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Sample records for sulphur compounds vscs

  1. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Burgering, M.; Smit, B.; Noordman, W.; Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  2. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Johannes; Burgering, Maurits; Smit, Bart; Noordman, Wouter; Tangerman, Albert; Winkel, Edwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Objective: Morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  3. In vitro effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on growth and production of volatile sulphur compounds by oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Talita Signoreti; Calil, Caroline Morini; Sartoratto, Adilson; Franco, Gilson César Nobre; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Cogo-Müller, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Halitosis can be caused by microorganisms that produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs), which colonize the surface of the tongue and subgingival sites. Studies have reported that the use of natural products can reduce the bacterial load and, consequently, the development of halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the growth and volatile sulphur compound (VSC) production of oral bacteria compared with chlorhexidine. The effects of these substances were evaluated by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) in planktonic cultures of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis. In addition, gas chromatography analyses were performed to measure the concentration of VSCs from bacterial cultures and to characterize M. alternifolia oil components. The MIC and MBC values were as follows: M. alternifolia - P. gingivalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%), P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%=0.5%); chlorhexidine - P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=1.5 mg/mL). M. alternifolia significantly reduced the growth and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by P. gingivalis (pendodontalis (pendodontalis. For P. gingivalis, the production of H2S and CH3SH decreased (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet). M. alternifolia can reduce bacterial growth and VSCs production and could be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine.

  4. Oxidation of inorganic compounds of sulphur by various sulphur bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, C D; Prisk, J

    1953-01-01

    Cultures of thiobacillus thiooxidans, Th. thioparus, Th. novellus, Thiobacillus b strains t and kand Th. concretivorus, Thiobacillus x and the m strains, organisms isolated from concrete were examined to elucidate the mode of oxidation and to establish the identity of the organisms recently isolated from corroded concrete. Thiosulphate was oxidized by all these bacteria. Th. thiooxidans, Th. concretivorus and Thiobacillus x first converted it to tetrathionate and sulphate and then oxidized the tetrathionate to sulphate and free sulphuric acid. Thiobaciullus x differed from the other two in that, owing to a lesser acid tolerance, some tetrathionate was found in the final products of oxidation. Th. Thioparus converted thiosulphate to sulphate and sulphur, followed by partial oxidation of the sulphur to sulphuric acid. Th. novellus produced sulphate and sulphuric acid. Thiobacillus b, the t and k strains and the m strains formed sulphate and tetrathionate with temporary increase in pH value; only Thiobacillus x oxidized tetrationate, yielding sulphate and sulphuric acid. Elementary sulphur was oxidized by Th. thiooxidans, th. Concretivorus, thiobacillus x and Th. thioparus; the rates of oxidation decreased in that order, and the only product was sulphuric acid. Hydrogen sulphide was oxidized only at low concentrations and only by th. Concretivorus and Thiobacillus x; sulphuric acid was the end-product, and elementary sulphur may have been an intermediate. Thiobacillus x differed from Th. thiooxidans in pH range for growth and from Th. thioparus in its method of oxidation of thiosulphate, tetrathionate and H/sub 2/S. The m strains were similar to thiobacillus b and the t and k strains of trautwein.

  5. In vitro effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on growth and production of volatile sulphur compounds by oral bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Signoreti GRAZIANO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Halitosis can be caused by microorganisms that produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs, which colonize the surface of the tongue and subgingival sites. Studies have reported that the use of natural products can reduce the bacterial load and, consequently, the development of halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the growth and volatile sulphur compound (VSC production of oral bacteria compared with chlorhexidine. Material and Methods The effects of these substances were evaluated by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC in planktonic cultures of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis. In addition, gas chromatography analyses were performed to measure the concentration of VSCs from bacterial cultures and to characterize M. alternifolia oil components. Results The MIC and MBC values were as follows: M. alternifolia - P. gingivalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%, P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%=0.5%; chlorhexidine - P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=1.5 mg/mL. M. alternifolia significantly reduced the growth and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S by P. gingivalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet and the H2S and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH levels of P. endodontalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet. Chlorhexidine reduced the growth of both microorganisms without altering the production of VSC in P. endodontalis. For P. gingivalis, the production of H2S and CH3SH decreased (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet. Conclusion M. alternifolia can reduce bacterial growth and VSCs production and could be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine.

  6. Impact of pedospheric and atmospheric sulphur nutrition on sulphur metabolism of Allium cepa L., a species with a potential sink capacity for secondary sulphur compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, M.; De Kok, L.J.

    Onion (Afflum cepa L.) was able to use atmospheric H2S as sole sulphur source for growth. The foliarly absorbed H2S was rapidly metabolized into water-soluble, non-protein thiol compounds, including cysteine, and subsequently into other sulphur compounds in the shoots. In H2S-exposed plants, the

  7. Radioisotopic determination methods of sulphur dispersion and sulphur blooming in rubber compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goraczka, W.; Koczorowska, E.

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that the concentration of sulphur in rubber compounds essentially effects the structure of the vulkanizate network. But there are no efficient and accurate methods to estimate the dispersion and migration (blooming) of curatives in raw rubber. In the work radioisotope methods have been analyzed to study the dispersion of curatives, physical and chemical processes in rubber and to optimize technical conditions of tire production. The radioactivity of the 35 S isotope introduced into rubber compounds has been measured by volumetric and surface methods. It was proved that the radioisotopic methods can be used in the studies. Experimental data of the effect of selected technological factors on these processes are presented. Rubber compounds containing soluble sulphur were made for such investigations. These methods permit detection of concentrations 10 -6 g of the radioactive isotope per 0.1 g of rubber compound. The sensitivity of these methods enables the investigation of radioisotope behaviour in rubber compounds during processing on an industrial scale without any hazards for workers

  8. Concentration of volatile sulphur-containing compounds along the gastrointestinal tract of pigs fed a high-sulphur or a low-sulphur diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Canibe, Nuria; Finster, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Volatile sulphur-containing compounds (VSC) are formed in large quantities in the gastrointestinal tract (GI-tract) of pigs and upon excretion from the animal; these compounds are released from the faeces causing emission of foul odour. However, very little is known about the rate and extent of t...

  9. Origin of organic sulphur compounds and sulphur-containing high molecular weight substances in sediments and immature crude oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Schenck, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution patterns of Organic Sulphur Compounds (OSC), occurring in certain sediments and immature crude oils, were compared with those of the corresponding hydrocarbons. Because of the complexity of the OSC mixtures, they were desulphurized to hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, isoprenoid alkanes,

  10. Past and future trends in concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hole, Lars R.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija

    2009-01-01

    Recent trends in nitrogen and sulphur compounds in air and precipitation from a range of Arctic monitoring stations are presented, with seasonal data from the late 70s to 2004 or 2005. Earlier findings of declining sulphur concentrations are confirmed for most stations, while the pattern is less ...

  11. Effect of Thiobacillus thioparus 1904 and sulphur addition on odour emission during aerobic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenjie; Sun, Wen; Lu, Yusheng; Li, Xia; Xu, Peizhi; Xie, Kaizhi; Sun, Lili; Wu, Hangtao

    2018-02-01

    The effects of sulphur and Thiobacillus thioparus 1904 on odour emissions during composting were studied. Results indicated that the sulphur addition reduced the pH and decreased cumulative emission of ammonia and the nitrogen loss by 47.80% and 44.23%, respectively, but the amount of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) and the sulphur loss increased. The addition of T. thioparus 1904 effectively reduced the cumulative emissions of H 2 S, methyl sulphide, methanethiol, dimethyl disulphide and the sulphur loss by 33.24%, 81.24%, 32.70%, 54.22% and 54.24%, respectively. T. thioparus 1904 also limited the nitrogen loss. The combined application of sulphur and T. thioparus 1904 resulted in the greatest amount of nitrogen retention. The accumulation of ammonia emissions was reduced by 63.33%, and the nitrogen loss was reduced by 71.93%. The combined treatment did not increase the emission of VSCs. The application of sulphur and T. thioparus 1904 may help to control the odour of compost. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Abatements of reduced sulphur compounds, colour, and organic matter from indigo dyeing effluents by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tünay, Olcay; Simşeker, Merve; Kabdaşli, Isik; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the treatability of indigo dyeing effluents by the electrocoagulation (EC) process using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The samples used were concentrated with main pollutant parameters of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (1000-1100 mg/L), reduced sulphur species (over 2000 mg SO2-(3)/L), and colour (0.12-0.13 1/cm). The study focused on the effect of main operation parameters on the EC process performance in terms of abatement of reduced sulphur compounds as well as decolourization and organic matter reduction. Results indicated that the performance of EC proved to be high providing total oxidation of the reduced sulphur compounds, almost complete decolourization, and COD removal up to 90%. Increasing applied current density from 22.5 to 45 mA/cm2 appreciably improved abatement of the reduced sulphur compounds for Sample I, but a further increase in the applied current density to 67.5 mA/cm2 did not accelerate the conversion rate to sulphate. The process performance was adversely affected by increasing initial concentration of the reduced sulphur compounds. Decolourization and organic matter removal efficiency enhanced with increasing applied current density. The main removal mechanism of the reduced sulphur compounds by EC was explained as conversion to sulphate via oxidation. Conversion rate to sulphate fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well.

  13. Past and future trends in concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hole, Lars R.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija

    2009-01-01

    Recent trends in nitrogen and sulphur compounds in air and precipitation from a range of Arctic monitoring stations are presented, with seasonal data from the late 70s to 2004 or 2005. Earlier findings of declining sulphur concentrations are confirmed for most stations, while the pattern is less...... clear for reduced and oxidized nitrogen. In fact there are positive trends for nitrogen compounds in air at several stations. Acidity is generally reduced at many stations while the precipitation amount is either increasing or stable. Variability of sulphate concentrations in air for the period 1991......-2000 is reasonably well reproduced at most stations using an Eulerian, hemispherical model. Results for nitrogen compounds are weaker. Scenario studies show that even if large sulphur emission reductions take place in important source regions in South-East Asia in the coming decades, only small changes in Arctic...

  14. Volatile sulphur compounds in wines related to yeast metabolism and nitrogen composition of grape musts

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, N.; Mendesa, F.; Pereira, O.; Pinho, P. Guedes de

    2002-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen compounds in grape musts on the content of sulphur compounds of wines was studied. Different vinifications were performed with the addition of methionine (20 mg l−1) and/or cysteine (40 mg l−1) to grape musts before alcoholic fermentation. Six grape musts, with different nitrogen composition, from cultivars of the ‘Vinhos Verdes’ Region, in Portugal, were used. Addition of methionine to grape musts enhanced the content of wines in 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, ...

  15. Sulphur-containing compounds in sulphur-rich crude oils from hypersaline lake sediments and their geochemical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Guoying, S.; Jiamo, F.; Brassell, S.C.; Gowar, A.P.; Eglinton, G.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Schenck, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Three sulphur-rich commercial crude oils have been studied, which contain sulphur as high as up to 4 —12 %. These samples were collected from Tertiary hypersaline lake sediments of the Jianghan Basin, Hubei Province at different depths, but above the oil generation threshold (2200m). FPD-GC and

  16. Treatment of reduced sulphur compounds and SO2 by Gas Phase Advanced Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meusinger, Carl; Bluhme, Anders Brostrøm; Ingemar, Jonas L.

    2017-01-01

    Reduced sulphur compounds (RSCs) emitted from pig farms are a major problem for agriculture, due to their health and environmental impacts and foul odour. This study investigates the removal of RSCs, including H2S, and their oxidation product SO2 using Gas Phase Advanced Oxidation (GPAO). GPAO...... is a novel air cleaning technique which utilises accelerated atmospheric chemistry to oxidise pollutants before removing their oxidation products as particles. Removal efficiencies of 24.5% and 3.9% were found for 461 ppb of H2S and 714 ppb of SO2 in a laboratory system (volumetric flow Q = 75 m3/h......). A numerical model of the reactor system was developed to explore the basic features of the system; its output was in fair agreement with the experiment. The model verified the role of OH radicals in initiating the oxidation chemistry. All sulphur removed from the gas phase was detected as particulate matter...

  17. Evaluating Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans bacterial oxidation of sulphur compounds using FTIR and X-ray diffraction assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Muñoz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A native bacterial strain capable of oxidising ferrous iron and sulphur compounds was isolated from effluent and material from the La Maruja gold mine in the municipality of Marmato (Caldas; this was biochemically identified as being Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. This strain's ability to oxidise metallic sulphide concentrates having two differ-ent pulp proportions and two particle sizes was evaluated. Sulphide bio-oxidation was observed after 15 days showing this strain's catalytic action on the mineral break-down process. Key words: bio-oxidation; bio-leaching; A. ferrooxidans; sulphides

  18. Sulphur-containing compounds in the essential oil of Ferula alliacea roots and their mass spectral fragmentation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaian, Jamal; Asili, Javad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-10-01

    Context GC-MS analysis is the best way to characterize volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Ferula (Apiaceae) is a genus of perennial herbs. Due to the occurrence of essential oils or oleoresins in the Ferula species, these plants usually possess strong aromatic scent. Terpenoid compounds were the most abundant constituents of Ferula oils, however, in some of Ferula species, the essential oils were dominated by volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Objectives Ferula alliacea Boiss. is considered one of the sources of the oleo-gum-resin asafoetida. In this study, we analyzed the hydrodistilled essential oil from its dried roots and provide new data about retention indices and mass fragmentation patterns of some volatile sulphur-containing compounds that are useful for future studies on this class of compounds. Materials and methods The roots of F. alliacea were collected during the flowering stage of plant, from Bezgh, Kashmar to Neishabour road, Khorasan-Razavi province, Iran, in June 2012. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS. Results This is the first report on phytochemical analysis of F. alliacea roots. Seventy-six components, representing 99.5% of the oil, were characterized. The major components were 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (22.3%), valerianol (12.5%), hinesol (8.3%), guaiol (7.3%) and Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%). Predominant mass fragment ions of the identified sulphur-containing compounds are explained in this paper. Conclusion The volatile oil of F. alliacea mostly contains oxygenated sesquiterpenes, however, its odour was dominated by sulphur-containing compounds. The most abundant sulphur-containing compound includes Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%).

  19. Analytical protocols for the determination of sulphur compounds characteristic of the metabolism of Chlorobium limicola

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    A. Aliboni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlorobium limicola belongs to the green sulphur bacteria that has a potential for technological applications such as biogas clean up oxidising hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulphur through photosynthetic process. In the present work, analytical methods are described for the determination of different sulphur species in C. limicola cultures – sulphide by GC-FPD, sulphate by ionic HPLC and elemental sulphur by RP HPLC. The latter method eliminates the need for chloroform extraction of water suspensions of elemental sulphur. Data from sulphide and elemental sulphur analyses have been compared with ones coming from more traditional analytical methodologies.

  20. Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Sulphur Compounds in White Radish During the First Three Days of Sprouting

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    Maria Doinița Borș

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Glucosinolates (GLs and S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide (SMCSO are natural sulphur containing phytochemicals. They are two of the most important bioactive compounds found in brassica vegetables, which are highly regarded for their health-promoting activity. In this study we have analysed the content of GLs and SMCSO in white radish, by an HPLC-MS method, in order to illustrate their biosynthesis and accumulation during the first 72 hours of sprouting. Total GLs content ranged between  54.17 and 126.86 µmol/g DW. There were eight GLs identified, in radish sprouts and around 94 % of them were aliphatic. Obvious differences, during the 72 hours of sprouting, were noticed in glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin. S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide content ranged between 0.21 and 35.95 µmol/g DW. Our results revealed a negative strong correlation between GLs and SMCSO.

  1. Adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds onto modified activated carbons: Effect of oxygen functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Esther; Lemus, Jesús; Anfruns, Alba; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Palomar, José; Martin, María J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • HNO 3 oxidation incorporates a higher amount of functionalities than O 3 oxidation. • The loss of porosity is compensated by the massive incorporation of oxygen groups. • HNO 3 oxidation increases OH groups in AC and the ETM and DMS adsorption capacities. • The oxygen functional groups in the AC surface did not affect the DMDS adsorption. • COSMO-RS predicts the important role of OH groups for VSC adsorption. -- Abstract: The effect of physical and chemical properties of activated carbon (AC) on the adsorption of ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide was investigated by treating a commercial AC with nitric acid and ozone. The chemical properties of ACs were characterised by temperature programme desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. AC treated with nitric acid presented a larger amount of oxygen functional groups than materials oxidised with ozone. This enrichment allowed a significant improvement on adsorption capacities for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide but not for dimethyl disulphide. In order to gain a deeper knowledge on the effect of the surface chemistry of AC on the adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds, the quantum-chemical COSMO-RS method was used to simulate the interactions between AC surface groups and the studied volatile sulphur compounds. In agreement with experimental data, this model predicted a greater affinity of dimethyl disulphide towards AC, unaffected by the incorporation of oxygen functional groups in the surface. Moreover, the model pointed out to an increase of the adsorption capacity of AC by the incorporation of hydroxyl functional groups in the case of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide due to the hydrogen bond interactions

  2. Adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds onto modified activated carbons: Effect of oxygen functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Esther, E-mail: esther@lequia.udg.cat [LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Girona, Catalonia E-17071 (Spain); Lemus, Jesús [Universidad de Madrid, Sección de Ingeniería Química, Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Anfruns, Alba; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael [LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Girona, Catalonia E-17071 (Spain); Palomar, José [Universidad de Madrid, Sección de Ingeniería Química, Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Martin, María J. [LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Girona, Catalonia E-17071 (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • HNO{sub 3} oxidation incorporates a higher amount of functionalities than O{sub 3} oxidation. • The loss of porosity is compensated by the massive incorporation of oxygen groups. • HNO{sub 3} oxidation increases OH groups in AC and the ETM and DMS adsorption capacities. • The oxygen functional groups in the AC surface did not affect the DMDS adsorption. • COSMO-RS predicts the important role of OH groups for VSC adsorption. -- Abstract: The effect of physical and chemical properties of activated carbon (AC) on the adsorption of ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide was investigated by treating a commercial AC with nitric acid and ozone. The chemical properties of ACs were characterised by temperature programme desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. AC treated with nitric acid presented a larger amount of oxygen functional groups than materials oxidised with ozone. This enrichment allowed a significant improvement on adsorption capacities for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide but not for dimethyl disulphide. In order to gain a deeper knowledge on the effect of the surface chemistry of AC on the adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds, the quantum-chemical COSMO-RS method was used to simulate the interactions between AC surface groups and the studied volatile sulphur compounds. In agreement with experimental data, this model predicted a greater affinity of dimethyl disulphide towards AC, unaffected by the incorporation of oxygen functional groups in the surface. Moreover, the model pointed out to an increase of the adsorption capacity of AC by the incorporation of hydroxyl functional groups in the case of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide due to the hydrogen bond interactions.

  3. Transformation and Deposition of Sulphur and Nitrogen Compounds in the Marine Boundary Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O

    1995-10-01

    In this thesis the author performs a model study of the transformation and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in the marine boundary layer, including source-receptor relationships. The central part of the study is the development and testing of a variable scale trajectory model for Europe, with special emphasis on modelling the concentrations of gases and aerosols in the marine atmosphere and the deposition to sea. A one-dimensional version of the model was developed to model the chemical degradation of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in the marine boundary layer. Although the model reproduces the observed levels of DMS and methane sulphonic acid (MSA) well, the calculated DMS concentration is not always in phase with observed levels, probably because of a local coastal emission that is correlated with the shifting tide. Another version of the trajectory model, Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition model (ACDEP), was developed to study the deposition of nitrogen compounds to the Danish sea waters. This model uses a new numerical scheme, the Eulerian Backward Iterative method. The model is able to reproduce observations of air concentrations and wet deposition fairly well; data for dry deposition were not available. The model was also used for calculation of deposition of nitrogen compounds to the Kattegat. Finally, a sensitivity study was performed on the model. 175 refs., 87 figs., 32 tabs.

  4. Analysis of sulphur, phosphorus and silica in metals, alloys, inorganic compounds and solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhya, J.C.; Naik, S.S.; Khedikar, W.K.; Sudersanan, M.; Mathur, P.K

    1999-10-01

    Procedures for the analysis of sulphur, phosphorus and silica in various metals and alloys like mild steel, carbon steel and stainless steel as well as nickel base alloys are described. Procedures were also developed for the analysis of sulphur in thoria pellets and in other materials like crack check fluids, coal etc. Typical results obtained are summarised. (author)

  5. Microbial production of volatile sulphur compounds in the large intestine of pigs fed two different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, H V; Jensen, B B; Finster, K; Spence, C; Whitehead, T R; Cotta, M A; Canibe, N

    2012-07-01

      To investigate the production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in the segments of the large intestine of pigs and to assess the impact of diet on this production.   Pigs were fed two diets based on either wheat and barley (STD) or wheat and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Net production of VSC and potential sulphate reduction rate (SRR) (sulphate saturated) along the large intestine were determined by means of in vitro incubations. The net production rate of hydrogen sulphide and potential SRR increased from caecum towards distal colon and were significantly higher in the STD group. Conversely, the net methanethiol production rate was significantly higher in the DDGS group, while no difference was observed for dimethyl sulphide. The number of sulphate-reducing bacteria and total bacteria were determined by quantitative PCR and showed a significant increase along the large intestine, whereas no diet-related differences were observed.   VSC net production varies widely throughout the large intestine of pigs and the microbial processes involved in this production can be affected by diet.   This first report on intestinal production of all VSC shows both spatial and dietary effects, which are relevant to both bowel disease- and odour mitigation research. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Bacterial pathogen indicators regrowth and reduced sulphur compounds' emissions during storage of electro-dewatered biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Enayet, Samia; Gehr, Ronald; Frigon, Dominic

    2014-10-01

    Electro-dewatering (ED) increases biosolids dryness from 10-15 to 30-50%, which helps wastewater treatment facilities control disposal costs. Previous work showed that high temperatures due to Joule heating during ED inactivate total coliforms to meet USEPA Class A biosolids requirements. This allows biosolids land application if the requirements are still met after the storage period between production and application. In this study, we examined bacterial regrowth and odour emissions during the storage of ED biosolids. No regrowth of total coliforms was observed in ED biosolids over 7d under aerobic or anaerobic incubations. To mimic on-site contamination during storage or transport, ED samples were seeded with untreated sludge. Total coliform counts decreased to detection limits after 4d in inoculated samples. Olfactometric analysis of ED biosolids odours showed that odour concentrations were lower compared to the untreated and heat-treated control biosolids. Furthermore, under anaerobic conditions, odorous reduced sulphur compounds (methanethiol, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide) were produced by untreated and heat-treated biosolids, but were not detected in the headspaces above ED samples. The data demonstrate that ED provides advantages not only as a dewatering technique, but also for producing biosolids with lower microbial counts and odour levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. On the effects of organic matter and sulphur-containing compounds on the CCN activation of combustion particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petzold

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The European PartEmis project (Measurement and prediction of emissions of aerosols and gaseous precursors from gas turbine engines was focussed on the characterisation and quantification of exhaust emissions from a gas turbine engine. The combustion aerosol characterisation included on-line measurements of mass and number concentration, size distribution, mixing state, thermal stability of internally mixed particles, hygroscopicity, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activation potential, and off-line analysis of chemical composition. Based on this extensive data set, the role of sulphuric acid coating and of the organic fraction of the combustion particles for the CCN activation was investigated. Modelling of CCN activation was conducted using microphysical and chemical properties obtained from the measurements as input data. Coating the combustion particles with water-soluble sulphuric acid, increases the potential CCN activation, or lowers the activation diameter, respectively. The adaptation of a Köhler model to the experimental data yielded coatings from 0.1 to 3 vol-% of water-soluble matter, which corresponds to an increase in the fraction of CCN-activated combustion particles from ≤10−4 to ≌10−2 at a water vapour saturation ratio Sw=1.006. Additional particle coating by coagulation of combustion particles and aqueous sulphuric acid particles formed by nucleation further reduces the CCN activation diameter. In contrast, particles containing a large fraction of non-volatile organic compounds grow significantly less at high relative humidity than particles with a lower content of non-volatile OC. The resulting reduction in the potential CCN activation with an increasing fraction of non-volatile OC becomes visible as a trend in the experimental data. While a coating of water-soluble sulphuric acid increases the potential CCN activation, or lowers the activation diameter, respectively, the non-volatile organic compounds, mainly found at

  8. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on conductivity behaviour of needle crystals of iodine and oxygen doped niobium-sulphur compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balla, D.D.; Bondarenko, A.V.; Obolenskij, M.A.; Beletskij, V.I.; Chashka, Kh.B.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of the hydrostatic pressures up to 11 kbar on conductivity behaviour of the needle crystal of iodine and oxygen doped niobium-sulphur compounds were studied in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. It is shown that in the temperature range 110-300 K conductivity is thermal activated (P=1 bar). Below 110 K the Mott characteristic is observed. Under hydrostatic pressure the deviations from Mott characteristic occurs. The analysis of data suggested that crystals are doped semiconductors

  9. Methane oxidation and attenuation of sulphur compounds in landfill top cover systems: Lab-scale tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Pivato, Alberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Megido, Laura; Cossu, Raffaello

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a top cover system is investigated as a control for emissions during the aftercare of new landfills and for old landfills where biogas energy production might not be profitable. Different materials were studied as landfill cover system in lab-scale columns: mechanical-biological pretreated municipal solid waste (MBP); mechanical-biological pretreated biowaste (PB); fine (PBS f ) and coarse (PBS c ) mechanical-biological pretreated mixtures of biowaste and sewage sludge, and natural soil (NS). The effectiveness of these materials in removing methane and sulphur compounds from a gas stream was tested, even coupled with activated carbon membranes. Concentrations of CO 2 , CH 4 , O 2 , N 2 , H 2 S and mercaptans were analysed at different depths along the columns. Methane degradation was assessed using mass balance and the results were expressed in terms of methane oxidation rate (MOR). The highest maximum and mean MOR were observed for MBP (17.2gCH 4 /m 2 /hr and 10.3gCH 4 /m 2 /hr, respectively). Similar values were obtained with PB and PBS c . The lowest values of MOR were obtained for NS (6.7gCH 4 /m 2 /hr) and PBS f (3.6gCH 4 /m 2 /hr), which may be due to their low organic content and void index, respectively. Activated membranes with high load capacity did not seem to have an influence on the methane oxidation process: MBP coupled with 220g/m 2 and 360g/m 2 membranes gave maximum MOR of 16.5gCH 4 /m 2 /hr and 17.4gCH 4 /m 2 /hr, respectively. Activated carbon membranes proved to be very effective on H 2 S adsorption. Furthermore, carbonyl sulphide, ethyl mercaptan and isopropyl mercaptan seemed to be easily absorbed by the filling materials. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Reaction of low-molecular-mass organoselenium compounds (and their sulphur analogues) with inflammation-associated oxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, L.; Davies, Michael J.; Pattison, D. I.

    2015-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element in mammals, with the majority specifically encoded as seleno-L-cysteine into a range of selenoproteins. Many of these proteins play a key role in modulating oxidative stress, via either direct detoxification of biological oxidants, or repair of oxidised...... the chemistry of low-molecular-mass organoselenium compounds (e.g. selenoethers, diselenides and selenols) with inflammatory oxidants, with a particular focus on the reaction kinetics and product studies, with the differences in reactivity between selenium and sulphur analogues described in the selected...... examples. These data provide insight into the therapeutic potential of low-molecular-mass selenium-containing compounds to modulate the activity of both radical and molecular oxidants and provide protection against inflammation-induced damage. Progress in their therapeutic development (including modulation...

  11. Unique distributions of hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds released by flash pyrolysis from the fossilised alga Gloeocapsomorpha prisca, a major constituent in one of four Ordovician kerogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Douglas, A.G.; Fowler, M.G.; Eglinton, T.I.

    1991-01-01

    Kerogens isolated from four rocks of Ordovician age from North America have been analysed by combined pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to compare and contrast the type and distribution of sulphur-containing compounds and aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons present in the

  12. Origin of sulphur compounds and application of isotope geothermometry in selected geothermal systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Zhonghe

    2005-01-01

    Geothermal and groundwater samples from East of Heber (EH) Province in the North China Basin and South of Fujian (SF) Province in Southeast of China were studied using sulphur and water isotopes. EH is located in a Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basin while SF is composed of small fault-block basins formed in Quaternary period. These systems belong to non-volcanic geothermal environments. Samples were collected from exploratory and production geothermal wells: 11 wells in EH and 17 wells in SF. The samples were analyzed for oxygen-18 (δ 18 O) and deuterium (δ 2 H) in water, sulfur-34 (δ 34 S) and oxygen-18 ((δ 18 O) in aqueous sulphate (SO 4 ). Chemical composition of the water samples was also determined. Results show that aqueous sulphate in the saline thermal waters of SF is of marine origin. The aqueous sulphate in EH waters is of non-marine origin. Reservoir temperature estimated using the oxygen isotope geothermometer is not compatible to those by chemical geothermometers or by down-hole measurements in the sedimentary environment for EH, different from that for the SF samples where aqueous sulphate seems to have reached equilibrium with thermal waters in the main up-flow zone. (author)

  13. The use of Sphagnum recurvum Pal. Beauv. as biological tests for determination of the level of pollution with fluorine compounds and sulphur dioxide in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Świeboda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The green parts of the peat moss Sphagnum recurvum Pal. Beauv. were used as a biological test to evaluate the pollution level of the natural environment in the region of the aluminium works "Skawina" (Southern Poland with fluorine compounds and sulphur dioxide. The moss samples were placed in nylon nets and exposed to the polluted air for 6 weeks, then the fluorine and sulphur content in them was determined. The results demonstrated the usefulness of this method for the purpose of establishing the range of influence of the emitted industrial pollution.

  14. Design of the Trap Filter for the High Power Converters with Parallel Interleaved VSCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2014-01-01

    The power handling capability of the state-of-the-art semiconductor devices is limited. Therefore, the Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) are often connected in parallel to realize high power converter. The switching frequency semiconductor devices, used in the high power VSCs, is also limited...

  15. Magnetic Integration for Parallel Interleaved VSCs Connected in a Whiffletree Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2016-01-01

    The Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) are often connected in parallel to realize a high current rating. In such systems, the harmonic quality of the output voltage can be improved by interleaving the carrier signals of the parallel VSCs. However, an additional inductive filter is often required...

  16. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H 2 S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS 2 ) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O 2 concentration (p −1 (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H 2 S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%

  17. Volatile sulfur compounds in tropical fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Cannon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global production and demand for tropical fruits continues to grow each year as consumers are enticed by the exotic flavors and potential health benefits that these fruits possess. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs are often responsible for the juicy, fresh aroma of tropical fruits. This poses a challenge for analytical chemists to identify these compounds as most often VSCs are found at low concentrations in most tropical fruits. The aim of this review is to discuss the extraction methods, enrichment techniques, and instrumentation utilized to identify and quantify VSCs in natural products. This will be followed by a discussion of the VSCs reported in tropical and subtropical fruits, with particular attention to the odor and taste attributes of each compound. Finally, the biogenesis and enzymatic formation of specific VSCs in tropical fruits will be highlighted along with the contribution each possesses to the aroma of their respective fruit. Keywords: Tropical fruits, Volatile sulfur compounds, Extraction methods

  18. Simultaneous analyses of gaseous and particulate sulphur compounds in the atmosphere by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yatsuka; Mamuro, Tetsuo

    1974-01-01

    An analytical technique for the simultaneous measurements of the atmospheric concentrations of SO 2 gas and sulphur absorbed by aerosol particles has been developed. Aerosol particles are collected on membrane filter and at the same time SO 2 gas is captured on alkali impregnated filter. The sulphur content in each filter is measured by an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer consisting of a Si(Li) semiconductor detector connected to a multichannel pulse hight analyzer and an excitation source of 55 Fe. Two methods are acceptable for the determination of the sulphur content in impregnated filter by X-ray fluorescence analysis. In the first method X-ray fluorescence analysis is made after the collected sulphur has diffused and distributed uniformly enough throughout filter, and in the second method X-ray fluorescence analysis has to be finished before the diffusion of the collected sulphur becomes appreciable. (auth.)

  19. Synthesis, reactions and biological activity of some new bis-heterocyclic ring compounds containing sulphur atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The derivatives of thieno[2,3-b]thiophene belong to a significant category of heterocyclic compounds, which have shown a wide spectrum of medical and industrial application. Results A new building block with two electrophilic center of thieno[2,3-b]thiophene derivatives 2 has been reported by one-pot reaction of diketone derivative 1 with Br2/AcOH in excellent yield. A variety of heteroaromatics having bis(1H-imidazo[1,2a] benzimidazole), bis(1H-imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazole)-3-methyl-4-phenylthieno[2,3-b]thiophene derivatives, dioxazolo-, dithiazolo-, and 1H-imidazolo-3-methyl-4-phenylthieno[2,3-b]thiophene derivatives as well pyrrolo, thiazolo -3-methyl-4-phenylthieno[2,3-b]thiophene derivatives have been designed, synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for their biological activity. Compounds 3–9 showed good bioassay result. These new derivatives were evaluated for anti-cancer activity against PC-3 cell lines, in vitro antioxidant potential and β-glucuronidase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Compound 3 (IC50 = 56.26 ± 3.18 μM) showed a potent DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant activity and found to be more active than standard N-acetylcystein (IC50 = 105.9 ± 1.1 μM). Compounds 8a (IC50 = 13.2 ± 0.34 μM) and 8b (IC50 = 14.1 ± 0.28 μM) found as potent inhibitor of α-glucusidase several fold more active than the standard acarbose (IC50 = 841 ± 1.73 μM). Most promising results were obtained in β-glucuronidase enzyme inhibition assay. Compounds 5 (IC50 = 0.13 ± 0.019 μM), 6 (IC50 = 19.9 ± 0.285 μM), 8a (IC50 = 1.2 ± 0.0785 μM) and 9 (IC50 = 0.003 ± 0.09 μM) showed a potent inhibition of β-glucuronidase. Compound 9 was found to be several hundred fold more active than standard D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC50 = 45.75 ± 2.16 μM). Conclusions Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro biological activity of a series of

  20. Daylong Effect of Rinsing with Water Diluted Antiplaque®Toothpaste Combined with Toothbrushing on Volatile Sulphur Compound Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandina Irmagita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis, complained by most adult population, is a common oral condition. About 8%% of the cases happened because of the microbia activity in the oral cavity that produces Volatile Sulphur Compound (VSC which has unpleasant odour. Daily oral prophylaxis can reduce the oral VSC levels. Objective: to determine the daylong effect of Antiplque® toothpaste in daily oral prophylaxis: as dentrifice for tooth brushing and, in modified way, as oral rinse; on the VSC level. Methods: a double blind, clinical experimental study, involving 120 subjects with or without halitosis complain, divided in 2 treatment groups (oral rinse group and the combination of tooth brushing and oral rinse group, using Antiplaque® toothpaste and 2 control groups (same procedure using placebo toothpaste. The daylong VSC levels measure with halimeter were taken twice, in the afternoon day I and day II. Results: there are significant reduction of daylong VSC levels (Wilcoxon signed rank test P<0.0%, but not in the treatment groups using the placebo toothpaste. The result on conbination of tooth brushing and oral rinse using Antiplaque® toothpaste are significant compared to the oral rinse treatment using Antiplaque® toothpaste alone (Mann Whitney, P<0.05. Conclusion: tooth brushing with Antiplaque® toothpaste combined with oral rinse using the modified Antiplaque® toothpaste can significantly reduce daylong VSC levels.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.94

  1. Hydrogels as adsorbents of organo-sulphur compounds currently found in diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburto, J.; Mendez-Orozco, A.; Borgne, S.L. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Biotecnologia del Petroleo, Col. Sn. Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Hydrogels of chitosan were synthesised using glutaric dialdehyde as the crosslinking agent in an acetonitrile/water solution (1:4, v/v). These hydrogels recognised and adsorbed the dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTS) against other related compounds found in diesel, e.g. dibenzothiophene (DBT), fluorene (FLE) and 4,6-dimethyl DBT (DMDBT). In order to improve the recognition and adsorption of DBTS, the latter compound served as a template for the building of recognition sites inside the hydrogel matrix through the use of the molecular imprinting technique (MIT). Despite the adsorption capacity of the molecular imprinted hydrogel (MIH) was not increased, the imprinting process of chitosan allowed both an enhancement of two orders of magnitude in ligand affinity constant and material homogeneity as seen by SEM. The change in swelling degree (Q) suggested the presence of a conformational memory of the hydrogel that might allow the design of stimuli-response but also tailored-made hydrogels responding at a required factor as temperature. The imprinting process improved ligand recognition and consequently hydrogel's specificity as shown by a monolayer adsorption. In contrast, the adsorption isotherm of DBTS by the non-imprinted hydrogel showed a multilayer adsorption due to non-specific interactions. (author)

  2. Occurrence and abatement of volatile sulfur compounds during biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Fräs Annika T; Karlsson, Anna; Svensson, Bo H; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2004-07-01

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in biogas originating from a biogas production plant and from a municipal sewage water treatment plant were identified. Samples were taken at various stages of the biogas-producing process, including upgrading the gas to vehicle-fuel quality. Solid-phase microextraction was used for preconcentration of the VSCs, which were subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry. Other volatile organic compounds present also were identified. The most commonly occurring VSCs in the biogas were hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide was not always the most abundant sulfur (S) compound. Besides VSCs, oxygenated organic compounds were commonly present (e.g., ketones, alcohols, and esters). The effect of adding iron chloride to the biogas reactor on the occurrence of VSCs also was investigated. It was found that additions of 500-g/m3 substrate gave an optimal removal of VSCs. Also, the use of a prefermentation step could reduce the amount of VSCs formed in the biogas process. Moreover, in the carbon dioxide scrubber used for upgrading the gas, VSCs were removed efficiently, leaving traces (ppbv levels). The scrubber also removed other organic compounds.

  3. Power density investigation on the press-pack IGBT 3L-HB-VSCs applied to large wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    capabilities, DC capacitor sizes, converter cabinet volumes of the three 3LHB- VSCs utilizing press-pack IGBTs are investigated in order to quantify and compare the power densities of the 3L-HB-VSCs employed as grid-side converters. Also, the suitable transformer types for the 3L-HB-VSCs are determined......With three different DC-side and AC-side connections, the three-level H-bridge voltage source converters (3L-HB-VSCs) are alternatives to 3L neutral-point-clamped VSCs (3L-NPC-VSCs) for interfacing large wind turbines with electricity grids. In order to assess their feasibility for large wind...... turbines, they should be investigated in terms of power density, which is one of the most important design criteria for wind turbine converters due to turbine nacelle space limitation. In this study, by means of the converter electro-thermal models based on the converter characteristics, the power...

  4. Analysis of the reactivity of sulphur compounds in petroleum cuts: kinetics and modelling of hydro-treating; Analyse de la reactivite des composes soufres dans les coupes petrolieres: cinetique et modelisation de l'hydrotraitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Garcia, C

    2000-12-01

    The study of the hydro-treating of middle distillates comprised the following steps: - Identification and reactivity study of the sulphur compounds present in these petroleum cuts; - Modelling of the process by a chemical kinetic approach. The hydro-treating of middle distillates is a refining process that allows elimination of organic compounds containing sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen and metals. The process also hydrogenates the aromatic compounds providing improved cetane index gas-oils while respecting the regulations that severely limit the content of sulphur compounds. The extension and the improvement of a kinetic model for the hydro-treating of LCO gas-oils (light cycle oil gas-oils) are presented in this work. In order to improve the hydro-desulfurization model predictions, a detailed identification of the sulphur compounds contained in LCO gas-oils was carried out using gas chromatography with a sulphur chemiluminescence detector (GC-SCD). The most refractory sulphur compounds (alkyl-di-benzothiophenes) were identified and lumped into different families. Based on a lumped reaction scheme with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood representation, the model takes into account the influence of temperature, total pressure and hydrogen sulphide partial pressure on the reaction rates for hydro-desulfurization, hydro-denitrogenation and hydro-de-aromatization. The model parameter estimation was based on experiments that were carried out on a micro-pilot unit using an industrial sulfided NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst and LCO feedstocks. The analytical study of the sulphur compounds was also extended to the case of straight run gas-oils (SR). For these feedstocks, a method using high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with gas chromatography (GC-HRMS) was developed. In this way, the kinetic model can now be extended for the SR gas-oil hydro-treating or for LCO-SR mixtures. (author)

  5. Analysis of the reactivity of sulphur compounds in petroleum cuts: kinetics and modelling of hydro-treating; Analyse de la reactivite des composes soufres dans les coupes petrolieres: cinetique et modelisation de l'hydrotraitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Garcia, C.

    2000-12-01

    The study of the hydro-treating of middle distillates comprised the following steps: - Identification and reactivity study of the sulphur compounds present in these petroleum cuts; - Modelling of the process by a chemical kinetic approach. The hydro-treating of middle distillates is a refining process that allows elimination of organic compounds containing sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen and metals. The process also hydrogenates the aromatic compounds providing improved cetane index gas-oils while respecting the regulations that severely limit the content of sulphur compounds. The extension and the improvement of a kinetic model for the hydro-treating of LCO gas-oils (light cycle oil gas-oils) are presented in this work. In order to improve the hydro-desulfurization model predictions, a detailed identification of the sulphur compounds contained in LCO gas-oils was carried out using gas chromatography with a sulphur chemiluminescence detector (GC-SCD). The most refractory sulphur compounds (alkyl-di-benzothiophenes) were identified and lumped into different families. Based on a lumped reaction scheme with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood representation, the model takes into account the influence of temperature, total pressure and hydrogen sulphide partial pressure on the reaction rates for hydro-desulfurization, hydro-denitrogenation and hydro-de-aromatization. The model parameter estimation was based on experiments that were carried out on a micro-pilot unit using an industrial sulfided NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst and LCO feedstocks. The analytical study of the sulphur compounds was also extended to the case of straight run gas-oils (SR). For these feedstocks, a method using high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with gas chromatography (GC-HRMS) was developed. In this way, the kinetic model can now be extended for the SR gas-oil hydro-treating or for LCO-SR mixtures. (author)

  6. Line filter design of parallel interleaved VSCs for high power wind energy conversion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    The Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) are often connected in parallel in a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) to match the high power rating of the modern wind turbines. The effect of the interleaved carriers on the harmonic performance of the parallel connected VSCs is analyzed in this paper...... limit. In order to achieve the desired filter performance with optimal values of the filter parameters, the use of a LC trap branch with the conventional LCL filter is proposed. The expressions for the resonant frequencies of the proposed line filter are derived and used in the design to selectively...

  7. Connection of OWPPs to HVDC networks using VSCs and Diode Rectifiers: an Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saborío-Romano, Oscar; Bidadfar, Ali; Göksu, Ömer

    This paper provides an overview of two technologies for connecting offshore wind power plants (offshore WPPs, OWPPs) to high-voltage direct current (HVDC) networks: voltage source converters (VSCs) and diode rectifiers (DRs). Current grid code requirements for the connection of such power plants...

  8. An Integrated Inductor for Parallel Interleaved VSCs and PWM Schemes for Flux Minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    The interleaving of the carrier signals of the parallel Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) can reduce the harmonic content in the resultant switched output voltages. As a result, the size of the line filter inductor can be reduced. However, in addition to the line filter, an inductive filter is often...

  9. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongyu [Beijing Building Materials Academy of Science Research/State Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Reuse for Building Material, Beijing 100041 (China); College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Schuchardt, Frank [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institute, Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Li, Guoxue, E-mail: ligx@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup −1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  10. Headspace solid-phase microextraction for the determination of volatile organic sulphur and selenium compounds in beers, wines and spirits using gas chromatography and atomic emission detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, Natalia; Peñalver, Rosa; López-García, Ignacio; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2009-09-25

    A rapid and solvent-free method for the determination of eight volatile organic sulphur and two selenium compounds in different beverage samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with atomic emission detection has been developed. The bonded carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber was the most suitable for preconcentrating the analytes from the headspace of the sample solution. Volumes of 20 mL of undiluted beer were used while, in the case of wines and spirits, sample:water ratios of 5:15 and 2:18, respectively, were used, in order to obtain the maximum sensitivity. Quantitation was carried out by using synthetic matrices of beer and wine, and a spiked sample for spirits, and using ethyl methyl sulphide and isopropyl disulphide as internal standards. Detection limits ranged from 8 ng L(-1) to 40 ng mL(-1), depending on the compound and the beverage sample analyzed, with a fiber time exposure of 20 min at ambient temperature. The optimized method was successfully applied to different samples, some of the studied compounds being detected at concentration levels in the 0.04-152 ng mL(-1) range.

  11. The investigation of hydrogens bonds between sulphur-bearing heterocyclic and proton-donor compounds by IR absorption spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narziev, B.N.; Nurulloev, M.; Makhkambaev, D.

    1982-01-01

    In this article the results of intermolecular interaction study of sulfur-containing heterocyclic (thiophene, thiophane) and proton-donar (water, alcohol, carbonic acids, chlorophon) molecules for measuring of IR spectrum absorption of protondonar compounds in soluted shape are presented

  12. Removal of organic carbon and sulphur compounds from process and fugitive emissions. Phase 1: Results from laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.N.

    1994-01-01

    Lab-scale biofilters were constructed from black polypropylene plastic tubing with internal dimensions of 5 by 100 cm. A biofilter matrix was provided using coarse sphagnum peat which was washed with water and inoculated with enriched cultures of appropriate microorganisms. Compressed air was applied to the biofilters and various compounds were added to the air stream at appropriate concentrations. These compounds included hydrogen sulfide, n-hexane, cyclohexane, propionic acid, and butyric acid. Removal efficiency was evaluated for each compound. Over 99% of the hydrogen sulfide was removed, at concentrations of up to 125 ppM by volume. Removal levels of n-hexane, cyclohexane, and the organic acids were lower. Thiophene was not demonstrated as being removed. Numbers of microorganisms were assessed and their identity determined throughout the biofilter matrix. A mass balance for sulfur was determined throughout the biofilter system and showed 3.5% of sulfur unaccounted for. 9 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Reinforced sulphur concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced sulphur concrete wherein one or more metal reinforcing members are in contact with sulphur concrete is disclosed. The reinforced sulphur concrete comprises an adhesion promoter that enhances the interaction between the sulphur and the one or more metal reinforcing members.

  14. Daylong Effect of Tooth Brushing or Combination Tooth Brushing and Tongue Cleaning Using Antiplaque®Toothpaste on Volatile Sulphur Compound Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriasti Indah Wardhany

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the daylong effect of Antiplaque® toothpaste active copound and the effect of tooth brushing or combination of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning on Volatile Sulphur Compounds (VSC levels. Methods: Clinical experimental double blinded microbiological and clinical examination. Subjects mainly from dental faculty student with or without a chief complain of halitosis. One hundred and twenty subjects were divided into four groups that consist of thirty samples each group. Two group are treatment subjects were divided into four groups that consist thirty samples each group. Two groups are treatment groups using Antiplaque® toothpaste and two groups are control groups using placebo toothpaste. The daylong effects of VSC levels are measured by Halimeter and organoleptic. The intraoral status were measured including periodontal status and tongue index. Result: There are a reduction of VSC levels in both treatment and control group, but the reduction only significant in group using Antiplaque® toothpaste (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.05. There are a reduction of VSC levels in both treatment using Antiplaque® toothpaste, but the combination of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning reduced VSC levels significantly lower than tooth brushing treatment (Mann Whitney U test, P,0.05. Conclusion: Tooth brushing and tongue cleaning using Antiplaque® toothpaste significantly reduced VSC levels.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.95

  15. Changes in birch wood cellulose through the action of sulphuric acid during furfural production. 3. Isolation of cellulose compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roze, I.M.; Vedernikov, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect was studied of temperature (137-167 degrees C) and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ concentration (10-90%) in furfural production on the content of cellulose compounds and the degree of (hydrolytic) breakdown of difficultly-hydrolysed polysaccharides in the residual lignocellulose. Increasing temperature reduced cellulose yield and increased polysaccharide breakdown, especially in 10-30% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. A higher concentration of the same amount of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ reduced polysaccharide breakdown (by reducing the liquid/solid ratio), especially at a higher temperature, thereby enabling more cellulose to be recovered for further processing (e.g. wood hydrolysis). Results suggest that H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ catalyzes the hydrolysis and dehydration processes differently. (Refs. 6).

  16. Comparison of atmospheric concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds, chloride and base cations at Ahtari and Hyytiala, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoho-Airola, T. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    Seven-year (2003-2009) time series of atmospheric SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}-, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cl{sup -} concentrations as well as four-year time series of atmospheric Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} concentrations from Ahtari and Hyytiala background stations in southern Finland, located within 85 km of each other were compared. At Ahtari the air sampler was located in a clearing within a young forest, while at Hyytiala it was within dense forest stands. Pearson's correlations between the time series were very strong (r{sub P} {>=} 0.9) for SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Cl{sup -} and Ca{sup 2+}, strong (r{sub P} > 0.8) for Na{sup +} and Mg{sup 2+} and week (r{sub P} = 0.65) for K{sup +}. The concentrations recorded at Hyytiala were on average 0.8-1.0 times those at Ahtari, although for K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} the ratios were higher. The GLS-ARMA method used takes into account the seasonal behaviour and serial correlation in the air quality time series, which revealed similar seasonal and temporal behaviour for S and N compounds and Cl- at both stations. As a result of the dense seasonalization of the time series, the part of the data heavily influenced by local agricultural sources could be identified. This enables elimination of the minimal part of the data affected and the use of the remaining data for further studies on a more regional level. (orig.)

  17. Harmonic current control for LCL-filtered VSCs connected to ultra-weak grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Yang, Dongsheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the harmonic current control for LCL-filtered Voltage-Source Converters (VSCs) connected to ultra-weak (high-impedance) grids. It is shown that the harmonic current controllers tend to be unstable as the Short-Circuit Ratio (SCR) of the system reduces. An active stabilizing...... control scheme is thus proposed by feeding back the filter capacitor voltage and the converter-side current. The method not only stabilizes the harmonic current control with a wide range of SCR values, but also mitigates harmonic distortions in the grid-side current of the VSC. The stabilizing mechanism...

  18. Forest fuel and sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundborg, A.

    1994-10-01

    This report illustrates the sulphur cycle in forest fuel and in the forest ecosystem. The hypothesis is that sulphur dioxide from combustion of forest fuel is not more acidifying than sulphur that is mineralized from tree biomass if it is left in the forest instead of being burnt. The report gives an overview of the sulphur cycle in general together with the acidifying effect of sulphur. The sulphur content in wood biomass is about 1 mg/g in the needles and 0.2-0.3 mg/g in wood. Chipped forest fuel contains 0.2-0.5 mg S/g. A removal of 40 tonnes of felling residues per hectare may contain about 8-30 kg S. The sulphur occurs both in organic, often reduced, form and as sulphate. In situations of high availability to sulphur there will be an increased proportion of sulphate. After combustion some, perhaps half, of the sulphur is left in the ashes, most of which appears to be sulphate. In mineralisation of reduced organic sulphur, of type R-SH, the sulphur is released in the form of sulphide. Hydrogen sulphide, H2S, can be oxidised by microbes to sulphate, which should be acidifying (2 H+ will remain). A very rough estimate suggests that emissions of sulphur dioxide from forest fuel, spread over the period the trees are growing, and on the area from which the trees are taken, corresponds to 0.5% of the sulphur deposition in southern Sweden. Sulphur emissions from biofuel combustion are much lower than Sweden's and the EU's most stringent emission limits for coal. Whole-tree removal with return of ashes will theoretically give a considerable reduction in soil acidity since large quantities of nitrogen are removed and thus the acidifying effect of nitrogen will not occur. This should be of greater importance for forest acidification than the effect of biomass sulphur. 80 refs, numerous tabs

  19. Sulphur in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seman Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland belongs to one of the last countries with native sulphur mining. Its history begun in 15th century. Deposit area of Tarnobrzeg re-presents 80% of all known sulphur reserves in this country. All of explored deposits in this area were created by metasomatic alteration of sulphur bearing limestones with sulphur mineralised liquids, which arised from melt gypsum. The average content is 25 - 30% of sulphur in Tarnobrzeg area. Considerable parts of deposits are created by calcite and native sulphur. Gypstone, baryte and stroncianite have only minera-logic occurencies. The extensive native sulphur deposits account for 88% of the country´s sulphur production. There were five sulphur mines in operation: Jeziórko, Grêbów, Machów I, Machów II and Basznia, but operations in Basznia were ended in 1992 and Machów and Machów II were liquidated. The sixth mine Osiek is currently producing. Only the Machów I mine operated an open-pit extraction and refining process, the other four mines producing sulphur using a modified Frasch method that gives elemental sulphur of up to 99,9% purity. Sulphur is an important export commodity with foreign sales totalling around 1.5 - 2.5 Mt/y. Modern benefication methods, which allowing to achieve sulphur from hydrocarbons, are causing decrease of native sulphur prices in the world and bringing about reduction of mining activities for this raw material in Poland.

  20. Influence of air pollution by compounds of fluorine, sulphur and nitrogen on changes of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activity in the leaves of trees and bushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Prysedskyj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The productive activity of man results in contamination of the environment which causes substantial damage to ecosystems, upsetting their balance, species composition, etc. Within industrial areas, plants suffer significant harm. At the same time, plant organisms play an important role in optimization of the environment, performing sanitary-hygienic, landscaping and aesthetic functions. In this context, we investigated the influence of industrial contamination of air by fluorine, sulphur and nitrogen compounds on the activity of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase in ten types of arboreal and shrub plants which differ in their resistance to air pollution. Our research was conducted on the basis of a full multivariate experiment with two levels of factors. Peroxidase activity was determined by a colorimetric method according to the duration of oxidization of benzidine. For determination of polyphenoloxidase activity we determined the duration of oxidization of p-phenilendiamin according to the change in optical density of the solution. Pollutants have a significant influence on activity of the investigated enzymes in the leaves of the plant species studied, which depends on the resistance of the plants to contamination, and also the composition and concentrations of pollutants. With resistant species (Ligustrum vulgare L., Quercus robur L., Lonicera tatarica L., Eleagnus angustifolia L., Philadelphus coronaria L. peroxidase activity either did not change or rose by 11.2–64.1% compared to the control, depending on the composition of pollutants, their concentrations and the duration of their activity. Polyphenoloxidase activity in these plants did not significantly change in most variants of the experiment, although high concentrations of pollutants resulted in suppression of the activity of this enzyme by 26.1–37.6%. In species with variable tolerance which did not experience damage, peroxidase function did not change. Species sensitive to

  1. Sulphur isotope variations in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, L.; Krouse, H.R.; Grinenko, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    The measurement of the isotope ratios of sulphur and oxygen can in principal be used to assess sulphur inputs into, transformation within, and removal from the atmosphere. Major inputs arise from both anthropogenic and biogenic activities. Transformations arise from oxidation, neutralization, and other chemical reactions. Advection causes dilution and the main removal processes are dry deposition (governed by gravitation and diffusion) and rain. The admixture of sources can be discerned from their isotopic signatures whereas transformations and removal can be followed from the isotopic fractionation that might occur. In this chapter, the atmospheric sulphur cycle and the associated chemistry are summarized. Also presented is information on natural isotopic variations and fundamental concepts relating to the use of isotopic data to delineate anthropogenic S in the atmosphere. Examples of successful applications of these concepts are given. Finally, consideration is given to the potential of using isotopically enriched sulphur to study transport and transformation of atmospheric S compounds. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Support of the EMEP-project: European wide depositions of sulphur and nitrogen compounds as a consequence of sulphur, nitrogen oxides and ammonia emissions; Unterstuetzung der EMEP-Modellrechnungen: Europaweite Deposition schwefel- und stickstoffhaltiger Verbindungen als Folge der Emissionen von Schwefel, Stickoxiden und Ammoniak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, O [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Grassl, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    1994-01-01

    For the European long range transport model EMEP the parametrisations of dry and wet deposition were improved. The dry deposition of sulphur and ammonia was improved in the source grid element with a high resolution Eulerian model. The wet deposition was improved over sea areas. With satellite measurements of the SSM/I it was demonstrated, that a detailed treatment of precipitation processes in the norwegian weather forecast model LAM50 with a prognostic equation for the cloud water content, in contrast to the routine version, provides more realistic precipitation fields for air pollution modelling. The agreement between modelled and observed concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in air and precipitation is within a range of 40 to 70%. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden beim europaweiten Ausbreitungsmodell EMEP die Parametrisierungen der Trocken- und Nassdeposition verbessert. Bei der Trockendeposition wurde die Ablagerung von Schwefeldioxid und Ammoniak im Quellgitterelement mit einem hochaufloesenden Eulerschen Modell verbessert. Die Nassdeposition wurde ueber Seegebieten verbessert. Es konnte mit Satellitenmessungen des SSM/I nachgewiesen werden, dass sie ausfuehrlichere Behandlung der Niederschlagsprozesse im Norwegischen Wetterdienstmodell LAM50, anders als in seiner Routineversion, mit einer prognostischen Gleichung fuer den Wolkenwassergehalt realistischere Niederschlagshoehen fuer die Stofftransportmodellierung liefert. Vergleiche von Modellrechnungen und Messdaten zeigen fuer Schwefel- und Stickstoffverbindungen fuer Konzentrationen in der Luft und im Niederschlag Abweichungen von 40 bis 70%. (orig.)

  3. Support of the EMEP-project: European wide depositions of sulphur and nitrogen compounds as a consequence of sulphur, nitrogen oxides and ammonia emissions; Unterstuetzung der EMEP-Modellrechnungen: Europaweite Deposition schwefel- und stickstoffhaltiger Verbindungen als Folge der Emissionen von Schwefel, Stickoxiden und Ammoniak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, O [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Grassl, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    1994-11-01

    For the European long range transport model EMEP the parametrisations of dry and wet deposition were improved. The dry deposition of sulphur and ammonia was improved in the source grid element with a high resolution Eulerian model. The wet deposition was improved over sea areas. With satellite measurements of the SSM/I it was demonstrated, that a detailled treatment of precipitation processes in the Norwegian weather forecast model LAM50 with a prognostic equation for the cloud water content, in contrast to the routine version, provides more realistic precipitation fields for air pollution modeling. The agreement between modelled and observed concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in air and precipitation is within a range of 40 to 70%. The project was carried out at the Meteorological Institute in Oslo and at the GKSS-Research Centre Geesthacht. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden beim europaweiten Ausbreitungsmodell EMEP die Parametrisierungen der Trocken- und Nassdeposition verbessert. Bei der Trockendeposition wurde die Ablagerung von Schwefeldioxid und Ammoniak im Quellgitterelement mit einem hochaufloesenden Eulerschen Modell verbessert. Die Nassdeposition wurde ueber Seegebieten verbessert. Es konnte mit Satellitenmessungen des SSM/I nachgewiesen werden, dass die ausfuehrlichere Behandlung der Niederschlagsprozesse im norwegischen Wetterdienstmodell LAM50, anders als in seiner Routineversion, mit einer prognostischen Gleichung fuer den Wolkenwassergehalt realistischere Niederschlagshoehen fuer die Stofftransportmodellierung liefert. Vergleiche von Modellrechnungen und Messdaten zeigen fuer Schwefel- und Stickstoffverbindungen fuer Konzentrationen in der Luft und im Niederschlag Abweichungen von 40 bis 70%. Die Projektarbeiten wurden am Meteorologischen Institut in Oslo und am GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  4. Quantitative Aspects of Sulphur Metabolism in the Ruminant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, J. [Institut fuer Tierernaehrung, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1968-07-01

    In a series of four experiments {sup 35}S sulphate was given intra-ruminally to lactating dairy goats at feeding times (twice daily) during periods of 10 to 11 d. Rumen contents were sampled on the 8th, 9th and 10th day of {sup 35}S application. Radioactivity was determined in the volatile sulphur fraction (sulphide-sulphur) and in protein-bound sulphur (fraction insoluble in trichloroacetic acid). The ratio between the specific activities of protein sulphur and of sulphide sulphur was considered to be an estimate for that fraction of sulphur-containing amino acids present in the proteins of rumen contents, which was synthesized by microorganisms. This interpretation is based on the assumption that sulphide is the most important source of inorganic sulphur for the synthesis of sulphur amino acids and that incorporation of inorganic sulphur compounds of a a higher state of oxidation into organic molecules may quantitatively be neglected. In three experiments the animals received rations containing 16% to 17% crude protein. In these experiments the ratio of specific activities of protein and sulphide sulphur was found to vary from 0.32 to 0.41. According to the assumptions mentioned above, this would indicate that 32 to 41% of the total amount of protein-bound sulphur amino acids were synthesized by microorganisms from inorganic (sulphide) sulphur. In the fourth experiment the animal received a ration containing only 10% protein but supplemented with urea to bring the total crude protein content to 13%. In this experiment the ratio of specific activities was 0.70, indicating a much higher contribution of microbial synthesis of sulphur amino acids than in the experiments with a more abundant protein supply. The time course of the specific activity of protein-bound-sulphur in the milk is taken as a reference base for an interpretation of labelling of body proteins in terms of turnover rates.

  5. Organically bound sulphur in coal: A molecular approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1992-01-01

    A critical review of literature concerning the molecular characterization of low and high molecular weight organosulphur constitutents present in coal as well as a detailed analysis of organic sulphur compounds present in flash evaporates and pyrolysates of a suite of coals ranging in sulphur

  6. Sulphurous mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphurous waters contain at least 1mg H2S, HS, S or thiosulphate per liter or complex colloidal sulfur water is presented as of simple or mixed sulphide (alkali, carbonated, chlorinated sodium.In the sulphurous waters, sulfur is found in several forms (hydrogen sulfide, free sulfide, sulfide groups, polysulfides acids. Yellow, opalescent white precipitate and deposit a glass of water on the bottom of sulphur oxidation by indicates the intensity of the wateroxidation process by oxygen in the air.

  7. Pyrotechnic countermeasures: IV. Radiometric performance of a sulphur-based Flare composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ernst-Christian [NATO Munitions Safety Information Analysis Center (MSIAC), Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-10-15

    Radiometric performance of a sulphur-based flare composition has been investigated. Composition comprising sulphur, potassium perchlorate and antimony sulphide has acceptable band ratio but an order of magnitude weaker spectral efficiency than typical carbon-based compositions. The use of other sulphur compounds with potential for increased performance is discussed. For part III see Ref. [1]. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Sulphur output from oil sands : dramatically changing Alberta's sulphur balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Aquin, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discussed sulphur production from Alberta's gas and oil sands industries. While sulfur derived from natural gas production in the province is expected to decline as natural gas reserves diminish, Alberta's oil sands contain high amounts of sulphur. It is not yet known how much sulphur will be produced from the province's oil sands facilities. Alberta had considerable stockpiles of sulphur in the 1970s. By 1980, inventories began to decline. By 1996, output had increased to 7.1 million tonnes. Alberta's sulphur inventory reached 9.7 million tonnes following the collapse of the Soviet Union's government mandated fertilizer industry. In 2006, sulphur supplies in Alberta reached 12 million tonnes. Reduced global output has now lowered sulphur stockpiles. Increases in sulphur prices tend to reduce market demand, and lower prices will not typically change the volume of sulphur produced as a byproduct of oil and gas operations. Bitumen-derived sulphur output is expected to exceed gas-derived sulphur output in the near future. Sulphur from oil sands processing is expected to increase by 5 million tonnes by 2017. Increased sulphur production levels in Alberta will present a significant challenge for all sectors of the hydrocarbon industry. It was concluded that developing a plan for storing, selling or disposing of the sulphur will help to ensure the profitability of oil sands operations

  9. Sulphur fertilization influences the sulphur species composition in Allium sativum: sulphomics using HPLC-ICPMS/MS-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Andrea; Ronzan, Marilena; Feldmann, Joerg

    2017-10-18

    Garlic (A. sativum) contains a large number of small sulphur (S)-containing metabolites, which are important for its taste and smell and vary with A. sativum variety and growth conditions. This study was designed to investigate the influence of different sulphur-fertilization regimes on low molecular weight S-species by attempting the first sulphur mass balance in A. sativum roots and bulbs using HPLC-ICPMS/MS-ESI-MS/MS. Species unspecific quantification of acid soluble S-containing metabolites was achieved using HPLC-ICP-MS/MS. For identification of the compounds, high resolution ESI-MS (Orbitrap LTQ and q-TOF) was used. The plants contained up to 54 separated sulphur-containing compounds, which constitute about 80% of the total sulphur present in A. sativum. The roots and bulbs of A. sativum contained the same compounds, but not necessarily the same amounts and proportions. The S-containing metabolites in the roots reacted more sensitively to manipulations of sulphur fertilization than those compounds in the bulbs. In addition to known compounds (e.g. γ-glutamyl-S-1-propenylcysteine) we were able to identify and partially quantify 31 compounds. Three as yet undescribed S-containing compounds were also identified and quantified for the first time. Putative structures were assigned to the oxidised forms of S-1-propenylmercaptoglutathione, S-2-propenylmercaptoglutathione, S-allyl/propenyl-containing PC-2 and 2-amino-3-[(2-carboxypropyl)sulfanyl]propanoic acid. The parallel use of ICP-MS/MS as a sulphur-specific detector and ESI-MS as a molecular detector simplifies the identification and quantification of sulphur containing metabolites without species specific standards. This non-target analysis approach enables a mass balance approach and identifies the occurrence of the so far unidentified organosulphur compounds. The experiments showed that the sulphur-fertilization regime does not influence sulphur-speciation, but the concentration of some S

  10. The role of nitrogen and sulphur bearing compounds in the wettability of oil reservoir rocks: an approach with nuclear microanalysis and other related surface techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, F.; Toulhoat, N.; Potocek, V.; Trocellier, P.

    1999-01-01

    Oil recovery is strongly influenced by the wettability of the reservoir rock. Some constituents of the crude oil (polar compounds and heavy fractions such as asphaltenes with heteroatoms) are believed to react with the reservoir rock and to condition the local wettability. Therefore, it is important to obtain as much knowledge as possible about the characteristics of the organic matter/mineral interactions. This study is devoted to the description at the microscopic scale of the distribution of some heavy fractions of crude oil (asphaltenes) and nitrogen molecules (pyridine and pyrrole) on model minerals of sandstone reservoir rocks such as silica and clays. Nuclear microanalysis, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and other related microscopic imaging techniques allow to study the distribution and thickness of the organic films. The respective influences of the nature of the mineral substrate and the organic matter are studied. The important role played by the nitrogen compounds in the adsorption of organic matter is emphasized

  11. Solving the sulphur situation : research assesses viability of burying sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proce, B.

    2006-01-01

    Oil sands mining companies are looking for ways to manage growing levels of sulphur production from the Athabasca region. Infrastructure is not in place to economically transport the sulphur even though there is a global market for it. Sulphur cannot be stockpiled indefinitely as it can react with air to produce sulphur dioxide. Although above-ground sulphur storage has been regulated for more than 30 years, the underground storage of sulphur is still in a research and development phase. Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd. is currently conducting an ongoing experiment in which 100 tonne test blocks have been buried above and below the water table so that surrounding areas could be monitored over a period of years. A series of tests is being conducted to examine changes in pH in water and sulphate levels. A multi-layered engineering casing to contain the sulphur and prevent seepage is also being investigated. Once stored underground, operators also have to consider how the sulphur will be accessed in the future, as it is subject to government royalties. The storage of sulphur may have economic benefits as the product can be sold when prices are high. Most sulphur produced in Alberta is sold as an export product in the United States for use in products such as fertilizer. Shell Canada penetrated the Chinese market in 2001 and has since become one of Canada's largest sulphur exporters. Shell has also introduced a number of products using sulphur, including fertilizers, enhanced asphalt, and concrete. It was concluded that companies must take action now to mitigate future losses and to utilize current markets in order to remain competitive. 3 figs

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to zinc and “the prevention of bad breath by neutralising of volatile sulphur compounds in the mouth and oral cavity” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to zinc and “the prevention of bad breath by neutralising of volatile sulphur compounds in the mouth and oral cavity”. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The claimed effect is “prevents bad breath......Following an application from EJP Pharmaceutical ApS, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...... by neutralising of volatile sulphur compounds in the mouth and oral cavity”. The target population, as proposed by the applicant, is adults over the age of 18 who wish to improve their bad breath. The Panel considers that the proposed claim is related to breath odour rather than to a function of the body...

  13. Power density investigations for the large wind turbines' grid-side press-pack IGBT 3L-NPC-VSCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Helle, Lars; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2012-01-01

    -thermal models are required to be derived, implemented, and utilized. In this study, employed as a grid-side medium voltage full-scale voltage source converters (VSCs) in a multi-MW wind turbine, press-pack IGBT three-level neutral-point-clamped VSC (3L-NPC-VSC), 3L active NPC-VSC (3L-ANPC-VSC), and 3L neutral......Power density is the important design criterion in wind turbine converter design provided that satisfactory converter performance is guaranteed. In order to assess a converter in terms of power density, which is dependent on converter electrical and thermal behaviors, converter electro......-point-piloted VSC (3L-NPP-VSC) are characterized in terms of converter operating principles, physical structure, power loss, and DC bus capacitor size for establishing the basis for converter electro-thermal modeling. Via the practical implementations of the converter electro-thermal models in a computation...

  14. Sulphur XANES Analysis of Cultured Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Podgorczyk, M.; Paluszkiewicz, Cz.; Balerna, A.; Kisiel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men throughout the world. It is believed that changes to the structure of protein binding sites, altering its metabolism, may play an important role in carcinogenesis. Sulphur, often present in binding sites, can influence such changes through its chemical speciation. Hence there is a need for precise investigation of coordination environment of sulphur. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy offers such possibility. Cell culture samples offer histologically well defined areas of good homogeneity, suitable for successful and reliable X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis. This paper presents sulphur speciation data collected from three different human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, LNCaP and DU-145). Sulphur X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis was performed on K-edge structure. The spectra of cells were compared with those of cancerous tissue and with organic substances as well as inorganic compounds. (authors)

  15. Kinetics of aerobic oxidation of volatile sulfur compounds in wastewater and biofilm from sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudelle, Elise Alice; Vollertsen, Jes; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of aerobic chemical and biological oxidation of selected odorous volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) by wastewater and biofilm from sewers. The VSCs included methyl mercaptan (MeSH), ethyl mercaptan (EtSH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS......-spot downstream of a force main and the other was a gravity sewer transporting young aerobic wastewater. The kinetics of VSC oxidation for both wastewater and suspended biofilm samples followed a first-order rate equation. The average values of the reaction rate constants demonstrated the following order...... in the aerobic wastewater....

  16. Conversion of sulfur compounds and microbial community in anaerobic treatment of fish and pork waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Yao, Xing-Zhi; Chen, Min; Ma, Ruo-Chan; Li, Hua-Jun; Wang, Chen; Ding, Shen-Hua

    2018-04-07

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are not only the main source of malodor in anaerobic treatment of organic waste, but also pose a threat to human health. In this study, VSCs production and microbial community was investigated during the anaerobic degradation of fish and pork waste. The results showed that after the operation of 245 days, 94.5% and 76.2% of sulfur compounds in the fish and pork waste was converted into VSCs. Among the detected VSCs including H 2 S, carbon disulfide, methanethiol, ethanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, methanethiol was the major component with the maximum concentration of 4.54% and 3.28% in the fish and pork waste, respectively. The conversion of sulfur compounds including total sulfur, SO 4 2- -S, S 2- , methionine and cysteine followed the first-order kinetics. Miseq sequencing analysis showed that Acinetobacter, Clostridium, Proteus, Thiobacillus, Hyphomicrobium and Pseudomonas were the main known sulfur-metabolizing microorganisms in the fish and pork waste. The C/N value had most significant influence on the microbial community in the fish and pork waste. A main conversion of sulfur compounds with CH 3 SH as the key intermediate was firstly hypothesized during the anaerobic degradation of fish and pork waste. These findings are helpful to understand the conversion of sulfur compounds and to develop techniques to control ordor pollution in the anaerobic treatment of organic waste. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Sulphur in liquid fuels 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, J. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Fuels Div., Oil, Gas and Energy Branch ; Sabourin, R. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    Environment Canada has developed new regulations for sulphur content in fuels in an effort to align with requirements recently passed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report summarizes data regarding sulphur content in liquid fuels for the year 2002. The requirements of the Sulphur in Gasoline Regulation came into effect in 2002, limiting the average sulphur content of gasoline to 150 mg/kg. In January 2005, a 30 mg/kg average limit will come into effect. Also, in July 2002, the Sulphur in Diesel Fuel Regulation stipulated a maximum limit of 500 mg/kg for on-road diesel fuel. The new regulation continues this limit until mid-2006 at which time a 15 mg/kg limit will come into effect for on-road diesel fuel. Nationally, the average sulphur content in gasoline in 2002 was 246 mg/kg, which was 14.3 per cent lower than in 2001. The data covers the period from January 1 to December 31, 2002 and was obtained from petroleum refineries and importing companies that are required to submit quarterly information to the regional office of Environment Canada. Failure to comply results in penalties. The report includes data for aviation turbo fuel, motor gasoline, aviation gasoline, kerosene oil, low-sulphur diesel fuel, diesel fuel, light fuel oil, and heavy fuel oil. 16 tabs., 17 figs., 7 appendices.

  18. Power Capability Investigation Based on Electrothermal Models of Press-pack IGBT Three-Level NPC and ANPC VSCs for Multimegawatt Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Helle, Lars; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2012-01-01

    to provide reactive power support as an ancillary service. For multimegawatt full-scale wind turbines, power capability depends on converter topology and semiconductor switch technology. As power capability limiting factors, switch current, semiconductor junction temperature, and converter output voltage...... are addressed in this study for the three-level neutral-point-clamped voltage source converter (3L-NPC-VSC) and 3L Active NPC VSC (3L-ANPC-VSC) with press-pack insulated gate bipolar transistors employed as a grid-side converter. In order to investigate these VSCs' power capabilities under various operating...... conditions with respect to these limiting factors, a power capability generation algorithm based on the converter electrothermal model is developed. Built considering the VSCs' operation principles and physical structure, the model is validated by a 2 MV·A single-phase 3L-ANPC-VSC test setup. The power...

  19. Sulphur highways : value-added solutions to create sulphur demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, R.

    2010-09-15

    Producers generally view sulphur as a nuisance with essentially no benefit. In Alberta, a greater portion of sulphur production will shift from natural gas to the oilsands producing areas where there is limited infrastructure to move it out. Increased amounts of sour oil and gas production together with greater fuel desulphurization have also led to more sulphur being produced. In order to address the inevitable storage issue, Shell is considering value-added uses for the product, such as sulphur asphalt. The company developed Thiopave, a sulphur-based product for use in asphalt paving mixtures that can improve the mechanical performance of asphalt. The sulphur can be added to the asphalt mix as a solid pellet, which helps reduce the emission of sulphur vapour, odour and eye irritation. Twenty Thiopave projects are planned for the 2010 paving season in 9 U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces. Sulphur Enhanced Asphalt Modifier (SEAM) was the first generation of Thiopave developed in 2003. SEAM replaces 20 to 25 percent by volume of the bitumen in asphalt mix. The properties allow Thiopave-enhanced roads to perform better than conventional roads in both consistently high temperature regions and climates with wide temperature variations. In 2007, an asphalt mix containing 40 percent by mass of Thiopave was used in a trial in Qatar. The Thiopave asphalt mix was compared with a conventional mix at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40 degrees C to determine the stiffness ratio. It was determined that Thiopave mixes containing high-penetration bitumen can be used to build temperature resistant roads that are stiffer in hot summer temperatures while improving the pavement's cold weather cracking performance. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  20. [Effects of sulphur compounds on the volatile characteristics of heavy metals in fly ash from the MSW and sewage sludge co-combustion plant during the disposal process with higher temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Yong; Sun, Shui-Yu

    2012-11-01

    Fly ash sample was collected from a MSW co-combustion with sewage sludge plant and the volatilization of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn was investigated before and after the water washing of fly ash, meanwhile, the influence of adding different sulphur compounds (S, NaS, Na2 SO3, Na2 SO4) on the volatilization of heavy metals was studied. The results showed that the contents of Zn, Pb and Mn were high, the Ni content was low and the Cd content reached 29.4 mg x kg(1). The contents of Pb, Cu, Zn increased, while that of Cd reduced in the fly ash after water washing. TG-DTG curves of fly ash showed highest weight loss in ranges of 579-732 degrees C and 949-1 200 degrees C, with 690 degrees C and 1 154 degrees C as the inflection point temperatures. The volatilization of different heavy metals showed great difference in the volatilization rate, following the order of Pb > Cd > Zn > Cu, in which the volatilization rate of Pb was more than 80% and that of Cu was less than 30%. After water washing, the volatilization of different heavy metals showed great difference in the volatilization rate, with the order of Zn > Pb > Cd > Cu, in which the volatilization rate of Zn was more than 20%. With the pretreatment of adding Na2 SO3 and Na2 SO4, the evaporation rates of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd) were significantly decreased. After adding S, the evaporation rate of Zn was reduced, whereas the addition of Na2S reduced the evaporation rates of Cd and Zn. The evaporation rates of the four heavy metals were all reduced after adding Na2S in the washed fly ash. The evaporation rates of Cu and Zn were reduced with addition of S and Na2SO3 and the evaporation rate of Cd was reduced by adding the four sulfides. The results can provide a basis for the harmless disposal and maximized resource utilization and recycling of fly ash.

  1. Sulphur oxidising bacteria in mangrove ecosystem: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... factors such as salinity and nutrient availability highly variable. Mangrove .... sulphate and converts it into organic sulphur compound. (Subba Rao ..... of organic fertilizer long favored in Australia. .... Fish. Technol. Soc. 21:126-130. Dias ACF, Andreote FD, Rigonato J, Fiore MF, Melo IS, Araujo WL. (2010).

  2. Measurement of sulphur-35 in the coolant gas of the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandalls, F.J.

    1978-03-01

    Sulphur is an important element in some food chains and the release of radioactive sulphur to the environment must be closely controlled if the chemical form is such that it is available or potentially available for entering food chains. The presence of sulphur-35 in the coolant gas of the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor warranted a study to assess the quantity and chemical form of the radioactive sulphur in order to estimate the magnitude of the potential environmental hazard which might arise from the release of coolant gas from Civil Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors. A combination of gas chromatographic and radiochemical analyses revealed carbonyl sulphide to be the only sulphur-35 compound present in the coolant gas of the Windscale Reactor. The concentration of carbonyl sulphide was found to lie in the range 40 to 100 x 10 -9 parts by volume and the sulphur-35 specific activity was about 20 mCi per gramme. The analytical techniques are described in detail. The sulphur-35 appears to be derived from the sulphur and chlorine impurities in the graphite. A method for the preparation of carbonyl sulphide labelled with sulphur-35 is described. (author)

  3. Mathematical modelling of demineralisation of high sulphur coal by bioleaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weerasekara, N.S.; Frutos, F.J.G.; Cara, J.; Lockwood, F.C. [University of London Imperial College of Science Technology & Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    During coal combustion various toxic compounds are generated from its sulphur content. Their environmental impacts are considered to be very important. While there are various conventional preparation methods to remove the sulphur in the fuel, recent work reveals that newly-isolated micro-organisms, naturally present in coal, have the ability to reduce its sulphur content. The removal of sulphur using biological leaching involving acidophilic iron oxidising bacteria like Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans are examined and a computational technique based on computational fluid dynamics is developed to model the biological leaching of sulphur from coal. The model was validated against a pack-column experiment carried out for iron separation during 60 days. The mathematical model predicted iron separation over time is similar to experimental measurements, with an average difference of 5.5%. According to the experimental results, there was an overall reduction of 33% of pyrite, whereas the model prediction was 32%. The model results shows overall good agreement with pack-column experimental data.

  4. Sumpor u ugljenu (Sulphur in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulphur in coal possesses important environmetal problems in its usage. The sulphur dioxide (S02 emissions produced during coal combustion account for a significant proportion of the total global output of anthropogenic SO2. The extent of sulphur separation depends on several variables such as the form of sulphur in coal, intimacy of contact between minerals and the products of devolatilization. The total sulphur in coal varies in the range of 0.2 - 11 wt %, although in most cases it is beetwen 1 and 3 wt %. Sulphur occurs in a variety of both inorganic and organic forms. Inorganic sulphur is found mainly as iron pyrite, marcasite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopirite and as sulphates (rarely exceeds w = 0,1 %. Organic sulphur is found in aromatic rings and aliphatic functionalities usually as mercaptans, aliphatic and aryl sulfides, disulfides and thiophenes. Organic and pyritic sulphur quantities depend on coal rank. Higher rank coals tend to have a high proportion of labile sulphur. All the organic sulphur is bivalent and it is spread throughout the organic coal matrix. Sulphur occurs in all the macerals and most minerals. Vitrinite contains the major part of organic sulphur and metals. Elemental sulphur is produced during coal weathering. The depolymerization methods as pyrolysis and hydrogenation are very drastic methods wich change the structure of the coal and the sulphur groups. In the case of pyrolysis, high levels of desulphurization, in chars and additional production of liquid hydrocarbon can be achieved. Thiophenes and sulphides were the major sulphur components of tars from coal pyrolysis. Hyrdogen sulphide and the lower mercaptans and sulphides were found in the volatile matters. Hydrogen sulphide and thiophenes are practically the only sulphur products of coal hydrogenation. H2S is produced in char hydrodesulphurization. A number of options are available for reducing sulphur emissions including the

  5. Sulphur removal in IGCC projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, F. (Parsons (United Kingdom))

    1998-01-01

    The technology for recovering elemental sulphur from H[sub 2]S bearing gases is well established. The modified Claus Process is the principal work-horse in sulphur recovery and can customarily achieve conversion efficiencies of 95% or better. Nowadays, such a level of recovery is no longer sufficient in most instances and sulphur recovery facility must then include some form of enhanced recovery, usually by treating the Claus tail gas. A number of processes have been introduced to enable the overall recovery to be increased. Recoveries in excess of 99% are both feasible and economic. Use of oxygen in place has become very popular in cases where oxygen is available cheaply or where capacity increases are designed. Most IGCC projects needing an air separation plant would automatically benefit from extending the use of oxygen to the sulphur recovery plant. The most popular route to minimising sulphur emissions in the context of IGCC projects has involved an oxygen based Claus plant followed by tail gas hydrogenation, hydrogen sulphide recovery and its recycle to the Claus section. The recovery of H[sub 2]S from the Claus tail gas can be integrated with the main gas treating system in the gasification plant. The cost advantage of doing so is significant. Parsons has been involved with the technology since 1949 and has been responsible for developments such as the ammonia burning Claus and jointly with Unocal, the BSRP tail gas process and Selectox processes. Recent innovations in response changing environmental and production requirements have included catalytic and tail gas processes which reduce sulphur emissions. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Sulphur removal in IGCC projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, F. [Parsons (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The technology for recovering elemental sulphur from H{sub 2}S bearing gases is well established. The modified Claus Process is the principal work-horse in sulphur recovery and can customarily achieve conversion efficiencies of 95% or better. Nowadays, such a level of recovery is no longer sufficient in most instances and sulphur recovery facility must then include some form of enhanced recovery, usually by treating the Claus tail gas. A number of processes have been introduced to enable the overall recovery to be increased. Recoveries in excess of 99% are both feasible and economic. Use of oxygen in place has become very popular in cases where oxygen is available cheaply or where capacity increases are designed. Most IGCC projects needing an air separation plant would automatically benefit from extending the use of oxygen to the sulphur recovery plant. The most popular route to minimising sulphur emissions in the context of IGCC projects has involved an oxygen based Claus plant followed by tail gas hydrogenation, hydrogen sulphide recovery and its recycle to the Claus section. The recovery of H{sub 2}S from the Claus tail gas can be integrated with the main gas treating system in the gasification plant. The cost advantage of doing so is significant. Parsons has been involved with the technology since 1949 and has been responsible for developments such as the ammonia burning Claus and jointly with Unocal, the BSRP tail gas process and Selectox processes. Recent innovations in response changing environmental and production requirements have included catalytic and tail gas processes which reduce sulphur emissions. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Discontinuities in Jovian sulphur plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekler, Y [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (USA); Eviatar, A; Siscoe, G L

    1979-10-01

    In recent years, the Jovian sulphur nebula, which is the only component of the thermal plasma in the magnetosphere of Jupiter which emits in the visible, has been the subject of considerable study. A large number of investigators have come up with widely differing models for the density, composition and temperature of the Jovian magnetospheric plasma. In this paper a different characteristic of the sulphur emission, namely its radial distribution is discussed and an attempt is made to assess its implications for the plasma and magnetic field configuration of the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter.

  8. Muon transfer to sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulhauser, F.; Schneuwly, H.

    1993-01-01

    A systematic study of muon capture and muon transfer has been performed in seven different H 2 + SO 2 gas mixtures. From the single-exponential time structure of the muonic sulphur x-rays, one determines the lifetime of the μp atoms under the given experimental conditions. The reduced muon transfer rates to the sulphur dioxide molecule, deduced from these lifetimes, all agree well with each other. The muonic oxygen time spectra show an additional structure as if μp atoms of another kind were present. Comparable time structures are observed in a D 2 + SO 2 mixture. (author)

  9. Sulphur cement pre-composition and process for preparing such sulphur cement pre-composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the preparation of a sulphur cement pre-composition comprising reacting sulphur modifier with polysulphide-containing organosilane to obtain in the presence of sulphur the sulphur cement pre-composition, wherein the organosilane has the general molecular formula:

  10. Distribution and isotopic abundance of sulphur in recent marine sediments off southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, I R; Emergy, K O; Rittenberg, S C

    1963-01-01

    Analyses of sulphur compounds in basin sediments off southern California indicate that elemental sulphur, free sulphide, hydrotroilite, organic sulphur, sulphate and pyrite are present in quantities that vary with environment and depth in the sediments. Pyrite is generally the most abundant form, occurring in oxidizing as well as in reducing sediments and often constituting 90% of total sulphur. A material balance indicates that the total sulphur content is far in excess of the sulphate-sulphur initially trapped in the interstitial water. This evidence, together with failure to detect significant alternate sources, suggests that sulphate-sulphur is extracted from the overlying sea water at the sediment-water interface. Isotope measurements confirm many of the conclusions suggested by the quantitative chemical analyses. The show that biological sulphate reduction is the single most important process in the sulphur cycle. The sulphide released is converted to hydrotrolite and then to pyrite. Elemental and organic sulphur appear to be continually forming and reacting in the sediment column. The organic sulphur released from decaying organic matter apparently plays only a small role in the sulphur economy. Enrichment in S/sup 32/ ranging from 9 to 62% was measured in pyrite fragments, a spread similar to that previously observed in ancient sediments. Data from field and laboratory experiments were combined to determine rate of sulphate reduction, number of sulphate reducing bacteria and the amount of organic matter decomposed during sulphate reduction in the sediment, as well as rate of renewal of water in the basins. The results suggest that the methods used may have many applications for elucidating in situ rate processes.

  11. Effect of sulphur forms on colour and residue of sulphur during the storage at drying grapes by sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boztepe Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is the world leader in the manufacture and export of seedless raisins. Requirement of golden bleached raisins is increasing in food Industry of especially cake, bread and pastry year by year. In this research, the lowest residual value and the practical realization of such production was intended to determine by drying grapes with application of sulphur. In this case, sulphur residue and colour situations were determined during 12-mounth-storage according to sulphur forms. In this study sulphur studies were applied by Vitis Vinifera cv. “Sultani Çekirdeksiz” with Na2S2O5, which is liquid source of sulphur and SO2, which is gas source of sulphur. SO2 application were studied during 3, 6 and 8 hours and liquid form of sulphur is Na2S2O5 that was used during by 10, 20 and 30 minutes. Applications were prepared with 3 replicates which contain 20 kg fresh grape in each replicate. In conclusion, changes in dried grape have been identified in point of colour (chroma and hue and the sulphur content was determined according to sulphur forms in packing. Gas form of sulphur (SO2 which was applied 3 hours, gave the best result during 12-mounth-storage for colour and sulphur residue.

  12. Transport of metals and sulphur in magmas by flotation of sulphide melt on vapour bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungall, J. E.; Brenan, J. M.; Godel, B.; Barnes, S. J.; Gaillard, F.

    2015-03-01

    Emissions of sulphur and metals from magmas in Earth’s shallow crust can have global impacts on human society. Sulphur-bearing gases emitted into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions affect climate, and metals and sulphur can accumulate in the crust above a magma reservoir to form giant copper and gold ore deposits, as well as massive sulphur anomalies. The volumes of sulphur and metals that accumulate in the crust over time exceed the amounts that could have been derived from an isolated magma reservoir. They are instead thought to come from injections of multiple new batches of vapour- and sulphide-saturated magmas into the existing reservoirs. However, the mechanism for the selective upward transfer of sulphur and metals is poorly understood because their main carrier phase, sulphide melt, is dense and is assumed to settle to the bottoms of magma reservoirs. Here we use laboratory experiments as well as gas-speciation and mass-balance models to show that droplets of sulphide melt can attach to vapour bubbles to form compound drops that float. We demonstrate the feasibility of this mechanism for the upward mobility of sulphide liquids to the shallow crust. Our work provides a mechanism for the atmospheric release of large amounts of sulphur, and contradicts the widely held assumption that dense sulphide liquids rich in sulphur, copper and gold will remain sequestered in the deep crust.

  13. Evolutions of volatile sulfur compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during aging in different oak barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dong-Qing; Zheng, Xiao-Tian; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Duan, Chang-Qing; Liu, Yan-Lin

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines from seven regions of China during maturation in oak barrels was investigated. The barrels were made of different wood grains (fine and medium) and toasting levels (light and medium). Twelve VSCs were quantified by GC/FPD, with dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methionol exceeding their sensory thresholds. Most VSCs tended to decline during the aging, while DMS was found to increase. After one year aging, the levels of DMS, 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one and sulfur-containing esters were lower in the wines aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks. The wood grain and toasting level of oak barrels significantly influenced the concentration of S-methyl thioacetate and 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one. This study reported the evolution of VSCs in wines during oak barrel aging for the first time and evaluated the influence of barrel types, which would provide wine-makers with references in making proposals about wine aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Torsten; Riemann, Christian; Bartling, Karsten; Rigby, Sean Taylor; Coleman, Luke James Ivor; Lail, Marty Alan

    2014-04-08

    A process for removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream, such as flue gas, comprising: providing a non-aqueous absorption liquid containing at least one hydrophobic amine, the liquid being incompletely miscible with water; treating the fluid stream in an absorption zone with the non-aqueous absorption liquid to transfer at least part of the sulphur oxides into the non-aqueous absorption liquid and to form a sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex; causing the non-aqueous absorption liquid to be in liquid-liquid contact with an aqueous liquid whereby at least part of the sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex is hydrolyzed to release the hydrophobic amine and sulphurous hydrolysis products, and at least part of the sulphurous hydrolysis products is transferred into the aqueous liquid; separating the aqueous liquid from the non-aqueous absorption liquid. The process mitigates absorbent degradation problems caused by sulphur dioxide and oxygen in flue gas.

  15. Electron capture detection of sulphur gases in carbon dioxide at the parts-per-billion level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pick, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    A gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector has been used to determine sulphur gases in CO 2 at the parts-per-billion level, with particular application to the analysis of coolant from CO 2 cooled nuclear reactors. For COS, CS 2 , CH 3 SH, H 2 S and (CH 3 ) 2 S 2 the detector has a sensitivity comparable with the more commonly used flame photometric detector, but it is much less sensitive towards (CH 3 ) 2 S and thiophene. In addition, the paper describes a simple method for trapping sulphur gases which might enable detection of sub parts-per-billion levels of sulphur compounds. (Auth.)

  16. Bioprocesses for the Removal of Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Gas Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.H.; bosch, van den P.L.M.; Leerdam, van R.C.; Graaff, de C.M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the biological removal of sulphur compounds from gas streams. First, an overview is given of the toxicity of sulphur compounds to animals and humans whereafter biological and industrial formation routes for (organic) sulphur compounds are given. Microbial degradation routes of

  17. Sulphur output from oil sands : dramatically changing Alberta's sulphur balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aquin, G. [Con-Sul Inc., Bigfork, MT (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed sulphur production from Alberta's gas and oil sands industries. While sulfur derived from natural gas production in the province is expected to decline as natural gas reserves diminish, Alberta's oil sands contain high amounts of sulphur. It is not yet known how much sulphur will be produced from the province's oil sands facilities. Alberta had considerable stockpiles of sulphur in the 1970s. By 1980, inventories began to decline. By 1996, output had increased to 7.1 million tonnes. Alberta's sulphur inventory reached 9.7 million tonnes following the collapse of the Soviet Union's government mandated fertilizer industry. In 2006, sulphur supplies in Alberta reached 12 million tonnes. Reduced global output has now lowered sulphur stockpiles. Increases in sulphur prices tend to reduce market demand, and lower prices will not typically change the volume of sulphur produced as a byproduct of oil and gas operations. Bitumen-derived sulphur output is expected to exceed gas-derived sulphur output in the near future. Sulphur from oil sands processing is expected to increase by 5 million tonnes by 2017. Increased sulphur production levels in Alberta will present a significant challenge for all sectors of the hydrocarbon industry. It was concluded that developing a plan for storing, selling or disposing of the sulphur will help to ensure the profitability of oil sands operations.

  18. Sulphur Extraction at Bryan Mound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Carolyn L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, Anna C. Snider [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Bryan Mound caprock was subjected to extens ive sulphur mining prior to the development of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Undoubtedl y, the mining has modified the caprock integrity. Cavern wells at Bryan Mound have been subject to a host of well integr ity concerns with many likely compromised by the cavernous capro ck, surrounding corrosive environment (H 2 SO 4 ), and associated elevated residual temperatures al l of which are a product of the mining activities. The intent of this study was to understand the sulphur mining process and how the mining has affected the stability of the caprock and how the compromised caprock has influenced the integrity of the cavern wells. After an extensiv e search to collect pert inent information through state agencies, literature sear ches, and the Sandia SPR librar y, a better understanding of the caprock can be inferred from the knowledge gaine d. Specifically, the discovery of the original ore reserve map goes a long way towards modeling caprock stability. In addition the gained knowledge of sulphur mining - subs idence, superheated corrosive wa ters, and caprock collapse - helps to better predict the post mi ning effects on wellbore integrity. This page intentionally left blank

  19. Comparative study on sulphur reduction from heavy petroleum - Solvent extraction and microwave irradiation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Abdullahi Dyadya; Isah, Abubakar Garba; Umaru, Musa; Ahmed, Shehu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 65, Minna (Nigeria); Abdullahi, Yababa Nma [National Petroleum Investment Management Services (Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation), Lagos (Nigeria)

    2012-07-01

    Sulphur- containing compounds in heavy crude oils are undesirable in refining process as they affect the quality of the final product, cause catalyst poisoning and deactivation in catalytic converters as well as causing corrosion problems in oil pipelines, pumps and refining equipment aside environmental pollution from their combustion and high processing cost. Sulphur reduction has being studied using microwave irradiation set at 300W for 10 and 15minutes and oxidative- solvent extraction method using n- heptane and methanol by 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 crude- solvent ratios after being oxidized with hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 oxidants. Percentage sulphur removal with n- heptane solvent by 1:1 and 1:2 are 81.73 and 85.47%; but extraction using methanol by different observed ratios gave less sulphur reduction. Indeed when microwave irradiated at 300W for 10 and 15minutes, 53.68 and 78.45% reduction were achieved. This indicates that microwave irradiation had caused oxidation by air in the oven cavity and results to formation of alkyl radicals and sulphoxide from sulphur compound in the petroleum. The prevailing sulphur found in the crude going by FT-IR results is sulphides which oxidized to sulphoxide or sulphones. It is clear that sulphur extraction with heptane is more efficient than microwave irradiation but economically due to demands for solvent and its industrial usage microwave irradiation can serve as alternative substitute for sulphur reduction in petroleum. Sulphur reduction by microwave radiation should be up- scaled from laboratory to a pilot plant without involving extraction column in the refining.

  20. Ecosystème fromager : de l'étude du métabolisme du soufre chez Kluyveromyces lactis et Yarrowia lipolytica à l'interaction entre Kluyveromyces lactis et Brevibacterium aurantiacum

    OpenAIRE

    Hébert , Agnès

    2010-01-01

    Sulphur metabolism, which has a central role in the cell, is also important during the manufacturing of smear ripened cheeses. The cheese ecosystem degrades sulphur aminoacids, producing volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) indispensable for the flavour of these products. We studied sulphur metabolism in two cheese-ripening microorganisms, the hemiascomycetous yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis and Yarrowia lipolytica. The in silico analysis of the phylum of hemiascomycetes gave us for the first time a...

  1. Ecosystème fromager : de l'étude du métabolisme du soufre chez Kluyveromyces lactis et Yarrowia lipolytica à l'interaction entre Kluyveromyces lactis et Brevibacterium aurantiacum

    OpenAIRE

    Hebert , Agnès

    2010-01-01

    Sulphur metabolism, which has a central role in the cell, is also important during the manufacturing of smear ripened cheeses. The cheese ecosystem degrades sulphur amino acids, producing volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) indispensable for the flavour of these products. We studied sulphur metabolism in two cheese-ripening microorganisms, the hemiascomycetous yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis and Yarrowia lipolytica. The in silico analysis of the phylum of hemiascomycetes gave us for the first time ...

  2. Hot atom chemistry of sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovski, D. S.; Koleva, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt to cover all papers dealing with the hot atom chemistry of sulpphur is made. Publications which: a) only touch the problem, b) contain some data, indirectly connected with sulphur hot atom chemistry, c) deal with 35 S-production from a chloride matrix, are included as well. The author's name and literature source are given in the original language, transcribed, when it is necessary, in latine. A number of primery and secondary documents have been used including Chemical Abstracts, INIS Atomindex, the bibliographies of A. Siuda and J.-P. Adloff for 1973 - 77, etc. (authors)

  3. Catalysts macroporosity and their efficiency in sulphur sub-dew point Claus tail gas treating processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsybulevski, A.M.; Pearson, M. [Alcoa Industrial Chemicals, 16010 Barker`s Point Lane, Houston, TX (United States); Morgun, L.V.; Filatova, O.E. [All-Russian Research Institute of Natural Gases and Gas Technologies VNIIGAZ, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sharp, M. [Porocel Corporation, Westheimer, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-10-08

    The efficiency of 4 samples of alumina catalyst has been studied experimentally in the course of the Claus `tail gas` treating processes at the sulphur sub-dew point (TGTP). The samples were characterized by the same chemical and crystallographic composition, the same volume of micropores, the same surface area and the same catalytic activity but differed appreciably in the volume of macropores. An increase in the effective operation time of the catalysts before breakthrough of unrecoverable sulphur containing compounds, with the increasing macropore volume has been established. A theoretical model of the TGTP has been considered and it has been shown that the increase in the sulphur capacity of the catalysts with a larger volume of macropores is due to an increase in the catalysts efficiency factor and a slower decrease in their diffusive permeability during filling of micropores by sulphur

  4. Development of a Linear Flow Channel Reactor for sulphur removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-23

    Sep 23, 2013 ... gation of sulphur production in floating sulphur biofilms as a means for addressing this problem. These 50 µm ... Preliminary studies on the use of the FSB system for sulphur removal in Integrated Managed Passive Treatment ...

  5. Optimal sulphuric acid production using Acidithiobacillus caldus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... oxygen uptake rate of 1.35 g/L.day (OUR), 52% sulphur conversion at a rate of 0.83 ... achieving a sulphuric acid production rate of 2.76 g/L.day (dP/dt), while the ...

  6. Sulphurous Mineral Waters: New Applications for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Carbajo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphurous mineral waters have been traditionally used in medical hydrology as treatment for skin, respiratory, and musculoskeletal disorders. However, driven by recent intense research efforts, topical treatments are starting to show benefits for pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, peptic ulcer, and acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. The beneficial effects of sulphurous mineral waters, sulphurous mud, or peloids made from sulphurous mineral water have been attributed to the presence of sulphur mainly in the form of hydrogen sulphide. This form is largely available in conditions of low pH when oxygen concentrations are also low. In the organism, small amounts of hydrogen sulphide are produced by some cells where they have numerous biological signalling functions. While high levels of hydrogen sulphide are extremely toxic, enzymes in the body are capable of detoxifying it by oxidation to harmless sulphate. Hence, low levels of hydrogen sulphide may be tolerated indefinitely. In this paper, we review the chemistry and actions of hydrogen sulphide in sulphurous mineral waters and its natural role in body physiology. This is followed by an update of available data on the impacts of exogenous hydrogen sulphide on the skin and internal cells and organs including new therapeutic possibilities of sulphurous mineral waters and their peloids.

  7. Microbial oxidation and reduction of inorganic sulphur compounds in relation to the development and control of microorganisms active in leaching operations. Part of a coordinated programme on bacterial leaching of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuovinen, O.H.

    1977-01-01

    The project considers the use of Thiobacillus ferroxidans type bacteria for the leaching of metals from ores. The various ways by which Thiobacillus ferroxidans utilizes inorganic sulfur compounds for oxidation, energy, growth and synthesis of cellular material were studied. The report briefly describes the scope and background of the project, and a list of publications describing experimental methods and research materials used is given. Unpublished work commenced during the Research Contract includes three major projects: (1) Transition of Thiobacillus ferroxidans from heterotrophic growth on fucose to autotropic growth on ferrous-iron; (2) development of a method to determine the ATP-content of bacteria attached to ore particles; (3) microbiological and chemical interactions of inorganic sulfur compounds. These three projects are summarized briefly

  8. Trading sulphur emissions under the Second Sulphur Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foersund, Finn R.; Naevdal, Eric

    1997-07-01

    Emission trading is a potent policy instrument in theoretical analyses of environmental policy. However, trading in emission quotas of non-uniformly dispersed pollutants requires that the offsetting quantities vary with location of sources. Such a system is not yet in use. The Second Sulphur Protocol for Europe makes it possible to try out a system of ``exchange rates`` through a clause allowing ``joint implementation`` of emission reductions. In this report, the authors investigate some properties of a system with exogenous exchange rates within a simultaneous trade model based on cost efficiency. Incorporation of constraints on depositions in third party countries may be necessary in order to get third party country cooperation. It is demonstrated that imposition of constraints is feasible, but it is also revealed what demands such incorporation places on the design of the institutional setting. Constraints on trade should only be introduced when the concern for the environment of the various receptors fail to be captured adequately by the calibration of the exchange rates. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Sulphur recovery and sulphur emissions at Alberta sour gas plants : annual report for 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The sulphur recovery of Alberta's grandfathered sour gas plants is monitored by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board. This report provides an annual summary of industry performance for sulphur recovery at large acid gas flaring sour gas plants, and sulphur recovery at all acid gas injection sour gas plants. It follows Interim Directive (ID) 2001-3 which stipulates guidelines for sulphur recovery for the province of Alberta. It includes a list of grandfathered and non grandfathered plants in Alberta. Grandfathered sulphur recovery plants that exceed expectations have the option to file a sulphur emission performance credit report and can use the credits to meet some of their sulphur requirement in the future. Acid gas flaring plants face more stringent requirements and cannot earn credits. Several plants have degrandfathered in the past 5 years. Eleven have made upgrades, 4 have been relicensed to meet the requirements for new plants, and 4 have shut down. Forty-one grandfathered plants remain. Sulphur emissions have decreased 39 per cent for grandfathered acid gas flaring plants, and 28 per cent for grandfathered sulphur recovery plants. 10 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Quantification of chemical sulphur species in bulk soil and organic sulphur fractions by S K-edge Xanes spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, K; Almkvist, G; Nilsson, S I

    2011-01-01

    residue (CR) incorporation and farmyard manure (FYM) application, with equal applications of mineral nutrients were included in the study. In the new data treatment method, internally calibrated spectra of dilute solutions (30 mm) of model compounds were used to fit the sample spectra. This greatly...... the opposite trend was observed. Sulphur XANES spectroscopy of acetylacetone extracts of physically protected and unprotected organic S in two of the soils revealed that physical protection was not related to S speciation; however, intermediate forms of oxidized S species appeared to accumulate in the residual...

  11. Hypothermia reduces sulphur mustard toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Lei; Gong Wenrong; Nelson, Peggy; Martin, Leanne; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of sulphur mustard (HD)-induced toxicity was investigated in first passage cultures of human skin keratinocytes and on hairless guinea pig skin. When cells exposed to HD were incubated at 37 deg. C, a concentration-dependent decline in viability was observed that was maximal by 2 days. In contrast, no significant HD-induced toxicity was evident up to 4 days posttreatment when the cells were incubated at 25 deg. C. However, these protective effects were lost by 24 h when the cells were switched back to 37 deg. C. The protective effects of hypothermia were also demonstrated when apoptotic endpoints were examined. The HD concentration-dependent induction of fragmented DNA (as quantitated using soluble DNA and the TUNEL reaction), morphology, and p53 expression were all significantly depressed when cell cultures were incubated at 25 deg. C compared to 37 deg. C. When animals were exposed to HD vapour for 2, 4, and 6 min and left at room temperature, lesions were produced whose severity was dependent on exposure time and that were maximal by 72 h posttreatment. Moderate cooling (5-10 deg. C) of HD exposure sites posttreatment (4-6 h) significantly reduced the severity of the resultant lesions. However, in contrast to the in vitro results, these effects were permanent. It appears that the early and noninvasive act of cooling HD-exposed skin may provide a facile means of reducing the severity of HD-induced cutaneous lesions

  12. Silica Sulphuric Acid as an Efficient Catalyst for the Catalytic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    presence of a catalytic amount of silica sulphuric acid under micellar media in moderate to good yields. KEYWORDS. Sodium ... Production of aromatic nitro compounds is an important industrial process and involves the unsolved problems of ... V7 and Re9) and titanium and chromium silicates.10 Some of the procedures ...

  13. New perspectives for the petroleum industry. Bioprocesses for the selective removal of sulphur, nitrogen and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlia, T.

    2000-01-01

    Fuel biocatalytic conversion is a process that removes, through selective enzyme-catalyzed reactions, sulphur, nitrogen and metals. The mild operating conditions, the specificity of reactions and the quality of coproducts (particularly the organo sulphur compounds, a source for the petrochemical industry) are just a few of the attractive aspects of this new technology which could open a new world of possibilities in the technology and in the environmental impact of fuels. The paper shows the state-of-the-art of the research and applications of bioprocesses to the petroleum field [it

  14. Sulphur uptake and yield of soybean as influenced by sulphur fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamima, N.; Farid, A. T. M.

    2005-01-01

    Effect of sulphur fertilization (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg/ha) on sulphur uptake and seed yield was studied in sohag and Bangladesh soybean-4 varieties in the field of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur during the winter (rabi) seasons of 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 in grey Terrace soil (Albaquept). Addition of slphur fertilizer exerted significant influence on the yield attributes of soybean varieties. Sulphur uptake also significantly responded to the application of sulphur fertilizer. Variety Bangladesh soybean-4 was found superior to sohag in respect of sulphur uptake and yield. Greater sulphur utilization was observed at lower levels of fertilizer application. Seed yield and sulphur uptake were increased with the application of 40 kg/ ha for sohag and 60 kg/ha for Bangladesh soybean-4. Response of seed yield to added sulphur was quadratic. The economic optimum doses were found to be 49 kg s/ha for sohag and 52 kg s/ha for Bangladesh soybean-4, yielding 2060 and 2354 kg/ha, respectively. (author)

  15. Modified sulphur cement: A low porosity encapsulation material for low, medium and alpha waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalen, A. van; Rijpkema, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Modified sulphur cement, available under the trade name Chement 2000, is a thermoplastic candidate material for the matrix of low, intermediate and alpha radioactive waste. The main source of sulphur is the desulphurization of fossil fuels. In view of the future increase of this product a modified compound of sulphur has been developed at the US Bureau of Mines. Modified sulphur cement as matrix material has properties in common with Portland or blast furnace cement and bitumen. The mechanical strength is comparable to hydraulic cement products. The process to incorporate waste materials is identical to bitumization. The leachability and the resistance to attack by chemicals is nearly the same as for bituminized products. This study showed also that the radiation resistance is high without radiolytic gas production and without change in dimensions (swelling). The rigidity of the matrix is a disadvantage when internal pressures are built up. The thermal conductivity and the heat of combustion of sulphur is low resulting in slow damage to the waste form under fire conditions, even when the temperature of self ignition in air is 220 0 C. The low leachability, the very slow effective diffusion of H 2 O and HTO, and the low permeability is due to the small pore diameters in the modified sulphur matrix. The loading capacity of modified sulphur cement depends on grain size and distribution and is for ungraded ashes, precipitates, dried sludges, etc., in the order of 40-50% of weight. The price of Chement 2000 per tonne is equal to those of blown bitumen

  16. Effects of sulphur ion implantation on the electrochemical behaviour of two stainless steels in sulphuric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader-Roux, J.; Becdelievre, A.M. de; Gaillard, F.; Roux, R.; Becdelievre, J. de

    1986-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour in sulphuric acid of two austenitic stainless steels (AISI 304 L and AISI 321) modified by sulphur ion implantation has been studied. Surface analysis of oxygen and sulphur by LEEIXS and XRFS were performed before and after polarization on unimplanted and on implanted samples. I/E curves with implanted steels reveal an important corrosion peak (α peak) recovering widely the active peak of unimplanted samples. For high implanted doses, another peak (β peak) appears in the passive range. High doses implanted steels polarized in the range of the α peak exhibit a sulphur enriched black surface layer. SEM examination of this layer shows it is constituted by flakes rolling up themselves. The formation of a superficial non-protective sulphide layer and the internal stresses of this layer explain the corrosion enhancement of sulphur implanted materials. After dissolution of this layer the behaviour of unimplanted steels is found again. (author)

  17. Radiation method of sulfide compound transformation in petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, N.K.; Zajkina, R.F.; Zajkin, Yu.A.; Mamonova, T.B.; Bakirova, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    Processes of sulphuric compounds transformation for petroleum and heavy residuals under radiation and thermal treatment action are studied. It is shown that sulphuric compounds are concentrated in heavy fractions as a result of radiation processing. Heavy petroleum products irradiation provokes considerable decrease in the content of mercaptans, disulphides and sulphides, which transfer to sulphoxides and sulphones appearing during radiation-induced oxidation process. (author)

  18. Modelling of catalytic oxidation of NH3 and reduction of NO on limestone during sulphur capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Bhatia, Suresh K.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1996-01-01

    activity with respect to each species involved. An existing particle model, the Grain-Micrograin Model, which simulates sulphur capture on limestone under oxidizing conditions is considered in the modelling. Simulation results in good qualitative agreement with experimental data are obtained here......A theoretical study of the complex transient system of simultaneous sulphur capture and catalytic reactions of N-containing compounds taking place on a single limestone particle is conducted. The numerical technique developed previously by the authors (Kiil et al. 1994) based on collocation...... for the catalytic chemistry of NH3 during simultaneous sulphur capture on a Stevns Chalk particle. The reduction of NO by NH3 over CaSO4 (which is the product of the reaction between SO2, O2 and limestone) was found to be important because this reaction could explain the change in selectivity with increased solid...

  19. Pyroclastic sulphur eruption at Poas Volcano, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, P.W.; Thorpe, R.S.; Brown, G.C.; Glasscock, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent Voyager missions to Jupiter have highlighted the role of sulphur in volcanic processes on io. Although fumarolic sulphur and SO/sub 2/ gas are almost universal in terrestrial active volcanoes, and rare instances of sulphur lava flows have been reported, sulphur in a pyroclastic form has only been described from Poas Volcano, Costa Rica. Here we amplify the original descriptions by Bennett and Raccichini and describe a recent eruption of pyroclastic sulphur scoria and ejected blocks that are characterised by miniature sulphur stalactites and stalagmites.

  20. Use of 0.1% chlorine dioxide to inhibit the formation of morning volatile sulphur compounds (VSC Uso do enxaguatório de dióxido de cloro a 0,1% para inibir a formação matinal de compostos sulfurosos voláteis (CSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cristina Peruzzo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the VSC-inhibiting effect of a commercially available mouthrinse (0.1% chlorine dioxide when compared to its placebo. A 2-step double blind, crossover, randomised study was conducted with 14 dental students with healthy periodontium, who refrained from any mechanical plaque and tongue coating control during two 4-day experimental periods. The subjects were instructed to rinse 3 times daily with the assigned product during each period. A 7-day washout interval was established. VSCs levels were measured by a sulphide monitor at the beginning (baseline and at the end of each experimental period. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilcoxon's and Mann-Whitney's non-parametric tests. At baseline, intragroup analysis revealed that VSCs levels did not differ between groups (p > 0.05; at day 5, the use of the chlorine dioxide mouthrinse did not change the baseline VSCs scores in the control group (p > 0.05, while a 2-fold increase was observed with the use of the placebo mouthrinse (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito inibitório do enxaguatório de dióxido de cloro a 0,1% sobre a formação dos CSVs, quando comparados a um placebo. Um estudo randomizado, cruzado, duplo cego foi conduzido com 14 estudantes de odontologia apresentando saúde periodontal, os quais se abstiveram dos hábitos de escovação dentária e limpeza da língua durante dois períodos experimentais de 4 dias. Os voluntários foram orientados a utilizar o enxaguatório designado 3 vezes ao dia conforme indicado no rótulo. Um intervalo de 7 dias foi estabelecido entre os períodos experimentais. No início ("baseline" e no final de cada período experimental, os níveis de CSVs foram medidos com o uso do monitor de sulfetos. Análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se os testes não-paramétricos de Wilcoxon e Mann-Whitney. No "baseline", uma análise intragrupo revelou que os níveis de CSVs não diferiram entre os

  1. Role of sulphur in rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, Pamila; Sachdev, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sulphur is an essential plant nutrient growing in international importance. Rice farmers usually apply nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium at high rates to the crop. Whenever there is an imbalance between off take and input of nutrients, it may lead to a decline in soil fertility and increase incidence of deficiencies of certain plant nutrients especially sulphur and zinc. On the basis of available information, nutritional requirement, uptake values, crop response and measures to overcome S deficiency are some of the aspects critically dealt with

  2. Reactions of sulphur mustard on impregnated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G K; Singh, Beer

    2004-12-31

    Activated carbon of surface area 1100 m2/gm is impregnated with 4% sodium hydroxide plus 3% Cr(VI) as CrO3 with and without 5% ethylene diamine (EDA), 4% magnesium nitrate and 5% ruthenium chloride by using their aqueous solutions. These carbons are characterized for surface area analysis by BET conventional method and exposed to the vapours of sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 degrees C). After 24 h, the reaction products are extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hemisulphur mustard, thiodiglycol, 1,4-oxathiane are observed to be the products of reaction between sulphur mustard and NaOH/CrO3/C system, whereas on NaOH/CrO3/EDA/C system HD reacted to give 1,4-thiazane. On Mg(NO3)2/C system it gave hemisulphur mustard and thiodiglycol. On RuCl3/C system it degraded to divinyl sulphone. Residual sulphur mustard is observed along with reaction products in all systems studied. Reaction mechanisms are also proposed for these interesting surface reactions. Above-mentioned carbons can be used in filtration systems for protection against hazardous gases such as sulphur mustard.

  3. Reactions of sulphur mustard on impregnated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, G.K.; Singh, Beer

    2004-01-01

    Activated carbon of surface area 1100 m 2 /gm is impregnated with 4% sodium hydroxide plus 3% Cr(Vi) as CrO 3 with and without 5% ethylene diamine (EDA), 4% magnesium nitrate and 5% ruthenium chloride by using their aqueous solutions. These carbons are characterized for surface area analysis by BET conventional method and exposed to the vapours of sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 deg. C). After 24 h, the reaction products are extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hemisulphur mustard, thiodiglycol, 1,4-oxathiane are observed to be the products of reaction between sulphur mustard and NaOH/CrO 3 /C system, whereas on NaOH/CrO 3 /EDA/C system HD reacted to give 1,4-thiazane. On Mg(NO 3 ) 2 /C system it gave hemisulphur mustard and thiodiglycol. On RuCl 3 /C system it degraded to divinyl sulphone. Residual sulphur mustard is observed along with reaction products in all systems studied. Reaction mechanisms are also proposed for these interesting surface reactions. Above-mentioned carbons can be used in filtration systems for protection against hazardous gases such as sulphur mustard

  4. Sulphur oxidising bacteria in mangrove ecosystem: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sulphur-oxidizing bacteria such as photoautotrophs, chemolithotrophs and heterotrophs play an important role in the mangrove environment for the oxidation of the toxic sulphide produced by sulphur reducing bacteria and act as a key driving force behind all sulphur transformations in the mangrove ecosystem which is ...

  5. Development of the floating sulphur biofilm reactor for sulphide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of the floating sulphur biofilm reactor for sulphide oxidation in biological water treatment systems. ... The effect of influent sulphide concentrations, flow rate and reactor dimensions on the sulphur biofilm formation were investigated for the optimisation of elemental sulphur recovery and sulphide removal ...

  6. The useful application of sulphur-bound waste materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, M.M.C.; Koene, J.I.A.

    1996-01-01

    An immobilization process is described which is based on sulphur (instead of cement) as a binding agent for the treatment of hazardous waste materials. Elemental sulphur is able to bind chemically metals such as mercury and, to a lesser extent, lead as metal sulphides. Furthermore, sulphur forms a

  7. Sulphur self as a bioindicator of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihelska, N.; Semerad, M.; Cernansky, S.; Ruzickova, J.; Takacova, A.

    2015-01-01

    Road transport is one of the major sources of air polluting emissions. An average passenger car produces emissions of 228 g/km, trucks produce emissions of around 317 g/km. Emissions from combustion engines contain carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide and various solids. Emissions also contain compounds of toxic metals/metalloids - arsenic, cadmium, chrome, nickel and lead. To detect metal/metalloid contamination from vehicle emissions, samples were collected and analyzed from biomass and soil near Bratislava's busiest road. We focused our attention on concentration of metals/metalloids in Laetiporus sulphureus because it's a very popular edible mushroom. Mushrooms are very good proxies for the state of nearby environment because of their excellent accumulation ability. (authors)

  8. Study of reactions of metals with sulphur and phosphorus compounds by pulsed temperatures; Etude des reactions entre metaux et composes du soufre et du phosphore au moyen de brusques hausses de temperature; Issledovanie reaktsii metallov s soedineniyami sery i fosfora pri regulyarnykh izmeneniyakh temperatury; Estudio de reacciones entre metales y compuestos de azufre y de fosforo empleando impulsos de temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R B; Grunberg, L [National Engineering Laboratory, East Kilbride, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    The anti-wear action of sulphur and phosphorus compounds which are usually added to gear-oils depends on chemical reactions with the metallic surfaces of the gears. These reactions occur both at the bulk oil temperature (approx. 100 Degree-Sign C) and during high temperatures (approx. 600 Degree-Sign C) of short duration when the gearteeth come into contact under lead. The temperature flashes were simulated in an apparatus in which short pulses of electric current were used to heat metal wires immersed in mineral oil containing S{sup 35} and P{sup 32} labelled compounds in solution. The radioactivity acquired by the wires was measured. The extent of the reactions was determined as a function of temperature and time and the results were interpreted in terms of conventional kinetic laws. The modification of the reaction rates by the presence of other compounds in the solution was studied. The effect of pre-formed surface films containing sulphur phosphorus, chlorine and/or oxygen was also determined. In explaining the results, the structure of the materials used and the diffusion processes whereby the reactions occur beyond the initial stages were considered. (author) [French] Les composes du soufre et du phosphore que l'on ajoute souvent aux huiles de graissage offrent une protection contre l'usure, mais cette protection depend des reactions chimiques avec les surfaces metalliques des engrenages. Ces reactions ont lieu aussi bien a la temperature de la masse de l'huile (environ 100 Degree-Sign C) qu'au moment des brusques hausses de temperature (environ 600 Degree-Sign C) qui se produisent lorsque les dents d'engrenage viennent en contact avec pression. Les chocs thermiques ont ete simules dans un appareil a l'interieur duquel on a produit de breves impulsions de courant electrique pour chauffer des fils metalliques immerges dans une huile minerale contenant des composes marques au soufre-35 et au phosphore-32 en solution. Les auteurs ont mesure la radioactivite

  9. Strange and non-strange baryon and antibaryon production in sulphur-tungsten and sulphur-sulphur interactions at 200 A Gev/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holme, A.K.

    1995-11-01

    The author has studied production of strange and multistrange baryons and antibaryons in central sulphur-tungsten, sulphur-sulphur, and lead-lead interactions at relativistic energies. The spectra of strange baryons and antibaryons provide information about the dynamics of hadronic matter under the extreme conditions realised in these collisions. The particle ratios allow the degree and the nature of the flavour equilibrium to be studied, while the transverse mass distributions provide independent information of the temperatures achieved. 143 refs.

  10. Strange and non-strange baryon and antibaryon production in sulphur-tungsten and sulphur-sulphur interactions at 200 A Gev/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holme, A.K.

    1995-11-01

    The author has studied production of strange and multistrange baryons and antibaryons in central sulphur-tungsten, sulphur-sulphur, and lead-lead interactions at relativistic energies. The spectra of strange baryons and antibaryons provide information about the dynamics of hadronic matter under the extreme conditions realised in these collisions. The particle ratios allow the degree and the nature of the flavour equilibrium to be studied, while the transverse mass distributions provide independent information of the temperatures achieved. 143 refs

  11. Extraction mechanism of Sc(III) from sulphuric acid solution by primary amine N1923

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Shaoming; Li Deqian; Ni Jiazan

    1987-01-01

    The extraction mechanism of Sc(III) from sulphuric acid solution by primary amine N 1923 (RNH 2 ) has been investigated by means of slope, isomolar continuous variation and saturation methods. The effect of temperature on the extraction of Sc(III) is observed. The extraction equilibrium constant and thermodynamic functions (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) are obtained. The IR and NMR of extracted compound are measured

  12. A Literature Review on the Mechanism of Action of Sulphur and Nitrogen Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    for years is also poeqible (Aasted et al, 1987; Colardyn et al, 1986). Severely poisoned individuals exhibit bone marrow depression and may die from...MMS does not produce the enhanced depression of DNA synthesis in sensitive cells, compared to resistant cells, produced by sulphur mustard and...Compound MATD 1 Protection (mg/mouse) index 2 WR-3689 15 159 WR-2721 15 44 Aminoethylcysteine 80 27 N- acetylcysteine 8 26 Glutathione 60 22 Cysteine 8

  13. NA35: sulphur-gold collision

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    In this image the real particles produced by the collision of a 6400 GeV sulphur ion with a gold target can be seen as they pass through a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. The NA35 experiment, which was in operation in the 1980s, was part of CERN's ongoing heavy ion project.

  14. K lines in the sulphur isonuclear sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmeri, P.; Mendoza, C.; Bautista, M.A.; Garcia, J.; Kallman, T.R.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate and complete sets of atomic data are being computed for the radiative and Auger processes giving rise to K lines in ions of sulphur. AUTOSTRUCTURE, HFR and BPRM codes are used, taking into account configuration interaction, core relaxation and relativistic effects so as to generate data following an approach used in our previous studies on iron and oxygen. Level energies, wavelengths, A-values and Auger rates are compared with available measurements and previous calculations

  15. Sulphur mountain: Cosmic ray intensity records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, D.; Mathews, T.

    1985-01-01

    This book deals with the comic ray intensity registrations at the Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Laboratory. The time series of intensity form a valuable data-set, for studying cosmic ray intensity variations and their dependence on solar activity. The IGY neutron monitor started operating from July 1, 1957 and continued through 1963. Daily mean values are tabulated for the period and these are also represented in plots. This monitor was set up by the National Research Council of Canada

  16. Migration of methyl and phenyl radicals, oxygen and sulphur atoms in certain diphenylthiophosphorane derivatives under electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauquis, G.; Divisia, B.; Ulrich, J.

    The fragmentation of various diphenylthiophosphoranes (Ph 2 P(S)R) subjected to electron impact gives rise to rearrangements dependent on the nature of the radical R. Migrations of phenyl or methyl radicals from phosphorus towards sulphur were thus observed for R=Ph, CH 3 , CH 2 Ph and NH 2 . When an electrophilic centre is formed, during a fragmentation, on a carbon in the α-position of the diphenylthiophosphoranyl radical, migrations of sulphur atoms and phenyl radicals take place from the phosphorus towards the carbon. This is found to be the case with certain fragmentations of diazo 5 and 6 compounds [fr

  17. CLINSULF sub-dew-point process for sulphur recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisel, M.; Marold, F.

    1988-01-01

    In a 2-reactor system, the CLINSULF process allows very high sulphur recovery rates. When operated at 100/sup 0/C at the outlet, i.e. below the sulphur solidification point, a sulphur recovery rate of more than 99.2% was achieved in a 2-reactor series. Assuming a 70% sulphur recovery in an upstream Claus furnace plus sulphur condenser, an overall sulphur recovery of more than 99.8% results for the 2-reactor system. This is approximately 2% higher than in conventional Claus plus SDP units, which mostly consist of 4 reactors or more. This means the the CLINSULF SSP process promises to be an improvement both in respect of efficiency and low investment cost.

  18. Yeast strains role on the sulphur dioxyde combinations of wines obtained from noble rot and raisining grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Masneuf-Pomarède

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of four industrial and indigenous yeast strains on the sulphur dioxide combinations of wines obtained from noble rot and raisining grapes is studied in different growth of the Sauternes area and one growth in the Jurançon area. The analysis of ketonic compounds (pyruvic acid and 2-oxo-glutaric acid, acetaldehyde and PC50 on the wines clearly showed significant statistical difference between the yeast strains for the sulphur dioxide combination. By adding the same dosage of sulphiting, the free SO2 levels are variable depending on the yeast strain used. One strain (Zymaflore ST, isolated from a spontaneous fermentation of a botrytised must, giving wines with low PC50 values, is well adapted for the noble rot must vinification. The choice of the yeast strain is a parameter of importance to limit the sulphur dioxide amount in the wines.

  19. Gas chromatographic sulphur speciation in heavy crude oil using a modified standard D5623 method and microfluidic Deans switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshka, Nicole E; Choy, Joanne M; Chen, Jinwen

    2017-12-29

    A modification to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) method D5623 is proposed to enable successful and repeatable analysis of heavy crude oil samples. A two-dimensional gas chromatography configuration was implemented, with separation of sulphur compounds occurring on two columns. A Deans switch is used to enable heart-cutting of volatile sulphur compounds onto a DB-Sulfur stationary phase, and separation occurs concurrently with the backflushing of the primary column. The use of a sulphur-selective detector increases selectivity, and 22 volatile sulphur species are quantified in less than 15min, which is almost half the time of the original ASTM method. Samples ranging from light distillation cuts to whole crudes (boiling from 100°C to >750°C) were analyzed with minimal sample preparation. The calculated limit of detection was 0.7mg/kg, repeatability was 3% relative standard deviation (RSD), and a linear range of 1-250mg/kg was obtained, with an R 2 value of 0.994 or better, depending on the compound. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Gamma rays from fast neutron capture in silicon and sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, A.; Nilsson, L.; Bergqvist, I.

    1975-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectra from neutron capture in natural samples of silicon and sulphur have been recorded at eight neutron energies between 4 and 15 MeV. Time-of-flight techniques were used to improve the signal-to-background ratio and the gamma radiation was detected by a large NaI(Tl) scintillator. Cross sections have been determined for transitions to individual (or groups of) levels in the final nucleus. Calculations based on the direct-semidirect model show that this model gives a reasonable description of the shapes of the gamma-ray spectra, but fails to account for observed excitation functions. The inclusion of the compound-nucleus capture process gives a conclusive improvement in the description of the excitation functions, in particular at low neutron energies. The ability of the compound-nucleus model to account for the shapes of the gamma-ray spectra is as good as that of the direct-semidirect model. At higher neutron energies, an improvement is obtained for transitions to the region of weakly bound levels, where the single-particle structure is poorly known. (Auth.)

  1. Control of oral malodour by dentifrices measured by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Evelyn E; Hickling, Jenneth M; Hughes, Francis J; Proskin, Howard M; Bosma, Marylynn P

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of toothpaste treatments on levels of oral volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) measured by gas chromatography in two clinical studies. These were blinded, randomised, controlled, crossover studies with 16 (study A) or 20 (study B) healthy volunteers between the ages of 19-54. Study A: breath samples were collected at baseline, immediately and lhr after brushing. Four dentifrices (Zinc A, Zinc B, commercially available triclosan dentifrice and zinc free control) were evaluated. Study B: breath samples were collected at baseline, immediately, 1, 2, 3 and 7 hours after treatment. Subjects consumed a light breakfast then provided an additional breath sample between baseline assessment and treatment. Two dentifrices (gel-to-foam and a commercially available triclosan dentrifrice) were evaluated. Breath samples were collected in syringes and analysed for VSCs (hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and Total VSCs) utilising gas chromatography (GC) with flame photometric detection. Study A: immediately after treatment, a statistically significant reduction in VSCs from baseline was observed for Zinc A product only. A statistically significant reduction in VSCs from baseline was observed after 1 hour for all products. Both zinc products exhibited a significantly greater reduction from baseline VSCs than Colgate Total and Control at all time points. Study B: a statistically significant reduction in VSCs from baseline was observed at all time points for both products. The gel-to-foam product exhibited significantly greater reduction from baseline Total VSC concentration than Colgate Total at all time points from 1 hour post-treatment. Control of oral malodour by toothpaste treatment, evaluated as VSC levels using GC, has been demonstrated. Zinc is effective at reducing VSCs and the efficacy of zinc is formulation dependent. A gel-to-foam dentifrice was more effective at reducing VSCs than Colgate Total up to 7 hours.

  2. Sulphur levels in saliva as an estimation of sulphur status in cattle: a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dermauw, V.; Froidmont, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Boever, de J.L.; Vyverman, W.; Debeer, A.E.; Janssens, G.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Effective assessment of sulphur (S) status in cattle is important for optimal health, yet remains difficult. Rumen fluid S concentrations are preferred, but difficult to sample under practical conditions. This study aimed to evaluate salivary S concentration as estimator of S status in cattle.

  3. Potential to reduce emissions of sulphur dioxide through reducing sulphur levels in heavy and light fuel oils - a discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushingham, M.; Bellamy, J.

    2001-01-01

    Background information on the sulphur levels in light fuel oil (used in residential heating) and heavy fuel oil (used as industrial fuel oil) is provided. In addition to the description of sulphur levels in light and heavy fuel oils, the report also provides a summary of regulatory limits in Canada and elsewhere, and a description of the emission benefits of decreasing sulphur in fuels. 4 refs., 10 tabs., 12 figs

  4. Sulphur recirculation for reduced boiler corrosion; Minskad pannkorrosion med svavelrecirkulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven; Karlsson, Martin (Goetaverken Miljoe AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Blomqvist, Evalena; Baefver, Linda; Claesson, Frida; Davidsson, Kent (SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden)); Froitzheim, Jan; Pettersson, Jesper; Steenari, Britt-Marie (Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Oorganisk miljoekemi, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    Sulphur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation, which was demonstrated in full-scale tests performed at the Renova Waste to Energy plant at Saevenaes in Goeteborg (Sweden). Sulphur is recirculated from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, which reduces the chloride content of the deposits, which in turn reduces boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. Sulphur dioxide was separated from the flue gas in a wet scrubber by adding hydrogen peroxide, producing sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid was injected into the furnace using nozzles with atomization air, surrounded by recirculated flue gas for improved mixing. By recirculating the sulphur, the sulphur dioxide concentration was increased in the boiler. Each sulphur atom passed the boiler several times and no external sulphur had to be added. Dioxin, ash, deposits and particle samplings together with 1000 h corrosion probe measurements were performed for normal operation (reference) and with sulphur recirculation respectively. During spring 2009, reference measurements were made and the recirculation system was installed and tested. During autumn 2009, a long term test with sulphur recirculation was made. An SO{sub 2} concentration of approximately 800 mg/m3 (n, d.g.) was maintained in the boiler by the system except during a period of extremely low sulphur content in the waste. The sulphur dioxide stack concentrations have been far below the emission limit. Sulphuric acid dew point measurements have shown that the sulphuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO{sub 3} concentrations, which may otherwise lead to low temperature corrosion. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulphur content increased during the sulphur recirculation tests. The molar chlorine/sulphur ratio (Cl/S) decreased by two thirds in the fly ash as well as in the boiler ash, except for one sample. With sulphur recirculation in operation, the deposit growth was

  5. Use of stable sulphur isotopes to monitor directly the behaviour of sulphur in coal during thermal desulphurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Li; Hackley, Keith C.; Coleman, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been developed using stable sulphur isotope analyses to monitor the behaviour of sulphur forms in a coal during thermal desulphurization. In this method, the natural stable isotopic composition of the pyritic and organic sulphur in coal is used as a tracer to follow their mobility during the desulphurization process. This tracer method is based on the fact that the isotopic compositions of pyritic and organic sulphur are significantly different in some coals. Isotopic results of pyrolysis experiments at temperatures ranging from 350 to 750 ??C indicate that the sulphur released with the volatiles is predominantly organic sulphur. The pyritic sulphur is evolved in significant quantities only when pyrolysis temperatures exceed 500 ??C. The presence of pyrite seems to have no effect on the amount of organic sulphur evolved during pyrolysis. The chemical and isotopic mass balances achieved from three different samples of the Herrin (No. 6) coal of the Illinois Basin demonstrate that this stable isotope tracer method is quantitative. The main disadvantage of this tracing technique is that not all coals contain isotopically distinct organic and pyritic sulphur. ?? 1987.

  6. Sulphur capture by co-firing sulphur containing fuels with biomass fuels - optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, A.

    1992-12-01

    Previous results concerning co-firing of high sulphur fuels with biomass fuels have shown that a significant part of the sulphur can be absorbed in the ash by formation of harmless sulphates. The aim of this work has been to (i) determine the maximum reduction that can be obtained in a bench scaled fluidized bed (5 kW); (ii) determine which operating conditions will give maximum reduction; (iii) point out the importance and applicability of experimental designs and multivariate methods when optimizing combustion processes; (iv) determine if the degree of sulphur capture can be correlated to the degree of slagging, fouling or bed sintering; and (v) determine if further studies are desired. The following are some of the more important results obtained: - By co-firing peat with biomass, a total sulphur retention of 70 % can be obtained. By co-firing coal with energy-grass, the total SO 2 emissions can be reduced by 90 %. - Fuel feeding rate, amount of combustion air and the primary air ratio were the most important operating parameters for the reduction. Bed temperature and oxygen level seem to be the crucial physical parameters. - The NO emissions also decreased by the sulphur reducing measures. The CO emissions were relatively high (130 mg/MJ) compared to large scale facilities due to the small reactor and the small fluctuations in the fuel feeding rate. The SO 2 emissions could however be reduced without any increase in CO emissions. - When the reactor was fired with a grass, the bed sintered at a low temperature ( 2 SO 4 and KCl are formed no sintering problems were observed. (27 refs., 41 figs., 9 tabs., 3 appendices)

  7. Changes in the content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil after an application of straw and elemental sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ryant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil after the application of straw and elemental sulphur (ES were explored in a 2-year vegetation pot experiment. The following variants were included in the experiment: 1 unfertilised control; 2 wheat straw; 3 rape straw; 4 ES; 5 wheat straw + ES; 6 rape straw + ES. The two types of straw were applied in a dose of 32 g of dry matter and elemental sulphur was applied in a dose of 0.42 g per pot, i.e. 6 kg of soil. The unsatisfactory C:N ratio in the straw was optimised to 25:1 by adding nitrogen in urea. Soil samples were taken prior to sowing of the model plant (spring wheat in 2005 and white mustard in 2006 and then in regular monthly intervals until harvesting (5 times a year. The content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil was evaluated by multifactorial analysis of variance monitoring the effect of the crop, date of soil sampling, application of straw and elemental sulphur.The contents of water-soluble sulphur differed statistically significantly (P > 0.999 when growing the individual model plants. When growing white mustard in 2006 the amount of available sulphur was by 1/5 higher and could have been partly affected by the warm year 2006, as compared to 2005 when spring wheat was grown. Significant differences (P > 0.999 were also discovered among the dates of soil sampling; higher values were detected before the sowing of model plants, i.e. after incubation in the winter, during vegetation the content of water-soluble sulphur decreased and sulphur showed the significantly highest values at the harvest of model plants. When wheat straw was applied the sulphur content did not increase and this may be associated with the wide C:S ratio, whereas after the application of rape straw the content of water-soluble sulphur increased by one third more than in the unfertilised control. The application of elemental sulphur also significantly increased the amount of water-soluble sulphur in

  8. Sulphur in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Including NLTE corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skúladóttir, Á.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Tolstoy, E.; Hill, V.; Salvadori, S.; Korotin, S. A.; Pettini, M.

    In Galactic halo stars, sulphur has been shown to behave like other α-elements, but until now, no comprehensive studies have been done on this element in stars of other galaxies. Here, we use high-resolution ESO VLT/FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra to determine sulphur abundances for 85 stars in the Sculptor

  9. Efficacy and phytotoicity of lime sulphur in organic apple production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holb, I.J.; Jong, de P.F.; Heijne, B.

    2003-01-01

    Curative and preventive efficacy and phytotoxicity of lime sulphur spray schedules, based on a warning system, were evaluated in the Netherlands during two growing seasons under field conditions. In most cases, lime sulphur treatments applied either curatively or preventively resulted in

  10. Biodesulphurisation of high sulphur coal by heap leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Cara; M.T. Carballo; A. Moran; D. Bonilla; O. Escolano; F.J. Garcia Frutos [Universidad de Leon, Leon (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica

    2005-10-01

    The biodesulphurisation of coal carried out in pile could be an interesting option to clean coal. In view of the good results obtained in biodesulphurisation test column at lab scale on a sample of semianthracite coal that proceed of an industrial plant with a high sulphur content, mainly pyritic sulphur, the feasibility of the process at pilot plant scale was studied. The pile was formed with 6 ton of gravity middlings coal sample with a grain size -12+0.5 mm from S.A. Hullera Vasco-Leonesa industrial plant. The coal has a total sulphur content of 3.78% and a pyritic sulphur content of 2.88%, the rest of sulphur is organic sulphur. The biodesulphurisation process in pilot plant follows three stages: stabilization of the pile, biodesulphurisation and washing. Heap was sampled twice during stabilisation stage, at the end of desulphurisation process and finally once washed. A pyritic sulphur removal of 39% and total sulphur removal of 23% was obtained. To complete the bioleaching process, the treatment of purge of leachate was carried out with the objective to recycling to head of process. The best treatment was a pre-treatment of the leachate until pH 4, and further treatment by reverse osmosis of the clarified water. Comparing this process with conventional precipitation to reach disposal limits, the reagents consumption and sludges were reduced considerably and due to the high quality of permeate it permits to recycle it to head of process. 18 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. SULPHUR CONTAINING LICKS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amounts of sulphur, there are some of particular importance such as the vitamins thiamine and biotin. Sulphur is also ingested in the inorganic sulphide and sulphate forms, fractions of which are utilized in metabolic processes, whereas substantial portions are also excreted. It has been determined that thiol cornpounds.

  12. Impact of sulphur fumigation on the chemistry of ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Ying; Kong, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Long, Fang; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jin-Di; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin

    2018-01-15

    Ginger (Zingiberis Rhizoma), a commonly-consumed food supplement, is often sulphur-fumigated during post-harvest handling, but it remains unknown if sulphur fumigation induces chemical transformations in ginger. In this study, the effects of sulphur fumigation on ginger chemicals were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS)-based metabolomics. The results showed that sulphur fumigation significantly altered the holistic chemical profile of ginger by triggering chemical transformations of certain original components. 6-Gingesulphonic acid, previously reported as a naturally-occurring component in ginger, was revealed to be a sulphur fumigation-induced artificial derivative, which was deduced to be generated by electrophilic addition of 6-shogaol to sulphurous acid. Using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS extracting ion analysis with 6-gingesulphonic acid as a characteristic chemical marker, all the commercial ginger samples inspected were determined to be sulphur-fumigated. The research outcomes provide a chemical basis for further comprehensive safety and efficacy evaluations of sulphur-fumigated ginger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution of sulphur into products from waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, D.; Haydary, J.; Markos, J.

    2012-01-01

    Tire pyrolysis is getting growing attention as an effective waste tire disposal method in comparison to environmentally less friendly methods like dumping or incineration. But the scrap tire sulphur content can be a potential obstacle to scrap tire utilization as a fuel. In this paper the distribution of sulphur into tire pyrolysis yields, solid (char) and liquid (tar), was investigated. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out under different conditions to determine the partitioning of sulphur into pyrolysis products. The influence of different temperatures and reaction times was investigated in a laboratory flow reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Solid and liquid residues were collected and analyzed by elemental analysis. The sulphur content in residual char and tar was determined using an elemental analyzer and the sulphur forms in tar were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (Authors)

  14. Organic sulphur in macromolecular sedimentary organic matter. II. Analysis of distributions of sulphur-containing pyrolysis products using multivariate techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Eglinton, T.I.; Pool, W.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Eijkel, G.; Boon, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This study describes the analysis of sulphur-containing products from Curie-point pyrolysis (Py) of eighty-five samples (kerogens, bitumen, and petroleum asphaltenes and coals) using gas chromatography (GC) in combination with sulphur-selective detection. Peak areas of approximately forty individual

  15. Feasibility of high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry in flame and furnace for sulphur determination in petroleum products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewska, Zofia

    2011-07-01

    For the first time, high-resolution molecular absorption spectrometry with a high-intensity xenon lamp as radiation source has been applied for the determination of sulphur in crude oil and petroleum products. The samples were analysed as xylene solutions using vaporisation in acetylene-air flame or in an electrothermally heated graphite furnace. The sensitive rotational lines of the CS molecule, belonging to the ∆ν = 0 vibrational sequence within the electronic transition X 1∑ + → A 1П, were applied. For graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry, the Pd + Mg organic modifier was selected. Strong interactions with Pd atoms enable easier decomposition of sulphur-containing compounds, likely through the temporal formation of Pd xS y molecules. At the 258.056 nm line, with the wavelength range covering central pixel ± 5 pixels and with application of interactive background correction, the detection limit was 14 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and 18 mg kg -1 in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. Meanwhile, application of 2-points background correction found a characteristic mass of 12 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and a characteristic concentration of 104 mg kg -1 in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. The range of application of the proposed methods turned out to be significantly limited by the properties of the sulphur compounds of interest. In the case of volatile sulphur compounds, which can be present in light petroleum products, severe difficulties were encountered. On the contrary, heavy oils and residues from distillation as well as crude oil could be analysed using both flame and graphite furnace vaporisation. The good accuracy of the proposed methods for these samples was confirmed by their mutual consistency and the results from analysis of reference samples (certified reference materials and home reference materials with sulphur content determined by X-ray fluorescence

  16. Feasibility of high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry in flame and furnace for sulphur determination in petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalewska, Zofia, E-mail: zofia.kowalewska@obr.pl

    2011-07-15

    For the first time, high-resolution molecular absorption spectrometry with a high-intensity xenon lamp as radiation source has been applied for the determination of sulphur in crude oil and petroleum products. The samples were analysed as xylene solutions using vaporisation in acetylene-air flame or in an electrothermally heated graphite furnace. The sensitive rotational lines of the CS molecule, belonging to the {Delta}{nu} = 0 vibrational sequence within the electronic transition X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} {yields} A{sup 1}{Pi}, were applied. For graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry, the Pd + Mg organic modifier was selected. Strong interactions with Pd atoms enable easier decomposition of sulphur-containing compounds, likely through the temporal formation of Pd{sub x}S{sub y} molecules. At the 258.056 nm line, with the wavelength range covering central pixel {+-} 5 pixels and with application of interactive background correction, the detection limit was 14 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and 18 mg kg{sup -1} in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. Meanwhile, application of 2-points background correction found a characteristic mass of 12 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and a characteristic concentration of 104 mg kg{sup -1} in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. The range of application of the proposed methods turned out to be significantly limited by the properties of the sulphur compounds of interest. In the case of volatile sulphur compounds, which can be present in light petroleum products, severe difficulties were encountered. On the contrary, heavy oils and residues from distillation as well as crude oil could be analysed using both flame and graphite furnace vaporisation. The good accuracy of the proposed methods for these samples was confirmed by their mutual consistency and the results from analysis of reference samples (certified reference materials and home reference materials with

  17. Wet precipitators for sulphuric acid plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojanpera, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Both the service requirements and design construction details have changed considerably in recent years for wet electrostatic precipitators as used for gas cleaning ahead of metallurgical sulphuric acid plants. Increased concern over acid quality has resulted in more emphasis on dust efficiencies compared to collection of acid mist. Also, higher static operating pressures have caused large structural loads on casing and internal components. In this paper these two issues are addressed in the following ways: Recognition that all dusts do not collect similarly. The mechanism by which various dusts collect affect the design of the entire wet gas cleaning system. Use of both traditional and newer materials of construction to accommodate the higher design pressures while still maintaining corrosion resistance

  18. Nuclear physical express analysis of solid fuel sulphur content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Yu.; Ponomaryova, M

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Sulphur content is an important qualitative coal parameter. The problem of coal sulphur content determining remains one of the most important both in Kazakhstan and in other coal-mining countries. The traditional method of sampling, the final stage of which is chemical analysis of coal for sulphur, is characterized by high labour intensity and low productivity. That's why it is ineffective for mass express analytical quality control and technological schemes of coal processing control. In this connection it is very urgent to develop a method of coal sulphur content on the base of a series nuclear-geophysical equipment with an isotope source of primary radiation, allowing to increase analysis representativity and maximally take into account coal real composition inconstancy. To solve the problem set it is necessary to study the main laws of X-ray-radiometric method applied to the coal quality analysis for working out instrumental methods of speed determining of coal sulphur content with satisfactory accuracy for technological tasks, to determine laws of changing the flows of characteristic X-ray and scattered radiation from coal sulphur content of various real composition and to optimize methodical and hardware parameters, providing minimal error of sulphur content control. On the base of studying laws of real composition coal components and their interconnections with sulphur content there has been substantiated the expediency of using hardware functions of calcium and iron to control coal sulphur contents; there has been suggested a model to estimate the methodical error of coal sulphur content determining on the base of the data about sensitivity to sulphur and effecting factors using ultimate methods of coal components substitution methods allowing to optimize sulphur control parameters; there has been worked out an algorithm of X-ray-radiometric control of sulphur content based on the sequential radiating the analyzed coal with gamma-radiation of

  19. Vapor mercury uptake with sulphur impregnated active carbons derived using sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, S.; Methta, H.; Ahmed, I.; Morris, E.; Fuentes de Maria, L.; Jia, C.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Active carbon adsorption is the primary technology used for removal of vapour mercury from flue gases in coal-fired power plants, municipal solid waste combustors, and other sources. It can be carried out using two different processes, notably injection of powder active carbon into flue gas streams upstream of the particulate collection devices, and filtration with a granular active carbon fixed bed downstream of the flue gas desulphurization units and/or particulate collectors. This paper presented an investigation of vapour mercury uptake performance of laboratory-made sulphur impregnated active carbons (SIACs) using a fixed bed reactor in a temperature range of 25 to 200 degrees Celsius. The materials and methods as well as the properties of activated carbons studied were presented. The experimental set-up was also described. The paper discussed the effects of initial concentration, the flow rate, the loading amount of SIACs, temperature, and the sulphur impregnation on the mercury uptake performance. The study showed that SIACs produced with sulphur dioxide exhibited a more complicated behaviour when temperature was varied, implying a mixed adsorption mechanism. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs

  20. Sulphur and nitrogen in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legge, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses sulfur and nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere. Both dry and wet deposition of these compounds are reported on. Characteristics of air pollutant exposure dynamics are described. Environmental responses to the deposition of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, as well as to other pollutants, are detailed

  1. Biological parameters in technogenic soils of a former sulphur mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwik-Ziomek, Anetta; Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Lemanowicz, Joanna; Koper, Jan; Szarlip, Paweł

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted on the soils originating from a reclamation area of the former sulphur mine in Tarnobrzeg, Poland. Soil was sampled 16 years after the completion of mining works with the open-pit method at Machów, as well as 7 years after sulphur mining via the `smelting' method in the Jeziórko mine was abandoned. Several biological parameters were examined: soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and the activity of rhodanese and arylsulphatase enzymes taking part in sulphur transformation within the site's soils. The soils showed a high total sulphur and sulphates content. The SO42- constituted a large fraction of total sulphur, in some cases, exceeding 80% or even 95% of total sulphur. The soil pH decreased due to the degrading effects of sulphur mining. In the soils studied from the locations with the lowest soil pH value, no activity of arylsulphatase was reported and the activity of rhodanese was lowest. The highest soil respiration values were recorded from the 0-5 cm layer in the areas covered with forest vegetation. A high soil respiration value at the waste heap at Machów wherein a very high concentration of Stot and SO42- was observed can be due to the ability of fungi to produce hyphal strands and to survive unfavourable conditions.

  2. Being green on sulphur: Targets, measures and side-effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    to sea to reduce congestion, and might ultimately (under certain circumstances) increase the overall level of CO2 emissions along the entire supply chain. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the potential effect of sulphur regulations on the share of cargo transported by the waterborne mode vis......Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are not the only emissions of concern to the international transport community. SOx emissions are non-GHG emissions that are caused by the presence of sulphur in the fuel. As the maximum percentage of sulphur in automotive and aviation fuels is strictly regulated...

  3. Sulphur bacteria mediated formation of Palaeoproterozoic phosphorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosu, Lauri; Lepland, Aivo; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2014-05-01

    Modern phosphorite formation is typically associated with high productivity in upwelling areas where apatite (Ca-phosphate) precipitation is mediated by sulphur oxidising bacteria [1]. They inhabit the oxic/anoxic interface within the upper few centimetres of sediment column, accumulating phosphate in their cells under oxic conditions and releasing it rapidly when conditions become anoxic. Sulphur bacteria are known to live in close association with a consortium of anaerobic methane oxidising archaea and syntrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria. Paleoproterozoic, c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation in Karelia, Russia contains several P-rich intervals in the upper part of 1500 m thick succession of organic-rich sedimentary rocks interlayered with mafic tuffs and lavas. Apatite in these P-rich intervals forms impure laminae, lenses and round-oval nodules which diameters typically range from 300 to 1000 μm. Individual apatite particles in P-rich laminae and nodules commonly occur as cylinders that are 1-8 μm long and have diameters of 0.5-4 μm. Cross-sections of best preserved cylindrical apatite particles reveal a thin outer rim whereas the internal parts consist of small anhedral elongated crystallites, intergrown with carbonaceous material. During recrystallization the outer rim thickens towards interior and cylinders may attain hexagonal crystal habit, but their size and shape remains largely unchanged [2]. The sizes of Zaonega nodules are similar to giant sulphide-oxidising bacteria known from modern and ancient settings [3, 4]. Individual apatite cylinders and aggregates have shapes and sizes similar to the methanotrophic archaea that inhabit microbial mats in modern seep/vent areas where they operate in close associations with sulphur-oxidising microbial communities [5]. Seep/vent influence during the Zaonega phosphogenesis is indicated by variable, though positive Eu anomaly, expected in magmatically active sedimentary environment experiencing several lava flows

  4. Preliminary model and validation of molten carbonate fuel cell kinetics under sulphur poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audasso, E.; Nam, S.; Arato, E.; Bosio, B.

    2017-06-01

    MCFC represents an effective technology to deal with CO2 capture and relative applications. If used for these purposes, due to the working conditions and the possible feeding, MCFC must cope with a different number of poisoning gases such as sulphur compounds. In literature, different works deal with the development of kinetic models to describe MCFC performance to help both industrial applications and laboratory simulations. However, in literature attempts to realize a proper model able to consider the effects of poisoning compounds are scarce. The first aim of the present work is to provide a semi-empirical kinetic formulation capable to take into account the effects that sulphur compounds (in particular SO2) have on the MCFC performance. The second aim is to provide a practical example of how to effectively include the poisoning effects in kinetic models to simulate fuel cells performances. To test the reliability of the proposed approach, the obtained formulation is implemented in the kinetic core of the SIMFC (SIMulation of Fuel Cells) code, an MCFC 3D model realized by the Process Engineering Research Team (PERT) of the University of Genova. Validation is performed through data collected at the Korea Institute of Science and Technology in Seoul.

  5. Levels of cystathionine gamma lyase production by Geotrichum candidum in synthetic media and correlation with the presence of sulphur flavours in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gente, Stéphanie; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Guéguen, Micheline

    2007-03-10

    Geotrichum candidum is a cheese-ripening agent with the potential to produce sulphur flavour compounds in soft cheeses. We aimed to develop an alternative test for predicting the aromatic (sulphur flavours) potential of G. candidum strains in soft cheese. Twelve strains of G. candidum with different levels of demethiolase activity (determined by a chemical method) in YEL-met (yeast extract, lactate methionine) medium were studied. We investigated cgl (cystathionine gamma lyase) gene expression after culture in three media - YEL-met, casamino acid and curd media - and then carried out sensory analysis on a Camembert cheese matrix. We found no correlation between demethiolase activity in vitro and cgl gene expression. Sensory analysis (detection of sulphur flavours) identified different aromatic profiles linked to cgl expression, but not to demethiolase activity. The RT-PCR technique described here is potentially useful for predicting the tendency of a given strain of G. candidum to develop sulphur flavours in cheese matrix. This is the first demonstration that an in vitro molecular approach could be used as a predictive test for evaluating the potential of G. candidum strains to generate sulphur compounds in situ (Camembert cheese matrix).

  6. Availability and uptake of sulphur by mustard in three soils in Udaipur valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, S.K.; Shriniwas

    1976-01-01

    The differential behaviour of three soils (Bargaon, Bhatewar red and Bhatewar black) for availability of sulphur to mustard was studied in a greenhouse pot culture experiment using five doses of sulphur (0,20,40,80,120 ppm) applied as 35 S tagged ammonium sulphate. Application of sulphur significantly increased the dry matter of mustard over control, however, maximum dry matter was obtained when sulphur was applied at 40 ppm level, thereafter, any higher doses did not prove beneficial. Sulphur content in the plant tissue and percent of sulphur in the plant derived from fertilizer increased with successive doses of applied sulphur. (author)

  7. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    234-8034714355. 8034714355. 1. EFFECTS OF SULPHUR ADDITION ON. ADDITION ON. 2. AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES O. 3. 4. C. W. Onyia. 5. 1DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS. 6. 2, 4DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL ...

  8. Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and tap water pretreatments in the greenhouse and open field conditions on germination of bladder-Senna ( Colutea armena Boiss. and Huet.) seeds.

  9. Rubber composites cured with sulphur and peroxide and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Besides classical applications of rubber products in tyres, ... application of sulphur curing systems leads to the forming ..... mobile sulphidic cross-links which promote crystallization of NR. ... PhD Thesis (Kingston, Ontario: Queen's University).

  10. Analytical protocols for characterisation of sulphur-free lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Abächerli, A.; Semke, H.; Malherbe, R.; Käuper, P.; Nadif, A.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2004-01-01

    Interlaboratory tests for chemical characterisation of sulphur-free lignins were performed by five laboratories to develop useful analytical protocols, which are lacking, and identify quality-related properties. Protocols have been established for reproducible determination of the chemical

  11. Modelled transport and deposition of sulphur over Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zunckel, M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient SO2 concentrations and atmospheric deposition of sulphur resulting from emissions on the industrialised highveld region of South Africa are estimated using the multi-scale atmospheric transport and chemistry (MATCH) modelling system...

  12. Accidental sulphuric acid poisoning in a newborn | Abdulkadir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental sulphuric acid poisoning in a newborn. I Abdulkadir, L Hassan, F Abdullahi, FD Akeredolu, S Purdue, M Okpe, AM Sobowale, OA Adewumi, U Abdullahi, MA Onadiran, TT Sholadoye, S Baba, WN Ogala ...

  13. Distribution of sulphur and trace elements in peat. A literature survey with some additional sulphur analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S; Karhu, M

    1981-01-01

    A survey on the literature and contemporary research was made on peat sulphur and trace element studies. Marked variance between different peatlands and peat types has been noted. The available information is still inadequate for generalizations or statistical analysis mainly due to methodological variations and temporal and spatial variations in results. At the moment, the criteria applied in peatland inventories and evaluations are inadequate with respect to peat quality determinations. To some extent the quality of fuel peat should be determined in a mire inventory prior to peatland utilization. The areas over sulphide clay and some sulphate depositions may considerably increase the peat sulphur content. A proposal has been made to include the sulphur content monitoring in the cases where it exceeds 0.3 per cent. The trace elements may also bring about an increase in peat emissions if the deepest peat layers or polluted layers are burnt. The most important elements in this respect are Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, V, Ni, Hg, Cu, Cr, as well as As and U. The first ten because of the relatively high concentrations and last two because of pollution or toxocity and ore deposit factors. The peat hydrogen ion concentration has a positive correlation with copper and vanadium. The correlation is positive with the cobalt and nickel contents when the pH is low, and negative at a higher pH. A general peat type correlation shows maximum trace element contents in basal Carex peats with subsoil effects. The peat ash content and the Ti, Pb, V, Cr, Ni, and S contents have positive correlations. (Refs. 290).

  14. Distribution of sulphur and trace elements in peat. [Literature survey with some additional sulphur analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S; Karhu, M

    1981-01-01

    A survey on the literature and contemporary research was made on peat sulphur and trace element studies. Marked variance between different peatlands and peat types has been noted. The available information is still inadequate for generalizations or statistical analysis mainly due to methodological variations and temporal and spatial variations in results. At the moment, the criteria applied in peatland inventories and evaluations are inadequate with respect to peat quality determinations. To some extent the quality of fuel peat should be determined in a mire inventory prior to peatland utilization. The areas over sulphide clay and some sulphate depositions may considerably increase the peat sulphur content. A proposal has been made to include the sulphur content monitoring in the cases where it exceeds 0.3 per cent. The trace elements may also bring about an increase in peat emissions if the deepest peat layers or polluted layers are burnt. The most important elements in this respect are Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, V, Ni, Hg, Cu, Cr, as well as As and U. The first ten because of the relatively high concentrations and last two because of pollution or toxocity and ore deposit factors. The peat hydrogen ion concentration has a positive correlation with copper and vanadium. The correlation is positive with the cobalt and nickel contents when the pH is low, and negative at a higher pH. A general peat type correlation shows maximum trace element contents in basal Carex peats with subsoil effects. The peat ash content and the Ti, Pb, V, Cr, Ni and S contents have positive correlations.

  15. THE SOLUBILITY OF MILAS BAUXITE ORE IN SULPHURIC ACI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa GULFEN

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of calcination conditions,sulphuric acid concentrations and dissolvingtemperature and period as parameters to thesolubility of the bauxite ore from Gobekdagı reservesin Mugla-Milas region were investigated. The bauxitesamples were calcined in different periods at differenttemperatures. Then the solubility of the calcinedbauxite samples in sulphuric acid solution wasexamined. Dissolving activation energy (Ea wascalculated using the optimum kinetics equation andthe results obtained from the solubility studiesexamined dissolving temperatures and periods

  16. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1991-07-01

    In connection with the Swedish project for final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible, but copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron(II) is available. The problem was extended to the more general question of the reducibility of sulphur(VI) in dilute aqueous solution. Chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100 o C. In experiments on the reduction of sulphates under hydrothermal conditions a reaction only takes place at temperatures above 275-300 o C. The oxidising action of sulphuric acid on metals becomes perceptible only at acid concentrations over 45-50%. In experiments on the cathodic reduction of 74% sulphuric acid the formation of hydrogen sulphide and elementary sulphur starts, depending on the current density, at 50-130 o C, and polarographic measurements suggest that the reducible species is not the hydrogen sulphate ion but molecular sulphuric acid. The resistance of copper to oxygen-free sulphuric acid up to a concentration of 60% is well-known. Numerous processes in industrial electrochemistry take place in sulphuric acid or sulphate electrolytes. The reversible metal/metal-sulphate electrodes of lead and cadmium are unstable relative to the corresponding metal sulphides. Nevertheless the reversible lead sulphate electrode does not fail from sulphide formation. All these facts confirm that sulphur(VI) in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be almost certainly be ruled out. (author) 5 figs., 85 refs

  17. Leaching of basic oxygen furnace sludge with sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Miškufová

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the hydrometallurgical processing of BOF sludge in the sulphuric acid solutions under atmospheric pressureand temperatures up to 100 °C is investigated on a laboratory scale. The influence of sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, timeand liquid to solid ratio (L:S on the leaching process was studied. The main aim of this study was to determine optimal conditions whenthe maximum amount of zinc passes into the solution.

  18. Source of sulphur in the Ebro Basin (Northern Spain). Tertiary nonmarine evaporite deposits as evidenced by sulphur isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaum, S.J.; Coleman, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Ebro Basin is an intermontane basin, located in northern Spain, filled with Tertiary (largely Oligocene and Miocene) elastic and chemical deposits. Sulphur isotopes are utilized to determine the source of sulphur in the sulphate deposits (predominantly gypsum with accessory thenardite, mirabolite and epsomite). Data obtained from Tertiary gypsum rocks produce a range of delta 34 S values from +9.16% to + 14.02% with a mean of +13.61%. Data obtained from Triassic gypsum rocks (in source area) produce a range from +13.73% to +15.14%, with a mean of +14.66%. Values for Tertiary marine water range from +18% to +24%. These data indicate a nonmarine origin for sulpur within the Tertiary sulphate rocks. The contribution of Triassic sulphur to the groundwater system, plus varying degrees of dilution by isotopically lighter (atmospheric and sulphide) sulphur, best explains the isotopic ratios observed in the Tertiary Basin deposits. (Auth.)

  19. Sulphur self–retention and sulphur dioxide capture with active calcium minerals in mineral–rich coals / Mchabe, D.

    OpenAIRE

    Mchabe, Dursman

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide information for the development of clean coal technology, the sulphur self–retention and sulphur dioxide capturing properties of minerals present in low grade coals was investigated. This study consisted of detailed mineral analyses of coal and ash samples using results obtained from QEMSCAN and separate retention (coal) and capture (ash) experiments with laboratory scale reactors. Typical South African coal samples were used in this study. The ash content v...

  20. Hydrothermal Alteration in an Acid-Sulphate Geothermal Field: Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Barrett, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sulphur Springs is a vigorous geothermal field associated with the Soufrière Volcanic Centre in southern Saint Lucia. Bubbling hydrothermal pools are rich in sodium-calcium sulphate, with pHs of 3-7 and temperatures of 41-97ºC. Fumaroles have temperatures up to, and at times above, 100°C. Gases from bubbling pools and fumaroles have high contents of CO2 (601-993 mmol/mol) and H2S (3-190 mmol/mol). To investigate the nature and extent of hydrothermal alteration, detailed chemical analysis was carried out on 25 altered rocks, 10 sediments from pools and creeks in the main discharge area, and 15 little-altered rocks up to 2 km away from geothermal field. Eight altered samples were also analysed for stable isotope compositions, with mineralogy determined by X-ray diffraction and mineral liberation analysis. Least-altered host rocks comprise calc-alkaline feldspar-quartz-porphyritic dacites of near-uniform composition that form massive domes and volcaniclastic units. These rocks were emplaced 10-30 Ka ago (Lindsay et al. 2013). Within the geothermal field, the dacites have been highly altered to kaolinite, quartz, cristobalite, alunite, natroalunite, smectite, native sulphur, jarosite, gypsum and amorphous compounds. Muds from grey to blackish hydrothermal pools additionally contain iron sulphides, mainly pyrite. Despite intense alteration of the original dacites, Zr and Ti have remained essentially immobile, allowing the calculation of mass changes. Major depletions of Fe, Mg, Ca, Na and commonly Si occur over an area of at least 200 x 400 m. The most altered rocks also show losses of Al, light REE and Y, implying leaching by highly acidic waters. A few altered rocks have, however, gained Al together with Si and P. Also present are m-scale zones of silica + native sulphur, wherein the silica appears to represent a residue from the leaching of dacite, rather than a hydrothermal addition. Delta-34S values of samples containing mixtures of sulphates, native sulphur and

  1. Sulphur-binding in recent environments. II. Speciation of sulphur and iron and implications for the occurrence of organo-sulphur compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Lopez, J.F.; Reiss, C.; Maxwell, J.R.; Grimalt, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    Speciation of iron and sulfur species was determined for two recent sediments (La Trinitat and Lake Cisó) which were deposited in environments with a high biological productivity and sulfate-reducing activity. In sediments from calcite ponds of La Trinitat an excess of reactive iron species (iron

  2. Ionic dependence of sulphur mustard cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, Thomas W.; Nelson, Peggy; Bjarnason, Stephen; Vair, Cory; Shei Yimin; Tenn, Catherine; Lecavalier, Pierre; Burczyk, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ionic environment on sulphur mustard (bis 2-chloroethyl sulphide; HD) toxicity was examined in CHO-K1 cells. Cultures were treated with HD in different ionic environments at constant osmolar conditions (320 mOsM, pH 7.4). The cultures were refed with fresh culture medium 1 h after HD exposure, and viability was assessed. Little toxicity was apparent when HD exposures were carried out in ion-free sucrose buffer compared to LC 50 values of ∼ 100-150 μM when the cultures were treated with HD in culture medium. Addition of NaCl to the buffer increased HD toxicity in a salt concentration-dependent manner to values similar to those obtained in culture medium. HD toxicity was dependent on both cationic and anionic species with anionic environment playing a much larger role in determining toxicity. Substitution of NaI for NaCl in the treatment buffers increased HD toxicity by over 1000%. The activity of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in recovering from cytosolic acidification in salt-free and in different chloride salts did not correlate with the HD-induced toxicity in these buffers. However, the inhibition by HD of intracellular pH regulation correlated with its toxicity in NaCl, NaI and sucrose buffers. Analytical chemical studies and the toxicity of the iodine mustard derivative ruled out the role of chemical reactions yielding differentially toxic species as being responsible for the differences in HD toxicity observed. This work demonstrates that the early events that HD sets into motion to cause toxicity are dependent on ionic environment, possibly due to intracellular pH deregulation.

  3. Oxidation of dibenzothiophene as a model substrate for the removal of organic sulphur from fossil fuels by iron(III ions generated from pyrite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR P. BESKOSKI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper a new idea for the removal of organically bonded sulphur from fossil fuels is discussed. Dibenzothiophene (DBT was used as a model compound of organicmolecules containing sulphur. This form of (biodesulphurization was performed by an indirect mechanism in which iron(III ions generated from pyrite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans performed the abiotic oxidation. The obtained reaction products, dibenzothiopene sulfoxide and dibenzothiophene sulfone, are more soluble in water than the basic substrate and the obtained results confirmed the basic hypothesis and give the posibility of continuing the experiments related to application of this (biodesulphurization process.

  4. High-temperature removal of sulphur for biogenic gas products; Hochtemperatur-Entschwefelung fuer biogene Produktgase. Design und Optimierung - Schlussbericht/Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schildhauer, T.; Biollaz, S.

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning the development of basics ideas on the design and optimisation of high-temperature methods for the removal of sulphur from biogenic gas products. Tests made as part of the 'Methane from Wood' project at pilot installations in Switzerland and Austria are discussed. Low temperature and high-temperature methods are examined and discussed. A number of sulphur compounds were tested. Also, experiments made using nickel, HDS and CPO catalysers are discussed.

  5. Carbon- versus sulphur-based zinc binding groups for carbonic anhydrase inhibitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supuran, Claudiu T

    2018-12-01

    A set of compounds incorporating carbon-based zinc-binding groups (ZBGs), of the type PhX (X = COOH, CONH 2 , CONHNH 2 , CONHOH, CONHOMe), and the corresponding derivatives with sulphur(VI)-based ZBGs (X = SO 3 H, SO 2 NH 2 , SO 2 NHNH 2 , SO 2 NHOH, SO 2 NHOMe) were tested as inhibitors of all mammalian isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), CA I-XV. Three factors connected with the ZBG influenced the efficacy as CA inhibitor (CAI) of the investigated compounds: (i) the pKa of the ZBG; (ii) its geometry (tetrahedral, i.e. sulphur-based, versus trigonal, i.e. carbon-based ZBGs), and (iii) orientation of the organic scaffold induced by the nature of the ZBG. Benzenesulphonamide was the best inhibitor of all isoforms, but other ZBGs led to interesting inhibition profiles, although with an efficacy generally reduced when compared to the sulphonamide. The nature of the ZBG also influenced the CA inhibition mechanism. Most of these derivatives were zinc binders, but some of them (sulfonates, carboxylates) may interact with the enzyme by anchoring to the zinc-coordinated water molecule or by other inhibition mechanisms (occlusion of the active site entrance, out of the active site binding, etc.). Exploring structurally diverse ZBGs may lead to interesting new developments in the field of CAIs.

  6. Ethanol and biogas production after steam pretreatment of corn stover with or without the addition of sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondesson Pia-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignocellulosic biomass, such as corn stover, is a potential raw material for ethanol production. One step in the process of producing ethanol from lignocellulose is enzymatic hydrolysis, which produces fermentable sugars from carbohydrates present in the corn stover in the form of cellulose and hemicellulose. A pretreatment step is crucial to achieve efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to soluble sugars, and later ethanol. This study has investigated steam pretreatment of corn stover, with and without sulphuric acid as catalyst, and examined the effect of residence time (5–10 min and temperature (190–210°C on glucose and xylose recovery. The pretreatment conditions with and without dilute acid that gave the highest glucose yield were then used in subsequent experiments. Materials pretreated at the optimal conditions were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF to produce ethanol, and remaining organic compounds were used to produce biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD. Results The highest glucose yield achieved was 86%, obtained after pretreatment at 210°C for 10 minutes in the absence of catalyst, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest yield using sulphuric acid, 78%, was achieved using pretreatment at 200°C for 10 minutes. These two pretreatment conditions were investigated using two different process configurations. The highest ethanol and methane yields were obtained from the material pretreated in the presence of sulphuric acid. The slurry in this case was split into a solid fraction and a liquid fraction, where the solid fraction was used to produce ethanol and the liquid fraction to produce biogas. The total energy recovery in this case was 86% of the enthalpy of combustion energy in corn stover. Conclusions The highest yield, comprising ethanol, methane and solids, was achieved using pretreatment in the presence of sulphuric acid followed by a process configuration in

  7. Mercury and sulphur among the High Medieval alchemists: from Rāzī and Avicenna to Albertus Magnus and pseudo-Roger Bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William R

    2014-11-01

    This essay challenges the often expressed view that the principles of metals, namely mercury and sulphur, were generally viewed by alchemists as being of a 'metaphysical' character that made them inaccessible to the tools and operations of the laboratory. By examining a number of Arabo-Latin and Latin alchemical texts in circulation before the end of the thirteenth century, the author presents evidence that most alchemists of the period considered mercury and sulphur to be materials subject to techniques of purification in the same way that naturally occurring salts and minerals could be freed of their impurities or dross. The article also points to the immense influence of Avicenna and Albertus Magnus in formulating the theory that mercury and sulphur were compounds of different materials, containing both fixed and unfixed components. Finally, the author briefly examines the relationship between this materialist approach to the principles and the chymical atomism of early modern authors who were deeply aware of medieval alchemical literature.

  8. Determination of sulphur with total reflection x-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, S.; Kolbesen, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    The potential and limitations of total reflection x-ray spectrometry (TXRF) were tested for the quantitative determination of the light element sulphur in inorganic and biological samples. As representatives of inorganic samples alkali, transition metal, magnesium and aluminum sulphates were investigated. As biological samples the sulphur containing amino acid methionine and the pharmaceutical drug insulin were chosen. All measurements were performed on a TXRF-spectrometer EXTRA IIA (Atomika Instruments, Oberschleissheim/Germany) using tungsten L-radiation as the excitation tube. Various concentrations of all samples ranging from 20 mg/l to 0.5 mg/l were determined. In addition the surface topography and thickness of the dry residue of these samples were investigated with SEM and a thickness profilometer (Alpha-Step). The result show that the reliable determination of sulphur in sulphates depends on the cation involved. Alkali sulphates like Na 2 SO 4 , or K 2 SO 4 form bulky residues resulting in significant deviations of the recovery rate of sulphur. In this case the use of smoothing detergents like 1 % HF, 1 % malic acid and 2 % hydrazinhydrat was found to be necessary for accurate determination. The results for the biological samples agree well with the expected values. The investigations lead to the conclusion that TXRF combined with a proper samples preparation is well suited for the determination of sulphur in different samples with various concentrations and matrices. (author)

  9. How sulphur was dislodged to sustain plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, A.N.; Agarwal, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant (Kota) employs chemical exchange between water and hydrogen sulphide gas. Formation of sulphur is a known phenomena during production of heavy water in G.S. process plants. It is observed that after three years of plant operation this sulphur is enough to choke the cold tower trays causing flooding of exchange towers and resultant decrease in throughput. G.S. process plants normally go for major turn around once in four years when sulphur is either manually cleaned or removed by steam wash after hydrogen sulphide gas has been removed from the system and towers have been fully decontaminated. As throughput starts decreasing after third year and plant operation becomes more difficult in fourth year, HWP (Kota) had evolved a procedure of heating the towers for dislodging sulphur from sieve trays when plant is running. With these procedures plant operation could be sustained without tower floodings even in fourth year, before plant could go for major turn around for manual removal of sulphur

  10. Influence of sulphur and multi-component fertilizer application on the content of Cu, Zn and Mn in different types of soil under maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara MURAWSKA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the soil type and differential sulphur rates used with or without Basfoliar 36 Extra on the soil pH as well as the amount of available forms of copper, zinc and manganese based on the micro plots field experiment. Moreover, the relationship between the studied microelements was examined. The experiment was performed in two-factor design; the first-order factor was the soil type (Typic Hapludolls, Typic Hapludalfs, Typic Haplorthods, Typic Endoaquolls, while the second-order factor - fertilization with sulphur and compound fertilizer - Basfoliar 36 Extra. The plant tested was Rota cultivar maize. The use of sulphur and sulphur combined with Basfoliar 36 Extra changed the classification of the soils in terms of their pH. In the soils under study, as a result of the 10-years application of sulphur and/or foliar fertiliser with NPK fertilization as well as growing maize in monoculture showing a high uptake of macro- and micro-nutrients, there was reported a clear decrease in the content of zinc, copper and manganese, as compared with the initial content. With that in mind, one shall assume that growing maize in a 10-year monoculture is connected with an intensive use of soils, which can result in a clear deficit of the elements studied in soil.

  11. MOLECULAR COMPLEXES OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE WITH N,O-CONTAINING ORGANIC BASES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Khoma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature data on the synthesis, stoichiometry, structure and relative stability of molecular  complexes of sulphur dioxide with N,O-containing organic bases have been systematized and  generalized. It was shown that the yield of the reaction product of sulfur dioxide with organic  bases (such as amines are strongly influenced by the conditions of synthesis: the nature of  the solvent (basicity, polarity, the temperature and SO2:L ratio in the reaction medium. The stoichiometry of SO2*nL molecular complexes depends on ligand denticity, as well as its  ability to H-bonding. The reaction of the sulfur oxide (IV with organic bases can give S←N and S←O complexes. With the increase of the value of base proton affinity the decrease ΔrSN values has been marked. Characteristic parameter Δr SN = r SN – a1(rS+ rN (where rSNis the S←N donor-acceptor bond length has been determined by microwave spectroscopy and X-ray analysis, rSand rNwere the tabulated values of the homopolar covalent radii of sulphur and nitrogen heteroatoms. The dependence of formation enthalpy of molecular complexes of basic amines and spectral characteristics has been noted; enthalpy-entropy compensation for S←N and S←O complex-es has been stated. Despite the limited experimental data on the thermodynamics of complex formation and the lengths of donor-acceptor bonds for the same compounds it has been found bond S←N strength in SO2 molecular complexes to depend on the intrinsic value of ΔrSN. The contribution of van der Waals forces and charge transfer forces to the formation of molecular complexes of sulphur dioxide has been stated.

  12. Investigations on organolead compounds V. Lead---lead bond cleavage reactions of hexaphenyldilead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsens, L.C.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    1968-01-01

    It has been shown that a number of nucleophilic and weakly electrophilic reagents (organolithium and organomagnesium compounds, metallic lithium, potassium permanganate, sodium ethoxide, diaryl disulphides, sulphur, ozone, hypochlorous acid and iodine/iodide) selectively cleave the lead---lead bond

  13. Prediction of sulphur content in the industrial hydrotreatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukec, Ivana; Lukec, Darko [Model d.o.o, Pazinska 36, 10110 Zagreb (Croatia); Sertic-Bionda, Katica [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Marulicev trg 19, 10000, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-03-15

    The artificial neural network models were developed to determine sulphur content in the hydrotreatment product. Two models for two different types of feed were developed: light gas oil and vacuum gas oil. The developed ANN models use 6 input variables that are continuously measured in the process and are in accordance with the engineering knowledge and thermodynamics of hydrotreatment processes. Given models show good predictability of sulphur content in the hydrotreatment product and are, therefore, used in practice for continuous monitoring and optimization. This kind of application can be easily developed in any other hydrotreatment process with the available adequate historical data. (author)

  14. Muonium states and dynamics in phosphorus and sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.; Cottrell, S.P.; Hopkins, G.A.; Kay, M.; Pratt, F.L.

    1997-01-01

    The various states formed by positive muons implanted into phosphorus and sulphur have been characterized as a model for interstitial hydrogen, of which little is known in these elements. Repolarization studies reveal muonium-like states in each case, giving estimates of the hyperfine parameters and, for sulphur at least, an indication of the coexistence of a molecular radical state. The longitudinal-field relaxation functions suggest conversion of the paramagnetic states to diamagnetic, i.e. ionization or chemical reaction, in competition with strong spin-lattice relaxation

  15. Analyses on the formation of atmospheric particles and stabilized sulphuric acid clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paasonen, P.

    2012-11-01

    Aerosol particles have various effects on our life. They affect the visibility and have diverse health effects, but are also applied in various applications, from drug inhalators to pesticides. Additionally, aerosol particles have manifold effects on the Earths' radiation budget and thus on the climate. The strength of the aerosol climate effect is one of the factors causing major uncertainties in the global climate models predicting the future climate change. Aerosol particles are emitted to atmosphere from various anthropogenic and biogenic sources, but they are also formed from precursor vapours in many parts of the world in a process called atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). The uncertainties in aerosol climate effect are partly due to the current lack of knowledge of the mechanisms governing the atmospheric NPF. It is known that gas phase sulphuric acid most certainly plays an important role in atmospheric NPF. However, also other vapours are needed in NPF, but the exact roles or even identities of these vapours are currently not exactly known. In this thesis I present some of the recent advancements in understanding of the atmospheric NPF in terms of the roles of the participating vapours and the meteorological conditions. Since direct measurements of new particle formation rate in the initial size scale of the formed particles (below 2 nm) are so far infrequent in both spatial and temporal scales, indirect methods are needed. The work presented on the following pages approaches the NPF from two directions: by analysing the observed formation rates of particles after they have grown to sizes measurable with widely applied instruments (2 nm or larger), and by measuring and modelling the initial sulphuric acid cluster formation. The obtained results can be summarized as follows. (1) The observed atmospheric new particle formation rates are typically connected with sulphuric acid concentration to the power close to two. (2) Also other compounds, most

  16. Zinc chelates as new activators for sulphur vulcanization of acrylonitrile-butadiene elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to apply several zinc chelates as activators for sulphur vulcanization of acrylonitrilebutadiene elastomer (NBR, in order to find alternatives for the conventionally used zinc oxide. In this article, we discuss the effects of different zinc complexes on the cure characteristics, crosslinks distribution in the elastomer network and mechanical properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber. Zinc chelates seem to be good substitutes for zinc oxide as activators for sulphur vulcanization of NBR rubber, without detrimental effects on the crosslinking process and physical properties of the obtained vulcanizates. Moreover, application of zinc complexes allows to reduce the amount of zinc ions in rubber compounds by 40% compared to conventionally crosslinked vulcanizates with zinc oxide. It is a very important ecological goal since zinc oxide is classified as toxic to aquatic species and its amount in rubber products must be reduced below 2.5% at least. From a technological point of view it is a very important challenge.

  17. Sulphur loading of respirable and inhalable dust at a platinum smelter / Swanepoel J.D.

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, Johannes Deon.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution that sulphur, in the form of sulphates, has on ill health is still a focal point of many a study, especially in environmental studies depicting the effects that particulate air pollution has on health. Although the implication of sulphur on particulate matter is not yet well defined, numerous studies do state that the presence of sulphur on particulate matter contributes to poor health. Sulphur adhered to dust has been associated with cardiovascular mortality and the ability ...

  18. Effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on the germination of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L). Seeds were placed on moistened filter papers in 28 cm diameter Petri dishes under laboratory condition for germination. 330 seeds of T. indica (10 seeds per Petri dish) with ...

  19. Effects of sulphuric acid, mechanical scarification and wet heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different treatment methods on the germination of seeds of Parkia biglobosa (mimosaceae) were carried out. Prior treatment of seeds with sulphuric acid, wet heat and mechanical scarification were found to induce germination of the dormant seeds. These methods could be applied to raise seedlings of the plant for ...

  20. Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Its Complications in Iranian Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beeta Balali-Mood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard is a chemical warfare agent, which was largelyused during the World War One and in Iraq-Iran conflict. It mayalso be used as a chemical terrorism agent. Therefore, medicalprofessions should have sufficient knowledge and be preparedfor medical intervention of any such chemical attack.Sulphur mustard exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin,and respiratory tract, with subsequent systemic actions on thenervous, immunologic, hematologic, digestive, and reproductivesystems. It is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis andthus, delayed complications have been considered since theWorld War One. Cases of malignancies in the target organs particularlyin hematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systemswere reported. Common delayed respiratory complications includechronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia,and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deterioratewith time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction ofnatural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infectionsand malignancies are also among the most distressing long-termconsequences of sulphur mustard intoxication. However, despiteextensive research that has been conducted on Iranian veteransduring the past decades, major gaps continue to remain in thesulphur mustard literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunctionsand the relationship between exposure to sulphur mustardand mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity areimportant fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranianveterans with chronic health problems caused by sulphurmustard poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on themedical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of sulphurmustard poisoning, a subject that greatly challenges themedical professions.

  1. Effect of irrigation frequency and application levels of sulphur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi during the crop season of 2007 to 2008 and 2008 to 2009 to study the effect of irrigation and sulphur on yield and water use efficiency of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea var. PusaJagannath). The experiment was carried out in split plot ...

  2. Steam reforming of commercial ultra-low sulphur diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boon, J.; Van Dijk, E.; De Munck, S.; Van den Brink, R. [Energy research Centre of The Netherlands, ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, P.O. Box 1, NL1755ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-03-11

    Two main routes for small-scale diesel steam reforming exist: low-temperature pre-reforming followed by well-established methane steam reforming on the one hand and direct steam reforming on the other hand. Tests with commercial catalysts and commercially obtained diesel fuels are presented for both processes. The fuels contained up to 6.5 ppmw sulphur and up to 4.5 vol.% of biomass-derived fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Pre-reforming sulphur-free diesel at around 475C has been tested with a commercial nickel catalyst for 118 h without observing catalyst deactivation, at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.6. Direct steam reforming at temperatures up to 800C has been tested with a commercial precious metal catalyst for a total of 1190 h with two catalyst batches at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.5. Deactivation was neither observed with lower steam-to-carbon ratios nor for increasing sulphur concentration. The importance of good fuel evaporation and mixing for correct testing of catalysts is illustrated. Diesel containing biodiesel components resulted in poor spray quality, hence poor mixing and evaporation upstream, eventually causing decreasing catalyst performance. The feasibility of direct high temperature steam reforming of commercial low-sulphur diesel has been demonstrated.

  3. Steam reforming of commercial ultra-low sulphur diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Jurriaan; van Dijk, Eric; de Munck, Sander; van den Brink, Ruud

    Two main routes for small-scale diesel steam reforming exist: low-temperature pre-reforming followed by well-established methane steam reforming on the one hand and direct steam reforming on the other hand. Tests with commercial catalysts and commercially obtained diesel fuels are presented for both processes. The fuels contained up to 6.5 ppmw sulphur and up to 4.5 vol.% of biomass-derived fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Pre-reforming sulphur-free diesel at around 475 °C has been tested with a commercial nickel catalyst for 118 h without observing catalyst deactivation, at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.6. Direct steam reforming at temperatures up to 800 °C has been tested with a commercial precious metal catalyst for a total of 1190 h with two catalyst batches at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.5. Deactivation was neither observed with lower steam-to-carbon ratios nor for increasing sulphur concentration. The importance of good fuel evaporation and mixing for correct testing of catalysts is illustrated. Diesel containing biodiesel components resulted in poor spray quality, hence poor mixing and evaporation upstream, eventually causing decreasing catalyst performance. The feasibility of direct high temperature steam reforming of commercial low-sulphur diesel has been demonstrated.

  4. Growth of Sulphuric Acid Nanoparticles Under Wet and Dry Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škrabalová, Lenka; Brus, David; Antilla, T.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Lihavainen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 12 (2014), s. 6461-6475 ISSN 1680-7316 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Grant - others:AFCEP(FI) 1118615 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : binary nucleation * sulphuric acid - water * condensational growth Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 5.053, year: 2014

  5. Development of the floating sulphur biofilm reactor for sulphide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    The formation of floating sulphur biofilm was observed in the microbial ecology studies of tannery ponds undertaken by the. Environmental Biotechnology Group at Rhodes University. This was related to the steep Redox gradients established at the air/ water interface of anaerobic, organically loaded and actively sulphate ...

  6. Sulphur removal from used automotive lubricating oil by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Marcos Antonio; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Sato, Ivone Mulako

    2007-01-01

    Following the worldwide evolution with the purpose of a higher control of vehicular emissions, the specialists have looked for clean technologies and efficient procedures to make vehicular emissions free of pollutants. Much attention is given to the sulphur concentration in the gasoline, diesel and lubricating oils. The ionizing radiation is a promising technology for the removal of this pollutant when compared to other conventional treatment methods. In this work, the ionizing radiation was used to remove in significant levels the presence of sulphur in automotive motor oil. A 1000 mL sample of used automotive lubricating oil from a gas station was collected. This sample was fractioned and irradiated with 10, 20 50, 100, 200 and 500 kGy doses in a 60 Co irradiator (GAMMACELL-220 - 12 kCi). The 50 and 70% (v/v) of MilliQ water and 30% (v/v) of hydrogen peroxide was used to improve the radiolysis The sulphur element before and after the irradiation was determined by X-ray fluorescence technique (WDXRF) using the Fundamental Parameters Method. The results showed approximately 70% sulphur removal at 500 kGy irradiation dose with 70% (v/v) of MilliQ water addition. (author)

  7. Uptake and metabolism of sulphur dioxide by Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, T.A.W.; De Kok, L.J.; Haneklaus, S.; Schnug, E.

    Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. was exposed to various concentrations of SO2 during almost the entire life cycle. No negative effects of SO2 on shoot biomass production were observed. There was a linear relation between the deposition of SO2 and the atmospheric SO2 concentration. Sulphur

  8. Effects of sulphur addition on modification and mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CW Onyia, BA Okorie, NI Amalu, SI Neife ... The results showed that the addition of sulphur to Al-12wt%Si alloy modified the Al-Si eutectic ... of the eutectic silicon structure with significant decrease in mechanical properties of the alloy and this ...

  9. Distribution of Sulphur in Soils Formed from Different Parent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: A study on the profile distribution of sulphate - sulphur (SO4-S) and the relationship with some soil properties was carried out in three ... Aluminum, content and nature of organic matter, pH and the presence of other ions. ... were extracted using 1N neutral ammonium acetate. (NH4OAC) and Ca and Mg was ...

  10. Optimisation of Dilute Sulphuric Acid Hydrolysis of Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dilute sulphuric acid hydrolysis of waste paper was investigated in this study. The effects of acid concentration, time, temperature and liquid to solid ratio on the total reducing sugar concentration were studied over three levels using a four variable Box-Behnken design (BBD). A statistical model was developed for the ...

  11. Cellulose sulphuric acid as a biodegradable catalyst for conversion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article describes simple and efficient method for the diazotization and azidation of different aromatic amines over cellulose sulphuric acid, sodium nitrite and sodium azide under mild conditions at room temperature. Various aryl amines possessing electron-withdrawing groups or electron-donating groups have been ...

  12. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    on the microstructure and mechanical properties of sand cast been investigated ... owed that the addition of sulphur to Al-12wt%Si alloy. 12wt%Si alloy .... 28 materials. 29. Element. Aluminum. Silicon. Al. Si. Ca. Fe. Cu. Zn. Mn. Mg. Cr. B. 99.71.

  13. Synergetic effect of sulphur and nitrogen oxides on corrosion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synergetic effect of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) on corrosion of galvanized iron roofing sheets has been investigated. The field studies were conducted in Ibeno and Ebocha (Niger Delta, Nigeria). Specimens of the roofing sheets were exposed for one year to outdoor environment to record the ...

  14. 78 FR 64526 - Information Collection Activities: Sulphur Operations; Submitted for Office of Management and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ...: Sulphur Operations; Submitted for Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Review; Comment Request ACTION: 30... paperwork requirements in the regulations under Subpart P, Sulphur Operations. This notice also provides the..., Currently Under Review). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, Subpart P, Sulphur Operations. OMB...

  15. A new technology aimed at re-establishing a global sulphur supply/demand balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavens, A.F.; Jorgensen, C.; Ogg, D.

    2009-01-01

    The world's sulphur supply is mainly determined by involuntary production of elemental sulphur during the processing of oil and gas. As a result, sulphur supply is decoupled from demand, resulting in an imbalance between the two. For almost two decades, sulphur supply has exceeded demand, which has raised significant concerns for oil and gas producers such as where to store all of the excess sulphur, and how to transport a low-value commodity to market in an economically attractive fashion. Black and Veatch is involved in the development of a new technology called sulphur to energy process (STEP TM ) which has the potential to assist in balancing global sulphur supply and demand, as well as affording other benefits such as low-emission energy production. This paper presented the potential merits of the STEP as a means to reestablish a global sulphur supply/demand balance for the world trading market. It explored the other potential benefits that may result from the use of this new technology and compared STEP to other technologies and operating schemes that regulate sulphur supply. It was concluded that STEP has the potential to allow the processor to produce elemental sulphur when demand is high, or to provide safe and ecological disposal when demand is low, with the added benefits of energy recovery from the sulphur combustion process, and sour gas reservoir sweetening over time as sulphur dioxide reacts with hydrogen sulphide present in the reservoir. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 22 figs

  16. Preparation and characterization compatible pellets for immobilization of colloidal sulphur nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlim, M.; Zarlaida, F.; Khaldun, I.; Dewi, R.; Jamilah, M.

    2018-03-01

    Mercury pollution in atmosphere is dominated by mercury vapour release from coal burning and gold-amalgam separation in gold mining. The initial steps in formulating a compatible mercury absorbent for mercury stabilization was fabrication of pellet supported colloidal sulphur. Sulphur is used to stabilize mercury vapour by formation of metacinnabar that has much lower toxicity. The sulphur reactivity toward mercury vapour can be enhanced by using colloidal sulphur nanoparticles immobilized on compatible pellets. Clay pellets would have heat resistance but in fact, they were less stable in aqueous solution although their stability increased with inclusion of rice husk ash and sawdust or pineapple leaf fibre in the composite. Pellets made of rice husk ash and polyvinyl acetate were stable in water at least for 24 hours. Sulphur from thiosulfate precursor that immobilized onto surface of pellet using chitosan as the stabilizer and the binding agent gave lower sulphur content compared to sulphur from other precursors (sulphur powder and sulphur-CS2). Sulphur from thiosulfate precursor was in form of colloid, has nanosize, and disperse particles on the surface of rice husk ash pellets. Sulphur immobilization methods affect on sulphur particles exposure on the pellet surface.

  17. Regional modelling of anthropogenic sulphur in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engardt, M.; Leong, C. P.

    A co-operative research project between the Malaysian Meteorological Service (MMS) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) focussing on the usage of an atmospheric transport and chemistry model, has just been initiated. Here, we describe the main features of the dispersion model and discuss a first set of calculations in light of available measurements of sulphuric species in Southeast Asia. According to our results, anthropogenic sulphur concentrations and depositions are particularly high near the large cities of the region, around a metal smelter in the southern Philippines, and in a region extending from northern Vietnam into southeastern China. These areas coincide with the high-emissions regions of Southeast Asia and we tentatively conclude that regional transport of acidifying species is not as far-reaching as in the mid-latitudes. From our calculations, and from supporting measurements we conclude that most of rural Southeast Asia is not yet severely affected by anthropogenic sulphur, but given the rapid rate of economical development in this region the situation may deteriorate quickly. Areas that are particularly at risk include the large cities, northern Vietnam, most of central Thailand, most of peninsular Malaysia, eastern Sumatra and parts of Java, all of which receive total-sulphur depositions in excess of 0.5 g S m -2 yr -1. Our model simulates sulphate in precipitation in accordance with measurements, but it has a tendency to overestimate atmospheric SO 2. It remains to be investigated whether this is a problem in the model formulation or a result of unrepresentative sampling. An immediate continuation of this study should be performed with higher spatial resolution than the currently used 100×100 km 2. Other imperfections in this model study, which should be addressed in future work, include parameterised vertical transport in deep convective clouds, the influence of natural emissions (primarily from volcanoes) on the

  18. First approach to studies of sulphur electron DOS in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues studied by XANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Czapla, Joanna; Podgorczyk, Magdalena; Kisiel, Andrzej; Konior, Jerzy; Balerna, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    Urological cancers comprise approximately one-third of all cancers diagnosed in men worldwide and out of these, prostate cancer is the most common one (). Several risk factors such as age, hormone levels, environmental conditions and family history are suspected to play a role in the onset of this disease of otherwise obscure aetiology. It is therefore the medical need that drives multidisciplinary research in this field, carried out by means of various experimental and theoretical techniques. Out of many relevant factors, it is believed that sulphur can take an important part in cancer transformations. We have investigated the prostate cancer cell lines and tissues, along with selected organic and inorganic compounds used as references, by the X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy near the sulphur edge energy region. Particularly, the comparison of the experimental results collected during XANES measurements and theoretical calculations of electron density of states with use of the FEFF8 code and LAPW (linearised augmented plane-wave) method has been performed and in this work the first results of our studies are presented. - Highlights: → Different forms of sulphur has been found in prostate cancer cells. → FEFF8 code and LAPW method gave fairly good correspondence with the experiment. → LAPW is able to reproduce the fine structure of the absorption spectra. → Calculated DOS showed the influence of core atom on the shape of XANES spectra.

  19. Effective closed form mathematical approach to determine kinetic constants of NR vulcanized with sulphur and accelerators at different concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, Gabriele, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it, E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Hanel, Thomas; Donetti, Raffaella [Pirelli Tyre, Via Alberto e Piero Pirelli 25, 20126 Milan (Italy); Milani, Federico [CHEMCO Consultant, Via J.F. Kennedy 2, 45030 Occhiobello (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    The basic reaction scheme due to Han and co-workers for NR vulcanized with sulphur is adopted and modified taking into account the single contributions of the different accelerators, focusing in particular on some experimental data ad hoc obtained at Pirelli’s laboratories, where NR was vulcanized at different temperatures (from 150 to 180 °C) and concentrations of sulphur, using TBBS and DPG in the mixture as co-agents. Typically, the chain reactions are initiated by the formation of macro-compounds that are responsible of the formation of the unmatured crosslinked polymer. This first reaction depends on the reciprocal concentrations of all components and their chemical nature. In presence of two accelerators, it was considered that the reactions between each single accelerator and the NR raw material occur in parallel, making the reasonable assumption that there are no mutual reactions between the two accelerators. From the kinetic scheme adopted, a closed form solution was found for the crosslink density, with the only limitation that the induction period is excluded from computations. Even kinetic constants are evaluated in closed form, avoiding a numerically demanding least-squares best fitting on rheometer experimental data. Two series of experiments available, relying into rheometer curves at different temperatures and different concentrations of sulphur and accelerator, are utilized to evaluate the fitting capabilities of the mathematical model. Very good agreement between numerical output and experimental data is experienced in all cases analysed.

  20. Effects of oil drops containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on periodontal health and oral microbiota producing volatile sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nao; Tanabe, Kazunari; Takeshita, Toru; Yoneda, Masahiro; Iwamoto, Tomoyuki; Oshiro, Sueko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Hirofuji, Takao

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of oil drops containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on periodontal health and oral microbiota producing volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). For this study, 42 subjects were randomly assigned to receive oil samples containing L. salivarius WB21 or a placebo for two weeks. Oral assessment and saliva collection were performed on days 1 and 15. Bacterial analysis was performed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In both the experimental and placebo groups, the average probing depth, number of periodontal pockets, and the percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) decreased while stimulated salivary flow increased on day 15. BOP was reduced in the experimental group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.010). In the experimental group, total bacterial numbers decreased, and the number of L. salivarius increased. The number of Prevotella intermedia, which is correlated with hydrogen sulfide concentration in mouth air, increased in the placebo group and did not change in the experimental group. T-RFLP analysis found that the peak area proportions representing Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum decreased in the experimental group, although there was no significant change in the bacterial composition. Thus we observed oil drops containing L. salivarius WB21 improved BOP and inhibited the reproduction of total and VSC-producing periodontopathic bacteria compared with the placebo group, but also showed the limit of its efficacy in controlling VSCs producing and periodontal pathogens.

  1. Utilization of activated carbon loaded with sulphur for sulphur fertilization in agriculture; Verwertung von mit Schwefel beladener Aktivkohle als Schwefelduenger in der Landwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirfel, Kristina; Hoffmann, Heide [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). AG Agraroekologie und Oekologischer Landbau

    2013-01-15

    Due to the decrease of atmospheric sulphur deposition, sulphur fertilization has gained significance for agriculture in recent years. Carbon-sulphur-pellets (CSP), activated carbon pellets loaded with sulphur, previously used for desulphurization in biogas plants, are up to now disposed of as waste. In this context the question arises if CSP could be of use for sulphur fertilization of agricultural crops. The objective of this study was to test sulphur release and plant availability from, and plant tolerance towards CSP. A pot experiment using Zea mays with different shares of CSP was carried out. Leaf green intensity of vital plants, indicating plants' current nutritional status, was measured and differences in plant development were documented regularly. At the end of the trial period biomass and elemental contents of the test plants, as well as electrical conductivity and pH-value of the substrate-CSP-mixtures were determined. Amendments of 0.2 m.-% to 1.0 m.-% had a positive effect on plants' dry mass yield; higher shares led to considerable yield losses. By addition of CSP, sulphur content in the plant dry mass increased compared to the control without sulphur fertilization. This result indicates that sulphur adsorbed to activated carbon becomes plant available when applicated to cultural substrate. (orig.)

  2. Sulphur in the metal poor globular cluster NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, A.; Caffau, E.

    2011-10-01

    Sulphur (S) is a non-refractory α-element that is not locked into dust grains in the interstellar medium. Thus no correction to the measured, interstellar sulphur abundance is needed and it can be readily compared to the S content in stellar photospheres. Here we present the first measurement of sulphur in the metal poor globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397, as detected in a MIKE/Magellan high signal-to-noise, high-resolution spectrum of one red giant star. While abundance ratios of sulphur are available for a larger number of Galactic stars down to an [Fe/H] of ~ -3.5 dex, no measurements in globular clusters more metal poor than -1.5 dex have been reported so far. We find aNLTE, 3-D abundance ratio of [S/Fe] = +0.52 ± 0.20 (stat.) ± 0.08 (sys.), based on theS I, Multiplet 1 line at 9212.8 Å. This value is consistent with a Galactic halo plateau as typical of other α-elements in GCs and field stars, but we cannot rule out its membership with a second branch of increasing [S/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H], claimed in the literature, which leads to a large scatter at metallicities around - 2 dex. The [S/Mg] and [S/Ca] ratios in this star are compatible with a Solar value to within the (large) uncertainties. Despite the very large scatter in these ratios across Galactic stars between literature samples, this indicates that sulphur traces the chemical imprints of the other α-elements in metal poor GCs. Combined with its moderate sodium abundance ([S/Na]NLTE = 0.48), the [S/Fe] ratio in this GC extends a global, positive S-Na correlation that is not seen in field stars and might indicate that proton-capture reactions contributed to the production of sulphur in the (metal poor) early GC environments. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  3. Obtainment and characterization of pure and doped gadolinium oxy ortho silicates with terbium III, precursor of luminescent silicates with sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoneti, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Silicate and sulfide lattices are uniquely efficient luminescent materials to excitation by cathodic rays and furthermore the cathodoluminescence study of these compounds have been few investigated. In this work it has been prepared, characterized and investigated some spectroscopic properties of pure and Tb a+ - activated Gd 2 Si O 3 system and it has been tried to substitute oxygen by sulphur in order to obtain this or sulfide-silicate lattices. Products were characterized by vibrational infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction patterns and electronic emission in UV-VIS region. (author)

  4. Primordial helium abundance determination using sulphur as metallicity tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Vital; Terlevich, Elena; Díaz, Angeles I.; Terlevich, Roberto; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.

    2018-05-01

    The primordial helium abundance YP is calculated using sulphur as metallicity tracer in the classical methodology (with YP as an extrapolation of Y to zero metals). The calculated value, YP, S = 0.244 ± 0.006, is in good agreement with the estimate from the Planck experiment, as well as, determinations in the literature using oxygen as the metallicity tracer. The chemical analysis includes the sustraction of the nebular continuum and of the stellar continuum computed from simple stellar population synthesis grids. The S+2 content is measured from the near infrared [SIII]λλ9069Å, 9532Å lines, while an ICF(S3 +) is proposed based on the Ar3 +/Ar2 + fraction. Finally, we apply a multivariable linear regression using simultaneously oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur abundances for the same sample to determine the primordial helium abundance resulting in YP - O, N, S = 0.245 ± 0.007.

  5. Determination of sulphur-35 impurity in solutions of phosphorus-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Pasques, R.H.; Iglicki, F.A; Cittadini, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    A method has been developed in order to evaluate the activity of sulphur-35 impurity in solutions of phosphorus-32. The procedure is based on the precipitation on benzidine sulphate in acid solution and further purification by dissolving and reprecipitating under appropriate conditions. 35 S beta radiation is measured with and end-window gas counter. A correction for any remaining 32 P is determined by differential absorption through aluminum. (author) [es

  6. Predicting sulphur and nitrogen deposition using a simple statistical method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, F.; Kopáček, Jiří; Chuman, T.; Černohous, V.; Hůnová, I.; Hruška, Jakub; Krám, Pavel; Lachmaová, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Štěpánek, Petr; Tesař, Miroslav; Christopher, Evans D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, sep (2016), s. 456-468 ISSN 1352-2310 Grant - others:EHP(CZ) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-014-2014 Program:CZ02 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985874 Keywords : precipitation * sulphur * nitrogen * deposition * monitoring * upscaling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; DD - Geochemistry (GLU-S); DI - Air Pollution ; Quality (BC-A); BK - Fluid Dynamics (UH-J) Impact factor: 3.629, year: 2016

  7. Isotopic equilibria between sulphur solute species at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, B.W.

    1978-01-01

    Sulphur solute species in ore solutions and geothermal discharges include HSO 4 - , SO 4 2- , H 2 S, and HS - , as well as the ion-paired species, NaHS 0 , NaHSO 4 - and Na 2 SO 4 0 . Observed sulphate-sulphide fractionation factors and the rates of attainment of isotopic equilibrium are likely to depend on the nature of the sulphur species actually taking part in these isotopic equilibria. Preliminary experiments in alkaline solution (pH 10.1 at 20 0 C) were carried out in a gold cell. No significant isotope fractionation was observed between the SO 4 2- and HS - in 29 days at 200 0 C, 63days at 300 0 C, or 90 days at 250 0 C. However, similar experiments at 350 0 C in sealed gold capsules at room temperature pH 8.5 showed slow exchange(t( 1 / 2 ) was calculated to be 510 days for the SO 4 2- -HS - exchange reaction using the theoretical fractionation of 20.2 0 / 00 ). The addition of NaCl appeared to have no affect on the exchange. However, pH strongly controls the reaction rate, and exchange probably involves H 2 S and the HSO 4 - ion. Additional preliminary experiments were conducted with a fivefold increase in the sulphur concentration; a decrease in t( 1 / 2 ) to 142 days resulted. Some inter-relationship between sulphur concentration and exchange rate thus exists. The important controlling parameters of isotope exchange (temperature, pH, and ΣS) can be seen to have influenced exchange in natural systems.(auth.)

  8. Master curves for the sulphur assisted crosslinking reaction of natural rubber in the presence of nano- and nano-structured sp2 carbon allotropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Musto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, master curves are reported for the crosslinking of a diene rubber with a sulphur based system in the presence of either nano- or nano-structured carbon allotropes, such as carbon nanotubes (CNT, a nanosized graphite with high surface area (HSAG and carbon black (CB. Poly(1,4-cis-isoprene from Hevea Brasiliensis was the diene rubber and crosslinking was performed in temperatures ranging from 151 to 180 °C, with carbon allotropes below and above their percolation threshold. Such carbon allotropes were characterized by different aspect ratio, surface area and pH. However, in the crosslinking reaction, they revealed common behaviour. In fact, the specific interfacial area could be used to correlate crosslinking parameters, such as induction time (ts1 and activation energy (Ea calculated by applying the autocatalytic model. Monotonous decrease of ts1 and increase of Ea were observed, with points lying on master curves, regardless of the nature of the carbon allotropes. Remarkable differences were however observed in the structure of the crosslinking network: when the carbon allotrope was above the percolation threshold much larger crosslinking density was obtained in the presence of CNT whereas composites based on HSAG became soluble in hydrocarbon solvent, after the reaction with a thiol. Proposed explanation of these results is based on the reactivity of carbon allotropes with sulphur and sulphur based compounds, demonstrated through the reaction of 1-dodecanethiol and sulphur with CNT and HSAG and with a model substrate such as anthracene.

  9. Sulphur chemistry in the L1544 pre-stellar core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastel, Charlotte; Quénard, D.; Le Gal, R.; Wakelam, V.; Andrianasolo, A.; Caselli, P.; Vidal, T.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Bachiller, R.

    2018-05-01

    The L1544 pre-stellar core has been observed as part of the ASAI IRAM 30m Large Program as well as follow-up programs. These observations have revealed the chemical richness of the earliest phases of low-mass star-forming regions. In this paper we focus on the twenty-one sulphur bearing species (ions, isotopomers and deuteration) that have been detected in this spectral-survey through fifty one transitions: CS, CCS, C3S, SO, SO2, H2CS, OCS, HSCN, NS, HCS+, NS+ and H2S. We also report the tentative detection (4 σ level) for methyl mercaptan (CH3SH). LTE and non-LTE radiative transfer modelling have been performed and we used the NAUTILUS chemical code updated with the most recent chemical network for sulphur to explain our observations. From the chemical modelling we expect a strong radial variation for the abundances of these species, which mostly are emitted in the external layer where non thermal desorption of other species has previously been observed. We show that the chemical study cannot be compared to what has been done for the TMC-1 dark cloud, where the abundance is supposed constant along the line of sight, and conclude that a strong sulphur depletion is necessary to fully reproduce our observations of the prototypical pre-stellar core L1544.

  10. Recent Development of Carbonaceous Materials for Lithium–Sulphur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Gu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change are just beginning to be felt, and as such, society must work towards strategies of reducing humanity’s impact on the environment. Due to the fact that energy production is one of the primary contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, it is obvious that more environmentally friendly sources of power are required. Technologies such as solar and wind power are constantly being improved through research; however, as these technologies are often sporadic in their power generation, efforts must be made to establish ways to store this sustainable energy when conditions for generation are not ideal. Battery storage is one possible supplement to these renewable energy technologies; however, as current Li-ion technology is reaching its theoretical capacity, new battery technology must be investigated. Lithium–sulphur (Li–S batteries are receiving much attention as a potential replacement for Li-ion batteries due to their superior capacity, and also their abundant and environmentally benign active materials. In the spirit of environmental harm minimization, efforts have been made to use sustainable carbonaceous materials for applications as carbon–sulphur (C–S composite cathodes, carbon interlayers, and carbon-modified separators. This work reports on the various applications of carbonaceous materials applied to Li–S batteries, and provides perspectives for the future development of Li–S batteries with the aim of preparing a high energy density, environmentally friendly, and sustainable sulphur-based cathode with long cycle life.

  11. Sulphate sulphur concentration in vegetable crops, soil and ground water in the region affected by the sulphur dioxide emission from Plock oil refinery (central Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikula, W.

    1995-01-01

    Research was carried out in 1984-1990 in the region affected by the sulphur dioxide emission from one of the greatest oil refineries in Europe (Plock, central Poland). The sulphate sulphur concentration in the vegetable crops (red beet, carrot, parsley, bean, cabbage and dill), the soil and in ground water was defined in selected allotment gardens of Plock city and in a household garden located in the rural area about 25 km from the town. The highest amount of sulphur was found in the vegetable crops cultivated in the garden situated in the closest vicinity of the refinery. Sulphate sulphur contents harmful for plants (above 0.50 per cent d.m.) were noted in cabbage and carrot leaves in almost all the gardens (except one). The soil in all examined gardens was characterised by high sulphate sulphur concentration, which considerably exceeds the maximum amount admissible for light soil in Poland, i.e. 0.004 per cent d.m. The sulphate sulphur concentration in ground water in all the gardens exceeded the highest permissible content in drinking water in Poland. The sulphate sulphur content in the soil and ground water was not significantly dependent on the garden's distance from the refinery. Generally, the above normal sulphate sulphur concentrations occurred quite universally in the examined region and they concerned all the considered environmental components (vegetable crops, soil, ground water) and all the gardens. 22 refs., 6 tabs

  12. Molecular indicators for palaeoenvironmental change in a Messinian evaporitic sequence (Vena del Gesso, Italy) II. Stratigraphic changes in abundances and (13)C contents of free and sulphur-bound skeletons in a single marl bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kenig, F.; Frewin, N.L.; Hayes, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The extractable organic matter of 10 immature samples from a marl bed of one evaporitic cycle of the Vena del Gesso sediments (Gessoso-solfifera Fm., Messinian, Italy) was analyzed quantitatively for free hydrocarbons and organic sulphur compounds. Nickel boride was used as a desulphurizing agent to

  13. The implications of the new sulphur limits on the European Ro-Ro sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zis, Thalis; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    -based alternatives. The exact repercussions of the new sulphur limits are difficult to identify in the wake of significant recent reductions of the fuel prices for both low-sulphur and heavy fuel oil. This paper presents a modal split model that estimates modal shifts vis-a-vis competing maritime and land......In an effort to reduce the environmental impacts of maritime transportation, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) designated special Sulphur Emission ControlAreas (SECAs) where ships are required to use low-sulphur fuel. In January 2015, the sulphur limit within SECAs was lowered to 0.......1%, which can only be achieved if vessels are using pricier ultra-low sulphur fuel, or invest in abatement technologies. The increased operating costs borne by Ro-Ro operators in SECAs due to the stricter limits can result in the shutting down of some routes and a redistribution of cargo flows with land...

  14. An isotope view on ionising radiation as a source of sulphuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Bork, Nicolai Christian; Hattori, S.

    2012-01-01

    Sulphuric acid is an important factor in aerosol nucleation and growth. It has been shown that ions enhance the formation of sulphuric acid aerosols, but the exact mechanism has remained undetermined. Furthermore some studies have found a deficiency in the sulphuric acid budget, suggesting a miss...... yields of the experiments, suggests a mechanism in which ionising radiation may lead to hydrated ion clusters that serve as nanoreactors for S(IV) to S(VI) conversion....

  15. An isotopic analysis of ionising radiation as a source of sulphuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Bork, Nicolai Christian; Hattori, S.

    2012-01-01

    Sulphuric acid is an important factor in aerosol nucleation and growth. It has been shown that ions enhance the formation of sulphuric acid aerosols, but the exact mechanism has remained undetermined. Furthermore some studies have found a deficiency in the sulphuric acid budget, suggesting a miss...... of the experiments, suggests a mechanism in which ionising radiation may lead to hydrated ion clusters that serve as nanoreactors for S(IV) to S(VI) conversion....

  16. Modification of the sulphur resistance of platinum by addition of metals for aromatics hydrogenation; Modification de la thioresistance du platine par ajouts d'elements metalliques pour l'hydrogenation d'aromatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, E

    1999-09-15

    The aim of this study is based on the understanding of sulphur resistance of platinum catalytic systems. In this work, bimetallic systems (Pt-Ge, Pt-Au and Pt-Pd) supported on {gamma}-alumina have been studied. Preparation methods have been chosen to give the best control of the physicochemical properties of final system. Electronic and geometrical properties of the metallic phase were characterised by various techniques (TPR, infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed CO (IR(CO)), EXAFS, LEIS). Ortho-xylene hydrogenation in presence of 100 ppm of sulphur was used as model catalytic test in order to study the sulphur resistance of the catalysts. It has been shown that germanium and palladium act as electro-acceptors toward platinum. The ranking of catalytic activity in presence of sulphur is as followed: Pt-Pd > Pt-Au {approx_equal} Pt >> Pt-Ge {approx_equal} 0. The best sulphur resistance for Pt-Pd was obtained for the composition Pt{sub 20}Pd{sub 80} (Pd/Pt=4). An eggshell PdS structure with Pt (sulfur free) core is proposed. These works show that the sulphur resistance of platinum is not only linked with its electronic properties. They allow us to propose an original concept of sulphur resistant catalyst taking into account each catalytic parameters such as chemical bonding of S and aromatic compounds on the metallic site, physico-chemical characteristics of the bimetallic aggregates (particle size, structure, surface composition) and electronic modification of surface atoms in bimetallic catalysts. (author)

  17. Modification of the sulphur resistance of platinum by addition of metals for aromatics hydrogenation; Modification de la thioresistance du platine par ajouts d'elements metalliques pour l'hydrogenation d'aromatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, E.

    1999-09-15

    The aim of this study is based on the understanding of sulphur resistance of platinum catalytic systems. In this work, bimetallic systems (Pt-Ge, Pt-Au and Pt-Pd) supported on {gamma}-alumina have been studied. Preparation methods have been chosen to give the best control of the physicochemical properties of final system. Electronic and geometrical properties of the metallic phase were characterised by various techniques (TPR, infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed CO (IR(CO)), EXAFS, LEIS). Ortho-xylene hydrogenation in presence of 100 ppm of sulphur was used as model catalytic test in order to study the sulphur resistance of the catalysts. It has been shown that germanium and palladium act as electro-acceptors toward platinum. The ranking of catalytic activity in presence of sulphur is as followed: Pt-Pd > Pt-Au {approx_equal} Pt >> Pt-Ge {approx_equal} 0. The best sulphur resistance for Pt-Pd was obtained for the composition Pt{sub 20}Pd{sub 80} (Pd/Pt=4). An eggshell PdS structure with Pt (sulfur free) core is proposed. These works show that the sulphur resistance of platinum is not only linked with its electronic properties. They allow us to propose an original concept of sulphur resistant catalyst taking into account each catalytic parameters such as chemical bonding of S and aromatic compounds on the metallic site, physico-chemical characteristics of the bimetallic aggregates (particle size, structure, surface composition) and electronic modification of surface atoms in bimetallic catalysts. (author)

  18. Interrogating trees for isotopic archives of atmospheric sulphur deposition and comparison to speleothem records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynn, P.M.; Loader, N.J.; Fairchild, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    Palaeorecords which depict changes in sulphur dynamics form an invaluable resource for recording atmospheric pollution. Tree rings constitute an archive that are ubiquitously available and can be absolutely dated, providing the potential to explore local- to regional-scale trends in sulphur availability. Rapid isotopic analysis by a novel “on-line” method using elemental analyser isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) is developed, achieving sample precision of <0.4‰ using sample sizes of 40 mg wood powder. Tree cores from NE Italy show trends in pollution, evidenced through increasing concentrations of sulphur towards the youngest growth, and inverse trends in sulphur isotopes differentiating modern growth with light sulphur isotopes (+0.7‰) from pre-industrial growth (+7.5‰) influenced by bedrock composition. Comparison with speleothem records from the same location demonstrate replication, albeit offset in isotopic value due to groundwater storage. Using EA-IRMS, tree ring archives form a valuable resource for understanding local- to regional-scale sulphur pollution dynamics. - Highlights: • Sulphur isotopes from tree rings are analysed using ‘on-line’ EA combustion. • Isotopes differentiate modern growth influenced by pollution from pre-industrial growth. • Biogeochemical cycling imparts minimal delay in sulphur incorporation into tree rings. • Trends in pollution are replicated between speleothems and trees from the same location. - Sulphur isotopes extracted from tree ring records are used to identify twentieth century pollution dynamics at the local- to regional-scale

  19. Removal of organic nitrogen compounds in LCO reduces the hydrodesulphurization severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H.; Chen, J.; Ring, Z. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Canada and the United States committed to reducing diesel sulphur from 500 to 15 part per million by 2006. Refineries could benefit from a better understanding of the effects of feed matrix on sulphur removal by hydrodesulphurization (HDS) in selecting the right feed or feed pre-treatment options for their existing HDS units and achieve the required sulphur level at minimum cost. This paper presented a study that examined the influence of nitrogen compounds on the HDS activities of substituted dibenzothiophenes in light oil cycle over a nitrogen/molybdenum on alumina oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) commercial catalyst using five light cycle oil feeds with different concentrations of organic nitrogen compounds. The paper discussed experiments that were conducted under conditions close to industrial HDS processes. The paper addressed feed preparation; the nitrogen effect on HDS reactivity of dibenzothiophene, 4-methyldibenzothiophene, and 4,6-dimethyl dibenzothiophene; sulphur composition analysis; hydrodenitrogenation; and kinetic modeling. It was concluded that organic nitrogen compounds have more of an inhibition effect on sulphur removal by the hydrogenation pathway than by the hydrogenolysis pathway. Nitrogen removal by feed pre-treatment was found to be an attractive alternative to achieve the ultra-low sulphur goal. 26 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  20. Sulphur mustard degradation on zirconium doped Ti-Fe oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} New stechiometric materials for sulphur mustard degradation. {yields} High degree of degradation, more then 95% h{sup -1}. {yields} One-pot synthesis procedure. - Abstract: Zirconium doped mixed nanodispersive oxides of Ti and Fe were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of sulphate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized nanodispersive metal oxide hydroxides were characterised as the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and acid-base titration. These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (chemical warfare agent HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant tends to increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides in such a manner that it can contribute to enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface and thus accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. The addition of Zr{sup 4+} to the hydrolysis of ferric sulphate with urea shifts the reaction route and promotes formation of goethite at the expense of ferrihydrite. We discovered that Zr{sup 4+} doped oxo-hydroxides of Ti and Fe exhibit a higher degradation activity towards sulphur mustard than any other yet reported reactive sorbents. The reaction rate constant of the slower parallel reaction of the most efficient reactive sorbents is increased with the increasing amount of surface base sites.

  1. Alkynylation of heterocyclic compounds using hypervalent iodine reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamlar, M; Císařová, I; Veselý, J

    2015-03-14

    The alkynylation of various nitrogen- and/or sulphur-containing heterocyclic compounds using hypervalent iodine TMS-EBX by utilization of tertiary amines under mild conditions is described. The developed metal-free methodology furnishes the corresponding alkynylated heterocycles bearing quaternary carbon in high yields.

  2. A Colonial Conundrum: Boy with Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Findlay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed analysis of the perplexing painting Boy with Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo. Unfortunately, there is little information on the provenance of the portrait, including the identity of the artist, sitter and patron. It will be argued that it is the work of Augustus Earle and that it is a portrait of Daniel Cooper II and was commissioned by his uncle, also named Daniel Cooper. The aim of this article is to start to unravel the ambiguities of the image, and I suggest that the painting is a strong statement on the rights of freed convicts in Australian colonial society

  3. Intensification of zinc dissolution process in sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many high purity salts are produced by dissolving pure metal in non-oxidizing mineral acids. If hydrogen overpotential on the given metal is high, then the rate of overall process is defined by reaction of hydrogen ion reduction. This study investigated the possibility of accelerated dissolving of metal zinc in sulphuric acid by introducing copper cathode on which evolving hydrogen is much easier than on zinc. It was found out that the acceleration of zinc dissolving is possible and, at constant surface of copper cathode depends on the quality of electrical contact between copper electrode and zinc.

  4. Galactic evolution of sulphur as traced by globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacharov, N.; Koch, A.; Caffau, E.; Sbordone, L.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Sulphur is an important volatile α element, but its role in the Galactic chemical evolution is still uncertain, and more observations constraining the sulphur abundance in stellar photospheres are required. Aims: We derive the sulphur abundances in red giant branch (RGB) stars in three Galactic halo globular clusters (GC) that cover a wide metallicity range (-2.3 noise (S/N ~ 200 per px) spectra in the region of the S I multiplet 3 at 1045 nm for 15 GC stars selected from the literature (six stars in M 4,six stars in M 22, and three stars in M 30). Multiplet 3 is better suited for S abundance derivation than the more commonly used lines of multiplet 1 at 920 nm, since its lines are not blended by telluric absorption or other stellar features at low metallicity. Results: We used spectral synthesis to derive the [S/Fe] ratio of the stars assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We find mean [S/Fe]LTE = 0.58 ± 0.01 ± 0.20 dex (statistical and systematic error) for M 4, [S/Fe]LTE = 0.57 ± 0.01 ± 0.19 dex for M 22, and [S/Fe]LTE = 0.55 ± 0.02 ± 0.16 dex for M 30. The negative NLTE corrections are estimated to be in the order of the systematic uncertainties. We do not detect star-to-star variations of the S abundance in any of the observed GCs, with the possible exception of two individual stars, one in M 22 and one in M 30, which appear to be highly enriched in S. Conclusions: With the tentative exception of two stars with measured high S abundances, we conclude that sulphur behaves like a typical α element in the studied Galactic GCs, showing enhanced abundances with respect to the solar value at metallicities below [Fe/H]-1.0 dex without a considerable spread. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programmes ID 091.B-0171(A).The reduced spectra and the best fit synthetic models are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  5. Isotope exchange reaction in uranous-uranyl-sulphuric acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Daren; Yue Tingsheng; Mu Dehai; Wang Yani

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of the isotope exchange reaction between U(IV) and U(VI) has been studied in low concentrations of sulphuric acid. A minimum exchange rate appears at 0.25 M H 2 SO 4 . From the rates at different temperatures ranging from 20deg to 35deg C, an apparent activation energy of 86 kcal/mole was calculated. The exchange rate was found to be accelerated by the addition of ferrous ions, and a half-life of less than 1 s, was obtained. Probable mechanisms for the acceleration of the uranium isotope exchange reactions by acidity and ferrous ions are proposed. (orig.)

  6. Sodium-sulphur batteries for electric road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangan, M.F. (Chloride Silent Power Ltd., Runcorn (UK))

    1989-04-01

    The sodium sulphur couple is, in principle, very well behaved and has operational characteristics which make it ideal for electric vehicle use. Design of the battery system for road use requires that a number of practical considerations are addressed. In particular, the battery operates at 350 deg C and requires a thermal enclosure with thermal management. The cell interconnection network must address the consequences of end-of-life failure and the voltages across the individual cells should be limited, both in charge and discharge. (author).

  7. Hair analysis as a useful procedure for detection of vapour exposure to chemical warfare agents: simulation of sulphur mustard with methyl salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA) are highly toxic compounds which have been produced to kill or hurt people during conflicts or terrorist attacks. Despite the fact that their use is strictly prohibited according to international convention, populations' exposure still recently occurred. Development of markers of exposure to CWA is necessary to distinguish exposed victims from unexposed ones. We present the first study of hair usage as passive sampler to assess contamination by chemicals in vapour form. This work presents more particularly the hair adsorption capacity for methyl salicylate used as a surrogate of the vesicant sulphur mustard. Chemical vapours toxicity through the respiratory route has historically been defined through Haber's law's concentration-time (Ct) product, and vapour exposure of hair to methyl salicylate was conducted with various times or doses of exposure in the range of incapacitating and lethal Ct products corresponding to sulphur mustard. Following exposure, extraction of methyl salicylate from hair was conducted by simple soaking in dichloromethane. Methyl salicylate could be detected on hair for vapour concentration corresponding to about one fifth of the sulphur mustard concentration that would kill 50% of exposed individuals (LCt50). The amount of methyl salicylate recovered from hair increased with time or dose of exposure. It showed a good correlation with the concentration-time product, suggesting that hair could be used like a passive sampler to assess vapour exposure to chemical compounds. It introduces great perspectives concerning the use of hair as a marker of exposure to CWA. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Impact of dia- and catagenesis on sulphur and oxygen sequestration of biomarkers as revealed by artificial maturation of an immature sedimentary rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, M.P.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrous pyrolysis of an immature (R(a)??? 0.25%) sulphur-rich marl from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin was carried out at 160C ??? T ???330 C for 72 h, to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the abundance and distribution of sulphur-containing and sulphur- and oxygen-linked carbon skeletons in low-molecular-weight and highmolecular-weight fractions (e.g. kerogen). To this end, compounds in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction, monoaromatic hydrocarbon fraction, polyaromatic hydrocarbon fraction, alkylsulphide fraction and ketone fraction were quantified, as well as compounds released after desulphurisation of the polar fraction and HI/LiAIH4 treatment of the desulphurised polar fraction. Sulphur-bound phytane and (20R)-5??,14??,17??(H) and (20R)-5??,14??,17??(H) C27 C29 steranes in the polar fraction become less abundant with increasing maturation temperature, whereas the amount of their corresponding hydrocarbons increases in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction. Carbon skeletons that are bound in the kerogen by multiple bonds (e.g. C38 n-alkane and isorenieratane) are first released into the polar fraction, and then as free hydrocarbons. These changes occur at relatively low levels of thermal maturity (R(a) <0.6%), as evidenced by the 'immature' values of biomarker maturity parameters such as the ????/(????+ ???? + ????) C35 hopane ratio and the 22S/(22S + 22R)-17??,21??(H) C35 hopane ratio. Sulphur- and oxygen-bound moieties, present in the polar fraction, are not stable with increasing thermal maturation. However, alkylthiophenes, ketones. 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes and free n-alkanes seem to be stable thermal degradation products of these sulphur- and oxygen-bound moieties. Thus, apart from free n-alkanes, which are abundantly present in more mature sedimentary rocks and crude oils, alkylthiophenes, 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes and ketones can also be expected to occur. The positions of the thiophene

  9. Sulphur-containing Amino Acids: Protective Role Against Free Radicals and Heavy Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colovic, Mirjana B; Vasic, Vesna M; Djuric, Dragan M; Krstic, Danijela Z

    2018-01-30

    Sulphur is an abundant element in biological systems, which plays an important role in processes essential for life as a constituent of proteins, vitamins and other crucial biomolecules. The major source of sulphur for humans is plants being able to use inorganic sulphur in the purpose of sulphur-containing amino acids synthesis. Sulphur-containing amino acids include methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and taurine. Methionine and cysteine are classified as proteinogenic, canonic amino acids incorporated in protein structure. Sulphur amino acids are involved in the synthesis of intracellular antioxidants such as glutathione and N-acetyl cysteine. Moreover, naturally occurring sulphur-containing ligands are effective and safe detoxifying agents, often used in order to prevent toxic metal ions effects and their accumulation in human body. Literature search for peer-reviewed articles was performed using PubMed and Scopus databases, and utilizing appropriate keywords. This review is focused on sulphur-containing amino acids - methionine, cysteine, taurine, and their derivatives - glutathione and N-acetylcysteine, and their defense effects as antioxidant agents against free radicals. Additionally, the protective effects of sulphur-containing ligands against the toxic effects of heavy and transition metal ions, and their reactivation role towards the enzyme inhibition are described. Sulphur-containing amino acids represent a powerful part of cell antioxidant system. Thus, they are essential in the maintenance of normal cellular functions and health. In addition to their worthy antioxidant action, sulphur-containing amino acids may offer a chelating site for heavy metals. Accordingly, they may be supplemented during chelating therapy, providing beneficial effects in eliminating toxic metals. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Selective methods for polyphenols and sulphur dioxide determination in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guzmán, Juan J; Hernández-Artiga, María P; Palacios-Ponce de León, Lourdes; Bellido-Milla, Dolores

    2015-09-01

    A critical review to the methods recommended by international bodies and widely used in the winery industry and research studies was performed. A Laccase biosensor was applied to the selective determination of polyphenols in wines. The biosensor response was characterised and it responds mainly to o-diphenols which are the principal polyphenols responsible for the stability and sensory qualities of wines. The spectrophotometric method to determine free and total sulphur dioxide recommended for beers was applied directly to wines. A sampling of 14 red and white wines was performed and they were analysed for biosensor polyphenol index (IBP) and sulphur dioxide concentration (SO2). The antioxidant capacity by the ABTS(+) spectrophotometric method was also determined. A correlation study was performed to elucidate the influence of the polyphenols and SO2 on the wines stability. High correlations were found between IBP and antioxidant capacity and low correlation between SO2 and antioxidant capacity. To evaluate the benefits of wine drinking a new parameter (IBP/SO2) is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between sulphate and sulphur dioxide in the air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugas, M; Gentilizza, M

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between the sulphate in suspended particulates and sulphur dioxide in the air was studied in various urban and industrial areas. The relationship is best described by the equation y = ax/sup b/, where y is the percentage of the sulphate S in the total S (sulphate and sulphur dioxide) and x is the concentration of the total S in the air. The regression coefficients a and b seem to be characteristics of the area. In urban areas studied so far a was between 316 and 378 and b between -0.74 and -0.83. In industrial areas polluted by dust which contains elevated concentrations of metals a was between 91 and 107 and b between -0.35 and -0.49. In the area polluted by cement dust there was practically no correlation between the sulphate S (%) and the total S, but a relatively high correlation between absolute amounts of the sulphate S and the total S. The relations indicate that the limitation of SO/sub 2/ conversion is influenced by aerosol composition. Aerosols containing certain metals may promote the conversion by a catalytic effect while alkaline substances by increasing the pH. Whether this can only happen in the plume or in the air as well remains to be clarified.

  12. The remaining percentage of 32P after burning of sulphur tablet containing 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Weiqing

    1991-01-01

    Three types of sulphur tablet containing 32 P are made artificially. The remaining percentage of 32 P after burning of three types of sulphur tablets containing 32 P is 98.1 ± 1.3% for 1st and 2nd types and 97.2 ± 2.8% for 3rd type

  13. Sulphur-oxidising and Sulphate-reducing Communities in Brazilian Mangrove Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varon-Lopez, Maryeimy; Dias, A.C.F; Fasanella, C.C.; Durrer, A.; Melo, I.S.; Kuramae, E.E.; Andreote, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove soils are anaerobic environments rich in sulphate and organic matter. Although the sulphur cycle is one of the major actors in this ecosystem, little is known regarding the sulphur bacteria communities in mangrove soils. We investigated the abundance, composition and diversity of

  14. Separation of uranium, molibdenum and vanadium in sulphuric solutions by extraction with alamine 336

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floh, B.

    1976-01-01

    Alamine 336 - varsol - sulphuric acid-water system used for uranium, molibdenum and vanadium extraction, from sulphuric leaching and an appropriate plan for fractioning those elements are investigated. The behavior of cited elements in pure solutions followed by interaction that occurs in both bynary and tertiary systems are studied. Distribution coefficient is regarded for measuring such effects [pt

  15. Dry deposition of sulphur on the Mpumalanga highveld: a pilot study using the inferential method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zunckel, M

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available contributions come from SO2 at night and from particulates during the day in both seasons. The contribution to the total dry deposition sulphur load by particulates at night appears to be negligible. Assuming that sulphur precipitation for the two monitoring...

  16. Atmospheric emissions in metropolitan France: compounds related to the increase of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents and comments statistical data and indicators on emissions of compounds involved in the greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), hydro-fluorocarbon compounds (HFCs), per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). For these compounds, the report indicates and comments world and French emission data, their evolution, and the shares of different sectors and their evolutions. It also comments the evolution of the global warming potential (GWP)

  17. Integrated sulphur management : gas, oil sands, reclamation and the challenges of fluctuating demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, R.

    2009-01-01

    International Commodities Export Corporation is a privately held company that provides fully integrated service offerings to add maximum value in designing, building, owning, and operating sulphur assets. The company also offers in-house, engineering, procurement and project management, as well as supply management, transportation and distribution services. It also has expertise in marine transportation. This presentation discussed integrated sulphur management, with particular focus on gas, oil sands, reclamation and the challenges of fluctuating demand. The presentation provided an overview of the sulphur market and oil sands sulphur. Key considerations for oil sands producers were also presented. The challenges of fluctuating demand include price and volume considerations; logistics; geography and distance to market; export/offshore versus domestic/United States; seasonal considerations; and an inelastic sulphur market. The presentation concluded with a status update of ICEC's initiative and the advantages of Prince Rupert, an economically viable export infrastructure to producers without onsite forming facilities. figs

  18. Simultaneous analysis of gaseous and particulate sulphur in the atmosphere by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yatsuka; Mamuro, Tetsuo

    1975-01-01

    An analytical technique for the simultaneous measurements of the atmospheric concentrations of SO 2 gas and sulphur absorbed by aerosol particles has been developed. Aerosol particles are collected on membrane filter and at the same time SO 2 gas is captured on alkali impregnated filter. The sulphur content in each filter is measured by an energy dispersive X -ray fluorescence spectrometer consisting of a Si(Li) semiconductor detector connected to a multi-channel pulse height analyzer and an excitation source of 55 Fe. Two methods are acceptable for the determination of the sulphur content in impregnated filter by X-ray fluorescence analysis. In the first method X-ray fluorescence analysis is made after the collected sulphur gas diffused and distributed uniformly enough throughout the filter, and in the second method X-ray fluorescence analysis gas to be finished before the diffusion of the collected sulphur becomes appreciable. (author)

  19. Development of a Temperature Programmed Identification Technique to Characterize the Organic Sulphur Functional Groups in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Ghauri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR technique is employed for the characterisation of various organic sulphur functional groups in coal. The TPR technique is modified into the Temperature Programmed Identification technique to investigate whether this method can detect various functional groups corresponding to their reduction temperatures. Ollerton, Harworth, Silverdale, Prince of Wales coal and Mequinenza lignite were chosen for this study. High pressure oxydesulphurisation of the coal samples was also done. The characterization of various organic sulphur functional groups present in untreated and treated coal by the TPR method and later by the TPI method confirmed that these methods can identify the organic sulphur groups in coal and that the results based on total sulphur are comparable with those provided by standard analytical techniques. The analysis of the untreated and treated coal samples showed that the structural changes in the organic sulphur matrix due to a reaction can be determined.

  20. Diversity in fertility potential and organo-sulphur compounds among garlics from Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenetsky, R.; Shafir, I.L.; Khassanov, F.; Kik, C.; Heusden, van A.W.; Vrielink-van Ginkel, M.; Burger-Meijer, K.; Auger, J.; Arnault, I.; Rabinowitch, H.D.

    2005-01-01

    Extending the collection of garlic (Allium sativum L.) accessions is an important means that is available for broadening the genetic variability of this cultivated plant, with regard to yield, quality, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic traits; it is also an important means for restoring fertility

  1. High pressure treatments accelerate changes in volatile composition of sulphur dioxide-free wine during bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mickael C; Nunes, Cláudia; Rocha, M Angélica M; Rodrigues, Ana; Rocha, Sílvia M; Saraiva, Jorge A; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-12-01

    The impact of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments on volatile composition of sulphur dioxide-free wines during bottle storage was studied. For this purpose, white and red wines were produced without sulphur dioxide (SO2) and, at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, the wines were pressurised at 500 MPa and 425 MPa for 5 min. Wine with 40 ppm of SO2 and a wine without a preservation treatment were used as controls. More than 160 volatile compounds, distributed over 12 chemical groups, were identified in the wines by an advanced gas chromatography technique. The pressurised wines contained a higher content of furans, aldehydes, ketones, and acetals, compared with unpressurised wines after 9 months of storage. The changes in the volatile composition indicate that HHP treatments accelerated the Maillard reaction, and alcohol and fatty acid oxidation, leading to wines with a volatile composition similar to those of faster aged and/or thermally treated wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sulphur transformation and deposition in the rhizosphere of Juncus effusus in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiessner, A.; Kuschk, P.; Jechorek, M.; Seidel, H.; Kaestner, M.

    2008-01-01

    Sulphur cycling and its correlation to removal processes under dynamic redox conditions in the rhizosphere of helophytes in treatment wetlands are poorly understood. Therefore, long-term experiments were performed in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands treating artificial domestic wastewater in order to investigate the dynamics of sulphur compounds, the responses of plants and nitrifying microorganisms under carbon surplus conditions, and the generation of methane. For carbon surplus conditions (carbon:sulphate of 2.8:1) sulphate reduction happened but was repressed, in contrast to unplanted filters mentioned in literature. Doubling the carbon load caused stable and efficient sulphate reduction, rising of pH, increasing enrichment of S 2- and S 0 in pore water, and finally plant death and inhibition of nitrification by sulphide toxicity. The data show a clear correlation of the occurrence of reduced S-species with decreasing C and N removal performance and plant viability in the experimental constructed wetlands. - In an experimental constructed wetland a clear correlation of the occurrence of reduced S-species with decreasing C and N removal performance and plant viability was observed

  3. Computer Simulation of Microsegregation of Sulphur and Manganese and Formation of MnS Inclusions while Casting Rail Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalisz D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of rail steel is conditioned by its high mechanic qualities, which greatly depend on the presence of undesired nonmetallic inclusions. The paper is devoted to the segregation of components, mainly sulphur, and the formation of manganese sulphide in the process of steel solidification, at the casting rate of 100 and 500 K/min. Sulphur is a steel component which disadvantageously influences its numerous parameters. The oxide-sulphide and sulphide precipitations cause cracks and lower the strength of the material. This phenomenon was modeled with the use of author’s computer program based on Matsumiya interdendritic microsegregation model. The main assumptions of this model and thermodynamic conditions of inclusion formation during casting of steel are discussed in this paper. Two cases were analyzed: in the first one the MnS was assumed to form a pure and constant compound, whereas in the other one the manganese sulfide was precipitated as a component of a liquid oxide solution, and its activity was lower than unity. The final conclusion is that chemical composition of steel is the major parameter deciding about the formation of MnS inclusions.

  4. Comparison of methods for the determination of reduced inorganic sulphur in acid sulphate soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santomartino, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The management of acid sulphate soils requires analytical methods that provide accurate data on the quantity of reduced inorganic sulphur within a soil, as it is this fraction that produces acid upon oxidation. This study uses sulphidic Coode Island Silt samples to compare common analytical methods including POCAS (Peroxide Oxidation-Combined Acidity and Sulphate) which consists of TSA (Total Sulphidic Acidity), S pos (Peroxide Oxidisable Sulphur), TOS (Total Oxidisable Sulphur) and chromium-reducible sulphur. The determination of total sulphur by Leco sulphur is strongly correlated with, but slightly less than, that analysed by XRF. Comparison of soil sulphide content by chromium-reducible sulphur, TSA and TOS methods indicates that TOS values are substantially higher than both other methods. The problem with the TOS method lies in the sulphate extraction procedure. Hot distilled water and HCI are commonly used as extractants, however hot distilled water fails to remove organic sulphur, thereby overestimating the sulphide content of the soil. Leco carbon analyses verify that a substantial proportion of organic matter exists within the samples. The HCI extraction process, which uses Ion Chromatography to analyse for sulphate, produces highly inaccurate results due to the interference of the sulphate peak by the chloride peak during analysis. An alternative method involving HCI extraction and XRF analysis of the soil residue is currently being undertaken. The use of KCI to extract sulphate generally produces values similar to the hot distilled water method. The sulphidic content measured by TSA is strongly correlated with, but slightly higher than that determined by the chromium-reducible sulphur method. This is attributed to the use of hydrogen peroxide in the TSA method, which oxidises organic matter to organic acids in addition to oxidising sulphides. These preliminary findings indicate that the chromium-reducible sulphur method is the most suitable

  5. Studies on the availability of sulphur in four soil series of soil and water management project, Patiala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kesho Ram; Dev, G.

    1974-01-01

    Differential behaviour of four soils series (Banra, Fatehpur, Temple and Samana) for availability of S to wheat (Kalyan-sona) was studied in a pot experiment using five doses of labelled sulphur (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 kg/ha) applied as (NH 4 ) 2 35 SO 4 . The yield, sulphur content and total removal of sulphur by plant, was found dependent upon sulphur supplying power of the soil, which was confirmed by the radioassay data as well. (author)

  6. Production of volatile and sulfur compounds by ten Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains inoculated in Trebbiano must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca ePatrignani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In wines, the presence of sulphur compounds is the resulting of several contributions among which yeast metabolism. The characterization of the starter Saccharomyces cerevisiae needs to be performed also taking into account this ability even if evaluated together with the overall metabolic profile. In this perspective, principal aim of this experimental research was the evaluation of the volatile profiles, throughout GC/MS technique coupled with solid phase micro extraction, of wines obtained throughout the fermentation of 10 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, the production of sulphur compounds was further evaluated by using a gas-chromatograph coupled with a Flame Photometric Detector. Specifically, the ten strains were inoculated in Trebbiano musts and the fermentations were monitored for 19 days. In the produced wines, volatile and sulphur compounds as well as amino acid concentrations were investigated. Also the physico-chemical characteristics of the wines and their electronic nose profiles were evaluated.

  7. Reduced emissions from inexpensive high-sulphur coal briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Wachter, E.A.; Wade, J.; Wilson, D.L.; Haas, J.W.; Ahmad, N.; Siltain, F.; Raza, M.Z.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne emissions were measured during the combustion of Pakistani high-sulphur coal, cold briquetted with lime and clay; comparison was made to emissions from raw coal and traditional fuels burnt in a native, mud-lined Angethi stove. Compared to raw coal, the amended coal gave fourfold reduced emission of respirable-size particles (RSP) and threefold reduced total releases of SO 2 . In domestic cooking, substitution of the amended coal briquettes for traditional fuels will not worsen indoor air quality with respect to CO, SO 2 , NO x , and RSP. The high peak amounts of CO (100--250 ppm), SO 2 (2--5 ppm), and NO x (1--5 ppm) were limited to the early phase of burning. The high thermal value of the coal briquettes together with a simple briquetting technology, make this fuel an attractive energy alternative in countries that are underdeveloped, developing, or experiencing major restructuring

  8. Characterization of dross and its recovery by sulphuric acid leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, S. A.; Meidianto, A.; Amal, M. I.; Wismogroho, A. S.; Widayatno, W. B.

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the characterization of dross from galvanizing process and its recovery using acidic leaching method. The diffraction profile of dross showed identical peaks with that of ZnO. The X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis identified the content of following metals: Zn, Fe, Mn, Ga, Co, and W. The thermal behaviour examination revealed the existence of some volatiles within the initial sample. The acidic leaching at various concentrations of sulphuric acid was conducted to determine the optimum concentration for zinc recovery and the highest yield of zinc sulphate. It is concluded that the optimum concentration of H2SO4 for this kind of dross is 4 M with 71.9% yield of ZnSO4. The result of leaching process was confirmed by infrared spectrum, where various absorptions corresponding to SO4 2- and Zn-O bands were observed.

  9. Long-term sedimentary recycling of rare sulphur isotope anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Christopher T; Planavsky, Noah J; Lyons, Timothy W

    2013-05-02

    The accumulation of substantial quantities of O2 in the atmosphere has come to control the chemistry and ecological structure of Earth's surface. Non-mass-dependent (NMD) sulphur isotope anomalies in the rock record are the central tool used to reconstruct the redox history of the early atmosphere. The generation and initial delivery of these anomalies to marine sediments requires low partial pressures of atmospheric O2 (p(O2); refs 2, 3), and the disappearance of NMD anomalies from the rock record 2.32 billion years ago is thought to have signalled a departure from persistently low atmospheric oxygen levels (less than about 10(-5) times the present atmospheric level) during approximately the first two billion years of Earth's history. Here we present a model study designed to describe the long-term surface recycling of crustal NMD anomalies, and show that the record of this geochemical signal is likely to display a 'crustal memory effect' following increases in atmospheric p(O2) above this threshold. Once NMD anomalies have been buried in the upper crust they are extremely resistant to removal, and can be erased only through successive cycles of weathering, dilution and burial on an oxygenated Earth surface. This recycling results in the residual incorporation of NMD anomalies into the sedimentary record long after synchronous atmospheric generation of the isotopic signal has ceased, with dynamic and measurable signals probably surviving for as long as 10-100 million years subsequent to an increase in atmospheric p(O2) to more than 10(-5) times the present atmospheric level. Our results can reconcile geochemical evidence for oxygen production and transient accumulation with the maintenance of NMD anomalies on the early Earth, and suggest that future work should investigate the notion that temporally continuous generation of new NMD sulphur isotope anomalies in the atmosphere was likely to have ceased long before their ultimate disappearance from the rock record.

  10. Marinobacterium sp. strain DMS-S1 uses dimethyl sulphide as a sulphur source after light-dependent transformation by excreted flavins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takako; Fuse, Hiroyuki; Endo, Takayuki; Habe, Hiroshi; Nojiri, Hideaki; Omori, Toshio

    2003-06-01

    Marinobacterium sp. strain DMS-S1 is a unique marine bacterium that can use dimethyl sulphide (DMS) as a sulphur source only in the presence of light. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses of the culture supernatant revealed that excreted factors, which could transform DMS to dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) under light, are FAD and riboflavin. In addition, FAD appeared to catalyse the photolysis of DMS to not only DMSO but also methanesulphonate (MSA), formate, formaldehyde and sulphate. As strain DMS-S1 can use sulphate and MSA as a sole sulphur source independently of light, the excretion of flavins appeared to support the growth on DMS under light. Furthermore, three out of 12 marine bacteria from IAM culture collection were found to be able to grow on DMS with the aid of photolysis by the flavins excreted. This is the first report that bacteria can use light to assimilate oceanic organic sulphur compounds outside the cells by excreting flavins as photosensitizers.

  11. Biodegradation of NSO-compounds under different redox-conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyreborg, S.; Arvin, E.; Broholm, K.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the potential of groundwater microorganisms to degrade selected heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing nitrogen, sulphur, or oxygen (NSO-compounds) under four redox-conditions over a period of 846 days. Eight compounds (pyrrole, 1...... anaerobic conditions, even though the microorganisms present in the anaerobic microcosms were active throughout the incubation period. A high variability in the lag period among the NSO-compounds was observed under aerobic conditions. While quinoline, indole, and carbazole were degraded with a lag period...

  12. Effects of acid conditions on element distribution beneath a sulphur basepad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, J.H.; Fennell, J.W.; Sharma, A.

    1997-04-01

    A reconnaissance-scale study was conducted to determine the extent of acid conditions beneath a sulphur basepad at Canadian Occidental's Balzac sour gas plant and to examine the effects of acid conditions on element distribution in the subsurface. Sulphur which is extracted from sour natural gas is stored in large blocks directly on the ground. The elemental sulphur will oxidize to H 2 SO 4 under aerobic conditions and with the proper microorganisms can result in possible removal of metals from the soil and transportation in the groundwater. The basepad at the sour gas plant is 36 years old and is covered by about 1 metre of elemental sulphur. EM31 terrain conductivity and electrical resistivity tomography geophysical surveys were conducted to determine aerial and subsurface bulk electrical conductivity. The objective was to locate the indurated layer using the geophysical techniques and soil boring. The extent of acid conditions beneath the sulphur block was determined. Migration rates for the site were also estimated. Results suggested that minimal soil and groundwater impact can be expected from sulphur blocks overlying properly buffered soils, and that synthetic liners beneath sulphur blocks may not be a necessary measure at sour gas plants in Alberta. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs., 5 appendices

  13. Effect of Sulphur Fertilization on Grain Quality and Protein Composition of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Pompa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of atmosphere emission of SO2 and the massive use of fertilizers high in nitrogen and phosphorus resulted in a decrease of the sulphur content in the soil. In durum wheat cultivation, sulphur supply plays a key role not only for plant growth, but also for grain quality. Sulphur is an essential macronutrient primarily used to synthesize methionine and cysteine and it is also involved in establishing protein structures by disulphide bonds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sulphur nutrition on grain quality and protein composition of durum wheat cultivars grown under water deficit conditions, typical of Mediterranean areas. To this purpose, in the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 crop seasons a field trial was carried out by comparing two water regimes (irrigated and rainfed, two sulphur fertilizer levels and two durum wheat cultivars. Under our experimental conditions, an increase in protein and gluten content in the rainfed treatment and a positive effect of sulphur fertilization on quality parameters were observed. Few changes were observed in protein composition in response to sulphur fertilization.

  14. Assessing the suitability of Norway spruce wood as an environmental archive for sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrelet, T.; Ulrich, A.; Rennenberg, H.; Zwicky, C.N.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of Norway spruces (Picea abies L. Karst.) as an environmental archive for sulphur. For this purpose spruce trees were sampled in two distinct regions of Switzerland: the Alps and the Swiss Plateau, which differ significantly with respect to S immission. Wood samples were measured using two methods: LASER Ablation high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-HR-ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. Independently corroborated by previous measurements of sulphur in peat bogs, the rise and fall of sulphur dioxide pollution in Switzerland appears to be reflected in spruce wood sulphur content. While the wood sulphur content profile of trees sampled in the Alps is relatively flat, the profiles of trees located on the Swiss Plateau display a characteristic sulphur peak. This corresponds to air pollution data in the different regions and indicates that the trees reacted on the changing S supply and recorded a pollution signal in the wood. - Norway spruce is a suitable archive for sulphur when physiological aspects and limitations are taken into account

  15. Nitrogen and Sulphur Relations in Effecting Yield and Quality of Cereals and Oilseed Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Nad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen and sulphur, both vital structural elements, are especially needed for the synthesis of proteins and oils. Investigations revealed the required application of sulphur is one half to one third the amount of nitrogen, and the ratio becomes narrower in mustard (Brassica juncea L., followed by wheat and rice. The efficiency of an increased level of nitrogen required a proportionately higher amount of sulphur. A critical investigation on the effective utilization of applied vis-à-vis absorbed nitrogen in wheat and mustard envisaged accumulation of NO3-N in vegetative parts when sulphur remained proportionately low. Application of sulphur hastened the chemical reduction of absorbed NO3– for its effective utilization. The effect was more pronounced in mustard than in wheat. Easily available forms of sulphur, like ammonium sulphate and gypsum, as compared to pyrite or elemental sulphur, maintained adequate N to S ratio in rice, resulting in a reduction in the percent of unfilled grain, a major consideration in rice yield. A narrow N to S ratio, with both at higher levels, increased the oil content but raised the saponification value of the oil, a measure of free fatty acids. Whereas, a proportionately narrow N to S ratio at moderate dose resulted in adequately higher seed and oil yield with relatively low saponification value, associated with increased iodine value of the oil, indicating respectively low free fatty acids and higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, an index for better quality of the oil.

  16. Effect of sulphur on the strengthening of a Zr-Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.I.; Hong, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of sulphur on the strengthening and the thermally activated deformation of cold-worked Zr-1 Nb alloy was investigated. In the present study, the sulphur strengthening was observed even at room temperature unlike the previous study of Ferrer et al. The flow stress increased by 65 MPa at room temperature with the addition of sulphur as little as 20 ppm. With further increase of sulphur content up to 300 ppm, negligible change of the flow stress was observed. The additive strengthening behavior in which the entire stress-strain curve shift upward by the friction stress due to the addition of sulphur was observed in the Zr-Nb alloy of the present study. The activation volume decreased slightly (from 110b 3 to 80b 3 ) with the addition of 300 ppm sulphur at room temperature. The rate-controlling mechanism of the deformation can best be explained by the dislocation interaction mechanism in which the segregation of alloying elements such as oxygen and sulphur atoms affects the activation length of dislocations

  17. Interactions of meteoric smoke particles with sulphuric acid in the Earth's stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Saunders

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nano-sized meteoric smoke particles (MSPs with iron-magnesium silicate compositions, formed in the upper mesosphere as a result of meteoric ablation, may remove sulphuric acid from the gas-phase above 40 km and may also affect the composition and behaviour of supercooled H2SO4-H2O droplets in the global stratospheric aerosol (Junge layer.

    This study describes a time-resolved spectroscopic analysis of the evolution of the ferric (Fe3+ ion originating from amorphous ferrous (Fe2+-based silicate powders dissolved in varying Wt % sulphuric acid (30–75 % solutions over a temperature range of 223–295 K. Complete dissolution of the particles was observed under all conditions. The first-order rate coefficient for dissolution decreases at higher Wt % and lower temperature, which is consistent with the increased solution viscosity limiting diffusion of H2SO4 to the particle surfaces. Dissolution under stratospheric conditions should take less than a week, and is much faster than the dissolution of crystalline Fe2+ compounds.

    The chemistry climate model UMSLIMCAT (based on the UKMO Unified Model was then used to study the transport of MSPs through the middle atmosphere. A series of model experiments were performed with different uptake coefficients. Setting the concentration of 1.5 nm radius MSPs at 80 km to 3000 cm−3 (based on rocket-borne charged particle measurements, the model matches the reported Wt % Fe values of 0.5–1.0 in Junge layer sulphate particles, and the MSP optical extinction between 40 and 75 km measured by a satellite-borne spectrometer, if the global meteoric input rate is about 20 tonnes per day. The model indicates that an uptake coefficient ≥0.01 is required to account for the observed two orders of magnitude depletion of H2SO4 vapour above 40 km.

  18. Enhanced corrosion resistance of stainless steel type 316 in sulphuric acid solution using eco-friendly waste product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanni, O.; Popoola, A. P. I.; Fayomi, O. S. I.

    2018-06-01

    Literature has shown that different organic compounds are effective corrosion inhibitors for metal in acidic environments. Such compounds usually contain oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur and function through adsorption on the metal surface, thereby creating a barrier for corrosion attack. Unfortunately, these organic compounds are toxic, scarce and expensive. Therefore, plants, natural product and natural oils have been posed as cheap, environmentally acceptable, abundant, readily available and effective molecules having low environmental impact. The corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel Type 316 in the presence of eco-friendly waste product was studied using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization techniques in 0.5 M H2SO4. The corrosion rate and corrosion potential of the steel was significantly altered by the studied inhibitor. Results show that increase in concentration of the inhibitor hinders the formation of the passive film. Experimental observation shows that its pitting potential depends on the concentration of the inhibitor in the acid solution due to adsorption of anions at the metal film interface. The presence of egg shell powder had a strong influence on the corrosion resistance of stainless steel Type 316 with highest inhibition efficiency of 94.74% from weight loss analysis, this is as a result of electrochemical action and inhibition of the steel by the ionized molecules of the inhibiting compound which influenced the mechanism of the redox reactions responsible for corrosion and surface deterioration. Inhibitor adsorption fits the Langmuir isotherm model. The two methods employed for the corrosion assessment were in good agreement.

  19. Combined experimental and numerical kinetic characterization of NR vulcanized with sulphur, N terbutyl, 2 benzothiazylsulphenamide and N,N diphenyl guanidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, G., E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Hanel, T.; Donetti, R. [Pirelli Tyre, Via Alberto e Piero Pirelli 25, 20126 Milan (Italy); Milani, F. [Chem. Co, Via J.F.Kennedy 2, 45030 Occhiobello (Italy)

    2016-06-08

    The paper presents the final results of a comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis aimed at deeply investigating the behavior of Natural Rubber (NR) vulcanized with sulphur in presence of different accelerators during standard rheometer tests. NR in presence of sulphur and two different accelerators (DPG and TBBS) in various concentrations is investigated, changing the curing temperature in the range 150-180°C and obtaining rheometer curves with a step of 10°C. Sulphur-TBBS concentrations considered are 1-1, 1-3, 3-3 and 3-1, with DPG at 1-4 phr respectively. A total of 48 experimental rheometer curves is so obtained. To fit experimental data, the general reaction scheme proposed by Han and co-workers for vulcanized sulphur NR is re-adapted and suitably modified taking into account the single contributions of the different accelerators. Chain reactions initiated by the formation of macro-compounds responsible for the formation of the unmatured crosslinked polymer are accounted for. In presence of two accelerators, reactions are assumed to proceed in parallel, making the practically effective hypothesis that there is no interaction between the two accelerators. From the simplified kinetic scheme adopted, a closed form solution is found for the crosslink density, with the only limitation that the induction period is excluded from computations. For each experimented case on the same blend, reaction kinetic constants provided by the model are utilized to deduce their trend in the Arrhenius space, also outside the temperature range inspected. Rather close linearity is found in the majority of the cases. A comparative analysis is carefully conducted among the constants at the different concentrations of S, TBBS and DPG investigated, allowing a prediction of curing behavior at any vulcanization temperature and with concentrations not experimentally tested, without the need of addition costly experimentation.

  20. Combined experimental and numerical kinetic characterization of NR vulcanized with sulphur, N terbutyl, 2 benzothiazylsulphenamide and N,N diphenyl guanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, G.; Hanel, T.; Donetti, R.; Milani, F.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the final results of a comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis aimed at deeply investigating the behavior of Natural Rubber (NR) vulcanized with sulphur in presence of different accelerators during standard rheometer tests. NR in presence of sulphur and two different accelerators (DPG and TBBS) in various concentrations is investigated, changing the curing temperature in the range 150-180°C and obtaining rheometer curves with a step of 10°C. Sulphur-TBBS concentrations considered are 1-1, 1-3, 3-3 and 3-1, with DPG at 1-4 phr respectively. A total of 48 experimental rheometer curves is so obtained. To fit experimental data, the general reaction scheme proposed by Han and co-workers for vulcanized sulphur NR is re-adapted and suitably modified taking into account the single contributions of the different accelerators. Chain reactions initiated by the formation of macro-compounds responsible for the formation of the unmatured crosslinked polymer are accounted for. In presence of two accelerators, reactions are assumed to proceed in parallel, making the practically effective hypothesis that there is no interaction between the two accelerators. From the simplified kinetic scheme adopted, a closed form solution is found for the crosslink density, with the only limitation that the induction period is excluded from computations. For each experimented case on the same blend, reaction kinetic constants provided by the model are utilized to deduce their trend in the Arrhenius space, also outside the temperature range inspected. Rather close linearity is found in the majority of the cases. A comparative analysis is carefully conducted among the constants at the different concentrations of S, TBBS and DPG investigated, allowing a prediction of curing behavior at any vulcanization temperature and with concentrations not experimentally tested, without the need of addition costly experimentation.

  1. Sulphur and lead isotopes in strata-bound deposits, ch. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangster, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    The use of sulphur and lead isotopes as isotopic tracers in the study of ore deposits containing these elements is reviewed. A discussion of the general theory, including abundance and fractionation of sulphur isotopes, single-stage leads, and anomalous leads (two-stage) is given. Attention is paid to sulphur isotopes enclosed in deposits which are located in marine host rocks and in rocks of continental or near-continental origin, as well as in deposits of the conglomerate-U(-Au) type. The lead isotope content of volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits and carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits is discussed

  2. The separation of sulphur-35 and phosphorus-32 from urine and their subsequent estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.

    1981-07-01

    A method has been developed that will specifically separate sulphur-35 and phosphorus-32 from urine. Interfering cations are removed by cation exchange and differential precipitation is used to remove the unwanted anion(s). The anion of interest is estimated by liquid scintillation counting and recoveries are 95% for sulphur-35 and 70% for phosphorus-32. The detection limits for sulphur-35 and phosphorus-32 are estimated to be 1.5 pCi and 1.3 pCi, respectively (1 pCi = 37 mBq)

  3. Sulphur isotope measurements on sulphates from Antarctic atmospheric precipitations, lake waters and salt efflorescences: a contribution to the study of the natural sulphur cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wand, U.; Maass, I.; Haendel, D.

    1987-01-01

    Sulphur isotope analyses are an important tool for the study of the natural sulphur cycle. However, on the northern hemisphere such studies particularly of the atmospheric component of the cycle are seriously hampered and in many regions practically impossible because of the high emission rate of anthropogenic sulphur. Only in remote areas of the world such as the Antarctic 34 S analyses can be used with success to identify the various natural sulphur sources (marine, biogenic and volcanic sources). We report here preliminary results of 34 S isotope measurements on sulphates from recent atmospheric precipitations (snow), lake waters and salt efflorescences sampled in the Schirmacher Oasis and the Wohlthat Massif, central Queen Maud Land, East Antarctica. Except for 4 efflorescence samples the sulphates investigated in this work are enriched in 34 S relative to the meteoritic sulphur standard (CDT). On an average the sulphates of our study area are isotopically lighter than those from the McMurdo region, South Victoria land. The latter region is characterized by the predominance of salts of marine origin. (author)

  4. SOSA – a new model to simulate the concentrations of organic vapours and sulphuric acid inside the ABL – Part 1: Model description and initial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boy, M.; Sogachev, Andrey; Lauros, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chemistry in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is controlled by complex processes of surface fluxes, flow, turbulent transport, and chemical reactions. We present a new model SOSA (model to simulate the concentration of organic vapours and sulphuric acid) and attempt to reconstruct the emissions...... in the surface layer we were able to get a reasonable description of turbulence and other quantities through the ABL. As a first application of the model, we present vertical profiles of organic compounds and discuss their relation to newly formed particles....

  5. SOSA – a new model to simulate the concentrations of organic vapours and sulphuric acid inside the ABL – Part 1: Model description and initial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boy, M.; Sogachev, Andrey; Lauros, J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is controlled by complex processes of surface fluxes, flow, turbulent transport, and chemical reactions. We present a new model SOSA (model to simulate the concentration of organic vapours and sulphuric acid) and attempt to reconstruct the emissions...... in the surface layer we were able to get a reasonable description of turbulence and other quantities through the ABL. As a first application of the model, we present vertical profiles of organic compounds and discuss their relation to newly formed particles....

  6. Investigation of the possibility of binding fly ash particles by elemental sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojković V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants in Serbia use lignite for electrical power production The secondary product of coal combustion is fly ash in the amount of 17%. Fly ash causes the pollution of air, water and soil, and also cause many human, especially lung diseases. Secondary sulphur is a product of crude oil refining. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of sulphur as a bonding material in ultra fine particle agglomeration (smaller than 63 μm in fly ash. The agglomeration should make the ash particles larger and heavy enough to fall without flying fractions. The experiments showed that during the homogenization of the ashes and sulphur from 150 to 170 °C in a reactor with intensive mixing, an amount of 15% sulphur was sufficient to bond particles and cause agglomeration without visible flying fractions.

  7. Sulphur enrichment in a sediment core from the central western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.

    deposited in anoxic environment. Our study indicate that the excess sulphur is mainly due to the addition of sulphides from the shallow regions by mass sedimentation processes rather than water column sulphide formation as observed in anoxic environment...

  8. Di- or polysulphide-bound biomarkers in sulphur-rich geomacromolecules as revealed by selective chemolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Kock-van Dalen, A.C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1991-01-01

    Three types of sulphur-rich, high-molecular-weight material in the alkylsulphide, the polar and the asphaltene fracions isolated from the bitumen of an immature bituminous shale from the Vena del Gesso basin (Italy) were desulphurised.

  9. Sulphur management in onion (Allium cepa) cultivation in hills of Himachal Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, R C; Sharma, R K

    2010-05-01

    Field experiment were conducted at CSK HPKV Research Farm, Palampur during Rabi seasons of 2000-01 and 2001-02, to study the response of onion (Allium cepa var Patna red) at four sulphur levels (0, 15, 30 and 60 kg ha(-1)) applied through Gypsum and S95. The analysis was done to allocate the limited availability of sulphur for maximizing net profit over fertilizer cost. The results show that the dose of sulphur under its full availability is 43.02 kg ha(-1). But under its scarce availability the maximum benefit would occur when it is applied up to 32.11 kg ha(-1) followed by even distribution of fertilizer i.e. 20 kg ha(-1). The returns following sulphur application at these rates, would be Rs 69340, 73092 and 68700 ha(-1) respectively.

  10. Total mineral material, acidity, sulphur, and nitrogen in rain and snow at Kentville, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F A; Gorham, E

    1957-01-01

    Analyses of total ash, sulphur, ph, ammonia, and nitrate nitrogen have been made on 23 monthly precipitation samples and 17 individual snow samples collected between June 1952 and May 1954 at Kentville, Nova Scotia, in a predominantly agricultural area. Mean annual supply of total mineral ash was 95 kg/ha, of sulphur 9.1 hg/ha, of ammonia nitrogen 2.8 kg/ha, and of nitrate nitrogen 1.1 kg/ha. Average pH was 5.7, and rains more acid than this exhibited higher levels of both nitrate and sulphur, and a marked correlation between the latter and ammonia. Snow samples had much lower concentrations of ash, sulphur, and nitrogen than rain samples collected in the same months, which may perhaps indicate a lower efficiency of snow flakes in removing materials from the atmosphere.

  11. Chlorine- and Sulphur-substituted Pyrrolo[3,4-b]quinolines and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorine- and Sulphur-substituted Pyrrolo[3,4-b]quinolines and Related Derivatives .... J. Chem., 2003, 56, 40–46,. . .... It is evident from the above that by judicious selection and application of reagents ...

  12. The effect of nitrogen and sulphur on the agronomical and water use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of nitrogen and sulphur on the agronomical and water use efficiencies of canola (Brassica napus L.) grown in selected localities of the Western Cape province, South Africa. Wonder Ngezimana, Gert A. Agenbag ...

  13. Effect of dietary molybdenum and sulphur on the copper status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in all groups receiving supplementary Mo. A dietary supplement of 70 mg Mo for a restricted period is ... Keywords: Sheep nutrition, copper toxicity, molybdenum toxicity, sulphur. ..... observation supports the suggestion by Dick, et af. (1975).

  14. The fate of sulphur in the Cu-based Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adánez-Rubio, Iñaki; Abad, Alberto; Gayán, Pilar; García-Labiano, Francisco; Diego, Luis F. de; Adánez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 15 h of CLOU experiments using lignite were carried out in a continuously unit. • The sulphur split between fuel- and air-reactor streams in the process was analysed. • Most of the sulphur introduced with the fuel exits as SO 2 at the fuel-reactor. • The use of a carbon separation system to reduce the S emission was evaluated. • Coals with high S content can be burnt in a CLOU process with a Cu-based material. - Abstract: The Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) process is a type of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) technology that allows the combustion of solid fuels with air, as with conventional combustion, through the use of oxygen carriers that release gaseous oxygen inside the fuel reactor. The aim of this work was to study the behaviour of the sulphur present in fuel during CLOU combustion. Experiments using lignite as fuel were carried out in a continuously operated 1.5 kW th CLOU unit during more than 15 h. Particles containing 60 wt.% CuO on MgAl 2 O 4 , prepared by spray drying, were used as the oxygen carrier in the CLOU process. The temperature in the fuel reactor varied between 900 and 935 °C. CO 2 capture, combustion efficiency and the sulphur split between fuel and air reactor streams in the process were analysed. Complete combustion of the fuel to CO 2 and H 2 O was found in all experiments. Most of the sulphur introduced with the fuel exited as SO 2 at the fuel reactor outlet, although a small amount of SO 2 was measured at the air reactor outlet. The SO 2 concentration in the air reactor exit flow decreased as the temperature in the fuel reactor increased. A carbon capture efficiency of 97.6% was achieved at 935 °C, with 87.9 wt.% of the total sulphur exiting as SO 2 in the fuel reactor. Both the reactivity and oxygen transport capacity of the oxygen carrier were unaffected during operation with a high sulphur content fuel, and agglomeration problems did not occur. Predictions were calculated regarding the use

  15. Preparation of combustible material from high sulphur coal by means of pyrolysis: magnetic separation; Obtencion de combustibles limpios a partir de carbones con altos contenidos en azure mediante procesos de pirolisis: separacion magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Basic studies on coal desulphurization by pyrolysis have been carried out with a series of low rank coals with high total sulphur contents and differences in the distribution of sulphur forms. The evolved sulphur compounds were studied by sulphide selective electrode H{sub 2}S and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The mechanisms affecting the sulphur removal during pyrolysis have been studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS). A sample coal of 11 Tm, representative of the Teruel basins was processed at pilot scale in a rotary kiln (coal HR). A series of pyrolysis runs simulating the experimental conditions of the rotary kiln were also carried out in laboratory scale. The magnetic behaviour of the chars from the rotary kiln and from the lab-scale pyrolysis was tested. The efficiency of the desulphurization, including pyrolysis and magnetic separation, was calculated. Chars from rotary kiln were tested by thermogravimetric analysis, air reactivity and carbon efficiency combustion in fluidized bed.

  16. Density of states of adsorbed sulphur atoms on pristine and defective graphene layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, J S

    2017-01-01

    The density of states for adsorbed sulphur atom on a graphene layer system is discussed for pristine graphene layer and for mono and divacancies on the graphene layer. To our knowledge this is the first time that an entire adsorption of the sulphur atom is reported at the plane of the carbon atoms, when there is a pair of closer vacancies at the graphene layer. (paper)

  17. Effects of phosphorus and sulphur on dry matter yield of maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A screen-house experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) on maize dry-matter yield (MDY) in soils of five locations (Obantoko I, II, Alabata I, II, and III) in Abeokuta, Ogun State of Nigeria. Three levels of sulphur (0, 10 and 20 kg S ha–1) and phosphorus (0, 30 and 45 kg P ha–1) ...

  18. Sulphur Nutrition and its Effect on Yield and Oil Content of Oilseed Rape (Brassica Napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Varényiová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to study the importance of sulphur in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. nutrition as well as the effect of rising doses of sulphur in combination with nitrogen on yield, oiliness, oil production, nutrients content in seed and nutrients uptake by rapeseed. The plot–scale experiment was established in years 2013/14 and 2014/15 within the agricultural cooperative in Mojmírovce. There were four fertilization treatments on 600 m2 experimental plots in three replications in this experiment. The first treatment was unfertilized control. Other three treatments were fertilized by the same nitrogen dose of 160 kg.ha−1 and by increasing doses of sulphur. The second treatment was fertilized by a dose of 15 kg.ha−1 S, the third by a dose of 40 kg.ha−1 and a dose of 65 kg.ha−1 S was applied at the fourth treatment. The highest average yield 3.96 t.ha-1 was found when a dose of 40 kg.ha−1 S was applied. The application of sulphur in a dose of 65 kg.ha−1 was accompanied by a yield decrease by 11.4 % as compared to the treatment where a sulphur dose of 40 kg.ha−1 was used. An average oil content of 45.1, 45.5, and 44.0 % was found in treatments in which the doses of sulphur of 15, 40 and 65 kg.ha−1 were applied. No significant difference among the treatments fertilized by sulphur was found. The average oil production reached 1809, 1802 and 1595 kg.ha−1 in cases of treatments fertilized by sulphur doses of 15, 40 and 65 kg.ha−1.

  19. Field studies with radioactive sulphur-labelled gypsum fertiliser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, K.M.; Gregg, P.E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of the sizes of different sulphur (S) cycling pools in the soil-pasture system have been determined in soils belonging to the recent and yellow-brown earth soil groups. Several field trials were conducted, involving applications of 35 S-labelled gypsum fertiliser. An equilibrium was attained in the specific activity of the pasture herbage at about 240 days after fertiliser application. This was used to estimate pool sizes. At all sites, the amount of S involved in cycling ranged from 105 to 292 kg S/ha, which was sufficiently large to sustain active plant growth if cycled rapidly. However, most of the S was in the inert fraction (80-90% of total soil S) which appeared not to enter the active S cycling pool. At 3 of the sites studied, the major contributor to the cycling S pool was the residues pool of plant residues and soil organisms. No relationship was found between the size of the cycling S pool and topdressing responses of pastures. The significance of the results obtained is discussed in relation to the availability of S to pasture plants. (auth)

  20. Sulphur isotopes in a metamorphogenic gold deposit, Macraes mine, Otago Schist, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craw, D.; Hall, A.J.; Fallick, A.E.; Boyce, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Macraes gold quartz vein deposit, New Zealand, is located in a shear zone cutting greenschist facies metasediments of the Otago Schist. The deposit has been interpreted as being metamorphogenic in origin as there is no evidence for coeval magmatic activity in the Otago Schist orogen. The immediate host rock at the Macraes deposit is pyritic (δ 34 S = -2.7 to -1.3 per mil ) and locally weakly graphitic schist, a rare rock type in the Otago Schist. Sulphur isotope analyses of pyrite and arsenopyrite extracts from auriferous veins and wall-rock schist provide a similar narrow range in δ 34 S values, from -3.0 to -1.0 per mil (n=9). The lack of isotopically depleted sulphur, the narrow range in values, and the replacement sulphide textures help discount a primary bacteriogenic origin for host-rock sulphide. Sulphide in both veins and wall rock is of hydrothermal origin. Sulphides in metasediments and metavolcanics elsewhere in the Otago Schist have δ 34 S in the narrow range -6 to +6 per mil. The sulphur isotope data are consistent with origin of hydrothermal sulphur within the metamorphic pile but provide no constraint on specific rock types which contributed the sulphur to the hydrothermal fluid. The study demonstrates that sulphur isotopic signatures near zero per mil can arise without any direct magmatic input into the mineralisation process. (author). 34 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Polioencephalomalacia in ruminants caused by excessive amount of sulphur - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutnicki Krzysztof

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polioencephalomalacia as a result of sulphur excess is a growing problem in cattle and sheep, mainly in young, growing animals. It is common in different regions of the world. The disease develops favoured by certain conditions such as sustained provision of feed and water with high sulphur content, use of dietary supplements containing sulphur, and a habitat with high hydrogen sulphide concentration. Pathogenesis of the disease is complex, but very important are oxidative-antioxidative imbalance, dysfunction of vessels, and secondary cerebral cortex ischaemia as a result of direct and/or indirect action of sulphur metabolites, namely hydrogen sulphide, sulphides, and sulphites. Clinical signs and changes in the cerebral cortex in the form of degenerative necrotic lesions are similar to those observed in polioencephalomalacia caused by vitamin B1 deficiency, and lead and salt intoxication. Highly increased sulphur content (more than 0.3-0.4 of dry matter in the diet is the basis for differential diagnosis, as well the high concentration of hydrogen sulphide in gas and sulphides in rumen fluid. In prophylaxis and treatment the most important measure is to limit sulphur intake and in acute cases to neutralise low pH in rumen and administer vitamin B1 injections.

  2. Cellulose sulphuric acid as a biodegradable catalyst for conversion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    important applications of these compounds are 1,3- dipolar cycloaddition to produce five-membered hetero- cycles2 and their ... Diazonium salts are multipurpose compounds in organic chemistry. However, their poor stability lim- ..... Organometallics 21 5549. 5. Liu Q and Tor Y 2003 Org. Lett. 5 2571. 6. Zhu W and Ma D ...

  3. An analytical procedure for determination of sulphur species and isotopes in boreal acid sulphate soils and sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. BACKLUND

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical scheme suitable for boreal acid sulphate (AS soils and sediments was developed on the basis of existing methods. The presented procedure can be used to quantify and discriminate among acid volatile sulphide, cold chromium reducible sulphur, hot chromium reducible sulphur, elemental sulphur, sulphate sulphur, organic sulphur, total reducible sulphur and total sulphur. The sulphur fractions are recovered as either Ag2S or BaSO4 precipitates and can further be used for isotope analysis. Overlaps between sulphur species are common during speciation, and must be minimized. Some of these overlaps are caused by poor sampling and storage, inappropriate conditions during the distillation, or natural variations in the sample (e.g. Fe3+ interference and grain size. The procedural impact was determined by conducting tests on both artificial and natural samples containing one or several sulphur species. The method is applied on reduced sediment from an AS soil locality (Överpurmo and a brackish lake (Larsmo Lake in western Finland and the results, including S-isotopes, are discussed.;

  4. Effect of feedstock end boiling point on product sulphur during ultra deep diesel hydrodesulphurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratiev, D.; Ivanov, A.; Jelyaskova, M. [Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas AD, Bourgas (Bulgaria)

    2004-12-01

    An investigation was carried out to test the feasibility of producing 50 and 10 ppm sulphur diesel in a conventional hydrotreating unit operating at low pressure conditions by varying the feedstock end boiling point. Middle distillate fractions distilled from a mixture of Ural crude oil, reduced crude, vacuum gas oil, naphtha and low sulphur crude oils with 95% vol. points of 274, 359, 343, 333, and 322 C (ASTM D-86 method) and sulphur contents of 0.36, 0.63, 0.99, 0.57, and 0.47%, respectively, were hydrotreated using the Akzo Nobel Stars family Co-Mo KF-757 catalyst in a trickle bed pilot plant at following conditions: reactor inlet temperature range of 320-360 C; liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) range of 1-2 h{sup -1}; total reactor pressure of 3.5 MPa; treating gas: feedstock ratio of 250 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was found that the determinant factor for the attainment of ultra low sulphur levels during middle distillate hydrodesulphurization was not the total sulphur content in the feed but the content of the material boiling above 340 C (according to TBP). For all LHSVs and reactor inlet temperatures studied the product sulphur dependence on the feed 340 C+ fraction content was approximated by second order power law. The specification of 50 ppm sulphur was achieved with all studied feedstocks. However the 10ppm sulphur limit could be met only by feedstocks with 95% vol. points below 333 C, which is accompanied by about 10% reduction of the diesel potential. The hydrotreatment tests on a blend 80% straight run gas oil (ASTM D-86 95% vol. of 274 C)/20%FCC LCO (ASTM D-86 95% vol. of 284 C) showed product sulphur levels which were not higher than those obtained by hydrotreatment of the straight run gas oil, indicating that undercutting the FCC LCO gives the refiner the opportunity to increase the potential for the production of 10 ppm sulphur diesel at the conditions of the conventional hydrotreating unit operating at low pressure. The product cetane index was

  5. Innovative method of direct determination of the content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and sulfur compounds by capillary high-resolution gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baizhumanova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on determination of individual Hydrocarbon (paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and Sulphur components of fuels and their mixture on the thin bonded of absorber (the stationary phase is a 100-metre silica capillary column, containing 0.5μm film thickness of bonded dimethylpolysiloxane phase by means of the selective solvents (mobile phase combined with technique of ionization of separated compounds by Flame Ionization Detector (FID and Sulphur Chemiluminescence Detector (SCD.

  6. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  7. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    the efficiency of machinery systems. The wet sulphuric acid process is an effective way of removing flue gas sulphur oxides from land-based coal-fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper describes the design...... that an ORC placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase the combined cycle thermal efficiency by 2.6%. The findings indicate that the technology has potential in marine applications regarding both energy...... and modeling of a highly efficient machinery system which includes the removal of exhaust gas sulphur oxides. The system consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal, a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an ORC. Results of numerical modeling efforts suggest...

  8. Comparison of the SAWNUC model with CLOUD measurements of sulphuric acid-water nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Sebastian; Ickes, Luisa; Almeida, Joao; Amorim, Antonio; Barmet, Peter; Bianchi, Federico; Dommen, Josef; Dunne, Eimear M; Duplissy, Jonathan; Franchin, Alessandro; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kirkby, Jasper; Kürten, Andreas; Kupc, Agnieszka; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Rondo, Linda; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Steiner, Gerhard; Tomé, António; Wimmer, Daniela; Baltensperger, Urs; Wagner, Paul E; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-10-27

    Binary nucleation of sulphuric acid-water particles is expected to be an important process in the free troposphere at low temperatures. SAWNUC (Sulphuric Acid Water Nucleation) is a model of binary nucleation that is based on laboratory measurements of the binding energies of sulphuric acid and water in charged and neutral clusters. Predictions of SAWNUC are compared for the first time comprehensively with experimental binary nucleation data from the CLOUD chamber at European Organization for Nuclear Research. The experimental measurements span a temperature range of 208-292 K, sulphuric acid concentrations from 1·10 6 to 1·10 9  cm -3 , and distinguish between ion-induced and neutral nucleation. Good agreement, within a factor of 5, is found between the experimental and modeled formation rates for ion-induced nucleation at 278 K and below and for neutral nucleation at 208 and 223 K. Differences at warm temperatures are attributed to ammonia contamination which was indicated by the presence of ammonia-sulphuric acid clusters, detected by an Atmospheric Pressure Interface Time of Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometer. APi-TOF measurements of the sulphuric acid ion cluster distributions ( (H2SO4)i·HSO4- with i = 0, 1, ..., 10) show qualitative agreement with the SAWNUC ion cluster distributions. Remaining differences between the measured and modeled distributions are most likely due to fragmentation in the APi-TOF. The CLOUD results are in good agreement with previously measured cluster binding energies and show the SAWNUC model to be a good representation of ion-induced and neutral binary nucleation of sulphuric acid-water clusters in the middle and upper troposphere.

  9. Various ways to reduce zinc oxide levels in S-SBR rubber compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, G.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Datta, Rabin; van Baarle, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Because of environmental concerns, the zinc content in rubber compounds has come under scrutiny. The research described in this article encompasses zinc-oxide, various zinc-complexes and alternative metal oxides as activators for sulphur vulcanisation. Regarding zinc complexes, it can be concluded

  10. Utilización de azufre micronizado en la corrección del pH de compost de residuos de poda Correction of the pH of pruning waste compost with micronized sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Barbaro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los compost actualmente son muy utilizados como componentes de sustratos, aunque en algunos casos presentan pH alcalinos y causan problemas nutricionales. Por ello se recomienda hacer una corrección previa a su utilización o luego de elaborar el sustrato. Algunas alternativas para bajar el pH es mezclando el compost con materiales ácidos o mediante la adición de azufre, sulfato ferroso u otros compuestos azufrados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue corregir el pH de un compost de residuos de poda con azufre micronizado y hallar la dosis adecuada para el pH deseado. Se conformaron siete tratamientos, incorporando al compost de poda diferentes dosis de azufre micronizado: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 y 8 g/litro. Al compost de cada tratamiento se le midió el pH semanalmente y una vez estabilizados se analizó la conductividad eléctrica, concentración de nitrato, calcio, magnesio, potasio y sodio. Para un pH entre 5,3 y 6,2 se necesitaron 2 a 3 g de azufre/litro. El pH del compost disminuyó con el incremento de la dosis de azufre, y la CE aumentó. El azufre micronizado es una alternativa viable para corregir el pH del compost de restos de poda a los valores deseados.Nowadays, composts are widely used for incorporation into substrates and in some cases they present alkaline pH, causing nutritional problems. Therefore, it is suggested that a correction should be made prior to its use or after its preparation. Some alternatives to decrease pH values are mixing compost with acid materials or adding sulphur, ferrous sulphate or other sulphur compounds. The aim of this work was to correct the pH of pruning waste compost with micronized sulphur and find the appropriate dose for the desired pH. Seven treatments were performed incorporating different doses of micronized sulphur: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 g per liter of compost. Compost pH was measured weekly in each treatment. Once stabilized, electrical conductivity and concentration of nitrate, calcium, magnesium

  11. Effect of sulphur fertilisation on yield and quality of white mustard seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ryant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the effect of different forms of sulphur on yields and qualitative parameters of white mustard seeds. This topic was studied in 2004 in the form of a pot trial in a vegetation hall and linked up with an identical experiment with spring wheat conducted in 2003. Besides the control variant not fertilised with sulphur (1 we fertilised the soil with elemental sulphur (2, ammonium sulphate (3 and gypsum (4 and applied foliar dressing of elemental sulphur with bentonite (5. For all variants the nitrogen dose was 0.9 g per pot (0.15 g . kg−1 of soil and for va­riants 2 to 4 it was 1 g of sulphur per pot (0.17 g. kg−1 of soil. Foliar dressing of elemental sulphur (S0 was not applied until the stage of six true leaves in a dose of 10 kg per ha (0.032 g per pot.Significantly higher yields of white mustard seeds were achieved after foliar application of S0 which can be also due to its fungicide action. The variants where gypsum was applied showed the highest average number of branches and pods and also straw yields. After gypsum fertilisation or foliar application of S0 the oil content in the mustard seeds exceeded 25%; this is the minimal content required for the production of good quality mustard. The 1000-seed weight was significantly higher after foliar application of S0. The proportion of seeds greyish on the surface, a sign of mildew, significantly decreased after fertilisation with all forms of sulphur, but most of all after foliar application of S0.Fertilisation with ammonium sulphate reduced the exchangeable soil reaction after harvest. On the other hand gypsum alkalised the soil environment and increased the content of available calcium and water-soluble sulphur. The soil of the variant where foliar dressing of S0 was applied had a higher content of available calcium after harvest. The least amount of available sulphur and phosphorus in the soil was seen after foliar

  12. Fractal and variability analysis of simulations in ozone level due to oxides of nitrogen and sulphur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Rashmi; Pruthi, Dimple

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution refers to the release of pollutants into the air. These pollutants are detrimental to human the planet as a whole. Apart from causing respiratory infections and pulmonary disorders, rising levels of Nitrogen Dioxide is worsening ozone pollution. Formation of Ground-level ozone involves nitrogen oxides and volatile gases in the sunlight. Volatile gases are emitted from vehicles primarily. Ozone is harmful gas and its exposure can trigger serious health effects as it damages lung tissues. In order to decrease the level of ozone, level of oxides leading to ozone formation has to be dealt with. This paper deals with the simulations in ozone due to oxides of nitrogen and sulphur. The data from Central Pollution Control Board shows positive correlation for ozone with oxides of sulphur and nitrogen for RK Puram, Delhi in India where high concentration of ozone has been found. The correlation between ozone and sulphur, nitrogen oxides is moderate during summer while weak during winters. Ozone with nitrogen and sulphur dioxide follow persistent behavior as Hurst exponent is between 0.5 and 1. The fractal dimension for Sulphur dioxide is 1.4957 indicating the Brownian motion. The behavior of ozone is unpredictable as index of predictability is close to zero.

  13. Thermal stability studies on atomically clean and sulphur passivated InGaAs surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Lalit; Hughes, Greg [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2013-03-15

    High resolution synchrotron radiation core level photoemission measurements have been used to study the high temperature stability of sulphur passivated InGaAs surfaces and comparisons made with atomically clean surfaces subjected to the same annealing temperatures. Sulphur passivation of clean InGaAs surfaces prepared by the thermal removal of an arsenic capping layer was carried out using an in situ molecular sulphur treatment in ultra high vacuum. The elemental composition of the surfaces of these materials was measured at a series of annealing temperatures up to 530 C. Following a 480 C anneal In:Ga ratio was found to have dropped by 33% on sulphur passivated surface indicating a significant loss of indium, while no drop in indium signal was recorded at this temperature on the atomically InGaAs surface. No significant change in the As surface concentration was measured at this temperature. These results reflect the reduced thermal stability of the sulphur passivated InGaAs compared to the atomically clean surface which has implications for device fabrication. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Effect of NPK fertilization and elemental sulphur on growth and yield of lowbush blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. STARAST

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of fertilizers on the pH of former arable soils and on the growth and the yield of the lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.. Lowbush blueberry fertilization experiments were established in 1999 at two locations – at Kärla, Saaremaa, West Estonia and at Vasula, Tartu County, South Estonia. Experimental sites were situated on different soils: soil pHKCl at Kärla was 5.5 and at Vasula 6.2. Elemental sulphur and acidifying fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate and superphosphate were used in both plantations. Fertilizers were applied based on nutrient in the soil and sulphur was applied at 100 g m–2. Plant growth was recorded in 2001, 2002 and 2003. A positive influence of NPK fertilization on yield was found in both Kärla and Vasula, and yield were 336 g and 41 g higher compared to the control, respectively. The vegetative growth and yield of blueberry depended significantly on soil pH. Elemental sulphur increased soil acidity and on loamy sand soil did not increase plant productivity. The sulphur effect on soil pH began to decrease three years after application. Sulphur can be recommended to increase soil acidity in nutrient-rich soil but, not nutrient poor soil with light texture, where only NPK fertilizers were effective.;

  15. Trends in atmospheric deposition fluxes of sulphur and nitrogen in Czech forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hůnová, Iva; Maznová, Jana; Kurfürst, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    We present the temporal trends and spatial changes of deposition of sulphur and nitrogen in Czech forests based on records from long-term monitoring. A statistically significant trend for sulphur was detected at most of the sites measuring for wet, dry, and total deposition fluxes and at many of these the trend was also present for the period after 2000. The spatial pattern of the changes in sulphur deposition flux between 1995 and 2011 shows the decrease over the entire forested area in a wide range of 18.1–0.2 g m −2 year −1 with the most pronounced improvement in formerly most impacted regions. Nitrogen still represents a considerable stress in many areas. The value of nitrogen deposition flux of 1 g m −2 year −1 is exceeded over a significant portion of the country. On an equivalent basis, the ion ratios of NO 3 − /SO 4 2− and NH 4 + /SO 4 2− in precipitation show significantly increasing trends in time similarly to those of pH. -- Highlights: • Significant decrease of sulphur deposition at most of sites has been recorded. • Nitrogen deposition still represents a considerable stress in Czech forests. • Significantly increasing trends of NO 3 − /SO 4 2− , NH 4 + /SO 4 2− , and pH in precipitation. -- While sulphur deposition significantly decreased with the highest improvement in formerly most affected areas, nitrogen deposition still represents a considerable stress in Czech forests

  16. Pore development in anodic alumina in sulphuric acid and borax electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Vergara, S.J.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.; Habakaki, H.

    2007-01-01

    The formation of porous anodic films on an Al-3.5 at.%W alloy is compared in sulphuric acid and borax electrolytes in order to investigate pore development processes. The findings disclose that for anodizing in sulphuric acid, the pores develop mainly due to the influences of field-induced plasticity of the film and growth stresses; in borax, field-assisted dissolution dominates. The films formed in sulphuric acid are consequently much thicker than the layer of oxidized alloy and tungsten species are retained in the film. In contrast, with borax, the films and oxidized alloy layers are of similar thickness and tungsten species are lost to the electrolyte. Efficiencies of film growth are also significantly different, about 65% in sulphuric acid and about 52% in borax. The retention of tungsten species during anodizing in sulphuric acid is due to the localization of tungsten in the inner regions of the barrier layer and cell walls, with a layer of anodic alumina separating the tungsten-containing regions from the electrolyte. For borax, the tungsten is distributed more uniformly through the film material, enabling loss of tungsten species to the electrolyte from the pore base

  17. Growth and yield response of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) to sulphur and boron application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.; Shah, S.A.; Tanveer, A.; Rehman, H.U.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the growth and yield response of sunflower to sulphur and boron application. Sulphur (control, 15, 30 kg/ha) and foliar sprays of 1% boron solution (control, spray at 4 week after emergence, 20 days after first spray, at 4 weeks after germination + 20 days after first spray) was applied in soil. The results showed significant increase of all growth and yield parameters by varying levels of sulphur and boron application. Application of 30 kg sulphur/ha enhanced stem diameter (1.99 cm), number of achene per head (765.75) and oil content (36.42%). In case of combined use of sulphur and boron application, maximum plant height (171 cm), head diameter (20.71 cm), 1000-achene weight (54.56 g), biological yield (16.49 t/ha) and achene yield (3.99 t/ha) was recorded by the application of 2 sprays of boron solution (1%) at 4 weeks after germination and reproductive stage. (author)

  18. Leaching of vanadium from sulphuric acid manufacture spent catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Diego Juan

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of vanadium contained in spent catalysts from the manufacture of sulphuric acid has been studied in this work, resulting in an industrial multistage process for the treatment of them avoiding direct deposition or dumping. Characterization of supplied spent catalysts samples, confirmed vanadium levels showed in the literature. The study of variables influencing leaching process: type of leaching agent, leaching agent concentration, S/L ratio, stirring speed and temperature, allows to fix the most advantageous conditions using industrial application criterion and verifying that the process is difusión controlled. The work is completed by developing an industrial leaching cycle simulation with the aim of reproducing real performance of spent catalyst, proposing operating conditions, and verifying the non-toxic character of the final residue obtained.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la recuperación del vanadio contenido en los catalizadores agotados procedentes de la fabricación del ácido sulfúrico, planteando un proceso industrial multietapa para el tratamiento de estos residuos, evitando su deposición o vertido directos. La caracterización de las muestras de catalizadores agotados disponibles confirmó los valores encontrados en la bibliografía. Se estudiaron las variables que influyen en el proceso de lixiviación (tipo de agente de lixiviación y concentración del mismo, relación S/L, velocidad de agitación y temperatura definiendo las condiciones más adecuadas desde el punto de vista industrial y verificando que el proceso está controlado por mecanismos difusionales. El trabajo se completa con la simulación de un ciclo industrial de lavado del catalizador y la verificación de la nula toxicidad de los lixiviados obtenidos por degradación del residuo final. 24 Aplicación de la resistencia de ruido al estudio de pinturas ricas en zinc Noise resistance applied to the study of zinc rich paints

  19. pH-dependent toxicity of sulphur mustard in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, Thomas W.; Vair, Cory; Nelson, Peggy; Shei Yimin; Bjarnason, Stephen; Tenn, Catherine; McWilliams, Michael; Villanueva, Mercy; Burczyk, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of sulphur mustard (HD) toxicity on intracellular (pH i ) and extracellular pH was examined in CHO-K1 cells. HD produced an immediate and significant concentration-dependent decline in cytosolic pH, and also inhibited the mechanisms responsible for restoring pH i to physiological values. The concentration-response of HD-induced cytosolic acidification, closely paralleled the acidification of the extracellular buffer through HD hydrolysis. A viability study was carried out in order to assess the importance of HD-induced cytosolic acidification. Cultures were exposed to HD for 1 h in media that were adjusted through a pH range (pH 5.0-10), and the 24 h LC 50 values were assessed using the viability indicator dye alamarBlue TM . The toxicity of HD was found to be dependent on extracellular pH, with a greater than eight-fold increase in LD 50 obtained in cultures treated with HD at pH 9.5, compared to those treated at pH 5.0. Assays of apoptotic cell death, including morphology, soluble DNA, caspase-3 activity and TUNEL also showed that as pH was increased, much greater HD concentrations were required to cause cell death. The modest decline in HD half-life measured in buffers of increasing pH, did not account for the protective effects of basic pH. The early event(s) that HD initiates to eventually culminate in cell death are not known. However, based on the data obtained in this study, we propose that HD causes an extracellular acidification through chemical hydrolysis and that this, in both a concentration and temporally related fashion, results in cytosolic acidification. Furthermore, HD also acts to poison the antiporter systems responsible for maintaining physiological pH i , so that the cells are unable to recover from this insult. It is this irreversible decline in pH i that initiates the cascade of events that results in HD-induced cell death

  20. The non-participation of organic sulphur in acid mine drainage generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, D J; Finkelman, R B; Caruccio, F T

    1989-12-01

    Acid mine drainage is commonly associated with land disturbances that encounter and expose iron sulphides to oxidising atmospheric conditions. The attendant acidic conditions solubilise a host of trace metals. Within this flow regime the potential exists to contaminate surface drinking water supplies with a variety of trace materials. Accordingly, in evaluating the applications for mines located in the headwaters of water sheds, the pre-mining prediction of the occurrence of acid mine drainage is of paramount importance.There is general agreement among investigators that coal organic sulphur is a nonparticipant in acid mine drainage generation; however, there is no scientific documentation to support this concensus. Using simulated weathering, kinetic, mass balance, petrographic analysis and a peroxide oxidation procedure, coal organic sulphur is shown to be a nonparticipant in acid mine drainage generation. Calculations for assessing the acid-generating potential of a sedimentary rock should not include organic sulphur content.

  1. Impurity photovoltaic effect in silicon solar cell doped with sulphur: A numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzouzi, Ghania; Chegaar, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The impurity photovoltaic effect (IPV) has mostly been studied in various semiconductors such as silicon, silicon carbide and GaAs in order to increase infrared absorption and hence cell efficiency. In this work, sulphur is used as the IPV effect impurity incorporated in silicon solar cells. For our simulation we use the numerical device simulator (SCAPS). We calculate the solar cell performances (short circuit current density J sc , open circuit voltage V oc , conversion efficiency η and quantum efficiency QE). We study the influence of light trapping and certain impurity parameters like impurity concentration and position in the gap on the solar cell performances. Simulation results for IPV effect on silicon doped with sulphur show an improvement of the short circuit current and the efficiency for sulphur energy levels located far from the middle of the band gap especially at E c -E t =0.18 eV.

  2. The implications of the new sulphur limits on the European Ro-Ro sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zis, Thalis; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the environmental impacts of maritime transportation, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) designated special Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECAs) where ships are required to use low-sulphur fuel. In January 2015, the sulphur limit within SECAs was lowered to 0...... and the redistribution of transport. Recommendations to mitigate and reverse the negative side-effects of such environmental legislation are proposed....... analyses on market share data, cargo values, freight rates, and haulers rates are conducted. Emissions inventories are constructed to assess the environmental efficacy of the SECA regulation. The novelty of the proposed model lies in the examination of the ex-post implications of shutting down a service...

  3. Continental scale Antarctic deposition of sulphur and black carbon from anthropogenic and volcanic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-F. Graf

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available While Antarctica is often described as a pristine environment, there is an increasing awareness of the potential threats from local pollution sources including tourist ships and emissions associated with scientific activities. However, to date there has been no systematic attempt to model the impacts of such pollutants at the continental scale. Indeed, until very recently there was not even a sulphur emission budget available for Antarctica. Here we present the first comprehensive study of atmospheric pollution in Antarctica using a limited area chemistry climate model, and a monthly emissions inventory for sulphur from maintenance of research stations, ground and air traffic, shipping and the active Erebus volcano. We find that ship emissions, both sulphurous and black carbon, dominate anthropogenic pollution near the ground. Their prevalence is likely to rise dramatically if recent trends in tourism continue.

  4. Halitosis: An oral microbial faction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis is a widespread condition and believed to affect one-quarter of the population around the world; also, most people have this condition from time to time. Breath malodour may be an important factor in social communication, and therefore may be the origin of concern not only for a possible health condition but also for frequent psychological alterations, leading to social and personal isolation. The most conspicuous malodorous compounds are termed volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs, with hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulphide accounting for roughly 90% of the VSCs. A number of oral bacteria, especially Gram-negative anaerobic species found in the subgingival plaque, produce a diverse array of malodorous compounds as byproducts of their metabolism, including VSCs and short-chain organic acids. Assessment and management of halitosis is of paramount importance in enhancing the overall health; moreover, dentists play a significant role in combating halitosis by reducing the oral microbial stack. Thus, the aim of the present review was to describe the aetiological factors, assessment tools, and therapeutic approaches related to halitosis.

  5. Passivation of chalcopyrite during the leaching with sulphuric acid solution in presence of sodium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić Miroslav D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the process of the chalcopyrite leaching in sulphuric acid solution was investigated. Sodium nitrate was used as oxidant in the leaching process. Chemical reactions of leaching and their thermodynamic possibilities are predicted based on the calculated Gibbs energies and analysis of E−pH diagrams. The negative values of the Gibbs energy show that all chemical reactions are thermodynamically feasible at atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range 25-90°C. At high electrode potential and low pH values, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions exist in water solutions. The increase of temperature reduces the probability of Fe3+ ion existence in the system. The chalcopyrite concentrate, enriched in the “Rudnik” flotation plant, with 27.08% Cu, 25.12% Fe, 4.15% Zn and 2.28% Pb was used in the work. XRD and DTA analysis of the concentrate reveals that the sample contains mainly the chalcopyrite with small amount of sphalerite. For the description of the reaction of leaching process the leach residuals, obtained at different conditions, were chosen for XRD, TG/DTA and SEM/EDX analyses. The elemental sulphur and chalcopyrite phases identified in leach residuals confirm our prediction that the elemental sulphur is formed during the leaching process. Accordingly, elemental sulphur is the main product of the reaction, while a minor amount of sulphide sulphur is oxidized to sulphate during the leaching. The sulphur formed during the reaction was precipitated at the particle surfaces, and slowed down the leaching rate in the final stage of leaching process. In the initial stage, the reaction rate was controlled by the surface reaction. The mechanism, latter has been changed into a diffusion controlled one.

  6. In-situ Spectroscopic Studies and Modelling of Crystallization Processes of Sulphuric Acid Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlers, C.; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Masters, Stephen Grenville

    1996-01-01

    Deactivation of commercial and prototype sulphuric acid catalysts has been investigated in-situ by ESR spectroscopy. The influence of support pore structure,and the chemical composition of the catalyst and the gas phase was dicussed.A statistical lattice model was applied to describe the crystall......Deactivation of commercial and prototype sulphuric acid catalysts has been investigated in-situ by ESR spectroscopy. The influence of support pore structure,and the chemical composition of the catalyst and the gas phase was dicussed.A statistical lattice model was applied to describe...

  7. Effects of phosphorus, silicon and sulphur on microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steels during electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuya, K.; Nakahigashi, S.; Ozaki, S.; Shima, S.

    1991-01-01

    Fe-18Cr-9Ni-1,5Mn austenitic alloys containing phosphorus, silicon and sulphur were irradiated by 1 MeV electrons at 573-773 K. Phosphorus increased the interstitial loop nucleation and decreased the void swelling by increasing void number density and suppressing void growth. Silicon had a similar effect to phosphorus but its effect was weaker than phosphorus. Sulphur enhanced void swelling through increasing the void density. Nickel enrichment at grain boundaries was suppressed only in the alloy containing phosphorus. These phosphorus effects may be explained by a strong interaction with interstitials resulting in a high density of sinks for point defects. (orig.)

  8. FERTILISATION IMPACT ON THE CONTENT OF SELECTED BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN CAULIFLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton UHER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen and sulphur fertilization positively affected on crop yields and bioactive compounds (vitamin C, E1 and -carotene content in cauliflower edible heads. Applying fertilization doses of 250 kg N.ha-1 and 60 kg S.ha-1 compared to the control improved cauliflower harvest by 15,2 t.ha-1. Increased fertilization doses of nitrogen and sulphur significantly increased vitamin C and -carotene content in the cauliflower. High significant difference in vitamin C level was found comparing the control variant and variant of nitrogen fertilization at the level of 200 kg N.ha-1. In percentage terms this is an increase in vitamin C level by 22,4%. Fertilization with increased doses of nitrogen and sulphur affected significantly the amount of -carotene compared to unfertilized variant. Increased doses of N and S did not respond adequately to vitamin E1 content in cauliflower.

  9. Dispersion of sulphur in the northern hemisphere. A study with a 3-dimensional time-resolved model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrason, L

    1996-12-31

    This thesis on atmospheric dispersion of sulphur presents a calculation of intercontinental transport of oxidized sulphur and allocates different contributions to sulphur background levels over Europe. It is found that a significant fraction of anthropogenic sulphur (AS) is transported out of continental boundaries thus affecting the background levels over major parts of the northern hemisphere. Over Europe, the contribution of AS from North America is similar in amount to that of Asian AS and natural sources from the North Atlantic Ocean. Although the yearly contribution of intercontinental transport to deposition of sulphur over Europe is quite small, it can be much more important over certain areas and seasons and is comparable to the contributions from individual European countries. The calculations are based on a three-dimensional Eulerian time-resolved model that describes sulphur dispersion in the atmosphere in connection with large-scale synoptic flows and agree well with observations. The thesis emphasizes the role of synoptic scale atmospheric motions in determining intercontinental transport of sulphur. It indicates the need to resolve individual cyclones and anticyclones in order to describe the dispersion and distribution of atmospheric sulphur in the northern hemisphere and stresses the value of comparing model calculations with observations, both in atmospheric chemistry studies and in climate applications. 260 refs., 50 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Assessment of sulphur and H2S corrosion by use of simultaneous ER, galvanic and optical measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Tor; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

    2003-01-01

    Sulphur and H2S corrosion on carbon steel is relevant in a range of industrial applications, including oil and gas production, district heating systems, and geothermal energy production. Bacterial activity may participate in the sulphur cycle and contribute to H2S production. As a part...

  11. Reactive extraction and recovery of levulinic acid, formic acid and furfural from aqueous solutions containing sulphuric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Thomas; Blahusiak, Marek; Babic, Katarina; Schuur, Boelo

    2017-01-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) can be produced from lignocellulosic materials via hydroxylation followed by an acid-catalyzed conversion of hexoses. Inorganic homogeneous catalysts are mostly used, in particular sulphuric acid, yielding a mixture of LA with sulphuric acid, formic acid (FA) and furfural.

  12. Dispersion of sulphur in the northern hemisphere. A study with a 3-dimensional time-resolved model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrason, L.

    1995-12-31

    This thesis on atmospheric dispersion of sulphur presents a calculation of intercontinental transport of oxidized sulphur and allocates different contributions to sulphur background levels over Europe. It is found that a significant fraction of anthropogenic sulphur (AS) is transported out of continental boundaries thus affecting the background levels over major parts of the northern hemisphere. Over Europe, the contribution of AS from North America is similar in amount to that of Asian AS and natural sources from the North Atlantic Ocean. Although the yearly contribution of intercontinental transport to deposition of sulphur over Europe is quite small, it can be much more important over certain areas and seasons and is comparable to the contributions from individual European countries. The calculations are based on a three-dimensional Eulerian time-resolved model that describes sulphur dispersion in the atmosphere in connection with large-scale synoptic flows and agree well with observations. The thesis emphasizes the role of synoptic scale atmospheric motions in determining intercontinental transport of sulphur. It indicates the need to resolve individual cyclones and anticyclones in order to describe the dispersion and distribution of atmospheric sulphur in the northern hemisphere and stresses the value of comparing model calculations with observations, both in atmospheric chemistry studies and in climate applications. 260 refs., 50 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. Incisional Colopexy for Treatment of Chronic, Recurrent Colocloacal Prolapse in a Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo (Cacatua galerita)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne; Schoemaker, Nico; van Sluijs, Freek

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report a surgical technique for treatment of chronic, recurrent cloacal prolapse in a sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita). Study Design Clinical report Animals Sulphur-crested cockatoo (n = 1) Methods The bird was admitted with a 2-year history of periodic lethargy, decreased

  14. Effects of sulphur dioxide on the forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blauel, R A; Malhorta, S S

    1977-01-01

    In situ recovery of oil from sulfur-bearing deposits and subsequent processing to produce petroleum products necessitates the removal, handling, and disposal of sulfur by-products. Due to the nature of sulfur in oil deposits and the processes employed for oil extract, part of the sulfur is converted to SO/sub 2/ and is emitted into the atmosphere. Environmentalist concerns over the emissions are discussed with regard to increasingly acidic precipitation, increasingly greater emissions of sulfur and other acid-forming compounds into the atmosphere, association of the acidity trend with both indigenous and remote sources, deposition of acidifying pollutants on the land in both wet and dry forms, effects of acid precipitation, changes in ecosystems, and long-term effects on the biosphere. A suggested procedure for impact assessment of atmospheric sulfur compounds is presented, employing measurement and determination of environmental effect.

  15. Effects of sulphur dioxide (SO2) on growth and flowering of SO2-tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes of Phleum pratense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapperton, M J; Reid, D M

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the growth and interaction of clipping and sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) exposure on SO(2)-tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes of Phleum pratense at two field sites along an SO(2)-concentration gradient. Sulphur-dioxide-tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes of Phleum pratense were identified from indigenous populations that had been collected along the same SO(2)-concentration gradient in southern Alberta, Canada. Physiological differences between the two genotypes were confirmed by supplying leaves with (14)CO(2) and examining the assimilate partitioning between the genotypes. For the field experiment, clones of each genotype and seedlings grown from commercial seed were planted at two different field sites along an SO(2)-emission gradient. There were no differences in growth between the genotypes at the two field sites after the first year except that the SO(2)-tolerant clones had a greater percentage of root length colonised by vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi. After the second growing season, there was a significant decrease in the number of inflorescences produced by plants exposed to SO(2), particularly by the non-tolerant genotype. The added stress of defoliation appeared to increase the sensitivity of flowering to SO(2), again particularly in the non-tolerant genotype. The results of the field study showed that flowering as opposed to vegetative plant growth was more sensitive to long-term low-concentration SO(2) exposure and that this sensitivity was compounded by the stress interaction of defoliation.

  16. Effect of different proportion of sulphur treatments on the contents of glucosinolate in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) commonly consumed in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ye-Jin; Lee, Hye-Min; Shin, MinJung; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Chung, Doug Young; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2018-02-01

    Kale ( Brassica oleracea L. Acephala Group) is the rich source of medicinal value sulphur compounds, glucosinolates (GLSs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different proportion of sulphur (S) supplementation levels on the accumulation of GLSs in the leaves of the kale cultivar ('TBC'). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation method guided to identify and quantify six GSLs including three aliphatic (progoitrin, sinigrin and gluconapin) and three indolyl (glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin and neoglucobrasscin) respectively. Analysis of these distinct levels of S supplementation revealed that the accumulation of individual and total GLSs was directly proportional to the S concentration. The maximum levels of total GLSs (26.8 µmol/g DW) and glucobrassicin (9.98 µmol/g DW) were found in lower and upper parts of the leaves supplemented with 1 mM and 2 mM S, respectively. Interestingly, aliphatic GSLs were noted predominant in all the parts (50.1, 59.3 and 56% of total GSLs). Among the aliphatic and indolyl GSLs, sinigrin and glucobrassicin account 35.3 and 30.88% of the total GSLs. From this study, it is concluded that supply of S enhance the GSLs accumulation in kale.

  17. Effect of different proportion of sulphur treatments on the contents of glucosinolate in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala commonly consumed in Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Jin Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kale (Brassica oleracea L. Acephala Group is the rich source of medicinal value sulphur compounds, glucosinolates (GLSs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different proportion of sulphur (S supplementation levels on the accumulation of GLSs in the leaves of the kale cultivar ('TBC'. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC separation method guided to identify and quantify six GSLs including three aliphatic (progoitrin, sinigrin and gluconapin and three indolyl (glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin and neoglucobrasscin respectively. Analysis of these distinct levels of S supplementation revealed that the accumulation of individual and total GLSs was directly proportional to the S concentration. The maximum levels of total GLSs (26.8 µmol/g DW and glucobrassicin (9.98 µmol/g DW were found in lower and upper parts of the leaves supplemented with 1 mM and 2 mM S, respectively. Interestingly, aliphatic GSLs were noted predominant in all the parts (50.1, 59.3 and 56% of total GSLs. Among the aliphatic and indolyl GSLs, sinigrin and glucobrassicin account 35.3 and 30.88% of the total GSLs. From this study, it is concluded that supply of S enhance the GSLs accumulation in kale.

  18. The influence of biogenic atmospheric sulfur compounds on climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgii, H -W [University of Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Meteorology and Geophysics

    1993-09-01

    The author reviews research so far into sulphur compounds occurring in the atmosphere, namely dimethylsulfide (DMS) and carbonyl sulphide (COS). He explains how the sulphate particles formed by oxidation of DMS with OH radicals act as cloud condensation nuclei which in turn leads to enhanced formation of precipitation. Increase of cloud droplet density leads also to an increase of cloud albedo. The hypothesis of carbonyl sulphide as a precursor for stratospheric sulphate particles is discussed, along with evidence of model calculations showing that the increase of COS flux in the stratosphere leads to an increase in density of stratospheric aerosols and to slight global cooling, particularly compensating for the warming caused by the greenhouse effect. Although the influence of biogenic sulphur gases on climate is still speculative due to lack of information of the source, strength and global trend of these gases, the author advocates they deserve special attention since they may contribute to the stabilization of our climate. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Ball-milling synthesis of ZnO@sulphur/carbon nanotubes and Ni(OH)_2@sulphur/carbon nanotubes composites for high-performance lithium-sulphur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Xingxing; Tong, Chuan-jia; Wen, Bo; Liu, Li-min; Lai, Chao; Zhang, Shanqing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal oxides or hydroxides coating sulfur-based composite are successfully prepared. • Large-scale synthesis can be realized via the facile wet ball-milling strategy. • Density functional theory (DFT) calculation is applied to calculate adsorption energy. • ZnO exhibits a higher adsorption energy for Li_2S_8 than that Ni(OH)_2. • ZnO@sulphur/carbon nanotubes composite show excellent cycle and discharge performance. - Abstract: Zinc oxide wrapped sulphur/carbon nanotubes (ZnO@S/CNT) and nickel hydroxide wrapped sulphur/carbon nanotubes (Ni(OH)_2@S/CNT) nanocomposites are prepared using a simple, low cost and scalable ball-milling method. As the cathodes in Li-S batteries, the as-prepared ZnO@S/CNT composite illustrates a superior high initial capacity of 1663 mAh g"−"1 at a charge/discharge rate of 160 mA g"−"1, and maintains a reversible capacity at approximately 942 mAh g"−"1 after 70 cycles. While for Ni(OH)_2@S/CNT composites, its initial capacity is also as high as 1331 mAh g"−"1, but a poorer cycling stability is presented. When the charge/discharge current is increased to 1600 mA g"−"1, a high reversible capacity of 698 mAh g"−"1 after 200 cycles still can be obtained for the ZnO@S/CNT composite, far better than that of Ni(OH)_2@S/CNT composites. The better cycling performance and high discharge capacity can be attributed to the strong interactions between ZnO and S_x"2"− species, which is verified by the density functional theory (DFT) calculation result that the ZnO exhibits a higher adsorption energy for Li_2S_8 than the Ni(OH)_2.

  20. Sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing communities in Brazilian mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varon-Lopez, Maryeimy; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipolla; Durrer, Ademir; Melo, Itamar Soares; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2014-03-01

    Mangrove soils are anaerobic environments rich in sulphate and organic matter. Although the sulphur cycle is one of the major actors in this ecosystem, little is known regarding the sulphur bacteria communities in mangrove soils. We investigated the abundance, composition and diversity of sulphur-oxidizing (SOB) and sulphate-reducing (SRB) bacteria in sediments from three Brazilian mangrove communities: two contaminated, one with oil (OilMgv) and one with urban waste and sludge (AntMgv), and one pristine (PrsMgv). The community structures were assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and clone libraries, using genes for the enzymes adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate reductase (aprA) and sulphite reductase (Dsr) (dsrB). The abundance for qPCR showed the ratio dsrB/aprA to be variable among mangroves and higher according to the gradient observed for oil contamination in the OilMgv. The PCR-DGGE patterns analysed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling revealed differences among the structures of the three mangrove communities. The clone libraries showed that Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria were the most abundant groups associated with sulphur cycling in mangrove sediments. We conclude that the microbial SOB and SRB communities in mangrove soils are different in each mangrove forest and that such microbial communities could possibly be used as a proxy for contamination in mangrove forests. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Formation and colloidal behaviour of elemental sulphur produced from the biological oxidation of hydrogensulphide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.H.

    1996-01-01


    The formation and aggregation of elemental sulphur from the microbiological oxidation of hydrogensulphide (H 2 S) by a mixed population of aerobic Thiobacillus -like bacteria has been investigated. Sulphide is

  2. Modification of oxide inclusions in calcium-treated Al-killed high sulphur steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gollapalli, Veerababu; Rao, M.B.Venkata; Karamched, P.S.; Borra, C.R.; Roy, G.G.; Srirangam, Prakash

    2018-01-01

    A study has been carried out to understand the modification of alumina inclusions in Al-killed high sulphur steel with calcium treatment. For calcium treatment to be effective, a general practice is to desulphurise the steel to prevent the formation of solid CaS inclusions that are harmful to

  3. Comparison of the SAWNUC model with CLOUD measurements of sulphuric acid-water nucleation

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrhart, Sebastian; Almeida, Joao; Amorim, Antonio; Barmet, Peter; Bianchi, Federico; Dommen, Josef; Dunne, Eimear M; Duplissy, Jonathan; Franchin, Alessandro; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kirkby, Jasper; Kürten, Andreas; Kupc, Agnieszka; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Rondo, Linda; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Steiner, Gerhard; Tomé, António; Wimmer, Daniela; Baltensperger, Urs; Wagner, Paul E; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Binary nucleation of sulphuric acid-water particles is expected to be an important process in the free troposphere at low temperatures. SAWNUC (Sulphuric Acid Water Nucleation) is a model of binary nucleation that is based on laboratory measurements of the binding energies of sulphuric acid and water in charged and neutral clusters. Predictions of SAWNUC are compared for the first time comprehensively with experimental binary nucleation data from the CLOUD chamber at European Organization for Nuclear Research. The experimental measurements span a temperature range of 208–292 K, sulphuric acid concentrations from 1·106 to 1·109 cm−3, and distinguish between ion-induced and neutral nucleation. Good agreement, within a factor of 5, is found between the experimental and modeled formation rates for ion-induced nucleation at 278 K and below and for neutral nucleation at 208 and 223 K. Differences at warm temperatures are attributed to ammonia contamination which was indicated by the presence of ammonia-sulphu...

  4. Qualitative scale for estimating sulphur dioxide air pollution in England and Wales using epiphytic lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawksworth, D L; Rose, F

    1970-01-01

    The sulphur dioxide in the air can be estimated qualitatively by studying the lichens growing on trees. A ten-point scale has been constructed and used in pilot surveys in England and Wales, Southeast England and the city of Leicester.

  5. Ergo betters estimates after shaky first years. [Recovery of gold, uranium and sulphuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-20

    Having completed its fourth year of full operation, East Rand Gold and Uranium (ERGO) has established itself as a succesful low-cost gold producer. The recovering of gold, uranium and sulphuric acid from some old slimes dams has beaten its production estimates for 1981 till the end of March 1982. Overall Ergo has settled down well from its first years of production.

  6. Chemical transport of niobium(V) oxide and of lithium niobate with sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1988-01-01

    Niobium(V) oxide is transported by means of sulphur (calculated for 10 bar at 1223 K) from 1273 → 1173 K. The same applies for lithium niobate. Similar experiments of lithium oxide lead to turbidity of the quartz ampoule. (author)

  7. Selective environmental stress from sulphur emitted by continental flood basalt eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; Skeffington, Richard; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Self, Stephen; Forster, Piers; Rap, Alexandru; Ridgwell, Andy; Fowler, David; Wilson, Marjorie; Mann, Graham; Wignall, Paul; Carslaw, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Several biotic crises during the past 300 million years have been linked to episodes of continental flood basalt volcanism, and in particular to the release of massive quantities of magmatic sulphur gas species. Flood basalt provinces were typically formed by numerous individual eruptions, each lasting years to decades. However, the environmental impact of these eruptions may have been limited by the occurrence of quiescent periods that lasted hundreds to thousands of years. Here we use a global aerosol model to quantify the sulphur-induced environmental effects of individual, decade-long flood basalt eruptions representative of the Columbia River Basalt Group, 16.5-14.5 million years ago, and the Deccan Traps, 65 million years ago. For a decade-long eruption of Deccan scale, we calculate a decadal-mean reduction in global surface temperature of 4.5 K, which would recover within 50 years after an eruption ceased unless climate feedbacks were very different in deep-time climates. Acid mists and fogs could have caused immediate damage to vegetation in some regions, but acid-sensitive land and marine ecosystems were well-buffered against volcanic sulphur deposition effects even during century-long eruptions. We conclude that magmatic sulphur from flood basalt eruptions would have caused a biotic crisis only if eruption frequencies and lava discharge rates had been high and sustained for several centuries at a time.

  8. An elevation-based regional model for interpolating sulphur and nitrogen deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Posch, M.; Hejzlar, Josef; Oulehle, F.; Volková, Alena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 50, April (2012), s. 287-296 ISSN 1352-2310 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/09/0567 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244121 - REFRESH Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : atmospheric deposition * sulphur * nitrogen * Vltava river Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 3.110, year: 2012

  9. Determination of chemical states of sulphur 35 obtained from the 35Cl (n, p)35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi Filho, S.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical states of sulphur-35 obtained from the 35 Cl(n,p) 35 S reaction by the irradiation of potassium chloride without any previous treatment and with previous heating under vacuum, were determined. The influence of irradiation time and temperature after irradiation was examined. Paper electrophoresis technique was employed for the determination of the chemical states. (Author) [pt

  10. Tightening rules of the oil game; Industry preparing for sulphur-free products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropponen, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing demand for sulphur-free fuels is the major driving force behind Fortum's oil refining investments. Environmental regulations are also setting the direction for oil retail network investments and will lead to closure of some retail sites. The year 2001 was marked by fluctuations in crude oil prices and low refining margins

  11. Impact of sulphurous water politzer inhalation on audiometric parameters in children with otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Prisco; Gobbi, Giuliana; Malinverno, Chiara; Carubbi, Cecilia; Ferné, Filippo M; Artico, Marco; Vitale, Marco; Vaccarezza, Mauro

    2013-03-01

    The positive effects of spa therapy on ear, nose, and throat pathology are known but robust literature in this field, is still lacking. The aim of this study was to assess through a retrospective analysis, the effects on otitis media with effusion of Politzer endotympanic inhalation of sulphurous waters in children aged 5-9 years. A cohort of 95 patients was treated with Politzer insufflations of sulphurous water: 58 patients did a cycle consisting of a treatment of 12 days per year for three consecutive years; 37 patients followed the same procedure for 5 years consecutively. The control population was represented by untreated, age-matched children. A standard audiometric test was used before and after each cycle of treatment. One cycle of Politzer inhalation of sulphur-rich water improved the symptoms. Three cycles definitively stabilized the improvement of hearing function. Our results show that otitis media with effusion in children can be resolved by an appropriate non-pharmacological treatment of middle ear with sulphur-rich water.

  12. The recovery of sulphur, uranium and gold from residues in OFS scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhmer, W.T.; Botha, F.; Adams, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    This article describes a project comprising three plants for the flotation of pyrite, a twin-stream uranium plant in which high-grade slimes and pyrite can be leached separately, a pyrite burning sulphuric acid plant, and a plant for the recovery of gold from calcines. Details of these plants including capital costs and estimate production are given

  13. Reduction of Sulphur Content of Urals Crude Oil Prior to Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of sulphur in crude oil poses enormous challenges as regards its negative environmental and economic impacts. As such, the safety of the personnel and the equipment is at high risk during the processing of Urals crude oil in Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company (KRPC) because of its sour nature.

  14. The X-ray fluorescent method for determination of total sulphur in bituminous coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widowska-Kusmierska, J.; Siess, K.

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescent technique for the determination of total sulphur covering concentrations from 0,1 to 10% has been applied for bituminous coals showing a great variability in qualitative and quantitative composition of mineral matter (ash). The described method is a quick one giving results during one hour. The obtained good accuracy of determinations gives prospects for wide industrial application. (author)

  15. Di- or polysulphide-bound biomarkers in sulphur-rich geomacromolecules as revealed by selective chemolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Math E. l.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Kock-van Dalen, A. c.; Jan, W. De Leeuw

    1991-05-01

    Three types of sulphur-rich high-molecular-weight material in the alkylsulphide, the polar, and the asphaltene fractions isolated from the bitumen of an immature bituminous shale from the Vena del Gesso basin (Italy) were desulphurised using Raney Ni and were treated with MeLi/MeI, a chemical degradation method which cleaves selectively and quantitatively di- or polysulphide linkages. The products formed were characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Raney Ni desulphurisation revealed that these S-rich macromolecules are in substantial part composed of sulphur-linked biomarkers with linear, branched, isoprenoid, steroid, hopanoid, and carotenoid carbon skeletons. MeLi/Mel treatment provided evidence that a major part of the total amount of macromolecularly bound biomarkers are linked via di- or polysulphide moieties to the macromolecular network. Since the di- or polysulphide linkages are attached at specific positions of the bound biomarkers it is proposed that they are formed by intermolecular incorporation reactions of HS x- into low-molecular-weight functionalised biological lipids during early diagenesis. The different properties (solubility and molecular weight) of the sulphur-rich macromolecules in the alkylsulphide, the resin, and the asphaltene fractions can be explained simply by differences in degree of sulphur cross-linking.

  16. Soil and applied sulphur utilization by sunflower grown on vertisol under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreemannarayana, B.; Sreenivasa Raju, A.

    1993-01-01

    In a field experiment, conducted with sunflower genotypes viz., Morden, APSH-11, and EC 68414 grown on a local black clay loam soil, fertilizer sulphur (labelled with 35 S) was applied at the rate of 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg S/ha through gypsum and ammonium sulphate. Among the sunflower genotypes, EC 68414 utilized maximum sulphur from the sources at any given growth stage i.e., star, bud, flowering and maturity. Sulphur applied through ammonium sulphate resulted in highest S utilization by all the genotypes at all the stages of growth. Though, sulphur uptake showed an increase, the S utilization decreased with increase in levels of S. The S uptake was highest at 60 kg S/ha level applied through any of the sources. The soil S uptake was higher than fertilizer S uptake at any given stage of crop. Maximum yields were recorded at 40 kg S/ha level signifying that this dose is optimum for sunflower grown on black clay loam soils. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Liver metastases: Sulphur hexafluoride-enhanced ultrasonography for lesion detection: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabassa, Paolo; Bipat, Shandra; Longaretti, Laura; Morone, Mario; Maroldi, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    This is a systematic review to evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) performed with "SonoVue" (sulphur hexafluoride) in the detection of hepatic metastases. The MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE Databases were searched, regardless of language, for relevant articles published

  18. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 99Tcsup(m)-HIDA and 99Tcsup(m)-sulphur colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, S.A.; Oster-Jorgensen, E.; Schoubye, J.; Odense Univ.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a study comparing the ability of 99 Tcsup(m)-sulphur colloid and 99 Tcsup(m)- HIDA to demonstrate circumsribed defects and obstruction of the biliary flow to the intestines are reported. As regards focal liver diseases, colloid scintigraphy (SC) had a nosographic sensitivity and specificity of 0.87 and 0.85, respectively. The corresponding figures for the HIDA scintigraphy were 0.40 and 0.92. Concerning the diagnosis of extrahepatic obstrtuction, sulphur colloid scintigraphy had a nosographic sensitivity and specificity of 0.31 and 0.94. The corresponding figures for HIDA scintigraphy were 0.69 and 0.84. The most frequent cause of false results was pattern of hepatocellular disease in sulphur colloid scans in patients with a longstanding biliary onbstruction. The second most frequent error was due to circumscribed defects in SC as well as in HIDA scans in patients with obstructive diseases and a high value of serum bilirubin. A third source of error was the pattern of an obstruction in HIDA scans in patients with focal diseases. The significance of the star pattern the sulphur colloid scan in patients with obstruction is stressed, as the significance of this pattern not has been evaluated previously. It is concluded that the two different scintigraphic methods are complementary tools in the examination of patients with liver diseases. (orig.) [de

  19. Efficiency of Syrian and Indian rock phosphates for maize in two soils amended with sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanacri, S.

    1995-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the fertilizer use efficiency of three Syrian rock phosphates in comparison to Mussoorie rock phosphate from India for maize grown in a laterite (ultisol) and an alluvial (entisol) soil amended with sulphur, and using sup 3 sup 2 P-labelled triple superphosphate (TSP). Results showed that application of rock phosphates (RPs) to laterite soil significantly increased the dry matter yields of maize shoots, whereas, in alluvial soil, RPs were not found effective in increasing the yields. Data further indicated that all the three Syrian RPs were equally efficient in increasing dry matter yields in laterite soil and were superior to Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP). Sulphur added in combination with RPs significantly enhanced the dry matter production as well as 'A' value of alluvial soil. Application of sulphur in conjunction with RPs significantly increased the 'A' value of laterite soil however, sulphur did not contribute to any significant increase in the yields. Syrian RPs were more reactive in soils than Mussoorie RP. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs

  20. Efficiency of Syrian and Indian rock phosphates for maize in two soils amended with sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanacri, Saloi; Bhujbal, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the fertilizer use efficiency of three Syrian rock phosphates in comparison to Mussoorie rock phosphate from India for maize grown in a laterite (ultisol) and an alluvial (entisol) soil amended with sulphur, and using 32 P-labelled triple superphosphate (TSP). Results showed that application of rock phosphates (RPs) to laterite soil significantly increased the dry matter yields of maize shoots, whereas, in alluvial soil, RPs were not found effective in increasing the yields. Data further indicated that all the three Syrian RPs were equally efficient in increasing dry matter yields in laterite soil and were superior to Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP). Sulphur added in combination with RPs significantly enhanced the dry matter production as well as 'A'value of alluvial soil. Application of sulphur in conjunction with RPs significantly increased the 'A' value of laterite soil, however, sulphur did not contribute to any significant increase in the yields. Syrian RPs were more reactive in soils than Mussoorie RP. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs

  1. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengl, Vaclav; Bludska, Jana; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. → 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. → New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn 4+ content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn 4+ content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn 3 7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn 5 with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  2. Effect of elemental sulphur and compost on pH, electrical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safir

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... 42/34. T.N.V. 4.5. P (mg kg-1) ... and extracted with 2.0 M HCl) were measured with similar methods ... react with carbonate in calcareous soil and neutralize it. Neilson ... oxidation in soil, the sulphuric acid formed reacted with.

  3. 30 CFR 256.52 - Bond requirements for an oil and gas or sulphur lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... included in the Gulf of Mexico. Areawide bonds issued in the Gulf of Mexico will cover oil and gas or sulphur operations offshore the Atlantic Coast. The three areas are: (1) The Gulf of Mexico and the area... Treasury securities under this paragraph (f), you must monitor their value. If their market value falls...

  4. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Bludska, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. {yields} 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. {yields} New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn{sup 4+} content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn{sup 4+} content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn{sub 3}7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn{sub 5} with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  5. Respiratory effects of sulphur dioxide : a hierarchical multicity analysis in the APHEA 2 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunyer, J; Atkinson, R; Ballester, F; Le Tertre, A; Ayres, JG; Forastiere, F; Forsberg, B; Vonk, JM; Bisanti, L; Anderson, RH; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    Background: Sulphur dioxide (SO2) was associated with hospital admissions for asthma in children in the original APHEA study, but not with other respiratory admissions. Aims: To assess the association between daily levels of SO2 and daily levels of respiratory admissions in a larger and more recent

  6. Molecular indicators for palaeoenvironmental change in a Messinian evaporitic sequence (Vena del Gesso, Italy). II: High-resolution variations in abundances and 13C contents of free and sulphur-bound carbon skeletons in a single marl bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenig, F.; Damste, J. S.; Frewin, N. L.; Hayes, J. M.; De Leeuw, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    The extractable organic matter of 10 immature samples from a marl bed of one evaporitic cycle of the Vena del Gesso sediments (Gessoso-solfifera Fm., Messinian, Italy) was analyzed quantitatively for free hydrocarbons and organic sulphur compounds. Nickel boride was used as a desulphurizing agent to recover sulphur-bound lipids from the polar and asphaltene fractions. Carbon isotopic compositions (delta vs PDB) of free hydrocarbons and of S-bound hydrocarbons were also measured. Relationships between these carbon skeletons, precursor biolipids, and the organisms producing them could then be examined. Concentrations of S-bound lipids and free hydrocarbons and their delta values were plotted vs depth in the marl bed and the profiles were interpreted in terms of variations in source organisms, 13 C contents of the carbon source, and environmentally induced changes in isotopic fractionation. The overall range of delta values measured was 24.7%, from -11.6% for a component derived from green sulphur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) to -36.3% for a lipid derived from purple sulphur bacteria (Chromatiaceae). Deconvolution of mixtures of components deriving from multiple sources (green and purple sulphur bacteria, coccolithophorids, microalgae and higher plants) was sometimes possible because both quantitative and isotopic data were available and because either the free or S-bound pool sometimes appeared to contain material from a single source. Several free n-alkanes and S-bound lipids appeared to be specific products of upper-water-column primary producers (i.e. algae and cyanobacteria). Others derived from anaerobic photoautotrophs and from heterotrophic protozoa (ciliates), which apparently fed partly on Chlorobiaceae. Four groups of n-alkanes produced by algae or cyanobacteria were also recognized based on systematic variations of abundance and isotopic composition with depth. For hydrocarbons probably derived from microalgae, isotopic variations are well correlated with

  7. Seasonal and annual variability of coastal sulphur plumes in the northern Benguela upwelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohde, Thomas; Dadou, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the seasonal and annual variability of surface sulphur plumes in the northern Benguela upwelling system off Namibia because of their significant impacts on the marine ecosystem, fishing industry, aquaculture farming and tourism due to their toxic properties. We identified the sulphur plumes in ocean colour satellite data of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) for the 2002-2012 time period using the differences in the spectral properties of Namibian Benguela optical water types. The sulphur events have a strong seasonal cycle with pronounced main and off-seasons forced by local and remote-driven processes. The main peak season is in late austral summer and early austral autumn at the beginning of the annual upwelling cycle caused by increasing equatorwards alongshore winds. The sulphur plume activity is high between February and April during the seasonal oxygen minimum associated with the seasonal reduction of cross-shore ventilation of the bottom waters, the seasonal southernmost position of the Angola Benguela Frontal Zone, the seasonal maximum of water mass fractions of South Atlantic and Angola Gyre Central Waters as well as the seasonal arrival of the downwelling coastal trapped waves. The off-season is in austral spring and early austral summer during increased upwelling intensity and enhanced oxygen supply. The annual variability of sulphur events is characterized by very high activities in years 2004, 2005 and 2010 interrupted by periods of lower activity in years 2002 to 2003, 2006 to 2009 and 2011 to 2012. This result can be explained by the relative contributions or adding effects of local and remote-driven forces (from the equatorial area). The probability for the occurrence of sulphur plumes is enhanced in years with a lower annual mean of upwelling intensity, decreased oxygen supply associated with decreased lateral ventilation of bottom waters, more southern position of the Angola Benguela Frontal Zone, increased mass

  8. Seasonal and annual variability of coastal sulphur plumes in the northern Benguela upwelling system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ohde

    Full Text Available We investigated the seasonal and annual variability of surface sulphur plumes in the northern Benguela upwelling system off Namibia because of their significant impacts on the marine ecosystem, fishing industry, aquaculture farming and tourism due to their toxic properties. We identified the sulphur plumes in ocean colour satellite data of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS for the 2002-2012 time period using the differences in the spectral properties of Namibian Benguela optical water types. The sulphur events have a strong seasonal cycle with pronounced main and off-seasons forced by local and remote-driven processes. The main peak season is in late austral summer and early austral autumn at the beginning of the annual upwelling cycle caused by increasing equatorwards alongshore winds. The sulphur plume activity is high between February and April during the seasonal oxygen minimum associated with the seasonal reduction of cross-shore ventilation of the bottom waters, the seasonal southernmost position of the Angola Benguela Frontal Zone, the seasonal maximum of water mass fractions of South Atlantic and Angola Gyre Central Waters as well as the seasonal arrival of the downwelling coastal trapped waves. The off-season is in austral spring and early austral summer during increased upwelling intensity and enhanced oxygen supply. The annual variability of sulphur events is characterized by very high activities in years 2004, 2005 and 2010 interrupted by periods of lower activity in years 2002 to 2003, 2006 to 2009 and 2011 to 2012. This result can be explained by the relative contributions or adding effects of local and remote-driven forces (from the equatorial area. The probability for the occurrence of sulphur plumes is enhanced in years with a lower annual mean of upwelling intensity, decreased oxygen supply associated with decreased lateral ventilation of bottom waters, more southern position of the Angola Benguela Frontal Zone

  9. Evaluation of the protein concentration in enzymes via the determination of sulphur by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, M.; Rittmeyer, C.; Kolbesen, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) offers many advantages for the identification of trace elements in biological samples like enzymes, tissues or plants. Without any preliminary treatment elements may be determined with high accuracy especially transition metals like Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo and the alkaline earth metal Ca. A further aspect of the investigation of enzymes is the simple and simultaneous determination of light elements. Especially sulphur is of interest. The element sulphur exists mainly in the two amino, acids methionine and cysteine as well as in iron-sulphur clusters and may be used for an easy and simultaneous calculation of the protein concentration. Hence the quantitative determination of sulphur by TXRF allows a cross-check regarding of the conventional quantitative determination of protein concentration by, for example, the Lowry method. On the basis of three enzymes of different origins and molecular weights the presentation will show the influence of the bio-organic matrix and different buffer media on element determination by TXRF. As is already known the influence of the matrix on the detection of light elements is stronger than on transition metals. It can be discussed whether layer thickness and layer effects of the drying residues (characterization by SEM and thickness profilometer (ALPHA-step)) and / or self absorption effects as well as the excitation are of significance. The results indicate that with enzymes of low molecular weight a reliable determination of sulphur is possible whereas those with higher molecular weights gave poorer results on account of the matrix effects described. (author)

  10. Sulphur simulations for East Asia using the MATCH model with meteorological data from ECMWF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engardt, Magnuz

    2000-03-01

    As part of a model intercomparison exercise, with participants from a number of Asian, European and American institutes, sulphur transport and conversion calculations were conducted over an East Asian domain for 2 different months in 1993. All participants used the same emission inventory and simulated concentration and deposition at a number of prescribed geographic locations. The participants were asked to run their respective model both with standard parameters, and with a set of given parameters, in order to examine the different behaviour of the models. The study included comparison with measured data and model-to-model intercomparisons, notably source-receptor relationships. We hereby describe the MATCH model, used in the study, and report some typical results. We find that although the standard and the prescribed set of model parameters differed significantly in terms of sulphur conversion and wet scavenging rate, the resulting change in atmospheric concentrations and surface depositions only change marginally. We show that it is often more critical to choose a representative gridbox value than selecting a parameter from the suite available. The modelled, near-surface, atmospheric concentration of sulphur in eastern China is typically 5- 10 {mu}g S m{sup -3}, with large areas exceeding 20 {mu}g S m{sup -3}. In southern Japan the values range from 2-5 {mu}g S m{sup -3} . Atmospheric SO{sub 2} dominates over sulphate near the emission regions while sulphate concentrations are higher over e.g. the western Pacific. The sulphur deposition exceeds several g sulphur m{sup -2} year{sup -1} in large areas of China. Southern Japan receives 03-1 g S m{sup -2} year{sup -1}. In January, the total wet deposition roughly equals the dry deposition, in May - when it rains more in the domain - total wet deposition is ca. 50% larger than total dry deposition.

  11. Organolanthanoid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Up to little more than a decade ago organolanthanoid compounds were still a curiosity. Apart from the description of an isolated number of cyclopentadienyl and indenyl derivatives, very few significant contributions had been made to this interesting sector of organometallic chemistry. However, subsequent systematic studies using modern preparative and analytical techniques, together with X-ray single crystal structure determinations, enabled the isolation and characterization of a large number of very interesting homoleptic and heteroleptic compounds in which the lanthanoid is bound to hydrogen, to substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl groups, to allyl or alkynyl groups, or even to phosphorus ylides, trimethylsilyl, and carbonylmetal groups. These compounds, which are all extremely sensitive to oxygen and water, open up new possibilities in the field of catalysis and have great potential in organic synthesis - as recent studies with pentamethylcyclopentadienyl derivatives, organolanthanoid(II) compounds, and hexamethyllanthanoid complexes have already shown. (orig.) [de

  12. Sources of increase in lowermost stratospheric sulphurous and carbonaceous aerosol background concentrations during 1999–2008 derived from CARIBIC flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Friberg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on sulphurous and carbonaceous aerosol, the major constituents of particulate matter in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS, based on in situ measurements from 1999 to 2008. Aerosol particles in the size range of 0.08–2 µm were collected monthly during intercontinental flights with the CARIBIC passenger aircraft, presenting the first long-term study on carbonaceous aerosol in the LMS. Elemental concentrations were derived via subsequent laboratory-based ion beam analysis. The stoichiometry indicates that the sulphurous fraction is sulphate, while an O/C ratio of 0.2 indicates that the carbonaceous aerosol is organic. The concentration of the carbonaceous component corresponded on average to approximately 25% of that of the sulphurous, and could not be explained by forest fires or biomass burning, since the average mass ratio of Fe to K was 16 times higher than typical ratios in effluents from biomass burning. The data reveal increasing concentrations of particulate sulphur and carbon with a doubling of particulate sulphur from 1999 to 2008 in the northern hemisphere LMS. Periods of elevated concentrations of particulate sulphur in the LMS are linked to downward transport of aerosol from higher altitudes, using ozone as a tracer for stratospheric air. Tropical volcanic eruptions penetrating the tropical tropopause are identified as the likely cause of the particulate sulphur and carbon increase in the LMS, where entrainment of lower tropospheric air into volcanic jets and plumes could be the cause of the carbon increase.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of 4-Benzyloxybenzaldehyde-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Containing Sulphur and Nitrogen Donor Atoms and Its Cd(II Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A chelating agent, 4-benzyloxybenzaldehyde-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (BBMTSC, containing sulphur and nitrogen donor atoms was synthesized and applied as a ligand for the chelation of Cd(II. Both the BBMTSC and its Cd(II complex were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, mass spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. The FTIR spectra confirmed the formation of both BBMTSC and its Cd(II complex. XRD revealed the polycrystalline nature of the synthesized compounds. BBMTSC exhibited a flake-like micro-rod morphology, whereas the Cd(II complex had a flower-like nanorod structure.

  14. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    -stroke diesel engine and a conventional waste heat recovery system. The results suggest that an organic Rankine cycle placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase power generation from waste heat by 32...... consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal and an advanced waste heat recovery system including a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an organic Rankine cycle. The results are compared with those of a state-of-the-art machinery system featuring a two...

  15. Effects of geothermal energy utilization on stream biota and water quality at The Geysers, California. Final report. [Big Sulphur, Little Sulphur, Squaw, and Pieta Creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeGore, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The discussion is presented under the following section headings: biological studies, including fish, insects, and microbiology; stream hydrology; stream water quality, including methods and results; the contribution of tributaries to Big Sulphur Creek, including methods, results, and tributary characterization; standing water at wellheads; steam condensate quality; accidental discharges; trout spawning bed quality; major conclusions; list of references; and appendices. It is concluded that present operational practices at Geysers geothermal field do not harm the biological resources in adjacent streams. The only effects of geothermal development observed during the study were related to operational accidents. (JGB)

  16. An evaluation of ambient sulphur dioxide concentrations from passive degassing of the Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia geothermal system: Implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Erouscilla P.; Beckles, Denise M.; Cox, Leonette; Jackson, Viveka B.; Alexander, Dominic

    2015-10-01

    Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia is a site of energetic geothermal activity associated with the potentially active Soufrière Volcanic Centre. The Park is one of Saint Lucia's most important tourist attractions, and is marketed as the 'world's only drive-in volcano'. It has an on-site staff of tour guides and vendors, as well as over 200,000 visitors annually. There are also a number of residents living in the areas bordering the Park. Recreational use is made of the geothermal waters for bathing, application of mud masques, and in some cases drinking. As part of the University of the West Indies, Seismic Research Centre's (UWI-SRC's) overall volcano monitoring programme for Saint Lucia, the volcanic emissions at Sulphur Springs (hot springs, mud pools and fumaroles) have been regularly monitored since 2001. In recent years, visitors, staff, and management at the Park have expressed concern about the health effects of exposure to volcanic emissions from the hydrothermal system. In response to this, SRC has expanded its regular geothermal monitoring programme to include a preliminary evaluation of ambient sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations in and around the Park, to assess the possible implications for human health. Passive diffusion tubes were used to measure the atmospheric SO2 concentrations at various sites in Sulphur Springs Park (SSP), in the town of Soufrière and in the capital of Castries. Measurements of average monthly ambient SO2 with the passive samplers indicated that during the dry season period of April to July 2014 concentration at sites closest to the main vents at SSP (Group 1), which are routinely used by staff and visitors, frequently exceeded the WHO 10-minute AQG for SO2 of 500 μg/m3. However, for sites that were more distal to the main venting area (Groups 2 and 3), the average monthly ambient SO2 did not exceed the WHO 10-minute AQG for SO2 of 500 μg/m3 during the entire monitoring period. The measured concentrations and dispersion

  17. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  18. Biochemical and cytological effects of sulphur dioxide on plant metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, S S; Hocking, D

    1976-01-01

    Biochemical effects of sulfur dioxide arise from its unique ability to act as an oxidizing or a reducing agent. Among some of the important metabolic effects are direct interference with photosynthetic CO/sub 2/ fixation (competitive inhibiton of ribulose diphosphate carbosylase by SO/sub 3/) and with energy metabolism (inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production by SO/sub 3//sup =/). Many indirect effects result from formation of sulfites and organic sulfonates with other cell constituents. These compounds can cause inhibition of a variety of metabolic enzyme systems. All these factors are probably instrumental in the gross disruption of chloroplast and mitochondrial ultrastructure. Injurious effects result when sulfur dioxide is taken up in excess of the capacity of the tissue to incorporate sulfur into the normal metabolic activities. The ubiquitous presence of small amounts of SO/sub 2/ and the subtle and varied nature of its biochemical effects suggest that crop losses to SO/sub 2/ pollution may be more widespread and serious than is generally suspected.

  19. Polymer compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A Polymer compound comprising a polymer (a) that contains cyclic imidesgroups and a polymer (b) that contains monomer groups with a 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine side group. According to the formula (see formula) whereby themole percentage ratio of the cyclic imides groups in the polymer compoundwith

  20. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic Chemistry. Kamatak University,. Dharwad. Her research interests are synthesis, reactions and synthetic utility of sydnones. She is currently working on electrochemical and insecticidal/antifungal activities for some of these compounds. Keywords. Aromaticity, mesoionic hetero- cycles, sydnones, tandem re- actions.

  1. Assessment of pollution due to oxides of sulphur and nitrogen at Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheendran, V.; Pimple, K.G.; Rao, D.D.; Chandramouli, S.; Iyer, R.S.; Hegde, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    An Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL) was established in 1964 to monitor and assess the dispersion of radioactive releases from the power station in the environmental matrices. ESL has been making measurements of ambient sulphur dioxide concentration in the atmosphere at a few selected locations since 1984. The residential areas which are in the vicinity of the chemical zone experience acute effects of sulphur dioxide pollution from time to time depending upon the seasonal variations of meteorological parameters. The proposed commissioning of a thermal power station in the region (Dahanu) gives added importance to the estimation of SO 2 and NO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The paper presents data and assessment of the prevailing status with respect to above pollutants close to the industrial zone. (author). 5 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Modelling the fate of sulphur-35 in crops. 1. Calibration data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Chris; Cunningham, Nathan

    2005-01-01

    Gas-cooled nuclear power plants in the UK release sulphur-35 during their routine operation. The gas is in the form of COS which can be readily assimilated by vegetation. It is therefore necessary to be able to model the uptake of such releases in order to quantify any potential contamination of the food chain. To develop such models experimental data are required. A series of experiments was undertaken to determine the rate of deposition, the partition and subsequent loss of sulphur-35 in crops exposed to CO 35 S. The mass normalised deposition rate was similar for the range of crops tested, while the partition of the 35 S paralleled the growth of crop components. There was no significant loss of radioactivity other than that expected from radioactive decay. - The deposition, fate and loss of 35 S in crops were quantified following exposure to COS

  3. The certification of the contents (mass fractions) of sulphur in six coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griepink, B; Maier, E A; Wilkinson, H C [CEC, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the preparation and the certification of the sulphur content of six coal reference materials: low volatile steam coal (CRM 331), high volatile industrial coal (CRM 332), coking steam coal (CRM 333), anthracite (CRM 334), flame coal (CRM 335) and high volatile steam coal (CRM 336), as well as the homogeneity and stability studies. The analytical work leading to certification is also presented. The certified mass fractions for total sulphur in CRMs 331, 332, 333, 334, 335 and 336 respectively are 4.99 mg/g, 9.61 mg/g, 13.44 mg/g, 16.09 mg/g, 50.8 mg/g and 32.90 mg/g.

  4. Quantification of sulphur amino acids by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography in aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thera, Jennifer C; Kidd, Karen A; Dodge-Lynch, M Elaine; Bertolo, Robert F

    2017-12-15

    We examined the performance of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method to quantify protein-bound sulphur amino acids in zooplankton. Both cysteic acid and methionine sulfone were linear from 5 to 250 pmol (r 2  = 0.99), with a method detection limit of 13 pmol and 9 pmol, respectively. Although there was no matrix effect on linearity, adjacent peaks and co-eluting noise from the invertebrate proteins increased the detection limits when compared to common standards. Overall, performance characteristics were reproducible and accurate, and provide a means for quantifying sulphur amino acids in aquatic invertebrates, an understudied group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A new biological method for preparing certain sulphurated substances labelled with S35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapeville, F.; Maier-Huser, H.; Fromageot, P.

    1962-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that the yolk-sac of embryonic bird's eggs can be used to produce the following reactions: (a) reduction of sulphate to sulphite; (b) fixation of the sulphite on the carbon chain produced by the desulf-hydration of l-cysteine, with formation of l-cysteic acid; (c) decarboxylation of the l-cysteine acid into taurine. The enzymatic system which causes reaction (b) has been purified. It also acts as a catalyst in the sulphur-exchange between the cysteine and the mineral sulphide. The authors have utilized these data in preparing sulphurated substances labelled with S 35 : taurine S 35 , l-cysteine S 35 and l-cysteic acid S 35 . For each of the three, they discuss the chemical reactions involved, the methods of preparation, the experimental conditions of extraction and purity-control, together with the yields and specific activities obtained. (authors) [fr

  6. Trend of heavy metal and sulphur deposition in Finland from the 1980`s to 1990`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubin, E.; Lippo, H. [Forest Research Inst., Muhos (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The moss technique to survey atmospheric heavy metal deposition was developed in Sweden in the late 1960`s. The surveys has extended from regional and national basis to cover all the Nordic countries in 1985, to northern Europe in 1990 and to a large part of Europe in 1990-92. National reports have also been published in many countries. The Forest Research Institute established a network of 3009 secret permanent monitoring sites all over the country in 1985 and 1986 for forest inventory and for monitoring the situation and changes in the forests. One essential part has been to study the effects of air pollution - including heavy metal and sulphur deposition on forests. Deposition has been monitored by collecting bioindicators and analysing the element concentrations. The purpose of this report is to show the trend of the heavy metal and sulphur deposition from the 1980`s to 1990`s and in addition to produce information about the emission sources. (author)

  7. Anion-exchange Studies of Radioactive Trace Elements in Sulphuric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K

    1963-01-15

    As part of a chemical group separation procedure used as a pretreatment in gamma spectrometric analysis, a study has been made of the adsorption from sulphuric acid solutions on strongly basic anion exchange resins, prepared in the hydroxide and the sulphate forms, of trace activities of Na, P, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ag, Cd, In, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pa and Np. Besides adsorbing some of the trace elements in the solution, the anion exchange resin in the hydroxide form will neutralize the bulk of the sulphuric acid. This makes possible the subsequent sequential separation of chloride complexes on short anion-exchange columns by a stepwise increasing of the HCl concentration of the solution. On the basis of the results obtained in the present and earlier experiments, a new improved chemical group-separation procedure for mixtures of radioactive trace elements is outlined.

  8. Bismuth ions are metabolized into autometallographic traceable bismuth-sulphur quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Stoltenberg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth – sulphur quantum dots can be silver enhanced by autometallography (AMG. In the present study, autometallographic silver enhanced bismuth-sulphur nanocrystals were isolated from unfixed cryo-sections of kidneys and livers of rats exposed to bismuth (Bi207 subnitrate. After being subjected to AMG all the organic material was removed by sonication and enzymatic digestion and the silver enhanced Bi- S quantum dots spun down by an ultracentrifuge and analyzed by scintillation. The analysis showed that the autometallographic technique traces approximately 94% of the total bismuth. This implies that the injected bismuth is ultimately captured in bismuthsulphur quantum dots, i.e., that Bi-S nanocrystals are the end product of bismuth metabolism

  9. Velocity of crack growing of Inconel-600, sensitized, contaminated with sulphur in PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano, M. L.; Blazquez, F.; Gomez Briceno, D.; Lagares, A.

    1998-01-01

    The origin of the vessel head penetration cracking of Jose Cabrera NPP has been attributed to an IGA/SCC process in a highly sensitized Alloy 600 assisted by sulphur species, as both acid sulphates and reduced species originated by the thermal breakdown of the cationic resins present in the primary coolant. The thermal degradation of the cationic resins leads sulphonic acid group scission and sulphates. Under the operating conditions the reduction of sulphates to sulphides is produced. The sulphides formed from the reduction of sulphate can precipitate with metallic cations and be incorporated into the oxide layers of the materials, preferably into nickel alloys. Others components at Jose Cabrera NPP are fabricated from sensitized alloy 600, as bottom vessel penetrations. In order to determine the influence of sulphur incorporated to the oxide layers of bottom vessel penetration alloy 600, an experimental work has been performed to obtained crack growth rate data under PWR primary conditions on sensitized alloy 600. (Author) 5 refs

  10. Trend of heavy metal and sulphur deposition in Finland from the 1980`s to 1990`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubin, E; Lippo, H [Forest Research Inst., Muhos (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The moss technique to survey atmospheric heavy metal deposition was developed in Sweden in the late 1960`s. The surveys has extended from regional and national basis to cover all the Nordic countries in 1985, to northern Europe in 1990 and to a large part of Europe in 1990-92. National reports have also been published in many countries. The Forest Research Institute established a network of 3009 secret permanent monitoring sites all over the country in 1985 and 1986 for forest inventory and for monitoring the situation and changes in the forests. One essential part has been to study the effects of air pollution - including heavy metal and sulphur deposition on forests. Deposition has been monitored by collecting bioindicators and analysing the element concentrations. The purpose of this report is to show the trend of the heavy metal and sulphur deposition from the 1980`s to 1990`s and in addition to produce information about the emission sources. (author)

  11. Study of the corrosion of metallic coatings and alloys containing aluminum in a mixed atmosphere - sulphur, oxygen - at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellmann, Daniel

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is the development of materials for a sulphur experimental loop allowing the thermodynamic properties of such an energy cycle to be checked. As solutions must comply with industrial methods, rare materials are excluded as they are too expensive or difficult to implement. Iron-based materials have been tested but could not have at the same time a good corrosion resistance and high temperature forming and mechanical toughness properties. Therefore, metallic coatings have been chosen, specifically alumina. After having reported a bibliographical study on corrosion by sulphur vapour and by oxygen and by sulphur-oxygen, the author presents the experimental materials and methods. Then, the author reports the study of mixed corrosion (by sulphur and oxygen together) of metallic alloys (ferritic and austeno-ferritic alloys, aluminium and titanium alloys), and of the corrosion of FeAlx coatings, of AlTix alloys [fr

  12. Effect of soil moisture on sulphur accumulation in overground plant organs and their harm in emmission conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navara, J; Horvath, I; Hauskrecht, I

    1972-01-01

    The effect of different soil moisture on sulphur accumulation in the overground organs of Fagopyrum esculentum, moench in immission conditions is dealt with in this paper. The results obtained have shown that even under equal soil conditions, equal nutrient supply and age evenness of the analyzed material the total sulphur content of leaves grown in immission conditions (sulphur oxides, hydrogen sulphide, carbon disulphide, etc.) at equal soil moisture was essentially higher when compared with unirrigated plants and corresponded also to the degree of harm and crop reduction of the experimental plants. Therefore it is necessary when utilizing sulphur content of indicating plants, which serves for a large-area diagnosis of vegetation harm with immissions, to take into consideration, in addition to other factors (soil, nutrition, age of plants), the soil moisture as well.

  13. Influence of sulphur and phosphorus on the hot deformation of Fe-Cr 13% high purity steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahreche, M.; Bouzabata, B.; Kobylanski, A.

    1995-01-01

    A series of Fe-Cr13%-C high purity steels containing increasing volume fractions of Sulphur (30, 60 and 100ppm) and Phosphorus (30, 60 and 100ppm) were prepared in order to study their hot deformation properties by tensile tests at various strain rates (10 -1 s -1 to 10 -4 s -1 ) and at temperatures from 700 C to 1100 C. It is observed that the hot ductility is lowered at 1000 C with the addition of sulphur. However, this decrease is relatively small (about 30% for 100ppm of sulphur) and quite similar for all additions of sulphur. When phosphorus is added, the embrittlement is along the whole deformed specimen. The usual criteria of ductility by parameter Z do not seem to be sufficient to describe this embrittlement. (orig.)

  14. Investigation on the effect of heavy diesel fraction properties on product sulphur during ultra deep diesel hydrodesulphurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratiev, D.; Tzingov, T. [Research and Development Dept., Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas, Bourgas (Bulgaria); Galkin, V. [Future Development Dept., Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas, Bourgas (Bulgaria)

    2006-02-01

    This work investigates the hydrotreatment of heavy diesel fractions in order to achieve product sulphurs of 50 and 10 ppm. The heavy diesel fractions were obtained in the Lukoil Neftochim Bulgaria (LNB) crude distillation and vacuum distillation units (SRGO1, SRGO2, AGO, LVGO ASTM D-86 95%vol. of 360, 392 395, and 377 C respectively) by distillation of crude oil type ''Ural'', containing some quantities of naphtha, atmospheric residue, vacuum gas oil and low sulphur crude oil, in the mild hydrocracking unit (MHC diesel 95%vol. of 389 C) and in the fluid catalytic cracking unit - heavy cycle oil (FCC HCO; 95%vol. of 360 C). The diesel fractions were hydrotreated in a trickle bed pilot plant at following conditions: reactor inlet temperature range of 300-380 C; liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) range of 0.5-3.0 h{sup -1}, total reactor pressure range of 3.5- 7.0 MPa; treating gas/feedstock ratio of 250 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was found that in the investigated range of operating conditions the product sulphur depended linearly on the LHSV. As a measure of the diesel hydrodesulphurization (HDS) reactivity the LHSV at 360 C reactor inlet temperature was interpolated at a constant product sulphur level of 50 ppm and extrapolated at 10 ppm sulphur. It was found that the most refractory feedstock was the diesel mixture 80%SRGO1 / 20%FCCHCO (LHSV of 0.4 h{sup -1} for 50 ppm and 0.2 h{sup -1} for 10 ppm sulphur). The catalyst volume increase required to reduce the product sulphur from 50 to 10 ppm was found to be as high as twice for all diesel fractions except the MHC diesel. This material required five times the catalyst volume for the product sulphur reduction from 50 to 10 ppm. The total reactor pressure was found to have less impact on the product sulphur than the LHSV. Doubling the reactor pressure from 3.5 to 7.0 MPa by hydrotreatment of LVGO reduced the product sulphur as low as twice while the reduction of the LHSV from 1 to 0.5 h{sup -1} at a

  15. Eaglet property, southeastern British Columbia: Re-Os geochronology, sulphur isotopes, and thermobarometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hora, Z. D.; Stein, H.; Žák, Karel; Dobeš, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 1 (2018), s. 157-166 ISSN 0381-243X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Eaglet deposit * MINFILE 093A 046 * fluorite * celestite * molybdenite * sulphur isotopes * Re-Os geochronology * fluid inclusion microthermobarometry Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology http://cmscontent.nrs.gov.bc.ca/geoscience/PublicationsCatalogue/Fieldwork/Documents/2017/P2018-1.pdf

  16. Response of sulphur dynamics in European catchments to decreasing sulphate deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prechtel, A.; Alewell, C.; Armbruster, M.; Bittersohl, J.; Cullen, J.; Evans, C. D.; Helliwell, R.; Kopáček, Jiří; Marchetto, A.; Matzner, E.; Meesenburg, H.; Moldan, F.; Moritz, K.; Veselý, J.; Wright, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2001), s. 311-325 ISSN 1027-5606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0063 Grant - others:CEC RECOVER(XE) 2010-EVK1-CT-1999-00018; GMER(DE) PT BEO51-0339476; CEC(XE) EMERGE-EVK1-CT-1999-00032 Keywords : acidification reversal * sulphur * sulphate release Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.127, year: 2001

  17. The determination of sulphur in copper, nickel and aluminium alloys by proton activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.; Dewaele, J.; Esprit, M.; Goethals, P.

    1981-01-01

    The 34 S(p,n) 34 sup(m)Cl reaction, induced by 13 MeV protons is used for the determination of sulphur in copper, nickel and aluminium alloys. The 34 sup(m)Cl is separated by repeated precipitation as silver chloride. The results obtained were resp. 3.08 +- 0.47, 1.47 +- 0.17 and -1 for copper, nickel and aluminium alloys. (orig.)

  18. The recovery of uranium, gold and sulphur from residues from South African mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.

    1978-10-01

    The slimes dams resulting from the operations of gold and gold/uranium mines situated within the Witwatersrand Basin contain low concentrations of gold, uranium and pyrite. As a result of a marked increase in the prices of both gold and uranium in recent years, two schemes involving the recovery of these minerals also the manufacture of sulphuric acid as a by-product are operating profitably. Further schemes are under investigation [af

  19. Determination of nonmetallic elements in actinide complexes by oxygen flask combustion (OFC) (Part 2). Sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruikar, P.B.; Nagar, M.S.; Subramanian, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the determination of sulphur in metallic complexes by oxygen flask combustion followed by conductivity titration with standard barium acetate solution in alcoholic medium and lead electrode titration using a lead ion sensitive electrode. Various organic ligands and uranyl and plutonyl synergistic complexes have been analysed by both these methods and the precision and accuracy of the results have been found to be satisfactory. (author). 12 refs., 12 tabs

  20. Sulphur isotope variations in the mantle from ion microprobe analyses of micro-sulphide inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussidon, M.; Albarede, F.; Sheppard, S.M.F.

    1989-01-01

    21 samples of sulphide trapped either as liquid globules or grains in various minerals (olivine, pyroxenes, ilmenite and garnet) or rocks (basalt glasses, peridotites, eclogites and kimberlites) of mantle origin, have been analysed for their sulphur isotope, and their Cu, Ni, Fe compositions by ion microprobe. The results show a wide range of δ 34 S values between -4.9±1 and +8±1per mille. Sulphides with high nickel contents (up to 40% pentlandite), corresponding mostly to residual peridotites, have δ 34 S values ranging from -3.2per mille to +3.6per mille with a mode of +3±1per mille, compared to low Ni content sulphides, mostly contained in pyroxenites, OIB and kimberlites, ranging from -3.6per mille to +8per mille with a mode of +1±1per mille. The δ 34 S of sulphides originating from within the mantle are variable. The sulphide globules with high Ni contents and δ 34 S values close to +3per mille, are probably produced by 10-20% partial melting of a mantle source containing 300 ppm sulphur as an upper limit and having a δ 34 S value of +0.5±0.5per mille. This difference in δ 34 S values suggests a high-temperature S-isotope fractionation of ≅+3per mille between liquid sulphide and the sulphur dissolved in the silicate liquid. The sulphur isotopes balance in the system upper mantle + oceanic crust + continental crust + seawater requires a mean δ 34 S value of the primitive upper mantle of +0.5per mille, slightly but significantly different from that of chondrites (+0.2±0.2per mille). (orig.)

  1. Neutron activation analysis for sulphur in coal samples and moisture content by gamma-ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.

    1993-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis method is described for the determination of sulphur in coal samples by analysing the beta spectrum emitted from 32 P and 33 P following the reactions 32 S(n, p) 32 P and 33 S(n, p) 33 P using 252 Cf as a source of neutrons. The transmission of the combined gamma-rays emitted from three 137 Cs and three 241 Am sources is used to measure the water content of the coal samples. (author)

  2. Effects of fluorides and sulphur dioxide on pollen germination and growth of the pollen tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Mejnartowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of fluorides and sulphur dioxides from emissions from a phosphate fertilizer factory significantly reduced the germination of Scots pine pollen grains. The pollen tube length indicated that its growth is uninhibited even though the pollen was collected under conditions of air-pollution. There are statistically significant differences showing longer tubes in the sensitive trees pollen grains. l he ageing of pollen from the sensitive trees occurs probably more rapidly than in the tolerant trees.

  3. Canopy interaction with precipitation and sulphur deposition in two boreal forests of Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, C.; Houle, D.; Duchesne, L.; Gagnon, C.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of atmospheric sulphur (S) was investigated within the canopies of two boreal forests in Québec, Canada. The net canopy exchange approach, i.e. the difference between S–SO 4 in throughfall and precipitation, suggests high proportion of dry deposition in winter (up to 53%) as compared to summer (1–9%). However, a 3.5‰ decrease in δ 18 O–SO 4 throughfall in summer compared to incident precipitation points towards a much larger proportion of dry deposition during the warm season. We suggest that a significant fraction of dry deposition (about 1.2 kg ha −1 yr −1 , representing 30–40% of annual wet S deposition) which contributed to the decreased δ 18 O–SO 4 in throughfall was taken up by the canopy. Overall, these results showed that, contrary to what is commonly considered, S interchanges in the canopy could be important in boreal forests with low absolute atmospheric S depositions. - Highlights: ► We investigated sulphur interactions with the canopy of two boreal forests, Québec. ► Sulphur interchanges within the canopy were large and vary with seasons. ► About 1.2 kg S–SO 4 ha −1 yr −1 was taken up by the canopy during warm seasons. ► This represents 30–40% of annual wet S–SO 4 deposition. ► Canopy uptake must be considered for sulphur budget estimations in boreal forests. - The equivalent of 30–40% of annual wet S–SO 4 deposition was taken up by the canopy of two boreal forests during warm seasons.

  4. Fate of gypsum-sulphur applied to soybean on Typic haplustepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saharan, Neelam; Rattan, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted on the sulphur-deficient Typic Haplustepts of the IARI farm for two consecutive, kharif seasons viz. 1996 and 1997 with soybean cultivar Pusa 22 as the crop. Varying rates of S as gypsum were basally applied in the main plots adjacent to the micro plots (1 m x 1 m) to quantify the partitioning of the fertilizer-sulphur taken up by soybean and its distribution in the soil profile. Soybean responded to the application of sulphur, with increase in yield being obtained up to rate of 40 kg S ha -1 . Data computed on distribution of the S derived from labelled gypsum and percent S utilization by the soybean crop increased from 13.23 and 4.15 to 23.41 and 6.39, respectively. During 1996, the per cent utilization of labelled S ranged from 5.6 to 8.8. Monitoring of added sulphur in the soil profile up to a depth of 1 m revealed maximum accumulation of the added S in 30-60 cm soil layer. With the help of 35 S around 11 to 18 per cent of the added S was traced in 60-100 cm soil layer. It can be concluded from the data for two years that during kharif season the application of S through water soluble sources like ammonium sulphate and ammonium phosphate sulphate should be avoided because even S from the sparingly soluble gypsum migrated to a depth of 1 m during the cropping season. (author)

  5. Major changes in forest carbon and nitrogen cycling caused by declining sulphur deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, F.; Evans, C. D.; Hofmeister, J.; Krejci, R.; Tahovská, K.; Persson, T.; Cudlín, Pavel; Hruška, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 10 (2011), 3115–3129 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10022 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : acidification * carbon * deposition * DOC * forest floor * leaching * nitrogen * nitrogen saturation * soil * sulphur Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 6.862, year: 2011 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02468.x/pdf

  6. Effect of drought stress and sulphur fertilizer on quantity and quality yield of psyllium (Plantago ovata L. in Baluchestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mousavi nik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of chemical fertilizers application is very important issues on environment and plant yield especially in arid and-semi arid region. In order to determine the effects of drought stresses and fertilizer levels on quantity and quality yields of psyllium (Plantago ovata L., a study was conducted as split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications at the Natural Resources and Agriculture Researches Center of Balouchestan, Iran, during growing season of 2009-2010. Treatments included different irrigation regimes (three, five and eight times irrigation during the growing season as main plots and four levels of sulphur fertilizer (0, 75, 150 and 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur as sub plot. The results showed that the irrigation regimes and sulphur fertilizer had significant effects on seed and biological yield of psyllium, so the highest seed and biological yields obtained in eight times irrigation. Also, the maximum of these factors were achieved in 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur. The highest harvest index and 1000- seed weight, No. seed per spike and No. spike per plant were observed in eight times irrigation and 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur. The highest plant height was obtained in eight times irrigation and 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur and the maximum mucilage percentage and proline content were obtained in three times irrigation. The maximum mucilage yield and carbohydrate content were achieved in eight times irrigation. Among sulphur fertilizer, the highest amounts for all factors were achieved in 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur. There was positive and significant correlation between seed yield with spike No. per plant, Seed No. per spike, 1000-Seed, biological yield and mucilage yield.

  7. Studies on Corrosion of Annealed and Aged 18 Ni 250 Grade Maraging Steel in Sulphuric Acid Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Poornima, T.; Jagannatha, Nayak; Shetty, A. Nityananda

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of aged and annealed sample of 18 Ni 250 grade maraging steel was investigated in varied conditions of concentration and temperature of sulphuric acid medium, using electrochemical techniques like Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results obtained from both the techniques are in good agreement. These results have shown increase in corrosion rate of aged specimen with increase in concentration and temperature of sulphuric acid. With...

  8. Evaluation of modified atmosphere bag and sulphur dioxide concentrations applied on highbush blueberries fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cv. Emerald

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Mario; Wyss, Anddy; Hormazábal, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to evaluate techniques for modified atmosphere and application of sulphur anhydride upon parameters of quality of postharvest on blueberry fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cv. Emerald, an experiment of six treatments was conducted, given by the combination of two factors, modified atmosphere (with and without) and different concentrations of sulphur dioxide (generated by 0, 1 and 2 g of sodium metabisulphite) during 7, 14, 21 and 28 days at 0 °C. The dose of 2 g of modified atmosphere s...

  9. Means of supply of extremely low-sulphur oil to the power plants of Stenungsund and Karlshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The power plants in question are estimated to produce 10 TWh electric power per year and use about 2.4 Mtons of heavy fuel oil. This will imply a considerable increase of emission of acidifying sulphur oxides. The report discusses the cost of supplying low-sulphur fuel oils. The cost is compared with the cost of the installation of desulphurization of flue gas, oils or gasification

  10. The mechanism of photosystem-II inactivation during sulphur deprivation-induced H2 production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Valéria; Vidal-Meireles, André; Podmaniczki, Anna; Szentmihályi, Klára; Rákhely, Gábor; Zsigmond, Laura; Kovács, László; Tóth, Szilvia Z

    2018-05-01

    Sulphur limitation may restrain cell growth and viability. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, sulphur limitation may induce H 2 production lasting for several days, which can be exploited as a renewable energy source. Sulphur limitation causes a large number of physiological changes, including the inactivation of photosystem II (PSII), leading to the establishment of hypoxia, essential for the increase in hydrogenase expression and activity. The inactivation of PSII has long been assumed to be caused by the sulphur-limited turnover of its reaction center protein PsbA. Here we reinvestigated this issue in detail and show that: (i) upon transferring Chlamydomonas cells to sulphur-free media, the cellular sulphur content decreases only by about 25%; (ii) as demonstrated by lincomycin treatments, PsbA has a significant turnover, and other photosynthetic subunits, namely RbcL and CP43, are degraded more rapidly than PsbA. On the other hand, sulphur limitation imposes oxidative stress early on, most probably involving the formation of singlet oxygen in PSII, which leads to an increase in the expression of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, playing an essential role in ascorbate biosynthesis. When accumulated to the millimolar concentration range, ascorbate may inactivate the oxygen-evolving complex and provide electrons to PSII, albeit at a low rate. In the absence of a functional donor side and sufficient electron transport, PSII reaction centers are inactivated and degraded. We therefore demonstrate that the inactivation of PSII is a complex and multistep process, which may serve to mitigate the damaging effects of sulphur limitation. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Influence of phosphorous and sulphur as well as grain size on creep in pure copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Henrik; Seitisleam, Facredin; Sandstroem, Rolf

    1999-12-01

    Uniaxial creep tests have been performed at 175 deg C for extruded oxygen-free copper. The effect of different contents of phosphorous and sulphur as well as different grain sizes have been studied. The copper with < 1 ppm phosphorous and with a 6 ppm sulphur content showed significantly lower creep life and ductility than batches with higher P content. An increase of the P content to 29 ppm increased the creep life and ductility, but a further increase did not affect the properties further. A similar drop in the creep properties was found in the material with a grain size of about 2000 μm. A reduction of the mean grain size to 800 μm had a beneficial effect on the creep ductility. A further reduction of the grain size did not give any further improvements. All tests except those with a phosphorous content of less than 1 ppm P and those with a mean grain size of about 2000 μm failed at an elongation greater than 20%, most of them at 30-40%. The variation in sulphur content from 6 to 12 ppm did not affect the creep properties. The main creep rupture mechanisms were found to be cavitation and microcracking at the grain boundaries. Master curves for extrapolation are provided for creep rupture as well as for 5% and 10% creep strain

  12. A compact XRF unit for determining total sulphur content in coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumitra, T.; Chankow, N.; Punnachaiya, S.; Srisatit, S.

    1994-01-01

    A microcomputer based x-ray fluorescence (XRF) unit was developed for off-line determination of total sulphur content in coal samples. The unit consisted of the x-ray exciting/measuring set and the microcomputer with a plug-in interface card. An Fe-55 radioisotope was used as the exciting source while a krypton-filled proportional counter was used to measure x-rays from the samples. The x-ray spectrum was simultaneously displayed on the microcomputer screen. For quantitative determination of sulphur, the intensities of sulphur K x-rays as well as calcium K x-rays and scattered x-rays were taken into account. The unit was tested with finely-ground, dried and compressed lignite, subbituminous and bituminous samples. If was found that for low-calcium coals, the results were in good agreement with those obtained from the standard chemical analysis method within ± 0.2% and within ± 0.5%S for high-calcium coals. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Integrated laboratory scale demonstration experiment of the hybrid sulphur cycle and preliminary scale-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leybros, J.; Rivalier, P.; Saturnin, A.; Charton, S.

    2010-01-01

    The hybrid sulphur cycle is today one of the most promising processes to produce hydrogen on a massive scale within the scope of high temperature nuclear reactors development. Thus, the Fuel Cycle Technology Department at CEA Marcoule is involved in studying the hybrid sulphur process from a technical and economical performance standpoint. Based on mass and energy balance calculations, a ProsimPlus TM flow sheet and a commercial plant design were prepared. This work includes a study on sizing of the main equipment. The capital cost has been estimated using the major characteristics of main equipment based upon formulae and charts published in literature. A specific approach has been developed for electrolysers. Operational costs are also proposed for a plant producing 1000 mol/s H 2 . Bench scale and pilot experiments must focus on the electrochemical step due to limited experimental data. Thus, a pilot plant with a hydrogen capacity of 100 NL/h was built with the aim of acquiring technical and technological data for electrolysis. This pilot plant was designed to cover a wide range of operating conditions: sulphuric acid concentrations up to 60 wt.%, temperatures up to 100 deg. C and pressures up to 10 bar. New materials and structures recently developed for fuel cells, which are expected to yield significant performance improvements when applied to classical electrochemical processes, will be tested. All experiments will be coupled with phenomenological simulation tools developed jointly with the experimental programme. (authors)

  14. An approach for degradation of grape seed and skin proanthocyanidin polymers into oligomers by sulphurous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lanxin; Cui, Yan; Cheng, Jinhui; Fang, Bairui; Wei, Zongmin; Sun, Baoshan

    2018-08-01

    To develop an efficient method for degradation of grape seed and skin proanthocyanidins polymers into oligomers, an optimized sulphurous acid degradation conditions for grape seed with the temperature of 60 °C, reaction time of 60 min and sample-sulphurous acid ratio of 1:0.2, and for grape skin with the temperature of 40 °C, reaction time of 60 min and sample-sulphurous acid ratio of 1:0.2, were established. Afterwards, HSCCC and prep-HPLC were used to fractionate and isolate individual proanthocyanidin oligomers from the degradation products. Total of ten dimeric or trimeric procyanidins were obtained, and most of them presented high yield (from 0.7 mg to 13.6 mg per run in grape seed and from 0.5 mg to 4.1 mg per run in grape skin) and high purity (over 90%). The proposed method provides a new way for large preparation of oligomeric proanthocyanidins from naturally abundant and wasted polymeric ones. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štengl, Václav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomáš Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Bludská, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslařská 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn{sub 7}5 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn{sub 3}7U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  16. Effects of elemental sulphur on heavy metal uptake by plants growing on municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Gulgun; Ozdemir, Saim

    2016-01-15

    In this study experiment was carried out to determine the phytoextraction potential of six plant species (Conium maculatum, Brassica oleraceae var. oleraceae, Brassica juncea, Datura stramonium, Pelargonium hortorum and Conyza canadensis) grown in a sewage sludge medium amended with metal uptake promoters. The solubility of Cu, Cd and Pb was significantly increased with the application of elemental S due to decrease of pH. Faecal coliform number was markedly decreased by addition of elemental sulphur. The extraction of Cu, Cr and Pb from sewage sludge by using B. juncea plant was observed as 65%, 65% and 54% respectively that is statistically similar to EDTA as sulphur. The bioaccumulation factors were found higher (>1) in the plants tested for Cu and Pb like B. juncea. Translocation index (TI) calculated values for Cd and Pb were greater than one (>1) in both C. maculatum and B. oleraceae var. oleraceae. The results cleared that the amendment of sludge with elemental sulphur showed potential to solubilize heavy metals in phytoremediation as much as EDTA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of Hg-Electroplated-Pt Ultramicroelectrode for Determining Elemental Sulphur in Naphtha Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the applicability of a Hg-electroplated-Pt ultramicroelectrode in the quantification of elemental sulphur in naphtha samples by square-wave voltammetry. A reproducible deposition methodology was studied and is reported in this paper. This methodology is innovative and relies on the quality of the mercury stock solution to obtain reproducible surfaces required for the analytical methodology. All analyses were performed using a Hg-electroplated-Pt ultramicroelectrode (Hg-Pt UME due to the low sensibility of such devices to ohmic drops in resistive solutions. The responses of the peak areas in voltammetric experiments were linear in all of the range studied. The method developed here is accurate and reproducible, with a detection limit of 0.010 mg L−1 and a good recovery range for both standard solutions of elemental sulphur (85 to 99% and real naphtha sample (79%. These results attest to the potential for the application of this electroanalytical methodology in determining elemental sulphur in naphtha samples containing mercaptans and disulphides.

  18. Gonadal cell kinetics in male mice treated with sulphur-35 during prenatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyanarayana Reddy, K.; Reddy, P.P.; Reddi, O.S.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations on the possible hazards of the use of internally administered radioisotopes in human medicine either as therapeutic or diagnostic agents before or during child bearing age are of late gaining importance. The present investigation has been taken up to screen the effects of sulphur-35 on spermatogonia. CBA pregnant mice were injected (ip) with a dose of 20 μ Ci of sulphur-35 on 3.5, 10.5 or 15.5 days of gestation. At the similar intervals pregnant mice injected with physiological saline were kept for control data. All the animals were allowed to litter and F 1 male progeny were killed at maturity at the age of 10 weeks and the testes collected. Sections of both the testes were prepared and stained by PAS-haematoxylin technique and the survival of spermatogonia types A, Int and B and preleptotene spermatocytes was evaluated. There was a significant reduction in all the cell types in the sulphur-35 treated animals. Thus the results indicate the cell-killing effect of radionuclide. (auth.)

  19. Exposure of CR39 Stacks to Oxygen and Sulphur Beams at the CERN-SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We plan to expose 8 stacks of CR39 sheets to oxygen and sulphur ions of 60 and 200~GeV at the CERN-SPS.\\\\ \\\\ The main purpose of the exposures is the calibration of the CR39 sheets used for a large area experimental search for magnetic monopoles at the Gran Sasso Laboratory (experiment MACRO). \\\\ \\\\ The stacks have 20~layers of CR39, each layer 13~cm~x~7~cm and 1.4~mm thick. A copper absorber is located after the first 6 layers. \\\\ \\\\ We require exposures of about 2000 tracks per cm$^2$ over the entire area of the stack with a uniform illumination. The standard beam used for the emulsion experiments is normally adequate for this purpose.\\\\ \\\\ We have performed one exposure to sulphur ions. The etched tracks have been measured automatically with the Elbeck image analyser system. We measured the incoming sulphur ions as well as the nuclear fragments produced in the copper absorber. Clean separation among the peaks due to the various fragments is obtained (there is no indication of nuclei with fractional electri...

  20. Gonadal cell kinetics in male mice treated with sulphur-35 during prenatal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyanarayana Reddy, K; Reddy, P P; Reddi, O S [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Inst. of Genetics

    1980-11-01

    Investigations on the possible hazards of the use of internally administered radioisotopes in human medicine either as therapeutic or diagnostic agents before or during child bearing age are of late gaining importance. The present investigation has been taken up to screen the effects of sulphur-35 on spermatogonia. CBA pregnant mice were injected (ip) with a dose of 20 ..mu.. Ci of sulphur-35 on 3.5, 10.5 or 15.5 days of gestation. At the similar intervals pregnant mice injected with physiological saline were kept for control data. All the animals were allowed to litter and F/sub 1/ male progeny were killed at maturity at the age of 10 weeks and the testes collected. Sections of both the testes were prepared and stained by PAS-haematoxylin technique and the survival of spermatogonia types A, Int and B and preleptotene spermatocytes was evaluated. There was a significant reduction in all the cell types in the sulphur-35 treated animals. Thus the results indicate the cell-killing effect of radionuclide.

  1. Physico-chemical conversion of sulphur dioxide in a power plant plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, E.E.

    1978-03-01

    A review is given of the actual knowledge of SO 2 atmospheric processes gained from laboratory and field experiments. Implementation is described of the instrumentation, operational procedures and analytical methods in connection with a field study of the conversion and dispersion of SO 2 in an oil-fired power plant plume. Furthermore, the preliminary results are included of five experiments performed until the end of 1976. Measurements were performed from an aircraft and included continuous registration of NOsub(x), SO 2 , SF 6 , and particle concentrations, as well as temperature and humidity. It was planned to label sulphur from the source in question with sulphur-35. However, this part of the experiment had to be abandoned because of public opinion on the use of radioactive tracers. Sulphur hexafluoride was used as an internal tracer for the plume. A half-life for SO 2 of about 30 min was determined from one of the experiments. In this connection the possibility of using NOsub(x) as a conservative tracer is shown. Possible ways of removal are discussed and the rate of two of the processes is calculated by means of a model describing the chemical conversion in a dispersing plume. (author)

  2. In-situ degradation of sulphur mustard using (1R)-(-)-(camphorylsulphonyl) oxaziridine impregnated adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Abha, E-mail: abha_052002@yahoo.co.in [Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Mahatam Gandhi Marg, Lucknow, UP (India); Saxena, Amit; Singh, Beer [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, MP (India)

    2009-12-30

    Bis-2-chloroethyl sulphide (sulphur mustard or HD) is an extremely toxic and persistent chemical warfare agent. For in-situ degradation of HD and its analogues (simulants), i.e., dibutyl sulphide (DBS) and ethyl 2-hydroxyethyl sulphide (HEES), different adsorbents systems loaded with (1R)-(-)-(camphorylsulphonyl) oxaziridine were prepared. Solution of sulphur mustard and its simulants was prepared in carbon tetrachloride and taken for uniform adsorption on the impregnated systems using incipient volume. Degradation kinetics monitored by GC/FID were found to be first-order. The half-life of degradation reactions for simulants was obtained in less than 30 and for HD in 120 min. From the studied kinetics it was observed that reaction was very rapid with simulants and decreased rate was found for HD. The order of reactivity of MgO/Oxa system for HD and simulants was found to be DBS > HEES > HD. Reaction products of the oxidation reaction of simulants and HD on adsorbents were extracted in dichloromethane and analysed by GC-MS. The products were found to be non-toxic sulphoxide. The objective of the study is to develop a reactive adsorbent for in-situ degradation of sulphur mustard which could be used in nuclear biological and chemical (NBC) filtration systems.

  3. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Štengl, Václav; Grygar, Tomáš Matys; Bludská, Jana; Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn 7 5 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn 3 7U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  4. Effects of Different Forms and Doses of Sulphur Application on Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erdem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of sulphur (S is an important limiting factor of plant growth for sustainable agricultural production. The decline in sulphur dioxide emission, decrease in S-containing fertilizer consumption due to the high cost of S-fertilizers, breeding of new high yielding species are the well known causes of S-deficiency. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of several doses of K2SO4-S, CaSO4-S and elemental-S applied on growth, shoot dry matter yield, S and N concentrations of wheat cultivar. The experiments were conducted in three soils differed from available S concentrations. Effects of different S-treatments (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg S kg-1 and S-forms had significant effects on shoot dry matter yields of plants. Sulphur from different S-sources did not increase shoot S-concentrations in Eskisehir and Konya soils, but increase was significant obtained in the Harran soil. Shoot S-concentration in Harran soil for zero K2SO4 treatment was 0.09%, the values were 0.22, 0.26 and 0.27% respectively for 25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 treatments. The results indicated significant effects of S-treatments on plant growth and yield mostly based on soil properties, especially the available S-levels

  5. Study of organic sulphur compounds (DMS, DMSP and CS2) in lagoon ecosystems: the case of the Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaro, Andrea; Moret, Ivo; Piazza, Rossano; Andreoli, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Turetta, Clara; Cescon, Paolo

    2003-03-01

    This study of the origin and fate of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in a particular and complex lagoon ecosystem such as that of the Venice lagoon focuses on the temporal evolutions of DMS concentrations in surface water together with those of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), carbon disulphide (CS2), nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate, silicate), sulphate, chlorophyll a, chlorinity, water temperature and phytoplankton (composition and density). Measurements were made from 3 March 1997 to 23 July 1998 at three stations in the central part of the Venice lagoon. The temporal trends of DMS concentration showed an absolute maximum concentration in winter (65 nmol S/l, 19/2/1998, Stn. 1; 119 nmol S/l, 19/2/1998, Stn. 2; 29 nmol S/l, 17/2/1998, Stn. 3) and two relative maxima in the spring-summer period. The spring-summer secondary maxima of DMS concentration were related to the maxima of DMSP and chlorophyll a concentrations and consequently to phytoplanktonic abundance while the winter DMS maximum showed no relation to DMSP or to chlorophyll a suggesting that the production and the fate of DMS could be different for the two periods. According to previous studies the CS2 concentration increased in the spring, achieved its maximum in summer, decreased in autumn and fell to its minimum in winter.

  6. Sulphur-bearing Compounds Detected by MSL SAM Evolved Gas Analysis of Materials from Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, A. C.; Franz, H. B.; Archer, P. D. Jr.; Sutter, B.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Freissinet, C.; Atreya, S. K.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Brunner, A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) and Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) analysed several subsamples of sample fines (bearing phases present below the CheMin detection limit or difficult to characterize with XRD (e.g., X-ray amorphous phases). Here, we focus on potential constraints on phases that evolved SO2, H2S, OCS, and CS2 during thermal analysis.

  7. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  8. Bromine monoxide / sulphur dioxide ratios in relation to volcanological observations at Mt. Etna 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giuffrida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over a 3-yr period, from 2006 to 2009, frequent scattered sunlight DOAS measurements were conducted at Mt. Etna at a distance of around 6 km downwind from the summit craters. During the same period and in addition to these measurements, volcanic observations were made by regularly visiting various parts of Mt. Etna. Here, results from these measurements and observations are presented and their relation is discussed. The focus of the investigation is the bromine monoxide/sulphur dioxide (BrO / SO2 ratio, and its variability in relation to volcanic processes. That the halogen/sulphur ratio can serve as a precursor or indicator for the onset of eruptive activity was already proposed by earlier works (e.g. Noguchi and Kamiya 1963; Menyailov, 1975; Pennisi and Cloarec, 1998; Aiuppa et al., 2002. However, there is still a limited understanding today because of the complexity with which halogens are released, depending on magma composition and degassing conditions. Our understanding of these processes is far from complete, for example of the rate and mechanism of bubble nucleation, growth and ascent in silicate melts (Carroll and Holloway, 1994, the halogen vapour-melt partitioning and the volatile diffusivity in the melt (Aiuppa et al., 2009. With this study we aim to add one more piece to the puzzle of what halogen/sulphur ratios might tell about volcanic activities. Our data set shows an increase of the BrO / SO2 ratio several weeks prior to an eruption, followed by a decline before and during the initial phase of eruptive activities. Towards the end of activity or shortly thereafter, the ratio increases to baseline values again and remains more or less constant during quiet phases. To explain the observed evolution of the BrO / SO2 ratio, a first empirical model is proposed. This model suggests that bromine, unlike chlorine and fluorine, is less soluble in the magmatic melt than sulphur. By using the DOAS method to determine SO2, we actually

  9. Performance evaluation of high-sulphur coal-fired USC plant integrated with SNOX and CO2 capture sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cau, Giorgio; Tola, Vittorio; Bassano, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    In recent years coal-fired power plants have increased their role in the global energy scenario thanks to reliability, security of fuel supply and lower cost of fuel and electricity. In this framework global warming issues require a sustainable use of coal and great efforts for greenhouse gases reduction, addressing research and development projects towards more efficient solutions in terms of efficiency and environmental impact. With this aim in this paper a performance assessment of an Ultra Super Critical (USC) steam plant integrated with a CO 2 removal section was carried out. The study is based on simulation models specifically developed through Aspen-Plus and Gate-Cycle software platforms. Performance was assessed referring to typical USC commercial size plants (400–600 MW), fuelled by a mix of a low-sulphur coal and a Sardinian (Sulcis) high-sulphur coal. The USC plant, based on a reheated and regenerative Rankine cycle, is integrated with an SNOX section, with integrated DeNO x and DeSO x processes, and a low temperature CO 2 capture section. The SNOX technology shows several advantages in comparison to conventional de-nitrification and de-sulphuration systems. In particular it is capable to remove both nitrogen and sulphur oxides, requiring less energy absorption compared to traditional FGD systems, allowing a further preheating of the combustion air and without producing process waste. Besides the SNOX releases a commercial product as the sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and operational costs are reduced when sulphur content in the coal increases. The CO 2 capture system was based on a chemical absorption process. A conventional system based on an amine (monoethanolamine, MEA) aqueous solution was considered. In order to match high pressure and purity CO 2 transportation requirements, the CO 2 removal section is also integrated with a conditioning and compression section. A performance assessment of the USC plant was carried out varying the high-sulphur coal

  10. Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards: Part II. Validation of satellite-derived Volcanic Sulphur Dioxide Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouli, MariLiza; Balis, Dimitris; Dimopoulos, Spiros; Clarisse, Lieven; Carboni, Elisa; Hedelt, Pascal; Spinetti, Claudia; Theys, Nicolas; Tampellini, Lucia; Zehner, Claus

    2014-05-01

    The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in the spring of 2010 turned the attention of both the public and the scientific community to the susceptibility of the European airspace to the outflows of large volcanic eruptions. The ash-rich plume from Eyjafjallajökull drifted towards Europe and caused major disruptions of European air traffic for several weeks affecting the everyday life of millions of people and with a strong economic impact. This unparalleled situation revealed limitations in the decision making process due to the lack of information on the tolerance to ash of commercial aircraft engines as well as limitations in the ash monitoring and prediction capabilities. The European Space Agency project Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards, was introduced to facilitate the development of an optimal End-to-End System for Volcanic Ash Plume Monitoring and Prediction. This system is based on comprehensive satellite-derived ash plume and sulphur dioxide [SO2] level estimates, as well as a widespread validation using supplementary satellite, aircraft and ground-based measurements. The validation of volcanic SO2 levels extracted from the sensors GOME-2/MetopA and IASI/MetopA are shown here with emphasis on the total column observed right before, during and after the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptions. Co-located ground-based Brewer Spectrophotometer data extracted from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre, WOUDC, were compared to the different satellite estimates. The findings are presented at length, alongside a comprehensive discussion of future scenarios.

  11. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  12. Behaviour of mercury compounds in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booer, J R

    1944-01-01

    The uses of inorganic compounds of mercury for the control of plant pests is reviewed, and a summary of the relevant chemical and physical properties of the compounds concerned is given. On chemical evidence a working hypothesis is propounded showing that all compounds may be expected to decompose into metallic mercury. A pot technique is described by means of which a correlation can be obtained between the effective mercury content of a given soil sample and the rate of growth of wheat seedlings. The mathematical treatment of the results is described, and the validity of the pot technique is verified by statistical analysis of results. Using the pot technqiue it is shown that volatilization losses are insignificant but that mercury is slowly rendered ineffective by the formation of mercuric sulphide. The effect of sulphur-reducing bacteria is considered and the influence of Vibrio desulphuricans on mercury is studied in detail. Experimental evidence obtained by the pot technique is produced to show that mercurous chloride slowly decomposes in the soil giving mercury and mercuric chloride, mercuric chloride rapidly decomposes into mercury and mercurous chloride, and other inorganic compounds decompose directly into mercury. The working hypothesis is substantiated in all major aspects. The uses and properties of the organo-mercury compounds are then discussed. Type compounds selected are ethyl mercury phosphate, phenyl mercury acetate and methoxyethyl mercury acetate. Using the pot technique it is shown that the formation of organo-mercury clays takes place and that these clays decompose giving metallic mercury. A mechanism is suggested.

  13. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Vargas Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common types of odontogenic tumors, as they are considered more as a developmental anomaly (hamartoma than as a true neoplasia. The aim of the present study is to describe a clinical case of compound odontoma, analyzing its most commonsigns, its region of location, the decade of life and patient’s gender, disorders that may occur as well as the treatment proposed. In order to attain this objective, the method was description of the present clinical case and bibliographic revision, arriving at the result that the treatment for this type of lesion invariably is surgical removal (enucleation and curettage and the prognosis is excellent. The surgical result was followed up in the post-operative period by radiographic exam, and it was possible to conclude that there was complete cicatrization and tissue repair.

  14. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  15. Solid state radiolysis of sulphur-containing amino acids. Cysteine, cystine and methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco Cataldo; Pietro Ragni; Susana Iglesias-Groth; Arturo Manchado

    2011-01-01

    The sulphur-containing proteinaceous amino acids l-cysteine, l-cystine and l-methionine were irradiated in the solid state to a dose of 3.2 MGy. This dose corresponds to that delivered by radionuclide decay in a timescale of 1.05 x 10 9 years to the organic matter buried at a depth >20 m in comets and asteroids. The purity of the sulphur-containing amino acids was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) before and after the solid state radiolysis and the preservation of the chirality after the radiolysis was studied by chirooptical methods (optical rotatory dispersion, ORD) and by FT-IR spectroscopy. Although the high radiation dose of 3.2 MGy delivered, all the amino acids studied show a high radiation resistance. The best radiation resistance was offered by l-cysteine. The radiolysis of l-cysteine leads to the formation of l-cystine. The radiation resistance of l-methionine is not at the level of l-cysteine but also l-methionine is able to survive the dose of 3.2 MGy. Furthermore in all cases examined the preservation of chirality after radiolysis was clearly observed by the ORD spectroscopy although a certain level of radioracemization was measured in all cases. The radioracemization is minimal in the case of l-cysteine and is more pronounced in the case of l-methionine. In conclusion, the study shows that the sulphur-containing amino acids can survive for 1.05 x 10 9 years and, after extrapolation of the data, even to the age of the Solar System i.e. to 4.6 x 10 9 years. (author)

  16. Application of sodium carbonate prevents sulphur poisoning of catalysts in automated total mercury analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLagan, David S.; Huang, Haiyong; Lei, Ying D.; Wania, Frank; Mitchell, Carl P. J.

    2017-07-01

    Analysis of high sulphur-containing samples for total mercury content using automated thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectroscopy instruments (USEPA Method 7473) leads to rapid and costly SO2 poisoning of catalysts. In an effort to overcome this issue, we tested whether the addition of powdered sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) to the catalyst and/or directly on top of sample material increases throughput of sulphur-impregnated (8-15 wt%) activated carbon samples per catalyst tube. Adding 5 g of Na2CO3 to the catalyst alone only marginally increases the functional lifetime of the catalyst (31 ± 4 g of activated carbon analyzed per catalyst tube) in relation to unaltered catalyst of the AMA254 total mercury analyzer (17 ± 4 g of activated carbon). Adding ≈ 0.2 g of Na2CO3 to samples substantially increases (81 ± 17 g of activated carbon) catalyst life over the unaltered catalyst. The greatest improvement is achieved by adding Na2CO3 to both catalyst and samples (200 ± 70 g of activated carbon), which significantly increases catalyst performance over all other treatments and enables an order of magnitude greater sample throughput than the unaltered samples and catalyst. It is likely that Na2CO3 efficiently sequesters SO2, even at high furnace temperatures to produce Na2SO4 and CO2, largely negating the poisonous impact of SO2 on the catalyst material. Increased corrosion of nickel sampling boats resulting from this methodological variation is easily resolved by substituting quartz boats. Overall, this variation enables an efficient and significantly more affordable means of employing automated atomic absorption spectrometry instruments for total mercury analysis of high-sulphur matrices.

  17. Molecular understanding of sulphuric acid-amine particle nucleation in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, João; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kürten, Andreas; Ortega, Ismael K; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Praplan, Arnaud P; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; David, André; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Downard, Andrew; Dunne, Eimear; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Henschel, Henning; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kajos, Maija; Kangasluoma, Juha; Keskinen, Helmi; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kurtén, Theo; Kvashin, Alexander N; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Leppä, Johannes; Loukonen, Ville; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; McGrath, Matthew J; Nieminen, Tuomo; Olenius, Tinja; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Riccobono, Francesco; Riipinen, Ilona; Rissanen, Matti; Rondo, Linda; Ruuskanen, Taina; Santos, Filipe D; Sarnela, Nina; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Seinfeld, John H; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Vaattovaara, Petri; Viisanen, Yrjo; Virtanen, Annele; Vrtala, Aron; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wex, Heike; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Ye, Penglin; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim; Baltensperger, Urs; Worsnop, Douglas R; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Kirkby, Jasper

    2013-10-17

    Nucleation of aerosol particles from trace atmospheric vapours is thought to provide up to half of global cloud condensation nuclei. Aerosols can cause a net cooling of climate by scattering sunlight and by leading to smaller but more numerous cloud droplets, which makes clouds brighter and extends their lifetimes. Atmospheric aerosols derived from human activities are thought to have compensated for a large fraction of the warming caused by greenhouse gases. However, despite its importance for climate, atmospheric nucleation is poorly understood. Recently, it has been shown that sulphuric acid and ammonia cannot explain particle formation rates observed in the lower atmosphere. It is thought that amines may enhance nucleation, but until now there has been no direct evidence for amine ternary nucleation under atmospheric conditions. Here we use the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN and find that dimethylamine above three parts per trillion by volume can enhance particle formation rates more than 1,000-fold compared with ammonia, sufficient to account for the particle formation rates observed in the atmosphere. Molecular analysis of the clusters reveals that the faster nucleation is explained by a base-stabilization mechanism involving acid-amine pairs, which strongly decrease evaporation. The ion-induced contribution is generally small, reflecting the high stability of sulphuric acid-dimethylamine clusters and indicating that galactic cosmic rays exert only a small influence on their formation, except at low overall formation rates. Our experimental measurements are well reproduced by a dynamical model based on quantum chemical calculations of binding energies of molecular clusters, without any fitted parameters. These results show that, in regions of the atmosphere near amine sources, both amines and sulphur dioxide should be considered when assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on particle formation.

  18. SULPHUR-CONTAINING AMINO ACIDS METABOLISM IN EXPERIMENTAL HYPER- AND HYPOTHYROIDISM IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechiporuk, V; Zaichko, N; Korda, М; Melnyk, A; Koloshko, O

    2017-10-01

    Hyper- and hypothyroidism are some of the most common endocrinopathies that cause many metabolic disorders including amino acids metabolism. However, a specific molecular mechanism of thyroid hormones influence on sulphur-containing amino acids metabolism has not been established. The aim of our research was to investigate experimentally the influence of thyroid gland functional state on the main enzymatic systems of sulphur-containing amino acids metabolism in liver and kidneys, the content of homocysteine, cysteine and H2S in blood. The rats were administered with L-thyroxine and mercazolil to simulate the states of hyper- and hypothyroidism, which were confirmed by the content of fT3, fT4 and TSH in the blood. In liver and kidneys of the animals with hypothyroidism we observed the decrease in the activity of enzymes of remethylation cycle of S-adenosylmethioninsyntase, S-adenosylhomocysteinhyhdrolase, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. Suppression of transsulfuration transformation of homocysteine to cysteine in hypothyroidism was mainly due to the inhibition of cystathionine synthase activity of cystathionine-β-synthase, wherein cystathionase activity of cystathionine-γ-lyase was not changed. In animals with hypothyroidism we also noticed the inhibition of cysteine desulfunation reactions: the activity of enzymes of cystathionine-β-synthase, cystathionine-γ-lyase and cysteine aminotransferase significantly decreased in liver and kidneys. Experimental hyperthyroidism was accompanied by increase in activity of remethylation cycle enzymes, increase in cystationine synthase activity of cystathionine-β-synthase in liver and activity of these enzymes in kidneys. The simulation of hyperthyroidism led to the decrease of homocysteine concentration, and of hypothyroidism - to the increase of homocysteine and cysteine concentrations and reduced H2S content in blood of the animals. Thus, the significant risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis

  19. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batal, Mohamed; Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien; Bérard, Izabel; Douki, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks

  20. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Douki, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.douki@cea.fr [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks.

  1. Short communication: Laboratory approach to the use of sulphur and kaolin as preventive control against Drosophila suzukii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Guerrero, S.; Molina, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) is an invasive pest from South East Asia that was detected for the first time in Southern Europe in 2008. This species can damage a wide range of soft-skinned fruits crops affecting ripening fruits and causing important economic losses. Since the exclusive use of chemical insecticides for controlling D. suzukii may prompt the appearance of resistance and environmental pollution, alternative methods compatible with sustainable management are required. In this study, commercial formulations of powdered sulphur and kaolin were tested as a preventive method applied to blueberry fruits under laboratory conditions. In no-choice assay, powdered sulphur had a significant effect on oviposition and adult emergency with reductions of 76% and 77%, respectively. In addition, sulphur displayed a significant toxicity on males and lethal effect with over 40% adult mortality seven days after exposure. The choice assay confirmed and improved the powdered sulphur effects, with reductions of 98% and 96% in oviposition and adult emergence, respectively. In contrast, kaolin produced no significant reduction in infestation and adult mortality during no-choice and choice assays. These outcomes suggest that preventive use of powdered sulphur could be considered for sustainable control of D. suzukii in some berry crops. (Author)

  2. Short communication: Laboratory approach to the use of sulphur and kaolin as preventive control against Drosophila suzukii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Pérez-Guerrero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931 is an invasive pest from South East Asia that was detected for the first time in Southern Europe in 2008. This species can damage a wide range of soft-skinned fruits crops affecting ripening fruits and causing important economic losses. Since the exclusive use of chemical insecticides for controlling D. suzukii may prompt the appearance of resistance and environmental pollution, alternative methods compatible with sustainable management are required. In this study, commercial formulations of powdered sulphur and kaolin were tested as a preventive method applied to blueberry fruits under laboratory conditions. In no-choice assay, powdered sulphur had a significant effect on oviposition and adult emergency with reductions of 76% and 77%, respectively. In addition, sulphur displayed a significant toxicity on males and lethal effect with over 40% adult mortality seven days after exposure. The choice assay confirmed and improved the powdered sulphur effects, with reductions of 98% and 96% in oviposition and adult emergence, respectively. In contrast, kaolin produced no significant reduction in infestation and adult mortality during no-choice and choice assays. These outcomes suggest that preventive use of powdered sulphur could be considered for sustainable control of D. suzukii in some berry crops.

  3. [Therapeutic effect of the association between pulmonary ventilation and aerosol--inhalation with sulphureous mineral water in the chronic bronchopneumopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, M; Proia, A R; Fraioli, A; Serio, A; Cammarella, I; Petraccia, L; Grassi, M

    2004-04-01

    Our research evaluates the efficacy of the inalation therapy by mineral sulphureous water in patients suffering from cronic bronchopneumopathy. From August to October 2002, two groups of patients, randomly selected, suffering from cronic bronchopneumonopathy, were studied at spa center "Pompeo" in Ferentino (FR). Every patient was treated daily during a cycle of twelve days. The first group was treated by pneumonic mechanical ventilation associated to sulphureous water aerosolinalation, the second by mechanical pulmonary ventilation associated to sulphureous water aerosol-inalation medicated with flunisolide. Every patient carried out spirometry, before and after treatment, and the measurement of FEV1 was considered a good parameter to evaluate the respiratory function. All patients reported an improvement in symptoms as dyspnea and cough. Results obtained show a significant functional improvement of respiratory function in both groups, evaluated by FEV1. Equal efficacy treating the patients by medicated and not medicated treatments stress the therapeutic role of mineral sulphureous waters in chronic bronchopneumopathies. Our research points out the usefullness of pneumonic ventilation associated with sulphureous water aerosol-inalation in patients suffering from chronic bronchopneumopathies.

  4. Studies on uptake and translocation of sulphur in oil seed rape plant using 35S tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinzheng; Wang Xiaochang

    1995-01-01

    The experiments were conducted to investigate the uptake and translocation of 35 S in oil seed rape at different stages. The results showed that uptake of sulphur from soil by rape plant were 23.59%, 31.65% and 49.13% of sulphur applied at transplanting, bolting and flowering stage, respectively. About 40% of 35 S taken from soil was located in seeds for transplanting and flowering stage applying. About 20% of sulphur applied on top four leaves at various stages of growth was remained in labelled leaves and 21%∼23% was transported to pods with majority in branch pods. 40%∼60% of sulphur which was applied on surface of pods at lower stem at different time after flowering was remained in shell of labelled pods and 13%∼16.8% of that was transferred into seeds of labelled pods. Recoveries of labelled sulphur applied on pods from seeds of pods at branches were less than 10%. The transportation of 35 S from labelled sites to seeds of labelled pods and unlabelled pods was declined sharply as labelling was carried out at 6 weeks after flowering

  5. Discharging a Li-S battery with ultra-high sulphur content cathode using a redox mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwi Ryong; Lee, Kug-Seung; Ahn, Chi-Yeong; Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2016-08-30

    Lithium-sulphur batteries are under intense research due to the high specific capacity and low cost. However, several problems limit their commercialization. One of them is the insulating nature of sulphur, which necessitates a large amount of conductive agent and binder in the cathode, reducing the effective sulphur load as well as the energy density. Here we introduce a redox mediator, cobaltocene, which acts as an electron transfer agent between the conductive surface and the polysulphides in the electrolyte. We confirmed that cobaltocene could effectively convert polysulphides to Li2S using scanning electron microscope, X-ray absorption near-edge structure and in-situ X-ray diffraction studies. This redox mediator enabled excellent electrochemical performance in a cathode with ultra-high sulphur content (80 wt%). It delivered 400 mAh g(-1)cathode capacity after 50 cycles, which is equivalent to 800 mAh g(-1)S in a typical cathode with 50 wt% sulphur. Furthermore, the volumetric capacity was also dramatically improved.

  6. Effects of changes in the UK energy demand and environmental legislation on atmospheric pollution by sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakemore, F.B.; Davies, C.; Isaac, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Ninety-nine percent of the sulphur dioxide generated over the period 1970 to 1994 arose from the combustion of fossil fuels in the energy sector. The annual mass emission of sulphur dioxide has fallen by 58% over this period, due to the reductions in outputs from coal and petroleum fired plants. The influence of natural-gas power generation has played an important part in this reduction. Four major pieces of environmental legislation have been enacted to control sulphur-dioxide emissions: the Control of Pollution Act 1974, and three EEC Directives are discussed. The UK emissions in 1994 were 49% below the 1980 baseline and 9% ahead of the 1998 EU target level. The protocol on the reduction of sulphur-dioxide emissions, adopted in 1985, required a cut in the total SO 2 emissions of 30% by 1993, based on 1980 levels. The UK achieved a reduction of 37% by the end of 1993. Sulphur-dioxide emissions are predicted to fall according to the six scenarios in Energy paper 65 as a reference case. The predicted decline is in line with the UNECE targets set for 2010. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Probable damage to tundra biota through sulphur dioxide destruction of lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, E; Hamilton, W L

    1970-01-01

    Lichens, which are important components of many Arctic ecosystems, are extremely sensitive to SO/sub 2/ pollution. Recent oilfield development in Arctic North America seems likely to eliminate lichens from large areas because of a unique combination of biological and meteorological factors. Probable future oilfield development in Greenland and the Soviet Union indicates that SO/sub 2/ pollution will become an increasingly serious threat to Arctic ecosystems. Therefore, uncontrolled burning of crude oil, fuel oil, and natural gas, should be avoided, and adequate sulphur-extraction facilities should be installed.

  8. Kinetics of bromide catalysed oxidation of dextrose by cerium (IV) in aqueous sulphuric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, J.; Sah, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Kinetics of bromide catalysed oxidation of dextrose by Ce IV in aqueous sulphuric acid medium show first order dependence each in dextrose and cerium(IV). The reaction rate decreases on increasing the concentration of hydrogen ion. The increase in [HSO 4 - ] or [SO 4 2- ] decreases the rate. The bromide ion shows positive catalytic effect on the reaction rate. The value of activation energy has been calculated and a suitable mechanism confirming to the kinetic data is proposed. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Sulphured Polyacrylonitrile Composite Analysed by in operando UV-Visible Spectroscopy and 4-electrode Swagelok Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominko, Robert; Patel, Manu U M; Bele, Marjan; Pejovnik, Stane

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristics of sulfurized polyacrylonitrile composite (PAN/S) cathodes were compared with the commonly used carbon/S-based composite material. The difference in the working mechanism of these composites was examined. Analytical investigations were performed on both kinds of cathode electrode composites by using two reliable analytical techniques, in-situ UV-Visible spectroscopy and a four-electrode Swagelok cell. This study differentiates the working mechanisms of PAN/S composites from conventional elemental sulphur/carbon composite and also sheds light on factors that could be responsible for capacity fading in the case of PAN/S composites.

  10. Automatic colorimetric determination of low concentrations of sulphate for measuring sulphur dioxide in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, G A

    1966-01-01

    An automatic colorimetric method for the determination of low concentrations of sulphate (0-10 microgram/ml) using the thoron indicator is described. Total amounts of sulphate as small as 0.3 micrograms can be determined. The sulphate is precipitated with barium perchlorate and the excess of barium is indicated with 1-(o-arsenophenylazo)-2-naphthol-3-6-disulfonic acid(thoron). The procedure is worked out primarily for the determination of sulphur dioxide in air after absorption in diluted hydrogen peroxide.

  11. Evaluation of Plants and Weeds Extract on the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Sulphuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Begum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed in order to determine the inhibitive effects of extracts of plants and weeds namely Parthenium hysterophorus, Dathura stromonium, Azadirachta indica, Helianthus annuus leaves extract for mild steel in sulphuric acid by using weight loss and thermometric technique. Results demonstrated that, all the experimental inhibitors show an adsorption on steel surface according to Langmuir’s isotherm. The inhibition efficiency increased with increase in the concentration of all tested inhibitors to attain a maximum value at 1.0%. Free energy values for adsorption process show that the process is spontaneous. The kinetic treatment of the results shows first order kinetics.

  12. Unravelling the sulphur isotope systematics of an alkaline magmatic province: implications for REE mineralization and exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, W.; Finch, A.; Boyce, A.; Friis, H.; Borst, A. M.; Horsburgh, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    Some of the world's best alkaline rare earth element (REE) deposits are formed in magmatic systems that are sealed (i.e., those that are autometasomatised and maintain reducing conditions). Conversely, in open systems where oxidizing fluids infiltrate, it is commonly assumed that REE are redistributed over a wider (less concentrated) zone. Sulphur isotope fractionation is sensitive to variations in temperature and redox, and, although sulphide minerals are relatively abundant in alkaline systems, there have been few attempts to test these hypotheses and develop a sulphur isotope proxy for alkaline metasomatism and formation of associated REE deposits. The Gardar Rift Province in southern Greenland was volcanically active in two periods between 1300 and 1100 Ma and is an ideal natural laboratory to explore sulphur isotope systematics because a near-complete alkaline magmatic lineage is exposed. We present new δ34S from across the province with a particular focus on three alkaline systems (Ilímaussaq, Motzfeldt and Ivigtût) that also host major REE deposits. Primitive mafic rocks from regional Gardar dykes and lavas have a restricted range of δ34S between 0 and 3 ‰ and fractional crystallization imparts no observable change in δ34S. In a few cases high-δ34S rocks (>15 ‰) occur when intrusive units have assimilated local sedimentary crust (δ34S = 25 ‰). Most δ34S variation takes place in the roof zones of alkaline intrusions during late-magmatic and hydrothermal stages, and we identify clear differences between the complexes. At Ilímaussaq, where the magmatic series is exceptionally reduced (below QFM buffer), roof zone δ34S remains narrow (0-3 ‰). At Motzfeldt, a more open oxidizing roof zone (MH buffer), δ34S ranges from -12 ‰ in late-stage fluorite veins to +12 ‰ where local crust has been assimilated. Ivigtût is intermediate between these end-members varying between -5 to +5 ‰. The δ34S variations primarily relate to temperature and

  13. Ozone and sulphur dioxide effects on leaf water potential of Petunia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkiey, T.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    Three cultivars of Petunia hydrida Vilm., of differing ozone visible injury sensitivity, were exposed to 40 parts per hundred million (pphm) ozone and/or 80 pphm SO/sub 2/ for 4 h to study the relationships of leaf water potential, pollutant exposure, and cultivar sensitivity. Ozone substantially decreased leaf water potential in cv White Cascade but not in cv Capri or White Magic. Sulphur dioxide did not affect leaf water potential but delayed ozone-induced changes. Cultivar sensitivity to ozone-induced changes in leaf water potential was not related to cultivar sensitivity to ozone-induced visible injury.

  14. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of geothermal fluids from Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Erouscilla P.; Fournier, Nicolas; Lindsay, Jan M.; Robertson, Richard; Beckles, Denise M.

    2013-03-01

    Sulphur Springs is a vigorous, geothermal field associated with the active Soufrière Volcanic Centre in southern Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles island arc. The 'Sulphur Springs Park' is an important tourist attraction (touted as the 'world's only drive-through volcano') with some of the hot pools being developed into recreational pools. Some 200,000 people visit the park each year. Since 2001, the hydrothermal fluids of Sulphur Springs have been sampled as part of an integrated volcanic monitoring programme for the island. Gas and water samples were analysed to characterise the geochemistry of the hydrothermal system, and to assess the equilibrium state and subsurface temperatures of the reservoir. This has also enabled us, for the first time, to establish baseline data for future geochemical monitoring. The gases are of typical arc-type composition, with N2 excess and low He and Ar content. The dry gas composition is dominated by CO2 (ranging from 601-993 mmol/mol), with deeper magmatic sourced H2S-rich vapour undergoing boiling and redox changes in the geothermal reservoir to emerge with a hydrothermal signature in the fumarolic gases. Fluid contributions from magmatic degassing are also evident, mainly from the moderate to high contents of HCl and deeply-sourced H2S gas, respectively. Sulphur Springs hydrothermal waters have acid-sulphate type compositions (SO4 = 78-4008 mg/L; pH = 3-7), and are of primarily meteoric origin which have been affected by evaporation processes based on the enrichment in both δ18O and δD (δ18O = - 1 to 15‰ and δD = - 9 to 14‰ respectively) in relation to the global meteoric water line (GMWL). These waters are steam-heated water typically formed by absorption of H2S-rich gases in the near surface oxygenated groundwaters. Reservoir temperatures calculated from the evaluation of gas equilibria in the CO2-CH4-H2 system reveal higher temperatures (190 to 300 °C) than those derived from quartz geothermometry (95 to 169 °C), which

  15. Effect of fO2 on phase relationship in basaltic andesites during magmatic differentiation: Control of fO2 and sulphur speciation in piston cylinder experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Tattitch, Brian; Blundy, Jonathan D.; Skora, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    Within the mantle wedge above subduction zones, oxidation reaction take place by interaction of reduced mantle rocks with more oxidized, hydrous fluids, which can cause a local drop of the solidus, resulting in partial melting (2,6,7). The resultant melts are more oxidized that their ocean floor counterparts, which has implications for their subsequent differentiation paths, the speciation of multivalent elements and the solubility and transport of chemical compounds in magmatic systems (1,4,5). We present a series of sulphur-doped high-pressure experiments conducted to investigate the effect of oxygen fugacity on phase relationships and the behaviour of sulphur in silicate melts. Natural aphyric andesite (FM37) erupted from Laguna del Maule volcano, Chile (3) was selected as a starting composition. Experiments were carried out at 5kbar, 950-1150° C and variable oxygen fugacity conditions. New experiments buffered at Co-CoO and Ni-NiO buffer conditions have been performed using a new "MTB capsule design" developed in order to accurately control fO2 by means of a double capsule containing metal-oxide buffers and a pyrex sleeve to minimise H2 diffusion. This new design constrains oxygen fugacity to within ±0.1-0.2logfO2 units of the target value. Before conducting these experiments, the assemblage was tested multiple times at 10kbar, 1000° C over 24-48 hours and demonstrated consistent, accurate fO2 control. Analyses of the preliminary experimental run products, from a related Chilean basaltic andesite starting composition, demonstrate a clear effect of fO2 on phase relationships and the proportion of melt generated during experiments. Under oxidized conditions, as temperature decreased from 1150° C to 1050° C, the amount of melt decreased from 100% to ~80%, due to the formation of orthopyroxene, anhydrite and plagioclase. In contrast, in reduced runs the system remains nearly liquid (~5% crystals) down to 950° C due to the change in sulphur speciation and

  16. Nuclear accident dosimetry: the calibration of Geiger-Mueller and 2π proportional counters for sulphur and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.; Reading, A.H.

    1981-10-01

    A reference, 2π precision counter was set up at Harwell and absolutely calibrated for the measurement of sulphur discs ( 32 P) and gold foils ( 198 Au) used in the UK personnel criticality dosimeter. Sample sulphur discs and gold foils were irradiated in the GLEEP reactor at Harwell, counted in the 2π counter, and their activities absolutely assayed by the National Physical Laboratory. The 2π counter was then used to intercalibrate the GM counters used routinely for the assessment of the criticality dosimeter. The mean measured efficiencies of the GM counters were found to be for 32 P in sulphur discs within +- 4%, and for gold ( 198 Au) within +- 6% of the values given by previous calibrations. (author)

  17. Fertilizer nitrogen recovery by onion (Allium cepa) as influenced by N and S application in a sulphur deficient soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, M.S.; Sachdev, P.; Mittal, R.B.; Luthra, V.K.

    1991-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in a sulphur deficient sandy loam soil to evaluate the fertilizer N-utilization by onion (Allium cepa) using 15 N-labelled urea. The fresh bulb yield of onion significantly increased with the application of both nitrogen and sulphur. The recovery of fertilizer N by onion was 23.4 to 34.4 per cent at 60 kg N/ha and between 17.5 and 19.3 per cent at 120 kg/ha level. Application of nitrogen with sulphur at 20 kg S/ha through gypsum resulted in significant increase in per cent utilization of urea nitrogen. Nearly 57 to 68 per cent of the residual fertilizer N could be traced in soil after the harvest of onion crop, whereas, 9 to 14 per cent of the applied fertilizer N could not be accounted for. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Microbial functional diversity and enzymatic activity of soil degraded by sulphur mining reclaimed with various waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joniec, Jolanta; Frąc, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate microbial functional diversity based on community level physiological profiling and β-glucosidase activity changes in soil degraded by sulphur mining and subjected to reclamation with various waste. The experiment was set up in the area of the former `Jeziórko' Sulphur Mine (Poland), on a soilless substrate with a particle size distribution of slightly loamy sand. The experimental variants included the application of post-flotation lime, sewage sludge and mineral wool. The analyses of soil samples included the assessment of the following microbiological indices: β-glucosidase activity and functional diversity average well color development and richness). The results indicate that sewage sludge did not exert a significant impact on the functional diversity of microorganisms present in the reclaimed soil. In turn, the application of other types of waste contributed to a significant increase in the parameters of total metabolic activity and functional diversity of the reclaimed soil. However, the temporal analysis of the metabolic profile of soil microorganisms demonstrated that a single application of waste did not yield a durable, stable metabolic profile in the reclaimed soil. Still, there was an increase in β-glucosidase activity, especially in objects treated with sewage sludge.

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of sphalerite leaching by sodium nitrate in sulphuric acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest for application of hydrometallurgical processes in a processing of complex sulphide ores and concentrates has increased in recent years. Their application provides better metal recoveries and reduced emission of gaseous and toxic ageneses in the environment. The kinetics and mechanism of sphalerite leaching from complex sulphide concentrate with sulphuric acid and sodium nitrate solution at standard conditions was presented in this paper. The influences of temperature and time on the leaching degree of zinc were investigated and kinetic analysis of the process was accomplished. With temperature increasing from 60 to 90°C, the zinc leaching increased from 25.23% to 71.66% after 2 hours, i.e. from 59.40% to 99.83% after 4 hours. The selected kinetic model indicated that the diffusion through the product layer was the rate-controlling step during the sphalerite leaching. The activation energy was determined to be 55 kJ/mol in the temperature range 60-90°C. XRD, light microscopy and SEM/EDX analyses of the complex concentrate and leach residue confirmed formation of elemental sulphur and diffusion-controlled leaching mechanism.

  20. Sulphur poisoning of palladium catalysts used for methane combustion: Effect of the support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escandon, Lara S.; Ordonez, Salvador; Vega, Aurelio; Diez, Fernando V.

    2008-01-01

    Four different supported palladium catalysts (using alumina, silica, zirconia and titania as supports), prepared by incipient wetness impregnation, were tested as catalysts for methane oxidation in presence of sulphur dioxide. The catalyst supported on zirconia showed the best performance, whereas the silica-supported one showed the fastest deactivation. Temperature-programmed desorption experiments of the poisoned catalysts suggest that SO 2 adsorption capacity of the support plays a key role in the catalyst poisoning. In order to study the effect of promoters, expected to improve the thermal stability and thioresistance of the catalyst, commercial zirconia modified by yttrium and lantane was tested as supports. It was found that the presence of these promoters does not improve the performance of the zirconia-supported catalyst. A deactivation model - considering two different active sites (fresh and poisoning), pseudo-first order dependence on methane concentration and poisoning rate depending on sulphur concentration and fraction of non-poisoned palladium - was used for modelling the deactivation behaviour

  1. Leaching of a Cu-Co ore from Congo using sulphuric acidhydrogen peroxide leachants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Cu-Co ore from Katinga Province, the Republic of Congo containing 1.5% Co and 1.6% Cu was tested to determine the leachability of Cu and Co using sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixtures at different conditions. Without hydrogen peroxide, the maximum extraction of copper and cobalt were found to be ~80% and ~15%, respectively when the acid concentration was varied between 0.36 - 1.1M. When hydrogen peroxide was added (0.008-0.042M, Cu recovery was enhanced to ~90%. Recoveries of ~90% of Co could be achieved at 20ºC, using leachants consisting of 0.36M sulphuric acid and 0.025M hydrogen peroxide after 3 hours. The reaction time to reach 90% Co extraction was reduced to less than 2 hours at 30ºC. Stabcal modelling of the Eh-pH diagrams shows the importance of hydrogen peroxide as a reductant. The decrease of solution potential (300-350 mV by adding hydrogen peroxide was confirmed by Eh measurements during the tests. The leaching follows the shrinking core model kinetics, where the rate constant is linearly dependent on hydrogen peroxide concentration in the range 0-0.025M and proportional to (1/r2 where r is the average radius of the mineral particles. The activation energy for the leaching process is 72.3 kJ/mol.

  2. Valorisation of waste ilmenite mud in the manufacture of sulphur polymer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Manuel; Gázquez, Manuel Jesús; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J; López, Félix A; Bolívar, Juan Pedro

    2013-10-15

    This paper reports the preparation of sulphur polymer cements (SPCs) incorporating waste ilmenite mud for use in concrete construction works. The ilmenite mud raw material and the mud-containing SPCs (IMC-SPCs) were characterised physico-chemically and radiologically. The optimal IMC-SPC mixture had a sulphur/mud ratio (w/w) of 1.05 (mud dose 20 wt%); this cement showed the greatest compressive strength (64 MPa) and the lowest water absorption coefficient (0.4 g cm(-2) at 28 days). Since ilmenite mud is enriched in natural radionuclides, such as radium isotopes (2.0·10(3) Bq kg(-1)(228)Ra and 5.0·10(2) Bq kg(-1)(226)Ra), the IMC-SPCs were subjected to leaching experiments, which showed their environmental impact to be negligible. The activity concentration indices for the different radionuclides in the IMC-SPCs containing 10% and 20% ilmenite mud met the demands of international standards for materials used in the construction of non-residential buildings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synergistic inhibition between o-phenanthroline and chloride ion for steel corrosion in sulphuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xueming; Tang Libin; Li Lin; Mu Guannan; Liu Guangheng

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of cold rolled steel in 0.5 M sulphuric acid in the presence of o-phenanthroline and sodium chloride (NaCl) has been investigated by using weight loss and electrochemical techniques. The experimental data suggest that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing NaCl concentration in the presence of 0.0002 M o-phenanthroline, but decreases with increasing temperature. A synergistic effect is observed when o-phenanthroline and chloride ions are used together to prevent cold rolled steel corrosion in 0.5 M sulphuric acid. The polarization curves showed that the complex of o-phenanthroline and NaCl acts as a mixed type inhibitor. The experimental results suggested that the presence of chloride ions in the solution stabilized the adsorption of o-phenanthroline molecules on the metal surface and improved the inhibition efficiency of o-phenanthroline. The adsorption of the complex accords with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Some thermodynamic parameters such as adsorption heat, adsorption entropy and adsorption free energy have been calculated by employing thermodynamic equations. Kinetic parameters such as apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor have been calculated and discussed

  4. Charged kaon and pion production at midrapidity in proton nucleus and sulphur nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Boggild, H.; Dodd, J.; Esumi, S.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fields, D.E.; Franz, A.; Hansen, K.H.; Humanic, T.J.; Jacak, B.V.; Kalechofsky, H.; Lee, Y.Y.; Leltchouk, M.; Lorstad, B.; Maeda, N.; Miyabayashi, A.; Murray, M.; Nishimura, S.; Pandey, S.U.; Piuz, F.; Polychronakos, V.; Potekhin, M.; Poulard, G.; Sakaguchi, A.; Sarabura, M.; Simon-Gillo, J.; Schmidt-Sorensen, J.; Sondheim, W.; Sugitate, T.; Sullivan, J.P.; Sumi, Y.; van Hecke, H.; Willis, W.J.; Wolf, K.

    1999-01-01

    The NA44 collaboration has measured charged kaon and pion distributions at midrapidity in sulphur and proton collisions with nuclear targets at 200 and 450 GeV/c per nucleon, respectively. The inverse slopes of kaons are larger than those of pions. The difference in the inverse slopes of pions, kaons and protons, all measured in our spectrometer, increases with system size and is consistent with the buildup of collective flow for larger systems. The target dependence of both the yields and inverse slopes is stronger for the sulphur beam suggesting the increased importance of secondary rescattering for SA reactions. The rapidity density, dN/dy, of both K+ and K- increases more rapidly with system size than for pi+ in a similar rapidity region. This trend continues with increasing centrality, and according to RQMD, it is caused by secondary reactions between mesons and baryons. The K-/K+ ratio falls with increasing system size but more slowly than the pbar/p ratio. The pi-/pi+ ratio is close to unity for all sy...

  5. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution (translated from German)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1990-07-01

    In connection with the Swedish project for the final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister without the intervention of sulphate-reducing bacteria. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible. On the other hand, copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron is available. Because little specific information is available about this subject the problem was extended to the much more general question of the reducibility of sulphur in dilute aqueous solution. It is a part of the general knowledge of chemistry, and there is also unanimity about it in the geochemical literature, that purely chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100 degrees C. This fact is, however, poorly documented and it was therefore necessary to substantiate it by drawing on numerous individual findings from different areas of pure and applied chemistry. The investigation confirms that sulphur in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be ruled out with a probability verging on certainty. (85 refs.)

  6. WATER PINCH TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION TO MINIMIZE SULPHUROUS WASTEWATER IN AN OIL REFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orlando Lobelles Sardiñas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil refining industries there is a high water consumption, which influences the high production costs and impacts the environment due to the discharge of their wastes. It is known that there are no technological conditions for the reuse of industrial water at the oil refineries, based on hydroskimming processes. The objective of this study is to implement the process integration methodology, Water Pinch, to a sour water stripper unit, as a unitary process of an oil refinery, to minimize the amount of sulphurous waste water and reduce contamination of the bay that receives these wastes. The technology is applied to evaluate the volume of sulphurous wastewater generated in the Cienfuegos oil refinery. This technology allows identifying opportunities for recovery and reuse of water, based on concentration ranges of contaminants. To achieve this purpose, a sour water stripper tower was assessed with the help of Water Pinch software, which provided an optimized distribution network, as a proposed technological improvement. This facilitated to recover and reuse 667 757, 28 m3 of water per year, and 1 035 023, 78 CUC were saved, at the same time the amount of polluting effluents decreased in approximately 2 % of non-reusable treated water.

  7. Cea assessment of the sulphur-iodine cycle for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caries, Ph.; Vitart, X.; Yvon, P.

    2010-01-01

    The sulphur-iodine cycle is a promising process for hydrogen production using nuclear heat: - it is a purely thermochemical cycle, implying that hydrogen production will scale with volume rather than surface; - it only involves fluids, thus avoiding the often difficult handling of solids; - its heat requirements are well matched to the temperatures available from a Generation IV very/high temperature reactor. These characteristics seem very attractive for high efficiency and low cost massive hydrogen production. On the other hand, the efficiency of the cycle may suffer from the large over-stoichiometries of water and iodine and the very important heat exchanges it involves; furthermore, due to lack of adequate thermodynamic models, its efficiency is difficult to assess with confidence. Besides, the large quantities of chemicals that need to be handled, and the corrosiveness of these chemicals, are factors not to be overlooked in terms of investment and operation costs. In order to assess the actual potential of the sulphur-iodine cycle for massive hydrogen production at a competitive cost, CEA has been conducting an important programme on this cycle, ranging from thermodynamic measurements to hydrogen production cost evaluation, with flow sheet optimisation, component sizing and investment cost estimation as intermediate steps. The paper will present the method used, the status of both efficiency and production cost estimations, and discuss perspectives for improvement. (authors)

  8. Performance Recognition for Sulphur Flotation Process Based on Froth Texture Unit Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfang He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important indicator of flotation performance, froth texture is believed to be related to operational condition in sulphur flotation process. A novel fault detection method based on froth texture unit distribution (TUD is proposed to recognize the fault condition of sulphur flotation in real time. The froth texture unit number is calculated based on texture spectrum, and the probability density function (PDF of froth texture unit number is defined as texture unit distribution, which can describe the actual textual feature more accurately than the grey level dependence matrix approach. As the type of the froth TUD is unknown, a nonparametric kernel estimation method based on the fixed kernel basis is proposed, which can overcome the difficulty when comparing different TUDs under various conditions is impossible using the traditional varying kernel basis. Through transforming nonparametric description into dynamic kernel weight vectors, a principle component analysis (PCA model is established to reduce the dimensionality of the vectors. Then a threshold criterion determined by the TQ statistic based on the PCA model is proposed to realize the performance recognition. The industrial application results show that the accurate performance recognition of froth flotation can be achieved by using the proposed method.

  9. Maximum production rate optimization for sulphuric acid decomposition process in tubular plug-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Lingen; Xia, Shaojun; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    A sulphuric acid decomposition process in a tubular plug-flow reactor with fixed inlet flow rate and completely controllable exterior wall temperature profile and reactants pressure profile is studied in this paper by using finite-time thermodynamics. The maximum production rate of the aimed product SO 2 and the optimal exterior wall temperature profile and reactants pressure profile are obtained by using nonlinear programming method. Then the optimal reactor with the maximum production rate is compared with the reference reactor with linear exterior wall temperature profile and the optimal reactor with minimum entropy generation rate. The result shows that the production rate of SO 2 of optimal reactor with the maximum production rate has an increase of more than 7%. The optimization of temperature profile has little influence on the production rate while the optimization of reactants pressure profile can significantly increase the production rate. The results obtained may provide some guidelines for the design of real tubular reactors. - Highlights: • Sulphuric acid decomposition process in tubular plug-flow reactor is studied. • Fixed inlet flow rate and controllable temperature and pressure profiles are set. • Maximum production rate of aimed product SO 2 is obtained. • Corresponding optimal temperature and pressure profiles are derived. • Production rate of SO 2 of optimal reactor increases by 7%.

  10. Ultrasound-assisted extraction for total sulphur measurement in mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Adnan Hossain; Shang, Julie Q.; Alam, Raquibul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop a total sulphur measuring procedure of mine tailings. ► Ultrasound is used in the sample pre-treatment process. ► Full factorial design is applied to identify the best level of effecting factors. - Abstract: A sample preparation method for percentage recovery of total sulphur (%S) in reactive mine tailings based on ultrasound-assisted digestion (USAD) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was developed. The influence of various methodological factors was screened by employing a two-level and three-factor (2 3 ) full factorial design and using KZK-1, a sericite schist certified reference material (CRM), to find the optimal combination of studied factors and %S. Factors such as the sonication time, temperature and acid combination were studied, with the best result identified as 20 min of sonication, 80 °C temperature and 1 ml of HNO 3 :1 ml of HCl, which can achieve 100% recovery for the selected CRM. Subsequently a fraction of the 2 3 full factorial design was applied to mine tailings. The percentage relative standard deviation (%RSD) for the ultrasound method is less than 3.0% for CRM and less than 6% for the mine tailings. The investigated method was verified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The USAD method compared favorably with existing methods such as hot plate assisted digestion method, X-ray fluorescence and LECO™-CNS method.

  11. A search for the sulphur hexafluoride cation with intense, few cycle laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dota, Krithika; Mathur, Deepak, E-mail: atmol1@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Dharmadhikari, Aditya K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A. [Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Patra, Kaustuv; Tiwari, Ashwani K. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research - Kolkata, Mohanpur 741 252 (India)

    2013-11-21

    It is well established that upon ionization of sulphur hexafluoride, the SF{sub 6}{sup +} ion is never observed in mass spectra. Recent work with ultrashort intense laser pulses has offered indications that when strong optical field are used, the resulting “bond hardening” can induce changes in the potential energy surfaces of molecular cations such that molecular ions that are normally unstable may, indeed, become metastable enough to enable their detection by mass spectrometry. Do intense, ultrashort laser pulses permit formation of SF{sub 6}{sup +}? We have utilized intense pulses of 5 fs, 11 fs, and 22 fs to explore this possibility. Our results are negative: no evidence is discovered for SF{sub 6}{sup +}. However, multiply charged sulphur and fluorine ions from highly charged SF{sub 6}{sup q+} ions are observed that enable us to resolve the controversy regarding the kinetic energy release accompanying formation of F{sup +} fragment ions. Quantum chemical computations of field-distorted potential energy curves of SF{sub 6} and its molecular ion enable us to rationalize our non-observation of SF{sub 6}{sup +}. Our findings have implications for high harmonic generation from SF{sub 6} in the few-cycle regime.

  12. Determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium by ion chromatography and its application to PFBR sodium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshmi, S.; Ushalakshmi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical method using ion chromatography was developed for the determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium. In this method, sodium was dissolved in water and various sulphur species present in the sample was oxidized to sulphate using hydrogen peroxide. Carbon dioxide gas was passed through the solution to convert sodium hydroxide to carbonate solution. The resulting sample solution was analysed using suppressed Ion chromatography employing carbonate eluent. This method was applied to the analysis of sodium samples procured for prototype fast breeder reactor. (author)

  13. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  14. Short term effects of ambient sulphur dioxide and particulate matter on mortality in 12 European cities : Results from time series data from the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsouyanni, K; Touloumi, G; Spix, C; Schwartz, J; Balducci, F; Medina, S; Rossi, G; Wojtyniak, B; Sunyer, J; Bacharova, L; Schouten, JP; Ponka, A; Anderson, HR

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To carry out a prospective combined quantitative analysis of the associations between all cause mortality and ambient particulate matter and sulphur dioxide. . Design: Analysis of time series data on daily number of deaths from all causes and concentrations of sulphur dioxide and

  15. Sulphur content of Red pine (Pinus brutia) needles and barkas indicator of atmospheric pollution in Southwest Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, M.; Gemici, Y.; Tan, Kit

    2006-01-01

    of SO2 emission. The highest increase was observed in two-year-old needles. We thus conclude that the sulphur content of two-year-old needles can be a bioindicator of some importance if the cause of tree death is known to be SO2. The sulphur content of bark samples was found to be lower in less polluted...

  16. Effect of both sulphur content and deoxidation degree on the hot ductility of resulphurized austenitic stainless steels in the solidified state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botella, J.; Sanchez, R.

    1998-01-01

    The manufacture of free machining austenitic stainless steels features a specific drawback derived from their high sulphur content, which is needed for generating, into the austenitic matrix inclusions to optimize the different machining operations. However, sulphur has ahamfull effect on hot workability. This paper deals with assessing the effect of sulphur content and deoxidation level on the hot ductility of resulphurized austenitic stainless steels in as cast condition. Hot tensile tests were conducted on a Gleeble machine, at temperatures between 1,150 and 1,250 degree celsius, studying a suctility factor as a function of sulphur content, deoxidation degree, as well as type, size and distribution of sulfides. Results point out the harmful effect of increasing sulphur and oxygen contents on the hot workability of resulphurized austenitic stainless steels, and the need to control carefully the level of oxides of these steels. (Author) 5 refs

  17. Research on desulfurisation of fine coal under compounding the physics force field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Y.; Fu, D.; Tao, D.; Liu, J.; Zhao, Y. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2005-08-15

    Desulphurization experiment carried on under compounding the physics force field was described for -0.5 mm fine particle of high sulphur coal. The experiment factorial plan of desulphurization on centrifugal gravity Falcon separator was designed and its results were analyzed by using Design-Expert 6.0 software. The 2-reactor interaction relation model between comprehensive desulphurization efficiency of pyrite sulphur and different operation variable was drawn, i.e. 2 FI model, and the 2-factor interaction on pyrite desulphurization efficiency of the operation factors differently was analyzed. The interaction on pyrite desulphurization efficiency of feed rate and feed concentration is significant. The optimization test condition for desulphurization was proposed by Design-Expert 6.0, and comprehensive desulphurization efficiency of 86.90% can be achieved. 5 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF DISSOLVED SULPHATE IN VARIOUS GEOTHERMAL FIELDS OF SUMATRA USING OXYGEN AND SULPHUR ISOTOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ristin Pujiindiyati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There are at least 30 high temperature systems; eleven active volcanoes, five degassing volcanoes and one caldera volcano controlled by Sumatra Fault Zone over a length of 1700 km. To understand this geothermal field system, some information about geochemistry including isotope composition in its fluid is needed. Sulphur-34 and oxygen-18 isotopes in dissolved sulphate pair have been used to determine the origin of acidic fluid of sulphate and to evaluate the process involved. The fluids from eight hot springs, two fumaroles, four deep wells and crater have been collected in along Sumatra geothermal fields. Sulphur-34 (d 34S (SO4, 0/00 CDT and oxygen-18 (d 18O (SO4, 0/00 SMOW in sulphate is analyzed according to Robinson-Kusakabe and Rafter method, respectively. The d 34S (SO4 values from Sibayak wells are more enriched of 16.8 0/00 to 18.2 0/0 that may indicate the dissolution of anhydrite minerals or isotope partitioning in hydration of SO2. The d 34S (SO4 values from two fumaroles (Pusuk Bukit - North Sumatra and Rantau Dadap - South Sumatra are at depleted value of -0.150/00 and 1.80/00, those are close to d 34S from magmatic sulphur.  In general, the d 34S (SO4 of springs spread in a wide range of 5.250/00 to14.20/00 and show a mixing process between atmospheric sulphate and sulphate from deep wells. The d 18O (SO4 from wells exhibits depleted value around -3.60/00 suggesting that 87.5% of sulphate oxygen is derived from groundwater oxygen and 12.5% is derived from atmospheric molecular oxygen in sulphide oxidation reaction. In the other hand, hot springs (except Semurup, crater and fumaroles have enriched value of d 18O (SO4. These enriched values suggest that a higher percentage of atmospherically derived oxygen compared to those from the depth.   Keywords: isotope, geothermal, Sumatra

  19. [Sulphureous mud-bath therapy and changes in blood pressure: observational investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, M; Marongiu, M B; Russomanno, G; Conti, V; Manzo, V; Filippelli, A

    2015-01-01

    The chronic arthropathies currently appear to be a major cause of disability with a negative impact on quality of life and health care spending. The mud-bath therapy is a spa treatment that induces benefic effects in chronic rheumatic diseases. It has long been debated on the assumption that the mud-bath spa therapy could have adverse cardiovascular effects which often induce caution and even a contraindication to the use of this treatment in chronic arthropathies associated with cardiovascular alterations such as hypertension. The aim of this observational study was to investigate, in arthrorheumatic subjects, the effects of sulphureous mud-bath cycle on blood pressure and the possible appearance of adverse drug reaction. 169 patients, with age range 42-86 years, suffering by chronic arthropathies were treated with sulphureous mud-bath therapy for 2 weeks. According to the arterial pressure values, measured before the spa treatment, the patients considered were divided in three groups: with normal blood pressure (NOR group); with high blood pressure, after, the latter group was divided in IPET (patients in treatment with antihypertensive drugs) and IPENT (patients not in antihypertensive therapy). The arterial pressure values, maximum and minimum, expressed in mmHg, were detected in the first (T1) - sixth (T6) and twelfth (T12) day of spa treatment. The media arterial pressure values collected before and after T1, before and after T6, before and after T12 , before T1 and after T12 were compared. The data, presented as mean±SD, were compared with the paired Student t test. A p value ≤0.05 was considered significant. The comparison between the mean values detected in pre and post T1, pre and post T6, pre and post T12 have showed that sulphureous mud-bath therapy induced a significant (pmud-bath therapy (post-T12) vs baseline (pre-T1) have demonstrated: in IPET and IPENT groups a significant (pmud-bath therapy in interdisciplinary therapeutic p rotocol of patients

  20. Quantifying Sulphur Emissions and Atmospheric Aerosol Loading From the 1730-36 Lanzarote Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K.; Blake, S.; Self, S.

    2005-12-01

    The AD 1730-36 eruption of Lanzarote (Canary Islands) is the third largest basaltic fissure eruption known to have occurred in the last 1000 years, after the Icelandic events of Laki (AD 1783-84) and Eldgja (AD 934). Our new volume estimates suggest that the Lanzarote eruption produced ~6 km3 of alkali basalt magma along a 15-km long, E-W trending fissure. Eruptive activity occurred in five distinct phases. Each phase began with Strombolian fire fountain activity, building large spatter and scoria cones. This was accompanied and followed by effusive aa and pahoehoe lava flow emplacement. As studies in Iceland have shown, this type of sustained fissure eruption can release large amounts of SO2 to the upper atmosphere, leading to the formation of sulphate aerosol clouds and causing widespread environmental damage and human suffering. Matrix glasses in scoria and surface lava samples have 80-300 ppm S (EMPA) and 300-600 ppm H2O (FTIR), whereas glass inclusions in olivine have 420-2650 ppm S and 1000-5000 ppm H2O. Low sulphur inclusions are believed to be partially degassed, representing melt that was trapped during degassing-induced crystallization that occurred as a result of shallow decompression. The inclusions with the highest sulphur contents trap the original un-degassed melt, as indicated by their consistent S/K2O ratio (0.22). The high sulphur contents are also consistent with our finding, from olivine-spinel equilibria, that the magma was relatively oxidized (log fO2 -4.8) therefore favouring the formation of sulphate species and preventing sulphide saturation. Our glass analyses indicate that 40 Mt of SO2 was injected into the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere via 12-16-km-high eruption plumes and that over half this amount was released during the first year of activity. This figure correlates with published Greenland ice-core (GISP-2) data that shows an acidity spike in 1731, suggesting stratospheric transport of sulphate aerosol to the North during

  1. Electrochemical Determination of Low Molecular Mass Thiols Content in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum Cultivated in the Presence of Various Sulphur Forms and Infected by Late Blight (Phytophora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper potato plants were cultivated in the presence of ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur supplementation into the soil to reveal the effects of different sulphur forms on content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur, and yield of tubers. During the investigation of the influence of different sulphur forms on yield of potato tubers we did not observe significant changes. Average weight of tubers of control plants per one experimental pot was 355 g. Application of sulphur in both forms resulted in moderate potato tubers weight reduction per one experimental pot compared to control group; average value ranged from 320 to 350 g per one experimental pot. Further we treated the plants with two different supplementation of sulphur with cadmium(II ions (4 mg of cadmium(II acetate per kilogram of the soil. The significantly lowest cadmium content (p < 0.05 was determined in tissues of plants treated with the highest dosage of elemental sulphur (0.64 mg Cd/kg compared to control plants (0.82 mg Cd/kg. We also aimed our attention on the cadmium content in proteins, lipids or soluble carbohydrates and ash. Application of sulphate as well as elemental sulphur resulted in significant cadmium content reduction in lipid fraction compared to control plants. In addition to this we quantified content of low molecular mass thiols in potatoes tissues. To determine the thiols content we employed differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. After twelve days of the treatment enhancing of thiols level was observed in all experimental groups regardless to applied sulphur form and its concentration. Finally we evaluated the effect of sulphur supplementation on Phytophora infestans infection of potato plants.

  2. The impacts of future climate change and sulphur emission reductions on acidification recovery at Plastic Lake, Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aherne

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate-induced drought events have a significant influence on sulphate export from forested catchments in central Ontario, subsequently delaying the recovery of surface waters from acidification. In the current study, a model chain that employed a statistical downscaling model, a hydrological model and two hydrochemical models was used to forecast the chemical recovery of Plastic Lake sub-catchment 1 (PC1 from acidification under proposed deposition reductions and the A2 emission scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Any predicted recovery in stream acid neutralising capacity and pH owing to deposition reductions were clearly offset by large acid effluxes from climate-induced drought events. By 2100, ANC is predicted to show large variations ranging between 10 and −30 μmolc L−1. Similarly, predicted pH in 2100 is lower (>0.05 of a pH unit than the value simulated for 2000 (pH 4.35. Despite emission reductions, the future scenario paints a bleak picture of reacidification at PC1 to levels commensurate with those of the late 1970s. The principal process behind this reacidification is the oxidation of previously stored (reduced sulphur compounds in wetlands during periods of low-flow (or drought, with subsequent efflux of sulphate upon re-wetting. Simulated catchment runoff under the A2 emissions scenario predictes increased intensity and frequency of low-flow events from approximately 2030 onwards. The Integrated Catchments model for Carbon indicated that stream DOC concentrations at PC1 will also increase under the future climate scenario, with temperature being the principal driver. Despite the predicted (significant increase in DOC, pH is not predicted to further decline (beyond the climate-induced oxidation scenario, instead pH shows greater variability throughout the simulation. As echoed by many recent studies, hydrochemical models and model frameworks need to incorporate the drivers

  3. Atmospheric emissions in metropolitan France: compounds related to the increase of the greenhouse effect; Substances relatives a l'accroissement de l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report presents and comments statistical data and indicators on emissions of compounds involved in the greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), hydro-fluorocarbon compounds (HFCs), per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). For these compounds, the report indicates and comments world and French emission data, their evolution, and the shares of different sectors and their evolutions. It also comments the evolution of the global warming potential (GWP)

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Sulphur metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana via LC-ESI-MS/MS and 34S-metabolic Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsieh, Chin-Lin; Yeh, Kai-Wun; De Kok, Luit J.; Pan, Ryh-Nan; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Tseng, Mei-Hwei

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sulphur-containing metabolites play an important role in metabolism and homeostasis. Determination of these metabolites is challenging owing to their low concentrations and the interference in mass spectrometry analysis. Objective To develop a sensitive and accurate method based on

  5. A METHODOLOGY BASED ON AN ECOLOGICAL ECONOMY APPROACH FOR THE INTEGRATING MANAGEMENT OF THE SULPHUROUS WATER IN AN OIL REFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orlando Lobelles Sardiñas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the current highly stringent international standards regulating the contaminating emissions to the environment, the Oil refinery of Cienfuegos is still generating liquid and gaseous emissions contaminating the environment. The construction of new units as part of the Refinery expansion leads to an increase of these emissions due to the lack of technologies for the reutilization of the sulphurous water. The objective of this paper is to propose a methodology for the integral management of the sulphurous residual water in the oil refining process, including the evaluation and selection of the most feasible technological variant to minimize the sulphur contamination of water and the resulting emissions during the process. The methodology is based on the ecological economy tools, allowing a comprehensible evaluation of six technological variants at the refinery of Cienfuegos. The Life Cycle Assessment was applied (ACV by its Spanish acronym, by means of the software SimaPro 7.1. It was evaluated through the Eco Speed Method, to minimize the possible uncertainty. An economic evaluation was performed, taking into account the external costs for a more comprehensive analysis, enabling, along with the ecological indicators, the selection of the best technological variant, achieving a methodology based on a comprehensive evaluation, and as a positive impact, the implementation of the chosen variant (V5, 98.27% of the process water was recovered, as well as the sulphur that recovered from 94 to 99.8 %, reducing the emissions from 12 200 to 120 mg/Nm3 as SO2.

  6. Physical and chemical processes of sulphur dioxide in the plume from an oil-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flyger, H.; Lewin, E.; Lund Thomsen, E.; Fenger, J.; Lyck, E.; Gryning, S.E.

    1977-03-01

    The Danish contribution to the EUROCOP COST 61a project is described. Work concerned the physical and chemical reactions of sulphur dioxide released from a power station. The investigation was based on the application of two tracers. Inactive, inert SF 6 is used to monitor the dispersion of and deposition from the plume; it was intended to use radioactive 35 SO 2 to determine the degree of oxidation of sulphur released from the stack; so far, however, public reaction has prevented the use of a release of activity in field experiments. The report describes the construction and testing of airborne instruments for continuous registration of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone and the tracer SF 6 , as well as for measurements of temperature and humidity. Sulphur samples were collected on filter paper in a specially constructed low volume air sampler, and the subsequent chemical analysis in the laboratory is described. Finally, the problem of navigation is treated. It is shown that nitrogen oxides may be used as an internal tracer in plume experiments. Preliminary experiments based on inactive analysis only indicated an overall half-life for SO 2 in the plume of about half an hour. (author)

  7. Chemical deactivation of Ag/Al2O3 by sulphur for the selective reduction of NOx using hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houel, Valerie; Millington, Paul; Pollington, Stephen; Poulston, Stephen; Rajaram, Raj R.; Tsolakis, Athanasios

    2006-01-01

    The hydrocarbon-SCR activity of Ag/Al 2 O 3 catalysts is severely deactivated after low temperature (350 o C) sulphur ageing in the form of SO 2 exposure. Catalysts aged with SO 2 , NO and hydrocarbon present accumulate a significantly larger amount of SO 4 2- than those aged in the presence of only O 2 , H 2 O and SO 2 when exposed to an equivalent amount of S. Following sulphation of the catalyst most of the sulphur can be removed by a high temperature (600 o C) treatment in the reaction gas. Regeneration in the absence of hydrocarbon is ineffective. The hydrocarbon-SCR activity of the sulphated catalyst using model hydrocarbons such as n-C 8 H 18 can be restored after a high temperature pre-treatment in the reaction gases. However this desulphation process fails to regenerate the hydrocarbon-SCR activity when diesel fuel is used in the activity test. TPR studies show that a major fraction of the sulphur species present in the catalyst is removed by such pre-treatment, but the slight residual amount of sulphur is sufficient to inhibit the activation of the diesel fuel on the Ag catalyst. The nature of the hydrocarbon species present for the hydrocarbon-SCR reaction and during the regeneration strongly influences the activity. In general aromatics such as C 7 H 8 are less effective for reducing NO x and regenerating the sulphated catalyst. (author)

  8. Extraction of Zinc and Manganese from Alkaline and Zinc-Carbon Spent Batteries by Citric-Sulphuric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries. Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid leaching in the presence of citric acid as reducing agent. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 24 full factorial design, and empirical equations for Mn and Zn extraction yields are determined from experimental data as a function of pulp density, sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, and citric acid concentration. The highest values experimentally observed for extraction yields were 97% of manganese and 100% of zinc, under the following operating conditions: temperature 40∘C, pulp density 20%, sulphuric acid concentration 1.8 M, and citric acid 40 g L-1. A second series of leaching tests is also performed to derive other empirical models to predict zinc and manganese extraction. Precipitation tests, aimed both at investigating precipitation of zinc during leaching and at evaluating recovery options of zinc and manganese, show that a quantitative precipitation of zinc can be reached but a coprecipitation of nearly 30% of manganese also takes place. The achieved results allow to propose a battery recycling process based on a countercurrent reducing leaching by citric acid in sulphuric solution.

  9. A comparison of decontamination effects of commercially available detergents in rats pre-exposed to topical sulphur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misik, Jan; Jost, Petr; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Vodakova, Eva; Cabal, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil

    2013-06-01

    The genotoxic vesicant sulphur mustard [bis-2-(chloroethyl)sulphide] is a chemical warfare agent which is easily available due to its relatively simple synthesis. Thus, sulphur mustard is a potential agent for mass contamination. In this study, we focused on sulphur mustard toxicity and decontamination in a rat model using commercially available detergent mixtures for dermal decontamination. Male Wistar rats were percutaneously treated with sulphur mustard and subjected to wet decontamination 2 min postexposure. Commercially produced detergents Neodekont™, Argos™, Dermogel™ and FloraFree™ were tested for their decontamination efficacy against an exposed group and their protective ratios determined. The results showed that all tested detergent solutions produced an increase in the median lethal dose [LD(50) = 9.83 (5.87-13.63) mg·kg(-1)] in comparison to controls, which led to increased survival of experimental animals. In general, all tested detergents provided modest decontamination efficacy (PR = 2.0-5.7). The highest protective ratio (5.7) was consistently achieved with Argos™. Accordingly, Argos™ should be considered in further investigation of mass casualty decontamination.

  10. Energetic and exergetic life cycle analysis to explain the hidden costs and effects of current sulphur utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Typically life cycle analyses of the fertiliser industry are based on averages of outdated technology. Sulphur is a major element, emerging as a primary nutrient on its own accord and as a feed for other fertiliser production, namely phosphoric acid. Recent developments sparked by governmental

  11. Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy of even-parity autoionizing Rydberg states of atomic sulphur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, S.; de Milan, J.B.; de Lange, C.A.; Buma, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Several previously unobserved Rydberg states of the sulphur atom above the lowest ionization threshold are identified and assigned using (2 + 1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton-ionization photoelectron spectroscopy. All states were accessed by two-photon transitions from either the 3P ground or the

  12. Isolation of non-sulphur photosynthetic bacterial strains efficient in hydrogen production at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Srivastava, S.C. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (IN). Centre of Advanced Study in Botany)

    1991-01-01

    Four strains of non-sulphur photosynthetic bacteria were isolated from root zone associations of aquatic plants like Azolla, Salvinia and Eichhornia, as well as the deep-water rice. Based on the gross cell morphology and pigmentation, the isolates resembled Rhodopseudomonas sp. and have been designated as BHU strains 1 to 4, respectively. When subjected to elevated temperature (from 33-45{sup o}C), substantial growth/hydrogen production could be observed only in strains 1 and 4. Strains 2 and 3 on the other hand, showed diminished growth and negligible hydrogen photoproduction. The BHU strains 1 and 4 have been selected as the most active (thermostable) hydrogen producing strains of local origin as far as the Indian tropical climate is concerned. (author).

  13. Optimization of growth parameters of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-sulphur alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dallal, S.; Aljishi, S.; Arekat, S.; Al-alawi, S.M.; Hammam, H.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon sulphur thin films were grown by capacitively coupled radio frequency glow discharge decomposition of SiH/sub 4/ + He) and H/sub 2/S + He) gas mixtures. In this work we report on a study undertaken to instigative the effect of deposition conditions on the optoelectronic properties of a-Si,S:H films. Three series of deposition conditions on the optoelectronic properties of a-Si,S:H films. Three series of films were prepared using a constant flow rate of the gaseous mixture while varying one of the other deposition parameters: substrate temperature, RF powder and process pressure. The films are characterized via IR measurements, optical transmission, photothermal deflection spectroscopy, photoluminescence, the constant photocurrent methods and conductivity measurements. Results indicate that a relatively high power level and a high substrate temperature are necessary to obtain the best films. (author) 8 figs

  14. Enhanced high temperature thermoelectric response of sulphuric acid treated conducting polymer thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Kurra, Narendra; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    We report the high temperature thermoelectric properties of solution processed pristine and sulphuric acid treated poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (or PEDOT:PSS) films. The acid treatment is shown to simultaneously enhance the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the metal-like films, resulting in a five-fold increase in thermoelectric power factor (0.052 W/m. K ) at 460 K, compared to the pristine film. By using atomic force micrographs, Raman and impedance spectra and using a series heterogeneous model for electrical conductivity, we demonstrate that acid treatment results in the removal of PSS from the films, leading to the quenching of accumulated charge-induced energy barriers that prevent hopping conduction. The continuous removal of PSS with duration of acid treatment also alters the local band structure of PEDOT:PSS, resulting in simultaneous enhancement in Seebeck coefficient.

  15. The diffusion of sulphur from moulding sand to cast and methods of its elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosadyna

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The care of high quality castings requires taking into account the possible negative influence of decomposition products of moulding and core sands on the structure of castings produced. Such products are emitted both from the sands of I generation, meaning sands bound by bentonite, especially those containing carbon forming additives, as well as from the sands of II generation, meaning the sands with the binding materials or even the sands without any binders, such as the forms produced by using the LOST FOAM technology. The literature often refers to the negative effects of nitrogen emitted from the sands with the urea resins on the tendency to create surface defects. That is why the aim of this study was to assess the degree of sulphur diffusion to the ferroalloy castings and the proposal of its limitation.

  16. Tracer study on sulphur use efficiency in potato-barley sequence on acid soil of Shimla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sud, K.C.; Sharma, R.C.; Sharma, N.K.

    1999-01-01

    Controlled studies were conducted on acidic soil of Fagu (Shimla) to study the efficiency of labelled ammonium sulphate as effected by farmyard manure (FYM) on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its residual effect on succeeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The direct and residual effects of FYM and sulphur on dry matter yield and S concentration in potato and barley plants were significant. Applied FYM had a positive effect on radioassay values i.e. % Sdff and % S utilization by potato from labelled S carrier, whereas, the residual effect of applied S on barley was more than its direct effect on potato. Results indicate that combined application of S and FYM resulted in 3.4 per cent more S contribution to barley crop and was reflected in % S utilization values. (author)

  17. Clean utilization of high sulphur petroleum coke by circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragos, L.; Flueraru, C.; Girjoaba, M.

    1996-01-01

    The economic and environmental problems caused by inefficient utilization of residual high-sulphur petroleum coke resulted from oil cracking in Romania is discussed. A special research programme applying CFBC technology has been carried out in the Institute for Power Equipment, Bucharest. The results from both laboratory facilities and pilot plant are presented. The main operating conditions and parameters are pointed out. Data on quality and composition of petroleum coke, combustion efficiency, temperature range in different zones and flue gas composition at distinct operating loads are given. The results obtained will be used for innovative design of CFBC boilers based on petroleum coke. A project for implementing a CFBC boiler in one of the Romanian oil refineries is being developed. An analysis of technical and economic advantages of these boilers for energy generation is presented

  18. Effect of Schiff's Bases as Corrosion Inhibitors on Mild Steel in Sulphuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Upadhyay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass loss and thermometric methods have been used to study the corrosion inhibitory effect of synthesised Schiff's bases viz. N-(furfurilidine – 4- methoxy aniline (SB1, N-(furfurilidine – 4- methylaniline (SB2, N-(salicylidine – 4- methoxy aniline (SB3, N-(cinnamalidine – 4 –methoxy aniline (SB4 and N-(cinnamalidine - 2-methylaniline (SB5 on mild steel in sulphuric acid solutions. Results show that both methods have good agreement with each other and inhibition efficiency depends upon the concentration of inhibitor as well as that of acid. Maximum inhibition efficiency is shown at highest concentration of Schiff's bases at the highest strength of acid.

  19. Molecular understanding of sulphuric acid-amine particle nucleation in the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, João; Kürten, Andreas; Ortega, Ismael K; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Praplan, Arnaud P; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; David, André; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Downard, Andrew; Dunne, Eimear; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Henschel, Henning; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kajos, Maija; Kangasluoma, Juha; Keskinen, Helmi; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kurtén, Theo; Kvashin, Alexander N; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Leppä, Johannes; Loukonen, Ville; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; McGrath, Matthew J; Nieminen, Tuomo; Olenius, Tinja; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Riccobono, Francesco; Riipinen, Ilona; Rissanen, Matti; Rondo, Linda; Ruuskanen, Taina; Santos, Filipe D; Sarnela, Nina; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Seinfeld, John H; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Vaattovaara, Petri; Viisanen, Yrjo; Virtanen, Annele; Vrtala, Aron; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wex, Heike; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Ye, Penglin; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim; Baltensperger, Urs; Vehkamaki, Hanna; Kirkby, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    Nucleation of aerosol particles from trace atmospheric vapours is thought to provide up to half of global cloud condensation nuclei. Aerosols can cause a net cooling of climate by scattering sunlight and by leading to smaller but more numerous cloud droplets, which makes clouds brighter and extends their lifetimes. Atmospheric aerosols derived from human activities are thought to have compensated for a large fraction of the warming caused by greenhouse gases. However, despite its importance for climate, atmospheric nucleation is poorly understood. Recently, it has been shown that sulphuric acid and ammonia cannot explain particle formation rates observed in the lower atmosphere. It is thought that amines may enhance nucleation, but until now there has been no direct evidence for amine ternary nucleation under atmospheric conditions. Here we use the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN and find that dimethylamine above three parts per trillion by volume can enhance particle formation rates ...

  20. Targeted sulphur and selenium speciation in yeast by parallel elemental and molecular mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillestrøm, Peter René; Mapelli, Valeria; Olsson, Lisbeth

    Selenium supplement, often selenized yeast, are currently the subject of intense study owing to their potential preventive effects against cancer. However, fundamental knowledge of the yeast’s metabolism is required for metabolic engineering biosynthetic production of potent Se-species. A method ...... determination of metabolites present. Selenium metabolites were detected by simultaneous ICP-MS and ESI-MS/MS while targeted sulphur species were determined by ESI-MS/MS.......Selenium supplement, often selenized yeast, are currently the subject of intense study owing to their potential preventive effects against cancer. However, fundamental knowledge of the yeast’s metabolism is required for metabolic engineering biosynthetic production of potent Se-species. A method...