximum reduction that can be obtained in a bench scaled fluidized bed (5 kW); (ii) determine which operating conditions will give maximum reduction; (iii) point out the importance and applicability of experimental designs and multivariate methods when optimizing combustion processes; (iv) determine if the degree of sulphur capture can be correlated to the degree of slagging, fouling or bed sintering; and (v) determine if further studies are desired. The following are some of the more important results obtained: - By co-firing peat with biomass, a total sulphur retention of 70 % can be obtained. By co-firing coal with energy-grass, the total SO 2 emissions can be reduced by 90 %. - Fuel feeding rate, amount of combustion air and the primary air ratio were the most important operating parameters for the reduction. Bed temperature and oxygen level seem to be the crucial physical parameters. - The NO emissions also decreased by the sulphur reducing measures. The CO emissions were relatively high (130 mg/MJ) compared to large scale facilities due to the small reactor and the small fluctuations in the fuel feeding rate. The SO 2 emissions could however be reduced without any increase in CO emissions. - When the reactor was fired with a grass, the bed sintered at a low temperature ( 2 SO 4 and KCl are formed no sintering problems were observed. (27 refs., 41 figs., 9 tabs., 3 appendices)

  15. The mechanism of photosystem-II inactivation during sulphur deprivation-induced H2 production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Valéria; Vidal-Meireles, André; Podmaniczki, Anna; Szentmihályi, Klára; Rákhely, Gábor; Zsigmond, Laura; Kovács, László; Tóth, Szilvia Z

    2018-05-01

    Sulphur limitation may restrain cell growth and viability. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, sulphur limitation may induce H 2 production lasting for several days, which can be exploited as a renewable energy source. Sulphur limitation causes a large number of physiological changes, including the inactivation of photosystem II (PSII), leading to the establishment of hypoxia, essential for the increase in hydrogenase expression and activity. The inactivation of PSII has long been assumed to be caused by the sulphur-limited turnover of its reaction center protein PsbA. Here we reinvestigated this issue in detail and show that: (i) upon transferring Chlamydomonas cells to sulphur-free media, the cellular sulphur content decreases only by about 25%; (ii) as demonstrated by lincomycin treatments, PsbA has a significant turnover, and other photosynthetic subunits, namely RbcL and CP43, are degraded more rapidly than PsbA. On the other hand, sulphur limitation imposes oxidative stress early on, most probably involving the formation of singlet oxygen in PSII, which leads to an increase in the expression of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, playing an essential role in ascorbate biosynthesis. When accumulated to the millimolar concentration range, ascorbate may inactivate the oxygen-evolving complex and provide electrons to PSII, albeit at a low rate. In the absence of a functional donor side and sufficient electron transport, PSII reaction centers are inactivated and degraded. We therefore demonstrate that the inactivation of PSII is a complex and multistep process, which may serve to mitigate the damaging effects of sulphur limitation. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of gamma irradiations on reactive pulsed laser deposited vanadium dioxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiba, I. G.; Émond, N.; Chaker, M.; Thema, F. T.; Tadadjeu, S. I.; Muller, U.; Zolliker, P.; Braun, A.; Kotsedi, L.; Maaza, M.

    2017-07-01

    Vanadium oxide films are considered suitable coatings for various applications such as thermal protective coating of small spacecrafts because of their thermochromic properties. While in outer space, such coating will be exposed to cosmic radiations which include γ-rays. To study the effect of these γ-rays on the coating properties, we have deposited vanadium dioxide (VO2) films on silicon substrates and subjected them to extensive γ-irradiations with typical doses encountered in space missions. The prevalent crystallographic phase after irradiation remains the monoclinic VO2 phase but the films preferential orientation shifts to lower angles due to the presence of disordered regions caused by radiations. Raman spectroscopy measurements also evidences that the VO2 structure is slightly affected by gamma irradiation. Indeed, increasing the gamma rays dose locally alters the crystalline and electronic structures of the films by modifying the V-V inter-dimer distance, which in turns favours the presence of the VO2 metallic phase. From the XPS measurements of V2p and O1s core level spectra, an oxidation of vanadium from V4+ towards V5+ is revealed. The data also reveal a hydroxylation upon irradiation which is corroborated by the vanishing of a low oxidation state peak near the Fermi energy in the valence band. Our observations suggest that gamma radiations induce the formation of Frenkel pairs. Moreover, THz transmission measurements show that the long range structure of VO2 remains intact after irradiation whilst the electrical measurements evidence that the coating resistivity decreases with gamma irradiation and that their transition temperature is slightly reduced for high gamma ray doses. Even though gamma rays are only one of the sources of radiations that are encountered in space environment, these results are very promising with regards to the potential of integration of such VO2 films as a protective coating for spacecrafts.

  17. The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on antioxidant gene expression in tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Valencia, Ruth; Gómez-Ortiz, Nikte; Oskam, Gerko; de Coss, Romeo; Rubio-Piña, Jorge; del Río-García, Marcela; Albores-Medina, Arnulfo; Zapata-Perez, Omar

    2014-04-01

    The reactivity of nanoparticles (NPs) in biological systems is well recognized, but there are huge gaps in our understanding of NP toxicity in fish, despite a number of recent ecotoxicity studies. Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of titanium dioxide NPs (TiO2-NPs) on antioxidant gene expression in the tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. First, different sizes, shapes, and phases of TiO2-NPs were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Fish were injected intraperitoneally with different concentrations (0.1, 1.0, 10.0 mg/L), sizes (7, 14, and 21 nm), and phases (anatase and rutile) of TiO2-NPs, and sacrificed 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after injection, when their livers were removed. Total RNA was extracted, and expression of the catalase ( CAT), glutathione- S-transferase ( GST), and superoxide dismutase ( SOD) genes was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that injection of 1.0 mg/L TiO2-NPs induced an initial mild increase in CAT, GST, and SOD gene expression in tilapia, after which transcript levels decreased. Fish injected with 7 and 14 nm TiO2-NPs showed an increase in antioxidant transcript levels 6 h after treatment. Finally, the rutile form generated stronger induction of the GST gene than anatase TiO2-NPs during the first 6 h after injection, which suggests that exposure to rutile causes higher levels of reactive oxygen species to be produced.

  18. Effects of palladium coatings on oxygen sensors of titanium dioxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, L.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 -anatase phase) thin films were deposited by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique employing titanium (IV) oxide acetylacetonate (TiO(acac) 2 ) dissolved in pure methanol as a source material. In order to prepare oxygen sensors, TiO 2 thin films were deposited on interdigitated gold electrodes with contacted alumina substrates. Palladium (Pd) coatings were carried out by vacuum thermal evaporation through a metallic mask. The effect of the surface additive (Pd) on the response of the thin film TiO 2 oxygen sensors was monitored in a mixture with zero-grade air. The electrical characterization (monitoring of the electrical surface resistance with the operation temperature) of the sensors in an atmosphere of oxygen (diluted in zero-grade air) was performed in a vacuum chamber (10 -6 Torr), where the gas pressure can be controlled. The films sensitivity was estimated by the following relation: s=R gas -R 0 /R 0 . The response time of the sensor is defined to be the time needed to reach a 0.9R 0 value when the oxygen excess is removed. The gas-sensing properties of TiO 2 sensors in an atmosphere of 10 4 ppm of oxygen were measured between 100 and 450 deg. C. Experimental results obtained using palladium as a surface additive show that the sensitivity reaches a stationary value of 1.18 for O 2 concentration of 100ppm in zero-grade air at 300 deg. C, which is as high as those reported for oxygen sensors prepared with more expensive and complex techniques. The role and activity of palladium coatings incorporated on solid-state oxygen sensors are determined by their chemical state, aggregation form and interaction with the metal-oxide semiconductor

  19. Biological effect of food additive titanium dioxide nanoparticles on intestine: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zheng-Mei; Chen, Ni; Liu, Jia-Hui; Tang, Huan; Deng, Xiaoyong; Xi, Wen-Song; Han, Kai; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2015-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely found in food-related consumer products. Understanding the effect of TiO2 NPs on the intestinal barrier and absorption is essential and vital for the safety assessment of orally administrated TiO2 NPs. In this study, the cytotoxicity and translocation of two native TiO2 NPs, and these two TiO2 NPs pretreated with the digestion simulation fluid or bovine serum albumin were investigated in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells, differentiated Caco-2 cells and Caco-2 monolayer. TiO2 NPs with a concentration less than 200 µg ml(-1) did not induce any toxicity in differentiated cells and Caco-2 monolayer after 24 h exposure. However, TiO2 NPs pretreated with digestion simulation fluids at 200 µg ml(-1) inhibited the growth of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Undifferentiated Caco-2 cells swallowed native TiO2 NPs easily, but not pretreated NPs, implying the protein coating on NPs impeded the cellular uptake. Compared with undifferentiated cells, differentiated ones possessed much lower uptake ability of these TiO2 NPs. Similarly, the traverse of TiO2 NPs through the Caco-2 monolayer was also negligible. Therefore, we infer the possibility of TiO2 NPs traversing through the intestine of animal or human after oral intake is quite low. This study provides valuable information for the risk assessment of TiO2 NPs in food. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effect of sucralfate on total carbon dioxide concentration in horses subjected to a simulated race test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltabilota, T J; Milizio, J G; Malone, S; Kenney, J D; McKeever, K H

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that sucralfate, a gastric ulcer medication, would alter plasma concentrations of total carbon dioxide (tCO2), lactate (LA), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-) and total protein (TP), as well as calculated plasma strong ion difference (SID) and packed cell volume (PCV) in horses subjected to a simulated race test (SRT). Six unfit Standardbred mares (approximately 520 kg, 9-18 years) were used in a randomized crossover design with the investigators blinded to the treatment given. The horses were assigned to either a control (40-50 mL apple sauce administered orally (PO)) or a sucralfate (20 mg/kg bodyweight dissolved in 40-50 mL apple sauce administered PO) group. Each horse completed a series of SRTs during which blood samples were taken via jugular venipuncture at five sampling intervals (prior to receiving treatment, prior to SRT, immediately following exercise, and at 60 and 90 min post-SRT). During the SRTs, each horse ran on a treadmill fixed on a 6% grade for 2 min at a warm-up speed (4 m/s) and then for 2 min at a velocity predetermined to produce VO2max. Each horse then walked at 4 m/s for 2 min to complete the SRT. Plasma tCO2, electrolytes, LA, and blood PCV and TP were analysed at all intervals. No differences (P>0.05) were detected between control and sucralfate for any of the measured variables. There were differences (P<0.05) in tCO2, SID, PCV, TP, LA and electrolyte concentrations relative to sampling time. However, these differences were attributable to the physiological pressures associated with acute exercise and were not an effect of the medication. It was concluded that sucralfate did not alter plasma tCO2 concentration in this study. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide on mercury oxidation and reduction under homogeneous conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongxin Zhao; Michael D. Mann; Edwin S. Olson; John H. Pavlish; Grant E. Dunham [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2006-05-15

    This paper is particularly related to elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation and divalent mercury (Hg{sup 2+} reduction under simulated flue gas conditions in the presence of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). As a powerful oxidant and chlorinating reagent, Cl{sub 2} has the potential for Hg oxidation. However, the detailed mechanism for the interactions, especially among chlorine (Cl)-containing species, SO{sub 2}, NO, as well as H{sub 2}O, remains ambiguous. Research described in this paper therefore focused on the impacts of SO{sub 2} and NO on Hg{sup 0} oxidation and Hg{sup 2+} reduction with the intent of unraveling unrecognized interactions among Cl species, SO{sub 2}, and NO most importantly in the presence of H{sub 2}O. The experimental results demonstrated that SO{sub 2} and NO had pronounced inhibitory effects on Hg{sup 0} oxidation at high temperatures when H{sub 2}O was also present in the gas blend. Such a demonstration was further confirmed by the reduction of Hg{sup 2+} back into its elemental form. Data revealed that SO{sub 2} and NO were capable of promoting homogeneous reduction of Hg{sup 2+} to Hg{sup 0} with H{sub 2}O being present. However, the above inhibition or promotion disappeared under homogeneous conditions when H{sub 2}O was removed from the gas blend. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Effective removal of trace thallium from surface water by nanosized manganese dioxide enhanced quartz sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan

    2017-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) has drawn wide concern due to its high toxicity even at extremely low concentrations, as well as its tendency for significant accumulation in the human body and other organisms. The need to develop effective strategies for trace Tl removal from drinking water is urgent. In this study, the removal of trace Tl (0.5 μg L -1 ) by conventional quartz sand filtration enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO 2 ) has been investigated using typical surface water obtained from northeast China. The results indicate that nMnO 2 enhanced quartz sand filtration could remove trace Tl(I) and Tl(III) efficiently through the adsorption of Tl onto nMnO 2 added to a water matrix and onto nMnO 2 attached on quartz sand surfaces. Tl(III)-HA complexes might be responsible for higher residual Tl(III) in the effluent compared to residual Tl(I). Competitive Ca 2+ cations inhibit Tl removal to a certain extent because the Ca 2+ ions will occupy the Tl adsorption site on nMnO 2 . Moreover, high concentrations of HA (10 mgTOC L -1 ), which notably complexes with and dissolves nMnO 2 (more than 78%), resulted in higher residual Tl(I) and Tl(III). Tl(III)-HA complexes might also enhance Tl(III) penetration to a certain extent. Additionally, a higher pH level could enhance the removal of trace Tl from surface water. Finally, a slight increase of residual Tl was observed after backwash, followed by the reduction of the Tl concentration in the effluent to a "steady" state again. The knowledge obtained here may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effects of temperature on the heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide by ozone on calcium carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Wu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide by ozone on CaCO3 was studied as a function of temperature (230 to 298 K at ambient pressure. Oxidation reactions were followed in real time using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry (DRIFTS to obtain kinetic and mechanistic data. From the analysis of the spectral features, the formation of sulfate was identified on the surface in the presence of O3 and SO2 at different temperatures from 230 to 298 K. The results showed that the heterogeneous oxidation and the rate of sulfate formation were sensitive to temperature. An interesting stage-transition region was observed at temperatures ranging from 230 to 257 K, but it became ambiguous gradually above 257 K. The reactive uptake coefficients at different temperatures from 230 to 298 K were acquired for the first time, which can be used directly in atmospheric chemistry modeling studies to predict the formation of secondary sulfate aerosol in the troposphere. Furthermore, the rate of sulfate formation had a turning point at about 250 K. The sulfate concentration at 250 K was about twice as large as that at 298 K. The rate of sulfate formation increased with decreasing temperature at temperatures above 250 K, while there is a contrary temperature effect at temperatures below 250 K. The activation energy for heterogeneous oxidation at temperatures from 245 K to 230 K was determined to be 14.63 ± 0.20 kJ mol−1. A mechanism for the temperature dependence was proposed and the atmospheric implications were discussed.

  4. Effect of Stabilization on Morphology Polystyrene and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Thermoplastic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Mokhtari Motameni Shirvan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular thermoplastic foams can be usually produced in a one-step batch system using a physical foaming agent which is dissolved in a polymer system under specific pressure and temperature, higher than the critical condition of solvent and the glass transition temperature of polymer and solvent mixture. By application of a sudden pressure drop the foam structure is formed through stages of nucleation, growth and coalescence. After pressure drop, if the foam temperature is reduced below the glass transition of the gas-polymer mixture, the cells stop growing which results in a foam with stabilized morphology. This stabilization stage has not been thoroughly focused in previous studies. In this work, polystyrene as a polymer system and supercritical carbon dioxide as a solvent were used at 18.5 MPa pressure and different temperatures. The stabilization process took place within milliseconds and helped to a better understanding of cellular structure in thermoplastic foams. In this mechanism, the nucleation takes place in the phase transition of solvent molecules at supercritical state to the gas state and the formation of very small nuclei containing gas molecules between polymer chains. The energy originated from the nuclei growth is in competition with the elastic energy of polymer chains, and the predominance of one type of energy over another determines the final cell size. The results showed that the effect of stabilization process on the structure of the foam depended on the foaming temperature. Stabilization at 110°C resulted in a 50% cell size reduction and a 60% cell density promotion, while at lower temperatures, the stabilization led to greater cell size and reduced cell density.

  5. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the bioavailability, metabolism, and toxicity of pentachlorophenol in zebrafish larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Qi; Shi, Xiongjie; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of n-TiO 2 on toxicity of PCP in zebrafish larvae were investigated. • Co-exposure n-TiO 2 enhanced metabolism of PCP to tetrachlorohydroquinone in larvae. • Co-exposure n-TiO 2 increased oxidative damage and developmental toxicity in larvae. • NPs may influence toxicity of associated organic pollutants in the aquatic environment. - Abstract: This study investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO 2 ) on the bioavailability, metabolism, and toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in fish. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos or larvae (2-h post-fertilization) were exposed to PCP (0, 3, 10, and 30 μg/L) alone or in combination with n-TiO 2 (0.1 mg/L) until 6 days post-fertilization. Results showed that n-TiO 2 treatment alone did not induce lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, as well as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the larvae. As compared with PCP treatment, the co-exposure of PCP and n-TiO 2 enhanced the induction of ROS generation, eventually leading to lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 gene transcriptions were significantly upregulated in both PCP treatment alone and in combination with n-TiO 2 . Chemical analysis and histological examination showed that n-TiO 2 adsorb PCP, and n-TiO 2 are taken up by developing zebrafish larvae; however, PCP content was not enhanced in the presence of n-TiO 2 , but the metabolism of PCP to tetrachlorohydroquinone was enhanced in larvae. The results indicate that n-TiO 2 enhanced the metabolism of PCP and caused oxidative damage and developmental toxicity, suggesting that NPs can influence the fate and toxicity of associated organic pollutants in the aquatic environment

  6. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the bioavailability, metabolism, and toxicity of pentachlorophenol in zebrafish larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Shi, Xiongjie [College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Liping [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Guo, Yongyong [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhou, Bingsheng, E-mail: bszhou@ihb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Effects of n-TiO{sub 2} on toxicity of PCP in zebrafish larvae were investigated. • Co-exposure n-TiO{sub 2} enhanced metabolism of PCP to tetrachlorohydroquinone in larvae. • Co-exposure n-TiO{sub 2} increased oxidative damage and developmental toxicity in larvae. • NPs may influence toxicity of associated organic pollutants in the aquatic environment. - Abstract: This study investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO{sub 2}) on the bioavailability, metabolism, and toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in fish. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos or larvae (2-h post-fertilization) were exposed to PCP (0, 3, 10, and 30 μg/L) alone or in combination with n-TiO{sub 2} (0.1 mg/L) until 6 days post-fertilization. Results showed that n-TiO{sub 2} treatment alone did not induce lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, as well as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the larvae. As compared with PCP treatment, the co-exposure of PCP and n-TiO{sub 2} enhanced the induction of ROS generation, eventually leading to lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 gene transcriptions were significantly upregulated in both PCP treatment alone and in combination with n-TiO{sub 2}. Chemical analysis and histological examination showed that n-TiO{sub 2} adsorb PCP, and n-TiO{sub 2} are taken up by developing zebrafish larvae; however, PCP content was not enhanced in the presence of n-TiO{sub 2}, but the metabolism of PCP to tetrachlorohydroquinone was enhanced in larvae. The results indicate that n-TiO{sub 2} enhanced the metabolism of PCP and caused oxidative damage and developmental toxicity, suggesting that NPs can influence the fate and toxicity of associated organic pollutants in the aquatic environment.

  7. New packaging design for fresh produce with effective distribution of antimicrobial gaseous chlorine dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the last decade, the potential use of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as an antimicrobial agent for vapor-phase decontamination to extend the shelf-life of fresh produce has been widely studied. Most of the works focused on the dose of gaseous ClO2 for particular food product and/or specific microorganis...

  8. Routing strategy including time and carbon dioxide emissions : effects on network performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Y.; Goni Ros, B.; GAO, Jian; Knoop, V.L.

    2016-01-01

    Traffic congestion leads to delays and increased carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Traffic management measures such as providing information on environmental route costs have been proposed to mitigate congestion. Multi-criteria routing dynamic traffic assignment (MCR-DTA) models are needed to evaluate

  9. Effect of lead dioxide on the radiation decomposition of hydrated lanthanum nitrate (Preprint No. RES-05)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.F.; Bedekar, A.G.; Chiplunkar, N.R.

    1988-02-01

    The rate of radiation induced decomposition of lanthanum nitrate is found to increase in the presence of lead dioxide as a heterophase impurity. Further, the rate also increases with increasing mole percent of the oxide. The results are explained on the basis of energy transfer processes taking place at the interface between nitrate and oxide crystals. (aut hor). 9 refs

  10. Tin Dioxide as an Effective Antioxidant for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Nørgaard, Casper Frydendal; Larsen, Mikkel Juul

    2015-01-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) containing electrodes showed significantly lower radical induced polymer degradation under single cell open circuit voltage (OCV) treatment than SnO2 free electrodes. A backbone related segment was detected under 100%RH, and an oxygen containing side chain segment was detected ...

  11. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on red clover and its rhizobial symbiont

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Janine; Okupnik, Annette; Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Van Der Heijden, Marcel G A; Widmer, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are in consideration to be used in plant protection products. Before these products can be placed on the market, ecotoxicological tests have to be performed. In this study, the nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium trifolii and red clover were exposed to two

  12. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on soil microbial communities and wheat biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Janine; Klingenfuss, Florian; Widmer, Franco; Gogos, Alexander; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Hartmann, Martin; van der Heijden, Marcel G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are the most produced NPs worldwide and have great potential to be utilized in agriculture as additives for plant protection products. However, concerns have been raised that some NPs may negatively affect crops and soil microbial communities, including

  13. Progressive Tool Wear in Cryogenic Machining: The Effect of Liquid Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kaynak

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study focuses on various cooling strategies and lubrication-assisted cooling strategies to improve machining performance in the turning process of AISI 4140 steel. Liquid nitrogen (LN2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 were used as cryogenic coolants, and their performances were compared with respect to progression of tool wear. Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL was also used with carbon dioxide. Progression of wear, including flank and nose, are the main outputs examined during experimental study. This study illustrates that carbon dioxide-assisted cryogenic machining alone and with minimum quantity lubrication does not contribute to decreasing the progression of wear within selected cutting conditions. This study also showed that carbon dioxide-assisted cryogenic machining helps to increase chip breakability. Liquid nitrogen-assisted cryogenic machining results in a reduction of tool wear, including flank and nose wear, in the machining process of AISI 4140 steel material. It was also observed that in the machining process of this material at a cutting speed of 80 m/min, built-up edges occurred in both cryogenic cooling conditions. Additionally, chip flow damage occurs in particularly dry machining.

  14. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Flooding by Managing Asphaltene Precipitation; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, Milind D.

    2002-01-01

    This project was undertaken to understand fundamental aspects of carbon dioxide (CO2) induced asphaltene precipitation. Oil and asphaltene samples from the Rangely field in Colorado were used for most of the project. The project consisted of pure component and high-pressure, thermodynamic experiments, thermodynamic modeling, kinetic experiments and modeling, targeted corefloods and compositional modeling

  15. A Review on the Effects of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide on Enzyme Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wimmer, Zdeněk; Zarevúcka, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2010), s. 233-253 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : enzyme * supercritical carbon dioxide * synthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.279, year: 2010

  16. Effect of Coating and Packaging Materials on Photocatalytic and Antimicrobial Activities of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food safety or foodborne pathogen contamination is a major concern in food industry. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a photocatalyst and can inactivate a wide spectrum of microorganisms under UV illumination. There is significant interest in the development of TiO2-coated or –incorporated food packaging ...

  17. Carbonate effects on hexavalent uranium removal from water by nanocrystalline titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wazne, Mahmoud; Meng, Xiaoguang; Korfiatis, George P.; Christodoulatos, Christos

    2006-01-01

    A novel nanocrystalline titanium dioxide was used to treat depleted uranium (DU)-contaminated water under neutral and alkaline conditions. The novel material had a total surface area of 329 m 2 /g, total surface site density of 11.0 sites/nm 2 , total pore volume of 0.415 cm 3 /g and crystallite size of 6.0 nm. It was used in batch tests to remove U(VI) from synthetic solutions and contaminated water. However, the capacity of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide to remove U(VI) from water decreased in the presence of inorganic carbonate at pH > 6.0. Adsorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and surface charge measurements were used to investigate the causes of the reduced capacity. The surface charge and the FTIR measurements suggested that the adsorbed U(VI) species was not complexed with carbonate at neutral pH values. The decreased capacity of titanium dioxide to remove U(VI) from water in the presence of carbonate at neutral to alkaline pH values was attributed to the aqueous complexation of U(VI) by inorganic carbonate. The nanocrystalline titanium dioxide had four times the capacity of commercially available titanium dixoide (Degussa P-25) to adsorb U(VI) from water at pH 6 and total inorganic carbonate concentration of 0.01 M. Consequently, the novel material was used to treat DU-contaminated water at a Department of Defense (DOD) site

  18. Temperature and pressure effects on solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide and retention in supercritical fluid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, X.W.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Solubilities of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in supercritical carbon dioxide were measured with a procedure based on a direct on-line combination of a saturation cell to a flame ionization detector. Acenaphthene, anthrance and chrysene were selected as the test solutes. A method was

  19. Amine-modified ordered mesoporous silica: Effect of pore size on carbon dioxide capture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeleňák, V.; Badaničová, M.; Halamová, D.; Čejka, Jiří; Zukal, Arnošt; Murafa, Nataliya; Goerigk, G.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 2 (2008), s. 336-342 ISSN 1385-8947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : mesoporous silica * hexagonal * amine * carbon dioxide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.813, year: 2008

  20. Effect of triolein addition on the solubility of capsanthin in supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araus, Karina A.; Valle, José M. del; Robert, Paz S.; Fuente, Juan C. de la

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We isolated capsanthin from red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). ► We measured its solubility in pure CO 2 and with triolein as cosolvent. ► We model the solubility of capsanthin in pure CO 2 and with triolein. ► Solubility of triolein in mixtures CO 2 + capsanthin was similar to pure CO 2 . ► Triolein has cosolvent effect over solubility of capsanthin in CO 2 . - Abstract: This manuscript presents new phase equilibrium data for capsanthin in pure and triolein-entrained Supercritical (SC) carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The aim of the work was to determine the cosolvent effect of triolein on capsanthin by comparing solubility results in a ternary (CO 2 + triolein + capsanthin) system and binary (CO 2 + capsanthin) system at (313 or 333) K and (19 to 34) MPa. For this, authors isolated capsanthin from red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tested it using a dynamic-analytical method in an apparatus with recirculation and online analysis of the CO 2 -rich phase. Within the experimental region, the solubility of capsanthin in pure SC–CO 2 increased with system temperature at isobaric conditions and also increased with pressure at isothermal conditions. Solubilities ranged from a minimal of 0.65 μmol/mol at 313 K and 19 MPa to a maximal of 1.97 μmol/mol at 333 K and 32 MPa. The concentration of triolein in the ternary system was equivalent to that its solubility in pure SC–CO 2 depending on system temperature and pressure conditions. Crossover pressure was determined experimentally at 29.6 MPa, below which solubility of triolein decreased with temperature (effect of density). Above the crossover pressure, solubility of triolein increased with temperature (vapor pressure effect). Values of solubility within this range were 0.16 mmol/mol at 19 MPa and 313 K to 0.41 mmol/mol at 33 MPa and 333 K. Independent of system temperature and pressure, capsanthin solubility in triolein-entrained SC–CO 2 increased by a factor of about 3 (triolein-induced enhancement

  1. Effect of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the flexural strength of polymethylmethacrylate: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harini, P; Mohamed, Kasim; Padmanabhan, T V

    2014-01-01

    To improve the flexural strength of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). To evaluate whether the incorporation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) increases the flexural strength and to compare the different concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and its relation to flexural strength. Study was conducted in Sri Ramachandra University utilizing 40 specimens manufactured from clear heat polymerizing acrylic resin. Forty specimens of clear heat polymerizing acrylic resin of dimensions 65 Χ 10 Χ 3 mm as per ISO 1,567 standardization were fabricated and were grouped into A (CONTROL) with no titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, B with 0.5 gms of TiO 2 nanoparticles, C with 1 gm of TiO 2 nanoparticles and D with 2.5 gms of TiO 2 nanoparticles added.The concentrations of titanium dioxide in each group were 1 wt%, 2 wt% and 5 wt%. Universal testing machine INSTRON was used to load at the center of the specimen with a cross head speed of 1.50 mm/min and a span length of 40.00 mm. ANOVA and multiple comparisons are carried out using the independent t-test. The ANOVA result shows that there is a significant difference between the groups with respect to the mean flexural strength. Highest mean flexural strength is observed in Group D, while the lowest is seen in Group A. Independent t-test revealed that there was a statistical significance between Group A and Group D (0.041) and between Group B and Group D (0.028). The results concluded that polymethylmethacrylate reinforced with different concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles showed superior flexural strength than those of normal PMMA.

  2. Electrochemical Determination of Low Molecular Mass Thiols Content in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum Cultivated in the Presence of Various Sulphur Forms and Infected by Late Blight (Phytophora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper potato plants were cultivated in the presence of ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur supplementation into the soil to reveal the effects of different sulphur forms on content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur, and yield of tubers. During the investigation of the influence of different sulphur forms on yield of potato tubers we did not observe significant changes. Average weight of tubers of control plants per one experimental pot was 355 g. Application of sulphur in both forms resulted in moderate potato tubers weight reduction per one experimental pot compared to control group; average value ranged from 320 to 350 g per one experimental pot. Further we treated the plants with two different supplementation of sulphur with cadmium(II ions (4 mg of cadmium(II acetate per kilogram of the soil. The significantly lowest cadmium content (p < 0.05 was determined in tissues of plants treated with the highest dosage of elemental sulphur (0.64 mg Cd/kg compared to control plants (0.82 mg Cd/kg. We also aimed our attention on the cadmium content in proteins, lipids or soluble carbohydrates and ash. Application of sulphate as well as elemental sulphur resulted in significant cadmium content reduction in lipid fraction compared to control plants. In addition to this we quantified content of low molecular mass thiols in potatoes tissues. To determine the thiols content we employed differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. After twelve days of the treatment enhancing of thiols level was observed in all experimental groups regardless to applied sulphur form and its concentration. Finally we evaluated the effect of sulphur supplementation on Phytophora infestans infection of potato plants.

  3. Sulphur in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Including NLTE corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skúladóttir, Á.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Tolstoy, E.; Hill, V.; Salvadori, S.; Korotin, S. A.; Pettini, M.

    In Galactic halo stars, sulphur has been shown to behave like other α-elements, but until now, no comprehensive studies have been done on this element in stars of other galaxies. Here, we use high-resolution ESO VLT/FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra to determine sulphur abundances for 85 stars in the Sculptor

  4. Efficacy and phytotoicity of lime sulphur in organic apple production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holb, I.J.; Jong, de P.F.; Heijne, B.

    2003-01-01

    Curative and preventive efficacy and phytotoxicity of lime sulphur spray schedules, based on a warning system, were evaluated in the Netherlands during two growing seasons under field conditions. In most cases, lime sulphur treatments applied either curatively or preventively resulted in

  5. Biodesulphurisation of high sulphur coal by heap leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Cara; M.T. Carballo; A. Moran; D. Bonilla; O. Escolano; F.J. Garcia Frutos [Universidad de Leon, Leon (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica

    2005-10-01

    The biodesulphurisation of coal carried out in pile could be an interesting option to clean coal. In view of the good results obtained in biodesulphurisation test column at lab scale on a sample of semianthracite coal that proceed of an industrial plant with a high sulphur content, mainly pyritic sulphur, the feasibility of the process at pilot plant scale was studied. The pile was formed with 6 ton of gravity middlings coal sample with a grain size -12+0.5 mm from S.A. Hullera Vasco-Leonesa industrial plant. The coal has a total sulphur content of 3.78% and a pyritic sulphur content of 2.88%, the rest of sulphur is organic sulphur. The biodesulphurisation process in pilot plant follows three stages: stabilization of the pile, biodesulphurisation and washing. Heap was sampled twice during stabilisation stage, at the end of desulphurisation process and finally once washed. A pyritic sulphur removal of 39% and total sulphur removal of 23% was obtained. To complete the bioleaching process, the treatment of purge of leachate was carried out with the objective to recycling to head of process. The best treatment was a pre-treatment of the leachate until pH 4, and further treatment by reverse osmosis of the clarified water. Comparing this process with conventional precipitation to reach disposal limits, the reagents consumption and sludges were reduced considerably and due to the high quality of permeate it permits to recycle it to head of process. 18 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Organically bound sulphur in coal: A molecular approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1992-01-01

    A critical review of literature concerning the molecular characterization of low and high molecular weight organosulphur constitutents present in coal as well as a detailed analysis of organic sulphur compounds present in flash evaporates and pyrolysates of a suite of coals ranging in sulphur

  7. Selective environmental stress from sulphur emitted by continental flood basalt eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; Skeffington, Richard; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Self, Stephen; Forster, Piers; Rap, Alexandru; Ridgwell, Andy; Fowler, David; Wilson, Marjorie; Mann, Graham; Wignall, Paul; Carslaw, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Several biotic crises during the past 300 million years have been linked to episodes of continental flood basalt volcanism, and in particular to the release of massive quantities of magmatic sulphur gas species. Flood basalt provinces were typically formed by numerous individual eruptions, each lasting years to decades. However, the environmental impact of these eruptions may have been limited by the occurrence of quiescent periods that lasted hundreds to thousands of years. Here we use a global aerosol model to quantify the sulphur-induced environmental effects of individual, decade-long flood basalt eruptions representative of the Columbia River Basalt Group, 16.5-14.5 million years ago, and the Deccan Traps, 65 million years ago. For a decade-long eruption of Deccan scale, we calculate a decadal-mean reduction in global surface temperature of 4.5 K, which would recover within 50 years after an eruption ceased unless climate feedbacks were very different in deep-time climates. Acid mists and fogs could have caused immediate damage to vegetation in some regions, but acid-sensitive land and marine ecosystems were well-buffered against volcanic sulphur deposition effects even during century-long eruptions. We conclude that magmatic sulphur from flood basalt eruptions would have caused a biotic crisis only if eruption frequencies and lava discharge rates had been high and sustained for several centuries at a time.

  8. Impact of sulphurous water politzer inhalation on audiometric parameters in children with otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Prisco; Gobbi, Giuliana; Malinverno, Chiara; Carubbi, Cecilia; Ferné, Filippo M; Artico, Marco; Vitale, Marco; Vaccarezza, Mauro

    2013-03-01

    The positive effects of spa therapy on ear, nose, and throat pathology are known but robust literature in this field, is still lacking. The aim of this study was to assess through a retrospective analysis, the effects on otitis media with effusion of Politzer endotympanic inhalation of sulphurous waters in children aged 5-9 years. A cohort of 95 patients was treated with Politzer insufflations of sulphurous water: 58 patients did a cycle consisting of a treatment of 12 days per year for three consecutive years; 37 patients followed the same procedure for 5 years consecutively. The control population was represented by untreated, age-matched children. A standard audiometric test was used before and after each cycle of treatment. One cycle of Politzer inhalation of sulphur-rich water improved the symptoms. Three cycles definitively stabilized the improvement of hearing function. Our results show that otitis media with effusion in children can be resolved by an appropriate non-pharmacological treatment of middle ear with sulphur-rich water.

  9. Matrix effects in nilotinib formulations with pH-responsive polymer produced by carbon dioxide-mediated precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Stefano; Brisander, Magnus; Haglöf, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Factors determining the pH-controlled dissolution kinetics of nilotinib formulations with the pH-titrable polymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate, obtained by carbon dioxide-mediated precipitation, were mechanistically examined in acid and neutral environment. The matrix effect, modulating...... in the polymer matrix were mediated by hydrogen bonding between the drug and the phthalate groups on the polymer. Simultaneous Raman and UV-imaging studies of the effect of drug load on the swelling and dissolution of the polymer matrix revealed that high nilotinib load prevented matrix swelling on passage from...

  10. Amine-modified ordered mesoporous silica: Effect of pore size on carbon dioxide capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Zelenak; M. Badanicova; D. Halamova; J. Cejka; A. Zukal; N. Murafa; G. Goerigk [P.J. Safarik University, Kosice (Slovak Republic)

    2008-10-15

    Three mesoporous silica materials with different pore sizes and pore connectivity were prepared and functionalized with aminopropyl (AP) ligands by post-synthesis treatment. The materials were characterized by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption experiments. The carbon dioxide sorption on modified mesoporous molecular sieves was investigated by using of microbalances at 25{sup o}C, and the influence of pore size and pore architecture on CO{sub 2} sorption was discussed. The large pore silica, SBA-15, showed the largest carbon dioxide sorption capacity (1.5 mmol/g), relating to highest amine surface density in this material. On the other hand, three-dimensional accessibility of amine sites inside the pores of SBA-12 silica resulted in a faster response to CO{sub 2} uptake in comparison with MCM-41 and SBA-15 molecular sieves

  11. Organic sulphur in macromolecular sedimentary organic matter. II. Analysis of distributions of sulphur-containing pyrolysis products using multivariate techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Eglinton, T.I.; Pool, W.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Eijkel, G.; Boon, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This study describes the analysis of sulphur-containing products from Curie-point pyrolysis (Py) of eighty-five samples (kerogens, bitumen, and petroleum asphaltenes and coals) using gas chromatography (GC) in combination with sulphur-selective detection. Peak areas of approximately forty individual

  12. Sulphur-containing compounds in sulphur-rich crude oils from hypersaline lake sediments and their geochemical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Guoying, S.; Jiamo, F.; Brassell, S.C.; Gowar, A.P.; Eglinton, G.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Schenck, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Three sulphur-rich commercial crude oils have been studied, which contain sulphur as high as up to 4 —12 %. These samples were collected from Tertiary hypersaline lake sediments of the Jianghan Basin, Hubei Province at different depths, but above the oil generation threshold (2200m). FPD-GC and

  13. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Flooding by Managing Asphaltene Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, M.D.

    2001-01-12

    The objective of this project was to identify conditions at which carbon dioxide induced precipitation occurred in crude oils. Establishing compositions of the relevant liquid and solid phases was planned. Other goals of the project were to determine if precipitation occurred in cores and to implement thermodynamic and compositional models to examine the phenomenon. Exploring kinetics of precipitation was also one of the project goals. Crude oil from the Rangely Field (eastern Colorado) was used as a prototype.

  14. The effect of pore size dimensions in isoreticular zeolites on carbon dioxide adsorption heats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukal, Arnošt; Shamzhy, Mariya; Kubů, Martin; Čejka, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 24, MAR2018 (2018), s. 157-163 ISSN 2212-9820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 640979 - ShaleXenvironmenT Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : UTL zeolite * IPC-n zeolites * Carbon dioxide adsorption Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.292, year: 2016

  15. Evaluation of the protein concentration in enzymes via the determination of sulphur by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, M.; Rittmeyer, C.; Kolbesen, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) offers many advantages for the identification of trace elements in biological samples like enzymes, tissues or plants. Without any preliminary treatment elements may be determined with high accuracy especially transition metals like Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo and the alkaline earth metal Ca. A further aspect of the investigation of enzymes is the simple and simultaneous determination of light elements. Especially sulphur is of interest. The element sulphur exists mainly in the two amino, acids methionine and cysteine as well as in iron-sulphur clusters and may be used for an easy and simultaneous calculation of the protein concentration. Hence the quantitative determination of sulphur by TXRF allows a cross-check regarding of the conventional quantitative determination of protein concentration by, for example, the Lowry method. On the basis of three enzymes of different origins and molecular weights the presentation will show the influence of the bio-organic matrix and different buffer media on element determination by TXRF. As is already known the influence of the matrix on the detection of light elements is stronger than on transition metals. It can be discussed whether layer thickness and layer effects of the drying residues (characterization by SEM and thickness profilometer (ALPHA-step)) and / or self absorption effects as well as the excitation are of significance. The results indicate that with enzymes of low molecular weight a reliable determination of sulphur is possible whereas those with higher molecular weights gave poorer results on account of the matrix effects described. (author)

  16. Effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration on the cultivation of bovine Mycoplasma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J L; Fox, L K; Enger, B D; Progar, A Adams; Gay, J M

    2018-05-01

    Recommendations for bovine mycoplasma culture CO 2 concentrations are varied and were not empirically derived. The objective of this study was to determine whether the growth measures of bovine mycoplasma isolates differed when incubated in CO 2 concentrations of 10 or 5% or in candle jars (2.7 ± 0.2% CO 2 ). Growth of Mycoplasma bovis (n = 22), Mycoplasma californicum (n = 18), and other Mycoplasma spp. (n = 10) laboratory isolates was evaluated. Isolate suspensions were standardized to approximately 10 8 cfu/mL and serially diluted in pasteurized whole milk to achieve test suspensions of 10 2 and 10 6 cfu/mL. One hundred microliters of each test dilution was spread in duplicate onto the surface of a modified Hayflick's agar plate. Colony growth was enumerated on d 3, 5, and 7 of incubation. A mixed linear model included the fixed effects of CO 2 treatment (2.7, 5, or 10%), species, day (3, 5, or 7), and their interactions, with total colony counts as the dependent variable. Carbon dioxide concentration did not significantly affect overall mycoplasma growth differences, but differences between species and day were present. Colony counts (log 10 cfu/mL) of M. bovis were 2.6- and 1.6-fold greater than M. californicum and other Mycoplasma spp., respectively. Growth at 7 d of incubation was greater than d 3 and 5 for all species. These findings were confirmed using field isolates (n = 98) from a commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Binary growth responses (yes/no) of the field isolates were not different between CO 2 treatments but did differ between species and day of incubation. On average, 57% of all field isolates were detected by 3 d of incubation compared with 93% on d 7. These results suggest that the range of suitable CO 2 culture conditions and incubation times for the common mastitis-causing Mycoplasma spp. may be broader than currently recommended. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of gamma irradiations on reactive pulsed laser deposited vanadium dioxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madiba, I.G., E-mail: madibagiven@gmail.com [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa (UNISA), Muckleneuk Ridge, P O Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Émond, N.; Chaker, M. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS),1650 Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada); Thema, F.T. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa (UNISA), Muckleneuk Ridge, P O Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Tadadjeu, S.I. [iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, French South African Institute of Technology/Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville campus, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7530 (South Africa); Muller, U.; Zolliker, P. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Braun, A. [ETH Zurich, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8057, Zurich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Kotsedi, L. [iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); and others

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Synthesis of VO{sub 2} thin films by Reactive pulsed laser deposition has been achieved. • Properties VO{sub 2} remain mainly unaffected when subjected to gamma ray doses similar to those encountered during space missions. • The long range crystal structure of VO{sub 2} remains intact upon irradiation on different doses up to 100 kGy. • XPS reveals a shift from V{sup 4+} to V{sup 5+} oxidation state upon irradiation, due to the frenkel pair formation on the surface. • Irradiated films show the characteristic SMT of VO{sub 2}, although the electrical and optical properties are slightly affected. - Abstract: Vanadium oxide films are considered suitable coatings for various applications such as thermal protective coating of small spacecrafts because of their thermochromic properties. While in outer space, such coating will be exposed to cosmic radiations which include γ-rays. To study the effect of these γ-rays on the coating properties, we have deposited vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) films on silicon substrates and subjected them to extensive γ-irradiations with typical doses encountered in space missions. The prevalent crystallographic phase after irradiation remains the monoclinic VO{sub 2} phase but the films preferential orientation shifts to lower angles due to the presence of disordered regions caused by radiations. Raman spectroscopy measurements also evidences that the VO{sub 2} structure is slightly affected by gamma irradiation. Indeed, increasing the gamma rays dose locally alters the crystalline and electronic structures of the films by modifying the V–V inter-dimer distance, which in turns favours the presence of the VO{sub 2} metallic phase. From the XPS measurements of V2p and O1s core level spectra, an oxidation of vanadium from V{sup 4+} towards V{sup 5+} is revealed. The data also reveal a hydroxylation upon irradiation which is corroborated by the vanishing of a low oxidation state peak near the Fermi energy in the

  18. Titanium dioxide-based carbon monoxide gas sensors: Effects of crystallinity and chemistry on sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Zachary Mark

    Among metal-oxide gas sensors which change electrical resistive properties upon exposure to target gasses, titanium dioxide (TiO2) has received attention for its sensitivity and stability during high temperature (>500°C) operation. However, due to the sensing mechanism sensitivity, selectivity, and stability remain as critical deficiencies to be resolved before these sensors reach commercial use. In this study, TiO2 thick films of approximately 30mum and thin films of approximately 1mum thick were fabricated to assess the influence of their material properties on gas sensing mechanism. Increased calcination temperature of TiO2 thick films led to grain growth, reduction in specific surface area, and particle-particle necking. These properties are known to degrade sensitivity; however the measured carbon monoxide (CO) gas response improved with increasing calcination temperature up to 800°C. It was concluded that the sensing improvement was due to increased crystallinity within the films. Sensing properties of TiO2 thin films of were also dependent on crystallization, however; due to the smaller volume of material, they reached optimized crystallization at lower temperatures of 650°C, compared to 800°C for thick films. Incorporation of tungsten (W) and nickel (Ni) ions into the films created donor and acceptor defect sites, respectively, within the electronic band gap of TiO2. The additional n-type defects in W-doped TiO 2 improved n-type CO response, while p-type defects in Ni-doped TiO 2 converted the gas response to p-type. Chemistry of thin films had a more significant impact on the electrical properties and gas response than did microstructure or crystallinity. Doped films could be calcined at higher temperatures and yet remain highly sensitive to CO. Thin films with p-n bi-layer structure were fabricated to determine the influence of a p-n junction on gas sensing properties. No effect of the junction was observed and the sensing response neared the average

  19. Carbon dioxide reforming of methane by atmospheric pressure pulsed glow discharge: The effect of pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorbanzadeh, A.; Modarresi, H.

    2006-01-01

    Methane reforming by carbon dioxide in atmospheric pressure pulsed glow discharge was examined. The pulse duration of plasma was compressed to ∼50 ns or lower. This compression allowed working at higher frequencies, more than 3 k Hz, without glow to arc transition. The main outlet gases were synthetic gases (H 2 , CO) and C 2 (ethylene, ethane, and acetylene) products. At equal reactants proportion CO 2 /CH 4 =1, about 42 p ercent o f plasma energy went to chemical dissociation while reactant conversions were relatively high, i.e. near 55 p ercent % (CH 4 ) and 42 p ercent ( CO 2 ). At this point, the energy expenditure was less than 3.8 eV per each converted molecule. The reactor energy performance even gets better at higher CO 2 /CH 4 proportions. At CO 2 /CH 4 =5, The conversions of about 65 p ercent a nd 45 p ercent w ere obtained for methane and carbon dioxide respectively, while energy efficiency reached near 45 p ercent . It is discussed that high nonequilibrium state of vibrational energy at short pulses, especially in carbon dioxide, leads to this improvement.

  20. Efficiency of Syrian and Indian rock phosphates for maize in two soils amended with sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanacri, S.

    1995-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the fertilizer use efficiency of three Syrian rock phosphates in comparison to Mussoorie rock phosphate from India for maize grown in a laterite (ultisol) and an alluvial (entisol) soil amended with sulphur, and using sup 3 sup 2 P-labelled triple superphosphate (TSP). Results showed that application of rock phosphates (RPs) to laterite soil significantly increased the dry matter yields of maize shoots, whereas, in alluvial soil, RPs were not found effective in increasing the yields. Data further indicated that all the three Syrian RPs were equally efficient in increasing dry matter yields in laterite soil and were superior to Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP). Sulphur added in combination with RPs significantly enhanced the dry matter production as well as 'A' value of alluvial soil. Application of sulphur in conjunction with RPs significantly increased the 'A' value of laterite soil however, sulphur did not contribute to any significant increase in the yields. Syrian RPs were more reactive in soils than Mussoorie RP. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs

  1. Efficiency of Syrian and Indian rock phosphates for maize in two soils amended with sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanacri, Saloi; Bhujbal, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the fertilizer use efficiency of three Syrian rock phosphates in comparison to Mussoorie rock phosphate from India for maize grown in a laterite (ultisol) and an alluvial (entisol) soil amended with sulphur, and using 32 P-labelled triple superphosphate (TSP). Results showed that application of rock phosphates (RPs) to laterite soil significantly increased the dry matter yields of maize shoots, whereas, in alluvial soil, RPs were not found effective in increasing the yields. Data further indicated that all the three Syrian RPs were equally efficient in increasing dry matter yields in laterite soil and were superior to Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP). Sulphur added in combination with RPs significantly enhanced the dry matter production as well as 'A'value of alluvial soil. Application of sulphur in conjunction with RPs significantly increased the 'A' value of laterite soil, however, sulphur did not contribute to any significant increase in the yields. Syrian RPs were more reactive in soils than Mussoorie RP. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs

  2. Wet precipitators for sulphuric acid plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojanpera, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Both the service requirements and design construction details have changed considerably in recent years for wet electrostatic precipitators as used for gas cleaning ahead of metallurgical sulphuric acid plants. Increased concern over acid quality has resulted in more emphasis on dust efficiencies compared to collection of acid mist. Also, higher static operating pressures have caused large structural loads on casing and internal components. In this paper these two issues are addressed in the following ways: Recognition that all dusts do not collect similarly. The mechanism by which various dusts collect affect the design of the entire wet gas cleaning system. Use of both traditional and newer materials of construction to accommodate the higher design pressures while still maintaining corrosion resistance

  3. Variations in alveolar partial pressure for carbon dioxide and oxygen have additive not synergistic acute effects on human pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Quentin P P; Formenti, Federico; Talbot, Nick P; Lunn, Daniel; Robbins, Peter A; Dorrington, Keith L

    2013-01-01

    The human pulmonary vasculature constricts in response to hypercapnia and hypoxia, with important consequences for homeostasis and adaptation. One function of these responses is to direct blood flow away from poorly-ventilated regions of the lung. In humans it is not known whether the stimuli of hypercapnia and hypoxia constrict the pulmonary blood vessels independently of each other or whether they act synergistically, such that the combination of hypercapnia and hypoxia is more effective than the sum of the responses to each stimulus on its own. We independently controlled the alveolar partial pressures of carbon dioxide (Paco 2) and oxygen (Pao 2) to examine their possible interaction on human pulmonary vasoconstriction. Nine volunteers each experienced sixteen possible combinations of four levels of Paco 2 (+6, +1, -4 and -9 mmHg, relative to baseline) with four levels of Pao 2 (175, 100, 75 and 50 mmHg). During each of these sixteen protocols Doppler echocardiography was used to evaluate cardiac output and systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, an index of pulmonary vasoconstriction. The degree of constriction varied linearly with both Paco 2 and the calculated haemoglobin oxygen desaturation (1-So2). Mixed effects modelling delivered coefficients defining the interdependence of cardiac output, systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, ventilation, Paco 2 and So2. No interaction was observed in the effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction of carbon dioxide and oxygen (p>0.64). Direct effects of the alveolar gases on systolic tricuspid pressure gradient greatly exceeded indirect effects arising from concurrent changes in cardiac output.

  4. Effect of sulfur dioxide on the development of an anaphylactic reaction in guinea pigs sensitized by an immunosorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, L; Orlov, G

    1973-01-01

    The effect of sulfur dioxide on the development of experimentally- induced anaphylaxis in guinea pigs inhaling antigenic aerosol (egg albumin) was studied. The animals were sensitized in advance with a complex of protein and sefadex (immunosorbent). Animals exposed for 60 min to SO/sub 2/ showed more severe anaphylactic seizures immediately after aerosol provocation than did animals not exposed to SO/sub 2/. The use of the immunosorbent resulted in the formation of large amounts of antibodies and prolonged antibody response, indicating the suitability of this method for sensitization.

  5. Photocatalytic effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on aquatic organisms—Current knowledge and suggestions for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Vena N., E-mail: vena.haynes@uconn.edu [University of Connecticut, Department of Marine Sciences, 1080 Shennecossett Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Ward, J. Evan, E-mail: evan.ward@uconn.edu [University of Connecticut, Department of Marine Sciences, 1080 Shennecossett Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Russell, Brandon J., E-mail: brandon.russell@uconn.edu [University of Connecticut, Department of Marine Sciences, 1080 Shennecossett Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Agrios, Alexander G., E-mail: agrios@engr.uconn.edu [University of Connecticut, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, 261 Glenbrook Road Unit 3037, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Ecotoxicological approaches are needed to predict effects of photoactive nanomaterials. • Research on effects of photoactive nanomaterials must include defined light fields. • Light fields must be appropriate for depth, latitude, season and water properties. • Physicochemical properties of water can alter light fields and photoreactivity. - Abstract: Nanoparticles are entering natural systems through product usage, industrial waste and post-consumer material degradation. As the production of nanoparticles is expected to increase in the next decade, so too are predicted environmental loads. Engineered metal-oxide nanomaterials, such as titanium dioxide, are known for their photocatalytic capabilities. When these nanoparticles are exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the environment, however, they can produce radicals that are harmful to aquatic organisms. There have been a number of studies that have reported the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the absence of light. An increasing number of studies are assessing the interactive effects of nanoparticles and ultraviolet light. However, most of these studies neglect environmentally-relevant experimental conditions. For example, researchers are using nanoparticle concentrations and light intensities that are too high for natural systems, and are ignoring water constituents that can alter the light field. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the photocatalytic effects of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on aquatic organisms, discuss the limitations of these studies, and outline environmentally-relevant factors that need to be considered in future experiments.

  6. Effects of light irradiation on bleaching by a 3.5% hydrogen peroxide solution containing titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suemori, T; Kato, J; Nakazawa, T; Akashi, G; Igarashi, A; Hirai, Y; Kumagai, Y; Kurata, H

    2008-01-01

    A low-concentration hydrogen peroxide solution containing titanium dioxide as a photocatalyst has attracted attention as a safe office bleaching agent. In this study, the influence of different kinds of light on the bleaching effect of this agent was examined. The bleaching agent was applied to hematoporphyrin-stained paper strips that were then irradiated with a 405-nm diode laser (800 mW/cm 2 ), a halogen lamp (720 mW/cm 2 ), or an LED (835 mW/cm 2 ) for 5 minutes. The color was measured spectrophotometrically before treatment and every 30 seconds thereafter, and the effects of bleaching on the strip were assessed using the CIE 1976 L * a * b * color coordinate system. Of the three different irradiation conditions, 405-nm laser irradiation gave the strongest bleaching effect with 3.5% hydrogen peroxide containing titanium dioxide. The laser provides strong irradiance at 405 nm, which corresponds to the absorption range of the bleaching agent, and consequently the largest effect was obtained

  7. Seasonal and annual variability of coastal sulphur plumes in the northern Benguela upwelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohde, Thomas; Dadou, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the seasonal and annual variability of surface sulphur plumes in the northern Benguela upwelling system off Namibia because of their significant impacts on the marine ecosystem, fishing industry, aquaculture farming and tourism due to their toxic properties. We identified the sulphur plumes in ocean colour satellite data of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) for the 2002-2012 time period using the differences in the spectral properties of Namibian Benguela optical water types. The sulphur events have a strong seasonal cycle with pronounced main and off-seasons forced by local and remote-driven processes. The main peak season is in late austral summer and early austral autumn at the beginning of the annual upwelling cycle caused by increasing equatorwards alongshore winds. The sulphur plume activity is high between February and April during the seasonal oxygen minimum associated with the seasonal reduction of cross-shore ventilation of the bottom waters, the seasonal southernmost position of the Angola Benguela Frontal Zone, the seasonal maximum of water mass fractions of South Atlantic and Angola Gyre Central Waters as well as the seasonal arrival of the downwelling coastal trapped waves. The off-season is in austral spring and early austral summer during increased upwelling intensity and enhanced oxygen supply. The annual variability of sulphur events is characterized by very high activities in years 2004, 2005 and 2010 interrupted by periods of lower activity in years 2002 to 2003, 2006 to 2009 and 2011 to 2012. This result can be explained by the relative contributions or adding effects of local and remote-driven forces (from the equatorial area). The probability for the occurrence of sulphur plumes is enhanced in years with a lower annual mean of upwelling intensity, decreased oxygen supply associated with decreased lateral ventilation of bottom waters, more southern position of the Angola Benguela Frontal Zone, increased mass

  8. Seasonal and annual variability of coastal sulphur plumes in the northern Benguela upwelling system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ohde

    Full Text Available We investigated the seasonal and annual variability of surface sulphur plumes in the northern Benguela upwelling system off Namibia because of their significant impacts on the marine ecosystem, fishing industry, aquaculture farming and tourism due to their toxic properties. We identified the sulphur plumes in ocean colour satellite data of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS for the 2002-2012 time period using the differences in the spectral properties of Namibian Benguela optical water types. The sulphur events have a strong seasonal cycle with pronounced main and off-seasons forced by local and remote-driven processes. The main peak season is in late austral summer and early austral autumn at the beginning of the annual upwelling cycle caused by increasing equatorwards alongshore winds. The sulphur plume activity is high between February and April during the seasonal oxygen minimum associated with the seasonal reduction of cross-shore ventilation of the bottom waters, the seasonal southernmost position of the Angola Benguela Frontal Zone, the seasonal maximum of water mass fractions of South Atlantic and Angola Gyre Central Waters as well as the seasonal arrival of the downwelling coastal trapped waves. The off-season is in austral spring and early austral summer during increased upwelling intensity and enhanced oxygen supply. The annual variability of sulphur events is characterized by very high activities in years 2004, 2005 and 2010 interrupted by periods of lower activity in years 2002 to 2003, 2006 to 2009 and 2011 to 2012. This result can be explained by the relative contributions or adding effects of local and remote-driven forces (from the equatorial area. The probability for the occurrence of sulphur plumes is enhanced in years with a lower annual mean of upwelling intensity, decreased oxygen supply associated with decreased lateral ventilation of bottom waters, more southern position of the Angola Benguela Frontal Zone

  9. Long-term sedimentary recycling of rare sulphur isotope anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Christopher T; Planavsky, Noah J; Lyons, Timothy W

    2013-05-02

    The accumulation of substantial quantities of O2 in the atmosphere has come to control the chemistry and ecological structure of Earth's surface. Non-mass-dependent (NMD) sulphur isotope anomalies in the rock record are the central tool used to reconstruct the redox history of the early atmosphere. The generation and initial delivery of these anomalies to marine sediments requires low partial pressures of atmospheric O2 (p(O2); refs 2, 3), and the disappearance of NMD anomalies from the rock record 2.32 billion years ago is thought to have signalled a departure from persistently low atmospheric oxygen levels (less than about 10(-5) times the present atmospheric level) during approximately the first two billion years of Earth's history. Here we present a model study designed to describe the long-term surface recycling of crustal NMD anomalies, and show that the record of this geochemical signal is likely to display a 'crustal memory effect' following increases in atmospheric p(O2) above this threshold. Once NMD anomalies have been buried in the upper crust they are extremely resistant to removal, and can be erased only through successive cycles of weathering, dilution and burial on an oxygenated Earth surface. This recycling results in the residual incorporation of NMD anomalies into the sedimentary record long after synchronous atmospheric generation of the isotopic signal has ceased, with dynamic and measurable signals probably surviving for as long as 10-100 million years subsequent to an increase in atmospheric p(O2) to more than 10(-5) times the present atmospheric level. Our results can reconcile geochemical evidence for oxygen production and transient accumulation with the maintenance of NMD anomalies on the early Earth, and suggest that future work should investigate the notion that temporally continuous generation of new NMD sulphur isotope anomalies in the atmosphere was likely to have ceased long before their ultimate disappearance from the rock record.

  10. Molecular understanding of sulphuric acid-amine particle nucleation in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, João; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kürten, Andreas; Ortega, Ismael K; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Praplan, Arnaud P; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; David, André; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Downard, Andrew; Dunne, Eimear; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Henschel, Henning; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kajos, Maija; Kangasluoma, Juha; Keskinen, Helmi; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kurtén, Theo; Kvashin, Alexander N; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Leppä, Johannes; Loukonen, Ville; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; McGrath, Matthew J; Nieminen, Tuomo; Olenius, Tinja; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Riccobono, Francesco; Riipinen, Ilona; Rissanen, Matti; Rondo, Linda; Ruuskanen, Taina; Santos, Filipe D; Sarnela, Nina; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Seinfeld, John H; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Vaattovaara, Petri; Viisanen, Yrjo; Virtanen, Annele; Vrtala, Aron; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wex, Heike; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Ye, Penglin; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim; Baltensperger, Urs; Worsnop, Douglas R; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Kirkby, Jasper

    2013-10-17

    Nucleation of aerosol particles from trace atmospheric vapours is thought to provide up to half of global cloud condensation nuclei. Aerosols can cause a net cooling of climate by scattering sunlight and by leading to smaller but more numerous cloud droplets, which makes clouds brighter and extends their lifetimes. Atmospheric aerosols derived from human activities are thought to have compensated for a large fraction of the warming caused by greenhouse gases. However, despite its importance for climate, atmospheric nucleation is poorly understood. Recently, it has been shown that sulphuric acid and ammonia cannot explain particle formation rates observed in the lower atmosphere. It is thought that amines may enhance nucleation, but until now there has been no direct evidence for amine ternary nucleation under atmospheric conditions. Here we use the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN and find that dimethylamine above three parts per trillion by volume can enhance particle formation rates more than 1,000-fold compared with ammonia, sufficient to account for the particle formation rates observed in the atmosphere. Molecular analysis of the clusters reveals that the faster nucleation is explained by a base-stabilization mechanism involving acid-amine pairs, which strongly decrease evaporation. The ion-induced contribution is generally small, reflecting the high stability of sulphuric acid-dimethylamine clusters and indicating that galactic cosmic rays exert only a small influence on their formation, except at low overall formation rates. Our experimental measurements are well reproduced by a dynamical model based on quantum chemical calculations of binding energies of molecular clusters, without any fitted parameters. These results show that, in regions of the atmosphere near amine sources, both amines and sulphur dioxide should be considered when assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on particle formation.

  11. Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse (II): effects of some currently used skin decontaminants (RSDL and Fuller's earth) against liquid sulphur mustard and VX exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taysse, L; Dorandeu, F; Daulon, S; Foquin, A; Perrier, N; Lallement, G; Breton, P

    2011-06-01

    Using the hairless mouse screening model presented in the companion paper(1) the aim of this study was to assess two skin decontaminating systems: Fuller's earth (FE) and Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) against two extremely toxic chemical warfare agents that represent a special percutaneous hazard, sulphur mustard (SM) and O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX). Five minutes after being exposed on the back to either 2 µL of neat sulphur mustard or 50 µg.kg(-1) of diluted VX, mice were decontaminated. Both systems were able to reduce blisters 3 days after SM exposure. However, RSDL was found to be more efficient than FE in reducing the necrosis of the epidermis and erosion. In the case of VX exposure, RSDL, whatever the ratio of decontaminant to toxicant used (RSDL 10, 20, 50), was not able to sufficiently prevent the inhibition of plasma cholinesterases taken as a surrogate marker of exposure and toxicity. Only FE reduced significantly the ChE inhibition. Some of these observations are different from our previous results obtained in domestic swine and these changes are thus discussed in the perspective of using SKH-1 hairless mice for the initial in vivo screening of decontaminants.

  12. Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on the Synthesis of Fibroin in Silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Min; Li, FanChi; Tian, JiangHai; Hu, JingSheng; Zhang, Hua; Xu, KaiZun; Wang, BinBin; Li, YangYang; Shen, WeiDe; Li, Bing

    2015-08-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economically important insect, and its silk production capacity largely depends on its ability to synthesize fibroin. While breeding of B. mori varieties has been a key strategy to improve silk production, little improvement of B. mori silk production has been achieved to date. As a result, the development of sericulture economy has not progressed well, pointing to the need of new ways for improvement of B. mori silk production. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), a food additive widely used for livestock, have been shown to promote animal growth and increase the protein synthesis in animals. However, no studies on effect of TiO2 NPs on fibroin synthesis in B. mori have been available. In this study, the differential expression profiles of genes and proteins in the silk gland of B. mori fed without or with TiO2 NPs (5 μg ml(-1)) were analyzed and compared using digital gene expression (DGE), reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), semi-qPCR, and Western blot analysis. The effects of TiO2 NPs feeding on the activity of proteases in the midgut and the synthesis and transportation of amino acids in hemolymph were also investigated. DGE analyses showed that among a total of 4,741 genes detected, 306 genes were differentially expressed after the TiO2 NPs feeding, of which 137 genes were upregulated whereas 169 genes were downregulated. 106 genes were shown to be involved in fibroin synthesis, of which 97 genes, including those encoding cuticular protein glycine-rich 10, serine protease inhibitor 28, aspartate aminotransferase, lysyl-tRNA synthetase, and splicing factor arginine/serine-rich 6, and silk gland factor-1 (SGF-1), were upregulated with the maximum induction of 8.52-folds, whereas nine genes, including those encoding aspartylglucosaminidase, the cathepsin L in Tribolium castaneum, and similar to SPRY domain-containing SOCS box protein 3, were downregulated with the maximum reduction of 8

  13. Short communication: Laboratory approach to the use of sulphur and kaolin as preventive control against Drosophila suzukii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Guerrero, S.; Molina, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) is an invasive pest from South East Asia that was detected for the first time in Southern Europe in 2008. This species can damage a wide range of soft-skinned fruits crops affecting ripening fruits and causing important economic losses. Since the exclusive use of chemical insecticides for controlling D. suzukii may prompt the appearance of resistance and environmental pollution, alternative methods compatible with sustainable management are required. In this study, commercial formulations of powdered sulphur and kaolin were tested as a preventive method applied to blueberry fruits under laboratory conditions. In no-choice assay, powdered sulphur had a significant effect on oviposition and adult emergency with reductions of 76% and 77%, respectively. In addition, sulphur displayed a significant toxicity on males and lethal effect with over 40% adult mortality seven days after exposure. The choice assay confirmed and improved the powdered sulphur effects, with reductions of 98% and 96% in oviposition and adult emergence, respectively. In contrast, kaolin produced no significant reduction in infestation and adult mortality during no-choice and choice assays. These outcomes suggest that preventive use of powdered sulphur could be considered for sustainable control of D. suzukii in some berry crops. (Author)

  14. Short communication: Laboratory approach to the use of sulphur and kaolin as preventive control against Drosophila suzukii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Pérez-Guerrero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931 is an invasive pest from South East Asia that was detected for the first time in Southern Europe in 2008. This species can damage a wide range of soft-skinned fruits crops affecting ripening fruits and causing important economic losses. Since the exclusive use of chemical insecticides for controlling D. suzukii may prompt the appearance of resistance and environmental pollution, alternative methods compatible with sustainable management are required. In this study, commercial formulations of powdered sulphur and kaolin were tested as a preventive method applied to blueberry fruits under laboratory conditions. In no-choice assay, powdered sulphur had a significant effect on oviposition and adult emergency with reductions of 76% and 77%, respectively. In addition, sulphur displayed a significant toxicity on males and lethal effect with over 40% adult mortality seven days after exposure. The choice assay confirmed and improved the powdered sulphur effects, with reductions of 98% and 96% in oviposition and adult emergence, respectively. In contrast, kaolin produced no significant reduction in infestation and adult mortality during no-choice and choice assays. These outcomes suggest that preventive use of powdered sulphur could be considered for sustainable control of D. suzukii in some berry crops.

  15. Bioreactors for fixation and effective utilization of carbon dioxide gas. Tansan gas no koteiter dot yuko riyo no tame no bio reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K. (Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science); Benemann, J. (California University, CA (USA))

    1991-06-01

    As for a preventive countermeasure against the global warming, experiments and studies have been conducted on the bioreactors to fix carbon dioxide gas recovered from the concentric and large scale generating sources such as thermal power plamts in a form of carbohydrate by means of the culture of microbial algae. By using the Vertical Tube Reactors (VTR) culturing apparatus, a variety of microbial algae were cultivated and experiments were performed on the relationship of biomass productivity and absorption rate of carbon dioxide gas indoors and outdoors. Consequently, it was found that when the flow rate of carbon dioxide gas is adjusted to make the biomass productivity of filament type Nostoc maximum,the inlet and outlet concentrations of carbon dioxide gas were 0.7% and 0.05% respectively with the absorption rate of more than 90%. From the standpoint of fixation and effective utilization of carbon dioxide gas, the above rate of removal is one of the important parameters and it will be necessary in future to compare the rates of removal of carbon dioxide gas among various types of bioreactors as a function of operating condition. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Effects on the forest of sulfur dioxide from a sulfur fire near Edson, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocking, D

    1975-01-01

    Sulfur was burnt in a sanitary landfill during August 9 and 10, 1974. Resulting sulfur dioxide impinged on the surrounding mixed forest for 29 h. About 4 ha of forest displayed visible injury symptoms of varying intensity soon after. However, only .4 ha remained permanently injured the next season. Here, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and scattered individuals of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), alder (Alnus tenuifolia Nutt.), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) were killed. This report describes the extent of injury, relative sensitivities of affected plant species, and recovery in the spring in 1975.

  17. A Review on the Effects of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide on Enzyme Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Zarevúcka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of enzymes such as lipases, several phosphatases, dehydrogenases, oxidases, amylases and others are well suited for the reactions in SC-CO2. The stability and the activity of enzymes exposed to carbon dioxide under high pressure depend on enzyme species, water content in the solution and on the pressure and temperature of the reaction system. The three-dimensional structure of enzymes may be significantly altered under extreme conditions, causing their denaturation and consequent loss of activity. If the conditions are less adverse, the protein structure may be largely retained. Minor structural changes may induce an alternative active protein state with altered enzyme activity, specificity and stability.

  18. Global economic effects of changes in crops, pasture, and forests due to changing climate, carbon dioxide, and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, J.; Paltsev, S.; Felzer, B.; Wang, X.; Kicklighter, D.; Melillo, J.; Prinn, R.; Sarofim, M.; Sokolov, A.; Wang, C.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple environmental changes will have consequences for global vegetation. To the extent that crop yields and pasture and forest productivity are affected, there can be important economic consequences. We examine the combined effects of changes in climate, increases in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and changes in tropospheric ozone on crop, pasture, and forest lands and the consequences for the global and regional economies. We examine scenarios where there is limited or little effort to control these substances, and policy scenarios that limit emissions of CO 2 and ozone precursors. We find the effects of climate and CO 2 to be generally positive, and the effects of ozone to be very detrimental. Unless ozone is strongly controlled, damage could offset CO 2 and climate benefits. We find that resource allocation among sectors in the economy, and trade among countries, can strongly affect the estimate of economic effect in a country

  19. Chlorine Diffusion in Uranium Dioxide: Thermal Effects versus Radiation Enhanced Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipon, Yves; Moncoffre, Nathalie; Bererd, Nicolas; Jaffrezic, Henri; Toulhoat, Nelly; Barthe, Marie France; Desgardin, Pierre; Raimbault, Louis; Scheidegger, Andre M.; Carlot, Gaelle

    2007-01-01

    Chlorine is present as an impurity in the UO 2 nuclear fuel. 35 Cl is activated into 36 Cl by thermal neutron capture. In case of interim storage or deep geological disposal of the spent fuel, this isotope is known to be able to contribute significantly to the instant release fraction because of its mobile behavior and its long half life (around 300000 years). It is therefore important to understand its migration behavior within the fuel rod. During reactor operation, chlorine diffusion can be due to thermally activated processes or can be favoured by irradiation defects induced by fission fragments or alpha decay. In order to decouple both phenomena, we performed two distinct experiments to study the effects of thermal annealing on the behaviour of chlorine on one hand and the effects of the irradiation with fission products on the other hand. During in reactor processes, part of the 36 Cl may be displaced from its original position, due to recoil or to collisions with fission products. In order to study the behavior of the displaced chlorine, 37 Cl has been implanted into sintered depleted UO 2 pellets (mean grain size around 18 μm). The spatial distribution of the implanted and pristine chlorine has been analyzed by SIMS before and after treatment. Thermal annealing of 37 Cl implanted UO 2 pellets (implantation fluence of 10 13 ions.cm -2 ) show that it is mobile from temperatures as low as 1273 K (E a =4.3 eV). The irradiation with fission products (Iodine, E=63.5 MeV) performed at 300 and 510 K, shows that the diffusion of chlorine is enhanced and that a thermally activated contribution is preserved (E a =0.1 eV). The diffusion coefficients measured at 1473 K and under fission product irradiation at 510 K are similar (D = 3.10 -14 cm 2 .s -1 ). Considering in first approximation that the diffusion length L can be expressed as a function of the diffusion coefficient D and time t by : L=(Dt)1/2, the diffusion distance after 3 years is L=17 μm. It results that

  20. Interactive effects of oxygen, carbon dioxide and flow on photosynthesis and respiration in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinga, Ronald; Derksen-Hooijberg, Marlous; Wijgerde, Tim; Verreth, Johan A J

    2017-06-15

    Rates of dark respiration and net photosynthesis were measured for six replicate clonal fragments of the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767), which were incubated under 12 different combinations of dissolved oxygen (20%, 100% and 150% saturation), dissolved carbon dioxide (9.5 and 19.1 µmol l -1 ) and water flow (1-1.6 versus 4-13 cm s -1 ) in a repeated measures design. Dark respiration was enhanced by increased flow and increased oxygen saturation in an interactive way, which relates to improved oxygen influx into the coral tissue. Oxygen saturation did not influence net photosynthesis: neither hypoxia nor hyperoxia affected net photosynthesis, irrespective of flow and pH, which suggests that hyperoxia does not induce high rates of photorespiration in this coral. Flow and pH had a synergistic effect on net photosynthesis: at high flow, a decrease in pH stimulated net photosynthesis by 14%. These results indicate that for this individual of G. fascicularis , increased uptake of carbon dioxide rather than increased efflux of oxygen explains the beneficial effect of water flow on photosynthesis. Rates of net photosynthesis measured in this study are among the highest ever recorded for scleractinian corals and confirm a strong scope for growth. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. The Effect of Neodymium: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet and Fractional Carbon Dioxide Lasers on Alopecia Areata: A Prospective Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalici-Armagan, Basak; Elcin, Gonca

    2016-04-01

    Effective treatment options for alopecia areata (AA) are missing. Whether lasers might be effective is a topic of debate. We aimed to evaluate whether neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) or fractional carbon dioxide lasers might stimulate the development of new hair. Thirty-two patients who had long-standing and treatment refractory diseases were recruited for the study. Three different patches on the scalp were selected, 1 of which served as control. The mean outcome measure was the hair count, which was calculated with the digital phototrichogram. Response was defined as at least 25% increase in the mean hair count at the treated patch compared with the control patch. At the end of the study, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean hair count for the 3 patches. In 7 of 32 patients (22%), an increase in the mean hair count was observed on the whole scalp including the control patch, which resulted in an improved Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score. We have observed that Nd:YAG or fractional carbon dioxide lasers did not increase the mean hair count on the treated AA patches when compared with the control patch. However, an SALT score improvement in 22% of the patients suggested spontaneous remission.

  2. Photocatalytic effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on aquatic organisms-Current knowledge and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Vena N; Ward, J Evan; Russell, Brandon J; Agrios, Alexander G

    2017-04-01

    Nanoparticles are entering natural systems through product usage, industrial waste and post-consumer material degradation. As the production of nanoparticles is expected to increase in the next decade, so too are predicted environmental loads. Engineered metal-oxide nanomaterials, such as titanium dioxide, are known for their photocatalytic capabilities. When these nanoparticles are exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the environment, however, they can produce radicals that are harmful to aquatic organisms. There have been a number of studies that have reported the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the absence of light. An increasing number of studies are assessing the interactive effects of nanoparticles and ultraviolet light. However, most of these studies neglect environmentally-relevant experimental conditions. For example, researchers are using nanoparticle concentrations and light intensities that are too high for natural systems, and are ignoring water constituents that can alter the light field. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the photocatalytic effects of TiO 2 nanoparticles on aquatic organisms, discuss the limitations of these studies, and outline environmentally-relevant factors that need to be considered in future experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sulphur bacteria mediated formation of Palaeoproterozoic phosphorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosu, Lauri; Lepland, Aivo; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2014-05-01

    Modern phosphorite formation is typically associated with high productivity in upwelling areas where apatite (Ca-phosphate) precipitation is mediated by sulphur oxidising bacteria [1]. They inhabit the oxic/anoxic interface within the upper few centimetres of sediment column, accumulating phosphate in their cells under oxic conditions and releasing it rapidly when conditions become anoxic. Sulphur bacteria are known to live in close association with a consortium of anaerobic methane oxidising archaea and syntrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria. Paleoproterozoic, c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation in Karelia, Russia contains several P-rich intervals in the upper part of 1500 m thick succession of organic-rich sedimentary rocks interlayered with mafic tuffs and lavas. Apatite in these P-rich intervals forms impure laminae, lenses and round-oval nodules which diameters typically range from 300 to 1000 μm. Individual apatite particles in P-rich laminae and nodules commonly occur as cylinders that are 1-8 μm long and have diameters of 0.5-4 μm. Cross-sections of best preserved cylindrical apatite particles reveal a thin outer rim whereas the internal parts consist of small anhedral elongated crystallites, intergrown with carbonaceous material. During recrystallization the outer rim thickens towards interior and cylinders may attain hexagonal crystal habit, but their size and shape remains largely unchanged [2]. The sizes of Zaonega nodules are similar to giant sulphide-oxidising bacteria known from modern and ancient settings [3, 4]. Individual apatite cylinders and aggregates have shapes and sizes similar to the methanotrophic archaea that inhabit microbial mats in modern seep/vent areas where they operate in close associations with sulphur-oxidising microbial communities [5]. Seep/vent influence during the Zaonega phosphogenesis is indicated by variable, though positive Eu anomaly, expected in magmatically active sedimentary environment experiencing several lava flows

  4. Discharging a Li-S battery with ultra-high sulphur content cathode using a redox mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwi Ryong; Lee, Kug-Seung; Ahn, Chi-Yeong; Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2016-08-30

    Lithium-sulphur batteries are under intense research due to the high specific capacity and low cost. However, several problems limit their commercialization. One of them is the insulating nature of sulphur, which necessitates a large amount of conductive agent and binder in the cathode, reducing the effective sulphur load as well as the energy density. Here we introduce a redox mediator, cobaltocene, which acts as an electron transfer agent between the conductive surface and the polysulphides in the electrolyte. We confirmed that cobaltocene could effectively convert polysulphides to Li2S using scanning electron microscope, X-ray absorption near-edge structure and in-situ X-ray diffraction studies. This redox mediator enabled excellent electrochemical performance in a cathode with ultra-high sulphur content (80 wt%). It delivered 400 mAh g(-1)cathode capacity after 50 cycles, which is equivalent to 800 mAh g(-1)S in a typical cathode with 50 wt% sulphur. Furthermore, the volumetric capacity was also dramatically improved.

  5. EFFECT OF THE TYPE OF HEAT SOURCES ON CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Rabczak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A lot of attention is nowadays devoted to the problem of generally defined ecology. It is absolutely essential in case of systems and sources generating heat due to their direct influence on the environment through emitting post-process products to the atmosphere which are, most frequently a result of combustion. Therefore, constant searchers are made to optimize the operation of heat sources and to acquire energy from sources for which the general balance of carbon dioxide emission is zero or close to zero. This work compares the emissions of equivalent CO2 from selected systems with the following heat sources: coal, gas furnace, heat pump, and refers results of the analysis to aspects connected with regulations concerning environmental protection. The systems generating thermal energy in the gas furnaces, coal, biomass, as well as the compression heat pumps with the lower heat source as ambient air or ground were taken under consideration, as well as centralized systems for the production of heat based on the combustion of coal, gas, oil, and biomass. the Emission of carbon dioxide for the installation of cogeneration and absorption heat pump were also calculated. Similarly obtained amount of extra emission necessary for the proper operation maintenance of heating devices via the supplied electricity from external source, the mostly fuel-fired power plants for fuels as previously mentioned. The results of the calculations were presented in tables and graphs.

  6. The effect of environmental factors on selected mechanical properties of zirconium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirwicki, W.; Andrzejewska, A.; Andryszczyk, M.; Siemianowski, P.

    2018-04-01

    In many centers around the world, research studies are carried out on the mechanical strength of dental materials and glued joints. A literature review shows the variety of testing techniques related to analyzing the strength and durability of the material itself and the glued joints. In dental ceramics, zirconium dioxide is most often used as a base material, and chemically it consists of 97% ZrO2 and 3% Y2O3. This study was to determine the mechanical properties of zirconium dioxide under different environmental conditions. The material is used for the production of dental crowns and tooth bridges in the CAD/CAM technology. This medium is currently one of the most advanced-generation materials used for prosthetic and implant restorations. They were then subjected to a three-point bending test on the Instron ElektroPlus E3000 durability machine. Storage conditions and time have a positive influence on reducing variation in zirconium resistance for active forces and destructive stresses.

  7. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T.J. (Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM))

    1990-01-01

    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  8. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T J [Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM)

    1990-01-01

    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  9. Availability and uptake of sulphur by mustard in three soils in Udaipur valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, S.K.; Shriniwas

    1976-01-01

    The differential behaviour of three soils (Bargaon, Bhatewar red and Bhatewar black) for availability of sulphur to mustard was studied in a greenhouse pot culture experiment using five doses of sulphur (0,20,40,80,120 ppm) applied as 35 S tagged ammonium sulphate. Application of sulphur significantly increased the dry matter of mustard over control, however, maximum dry matter was obtained when sulphur was applied at 40 ppm level, thereafter, any higher doses did not prove beneficial. Sulphur content in the plant tissue and percent of sulphur in the plant derived from fertilizer increased with successive doses of applied sulphur. (author)

  10. Rubber composites cured with sulphur and peroxide and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Besides classical applications of rubber products in tyres, ... application of sulphur curing systems leads to the forming ..... mobile sulphidic cross-links which promote crystallization of NR. ... PhD Thesis (Kingston, Ontario: Queen's University).

  11. Sulphur XANES Analysis of Cultured Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Podgorczyk, M.; Paluszkiewicz, Cz.; Balerna, A.; Kisiel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men throughout the world. It is believed that changes to the structure of protein binding sites, altering its metabolism, may play an important role in carcinogenesis. Sulphur, often present in binding sites, can influence such changes through its chemical speciation. Hence there is a need for precise investigation of coordination environment of sulphur. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy offers such possibility. Cell culture samples offer histologically well defined areas of good homogeneity, suitable for successful and reliable X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis. This paper presents sulphur speciation data collected from three different human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, LNCaP and DU-145). Sulphur X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis was performed on K-edge structure. The spectra of cells were compared with those of cancerous tissue and with organic substances as well as inorganic compounds. (authors)

  12. Analytical protocols for characterisation of sulphur-free lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Abächerli, A.; Semke, H.; Malherbe, R.; Käuper, P.; Nadif, A.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2004-01-01

    Interlaboratory tests for chemical characterisation of sulphur-free lignins were performed by five laboratories to develop useful analytical protocols, which are lacking, and identify quality-related properties. Protocols have been established for reproducible determination of the chemical

  13. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Burgering, M.; Smit, B.; Noordman, W.; Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  14. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Johannes; Burgering, Maurits; Smit, Bart; Noordman, Wouter; Tangerman, Albert; Winkel, Edwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Objective: Morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  15. Modelled transport and deposition of sulphur over Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zunckel, M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient SO2 concentrations and atmospheric deposition of sulphur resulting from emissions on the industrialised highveld region of South Africa are estimated using the multi-scale atmospheric transport and chemistry (MATCH) modelling system...

  16. Accidental sulphuric acid poisoning in a newborn | Abdulkadir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental sulphuric acid poisoning in a newborn. I Abdulkadir, L Hassan, F Abdullahi, FD Akeredolu, S Purdue, M Okpe, AM Sobowale, OA Adewumi, U Abdullahi, MA Onadiran, TT Sholadoye, S Baba, WN Ogala ...

  17. Sulphur abundances in halo giants from the [S ı] line at 1082 nm and the [S ı] triplet around 1045 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, H.; Ryde, N.; Nissen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    to clarify this situation by measuring the sulphur abundance in a sample of halo giants using two diagnostics: the S i triplet around 1045 nm and the [S i] line at 1082 nm. The latter of the two is not believed to be sensitive to non-LTE effects. We can thereby minimize the uncertainties in the diagnostic...... used and estimate the usefulness of the triplet for the sulphur determination in halo K giants. We will also be able to compare our sulphur abundance differences from the two diagnostics with the expected non-LTE effects in the 1045 nm triplet previously calculated by others. Methods. High...... diagnostics using tailored 1D model atmospheres and relying on non-LTE corrections from the litterature. Effects of convective inhomogeneities in the stellar atmospheres are investigated. Results. The sulphur abundances derived from both the [S i] line and the non-LTE corrected 1045 nm triplet favor a flat...

  18. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1991-07-01

    In connection with the Swedish project for final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible, but copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron(II) is available. The problem was extended to the more general question of the reducibility of sulphur(VI) in dilute aqueous solution. Chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100 o C. In experiments on the reduction of sulphates under hydrothermal conditions a reaction only takes place at temperatures above 275-300 o C. The oxidising action of sulphuric acid on metals becomes perceptible only at acid concentrations over 45-50%. In experiments on the cathodic reduction of 74% sulphuric acid the formation of hydrogen sulphide and elementary sulphur starts, depending on the current density, at 50-130 o C, and polarographic measurements suggest that the reducible species is not the hydrogen sulphate ion but molecular sulphuric acid. The resistance of copper to oxygen-free sulphuric acid up to a concentration of 60% is well-known. Numerous processes in industrial electrochemistry take place in sulphuric acid or sulphate electrolytes. The reversible metal/metal-sulphate electrodes of lead and cadmium are unstable relative to the corresponding metal sulphides. Nevertheless the reversible lead sulphate electrode does not fail from sulphide formation. All these facts confirm that sulphur(VI) in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be almost certainly be ruled out. (author) 5 figs., 85 refs

  19. Leaching of basic oxygen furnace sludge with sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Miškufová

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the hydrometallurgical processing of BOF sludge in the sulphuric acid solutions under atmospheric pressureand temperatures up to 100 °C is investigated on a laboratory scale. The influence of sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, timeand liquid to solid ratio (L:S on the leaching process was studied. The main aim of this study was to determine optimal conditions whenthe maximum amount of zinc passes into the solution.

  20. Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Photosynthesis and Carbon Partitioning: A Perspective on Root Sugar Sensing and Hormonal Crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Thompson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to atmospheric carbon dioxide will be of great concern in the future, as carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2] are predicted to continue to rise. Elevated [CO2] causes increased photosynthesis in plants, which leads to greater production of carbohydrates and biomass. Which organ the extra carbohydrates are allocated to varies between species, but also within species. These carbohydrates are a major energy source for plant growth, but they also act as signaling molecules and have a range of uses beyond being a source of carbon and energy. Currently, there is a lack of information on how the sugar sensing and signaling pathways of plants are affected by the higher content of carbohydrates produced under elevated [CO2]. Particularly, the sugar signaling pathways of roots are not well understood, along with how they are affected by elevated [CO2]. At elevated [CO2], some plants allocate greater amounts of sugars to roots where they are likely to act on gene regulation and therefore modify nutrient uptake and transport. Glucose and sucrose also promote root growth, an effect similar to what occurs under elevated [CO2]. Sugars also crosstalk with hormones to regulate root growth, but also affect hormone biosynthesis. This review provides an update on the role of sugars as signaling molecules in plant roots and thus explores the currently known functions that may be affected by elevated [CO2].