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Sample records for sulphate minerals aps

  1. Aluminium phosphate sulphate minerals (APS) associated with proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits: crystal-chemical characterisation and petrogenetic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaboreau, St.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium phosphate sulfate minerals (APS) are particularly widespread and spatially associated with hydrothermal clay alteration in both the East Alligator River Uranium Field (Northern Territory, Australia) and the Athabasca basin (Saskatchewan, Canada), in the environment of proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits (URUD). The purpose of this study is both: 1) to characterize the nature and the origin of the APS minerals on both sides of the middle proterozoic unconformity between the overlying sandstones and the underlying metamorphic basement rocks that host the uranium ore bodies, 2) to improve our knowledge on the suitability of these minerals to indicate the paleo-conditions (redox, pH) at which the alteration processes relative to the uranium deposition operated. The APS minerals result from the interaction of oxidising and relatively acidic fluids with aluminous host rocks enriched in monazite. Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have also been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore bodies or from the structural discontinuities which drained the hydrothermal solutions during the mineralisation event. One of the main results of this study is that the index mineral assemblages, used in the recent literature to describe the alteration zones around the uranium ore bodies, can be theoretically predicted by a set of thermodynamic calculations which simulate different steps of fluid-rock interaction processes related to a downward penetrating of hyper-saline, oxidizing and acidic diagenetic fluids through the lower sandstone units of the basins and then into the metamorphic basement rocks. The above considerations and the fact that APS with different crystal-chemical compositions crystallized in a range of fO 2 and pH at which uranium can either be transported in solution or precipitated as uraninite in the host-rocks make these minerals not only good markers of the degree of alteration of the

  2. Aluminium phosphate sulphate minerals (APS) associated with proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits: crystal-chemical characterisation and petrogenetic significance; Les sulfates phosphates d'aluminium hydrates (APS) dans l'environnement des gisements d'uranium associes a une discordance proterozoique: caracterisation cristallochimique et signification petrogenetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaboreau, St

    2005-07-01

    Aluminium phosphate sulfate minerals (APS) are particularly widespread and spatially associated with hydrothermal clay alteration in both the East Alligator River Uranium Field (Northern Territory, Australia) and the Athabasca basin (Saskatchewan, Canada), in the environment of proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits (URUD). The purpose of this study is both: 1) to characterize the nature and the origin of the APS minerals on both sides of the middle proterozoic unconformity between the overlying sandstones and the underlying metamorphic basement rocks that host the uranium ore bodies, 2) to improve our knowledge on the suitability of these minerals to indicate the paleo-conditions (redox, pH) at which the alteration processes relative to the uranium deposition operated. The APS minerals result from the interaction of oxidising and relatively acidic fluids with aluminous host rocks enriched in monazite. Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have also been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore bodies or from the structural discontinuities which drained the hydrothermal solutions during the mineralisation event. One of the main results of this study is that the index mineral assemblages, used in the recent literature to describe the alteration zones around the uranium ore bodies, can be theoretically predicted by a set of thermodynamic calculations which simulate different steps of fluid-rock interaction processes related to a downward penetrating of hyper-saline, oxidizing and acidic diagenetic fluids through the lower sandstone units of the basins and then into the metamorphic basement rocks. The above considerations and the fact that APS with different crystal-chemical compositions crystallized in a range of fO{sub 2} and pH at which uranium can either be transported in solution or precipitated as uraninite in the host-rocks make these minerals not only good markers of the degree of alteration of the

  3. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS) associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfil, R.; Iglesia, A. la; Estupinan, J.

    2013-10-01

    This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium-phosphate-sulphate (APS) mineralization that occurs in a classic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein) of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mud stones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the classic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hydroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite- goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba). The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of Ubearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80 degree centigrade), related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.(Author)

  4. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS) associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marfil, R.; Iglesia, A. la; Estupinan, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium-phosphate-sulphate (APS) mineralization that occurs in a classic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein) of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mud stones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the classic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hydroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite- goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba). The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of Ubearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80 degree centigrade), related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.(Author)

  5. Oxygen isotopic composition of sulphates from some mineral waters and mine waters in western Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smejkal, V.

    1979-01-01

    Two main genetic types of sulphate can be distinguished according to the delta 18 O(SO 4 2- ) measurements in sulphate-rich mineral and mine waters of western Bohemia - sulphates in descending mine waters and in weathered outcrops of graphitic pyrite slates from areas outside Tertiary basins, which originated in recent time by the oxidation of sulphides in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, have delta 18 O values from -2.1 to -6.1 per mille SMOW; and sulphates from springs of mineral waters of the renowned spas of Karlovy Vary, Frantiskovy Lazne and Marianske Lazne show distinctly heavier delta 18 O values - from +4.0 to +6.4 per mille, with maximum of values between +5.0 and +6.0 per mille. Similar delta 18 O values have been established in thenardites and in gypsum in Miocene claystones and in sulphates of some mine waters in the nearby Tertiary Cheb and Sokolov Basins. The presented results indicate that sulphates in mineral waters of the Karlovy Vary type originate mainly by leaching of Miocene sulphates and not by present-day oxidation of sulphidic sulphur. (author)

  6. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marfil, R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium–phosphate–sulphate (APS mineralization that occurs in a clastic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mudstones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the clastic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hidroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite-goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba. The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of U-bearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80ºC, related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de los minerales fosfato-sulfato alumínicos (APS que se producenen una secuencia clástica del Triásico (Buntsandstein de la Cordillera Ibérica. El depósito está constituido por areniscas, lutitas y conglomerados con matriz arenosa, que fueron depositados en

  7. Biosedimentary and geochemical constraints on the precipitation of mineral crusts in shallow sulphate lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabestrero, Óscar; del Buey, Pablo; Sanz-Montero, M. Esther

    2018-04-01

    Seasonal desiccation of Mg2+-(Na+)-(Ca2+)-SO42--(Cl-) saline lakes in La Mancha (Central Spain) that host microbial mats led to the precipitation of hydrated Na-Mg sulphates and gypsum. Sulphates precipitated in the submerged conditions form extensive biolaminites, whilst in marginal areas they produce thin crusts. Sedimentological, mineralogical, petrographic and high resolution textural studies reveal that the crusts were formed within the benthic microbial mats that thrive at salinities ranging from 160 to 340 g·L-1. The minerals of the crusts are primary bloedite (Na2Mg(SO4)2·4H2O), epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O), as well as secondary hexahydrite (MgSO4·6H2O) and thenardite (Na2SO4). Primary bloedite crystals, which form the framework of surficial and submerged crusts are seen to nucleate subaqueously and grow incorporatively within the matgrounds. Displacive and incorporative epsomite grows on previous bloedite crystals and also on the ground. Mirabilite is precipitated rapidly at the brine-air interface over bloedite and epsomite. Hexahydrite and thenardite are formed due to dehydration of epsomite and mirabilite, respectively. Hydrochemical modeling with PHREEQC indicated that evaporitic biolaminites are forming from brines undersaturated with respect to bloedite, epsomite and mirabilite, which suggests that the microorganisms contribute to the heterogeneous nucleation of the sulphates in the microbial mats. Unlike carbonates, the influence of microbes on the growth and morphology of complicated double salts such as bloedite has not been documented previously and provides a new perspective on the formation of hydrated sulphate minerals that are common on Earth as well as other planets.

  8. Bone mineral response to ammonium sulphate offered as a lick supplement in beef calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Motsei

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen Bonsmara calves (4 males, 12 females between 10 and 18 months of age were blocked according to age and sex and randomly assigned to 2 groups. They were offered licks containing bone meal and salt (50:50 ratio (control and bone meal and ammonium sulphate (NH4SO4 at 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 18 % (treatment to evaluate the effects of dietary anions on bone phosphate (P concentration. Bone P concentration was significantly (P<0.05 higher in the NH4SO4 group compared with the control group, indicating that NH4SO4 was able to increase the P content of bone at each of the 6 concentrations used in the lick relative to the control animals, thereby improving the P status of the animals. Ammonium sulphate at 15% and 18% in the lick also significantly (P <0.05 increased bone P compared with the lower concentrations of NH4SO4. Bone calcium (Ca fluctuated as a result of the acidogenic lick. There was absorption of Ca when P was being resorbed and resorption of Ca when P was being absorbed into and out of bone. Bone Ca:P ratio ranged from 3.2 to 6.4 among the control group and 1.6 to 4.3 among the treatment group. Animals receiving the acidogenic lick had a higher percentage ash compared to the control group for most of the experimental period. Bone magnesium (Mg fluctuated in response to the acidogenic lick, and it was difficult to show a relationship between bone Mg and Ca or P. The overall mean cortical bone thickness was significantly (P < 0.05 greater in treatment (1.60 mm compared with control (1.43 mm calves and this was also true at sampling periods 2, 4, 5 and 6. Bone thickness followed bone P and not bone Ca. Results from this research indicate that the addition of ammonium sulphate to a lick had a beneficial effect in improving the P status by increasing bone P and improving the mineral status of bone by increasing the thickness of cortical bone and percentage ash.

  9. Thermal decomposition and X-ray diffraction of sulphate efflorescent minerals from El Jaroso Ravine, Sierra Almagrera, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Wain, Daria; Martens, Wayde N.; Locke, Ashley C.; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Rull, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Two evaporite minerals from the El Jaroso Ravine, Spain have been analysed by thermogravimetry coupled with an evolved gas mass spectrometer. X-ray diffraction results proved the evaporite minerals were a mixture of sulphates including the minerals magnesiocopiapite, coquimbite and possibly alunogen. Thermal decomposition of the unoxidised samples showed steps at 52, 99 and 143 deg. C confirmed by mass spectrometric results and attributed to adsorbed water, interstitial water and chemically bonded water. This evaporite mineral rock showed two higher temperature decomposition steps at 555 and 599 deg. C with mass losses of 19.6 and 7.8%. Slightly different temperatures for the thermal decomposition of the oxadada sample were observed at 52, 64.5 and 100 deg. C. Two higher temperature mass loss steps at 560.5 and 651 deg. C were observed for the oxidised sample. By comparison of the thermal analysis patterns of halotrichite and jarosite it can be shown that the El Jaroso samples are mineral sulphates and not halotrichite or jarosite

  10. Thermal decomposition and X-ray diffraction of sulphate efflorescent minerals from El Jaroso Ravine, Sierra Almagrera, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Ray L. [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia)]. E-mail: r.frost@qut.edu.au; Wain, Daria [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Martens, Wayde N. [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Locke, Ashley C. [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Martinez-Frias, Jesus [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Centro de Astrobiologia INTA-CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, 47006 Valladolid (Spain); Rull, Fernando [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Centro de Astrobiologia INTA-CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, 47006 Valladolid (Spain)

    2007-08-25

    Two evaporite minerals from the El Jaroso Ravine, Spain have been analysed by thermogravimetry coupled with an evolved gas mass spectrometer. X-ray diffraction results proved the evaporite minerals were a mixture of sulphates including the minerals magnesiocopiapite, coquimbite and possibly alunogen. Thermal decomposition of the unoxidised samples showed steps at 52, 99 and 143 deg. C confirmed by mass spectrometric results and attributed to adsorbed water, interstitial water and chemically bonded water. This evaporite mineral rock showed two higher temperature decomposition steps at 555 and 599 deg. C with mass losses of 19.6 and 7.8%. Slightly different temperatures for the thermal decomposition of the oxadada sample were observed at 52, 64.5 and 100 deg. C. Two higher temperature mass loss steps at 560.5 and 651 deg. C were observed for the oxidised sample. By comparison of the thermal analysis patterns of halotrichite and jarosite it can be shown that the El Jaroso samples are mineral sulphates and not halotrichite or jarosite.

  11. 77 FR 22622 - AP Henderson Group, BPO Management Services, Inc., Capital Mineral Investors, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] AP Henderson Group, BPO Management Services, Inc., Capital Mineral Investors, Inc., CardioVascular BioTherapeutics, Inc., and 1st Centennial... that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of 1st Centennial...

  12. Sources of sulphate minerals in limestone cave-a possible evidence of anthropogenic activity: a case study in Črna Jama Cave (Slovenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarc, Simona; Miler, Miloš; Šebela, Stanka; Zupančič, Nina

    2017-12-01

    In the caves, the formation of cave minerals is a consequence of a variety of chemical reactions, some of them also due to human activity. There are many caves in Slovenia, but sulphate minerals are not very often reported and analysed. In this study, the presence of sulphate minerals is detected by SEM/EDS analysis of speleothems from Črna Jama, a cave near Kočevje (southern Slovenia). The cave is characterised by its dark, almost black colour on cave walls, floor and speleothems. Anthropogenic influence in the cave is still visible, including the remains of a fireplace, some inscriptions on the walls and wooden containers. The analyses of some of the black-coated speleothems reveal the presence of calcium sulphate, confirmed by XRD as gypsum. Gypsum crystals are around 50 μm in size, and they occur in thin crusts. Additionally, some rare authigenic baryte crystals a few micrometres in size are detected. The sulphates δ 34 S value in gypsum found on dark coloured speleothems is + 10.4‰ Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite (VCDT), while the sulphate δ 34 S of the bedrock is + 8.6‰ VCDT. The more likely source of sulphate ions is thus biomass burning rather than bedrock. Also, bedrock and biomass ash are a very probable source of calcium and barium. The highly probable pyrogenous origin of sulphates draws attention to human impact on cave mineralogy.

  13. Evidence for biological activity in mineralization of secondary sulphate deposits in a basaltic environment: implications for the search for life in the Martian subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, C. Doc; Hinman, Nancy W.; Scott, Jill R.

    2013-10-01

    Evidence of microbial activity associated with mineralization of secondary Na-sulphate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM), Idaho were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Peaks suggestive of bio/organic compounds were observed in the secondary Na-sulphate deposits by LD-FTICR-MS. FTIR provided additional evidence for the presence of bio/organic compounds. Sulphur fractionation was explored to assist in determining if microbes may play a role in oxidizing sulphur. The presence of bio/organic compounds associated with Na-sulphate deposits, along with the necessity of oxidizing reduced sulphur to sulphate, suggests that biological activity may be involved in the formation of these secondary minerals. The secondary Na-sulphate minerals probably form from the overlying basalt through leached sodium ions and sulphate ions produced by bio-oxidation of Fe-sulphide minerals. Since the COM basalts are one of the most comparable terrestrial analogues for their Martian counterparts, the occurrence of biological activity in the formation of sulphate minerals at COM has direct implications for the search for life on Mars. In addition, the presence of caves on Mars suggests the importance of these environments as possible locations for growth and preservation of microbial activity. Therefore, understanding the physiochemical pathways of abiotic and biotic mineralization in the COM subsurface and similar basaltic settings has direct implications for the search for extinct or extant life on Mars.

  14. Bone mineralization in newborns whose mothers received magnesium sulphate for tocolysis of premature labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaeb, Shadi N.; Rassi, Adriana I.; Yunis, Khalid A. [Department of Pediatrics, American University of Beirut Medical Center, PO Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Haddad, Maurice C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Seoud, Muhieddine A. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2004-05-01

    Prolonged maternal magnesium sulphate infusion therapy for tocolysis of premature labour may result in secondary fetal hypermagnesaemia, which has been associated with bony abnormalities in the newborn. We report on four infants, members of two twin pregnancies, who were exposed to prolonged fetal hypermagnesaemia. Three of the infants, all appropriate for gestational age, showed abnormal radiological findings consisting of abnormal mineralisation of long-bone metaphyses owing to fetal hypermagnesaemia. The fourth infant, who was growth retarded, had normal bones. Intrauterine growth restriction appears to be protective against magnesium sulphate-induced abnormal bone mineralisation in the newborn. (orig.)

  15. Bone mineralization in newborns whose mothers received magnesium sulphate for tocolysis of premature labour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaeb, Shadi N.; Rassi, Adriana I.; Yunis, Khalid A.; Haddad, Maurice C.; Seoud, Muhieddine A.

    2004-01-01

    Prolonged maternal magnesium sulphate infusion therapy for tocolysis of premature labour may result in secondary fetal hypermagnesaemia, which has been associated with bony abnormalities in the newborn. We report on four infants, members of two twin pregnancies, who were exposed to prolonged fetal hypermagnesaemia. Three of the infants, all appropriate for gestational age, showed abnormal radiological findings consisting of abnormal mineralisation of long-bone metaphyses owing to fetal hypermagnesaemia. The fourth infant, who was growth retarded, had normal bones. Intrauterine growth restriction appears to be protective against magnesium sulphate-induced abnormal bone mineralisation in the newborn. (orig.)

  16. Prediction of Mineral Scale Formation in Geothermal and Oilfield Operations using the Extended UNIQUAC Model. Part I: Sulphate Scaling Minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Ada V.; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2005-01-01

    Pressure parameters are added to the Extended UNIQUAC model presented by Thomsen and Rasmussen (1999). The improved model has been used for correlation and prediction of solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) of scaling minerals (CaSO4, CaSO4·2H2O, BaSO4 and SrSO4) at temperatures up to 300°C and pressur...

  17. Molecular characterization of the 30-AA N-terminal mineral interaction domain of the biomineralization protein AP7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Won; Morse, Daniel E; Evans, John Spencer

    2004-12-21

    The AP7 protein is one of several mollusk shell proteins which are responsible for aragonite polymorph formation and stabilization within the nacre layer of the Pacific red abalone, H. rufescens. Previously, we demonstrated that the 30-AA N-terminal domain of AP7, denoted as AP7-1, exists as an unfolded sequence and possesses the capability of inhibiting calcium carbonate crystal growth in vitro via growth step frustration or interruption. However, very little is known with regard to the interactive capabilities of this sequence with Ca(II) and with calcium carbonates. Using multidisciplinary techniques, we determine that the AP7-1 polypeptide interacts with Ca(II) ions at the -DD- sequence clusters, yet retains its unfolded, conformationally labile structure in the presence of Ca(II) ions. Further, NMR experiments reveal that the extended structured sequence blocks, -GNGM-, -SVRTQG-, and -ISYL, exhibit motional, chemical exchange, and/or backbone geometry perturbations in response to Ca(II) interactions with AP7-1. Solid-state NMR magic angle spinning studies verify that during the course of in vitro calcium carbonate crystal growth, AP7-1 becomes bound to calcite fragments and cannot be entirely displaced from the mineral fragments using competitive Ca(II) washing. Finally, using a scrambled sequence version of the AP7-1 polypeptide, we observe that sequence scrambling does not adversely affect the crystal growth inhibitory activity of AP7-1, suggesting that the amino acid composition of AP7-1 may be more critical to growth step inhibition than the linear ordering of amino acids.

  18. Geochemistry and genesis of APS minerals in advanced argillic alteration zone, northwest of Shir-Kuh, Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Taghipour

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Northwest of Shir-Kuh batholith, a number of leucocratic granitic and granodioritic plutons have intruded sedimentary hosts including shale-sandstone (Triassic-Jurassic and sandstone-conglomerate (Lower Cretaceous. Contact metamorphism and hydrothermal alterations are widespread. Late alteration assemblage mainly occurs in arkosic sandstones of Sangestan Formation and includes propylitic, quartz-sericitic, advanced argillic and silicific zones. Quartz-sericite zone is the most widespread. Advanced argillic alteration is characterized by the following assemblage: jarosite, alunite, turquoise, from the Al-Phosphate-Sulfate group (APS. Considering this mineral assemblage and probable interactions taking place between the minerals, a geochemical environment with high fO2 and low pH is thought to be prevailing at the time of alteration and formation of alunite, jarosite and turquoise.

  19. The procedure for analysis of sulphur isotope ratio 34S/32S (δ34S) and determination of origin of dissolved sulphate in Thuan My mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Tuong Hanh; Nguyen Hong Thinh; Nguyen Van Hoan; Nguyen Thi Thai; Ha Lan Anh; Dinh Bich Lieu

    2011-01-01

    An analytical procedure for sulphur isotope ratio in sulphate/sulphide (δ 34 S) dissolved in groundwater was developed. The procedure included: 1. SO 4 2- and S 2- precipitation by BaCl 2 and AgNO 3 , respectively; 2. sulphur isotope ratio (δ 34 S) analysis by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS) with on-line combustion of the sulphate/sulphide to form SO 2 . The δ 34 S in the dissolved sulfate of 33 deep (more than 30 m) wells, 20 shallow (less than 30 m) wells, in water from the Da river in the study area, the Hong river, the Hoa Binh lake, and the precipitation collected during both rainy and dry seasons in the Thuan My, Ha Noi and Lang Son regions, as well as in water waste samples were analyzed. The accuracy of the analysis was achieved by the participation in inter-comparison exercises and the precision of the δ 34 S value obtained was usually better than ±0.02%. The SO 4 2- concentration in water from the deep wells is from 674 to 2,197 mg/L and the δ 34 S values in the constituent are in a narrow range of from +1.566 to +1.773%. These values along with chemical data gathered for other constituents presented in the water allow one to explain the source of SO 4 2- in water from the deep wells to be from the dissolution of gypsum minerals (CaSO 4 .2H 2 O). (author)

  20. APS 6BM-B Large Volume High Pressure Beamline: A Workhorse for Rock and Mineral Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Whitaker, M. L.; Baldwin, K. J.; Huebsch, W. R.; Vaughan, M. T.; Weidner, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    With the inheritance of decades of technical innovations at the NSLS X17B2 Beamline, APS 6BM-B Beamline was established in 2015 and is a dedicated beamline for synchrotron-based large volume high pressure research in earth sciences, especially rock and mineral physics. Currently a 250-ton hydraulic press equipped with a D-DIA module is installed and a Rotational Drickamer Apparatus from Yale University is hosted every cycle, covering a pressure range from crust to lower mantle. 6BM-B operates in white beam mode with an effective energy range of 20-100 keV. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction data is collected using a 10-element solid state Ge array detector arranged in a circular geometry to allow for the real time assessment of stress. Direct radiographic imaging using Prosillica CCD camera and scintillating YAG crystals yields sample strain and strain rate. In addition to applications in phase transitions, equation of states measurements, sound velocity measurements, this setup is ideal for studies of steady state and dynamic deformation process. In this presentation, technical features and strengths of 6BM-B will be discussed. Most recent progress and science highlights of our user community will be showcased.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of dust sulphation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A.

    1997-12-31

    Sulphation reactions of metal oxides with SO{sub 2} and O. or SO{sub 3} play significant roles in sulphation roasting of sulphide and oxide minerals as well as in desulphurisation process of combustion gases. In metallurgical waste-heat boilers for sulphide smelting, the sulphation of the oxidic flue dust in the atmosphere containing sulphur oxides is an unavoidable process, and the sulphation reactions have to be guided in a controlled way in the proper parts of the gas handling equipment. In this report, some thermodynamic analyses were conducted for the oxide sulphation reactions in relation to sulphide smelting processes. The phase stability of Me-S-O systems especially for oxides - sulphates equilibrium was studied under different thermodynamic conditions of gas compositions and temperatures. The sulphate stability was analysed for an example of gas compositions in the copper flash smelter of Outokumpu Harjavalta Metals Oy, in relation to temperature. In the report, most of the information was from literature. Moreover, a number of thermodynamic computations were carried out with the HSC program, and the constructed phase stability diagrams were compared with those from the literature whenever possible. The maximum temperatures for stable sulphates under normal operating conditions of the waste-heat boilers in sulphide smelting processes were obtained. This report will serve as the basis for the kinetic studies of the sulphation reactions and the sulphation reaction modelling in pyrometallurgical processes. (orig.) SULA 2 Programme. 36 refs.

  2. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Hannesson, Kirsten O.; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Enersen, Grethe; B?verfjord, Grete; Pedersen, Mona E.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400?d? was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were add...

  3. Fluocinolone acetonide partially restores the mineralization of LPS-stimulated dental pulp cells through inhibition of NF-κB pathway and activation of AP-1 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongning; Jiang, Ting; Wang, Xinzhi; Wang, Yixiang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Fluocinolone acetonide (FA) is commonly used as a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. We recently found that in dental pulp cells (DPCs) FA has osteo-/odonto-inductive as well as anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanism by which FA induces these effects in DPCs is poorly understood. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effect of FA on the mineralization of DPCs during inflammatory conditions and the underlying mechanism were investigated by real-time PCR, Western blot, EMSA, histochemical staining, immunostaining and pathway blockade assays. KEY RESULTS FA significantly inhibited the inflammatory response in LPS-treated DPCs not only by down-regulating the expression of pro–inflammation-related genes, but also by up-regulating the expression of the anti-inflammatory gene PPAR-γ and mineralization-related genes. Moreover, histochemical staining and immunostaining showed that FA could partially restore the expressions of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and mineralization in LPS-stimulated DPCs. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that FA up-regulated DSPP and runt-related transcription factor 2 expression by inhibiting the expression of phosphorylated-NF-κB P65 and activating activator protein-1 (AP-1) (p-c-Jun and Fra-1). These results were further confirmed through EMSA, by detection of NF-κB DNA-binding activity and pathway blockade assays using a NF-κB pathway inhibitor, AP-1 pathway inhibitor and glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Inflammation induced by LPS suppresses the mineralization process in DPCs. FA partially restored this osteo-/odonto-genesis process in LPS-treated DPCs and had an anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway and activation of the AP-1 pathway. Hence, FA is a potential new treatment for inflammation-associated bone/teeth diseases. PMID:24024985

  4. Sulphate rocks as an arena for karst development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejchuk V.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The rocks in which karst systems develop are most commonly composed of carbonate sulphate and chloride minerals. The sulphate minerals are quite numerous, but only gypsum and anhydrite form extensive masses in sedimentary sequences. Other minerals, which represent sulphates of K, Mg and Na, normally occur as minor beds (0.1-5.0 m, or as inclusions associated with chloride rocks. However some minerals precipitated in salt-generating basins, such as mirabilite and glauberite (typically formed in the Kara-Bogaz-Gol Gulf, salt lakes of Siberia and in China, form sequences up to 5-10 m thick where karst may develop. Due to the very high solubility of Na -sulphates, karst processes and features occurring in these rocks resemble salt karst. Thus, the term sulphate karst, although not strictly correct, is used mainly to indicate karst developed in gypsum and anhydrite.

  5. Sulphate in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Dawson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulphate is an obligate nutrient for healthy growth and development. Sulphate conjugation (sulphonation of proteoglycans maintains the structure and function of tissues. Sulphonation also regulates the bioactivity of steroids, thyroid hormone, bile acids, catecholamines and cholecystokinin, and detoxifies certain xenobiotics and pharmacological drugs. In adults and children, sulphate is obtained from the diet and from the intracellular metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids. Dietary sulphate intake can vary greatly and is dependent on the type of food consumed and source of drinking water. Once ingested, sulphate is absorbed into circulation where its level is maintained at approximately 300 μmol/L, making sulphate the fourth most abundant anion in plasma. In pregnant women, circulating sulphate concentrations increase by twofold with levels peaking in late gestation. This increased sulphataemia, which is mediated by up-regulation of sulphate reabsorption in the maternal kidneys, provides a reservoir of sulphate to meet the gestational needs of the developing foetus. The foetus has negligible capacity to generate sulphate and thereby, is completely reliant on sulphate supply from the maternal circulation. Maternal hyposulphataemia leads to foetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational foetal death in mice. In humans, reduced sulphonation capacity has been linked to skeletal dysplasias, ranging from the mildest form, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, to achondrogenesis Type IB, which results in severe skeletal underdevelopment and death in utero or shortly after birth. Despite being essential for numerous cellular and metabolic functions, the nutrient sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. This article will review the physiological roles and regulation of sulphate during pregnancy, with a particular focus on animal models of disturbed sulphate homeostasis and links to human pathophysiology.

  6. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  7. The soil sulphate effect and maize plant (Zea mays L.) growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) inoculation in acid sulfate soils with the different soil water condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmarlaili, S.; Rauf, A.; Hanafiah, D. S.; Sudarno, Y.; Abdi, P.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the potential application of sulphate reducing bacteria on acid sulfate soil with different water content in the green house. The research was carried out in the Laboratory and Green House, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sumatera Utara. This research used Randomized Block Design with two treatments factors, ie sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) isolate (control, LK4, LK6, TSM4, TSM3, AP4, AP3, LK4 + TSM3, LK4 + AP4, LK4 + AP3, LK6 + TSM3, LK6 + AP4, LK6 + AP3, TSM4 + TSM3, TSM4 + AP4, TSM4 + AP3) and water condition (100% field capacity and 110% field capacity). The results showed that application of isolate LK4 + AP4 with water condition 110% field capacity decreased the soil sulphate content (27.38 ppm) significantly after 6 weeks. Application of isolate LK4 + AP3 with water condition 110% field capacity increased soil pH (5.58) after-week efficacy 6. Application of isolate LK4 with water condition 110% field capacity increased plant growth (140 cm; 25.74 g) significantly after week 6. The best treatment was application isolate LK4 with water condition 110% field Capacity (SRB population 2.5x108; soil sulphate content 29.10ppm; soil acidity 4.78; plant height 140cm; plant weight 25.74g).

  8. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... with or immediately following the eruptions, through mediumtemperature ammonium minerals, metal chlorides, or fluoride associations to the late low-temperature paragenesis dominated by sulphur, gypsum, alunogen, and other hydrous sulphates. The situation can be different in the systems that are not recessing but show...

  9. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small ... canned salmon and sardines with bones leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli calcium-fortified foods — from orange ...

  10. Bacterial Reduction Of Barium Sulphate By Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide problem leading to contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. The barium salts application presents one of the methods for the sulphates removing from AMD. Barium chloride, barium hydroxide and barium sulphide are used for the sulphates precipitation in the form of barium sulphate. Because of high investment costs of barium salts, barium sulphide is recycled from barium sulphate precipitates. It can be recycled by thermic or bacterial reduction of barium sulphate. The aim of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of the bacterial transformation of BaSO4 to BaS by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Applied BaSO4 came from experiments of sulphates removal from Smolnik AMD using BaCl2.

  11. Got AP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digby, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Families, especially those considering sending their children to a private four-year university, need all the help they can get in funding college. Annmarie Guzy's essay "AP, Dual Enrollment, and the Survival of Honors Education" in this issue powerfully spells out the financial benefits that accrue from using AP courses to satisfy…

  12. Thermometric titration of sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M B; Janata, J

    1970-06-01

    Direct thermometric titration of sulphate with a solution of barium perchlorate is proposed. The stoichiometry of the titration is shown to be critically dependent on the concentration of ethanol in the titration medium. The titration is rapid and suffers from only a few interferences.

  13. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  14. The microbial communities and potential greenhouse gas production in boreal acid sulphate, non-acid sulphate, and reedy sulphidic soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šimek, Miloslav, E-mail: misim@upb.cas.cz [Biology Centre AS CR, v. v. i., Institute of Soil Biology, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Science, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Virtanen, Seija; Simojoki, Asko [Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Chroňáková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav [Biology Centre AS CR, v. v. i., Institute of Soil Biology, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Yli-Halla, Markku [Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-01-01

    Acid sulphate (AS) soils along the Baltic coasts contain significant amounts of organic carbon and nitrogen in their subsoils. The abundance, composition, and activity of microbial communities throughout the AS soil profile were analysed. The data from a drained AS soil were compared with those from a drained non-AS soil and a pristine wetland soil from the same region. Moreover, the potential production of methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from the soils was determined under laboratory conditions. Direct microscopic counting, glucose-induced respiration (GIR), whole cell hybridisation, and extended phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis confirmed the presence of abundant microbial communities in the topsoil and also in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil. The patterns of microbial counts, biomass and activity in the profile of the AS soil and partly also in the non-AS soil therefore differed from the general tendency of gradual decreases in soil profiles. High respiration in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil (5.66 μg C g{sup − 1} h{sup − 1}, as compared to 2.71 μg C g{sup − 1} h{sup − 1} in a top Ap horizon) is unusual but reasonable given the large amount of organic carbon in this horizon. Nitrous oxide production peaked in the BCgc horizon of the AS and in the BC horizon of the non-AS soil, but the peak value was ten-fold higher in the AS soil than in the non-AS soil (82.3 vs. 8.6 ng N g{sup − 1}d{sup − 1}). The data suggest that boreal AS soils on the Baltic coast contain high microbial abundance and activity. This, together with the abundant carbon and total and mineral nitrogen in the deep layers of AS soils, may result in substantial gas production. Consequently, high GHG emissions could occur, for example, when the generally high water table is lowered because of arable farming. - Highlights: •Boreal acid sulphate soils contain large amounts of organic C and N in subsoils. •Microbial communities throughout the acid

  15. Isotopic evolution of aqueous sulphate in northern Chile water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena, R.; Suzuki, O.; Fritz, P.; Pena, H.; Rauert, W.

    1987-01-01

    deposits in the Salares provides strong indication that groundwater sulphate was their precursor. The enriched values of the springs' sulphate suggest that oxidation of sulphide minerals is not the main source of the sulphate in the recharge area. The isotope content of the aqueous sulphate in these water could be generated by an input of marine sulphate of Permian age. However, the rocks in this area are mainly igneous and volcanic. A more likely sulphur source are sulphate minerals associated with sulphide minerals in these terrains. For example the sulphate in porphyry copper deposits, which ate abundant in the Chilean Andes, shows an isotope content between +6.8 per mille and +8.5 per mille for 18 O and +8.6 per mille and + 15.5 per mille for 34 S. In conclusion, the sulphate in the Pampa and Llamara water is probably of hydrothermal-magmatic and/or volcanic origin. It has been proposed that the 18 O isotope exchange between water and sulphate could be used as an age indicator. However, comparison of radiocarbon data in groundwater with the parameter 18 O sulphate - 18 O water does not show any correlation and, therefore, no age information can be deducted based on the 18 O evolution of the sulphate. (author)

  16. Volcanic lake systems as terrestrial analogue for sulphate-rich terrains on Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, A.

    2016-01-01

    Remote-sensing observations and rover missions have documented the abundant presence of sulphate-rich mineral associations on the surface of Mars. Together with widespread occurrences of silica and frequent enrichments of chlorine and bromine in soils and rocks, the sulphate associations are

  17. Dynamics of nitrogen in an oxic paleudalf soil with the incorporation of 15N-tagged organic nitrogen (maize straw) and 15N-tagged mineral nitrogen (ammonium sulphate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, J.R. de.

    1984-12-01

    An experiment, carried out under field conditions in 12 lysimeters, each containing 3.0 ton of Oxic Paleudalf soil with four replicates, is described. This objective is labelling soil organic N. Nitrogen was incorporated into soil as maize straw, non-labelled and labelled with 15 N and ammonium sulphate - 15 N. The soil was sampled every 15 days in three different depths. N as NH + 4 , NO - 3 , total-N and (%)C and (%) moisture was analysed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. The microbial communities and potential greenhouse gas production in boreal acid sulphate, non-acid sulphate, and reedy sulphidic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimek, Miloslav; Virtanen, Seija; Simojoki, Asko; Chroňáková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Yli-Halla, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Acid sulphate (AS) soils along the Baltic coasts contain significant amounts of organic carbon and nitrogen in their subsoils. The abundance, composition, and activity of microbial communities throughout the AS soil profile were analysed. The data from a drained AS soil were compared with those from a drained non-AS soil and a pristine wetland soil from the same region. Moreover, the potential production of methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from the soils was determined under laboratory conditions. Direct microscopic counting, glucose-induced respiration (GIR), whole cell hybridisation, and extended phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis confirmed the presence of abundant microbial communities in the topsoil and also in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil. The patterns of microbial counts, biomass and activity in the profile of the AS soil and partly also in the non-AS soil therefore differed from the general tendency of gradual decreases in soil profiles. High respiration in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil (5.66 μg Cg(-1)h(-1), as compared to 2.71 μg Cg(-1)h(-1) in a top Ap horizon) is unusual but reasonable given the large amount of organic carbon in this horizon. Nitrous oxide production peaked in the BCgc horizon of the AS and in the BC horizon of the non-AS soil, but the peak value was ten-fold higher in the AS soil than in the non-AS soil (82.3 vs. 8.6 ng Ng(-1)d(-1)). The data suggest that boreal AS soils on the Baltic coast contain high microbial abundance and activity. This, together with the abundant carbon and total and mineral nitrogen in the deep layers of AS soils, may result in substantial gas production. Consequently, high GHG emissions could occur, for example, when the generally high water table is lowered because of arable farming. © 2013.

  19. Copper sulphate poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M

    1975-01-01

    In the archives of the Clinic for Internal Diseases of Domestic Animals at the Veterinary Faculty of Zagreb University some thirty cases of horse disease diagnosed as copper sulphate poisoning were noted. The data correspond in many respects to the clinical findings of copper sulphate poisoning in other domestic animals. A series of experimental horse poisonings were undertaken in order to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate. The research results are as follows: Horses are sensitive to copper sulphate. Even a single application of 0.125 g/kg body weight in 1% concentration by means of incubation into the stomach causes stomach and gut disturbances and other poisoning symptoms. Poisoning occurs in two types: acute and chronic. The former appears after one to three applications of copper sulphate solution and is characterized by gastroenteritis, haemolysis, jaundice and haemoglobinuria with signs of consecutive damage of kidney, liver and other organs. The disease, from the first application to death lasts for two weeks. Chronic poisoning is caused by ingestion of dry copper sulphate in food (1% solution dried on hay or clover) for two or more months. There are chronic disturbances of stomach and gut and loss of weight, and consecutive (three to four) haemolytic crises similar to those of acute poisoning. From the beginning of poisoning to death six or more months can elapse.

  20. Microscopic analysis of dog dental pulp after pulpotomy and pulp protection with mineral trioxide aggregate and white Portland cement Análise microscópica da polpa dental de cães após pulpotomia e proteção pulpar com agregado de trióxido mineral e cimento Portland branco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Menezes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering previous studies on the similarity between the chemical composition of the mineral trioxide aggregate and the Portland cement, the purpose of this study was to investigate the pulp response of dog's teeth after pulpotomy and direct pulp protection with MTA Angelus and white Portland cement. Thirty eight pulp remnants were protected with these materials. One hundred and twenty days after treatment, the animals were sacrificed and the specimens removed and prepared for histological analysis. Both materials demonstrated the same results when used as pulp capping materials, inducing hard tissue bridge formation and maintaining pulp vitality in all specimens. The MTA Angelus and the white Portland cement showed to be effective as pulp protection materials following pulpotomy.Considerando estudos anteriores sobre a similaridade entre a composição química do agregado de trióxido mineral e o cimento Portland, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a resposta pulpar de dentes de cães após pulpotomia e proteção pulpar direta com MTA Angelus e cimento Portland branco. Trinta e oito remanescentes pulpares foram recobertos com esses materiais. Cento e vinte dias após o tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e os espécimes removidos e preparados para análise histológica. Ambos os materiais demonstraram os mesmos resultados quando utilizados como materiais de capeamento pulpar, induzindo a formação de ponte de tecido mineralizado e mantendo a vitalidade pulpar em todos os espécimes. Ambos matérias se mostraram efetivos como protetores pulpares após pulpotomia em dentes de cães.

  1. Removal heavy metals and sulphate from waste waters by sulphate-reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnierová Mária

    2000-09-01

    Krompachy by use of the activity of SRB, mixed strains were isolated, cultivated, and their production of hydrogen sulphide was assessed. The cultures were then tested for the ability to precipitate copper and sulphates from a model solution.The bacteria were isolated from water samples from two localities: Východoslovenské železiarne (works – VSŽ and spring Gajdovka – Gj. Isolation, cultivation and eliminating Cu2+ and SO42- was carried out under following conditions: statically, temperature 30 oC, pH 7,5, nutrient medium by J. Postgate (medium B, C and D and anaerobic conditions. Residual copper in the solution was measured by atomic absorption photometry. The concentracion of sulphates in the solution was measured by the nefelometric method.Our findings from the isolation of SRB from two Slovak water samples and testing the cultures for their ability to remove copper permit the following conclusions: SRB occur in sufficient numbers in sulphur mineral water from natural sources and in industrial waste waters reservoirs, the sulphate-reducing activity can be harnessed for the purification of some industrial waste waters.The nature possesses a great biological potential that can be exploited under certain conditions in the cleanup of environmental pollution resulting from the industrial activity in the past and present.

  2. Sulphate solubility and sulphate diffusion in oxide glasses: implications for the containment of sulphate-bearing nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoir, M.

    2009-09-01

    The thesis deals with sulphate solubility and sulphate diffusion in oxide glasses, in order to control sulphate incorporation and sulphate volatilization in nuclear waste glasses. It was conducted on simplified compositions, in the SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 -R 2 O (R = Li, Na, K, Cs), SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 -BaO and V 2 O 5 -B 2 O 3 -BaO systems. These compositions allowed us to study the influence of the nature of network-modifying ions (Li + , Na + , K + , Cs + or Ba 2+ ) and also of former elements (Si, B, V), on structure and properties of glasses. Sulphate volatility is studied in sodium borosilicate melts using an innovative technique of sulphate quantitation with Raman spectroscopy. This technique is useful to obtain kinetic curves of sulphate volatilization. The establishment of a model to fit these curves leads to the determination of diffusion coefficients of sulphate. These diffusion coefficients can thus be compared to diffusion coefficients of other species, determined by other techniques and presented in the literature. They are also linked to diffusion coefficients in relation with the viscosity of the melts. Concerning sulphate solubility in glasses, it depends on glass composition and on the nature of sulphate incorporated. Sulphate incorporation in alkali borosilicate glasses leads to the formation of a sulphate layer floating on top of the melt. Sulphate incorporation in barium borosilicate and boro-vanadate glasses leads to the crystallization of sulphate species inside the vitreous matrix. Moreover, sulphate solubility is higher in these glasses than in alkali borosilicates. Finally, exchanges between cations present in glasses and cations present in the sulphate phase are also studied. (author)

  3. Study of the sulphate expansion phenomenon in concrete: behaviour of the cemented radioactive wastes containing sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guanshu

    1994-01-01

    Sulphate attack is one of the major degradation processes of concrete. It is especially important in storing cemented radioactive wastes containing sulphate. In this thesis, we have thoroughly investigated the degradation mechanisms of cemented radioactive wastes by sulphate. The CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SO 3 -H 2 O systems with and without alkalis are studied. For the system without alkalis, experimental results show that it is the formation of a secondary ettringite under external water supply by steric effect that causes the expansion. For the system with alkalis, the ettringite does not appear while a new mineral called 'U', a sodium-substituted AFm phase is detected. This phase is shown to be responsible for the expansion and destruction of the specimens. The conditions for the formation, the product of solubility and many means of its synthesis are discussed, and a complete list of the inter-reticular distances file is given. The behaviour of the different types of cemented wastes containing sulphate are then studied with a special focus on the U phase on entity which was heretofore very little understood. The following three hypothetical mechanisms of sulphate expansion are proposed: the formation of the secondary U phase, the transformation of the U phase to the ettringite and the topochemical hydration of thenardite into mirabilite. Experiments on a simplified system have demonstrated clearly that the formation of the secondary U phase can induce enormous expansion by steric effect, this justifying the first assumption. Simulation by the mass and volume balances is carried out thereafter and enables us to estimate the expansion induced by the formation of the secondary U phase in the cemented wastes. The second assumption is also well verified by a series of leaching tests in different solutions on mixtures containing the U phase. On the basis of the analysis of the specimens under leaching, it has been assumed that the expansion is associated with the

  4. Sulphate reduction experiment: SURE-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.; Arlinger, J.; Bengtsson, A.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, L.; Hallbeck, L.; Johansson, J.; Paeaejaervi, A.; Rabe, L.

    2013-11-01

    It was previously concluded that opposing gradients of sulphate and methane, observations of 16S rDNA sequences displaying great similarity to those of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea, and a peak in sulphide concentration in groundwater from a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, Finland, indicated proper conditions for methane oxidation with sulphate. In the present research (SURE-1), pressure-resistant, gas-tight circulating systems were constructed to enable the investigation of attached and unattached anaerobic microbial populations from a depth of 327 m in Olkiluoto under in situ pressure (2.4 MPa), diversity, dissolved gas, and hydrochemical conditions of groundwater station ONKPVA6. Three parallel flow cell cabinets were configured to allow observation of the influence on microbial metabolic activity of 11 mM methane, 11 mM methane plus 10 mM H 2 , or 2.1 mM O 2 plus 7.9 mM N 2 (i.e., air). The concentrations of these gases and of organic acids and carbon, sulphur chemistry, pH and E h , ATP, numbers of cultivable microorganisms, and total numbers of cells and bacteriophages were subsequently recorded under batch conditions for 105 d. The system containing H 2 and methane displayed microbial reduction of 0.7 mM sulphate to sulphide, while the system containing only methane produced 0.2 mM reduced sulphate. The system containing added air became inhibited and displayed no signs of microbial activity. Added H 2 and methane induced increasing numbers of lysogenic bacteriophages per cell. It appears possible that a microbial anaerobic methane-oxidizing process coupled to acetate formation and sulphate reduction may be ongoing in aquifers at a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, but clear evidence of such an AOM process was not obtained. (orig.)

  5. Sulphate reduction experiment: SURE-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K.; Arlinger, J.; Bengtsson, A.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, L.; Hallbeck, L.; Johansson, J.; Paeaejaervi, A.; Rabe, L. [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    It was previously concluded that opposing gradients of sulphate and methane, observations of 16S rDNA sequences displaying great similarity to those of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea, and a peak in sulphide concentration in groundwater from a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, Finland, indicated proper conditions for methane oxidation with sulphate. In the present research (SURE-1), pressure-resistant, gas-tight circulating systems were constructed to enable the investigation of attached and unattached anaerobic microbial populations from a depth of 327 m in Olkiluoto under in situ pressure (2.4 MPa), diversity, dissolved gas, and hydrochemical conditions of groundwater station ONKPVA6. Three parallel flow cell cabinets were configured to allow observation of the influence on microbial metabolic activity of 11 mM methane, 11 mM methane plus 10 mM H{sub 2}, or 2.1 mM O{sub 2} plus 7.9 mM N{sub 2} (i.e., air). The concentrations of these gases and of organic acids and carbon, sulphur chemistry, pH and E{sub h}, ATP, numbers of cultivable microorganisms, and total numbers of cells and bacteriophages were subsequently recorded under batch conditions for 105 d. The system containing H{sub 2} and methane displayed microbial reduction of 0.7 mM sulphate to sulphide, while the system containing only methane produced 0.2 mM reduced sulphate. The system containing added air became inhibited and displayed no signs of microbial activity. Added H{sub 2} and methane induced increasing numbers of lysogenic bacteriophages per cell. It appears possible that a microbial anaerobic methane-oxidizing process coupled to acetate formation and sulphate reduction may be ongoing in aquifers at a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, but clear evidence of such an AOM process was not obtained. (orig.)

  6. Radioprotective effects of dextran sulphate in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, A.; Bartonickova, A.; Rotkovska, D.; Palyga, G.F.; Zhukova, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Influence of a single i.p. injection of dextran sulphate on radiosensitivity of mice was investigated. The administration of dextran sulphate 24, 48 and 72 hours prior to irradiation increased formation of endogenous colonies of the hemopoietic tissue on the surface of the spleen. DRF calculated from an equieffective exposure for 5 colonies was 1.96 when dextran sulphate was administered 24 hours before irradiation, and 2.25 when dextran sulphate was administered 72 hours before irradiation. The radioprotective effects of dextran sulphate were manifested also in the survival of animals exposed to lethal doses of short-termed as well as long-termed gamma radiation. (orig.) [de

  7. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    to be processed and purified to extract the metal either by sulphate or chloride route. The economical aspects of placer mining would involve the cost to benefit ratio, which would encompass the money Selective sorting has resulted in two distinct sediments... or mineral at the national and international levels. Interestingly, though gold is the most sought metal and the prices per gram keep rising, there are others that are much more costly such as diamond and rare earth metals. Uses of Heavy Minerals...

  8. Mineral statistics yearbook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of mineral production in Saskatchewan was compiled and presented as a reference manual. Statistical information on fuel minerals such as crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and coal, and of industrial and metallic minerals, such as potash, sodium sulphate, salt and uranium, was provided in all conceivable variety of tables. Production statistics, disposition and value of sales of industrial and metallic minerals were also made available. Statistical data on drilling of oil and gas reservoirs and crown land disposition were also included. figs., tabs

  9. Sodium Sulphate Effect on Cement Produced with Building Stone Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Sancak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the blended cements produced by using the building stone waste were exposed to sulphate solution and the cement properties were examined. Prepared mortar specimens were cured under water for 28 days and then they were exposed to three different proportions of sodium sulphate solution for 125 days. Performances of cements were determined by means of compressive strength and tensile strength tests. The broken parts of some mortar bars were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Besides, they were left under moist atmosphere and their length change was measured and continuously monitored for period of 125 days. In blended cements, solely cements obtained by replacing 10–20% of diatomites gave similar strength values with ordinary Portland cement (CEM I 42.5R at the ages of 7, 28, and 56 days. In all mortar specimens that included either waste andesite (AP or marble powder (MP showed best performance against very severe effective sodium sulphate solutions (13500 mg/L.

  10. Magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bickford, Celeste D; Magee, Laura A; Mitton, Craig

    2013-01-01

    of cerebral palsy (CP) averted and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). RESULTS: From a health system and a societal perspective, respectively, a savings of $2,242 and $112,602 is obtained for each QALY gained and a savings of $30,942 and $1,554,198 is obtained for each case of CP averted when magnesium......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of administering magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth at ... sensitivity analyses were used to compare the administration of magnesium sulphate with the alternative of no treatment. Two separate cost perspectives were utilized in this series of analyses: a health system and a societal perspective. In addition, two separate measures of effectiveness were utilized: cases...

  11. Sulphate removal from uraniferous liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, B.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the recovery of uranium from liquor resulting from the attack of sulphur containing uraniferous ores by an alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate is claimed. An ion exchange resin is used to separate the uranium from the solution of sodium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and sodium sulphate. The ion exchange resin is then eluted with a solution of ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate to provide an eluate containing ammonium uranyl tricarbonate, ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and ammonium sulphate. The eluate is heated to boiling to convert the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate to ammonium uranate and/or diuranate. Ammonia, carbon dioxide and water vapor are released. The precipitated ammonium uranate and/or diuranate is separated from the remaining liquor and calcined to give uranium trioxide

  12. Intoxication experiments with beryllium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucurescu, I.; Stan, T.

    1990-01-01

    The changes in the particular number of animals in two groups of 40 rats each subjected to intoxication experiments with beryllium sulphate was investigated. The two investigations had very different characteristics. In the case of chronic intoxication there was a marked lethality over given time intervals. In the case of subacute intoxication the number of animals decreased with time. It was found empirically that this change can be described by an exponential relationship which lends itself to statistical interpretation. (author)

  13. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannesson, Kirsten O; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Enersen, Grethe; Bæverfjord, Grete; Pedersen, Mona E

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400 d° was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were addressed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the different GAGs. The specific pattern obtained with the different antibodies suggests a unique role of the different GAG types in pattern formation and mineralization. In addition, the distribution of the different GAG types in normal and malformed vertebral columns from 15 g salmon was compared. A changed expression pattern of GAGs was found in the malformed vertebrae, indicating the involvement of these molecules during the pathogenesis. The molecular size of proteoglycans (PGs) in the vertebrae carrying GAGs was analysed with western blotting, and mRNA transcription of the PGs aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican by real-time qPCR. Our study reveals the importance of GAGs in development of vertebral column also in Atlantic salmon and indicates that a more comprehensive approach is necessary to completely understand the processes involved.

  14. The Metal And Sulphate Removal From Mine Drainage Waters By Biological-Chemical Ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenčárová Jana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mine drainage waters are often characterized by high concentrations of sulphates and metals as a consequence of the mining industry of sulphide minerals. The aims of this work are to prove some biological-chemical processes utilization for the mine drainage water treatment. The studied principles of contamination elimination from these waters include sulphate reduction and metal bioprecipitation by the application of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB. Other studied process was metal sorption by prepared biogenic sorbent. Mine drainage waters from Slovak localities Banská Štiavnica and Smolník were used to the pollution removal examination. In Banská Štiavnica water, sulphates decreased below the legislative limit. The elimination of zinc by sorption experiments achieved 84 % and 65 %, respectively.

  15. Sulphate reduction in the Aespoe HRL tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, G.; Pedersen, K.; Tullborg, E.L.; Wallin, B.; Wikberg, P.

    1995-12-01

    Evidence and indications of sulphate reduction based on geological, hydrogeological, groundwater, isotope and microbial data gathered in and around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel have been evaluated. This integrated investigation showed that sulphate reduction had taken place in the past but is most likely also an ongoing process. Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria can live in marine sediments, in the tunnel sections under the sea and in deep groundwaters, since there is no access to oxygen. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to thrive when the Cl - concentration of the groundwater is 4000-6000 mg/l. Sulphate reduction is an in situ process but the resulting hydrogen-sulphide rich water can be transported to other locations. A more vigorous sulphate reduction takes place when the organic content in the groundwater is high (>10 mg/l DOC) which is the case in the sediments and in the groundwaters under the sea. Some bacteria use hydrogen as an electron donor instead of organic carbon and can therefore live in deep environments where access to organic material is limited. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to adapt to changing flow situations caused by the tunnel construction relatively fast. Sulphate reduction seems to have occurred and will probably occur where conditions are favourable for the sulphate-reducing bacteria such as anaerobic brackish groundwater with dissolved sulphate and organic carbon or hydrogen. 59 refs, 37 figs, 6 tabs

  16. Monitoring structural transformation of hydroxy-sulphate green rust in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmoula, M.; Zegeye, A.; Jorand, F.; Carteret, C.

    2006-01-01

    The activities of bacterial consortia enable organisms to maximize their metabolic capabilities. This article assesses the synergetic relationship between iron reducing bacteria (IRB), Shewanella putrefaciens and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Thus, the aim of this study was first to form a biogenic hydroxy-sulpahte green rust GR2(SO 4 -2 ) through the bioreduction of lepidocrocite by S. putrefaciens and secondly to investigate if sulfate anions intercalated in the biogenic GR2(SO 4 -2 ) could serve as final electron acceptor for a sulfate reducing bacterium, D. alaskensis. The results indicate that the IRB lead to the formation of GR2(SO 4 -2 ) and this mineral serve as an electron acceptor for SRB. GR2(SO 4 -2 ) precipitation and its transformation was demonstrated by using X-ray diffraction (DRX), Moessbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). These observations point out the possible acceleration of steel corrosion in marine environment in presence of IRB/SRB consortia.

  17. AP Music Theory Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Matthew H.

    2016-01-01

    Some American high schools include Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory within their course offerings. Students who pass the AP exam can receive college credit either as a music or humanities credit. An AP class, however, offers music students more than future college credit; it ultimately improves musicianship skills and promotes deeper…

  18. Removal of sulphates from waste waters by sulphate-reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available are present in almost all types of water, usually as a simple anion SO42-. The sulphates together with hydrogencarbonates and chlorides are principal anions in natural waters. In typical underground and surface waters, the concentration of sulphates is in the range from ten to hundreds milligrams per litre.Nowadays, the importance of the control of sulphate concentration in waste waters increases. According to the Slovak legislation the limit concentration of sulphates in surface and drinking waters is 250 mg.l-1 . In rivers the contents of sulphates increases mainly by the discharge of waste waters, which are coming mainly from chemical, textile, metallurgical, pharmaceutical, paper and mining industry. The concentration of sulphates in these waters is in the order of grams per litre.Many technologies for the sulphates removal from waste waters exist, including biologico-chemical processes. The principle of one of these methods is the reduction of sulphates by sulphate-reducing bacteria to hydrogen-sulphide.The objective of this work was to study the effect of initial sulphates concentration on the activity of anaerobic sulphate reducers as well as the kinetics of the anaerobic sulphate reduction. The batch reactor was used at temperature of 30°C and pH 7,5. Lactate was used as the carbon source.

  19. Extraction of sulphates by long chain amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boirie, Ch.

    1959-05-01

    The extraction of sulphuric acid by long chain amines in organic solution has been studied with a view to determining the value of the stability constants of the amine sulphates and bi-sulphates formed. We have concentrated chiefly on uranium sulphate and thorium sulphate. The formulae of the complexes extractable with amines have been established, as well as the corresponding dissociation constants. We have observed that for uranium sulphate the formula of the complex depends only on the nature of the amine, whereas for thorium this formula varies with the amine structure. From the formulae determined and the value of the constants calculated, we have been able to establish the best conditions for uranium and thorium extraction and also for a separation of these two elements. Finally we propose an application of this study to the determination of uranium in ores, where the separation of uranium by this method is particularly easy and complete. (author) [fr

  20. Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratoryprovides this nation's (in fact, this hemisphere's) brightest storage...

  1. AP statistics crash course

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    AP Statistics Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Statistics Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Statistics course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Our easy-to-read format covers: exploring da

  2. APS Science 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.M.; Fenner, R.B.; Long, G.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.

    2007-01-01

    In my five years as the Director of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), I have been fortunate to see major growth in the scientific impact from the APS. This year I am particularly enthusiastic about prospects for our longer-term future. Every scientific instrument must remain at the cutting edge to flourish. Our plans for the next generation of APS--an APS upgrade--got seriously in gear this year with strong encouragement from our users and sponsors. The most promising avenue that has emerged is the energy-recovery linac (ERL) (see article on page xx), for which we are beginning serious R and D. The ERL(at)APS would offer revolutionary performance, especially for x-ray imaging and ultrafast science, while not seriously disrupting the existing user base. I am very proud of our accelerator physics and engineering staff, who not only keep the current APS at the forefront, but were able to greatly impress our international Machine Advisory Committee with the quality of their work on the possible upgrade option (see page xx). As we prepare for long-term major upgrades, our plans to develop and optimize all the sectors at APS in the near future are advancing. Several new beamlines saw first light this year, including a dedicated powder diffraction beamline (11-BM), two instruments for inelastic x-ray scattering at sector 30, and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our partnership in the first x-ray free-electron laser (LCLS) to be built at Stanford contributes to revolutionary growth in ultrafast science (see page xx), and we are developing a pulse chirping scheme to get ps pulses at sector 7 of the APS within a year or so. In this report, you will find selected highlights of scientific research at the APS from calendar year 2006. The highlighted work covers diverse disciplines, from fundamental to applied science. In the article on page xx you can see the direct impact of APS research on technology. Several new products have emerged

  3. APS Science 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. M.; Fenner, R. B.; Long, G.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.

    2007-05-24

    In my five years as the Director of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), I have been fortunate to see major growth in the scientific impact from the APS. This year I am particularly enthusiastic about prospects for our longer-term future. Every scientific instrument must remain at the cutting edge to flourish. Our plans for the next generation of APS--an APS upgrade--got seriously in gear this year with strong encouragement from our users and sponsors. The most promising avenue that has emerged is the energy-recovery linac (ERL) (see article on page xx), for which we are beginning serious R&D. The ERL{at}APS would offer revolutionary performance, especially for x-ray imaging and ultrafast science, while not seriously disrupting the existing user base. I am very proud of our accelerator physics and engineering staff, who not only keep the current APS at the forefront, but were able to greatly impress our international Machine Advisory Committee with the quality of their work on the possible upgrade option (see page xx). As we prepare for long-term major upgrades, our plans to develop and optimize all the sectors at APS in the near future are advancing. Several new beamlines saw first light this year, including a dedicated powder diffraction beamline (11-BM), two instruments for inelastic x-ray scattering at sector 30, and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our partnership in the first x-ray free-electron laser (LCLS) to be built at Stanford contributes to revolutionary growth in ultrafast science (see page xx), and we are developing a pulse chirping scheme to get ps pulses at sector 7 of the APS within a year or so. In this report, you will find selected highlights of scientific research at the APS from calendar year 2006. The highlighted work covers diverse disciplines, from fundamental to applied science. In the article on page xx you can see the direct impact of APS research on technology. Several new products have emerged from

  4. Sulphate deposition by precipitation into Lake Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R W; Whelpdale, D M

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of sulphate concentration in precipitation from individual snow storms of several hours duration in the western Lake Ontario region indicate that approximately 9-66 mg/M/sub 2/ of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ is being deposited into the lake per storm. This amount is up to several times more than daily average values over long periods found by other workers. Using a mean sulphate concentration of 4 mg/l and an annual accumulation of precipitation of 760 mm, the yearly sulphate deposition by precipitation is about 0.1% of the total mass of sulphate in the lake; however, more significantly, it is of the same order of magnitude as that discharged directly into the lake by industry.

  5. Exercício físico regular diminui o estresse oxidativo pulmonar em ratos após exposição aguda ao carvão mineral El ejercicio físico regular reduce la respuesta oxidativa pulmonar en los ratones después de la exhibición afilada al carbón mineral Regular physical exercises decrease the oxidant pulmonary stress in rats after acute exposure to mineral coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Pinho

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudos têm apontado o exercício físico regular de baixa a moderada intensidade como um importante agente no combate ao estresse oxidativo. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito do exercício físico regular na resposta oxidativa pulmonar após a inalação de pó de carvão mineral. Vinte e quatro ratos Wistar machos (200-250g foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos com respectivos controles (treinado, n = 6 e não-treinado, n = 6. Os animais receberam, por instilação traqueal, pó de carvão mineral (3mg/0,5ml salina, três dias/semana, durante três semanas ou 0,5ml de solução salina 0,9%. Quarenta e oito horas após a última instilação, o grupo treinado foi submetido a um programa de exercício progressivo em esteira durante 12 semanas (até 17m.min-1, 50min.dia-1, 10% de inclinação. Quarenta e oito horas após a última sessão de treinamento, todos os animais foram mortos por decapitação e os pulmões e sóleo foram cirurgicamente removidos para posterior análise bioquímica. A atividade da citrato-sintase foi determinada no músculo sóleo e os danos em lipídios e proteínas foram avaliados nos pulmões pela concentração de TBARS e pela determinação de grupos carbonil, respectivamente. Os resultados mostram que a prática regular de exercício físico reduz significativamente os níveis presentes de TBARS em ratos treinados e diminui os níveis de oxidação em proteínas em ambos os grupos quando comparados com os respectivos controles. Os resultados nos levam a sugerir que o exercício físico regular em esteira é um agente capaz de amenizar os danos oxidativos pulmonares induzidos pela inalação de partículas de carvão mineral.Los estudios han estado apuntando el ejercicio físico regular de intensidad baja a moderada como un agente importante en el combate a la tensión oxidativa. El objetivo de ese estudio era investigar el efecto del ejercicio físico para regular la respuesta oxidativa

  6. Autoantibody profiling in APS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenbuck, D; Somma, V; Schierack, P; Borghi, M O; Meroni, P L

    2014-10-01

    The international consensus for the classification of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) requires clinical and laboratory criteria to be considered at an equal level for diagnosing APS. Thus, detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) being a hallmark of APS has been the object of intensive investigation over the past 40 years. However, appropriate detection of aPL still remains a laboratory challenge due to their heterogeneity comprising autoantibodies reactive to different phospholipid-binding plasma proteins, such as beta-2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and prothrombin. The relevance of aPL interacting with phospholipids other than cardiolipin (CL, diphosphatidylglycerol), such as phosphatidylserine (PS), remains elusive with regard to the diagnosis of APS. Recently, the concept of aPL profiling has been introduced to assess the risk of thrombotic complications in patients with APS. New assay techniques, apart from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) recommended by the international consensus for the classification of APS, have been proposed for multiplexing of aPL testing. Line immunoassays (LIAs) employing a novel hydrophobic solid phase for the simultaneous detection of different aPL seem to be an intriguing alternative. We evaluated a novel multiplex LIA employing a hydrophobic membrane coated with different phospholipid (PL)-binding proteins or PLs. The performance characteristics of this new multiplexing assay technique demonstrated its usefulness for aPL profiling. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. APS Science 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. M; Mills, D. M.; Gerig, R.

    2010-05-01

    It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to the efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report

  8. Sulphur and oxygen isotopic compositions of groundwater and sabkha - sulphate in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    The climate and topography of landward margins around the southern Mediterranean and the Arabian Gulf have given rise to areas of recent evaporite formation known as 'sabkhas'. These supratidal evaporitic flats have developed as a result of a relative fall in sea level after the last marine transgression (about 4000 years B.P.) which deposited carbonate sediments over coastal areas. Inland sabkhas may also develop in low lying areas and the desert 'soils' often have a 'getch' (duricrust) layer of gypsum or calcite near the surface. Published sulphur isotope studies of the sabkhas in the Gulf of Sirte (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya), Al Khiran (Kuwait) and Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) indicate a sea water influence (δ 34 S ≅ +21 per mille; δ 18 O ≅ +10 per mille) only in the outer sabkha. At Al Khiran, Gulf of Sirte and Bardawil (Egypt) the δ 34 S values decrease to +14 per mille on the landward side. Continental sabkhas in the United Arab Emirates have δ 34 S values between +13 and +16 per mille and the continental getch in Kuwait has δ 34 S=+15.6 per mille. Sulphate minerals from the Al Khiran sabkha have δ 34 S and δ 18 O values up to +17 and +16 per mille respectively, much lower than at Abu Dhabi, where sea water sulphate and bacterial activity are more prevalent. At Al Khiran the δ 34 S mineral values drop to +12 per mille and the spread is connected with mineral transformations. In the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and the United Arab Emirates the continental sulphate was thought to be derived from Cretaceous sediments. However, in Kuwait, an aquiclude, the Rus Formation (L. Eocene), prevents older water and sulphate from entering the sabkhas. This widespread sulphate source with δ 34 S=+14 per mille may be derived from continental getch and surface evaporites which are transported and homogenized by dust storms. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  9. APS SCIENCE 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner, Richard B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    2017-05-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) occupies an 80-acre site on the Argonne national laboratory campus, about 25 miles from downtown chicago, illinois. it shares the site with the center for nanoscale materials and the Advanced Protein characterization facility. for directions to Argonne, see http://www.anl.gov/directions-and-visitor-information. The APS, a national synchrotron radiation research facility operated by Argonne for the u.S. department of energy (doe) office of Science, provides this nation’s brightest high-energy x-ray beams for science. research by APS users extends from the center of the earth to outer space, from new information on combustion engines and microcircuits to new drugs and nanotechnologies whose scale is measured in billionths of a meter. The APS helps researchers illuminate answers to the challenges of our high-tech world, from developing new forms of energy, to sustaining our nation’s technological and economic competitiveness, to pushing back against the ravages of disease. research at the APS promises to have far-reaching

  10. The Reclamation of Industrial Wastes Inclusive Sulphates by Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Kušnierová

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of using coal mine drainage and gypsum from the „stabilizate“ (the final product from the combustion desulphurisation as the source of sulphate for the cultivation of SRB with the prospect of: purging of mine waste waters inclusive sulphates, recycling of desulphurisation agent (limestone and production of elemental sulphur from hydrogen sulphide. The results confirmed the theoretical assumptions on the use of gypsum, which forms the substantial component of „stabilizate“, as the source of sulphate for sulphate-reducing bacteria, which produce hydrogen sulphide in the process of bacterial reduction of sulphates. They also showed the possibility of recycling the desulphurisation agent – limestone, as well as the realistic alternative of using „stabilizate“ in the production of elemental sulphur which still represents an important raw material needed in chemical, paper or other industries.

  11. The Sulphate Effect on Lijiaxia Concrete Dam (China Gallery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufen Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concrete degradation is one of the most serious problems for a dam construct during the normal operation, which determines the dam service life. Hence, it is very important to reduce the extent of the dam concrete degradation for the safety of the dam normal operation. Here, Lijiaxia hydroelectric station is taken as an example, and a comprehensive method to assess the sulphate effect on dam gallery is proposed. Eleven samples in total were taken from three difference locations by the drill bore. The microstructural investigations including X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were conducted to assess the sulphate attack and the degradation degree. Meanwhile, the water chemical analysis was applied to reveal the mechanism of concrete degradation. The experimental and analysis results indicate that the concrete degradation degree varies with the location of the samples. The components of the concrete change and the content of SO3 increase dramatically during degradation. Moreover, the mineral facies of the concrete change correspondingly, with the cement paste substituted by the calcite, calcium vitriol, and gypsum. The reinforcement and precaution measures are suggested based on the results of the degradation assessment.

  12. TiO2 effect on break-down of low-grade tantalum-niobium concentrates in the process of sulphatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, N.V.; Popov, A.D.; Mulenko, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of TiO 2 additive or materials containing it on tantalum-niobate decomposition in the process of sulphatization is investigated. It is shown that favourable effect of titanium dioxide in the process of sulphatization is especially noticeable in reprocessing of hard-brokening down tantalum-niobium concentrates with low Nb:Ta ratio etc. Chemical composition and type of tantalum-niobium mineralization of enrichment products used in the given investigation is presented. It is stated that the degree of concentrate break-down under similar sulphatization conditions (t=230 deg C; tau=2 h) essentially depends on the quantity of the introduced titanium dioxide. It is shown that sulphatization in the presence of titanium dioxide additive or materials containing it permits to exercise practically complete break-down of lean tantalum-niobium raw material, to avoid application of complexers in leaching of sulphatization products

  13. Post traumatic tetanus and role magnesium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikendr, R.I.; Samad, B.U.; Memon, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Tetanus is a life threatening disease. Reported mortality for tetanus is 15-39%. Conventional treatment includes heavy sedation and artificial ventilation. Complications resulting from long term heavy sedation and artificial ventilation contribute to 60% of the total mortality caused by tetanus. In this study magnesium sulphate was used to reduce the need for sedation and artificial ventilation. Objectives of this prospective study were to determine the role of magnesium sulphate in post traumatic tetanus. The study was carried out in surgical Intensive Care at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad from Jan 2004 to Dec 2007. Forty-four patients presented during this period and 33 patients were included in the study. All patients had tracheostomy done within 48 hours. Every patient was started Magnesium Sulphate therapy for control of spasms after sending baseline investigations. Patients were given ventilatory support when needed. All data was entered in well structured proforma. SPSS-10 was used to analyse data. Thirty-three patients were included in the study and all patients were given magnesium sulphate. Out of these, 45.5% cases were grade 4 tetanus, 73.6% and 63.3% cases did not require artificial ventilation and additional sedation respectively, 51.1% patients remained free of complications of tetanus. Overall mortality was 30.3%. Use of Magnesium Sulphate is safe and reduces the need for sedation and artificial ventilation in high grade tetanus thus contributing to survival benefit in adult post-traumatic tetanus cases. (author)

  14. Removal of radium from aqueous sulphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, D.R.; Masters, J.T.; Neven, M.

    1983-01-01

    Radium is often present in ores and an aqueous solution associated with the ore may consequently contain dissolved radium. It is frequently necessary to remove radium from such solutions to reduce the total radium content to a prescribed low level before the solution can be returned to the environment. The present invention is based on the discovery that the total radium content can be reduced to a satisfactory level within a reasonable time by adding a soluble barium salt to a radium-containing sulphate solution which also contains dissolved magnesium at a pH not greater than about 0 to precipitate radium as barium radium sulphate, raising the pH to at least 11 to precipitate an insoluble magnesium compound which collects the barium radium sulphate precipitate, and separating substantially all of the precipitates from the solution

  15. APS power supply controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications

  16. Sulphate leaching from diffuse agricultural and forest sources in a large central European catchment during 1900-2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Porcal, Petr; Posch, M.

    470, February (2014), s. 543-550 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/09/0567 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : modelling * sulphate leaching * sulphur mineralization * diffuse sources Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 4.099, year: 2014

  17. Thermal decomposition of uranyl sulphate hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Ozawa, F.; Ikoma, S.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of uranyl sulphate hydrate (UO 2 SO 4 .3H 2 O) has been investigated by thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrophotometry. As a result, it is concluded that uranyl sulphate hydrate decomposes thermally: UO 2 SO 4 .3H 2 O → UO 2 SO 4 .xH 2 O(2.5 = 2 SO 4 . 2H 2 O → UO 2 SO 4 .H 2 O → UO 2 SO 4 → α-UO 2 SO 4 → β-UO 2 SO 4 → U 3 O 8 . (author)

  18. Spore-forming, Desulfosporosinus-like sulphate-reducing bacteria from a shallow aquifer contaminated with gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, W J; Franzmann, P D; Mee, B J

    2000-02-01

    Previous studies on the geochemistry of a shallow unconfined aquifer contaminated with hydrocarbons suggested that the degradation of some hydrocarbons was linked to bacterial sulphate reduction. There was attenuation of naphthalene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB), toluene, p-xylene and ethylbenzene in the groundwater with concomitant loss of sulphate. Here, the recovery of eight strains of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from the contaminated site is reported. All were straight or curved rod-shaped cells which formed endospores. Amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA indicated that the strains were all sulphate reducers of the Gram-positive line of descent, and were most closely related to Desulfosporosinus (previously Desulfotomaculum) orientis DSM 8344 (97-98.9% sequence similarity). The strains clustered in three phylogenetic groups based on 16S rRNA sequences. Whole cell fatty acid compositions were similar to those of D. orientis DSM 8344, and were consistent with previous studies of fatty acids in soil and groundwater from the site. Microcosms containing groundwater from this aquifer indicated a role for sulphate reduction in the degradation of [ring-UL-14C]toluene, but not for the degradation of [UL-14C]benzene which could also be degraded by the microcosms. Adding one of the strains that was isolated from the groundwater (strain T2) to sulphate-enriched microcosms increased the rate of toluene degradation four- to 10-fold but had no effect on the rate of benzene degradation. The addition of molybdate, an inhibitor of sulphate reduction, to the groundwater samples decreased the rate of toluene mineralization. There was no evidence to support the mineralization of [UL-14C]benzene, [ring-UL-14C]toluene or unlabelled m-xylene, p-xylene, ethylbenzene, TMB or naphthalene by any of the strains in pure culture. Growth of all the strains was completely inhibited by 100 micromol l-1 TMB.

  19. Computerised analysis of sulphate action on model concrete piles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukh, A.M.; Balasubramanian, S.; Venugopal, C.

    Sulphate action severely affects the durability of marine structures. It is imperative to study precisely the effects of magnesium sulphate on pile foundations in the marine environment. In the present paper an attempt is made to assess and analyse...

  20. Análise microscópica da polpa dental de cães após pulpotomia e proteção pulpar com agregado de trióxido mineral e cimento Portland branco

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Renato; Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Letra, Ariadne; Carvalho, Vanessa Graciela Gomes; Carneiro, Everdan; Brunini, Sérgio; Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Canova, Giovana Calichio; Moraes, Fernanda Gomes de

    2004-01-01

    Considering previous studies on the similarity between the chemical composition of the mineral trioxide aggregate and the Portland cement, the purpose of this study was to investigate the pulp response of dog's teeth after pulpotomy and direct pulp protection with MTA Angelus and white Portland cement. Thirty eight pulp remnants were protected with these materials. One hundred and twenty days after treatment, the animals were sacrificed and the specimens removed and prepared for histological ...

  1. Controlling Barium Sulphate Scale Deposition Problems in an unbleached Kraft Paper Mill

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Troubleshooting of scale deposits and defects in paper samples showed that the problem was caused by barium sulphate and calcium sulphate scales. However, it was ascertained that barium sulphate was more of a concern than calcium sulphate...

  2. Formulation and evaluation and terbutaline sulphate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the use of low rugosity lactose, product of controlled crystallization of this carrier, in the formulation of terbutaline sulphate and beclomethasone dipropionate dry powder inhalers. The deposition patterns obtained with inhalation mixtures consisting of the modified lactose and each of the micronised drugs ...

  3. Removal of Sulphate and Manganese on Synthetic Wastewater in Sulphate Reducing Bioreactor Using Indonesian Natural Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Retnaningrum

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to investigate sulphate and manganese removal from synthetic wastewater. The continuous laboratory scale of down-flow fluidized-bed reactor (DFBR using sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB consortium and Indonesian natural zeolite as a bacterial support material was designed. At 9 days operation, maximum sulphate and manganese removal was observed to be 23% and 15.4%, respectively. The pH values were also changed to neutral. The population of SRB increased which effect on the raising of their activity for removing sulphate and manganese. Using the scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, it was observed that natural zeolite possesses excellent physical characteristics as a bacterial support material in DFBR. The imaging SEM result of SRB consortium on zeolite surface clearly showed the developed SRB biofilm on that particle. Analysis result of EDX confirmed that manganese was precipitated as manganese–sulfides.

  4. APS Science 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience

  5. APS Science 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-05-30

    This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience.

  6. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Fischer, H.B

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For

  7. Mineralização de compostos nitrogenados após aplicações de lodos de esgoto em quatro cultivos de milho Nitrogen mineralization after sewage sludge applications to four corn crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Carla Boeira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O teor de N disponível em solos tratados com lodo de esgoto é um dos fatores restritivos à aplicação do resíduo em grandes volumes na agricultura, e deve ser utilizado nas normas que regulamentam seu uso agrícola com o fim de evitar a contaminação ambiental do solo e corpos d'água com nitrato. Quando se aplica o resíduo pela primeira vez em um solo, a disponibilização de N mineral a partir de compostos orgânicos naturais do solo não é diretamente considerada no cálculo da taxa de aplicação máxima, e este procedimento é comum também nas recomendações de adubação mineral. Porém, a aplicação continuada desses resíduos pode causar efeitos residuais acumulativos na geração de N mineral, o que implicaria recomendações específicas para reaplicações em uma mesma área. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a disponibilidade potencial de N mineral em um Latossolo previamente tratado com lodos de esgoto e com quatro cultivos sucessivos de milho. Amostras de solo da camada de 0-20 cm foram coletadas em subparcelas de um experimento realizado em campo, entre 1999 e 2002, em Jaguariúna (SP, onde foram aplicados 0, 14.716, 29.432, 58.864 e 117.728 kg ha-1 de lodo de origem urbana (Franca, SP e 0, 22.700, 45.400, 90.800 e 181.600 kg ha-1 de lodo produzido a partir de esgotos urbanos e industriais (Barueri, SP. As doses foram parceladas em quatro aplicações anuais consecutivas. Em laboratório, essas amostras foram incubadas durante 15 semanas. As análises iniciais dos solos evidenciaram que houve efeito residual das aplicações prévias dos lodos sobre o acúmulo de N orgânico e de nitrato. No final da incubação, houve acúmulo de N inorgânico no solo e diminuição do pH em função da maior geração de nitrato com as doses crescentes dos lodos de esgoto. O potencial de mineralização estimado pelo modelo exponencial simples foi de 28 mg kg-1 de N no tratamento sem lodo, e crescente, de 28 para 100 mg kg-1 de N

  8. Renal involvement in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)-APS nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tektonidou, Maria G

    2009-06-01

    Although the kidney represents a major target organ in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), renal involvement in APS was poorly recognized until recently. The most well-recognized renal manifestations of APS are the renal artery thrombosis/stenosis, renal infarction, hypertension, renal vein thrombosis, end-stage renal disease, increased allograft vascular thrombosis, some types of glomerular disease, and a small-vessel vaso-occlusive nephropathy, recently defined as APS nephropathy. APS nephropathy was first described in primary APS patients, characterized by acute thrombotic lesions in glomeruli and/or arterioles (thrombotic microangiopathy) and chronic vascular lesions such as fibrous intimal hyperplasia of arterioles and interlobular arteries, organized thrombi with or without recanalization, and fibrous arterial and arteriolar occlusions or focal cortical atrophy. APS nephropathy was also detected in further studies including patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related APS and SLE/non-APS patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies, independently of lupus nephritis. The same histologic lesions, especially thrombotic mictroangiopathy, were also observed in patients with catastrophic APS. The most frequent clinical and laboratory characteristics of APS nephropathy in all the above groups of patients are hypertension (often severe), proteinuria (ranging from mild to nephrotic range), hematuria, and acute or chronic renal insufficiency.

  9. Possibilities of Sulphate Elimination from Mine Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heviánková Silvie

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of „acid water“ (or AMD is well known in the world for some centuries. In the Eastern Slovakia, the most acid surface water occurs in the area of old mine Smolník, which is closed and submerged for 15 years. The submitted contribution deals with the sulphate-elimination from this locality. Recently, several methods of sulphate-elimination from the mine water are applied. The best-known methods are biological, physical-chemical and chemical precipitation. The method described in this contribution consists of chemical precipitation by sodium aluminate and calcium hydrate. Under application of this method very interesting results were obtained. The amount of SO42- anions decreased to almost zero-value, using optimal doses of the chemical reagents.

  10. Magnesium sulphate’s influence on calcium carbonate minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mia Rohde

    The purpose of this PhD thesis was to explore the influence of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 (aq)) on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals and what role the MgSO40 ion pair had. CaCO3 minerals are abundant and widespread on Earth, particularly in marine environments, and have been so throughout Earth...

  11. Sulphate analysis in uranium leach iron(III) chloride solutions by inductively coupled argon plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirdosh, I.; Lakhani, S.; Yunus, M.Z.M.

    1993-01-01

    Inductively coupled Argon Plasma Spectrometry is used for the indirect determination of sulphate in iron(III) chloride leach solution of Elliot Lake uranium ores via addition of a known amount of barium ions and analyzing for excess of barium. The ore contains ∼ 7 wt% pyrite, FeS 2 , as the major mineral which oxidizes to generate sulphate during leaching with Fe(III). The effects of pH, the concentrations of Fe(III) and chloride ions and for presence of ethanol in the test samples on the accuracy of analysis are studied. It is found that unlike the Rhodizonate method, removal of iron(III) from or addition of ethanol to the test sample prior to analysis are not required. Linear calibration curves are obtained. (author)

  12. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  13. CGM ApS Årsberetning til DANAK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    Denne årsberetning omfatter CGM ApS' akkrediterede virksomhed i kalenderåret 2003. Årsberetningen er udarbejdet til DANAK (Dansk Akkreditering, ErhvervsfremmeStyrelsen), som led i opfyldelsen af laboratoriets informationspligt i henhold til gældende regler.......Denne årsberetning omfatter CGM ApS' akkrediterede virksomhed i kalenderåret 2003. Årsberetningen er udarbejdet til DANAK (Dansk Akkreditering, ErhvervsfremmeStyrelsen), som led i opfyldelsen af laboratoriets informationspligt i henhold til gældende regler....

  14. Thrombotic risk assessment in APS: the Global APS Score (GAPSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascia, S; Bertolaccini, M L

    2014-10-01

    Recently, we developed a risk score for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) (Global APS Score or GAPSS). This score derived from the combination of independent risk factors for thrombosis and pregnancy loss, taking into account the antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) profile (criteria and non-criteria aPL), the conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and the autoimmune antibodies profile. We demonstrate that risk profile in APS can be successfully assessed, suggesting that GAPSS can be a potential quantitative marker of APS-related clinical manifestations. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Westinghouse AP1000 licensing maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T.; Vijuk, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Westinghouse AP1000 Program is aimed at making available a nuclear power plant that is economical in the U.S deregulated electrical power industry in the near-term. The AP1000 is two-loop 1000 MWe pressurizer water reactor (PWR). It is an up rated version of the AP600. The AP1000 uses passive safety systems to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, safety, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 uses proven technology, which builds on over 35 years of operating PWR experience. The AP1000 received Final Design Approval by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) in September 2004. The AP1000 meets the US utility requirements. The AP1000 and its sister plant the AP600 have gone through a very through and complete licensing review. This paper describes the U.S. NRC review efforts of both the AP600 and the AP1000. The detail of the review and the independent calculations, evaluations and testing is discussed. The AP600 licensing documentation was submitted in 1992. The U.S. NRC granted Final Design Approval in 1999. During the intervening 7 years, the U.S. NRC asked thousands of questions, performed independent safety analysis, audited Westinghouse calculations and analysis, and performed independent testing. The more significant areas of discussion will be described. For the AP1000 Westinghouse first engaged the U.S. NRC in pre-certification discussions to define the extent of the review required, since the design is so similar to the AP600. The AP1000 licensing documentation was submitted in March 2002. The U.S. NRC granted Final Design Approval in September 2004. During the intervening 2 1/2 years, the U.S. NRC asked hundreds of questions, performed independent safety analysis, audited Westinghouse calculations and analysis, and performed independent testing. The more significant areas of discussion will be described. The implications of this review and approval on AP1000 applications in

  16. Center for Geometrisk Metrologi, CGM ApS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    Denne årsberetning omfatter CGM ApS' akkrediterede virksomhed i kalenderåret 2002. Årsberetningen er udarbejdet til DANAK (Dansk Akkreditering, Erhvervsfremme Styrelsen), som led i opfyldelsen af laboratoriets informationspligt i henhold til gældende regler (Teknisk Forskrift Nr. TF4 af 2000...

  17. Electroactive biofilms of sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordas, Cristina M.; Guerra, L. Tiago; Xavier, Catarina; Moura, Jose J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Biofilms formed from a pure strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans 27774 on stainless steel and graphite polarised surfaces were studied. The polarisation conditions applied were -0.4 V vs. SCE for different times. A cathodic current related with the biofilms growth was observed with a maximum intensity of -270 mA m -2 that remained stable for several days using graphite electrodes. These sulphate reducing bacteria biofilms present electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen and oxygen reduction reactions. Electrode polarisation has a selective effect on the catalytic activity. The biofilms were also observed by scanning electronic microscopy revealing the formation of homogeneous films on the surfaces

  18. Constant current chronopotentiometric stripping of sulphated polysaccharides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strmečki, S.; Plavšić, M.; Ćosović, B.; Ostatná, Veronika; Paleček, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2009), s. 2032-2035 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/07/P497; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : sulphated polysaccharides * ióta-carrageenan * catalysis of hydrogen evolution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.243, year: 2009

  19. Electroactive biofilms of sulphate reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordas, Cristina M.; Guerra, L. Tiago; Xavier, Catarina [Requimte-CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Moura, Jose J.G. [Requimte-CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)], E-mail: jose.moura@dq.fct.unl.pt

    2008-12-01

    Biofilms formed from a pure strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans 27774 on stainless steel and graphite polarised surfaces were studied. The polarisation conditions applied were -0.4 V vs. SCE for different times. A cathodic current related with the biofilms growth was observed with a maximum intensity of -270 mA m{sup -2} that remained stable for several days using graphite electrodes. These sulphate reducing bacteria biofilms present electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen and oxygen reduction reactions. Electrode polarisation has a selective effect on the catalytic activity. The biofilms were also observed by scanning electronic microscopy revealing the formation of homogeneous films on the surfaces.

  20. Structure of sodium alkyl sulphate micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vass, Sz.

    1990-05-01

    Micellar aggregation numbers of aggregated sodium octyl, decyl, dodecyl and tetradecyl sulphate molecules obtained from small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements are reported. The surfactant concentration and solution temperature were varied systematically. A survey of the physical models and evaluation algorithms applied for SANS are presented. By utilizing a new least square fitting algorithm, the formation and annihilation parameters of orthopositronium in the micellar pseudophase and in the aqueous solvent is deduced by evaluating positron lifetime spectra measured by conventional technqiues. (R.P.) 157 refs.; 10 figs

  1. APS controls overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The APS accelerator control system described in this report is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and interfaces to hardware. The operator interface is a UNIX-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The user has the ability to generate and alter control displays and to access the alarm handler, the archiver, interactive control programs, custom code, and other tools. The TCP/EP networking protocol has been selected as the underlying protocol for the control system network. TCP/EP is a commercial standard and readily available from network hardware vendors. Its implementation is independent of the particular network medium selected to implement the controls network. In the development environment copper Ethernet is the network medium; however, in the actual implementation a fiber-based system using hub technology will be utilized. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system

  2. Effectivness of dexametasone vs. Magnesium sulphate in postoperative analgesia: Dexametasone vs. Magnesium sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dautaj Brikena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preoperative use of additive substances may be very helpful in perioperative acute pain management. Intravenous administration of dexametasone in preoperative period prevents postoperative nausea and vomiting but also provides better pain relief. It is also well known that magnesium sulphate (the NMDA receptor's antagonist by its central mechanism of action may be effective in postoperative pain control. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexametasone and magnesium sulphate on postoperative pain management in patients undergoing abdominal surgery (open cholecystectomy. Methods: Seventy eight patients scheduled for elective surgery (open cholecystectomy were included in this study. This was the prospective cohort randomized placebo- controlled study. A total of 78 patients were randomized into three groups. Each group had twenty six patients. The group D, received dexametasone 0.1 mg/ kg iv 30 minutes before surgery. The group M received magnesium sulphate 3 mg/kg iv 30 minutes before surgery. The third group S was placebo group and patients in this group received saline in the same volume for each patient. For pain control after surgery all patients received tramadol 0.9-1.2 mg/kg and diklophenac 1.76 mg/kg. When necessary (VAS ≥ 7, morphine sulphate in dose 0.15 mg/kg was administred subcutaneously For treatment of emetic episodes metoclopramid 10 mg iv. was used. The patients were observed for intensity of pain measured VAS 0-10, pain relief and satisfaction with therapy, sedation, adverse events, emetic episodes and hemodynamic parameters. Results: There was no difference between groups regarding demographic data (age, gender, body weight, ASA score, comorbidity, duration of surgery and anesthesia and amount of fentanyl received during surgery. In group D 11.54% of patients received additional analgesia (morphine sulphate 0.15 mg/kg sc in the first 4 hours and 27% of patients in the first 24 hours

  3. AP1000 Design for Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, L.B.; Cummins, W.E.; Winters, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are protected from potential security threats through a combination of robust structures around the primary system and other vital equipment, security systems and equipment, and defensive strategy. The overall objective for nuclear power plant security is to protect public health and safety by ensuring that attacks or sabotage do not challenge the ability to safely shutdown the plant or protect from radiological releases. In addition, plants have systems, features and operational strategies to cope with external conditions, such as loss of offsite power, which could be created as part of an attack. Westinghouse considered potential security threats during design of the AP1000 PWR. The differences in plant configuration, safety system design, and safe shutdown equipment between existing plants and AP1000 affect potential vulnerabilities. This paper provides an evaluation of AP1000 with respect to vulnerabilities to security threats. The AP1000 design differs from the design of operating PWRs in the US in the configuration and the functional requirements for safety systems. These differences are intentional departures from conventional PWR designs which simplify plant design and enhance overall safety. The differences between the AP1000 PWR and conventional PWRs can impact vulnerabilities to security threats. The NRC addressed security concerns as part of their reviews for AP1000 Design Certification, and did not identify any security issues of concern. However, much of the detailed security design information for the AP1000 was deferred to the combined Construction and Operating License (COL) phase as many of the security issues are site-specific. Therefore, NRC review of security issues related to the AP1000 is not necessarily complete. Further, since the AP1000 plant design differs from existing PWRs, it is not obvious that the analyses and assessments prepared for existing plants also apply to the AP1000. We conclude that, overall, the AP1000

  4. AP1000. The PWR revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaio, P.

    2006-01-01

    The distinguishing features of Westinghouse's AP1000 advanced passive pressurized water reactor are highlighted. In particular, the AP1000's passive safety features are described as well as their implications for simplifying the design, construction, and operation of this design compared to currently operating plants, and significantly increasing safety margins over current plants as well. The AP1000 design specifically incorporates the knowledge acquired from the substantial accumulation of power reactor operating experience and benefits from the application of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the design process itself. The AP1000 design has been certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission under its new rules for licensing new nuclear plants, 10 CFR Part 52, and is the subject of six combined Construction and Operating License applications now being developed. Currently the AP1000 design is being assessed against the EUR Rev C requirements for new nuclear power plants in Europe. (author)

  5. INVESTIGATION OF DISSOLVED SULPHATE IN VARIOUS GEOTHERMAL FIELDS OF SUMATRA USING OXYGEN AND SULPHUR ISOTOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ristin Pujiindiyati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There are at least 30 high temperature systems; eleven active volcanoes, five degassing volcanoes and one caldera volcano controlled by Sumatra Fault Zone over a length of 1700 km. To understand this geothermal field system, some information about geochemistry including isotope composition in its fluid is needed. Sulphur-34 and oxygen-18 isotopes in dissolved sulphate pair have been used to determine the origin of acidic fluid of sulphate and to evaluate the process involved. The fluids from eight hot springs, two fumaroles, four deep wells and crater have been collected in along Sumatra geothermal fields. Sulphur-34 (d 34S (SO4, 0/00 CDT and oxygen-18 (d 18O (SO4, 0/00 SMOW in sulphate is analyzed according to Robinson-Kusakabe and Rafter method, respectively. The d 34S (SO4 values from Sibayak wells are more enriched of 16.8 0/00 to 18.2 0/0 that may indicate the dissolution of anhydrite minerals or isotope partitioning in hydration of SO2. The d 34S (SO4 values from two fumaroles (Pusuk Bukit - North Sumatra and Rantau Dadap - South Sumatra are at depleted value of -0.150/00 and 1.80/00, those are close to d 34S from magmatic sulphur.  In general, the d 34S (SO4 of springs spread in a wide range of 5.250/00 to14.20/00 and show a mixing process between atmospheric sulphate and sulphate from deep wells. The d 18O (SO4 from wells exhibits depleted value around -3.60/00 suggesting that 87.5% of sulphate oxygen is derived from groundwater oxygen and 12.5% is derived from atmospheric molecular oxygen in sulphide oxidation reaction. In the other hand, hot springs (except Semurup, crater and fumaroles have enriched value of d 18O (SO4. These enriched values suggest that a higher percentage of atmospherically derived oxygen compared to those from the depth.   Keywords: isotope, geothermal, Sumatra

  6. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 (APS-3) among patients with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlendak-Sauer, Katarzyna; Jakubik, Daniel; Kunicki, Michał; Skórska, Jolanta; Smolarczyk, Roman

    2016-08-01

    , dehydroepiandrostendione sulphate in comparison to controls. Women with POI/APS-3(+) could have hyperinsulinemia and should be carefully evaluated for metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential responses of freshwater wetland soils to sulphate pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, L.P.M.; Dolle, ten G.E.; Berg, van den S.T.G.; Delft, van S.P.J.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sulphate (SO42-) reduction rates are generally low in freshwater wetlands and are regulated by the scarce availability of the ion. Increased concentrations of this electron acceptor due to sulphur (S) pollution of groundwater and surface water may, however, lead to high sulphate reduction rates now

  8. Safety and efficacy of Bolus administration of magnesium sulphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safety and efficacy of Bolus administration of magnesium sulphate for preeclampsia. ... On-going research is addressing its administration in terms of dosage, duration and safety. Objective: We evaluated a ... Keywords: safety, efficacy, bolus magnesium sulphate, preeclampsia, University of Benin Teaching Hospital

  9. Kinetics and mechanism of protection of thymine from sulphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The rate constant of sulphate radical anion with caffeic acid has been ... transfer of radical sites from base moiety to sugar moiety. Strand ... titrated with a standard ceric ammonium sulphate solution as reported by Kapoor et al.7. At room ...

  10. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1991-07-01

    In connection with the Swedish project for final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible, but copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron(II) is available. The problem was extended to the more general question of the reducibility of sulphur(VI) in dilute aqueous solution. Chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100 o C. In experiments on the reduction of sulphates under hydrothermal conditions a reaction only takes place at temperatures above 275-300 o C. The oxidising action of sulphuric acid on metals becomes perceptible only at acid concentrations over 45-50%. In experiments on the cathodic reduction of 74% sulphuric acid the formation of hydrogen sulphide and elementary sulphur starts, depending on the current density, at 50-130 o C, and polarographic measurements suggest that the reducible species is not the hydrogen sulphate ion but molecular sulphuric acid. The resistance of copper to oxygen-free sulphuric acid up to a concentration of 60% is well-known. Numerous processes in industrial electrochemistry take place in sulphuric acid or sulphate electrolytes. The reversible metal/metal-sulphate electrodes of lead and cadmium are unstable relative to the corresponding metal sulphides. Nevertheless the reversible lead sulphate electrode does not fail from sulphide formation. All these facts confirm that sulphur(VI) in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be almost certainly be ruled out. (author) 5 figs., 85 refs

  11. Westinghouse AP 1000 program status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehnert, B.

    2002-01-01

    The project 1000 is presented and features are discussed in the paper. Design maturity is characterized by 1300 man-year / $400 million design and testing effort, more than 12 000 design documents completed; 3D computer model developed. It includes structures, equipment, small / large pipe, cable trays, ducts etc. Licensing Maturity is determined by a very thorough and complete NRC review of AP600; 110 man-year effort (NRC) over 6 years, $30 million; independent, confirmatory plant analysis; independent, confirmatory plant testing (ROSA, OSU); over 7400 questions answered, no open items; over 380 meeting with NRC, 43 meetings with ACRS. NRC Design Certification is issued in December 1999. Reasons for developing AP 1000 and design changes are presented. Economic analysis shows an expectation for payback within 20 years. AP1000 provides 75% power uprate for 15% increment in capital cost. AP1000 meets new plant economic targets in the near term

  12. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C.

    1952-01-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; β uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the α uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [fr

  13. Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Non-criteria APS Manifestations (I): catastrophic APS, APS nephropathy and heart valve lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, R; Tektonidou, M G; Espinosa, G; Cabral, A R; González, E B; Erkan, D; Vadya, S; Adrogué, H E; Solomon, M; Zandman-Goddard, G; Shoenfeld, Y

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of the 'Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Non-criteria APS Manifestations' were to assess the clinical utility of the international consensus statement on classification criteria and treatment guidelines for the catastrophic APS, to identify and grade the studies that analyse the relationship between the antiphospholipid antibodies and the non-criteria APS manifestations and to present the current evidence regarding the accuracy of these non-criteria APS manifestations for the detection of patients with APS. This article summarizes the studies analysed on the catastrophic APS, APS nephropathy and heart valve lesions, and presents the recommendations elaborated by the Task Force after this analysis.

  14. Sulphate Incorporation in Borosilicate Glasses and Melts: a Kinetic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, M. [CEA, DEN, Laboratoire d' etude et de Developpement de Matrices de Conditionnement, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, UMR 7047, CNRS- Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 7 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris 05 (France); Grandjean, A. [Institut de Chimie Separative de Marcoule, UMR 5257, Laboratoire des Nanomateriaux Autoreparants, Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Dussossoy, J.L. [CEA, DEN, Laboratoire d' etude et de Developpement de Matrices de Conditionnement, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Neuville, D.R. [Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, UMR 7047, CNRS- Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 7 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris 05 (France)

    2008-07-01

    The kinetics of sulphate departure in a sodium borosilicate melt were studied using in situ Raman spectroscopy. This technique allows the quantification of the amount of sulphate dissolved in a borosilicate glass as a function of heating time by comparison with measurements obtained by microprobe wavelength dispersive spectrometry. To quantify the sulphate content obtained with Raman spectroscopy, the integrated intensity of the sulphate band at 990 cm{sup -1} was scaled to the sum of the integrated bands between 800 and 1200 cm{sup -1}, bands that are assigned to Qn silica units on the basis of previous literature. Calibration curves were then determined for two different samples. An evaluation of the kinetics of departure of sulphate could thus be made as a function of the viscosity of the borosilicate glass, showing that the kinetics were controlled by the diffusion of sulphate and its volatilization from the melt. This experimental method allows in situ measurements of sulphate content at high temperature which cannot be obtained by any other simple technique. (authors)

  15. Serum macro minerals in adults Thoroughbred horses, before and after the high intensity exercise. Macrominerais séricos em equinos atletas da raça Puro Sangue Inglês, antes e após exercício físico de alta intensidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kiomi Takahira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of analyzing the effect of high intensity physical activity on the serum values of macro minerals, 19 clinically health adults Thoroughbred horses, males and females from 3 to 5 years of age, were submitted to a galloping in a 2,000 meters sand track. Two blood samples were collected from each animal, one before and another after the high intensity exercise. The results had shown some significative changes (p<0.05 with an increase in the serum values of calcium and magnesium and a decrease in serum and potassium. Meanwhile, there were no alterations (p>0.05 in the concentration of phosphorus and potassium. It is concluded, therefore, that the high intensity exercise leads to transitory and physiologic changes in the serum concentration of macro minerals.Com o objetivo de analisar o efeito da atividade física de alta intensidade sobre os valores séricos dos macrominerais, 19 equinos adultos, com idade entre três e cinco anos, machos e fêmeas, clinicamente saudáveis da raça Puro Sangue Inglês, foram submetidos ao galope de corrida em pistas de areia, na distância de 2000 metros. De cada animal foram colhidas duas amostras de sangue, uma antes e outra após a realização do exercício físico de alta intensidade. A análise dos resultados obtidos demonstrou que houve alterações significativas nos valores séricos do cálcio e magnésio, que apresentaram elevação, e do sódio e cloreto, que apresentaram redução, enquanto não foram verificadas variações significativas nos teores séricos do fósforo e potássio. Conclui-se, portanto, que a atividade física de alta intensidade (galope de corrida altera, transitória e fisiologicamente, a concentração sérica dos macrominerais.

  16. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  17. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  18. [Apheresis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silvestro, Giustina; Tison, Tiziana; Marson, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare clinical disorder characterized by thromboembolic manifestations and/or obstetric complications. Along with the clinical symptoms and signs, serum antiphospholipid antibodies have to be detected. APS can be primary, i.e., without any concomitant disorders, or secondary to other autoimmune diseases, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus. Criteria for the diagnosis of APS have been clearly established. Hyperacute APS (or catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome), often with a poor prognosis, must meet four criteria: involvement of three or more organs, rapid evolution of clinical manifestations, microangiopathic occlusion of small blood vessels at biopsy, and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. The rationale for apheresis treatment is the removal of pathogenetic antibodies involved in the development of tissue damage. Our experience includes 23 patients, in particular 15 women treated for 19 pregnancies. According to the National Guidelines Program, the effectiveness of apheresis in catastrophic syndrome has a level of evidence of V/VI, with a strength of recommendation A; in highrisk pregnancy it has a level of evidence of V with a strength of recommendation B. It will be necessary to better define the prognosis of various categories of pregnant patients with APS, as well as useful laboratory parameters to monitor its clinical course and anticipate any complications of pregnancy.

  19. EFEITOS QUALITATIVO E QUANTITATIVO DE APLICAÇÃO DO ZINCO NO CAPIM TANZÂNIA-1 QUALITIVE AND QUANTITATIVE EFFECTS OF THE ZINC SULPHATE APPLICATION ON TANZÂNIA-1 GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cideon Donizete de Faria

    2007-09-01

    latosol, having as objective to evaluate the effect of the doses 0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 of zinc sulphate in the productivity, quality and leaf chemical composition of the Tanzânia-1 grass. The soil was prepared with a heavy grade bar in the beginning of the rainy station. As basic fertilization were applied 20 kg of N, 50 kg of P2O5 and 30 kg of K2O ha-1 as ammonium sulphate, commercial Yoorin and potassium chloride, respectively. The plant height and number of budding, gross protein, and fiber in neutral detergent and leaf mineral nutrient were determined just after were evaluated at 60 days after germination. Green mass, dry matter, gross the crop. Although no significant, the dose of 20 kg ha-1 of zinc sulphate influenced qualitative and quantitatively the forage produced.

    KEY-WORDS: Pasture; soil; fertility; sudding; dry matter.

  20. Treatment with magnesium sulphate in pre-term birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Hans; Hegaard, H K; Greisen, G

    2012-01-01

    Premature birth increases a child's risk of cerebral palsy and death. The aim of this work is to investigate the association between treatment with magnesium sulphate during premature deliveries and infants' cerebral palsy and mortality through a meta-analysis of observational studies....... A comprehensive search of the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the PubMed database from their inceptions to 1 October, 2010 using the keywords 'magnesium sulphate, children/infant/pre-term/premature and cerebral palsy/mortality/morbidity/adverse effects/outcome' identified 11 reports of observational studies. Two...... authors working independently extracted the data. A meta-analysis of the data found an association between magnesium sulphate treatment and a significantly reduced risk of mortality (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.61-0.89) and cerebral palsy (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47-0.89). Antenatal treatment with magnesium sulphate...

  1. Mechanism of protection of adenosine from sulphate radical anion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Keywords. Repair by caffeic acid; repair of adenosine radicals; oxidation by sulphate radical anions. ... known that hydroxycinnamic acids are natural anti- oxidants ... acid. 2. Experimental ..... ously and independently under kinetic conditions at.

  2. Effects of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmelioglu, O; Sencar, L; Ozdemir, S; Tarkan, O; Dagkiran, M; Surmelioglu, N; Tuncer, U; Polat, S

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve regeneration after facial nerve injury using electron and light microscopy. The study was performed on 30 male Wistar albino rats split into: a control group, a sham-treated group, a study control group, an anastomosis group, and an anastomosis plus agmatine sulphate treatment group. The mandibular branch of the facial nerve was dissected, and a piece was removed for histological and electron microscopic examination. Regeneration was better in the anastomosis group than in the study control group. However, the best regeneration findings were seen in the agmatine sulphate treatment group. There was a significant difference between the agmatine group and the others in terms of median axon numbers (p Agmatine sulphate treatment with anastomosis in traumatic facial paralysis may enhance nerve regeneration.

  3. Short communication: Use of calcium sulphate dihydrate as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flocculant alternative to the conventional use of aluminium sulphate in the primary treatment of wastewater was evaluated using a jar test apparatus. Samples from the State Water Commission (CEA) in Queretaro, Mexico, were collected for the ...

  4. Anodically generated manganese(III) sulphate for the oxidation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    oxidation of dipeptides in aqueous sulphuric acid medium: A kinetic study ... acetic acid (TFA) and N-methylmorpholine (NMM) were purchased ... and chloroform–methanol– acetic acid .... tion), manganese(II) sulphate and water (to keep the.

  5. Decolourisation and degradation of textile dyes using a sulphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... Full Length Research Paper ... and microflora that augmented a sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium. ... and degradation of aromatic compounds from the deco- ... ed that aromatic amines are toxic, carcinogenic and.

  6. Sulphate solubility and sulphate diffusion in oxide glasses: implications for the containment of sulphate-bearing nuclear wastes; Solubilite et cinetiques de diffusion des sulfates dans differents verres d'oxydes: application au conditionnement des dechets nucleaires sulfates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, M.

    2009-09-15

    The thesis deals with sulphate solubility and sulphate diffusion in oxide glasses, in order to control sulphate incorporation and sulphate volatilization in nuclear waste glasses. It was conducted on simplified compositions, in the SiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-R{sub 2}O (R = Li, Na, K, Cs), SiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-BaO and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-BaO systems. These compositions allowed us to study the influence of the nature of network-modifying ions (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +} or Ba{sup 2+}) and also of former elements (Si, B, V), on structure and properties of glasses. Sulphate volatility is studied in sodium borosilicate melts using an innovative technique of sulphate quantitation with Raman spectroscopy. This technique is useful to obtain kinetic curves of sulphate volatilization. The establishment of a model to fit these curves leads to the determination of diffusion coefficients of sulphate. These diffusion coefficients can thus be compared to diffusion coefficients of other species, determined by other techniques and presented in the literature. They are also linked to diffusion coefficients in relation with the viscosity of the melts. Concerning sulphate solubility in glasses, it depends on glass composition and on the nature of sulphate incorporated. Sulphate incorporation in alkali borosilicate glasses leads to the formation of a sulphate layer floating on top of the melt. Sulphate incorporation in barium borosilicate and boro-vanadate glasses leads to the crystallization of sulphate species inside the vitreous matrix. Moreover, sulphate solubility is higher in these glasses than in alkali borosilicates. Finally, exchanges between cations present in glasses and cations present in the sulphate phase are also studied. (author)

  7. AP Human Geography and Success on the AP Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncone, John; Newhalfen, Nate

    2013-01-01

    Classroom projects that explore culture and globalization enhance the curriculum and help students see how geography directly connects to their lives. These authors contend that a project-based approach can supplement the teaching of an AP Human Geography course, and visualize this course as an essential tool for students to truly understand how…

  8. Sulphate in Liquid Nuclear Waste: from Production to Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, M.; Grandjean, A.; Ledieu, A.; Dussossoy, J.L.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Barre, Y.; Tronche, E. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM/LDMC, Batiment 208 BP17171, Bagnols sur Ceze, 30207 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Nuclear industry produces a wide range of low and intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes which can include different radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr. In La Hague reprocessing plant and in the nuclear research centers of CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), the coprecipitation of strontium with barium sulphate is the technique used to treat selectively these contaminated streams with the best efficiency. After the decontamination process, low and intermediate level activity wastes incorporating significant quantities of sulphate are obtained. The challenge is to find a matrix easy to form and with a good chemical durability which is able to confine this kind of nuclear waste. The current process used to contain sulphate-rich nuclear wastes is bituminization. However, in order to improve properties of containment matrices and simplify the process, CEA has chosen to supervise researches on other materials such as cements or glasses. Indeed, cements are widely used for the immobilization of a variety of wastes (low and intermediate level wastes) and they may be an alternative matrix to bitumen. Even if Portland cement, which is extensively used in the nuclear industry, presents some disadvantages for the containment of sulphate-rich nuclear wastes (risk of swelling and cracking due to delayed ettringite formation), other cement systems, such as calcium sulfo-aluminate binders, may be valuable candidates. Another matrix to confine sulphate-rich waste could be the glass. One of the advantages of this material is that it could also immobilize sulphate containing high level nuclear waste which is present in some countries. This waste comes from the use of ferrous sulfamate as a reducing agent for the conversion of Pu{sup 4+} to Pu{sup 3+} in the partitioning stage of the actinides during reprocessing. Sulphate solubility in borosilicate glasses has already been studied in CEA at laboratory and pilot scales. At a pilot scale, low level liquid waste has been

  9. Development of melt compositions for sulphate bearing high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahagirdar, P.B.; Wattal, P.K.

    1997-09-01

    The report deals with the development and characterization of vitreous matrices for sulphate bearing high level waste. Studies were conducted in sodium borosilicate and lead borosilicate systems with the introduction of CaO, BaO, MgO etc. Lead borosilicate system was found to be compatible with sulphate bearing high level wastes. Detailed product evaluation carried on selected formulations is also described. (author)

  10. Anthropogenic influence on the distribution of tropospheric sulphate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, J; Rodhe, H; Crutzen, P J; Zimmermann, P [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    1992-10-22

    Human activities have increased global emissions of sulphur gases by about a factor of three during the past century, leading to increased sulphate aerosol concentrations, mainly in the Northern Hemisphere. Sulphate aerosols can affect the climate directly, by increasing the backscattering of solar radiation in cloud-free air, and indirectly, by providing additional cloud condensation nuclei. Here a global transport-chemistry model is used to estimate the changes in the distribution of tropospheric sulphate aerosol and deposition of non-seasalt sulphur that have occurred since pre-industrial times. The increase in sulphate aerosol concentration is small over the Southern Hemisphere oceans, but reaches a factor of 100 over northern Europe in winter. Calculations indicate, however, that at most 6% of the anthropogenic sulphur emissions is available for the formation of new aerosol particles. This is because about one-half of the sulphur dioxide is deposited on the Earth's surface, and most of the remainder is oxidized in cloud droplets so that the sulphate becomes associated with pre-existing particles. Even so, the rate of formation of new sulphate particles may have doubled since pre-industrial times. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sulphate-containing wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleran, E; Pender, S

    2002-01-01

    The effect of sulphate at an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD):sulphate ratio of 4 on the operational performance of anaerobic hybrid reactors treating molasses wastewater was investigated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions in a long-term laboratory-scale study over a 1,081 day period. The presence of sulphate reduced the COD removal efficiency under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. At 55 degrees C, effluent acetate levels were consistently greater than 4000 mg l(-1) indicating that thermophilic acetate-utilising methane-producing bacteria (MPB) or sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) had not developed in the reactor under the conditions applied. At 37 degrees C, acetate was exclusively utilised by acetoclastic methanogens, whereas H2-utilising SRB predominated over H2-utilising MPB in the competition for hydrogen. By contrast, hydrogenotrophic MPB were shown to outcompete H2-utilising SRB during long-term thermophilic operation. 16SrDNA analysis of the seed sludge and reactor biomass on conclusion of the 37 degrees C and 55 degrees C trials illustrated that the dominant methanogen present on conclusion of the thermophilic trial in the absence of influent sulphate was related to Methanocorpusculum parvuum, and was capable of growth on both acetate and hydrogen. By contrast, an organism closely related to Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was the dominant methanogen present in the sulphate-fed reactor on completion of the thermophilic trial.

  12. Mineralization of Nitrogen in Hydromorphic Soils Amended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to 320.00 mg kg-1 for Mangrove soil (mangal acid sulphate soils). The order of cumulative nitrogen released in the waste amended soil followed the order: sewage sludge>kitchen waste> poultry manure> oil palm waste> cow manure. Total mineralized N indicated negative correlation with total organic N and C:N ratio ...

  13. Demonstration of immunogenic keratan sulphate in commercial chondroitin 6-sulphate from shark cartilage. Implications for ELISA assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Møller-Pedersen, T; Damsgaard, T E

    1995-01-01

    The prototype monoclonal keratan sulphate (KS) antibody 5D4 that is widely used for detection of KS in tissues and biological fluids reacts strongly with commercial low grade shark cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate. Characterization of the immunogenic material by chondroitinase ABC digestion, ELISA...... inhibition studies, immunoblotting and HPLC analyses confirmed the presence of substantial amounts of KS, probably as a large proteoglycan (> 120 kDa). Commercial and heterogenic glycosaminoglycan preparations therefore must be used with great caution in immunological analyses. On the other hand the shark...... cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate is an easy accessible source of immunogenic KS that can be used as a reference standard and as coating antigen in KS-ELISAs. The concentration of immunogenic KS in synovial fluid measured with an ELISA based solely on reagents of shark cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate...

  14. Demonstration of immunogenic keratan sulphate in commercial chondroitin 6-sulphate from shark cartilage. Implications for ELISA assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Møller-Pedersen, T; Damsgaard, T E

    1995-01-01

    The prototype monoclonal keratan sulphate (KS) antibody 5D4 that is widely used for detection of KS in tissues and biological fluids reacts strongly with commercial low grade shark cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate. Characterization of the immunogenic material by chondroitinase ABC digestion, ELISA...... cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate is an easy accessible source of immunogenic KS that can be used as a reference standard and as coating antigen in KS-ELISAs. The concentration of immunogenic KS in synovial fluid measured with an ELISA based solely on reagents of shark cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate...... correlated well (r = 0.90) with the concentrations obtained with a traditional KS-ELISA that uses purified aggrecan as standard and coating antigen, and KS in both serum and synovial fluid could be measured with sufficient linearity....

  15. Bacterial sulphate reduction and the development of alkalinity. II. Laboratory experiments with soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-El-Malek, Y; Rizk, S G

    1963-01-01

    In waterlogged soils sulphate reduction was characterized by increases in counts of sulphate reducers, and increase in titratable alkalinity, insoluble carbonate, and soluble sulphides, and a decrease in soluble Ca/sup 2 +/ + Mg/sup 2 +/. Presence of organic matter greatly enhanced sulphate reduction. A linear relationship between the amount of sulphate reduced and increases in titratable alkalinity and insoluble carbonate were apparent. The potential effects of sulphate reduction on soil fertility through the development of alkalinity are discussed.

  16. Bacterial sulphate reduction and the development of alkalinity. I. Experiments with synthetic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-El-Malek, Y; Rizk, S G

    1963-01-01

    In liquid cultures of desulphovibrio desulphuricans the effects of the following on sulphate reduction were determined: The type of cation (ca++ or na+) attached to the sulphate ion; the presence of calcium carbonate alone and with sodium chloride; the concentration of sodium sulphate, sodium lactate and sodium chloride; and the initial pH. The titratable alkalinity formed as a result of sulphate reduction was found to be quantitatively related to the sulphate reduced, and apparently unaffected by strain variation or energy source.

  17. The competition of Linum with Camelia for minerals. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranz, E.; Jacob, F.

    1977-01-01

    Both in monoculture and mixed culture, the uptake of 35 S sulphate into 20-day-old plants of Linum usitatissimum L. and Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz as well as 35 S transport from the root into the shoot of these plants were examined. In equal periods the Camelina plants took up essentially more sulphate of the nutrient solution than the Linum plants did. From among the two species, when standing in mixed culture, the Linum plants took up less sulphate ions than those in monoculture, whilst Camelina plants in mixed culture absorbed more sulphate ions than they did in monoculture. The differences of absorbed sulphate between monocultures and mixed cultures can be interpreted as the result of an inter-species competition for these ions. These findings support the opinion that the diminution of the dry weight of Linum under the influence of Camelina is caused decisively by competition and not by allelopathic factors. A participation of such factors, however, cannot be excluded. A diminished absorption of sulphate also took place in Linum plants having grown in a nutrient solution, in which Camelina plants already had been cultivated, but which mineral substances a new had been given to. The transportation of 35 S off the roots into shoot occured in either species under mixed culture conditions to a higher extent than in the respective monocultures. (author)

  18. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  19. APS beamline standard components handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction

  20. Radiation effects on active pixel sensors (APS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; David, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Active pixel sensor (APS) is a new generation of image sensors which presents several advantages relatively to charge coupled devices (CCDs) particularly for space applications (APS requires only 1 voltage to operate which reduces considerably current consumption). Irradiation was performed using 60 Co gamma radiation at room temperature and at a dose rate of 150 Gy(Si)/h. 2 types of APS have been tested: photodiode-APS and photoMOS-APS. The results show that photoMOS-APS is more sensitive to radiation effects than photodiode-APS. Important parameters of image sensors like dark currents increase sharply with dose levels. Nevertheless photodiode-APS sensitivity is one hundred time lower than photoMOS-APS sensitivity

  1. Extraction of Iron and Manganese from Pyrolusite Absorption Residue by Ammonium Sulphate Roasting–Leaching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The residue from desulfurization and denitrification of exhaust gas treatment process with pyrolusite ore as absorbent is regarded as a potential source of iron and manganese. In this study, an extraction process is proposed for recovery of iron and manganese with ammonium sulphate roasting followed by sulphuric acid leaching. Firstly, the conversion mechanism was analyzed through mineral phase analysis of roasting products at different roasting temperature by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD technology. Then, the parameters of the roasting procedure such as roasting temperature and time, ammonium sulphate dosage, leaching temperature, leaching time, and sulphuric acid concentration are examined. The results implicate that the iron oxide and manganese dioxide in the residue are firstly converted into the water-soluble ( NH 4 3 Fe ( SO 4 3 and ( NH 4 2 Mn 2 ( SO 4 3 at 200–350 °C, and then the more stable NH 4 Fe ( SO 4 2 and MnSO 4 are formed, at temperature higher than 350 °C. Under optimum conditions, 95.2% Fe and 97.0% Mn can be extracted. Reactant diffusion through inert layer of silicon dioxide was considered as the rate-limiting step for iron extraction with an activation energy of 20.56 kJ/mol, while, the recovery process of Mn was controlled by both reactant diffusion and chemical reaction with an activation energy of 29.52 kJ/mol.

  2. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C

    1984-06-13

    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  3. Uranium and sulphate values from carbonate leach process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, B.

    1983-01-01

    The process concerns the recovery of uraniferous and sulphur values from liquor resulting from the attack of sulphur containing uraniferous ores by an alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and/or bicarbonate. Ammonia is introduced into the liquor to convert any HCO 3 - to CO 3 2- . The neutralised liquor from this step is then contacted with an anion exchange resin to fix the uranium and sulphate ions, leaving a liquor containing ammonia, sodium carbonate and/or bicarbonate in solution. Uranium and sulphate ions are eluted with an ammonia carbonate and/or bicarbonate solution to yield a solution of ammonium uranyl carbonate complex and ammonium sulphate. The solution is subjected to thermal treatment until a suspension of precipitated ammonium uranate and/or diuranate is obtained in a solution of the ammonium sulphate. Carbon dioxide, ammonia and water vapor are driven off. The precipitated ammonium uranate and/or diuranate is then separated from the solution of ammonium sulphate and the precipitate is calcined to yield uranium trioxide and ammonia

  4. Relationship between sulphate and sulphur dioxide in the air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugas, M; Gentilizza, M

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between the sulphate in suspended particulates and sulphur dioxide in the air was studied in various urban and industrial areas. The relationship is best described by the equation y = ax/sup b/, where y is the percentage of the sulphate S in the total S (sulphate and sulphur dioxide) and x is the concentration of the total S in the air. The regression coefficients a and b seem to be characteristics of the area. In urban areas studied so far a was between 316 and 378 and b between -0.74 and -0.83. In industrial areas polluted by dust which contains elevated concentrations of metals a was between 91 and 107 and b between -0.35 and -0.49. In the area polluted by cement dust there was practically no correlation between the sulphate S (%) and the total S, but a relatively high correlation between absolute amounts of the sulphate S and the total S. The relations indicate that the limitation of SO/sub 2/ conversion is influenced by aerosol composition. Aerosols containing certain metals may promote the conversion by a catalytic effect while alkaline substances by increasing the pH. Whether this can only happen in the plume or in the air as well remains to be clarified.

  5. The APS control system network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorowicz, K.V.; McDowell, W.P.

    1995-01-01

    The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the open-quotes Standard Model.close quotes The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions

  6. How sulphate-reducing microorganisms cope with stress: Lessons from systems biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.; He, Q.; Hemme, C.L.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hillesland, K.; Zhou, A.; He, Z.; Nostrand, J.D. Van; Hazen, T.C.; Stahl, D.A.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.

    2011-04-01

    Sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs) are a phylogenetically diverse group of anaerobes encompassing distinct physiologies with a broad ecological distribution. As SRMs have important roles in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and various metals, an understanding of how these organisms respond to environmental stresses is of fundamental and practical importance. In this Review, we highlight recent applications of systems biology tools in studying the stress responses of SRMs, particularly Desulfovibrio spp., at the cell, population, community and ecosystem levels. The syntrophic lifestyle of SRMs is also discussed, with a focus on system-level analyses of adaptive mechanisms. Such information is important for understanding the microbiology of the global sulphur cycle and for developing biotechnological applications of SRMs for environmental remediation, energy production, biocorrosion control, wastewater treatment and mineral recovery.

  7. Corrosion Performance of Inconel 625 in High Sulphate Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azzura

    2016-05-01

    Inconel 625 (UNS N06625) is a type of nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media, being especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. However, in aggressive environment, Inconel 625 will suffer corrosion attack like other metals. This research compared the corrosion performance of Inconel 625 when exposed to higher sulphate content compared to real seawater. The results reveal that Inconel 625 is excellent in resist the corrosion attack in seawater. However, at increasing temperature, the corrosion resistance of this metal decrease. The performance is same in seawater with high sulphate content at increasing temperature. It can be concluded that sulphate promote perforation on Inconel 625 and become aggressive agents that accelerate the corrosion attack.

  8. Sulphate Removal from Water by Carbon Residue from Biomass Gasification: Effect of Chemical Modification Methods on Sulphate Removal Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Runtti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulphate removal from mine water is a problem because traditional chemical precipitation does not remove all sulphates. In addition, it creates lime sediment as a secondary waste. Therefore, an inexpensive and environmental-friendly sulphate removal method is needed in addition to precipitation. In this study, carbon residues from a wood gasification process were repurposed as precursors to a suitable sorbent for SO42- ion removal. The raw material was modified using ZnCl2, BaCl2, CaCl2, FeCl3, or FeCl2. Carbon residues modified with FeCl3 were selected for further consideration because the removal efficiency toward sulphate was the highest. Batch sorption experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of the initial pH, initial SO42- ion concentration, and contact time on sulphate removal. The removal of SO42- ions using Fe-modified carbon residue was notably higher compared with unmodified carbon residue and commercially available activated carbon. The sorption data exhibited pseudo-second-order kinetics. The isotherm analysis indicated that the sorption data of Fe-modified carbon residues can be represented by the bi-Langmuir isotherm model.

  9. Development of poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) composites for calcium carbonate and sulphate scale inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithil Kumar, N; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Jagadeesh, Dani; Kanny, K; Bux, F

    2015-01-01

    Polyaspartic acid (PSI) is suitable for the inhibition of inorganic scale deposition. To enhance its scale inhibition efficiency, PSI was modified by reacting aspartic acid with malic acid (MA) using thermal polycondensation polymerization. This reaction resulted in poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) (PSI-co-MA) dual polymer. The structural, chemical and thermal properties of the dual polymers were analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography. The effectiveness of six different molar ratios of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate scale inhibition at laboratory scale batch experiments was evaluated with synthetic brine solution at selected doses of polymer at 65-70°C by the static scale test method. The performance of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for the inhibition of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitation was compared with that of a PSI single polymer. The PSI-co-MA exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 85.36% calcium carbonate inhibition and 100% calcium sulphate inhibition at a level of 10 mg/L PSI-co-MA, respectively. Therefore, it may be reasonably concluded that PSI-co-MA is a highly effective scale inhibitor for cooling water treatment applications.

  10. An AP Calculus Classroom Amusement Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the school year, AP Calculus teachers strive to teach course content comprehensively and swiftly in an effort to finish all required material before the AP Calculus exam. As early May approaches and the AP Calculus test looms, students and teachers nervously complete lessons, assignments, and assessments to ensure student preparation.…

  11. Microwave assisted synthesis of nano sized sulphate doped hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Razali, Ili Rabihah [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor DarulTa’zim (Malaysia)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Phase pure nano-sized sulphur doped hydroxyapatite has been synthesized. ► TEM analysis confirmed formation of needle shaped structure. ► Lattice parameters and cell volume increased with increase in sulphate doping. ► Crystallite size decreased as sulphate content inside the structure increased. ► Degree of crystallinity decreased with increase in sulphate substitution. - Abstract: Inorganic sulphate is required by all mammalian cells to function properly, it is the fourth most abundant anion in the human plasma. Sulphate ions are the major source of sulphur which is considered an important element for sustenance of life as it is present in the essential amino and is required by cells to function properly. In this study we have successfully substituted sulphate ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) into hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x}(OH){sub 2−x}) lattice via ion exchange process with phosphate group. Concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions was varied between X = 0.05–0.5, using (Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O), ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that the substitution of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions into the lattice resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis confirmed the formation of needle shaped particles of 41 nm size with homogenous and uniform distribution of element within the HA structure.

  12. Microwave assisted synthesis of nano sized sulphate doped hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Razali, Ili Rabihah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase pure nano-sized sulphur doped hydroxyapatite has been synthesized. ► TEM analysis confirmed formation of needle shaped structure. ► Lattice parameters and cell volume increased with increase in sulphate doping. ► Crystallite size decreased as sulphate content inside the structure increased. ► Degree of crystallinity decreased with increase in sulphate substitution. - Abstract: Inorganic sulphate is required by all mammalian cells to function properly, it is the fourth most abundant anion in the human plasma. Sulphate ions are the major source of sulphur which is considered an important element for sustenance of life as it is present in the essential amino and is required by cells to function properly. In this study we have successfully substituted sulphate ions (SO 4 2− ) into hydroxyapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6−x (SO 4 ) x (OH) 2−x ) lattice via ion exchange process with phosphate group. Concentration of SO 4 2− ions was varied between X = 0.05–0.5, using (Ca (NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O), ((NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 ) and (Na 2 SO 4 ) as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that the substitution of SO 4 2− ions into the lattice resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis confirmed the formation of needle shaped particles of 41 nm size with homogenous and uniform distribution of element within the HA structure

  13. Sulphate and chloride aerosols during Holocene and last glacial periods preserved in the Talos Dome Ice Core, a peripheral region of Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Iizuka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic ice cores preserve the record of past aerosols, an important proxy of past atmospheric chemistry. Here we present the aerosol compositions of sulphate and chloride particles in the Talos Dome (TD ice core from the Holocene and Last Glacial Period. We find that the main salt types of both periods are NaCl, Na2SO4 and CaSO4, indicating that TD ice contains relatively abundant sea salt (NaCl from marine primary particles. By evaluating the molar ratio of NaCl to Na2SO4, we show that about half of the sea salt does not undergo sulphatisation during late Holocene. Compared to in inland Antarctica, the lower sulphatisation rate at TD is probably due to relatively little contact between sea salt and sulphuric acid. This low contact rate can be related to a reduced time of reaction for marine-sourced aerosol before reaching TD and/or to a reduced post-depositional effect from the higher accumulation rate at TD. Many sulphate and chloride salts are adhered to silicate minerals. The ratio of sulphate-adhered mineral to particle mass and the corresponding ratio of chloride-adhered mineral both increase with increasing dust concentration. Also, the TD ice appears to contain Ca(NO32 or CaCO3 particles, thus differing from aerosol compositions in inland Antarctica, and indicating the proximity of peripheral regions to marine aerosols.

  14. Testing of Solar Heated Domestic Hot Water System for Solahart Scandinavia ApS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1997-01-01

    The solar heating system marketed by Solahart Scandinavia ApS was tested in the Institutes test facility for SDHWsystems. The test results are described in the report.......The solar heating system marketed by Solahart Scandinavia ApS was tested in the Institutes test facility for SDHWsystems. The test results are described in the report....

  15. Natural mineral waters: chemical characteristics and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, Sara; Pampaloni, Barbara; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Summary Water contributes significantly to health and a daily intake of 1.5 to 2 liters of water should be guaranteed, because a good hydration is essential to maintain the body water equilibrium, although needs may vary among people. However, worldwide population is far from the Recommended Allowance for water intake. Among the waters for human uses, there are ‘waters (treated or not), intended for drinking, used for the food and beverages preparation or for other domestic purposes’ and natural mineral waters, that are ‘originated from an aquifer or underground reservoir, spring from one or more natural or bore sources and have specific hygienic features and, eventually, healthy properties’. According to the European Legislation (2009/54/EC Directive), physical and chemical characterization is used to make a classification of the different mineral waters, basing on the analysis of main parameters. Mineral composition enables to classify natural mineral waters as bicarbonate mineral waters, sulphate mineral waters, chloride mineral waters, calcic mineral waters, magnesiac mineral waters, fluorurate mineral waters, ferrous mineral waters and sodium-rich mineral waters. Although the concerns about bottled mineral waters (due to plasticizers and endocrine disruptors), many are the health effects of natural mineral waters and several studies explored their properties and their role in different physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:28228777

  16. Fellow's Apéro

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Let's get together, meet each other, exchange experiences and ideas, and share useful information on CERN and the Staff Association. Join us for Fellow's Apéro, organised by the Staff Association on Tuesday 21 February at 16.30 in Restaurant 1. There will be drinks and snacks for everybody! We look forward to seeing you there! Please confirm your participation on Doodle http://doodle.com/poll/skvm7ucm2z78i6bt or alternatively on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/events/1862757017340069/. Your delegates in the Staff Association, Barbora & Jiri

  17. Micrometeorological measurement of the dry deposition flux of sulphate and nitrate aerosols to coniferous forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyers, G.P.; Duyzer, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Dry deposition fluxes of sulphate and nitrate have been determined over a coniferous canopy using the aerodynamic gradient technique. Vertical concentration gradients of sulphate and nitrate were measured with filters; the gradient of ammonium bisulphate was measured with thermodenuders. Filter

  18. Grass-cellulose as energy source for biological sulphate removal from acid mine effluents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological sulphate removal technology requires carbon and energy sources to reduce sulphate to sulphide. Plant biomass, e.g. grass, is a sustainable source of energy when cellulose is utilised during anaerobic degradation, producing volatile...

  19. Interdependent action of nickel sulphate and X-rays on human lymphoblastoid leukeamic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensimon, Jacques

    1977-01-01

    In a first experiment, cells were cultured in media supplemented by nickel sulphate, irradiated in same media and cultured in same media after irradiation. In a second experiment, cells were cultured during 18hrs. in media supplemented by nickel sulphate, and then cells were washed and cultured in normal media where they were irradiated. The nickel sulphate toxicity appears as a creasing function of the nickel sulphate concentration and the nickel sulphate action endurance. The nickel sulphate toxic effect is amplified by X-rays. This amplification is a time function that depends on the X-ray dose, nickel sulphate concentration and period of time from the outset of culture to the irradiation. The nickel sulphate toxic effect appears faster when nickel works after X-rays [fr

  20. Thermo-mineral waters of Hammam Meskoutine (north-east Algeria: Composition and origin of mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benamara Abdelwaheb

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The extreme north-eastern Algeria, in particular the Guelma city conceals thermal springs, whose waters circulating at great depths allow the rain-waters to warm up (according to the average geothermal gradient of 1°C per 33 m and to acquire a mineralization which depends on the traversed rock. The goal of this research work was to determine mineralization origin of the thermo-mineral waters of Hammam Meskoutine (Algerian N-E. A hydro-chemical study involved analyses of a number of physical and chemical parameters of waters such as: temperature, hydrogen potential, electrolytical conductivity, Cl-, SO4 2-, HCO3 -, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+. The data processing on the diagram revealed two dominating chemical facies: sulphate-magnesium and bicarbonate magnesium. With a high conductivity in excess of 2300 μS·cm-1, the temperature reaches 97°C. Calculation of the saturation index shows that the waters are supersaturated in carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite and aragonite and less saturated with evaporite minerals (halite, anhydrite, sylvite and gypsum. The reconstitution in dissolved salts reveals a dominant salt rich in calcium bicarbonates, in calcium sulphates and secondarily in magnesium salts. Geological sections used in the study zone affirm that the chemical composition of the spring waters comes from the neritic limestone dissolution and the gypso-saline complex of Hammam Meskoutine.

  1. Gastrointestinal tract wall visualization and distention during abdominal and pelvic multidetector CT with a neutral barium sulphate suspension: comparison with positive barium sulphate suspension and with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M R; Erturk, S M; Ichikawa, T; Rocha, T; Ros, P R; Silverman, S G; Mortele, K J

    2012-01-01

    When examining patients with contrast-enhanced multidetector-row CT, we determined if the stomach and small bowel were visualized and distended better with a neutral barium sulphate suspension than with positive barium sulphate suspension or water. After obtaining approval from our institutional review board, 156 patients (women: 84; mean age: 54 yrs) with no history of gastrointestinal tract disease were randomized prospectively to receive orally either 900 ml of neutral (0.1% w/v) barium sulphate suspension (n = 53), 900 ml of positive (2.1% w/v) barium sulphate suspension (n = 53), or 900 ml of water (n = 50), prior to undergoing contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic multidetector-row CT. Two independent radiologists evaluated the stomach, and small bowel, for luminal distension and wall visualization, using a five point scale. Results were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The walls of the stomach, and small bowel were visualized better in patients who were administered neutral barium sulphate suspension than those who were administered either positive barium sulphate suspension (p barium sulphate suspension, the stomach and small bowel were distended better compared to patients administered water (p barium sulphate suspension (p contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic multidetector-row CT, orally administered neutral barium sulphate suspension allows the gastrointestinal tract to be visualized and distended better than either positive barium sulphate suspension, or water.

  2. APS high heat load monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach

  3. The hypobranchial mucin of the whelk Buccinum undatum L. The polysaccharide sulphate component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, S; Jevons, F R

    1966-02-01

    1. A polysaccharide sulphate has been isolated from the hypobranchial mucin of the whelk Buccinum undatum. 2. The molecular weight of this polysaccharide, which is a glucan carrying one ester sulphate group per monosaccharide residue, is 1.7x10(5). 3. Some investigations bearing on the location of the ester sulphate groups are reported. 4. The viscosity of the whole mucin has been shown to depend mainly on the glucan sulphate.

  4. The effect of water on the sulphation of limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunbo Wang; Lufei Jia; Yewen Tan; E.J. Anthony [North China Electric Power University, Baoding City (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2010-09-15

    A series of tests was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to study the sulphation behaviour of limestone in the presence of water over the temperature range of 800-850{sup o}C. Four different Canadian limestones, all with a particle size range of 75-425 {mu}m, were sulphated using a synthetic flue gas with a composition of 15% CO{sub 2}, 3% O{sub 2}, 0% or 10% H{sub 2}O, 1750 ppm SO{sub 2} and the balance N{sub 2}. Water was shown to have a significant promotional effect on sulphation, especially in the diffusion-controlled stage. However, the effect of water during the kinetic-controlled stage appeared to be much less pronounced. Based on these results, it is proposed that the presence of water leads to the transient formation of Ca(OH){sub 2} as an intermediate, which in turn reacts with SO{sub 2} at a faster rate than CaO does. Alternatively stated, it appears that H{sub 2}O acts as catalyst for the sulphation reaction of CaO. 30 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Anisotropy in elastic properties of lithium sodium sulphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anisotropy in elastic properties of lithium sodium sulphate hexahydrate single crystal—An ultrasonic study. GEORGE VARUGHESE. ,∗. , A S KUMAR†, J PHILIP†† and GODFREY LOUIS#. Department of Physics, Catholicate College, Pathanamthitta 689 648, India. †SPAP, M.G. University, Kottayam 686 560, India. ††STIC ...

  6. Growth morphology of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The growth morphology of crystals of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate (ZTS) is investigated experimentally, and computed using the Hartman–Perdok approach. Attachment energies of the observed habit faces are calculated for determining their relative morphological importance. A computer code is developed for carrying out ...

  7. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the ...

  8. Magnesium sulphate as an anticonvulsant in the management of eclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO/sub 4/) as an anticonvulsant in the management of eclamptic patients. Patients and Methods: Out of a total of 6050 pregnant women, 31 patients had eclampsia and were managed according to the set protocol. MgSO/sub 4/ 'Nas given to eclamptic patients according to protocol who had no contraindication to this agent. Recurrence of convulsion, side effects of magnesium sulphate, maternal and fetal outcome was noted. Results: Over two years' study period, out of 6050 patients, 31 were admitted with eclampsia (0.51 %). There was no maternal death. Out of 31 eclamptic patients only 5 patients were booked. Twenty-two patients (70.9%) were primigravida and 9 (29%) were multigravida. Seventeen (54%) were less than 20 years of age, 22 (79.9%) patients were admitted with antepartum and 6 (19.35%) had postpartum eclampsia. Magnesium sulphate was effective in 29 (93.54%) patients. Fifteen patients delivered by caesarean (C) section and 16 delivered vaginally. Twenty-nine (93.5%) babies were born alive. Two patients had recurrent convulsion i.e. 6.4%. Only one patient had respiratory depression after the use of magnesium sulphate. Conclusion: Eclampsia was well controlled by the use of MgSO/sub 4/. There were only 2 patients who had recurrence of convulsion. Convulsions were controlled in 29 (93.54%) patients despite lack of monitoring facilities of serum magnesium level. (author)

  9. Recent Insights into Cell Surface Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, John R; Multhaupt, Hinke; Sanderson, Ralph D

    2016-01-01

    behaviour. Here, we review some recent advances, emphasising that many tumour-related functions of proteoglycans are revealed only after their modification in processes subsequent to synthesis and export to the cell surface. These include enzymes that modify heparan sulphate structure, recycling of whole...

  10. Effect of anhydrous magnesium sulphate fertilizer and cutting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of anhydrous magnesium sulphate fertilizer on Panicum maximum yield and chemical composition of the resultant herbage harvested at 3, 4 and 5 weeks of age was investigated. The treatments were labeled T1 to T6. T1 was fertilized and harvested at 3 weeks cutting interval, T2 was fertilized and harvested at 4 ...

  11. Decolourisation and degradation of textile dyes using a sulphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Successful decolourisation and degradation of textile dyes was achieved in a biosulphidogenic batch reactor using biodigester sludge from a local municipality waste treatment plant as a source of carbon and microflora that augmented a sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium. Orange II (O II) was decolourised by ...

  12. Decolourisation and degradation of reactive blue 2 by sulphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was performed to determine the influence of heat treatment on sewage sludge and addition of zero valent iron (ZVI) on the degradation and decolourisation of an anthraquinone dye, reactive blue 2 (RB 2). A consortium of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in a biosulphidogenic batch reactor with biodigester ...

  13. Crystallisation of mixtures of ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and soot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dougle, P.G.; Veefkind, J.P.; Brink, H.M. ten

    1998-01-01

    Crystallisation of laboratory aerosols of ammonium nitrate and of internal mixtures of this salt with ammonium sulphate were investigated using humidity controlled nephelometry. The aerosol was produced via nebulizing of solutions and then dried to 25% RH, which is a realistic minimum value for

  14. calcium sulphate hemihydrate and bioactive glass composites for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 41; Issue 2. In vitro bioactivity evaluation of α -calcium sulphate hemihydrate and bioactive glass composites for their potential use in bone regeneration. YANYAN ZHENG CHENGDONG XIONG DUJUAN ZHANG LIFANG ZHANG. Volume 41 Issue 2 April 2018 Article ID ...

  15. Biological sulphate reduction with primary sewage sludge in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success of the UASB reactor depends largely on the settling properties and stability of the sludge bed which comprises the anaerobic active biomass. The solid-liquid separation behaviour of the sludge bed in 2 UASB reactors (R1 at 35oC and R2 at 20oC) fed with primary sewage sludge and sulphate was investigated ...

  16. Endogenous and bioaugmented sulphate reduction in calcareous gypsiferous soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaya, F.; Cuenca-Sanchez, M.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2009-01-01

    Gypsiferous soils have a high agricultural value, but their utilization is limited by the presence of gypsum that can induce hardpan and vertical crusting. This paper reports on sulphate reduction in this soil type as a basis of a bioremediation technology to remove the gypsum content of calcareous

  17. Inhibition of bio corrosion of steel coupon by sulphate reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SRB) and Iron oxidizing bacteria (IOB) using Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) extract was tested. The water sample revealed a heterotrophic bacterial count of 1.7x103 cfu/ml for the sulphate reducing bacteria and 4.1x103 cfu/ml for the Iron oxidizing ...

  18. Green chemical incorporation of sulphate into polyoxoanions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Green chemical incorporation of sulphate into polyoxoanions of molybdenum to nano level ... Keywords. Polyoxometalate; green synthesis; nanostructures; surfactant. ... The effects of reaction parameters such as concentration of surfactant, temperature and pH of solution on the synthesis of nanospheres were investigated.

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of copper sulphate test in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The accuracy of the copper sulphate method for the rapid screening of prospective blood donors has been questioned because this rapid screening method may lead to false deferral of truly eligible prospective blood donors. Objective: This study was aimed at determining the sensitivity and specificity of copper ...

  20. Inhibition of Bio corrosion of steel coupon by sulphate reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Inhibition of Bio corrosion of steel coupon by sulphate reducing bacteria and Iron oxidizing bacteria using .... Ethanol for 24 h. The extract was ... with distilled water to get a zero reading from the meter before .... Ethanol extract of musa species peels as a green corrosion ... Eco friendly extract of banana peel as corrosion ...

  1. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Adsorption of Sulphate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL USER

    22, No. 1, 2017. 39. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Adsorption of Sulphate from Aqueous Solution by. Magnetite ... poison catalysts, and affect the .... C for 1 h in a stainless steel reactor placed in a furnace ... N2 gas for 30 min. 50 ml of ...... adsorption for designing and evaluating the ... is the equilibrium liquid-phase.

  2. Electrochemical study in the molten sodium acid sulphate - potassium acid sulphate eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ber, F.

    1964-01-01

    The general properties of the NaHSO 4 - KHSO 4 molten eutectic resemble those of neutral sulphates and those of concentrated H 2 SO 4 . We have been able to show the existence in solution of the ions HSO - 4 SO 2- 4 , and H 3 O + , these last being formed by the action of the HSO - 4 ions on dissolved H 2 O. The electro-active zone with a polished platinum electrode is limited in oxidation by the ions H 3 O + and SO 2- 4 , and in reduction by the protons of HSO - 4 . We have compared the electro-active zones obtained with different electrodes (Ag-Au-graphite-mercury). We have considered the dissolution of a few metallic oxides and halides. This work shows the role as O 2- ion acceptors of HSO - 4 ions. We have undertaken an electro-chemical study of a few oxido-reduction Systems: H + / H 2 , Ag↓ / Ag (1), the vanadium and uranium Systems, those of mercury Hg↓ / Hg 2- 2 and of gold Au/Au 3+ , then of the attack by the solvent of a few common metals such as aluminium, iron, copper and nickel. The study of silver Systems has made it possible to obtain the solubility products of AgCl and AgBr and to consider the possibility of coulometric titration Cl - ions with Ag + ions. We have shown the existence of various chemical species of vanadium which may exist in the molten eutectic. (author) [fr

  3. Feasibility of lead removal from industrial effluents by sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L. A.; Diez, M.; Rodriguez, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Battery manufacturing wastewater contains high concentration of sulphate and lead at low pH values. Biogical treatment by anaerobic reduction of sulphate to sulphite, with organic matter as electron donor, increases alkalinity and allow precipitating lead as sulphide. the type of organic matter, COD/SO 4 ratio and lead concentration over sulphate reduction rate are investigated in this work. (Author)

  4. Harbin Institute of Technology collaborative base project at APS of Argonne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Liu, L. L.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, the progress of Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) collaborative base project, which was launched at Argonne National Laboratory in 2010, will be presented. The staff and students from HIT involved in advanced technological developments, which included tomography, high energy PDF, diffraction and scattering, and inelastic scattering techniques in APS to study structures changes of minerals and materials under high pressure conditions.

  5. APS: Lighting up the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potent, V.J.

    1993-01-01

    Work on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) involves the construction and supporting research and development for a national user facility for synchrotron radiation research in the x-ray region. The facility, when operational in 1997, will provide super-intense x-ray beams for many areas of basic research and will serve the entire US x-ray research community of several thousand users. This paper describes the pertinent features of the design, construction and planned operation of the facility; and the impact quality has had in these areas. In addition, the introduction of several quality management techniques such as total quality management, reliability/availability planning, and user interface are discussed concerning their status and success

  6. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document

  7. Sulphate reduction and vertical distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria quantified by rRNA slot-blot hybridization in a coastal marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahm, K.; MacGregor, BJ; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    In the past, enumeration of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by cultivation-based methods generally contradicted measurements of sulphate reduction, suggesting unrealistically high respiration rates per cell. Here, we report evidence that quantification of SRB rRNA by slot-blot hybridization......, directly above the sulphate reduction maximum. Cell numbers calculated by converting the relative contribution of SRB rRNA to the percentage of DAPI-stained cells indicated a population size for SRB of 2.4-6.1 x 10(8) cells cm(-3) wet sediment. Cellular sulphate reduction rates calculated on the basis...

  8. AP calculus AB & BC crash course

    CERN Document Server

    Rosebush, J

    2012-01-01

    AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Calculus AB & BC course description outline and actual AP test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exams, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Written by experienced math teachers, our

  9. [Type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS-2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialettes, Bernard; Dubois-Leonardon, Noémie

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS-2) are the most frequent disorders associating several organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Their high prevalence is due to the fact that the main manifestations of APS-2, such as thyroidal autoimmunity, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune gastric atrophy and vitiligo, are common diseases. APS-2 represents a clinical model that can serve to help unravel the mechanisms underlying autoimmunity. Diagnosis of APS-2 is a challenge for the clinician, especially in poorly symptomatic forms, and may require systematic screening based on measurement of autoantibodies and functional markers.

  10. The effect of magnesium on partial sulphate removal from mine water as gypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of magnesium on the removal efficiency of sulphate as gypsum from mine water. The precipitation conditions were simulated with MINEQL + software and the simulation results were compared with the results from laboratory jar test experiments. Both the simulation and the laboratory results showed that magnesium in the mine water was maintaining sulphate in a soluble form as magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) at pH 9.6. Thus magnesium was preventing the removal of sulphate as gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). However, change in the lime precipitation pH from 9.6 to 12.5 resulted in magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) precipitation and improved sulphate removal. Additionally, magnesium hydroxide could act as seed crystals for gypsum precipitation or co-precipitate sulphate further enhancing the removal of sulphate from mine water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct observations of the atmospheric processing of Asian mineral dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Sullivan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of secondary acids and ammonium on individual mineral dust particles during ACE-Asia has been measured with an online single-particle mass spectrometer, the ATOFMS. Changes in the amounts of sulphate, nitrate, and chloride mixed with dust particles correlate with air masses from different source regions. The uptake of secondary acids depended on the individual dust particle mineralogy; high amounts of nitrate accumulated on calcium-rich dust while high amounts of sulphate accumulated on aluminosilicate-rich dust. Oxidation of S(IV to S(VI by iron in the aluminosilicate dust is a possible explanation for this enrichment of sulphate, which has important consequences for the fertilization of remote oceans by soluble iron. This study shows the segregation of sulphate from nitrate and chloride in individual aged dust particles for the first time. A transport and aging timeline provides an explanation for the observed segregation. Our data suggests that sulphate became mixed with the dust first. This implies that the transport pathway is more important than the reaction kinetics in determining which species accumulate on mineral dust. Early in the study, dust particles in volcanically influenced air masses were mixed predominately with sulphate. Dust mixed with chloride then dominated over sulphate and nitrate when a major dust front reached the R. V. Ronald Brown. We hypothesize that the rapid increase in chloride on dust was due to mixing with HCl(g released from acidified sea salt particles induced by heterogeneous reaction with volcanic SO2(g, prior to the arrival of the dust front. The amount of ammonium mixed with dust correlated strongly with the total amount of secondary acid reaction products in the dust. Submicron dust and ammonium sulphate were internally mixed, contrary to frequent reports that they exist as external mixtures. The size distribution of the mixing state of dust with these secondary species validates previous

  12. EFFECT OF IRRIGATION WITH SEWAGE WASTEWATER ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION BY NAVEL ORANGE TRANSPLANTS USING 15N-LABELLED AMMONIUM SULPHATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-MOTAIUM, R.A.; SHARAF, A.N.; HASHEM, M.E.; HEGAZI, E.S.; BADAWY, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    An isotope aided study using 15 N-labelled ammonium sulphate was applied to investigate nitrogen uptake and translocation from sewage water by one year old Navel orange transplants. The investigation was conducted in a pot experiment at the greenhouse for two successive seasons (2005 and 2006). Ammonium sulphate was applied to the soil at a rate of 6 g/pot. The treatments included irrigation with canal water and sewage water. Half strength Hoagland nutrient solution, nitrogen depleted, was applied to provide the required nutrients for healthy growth of the transplants. The pots were irrigated to maintain the soil moisture content at field capacity.The results indicated that there is an increase in the transplants biomass irrigated with sewage water than using canal water. A substantial increase in mineral fertilizer nitrogen ( 15 N) uptake by plant roots and translocation into shoots was observed using canal water than sewage water. The nitrogen percent derived from sewage water was higher (26.1-49.5%) than that derived from 15 N-labelled ammonium sulphate (4.9-12.7%). Fertilizer nitrogen recovery was higher under canal water than under sewage water irrigation regime, although the plant biomass was higher under sewage water. Using sewage water alone can provide the orange transplants with their nitrogen requirements with no need for application of mineral fertilizer

  13. Consumo de antimicrobianos en APS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Lara Bastanzuri

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de describir el patrón de uso de los medicamentos para el tratamiento con antimicrobianos en APS en Cuba en el período de 1989 al 2000, se diseñó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo clasificado dentro de los estudios de utilización de medicamentos como de consumo. Para ello se calcularon las dosis diarias definidas cada día de determinado fármaco de los grupos clasificados según ATC como tetraciclinas, anfenicoles, penicilinas de amplio espectro, cefalosporinas, sulfonamidas y trimetoprim, macrólidos, estreptomicinas y quinolonas. Además, se tomaron las cifras de pacientes inscriptos a penicilina benzatínica y se comparó con la población expuesta obtenida a partir de las DHD. Las penicilinas son las de mayor consumo con tendencia al aumento, igual que los aminoglucósidos, mientras que la tetraciclina presenta cifras mayores de DHD. La tendencia del cloranfenicol es a disminuir. La población expuesta está muy por debajo de los pacientes inscriptos en penicilina benzatínica y las líneas de tendencia no son similares. Excepto la docixiclina, el resto de los antimicrobianos recomendados en la Guía Terapéutica para APS se encuentran en el Listado Básico de Medicamentos del país para el nivel primario de atención médica.With the objective of describing the pattern of drug use in antimicrobial-based treatment in the primary health care in Cuba from 1989 to 2000, we designed a retrospective descriptive and observational study, classified into the study of drug use as consumption. To this end, the daily doses of certain drugs from the ATC-classified groups were calculated, which included tetracycline, amphenicols, broad spectrum penicilins, cephalosporins, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, macrolides, streptomycin and quinolones. Also, the number of patients registered as benzathine peniciline consumers was taken and compared to the exposed population data obtained from the DHD. Penicillins are the

  14. Coastal acid sulphate soils in Poland: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulisz Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of knowledge on coastal acid sulphate soils in Poland. The properties of these soils are closely related to the influence of brackish water from the Baltic Sea, high accumulation of organic matter and human activity. The obtained results demonstrate that the sulphide accumulation in soils refers to a relatively small areas of the Polish coastal zone with the unique and very valuable habitats. They require an adequate regulation of the water relations to avoid the risk of strong soil acidification and environmental pollution by heavy metals. Currently, there are no relevant criteria for classification of acid sulphate soil materials in the Polish Soil Classification (2011. Therefore, based on the presented data, the authors proposed to identify these features at the lower classification level (for different soil types. The criteria for the Thionic and Sulfidic qualifiers used in the WRB classification (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015 could be accepted for this purpose.

  15. Physicochemical and in vitro deposition properties of salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide and salbutamol sulphate/excipient spray dried mixtures for use in dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Deirdre O; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2006-09-28

    The physicochemical and aerodynamic properties of spray dried powders of the drug/drug mixture salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide were investigated. The in vitro deposition properties of spray dried salbutamol sulphate and the spray dried drug/excipient mixtures salbutamol sulphate/lactose and salbutamol sulphate/PEG were also determined. Spray drying ipratropium bromide monohydrate resulted in a crystalline material from both aqueous and ethanolic solution. The product spray dried from aqueous solution consisted mainly of ipratropium bromide anhydrous. There was evidence of the presence of another polymorphic form of ipratropium bromide. When spray dried from ethanolic solution the physicochemical characterisation suggested the presence of an ipratropium bromide solvate with some anhydrous ipratropium bromide. Co-spray drying salbutamol sulphate with ipratropium bromide resulted in amorphous composites, regardless of solvent used. Particles were spherical and of a size suitable for inhalation. Twin impinger studies showed an increase in the fine particle fraction (FPF) of spray dried salbutamol sulphate compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate:ipratropium bromide 10:1 and 5:1 systems also showed an increase in FPF compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Most co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate/excipient systems investigated demonstrated FPFs greater than that of micronised drug alone. The exceptions to this were systems containing PEG 4000 20% or PEG 20,000 40% both of which had FPFs not significantly different from micronised salbutamol sulphate. These two systems were crystalline unlike most of the other spray dried composites examined which were amorphous in nature.

  16. Structure transitions between copper-sulphate and copper-chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    strate that co-adsorbed sulphate ions in the (√3 × √3)R30° UPD adlayer are replaced by chloride ions and, ..... phase 1 by the (5 × 5)-like chlo- ride phase 2 was mentioned in. 45,46,48,56 but not stud- ied in detail. These authors suggested that the replacement of SO. 2. 4. – .... A nonlinear regression fit of (1) to the experi-.

  17. Sulphate and desertification signals in Middle Eastern temperature trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrallah, H.A.; Balling, R.C. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of Middle Eastern annual temperature anomalies over the past 40 years reveals statistically significant warming over this time period of 0.07 C per decade. The warming is most pronounced over the spring season and least apparent in the winter season. Spatial analysis reveals a positive relationship between Middle Eastern warming and the degree of human-induced desertification and a negative relationship between local warming and the atmospheric concentration of sulphate

  18. Biological sulphate reduction with primary sewage sludge in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-31

    Jul 31, 2009 ... The success of the UASB reactor depends largely on the settling properties and stability of the sludge bed which comprises the anaerobic active biomass. The solid-liquid separation behaviour of the sludge bed in 2 UASB reactors (R1 at 35oC and. R2 at 20oC) fed with primary sewage sludge and sulphate ...

  19. Unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after morphine sulphate intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanan, R.; Stockhausen, H.B. von; Petersen, B. [Children' s Hospital, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Solymosi, L.; Warmuth-Metz, M. [Department for Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    We report a 14-year-old girl with an unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after intentional intoxication with morphine sulphate tablets. Toxicological analysis showed exceedingly high levels of morphine and its metabolites. MRI disclosed a leukoencephalopathy with high signal from the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter on T2-weighted images. These findings could be only partially explained by a hypoxic-ischaemic event; neurotoxic effects must be considered in this atypical leukoencephalopathy. (orig.)

  20. Unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after morphine sulphate intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanan, R.; Stockhausen, H.B. von; Petersen, B.; Solymosi, L.; Warmuth-Metz, M.

    2000-01-01

    We report a 14-year-old girl with an unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after intentional intoxication with morphine sulphate tablets. Toxicological analysis showed exceedingly high levels of morphine and its metabolites. MRI disclosed a leukoencephalopathy with high signal from the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter on T2-weighted images. These findings could be only partially explained by a hypoxic-ischaemic event; neurotoxic effects must be considered in this atypical leukoencephalopathy. (orig.)

  1. Molecular structure of dextran sulphate sodium in aqueous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Every, Hayley A.; Jiskoot, Wim; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Buijs, Wim

    2018-03-01

    Here we propose a 3D-molecular structural model for dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in a neutral aqueous environment based on the results of a molecular modelling study. The DSS structure is dominated by the stereochemistry of the 1,6-linked α-glucose units and the presence of two sulphate groups on each α-glucose unit. The structure of DSS can be best described as a helix with various patterns of di-sulphate substitution on the glucose rings. The presence of a side chain does not alter the 3D-structure of the linear main chain much, but affects the overall spatial dimension of the polymer. The simulated polymers have a diameter similar to or in some cases even larger than model α-hemolysin nano-pores for macromolecule transport in many biological processes, indicating a size-limited translocation through such pores. All results of the molecular modelling study are in line with previously reported experimental data. This study establishes the three-dimensional structure of DSS and summarizes the spatial dimension of the polymer, serving as the basis for a better understanding on the molecular level of DSS-involved electrostatic interaction processes with biological components like proteins and cell pores.

  2. Advanced APS Impacts on Vehicle Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethyl hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination and scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  3. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TESTING OF TANKS 241-AN-102 & 241-AP-107 & 241-AP-108 IN SUPPORT OF ULTRASONIC TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

    2008-11-20

    This report presents the results of the corrosion rates that were measured using electrochemical methods for tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102), 241-AP-107 (AP 107), and 241-AP-108 (AP-108) performed under test plant RPP-PLAN-38215. The steel used as materials of construction for AN and AP tank farms was A537 Class 1. Test coupons of A537 Class 1 carbon steel were used for corrosion testing in the AN-107, AP-107, and AP-108 tank waste. Supernate will be tested from AN-102, AP-107, and Ap-108. Saltcake testing was performed on AP-108 only.

  5. Hydrogeochemical tracing of mineral water in Jingyu County, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baizhong; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan; Wu, Shili

    2016-02-01

    The east Jilin Province in China, Jingyu County has been explored as a potential for enriching mineral water. In order to assess the water quality and quantity, it is of crucial importance to investigate the origin of the mineral water and its flow paths. In this study, eighteen mineral springs were sampled in May and September of 2012, May and September of 2013, and May 2014 and the environment, evolvement, and reaction mechanism of mineral water formation were analysed by hydrochemical data analysis, geochemical modelling and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the investigated mineral water was rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, fluoride, nitrate, total iron, silicate, and strontium, and mineral water ages ranged from 11.0 to more than 61.0 years. The U-shape contours of the mineral ages indicate a local and discrete recharge. The mineral compositions of the rocks were olivine, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, albite, and anorthite and were under-saturated in the mineral water. The origin of mineral water was from the hydrolysis of basalt minerals under a neutral to slightly alkaline and CO2-rich environment.

  6. The microbial communities and potential greenhouse gas production in boreal acid sulphate, non-acid sulphate, and reedy sulphidic soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Miloslav; Virtanen, S.; Simojoki, A.; Chroňáková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Yli-Halla, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 466, January (2014), s. 663-672 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/1570; GA MŠk LC06066 Grant - others:GAJU(CZ) GAJU 138/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : acid sulphate soil * carbon * CARD-FISH * microorganisms * nitrogen * PLFA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.099, year: 2014

  7. Chemical sulphate removal for treatment of construction and demolition debris leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2014-08-01

    Construction and demolition debris (CDD) is a product of construction, renovation or demolition activities. It has a high gypsum content (52.4% of total gypsum), concentrated in the CDD sand (CDDS) fraction. To comply with the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulphate present in building sand, excess sulphate needs to be removed. In order to enable reuse of CDDS, a novel treatment process is developed based on washing of the CDDS to remove most of the gypsum, and subsequent sulphate removal from the sulphate-rich CDDS leachate. This study aims to assess chemical techniques, i.e. precipitation and adsorption, for sulphate removal from the CDDS leachate. Good sulphate removal efficiencies (up to 99.9%) from the CDDS leachate can be achieved by precipitation with barium chloride (BaCl2) and lead(II) nitrate (Pb(NO3)2). Precipitation with calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium oxide (CaO) gave less efficient sulphate removal. Adsorption of sulphate to aluminium oxide (Al2O3) yielded a 50% sulphate removal efficiency, whereas iron oxide-coated sand as adsorbent gave only poor (10%) sulphate removal efficiencies.

  8. The action of diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate on rat blood vessels: a comparison with cromakalim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newgreen, D. T.; Bray, K. M.; McHarg, A. D.; Weston, A. H.; Duty, S.; Brown, B. S.; Kay, P. B.; Edwards, G.; Longmore, J.; Southerton, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    1. The actions of diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate have been compared with those of cromakalim in rat aorta and portal vein. 2. Diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate hyperpolarized the rat portal vein in a similar manner to cromakalim. 3. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate increased 42K and 86Rb efflux from rat portal vein, although minoxidil sulphate had only a small effect on 86Rb efflux. 4. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate increased 42K efflux from rat aorta but only cromakalim and diazoxide increased 86Rb efflux from this tissue. 5. Glibenclamide inhibited the relaxant actions of cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate on rat aorta and the increase in 42K efflux produced by these agents in this tissue. 6. Diazoxide relaxed an 80 mM KCl-induced contraction of rat aorta, whilst cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate were without effect. 7. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate had no effect on cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP concentrations in rat aorta. 8. It is concluded that diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate like cromakalim exhibit K+ channel opening properties in vascular smooth muscle. Diazoxide exerts an additional inhibitory action not related to the production of cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP. The action of minoxidil sulphate may be primarily located at a K+ channel which is relatively impermeable to 86Rb. PMID:2167738

  9. Sulphate reduction and vertical distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria quantified by rRNA slot-blot hybridization in a coastal marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahm, K.; MacGregor, BJ; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    In the past, enumeration of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by cultivation-based methods generally contradicted measurements of sulphate reduction, suggesting unrealistically high respiration rates per cell. Here, we report evidence that quantification of SRB rRNA by slot-blot hybridization...... between 18% and 25% to the prokaryotic rRNA pool. The dominant SRB were related to complete oxidizing genera (Desulphococcus, Desulphosarcina and Desulphobacterium), while Desulpho-bacter could not be detected. The vertical profile and quantity of rRNA from SRB was compared with sulphate reduction rates......, directly above the sulphate reduction maximum. Cell numbers calculated by converting the relative contribution of SRB rRNA to the percentage of DAPI-stained cells indicated a population size for SRB of 2.4-6.1 x 10(8) cells cm(-3) wet sediment. Cellular sulphate reduction rates calculated on the basis...

  10. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  11. Suggestion on Information Sharing for AP implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hye Won; Kim, Min Su; Koh, Byung Marn [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Under the Additional Protocol, States should provide the IAEA with expanded declarations of activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle and other nuclear activities, and with expanded access to the relevant information and sites to allow the IAEA to verify the completeness of these declarations. The AP to the Safeguards Agreement (the Additional Protocol) was signed on June 21{sup st}, 1999 and entered into force on February 19{sup th}, 2004. ROK submitted initial declarations in August 2004. Since then, ROK has been submitting annual updated reports of initial declaration on every May 15{sup th}. To achieve successful implementation, it is necessary to collect the information for each individual article in Article 2 of the AP and verify the declared information provided by facility operators. Therefore, the cooperation among the ministries and offices concerned is a prerequisite for successful implementation of AP. Unfortunately, the formal procedure for inter-organizational information sharing and cooperation is not established. This paper will briefly outline the AP declarations and suggest the information sharing among the ministries, offices and organizations for effective and efficient implementation of AP. The State authority has responsibility for AP implementation and it should verify correctness and completeness of the information declared by facility operators before submitting the declarations. The close cooperation and information sharing among the ministries, offices and organizations are indispensable to effective and efficient implementation of AP.

  12. Mineral and inorganic chemical composition of the Pernik coal, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yossifova, Mariana G. [Geological Institute, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl.24, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-11-22

    The mineral and inorganic chemical composition of five types of samples from the Pernik subbituminous coals and their products generated from the Pernik preparation plant were studied. They include feed coal, low-grade coal, high-grade coal, coal slime, and host rock. The mineral matter of the coals contains 44 species that belong mainly to silicates, carbonates, sulphates, sulphides, and oxides/hydroxides, and to a lesser extent, chlorides, biogenic minerals, and organic minerals. The detrital minerals are quartz, kaolinite, micas, feldspars, magnetite, cristobalite, spessartine, and amphibole. The authigenic minerals include various sulphides, silicates, oxihydroxides, sulphates, and carbonates. Several stages and substages of formation were identified during the syngenetic and epigenetic mineral precipitations of these coals. The authigenic minerals show the greatest diversity of mineral species as the epigenetic mineralization (mostly sulphides, carbonates, and sulphates) dominates qualitatively and quantitatively. The epigenetic mineralization was a result of complex processes occurring mostly during the late development of the Pernik basin. These processes indicate intensive tectonic, hydrothermal and volcanic activities accompanied by a change from fresh to marine sedimentation environment. Thermally altered organic matter due to some of the above processes was also identified in the basin. Most of the trace elements in the Pernik coals (Mo, Be, S, Zr, Y, Cl, Ba, Sc, Ga, Ag, V, P, Br, Ni, Co, Pb, Ca, and Ti) show an affinity to OM and phases intimately associated with OM. Some of the trace elements (Sr, Ti, Mn, Ba, Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Ni, As, Ag, Yb, Sn, Ga, Ge, etc.) are impurities in authigenic and accessory minerals, while other trace elements (La, Ba, Cu, Ce, Sb, Bi, Zn, Pb, Cd, Nd, etc.) occur as discrete phases. Elements such as Sc, Be, Y, Ba, V, Zr, S, Mo, Ti, and Ga exceed Clarke concentrations in all of the coal types studied. It was also found that

  13. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) nephropathy in catastrophic, primary, and systemic lupus erythematosus-related APS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tektonidou, Maria G; Sotsiou, Flora; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M

    2008-10-01

    Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has been poorly recognized. A renal small-vessel vasculopathy, defined as APS nephropathy, has recently been observed in small series of patients with primary APS (PAPS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-APS. We examined the renal histologic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of different groups of patients with APS including catastrophic APS (CAPS). Our study included all CAPS (n=6), PAPS (n=8), and SLE-APS (n=23) patients with biopsy-proven renal involvement who were referred to our departments. The kidney biopsy specimens were retrospectively examined by the same renal pathologist. APS nephropathy was diagnosed as previously described. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded. All patients with CAPS had acute and chronic renal vascular lesions compatible with diagnosis of APS nephropathy. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), the acute lesion, was observed in all CAPS patients. Fibrous intimal hyperplasia of interlobular arteries (FIH) and focal cortical atrophy (FCA) were the most common chronic vascular lesions, occurring in 4 of 6 (66.7%) and 3 of 6 (50%) patients with CAPS, respectively. TMA was detected in 3 of 8 (37.5%) patients with PAPS and in 8 of 23 (35%) patients with SLE-APS, while FIH and FCA were found with similar frequencies in all 3 groups. Hypertension, proteinuria, hematuria, and renal insufficiency were the most common renal manifestations of all APS groups. Acute and chronic APS nephropathy lesions were detected in all 3 APS groups. Acute lesions were more prominent in CAPS, while chronic lesions were found with similar frequencies in all groups. Hypertension, proteinuria, hematuria, and renal insufficiency were the most common renal manifestations of all APS groups.

  14. AP1000 Containment Design and Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Richard F.; Ofstun, Richard P.; Bachere, Sebastien

    2002-01-01

    The AP1000 is an up-rated version of the AP600 passive plant design that recently received final design certification from the US NRC. Like AP600, the AP1000 is a two-loop, pressurized water reactor featuring passive core cooling and passive containment safety systems. One key safety feature of the AP1000 is the passive containment cooling system which maintains containment integrity in the event of a design basis accident. This system utilizes a high strength, steel containment vessel inside a concrete shield building. In the event of a pipe break inside containment, a high pressure signal actuates valves which allow water to drain from a storage tank atop the shield building. Water is applied to the top of the containment shell, and evaporates, thereby removing heat. An air flow path is formed between the shield building and the containment to aid in the evaporation and is exhausted through a chimney at the top of the shield building. Extensive testing and analysis of this system was performed as part of the AP600 design certification process. The AP1000 containment has been designed to provide increased safety margin despite the increased reactor power. The containment volume was increased to accommodate the larger steam generators, and to provide increased margin for containment pressure response to design basis events. The containment design pressure was increased from AP600 by increasing the shell thickness and by utilizing high strength steel. The passive containment cooling system water capacity has been increased and the water application rate has been scaled to the higher decay heat level. The net result is higher margins to the containment design pressure limit than were calculated for AP600 for all design basis events. (authors)

  15. Degradation of wall paints due to sodium sulphate and sodium chloride crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Gonçalves, T.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A test method for evaluating wall paints behaviour to soluble salts crystallization was developed at LNEC. in the present paper, a recent set of tests is described and discussed. The major objectives were: analysing and comparing the behaviour of a common emulsion {"plastic" paint and a silicate-based paint; observing and comparing the effect of sodium sulphate, sodium chloride and distilled water on the paints and on a non-painted stone; evaluating this test method adequacy and effectiveness. The silicate-based paint showed a resistance to soluble salts crystallization greater than the one of the plastic paint. However, the degradation pattern of the silicate-based paint (blistering of a filmic layer was similar to the one of organic paints and distinct from the one of pure mineral paints. The amount of damage that a saline solution can cause to wall paints cannot be inferred from the amount of damage it can cause to stone. Sodium chloride seems to be able to cause more severe degradation to wall paints than sodium sulphate. To the unpainted stone, sodium sulphate seems to be more damaging than sodium chloride. The test method seems adequate to observe and compare the behaviour of wall paints under soluble salts action. However, lower (around 0.5% concentrations for both sodium sulphate and sodium chloride should be tested in the future.

    RESUMEN En el LNEC se desarrolló una metodología de ensayo para evaluar la respuesta de pinturas aplicadas sobre paredes, frente a la cristalización de sales solubles. En este trabajo, se describen y discuten un conjunto de ensayos recientes. Los principales objetivos fueron: el análisis y la comparación del comportamiento de una pintura de emulsión común {''pintura plástica" y la de una pintura de silicato; la observación y la comparación de los efectos del sulfato de sodio, del cloruro de sodio y del agua destilada sobre las pinturas y sobre piedra no pintada; la evaluación de la adecuaci

  16. Operation of the APS rf gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has a thermionic-cathode rf gun system capable of providing beam to the APS linac. The gun system consists of a 1.6-cell thermionic-cathode rf gun, a fast kicker for beam current control, and an alpha magnet for bunch compression and injection into the APS linac line. This system is intended for use both as an injector for positron creation, and as a first beam source for the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) project [1]. The first measured performance characteristics of the gun are presented.

  17. AP English language & composition crash course

    CERN Document Server

    Hogue, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    AP English Language & Composition Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP English Language & Composition Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP English Language & Composition course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valua

  18. Nondestructive neutron activation analysis of mineral materials. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randa, Z.; Benada, J.; Kuncir, J.; Vobecky, M.

    1979-01-01

    A description is presented of sampling, calibration standards, the method of activation and measurement, activation product identification, the respective nuclear reactions, interfering admixtures, and pre-activation operations. The analysis is described of sulphides, halogenides, oxides, sulphates, carbonates, phosphates, silicates, aluminosilicates, composite minerals containing lanthanides, rocks, tektites, meteors, and plant materials. The method allows determining mainly F, Mg, Al, Ti, V, Nb, Rh, and I which cannot be determined by long-term activation (LTA). It is more sensitive than LTA in determining Ca, Cu, In, and Dy. The analysis takes less time, irradiation and measurement are less costly. The main mineral components are quickly found. (M.K.)

  19. Effectiveness and harmful effects of removal sulphated black crust from granite using Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozo, S. [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, ETSI Minas, University of Vigo, 36310 (Spain); Barreiro, P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, E.T.S.I. Industriales, University of Vigo, 36310 (Spain); Rivas, T. [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, ETSI Minas, University of Vigo, 36310 (Spain); González, P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, E.T.S.I. Industriales, University of Vigo, 36310 (Spain); Fiorucci, M.P. [Centro de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas (CIT), University of A Coruña, 15403, Ferrol (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Sulphated black crust is a common form of deterioration affecting stone used in monuments, usually occurs in contaminated atmospheres or urban environments. Its origin and cleaning have been studied extensively, for decades, in the case of carbonate rocks. Recent studies show that this form of alteration also affects granites. Scientific research on laser removal effectiveness of gypsum-rich black crust on granites needs to be scientifically addressed considering the inexistent references. This paper assesses the removal by laser of sulphate-rich black crusts on granite using the different harmonics of a Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser (266 nm, 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm). Effectiveness was evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM–EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Infrared Transform Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). We also evaluated the effect of the radiation on granite-forming minerals and on the colour of the stone using Scanning Electron Microscopy and spectrophotometry colour measurements respectively. SEM–EDS, XRD and ATR-FTIR analyses show that the higher the wavelength, the more efficient the cleaning, so samples cleaned using 1064 nm pulsed laser recovered its original colour. Nevertheless, the Nd:YAG laser did not completely eliminate the crust, and gypsum crystals remaining on the rock surface are observed, even at the most effective wavelength.

  20. Effectiveness and harmful effects of removal sulphated black crust from granite using Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozo, S.; Barreiro, P.; Rivas, T.; González, P.; Fiorucci, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Sulphated black crust is a common form of deterioration affecting stone used in monuments, usually occurs in contaminated atmospheres or urban environments. Its origin and cleaning have been studied extensively, for decades, in the case of carbonate rocks. Recent studies show that this form of alteration also affects granites. Scientific research on laser removal effectiveness of gypsum-rich black crust on granites needs to be scientifically addressed considering the inexistent references. This paper assesses the removal by laser of sulphate-rich black crusts on granite using the different harmonics of a Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser (266 nm, 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm). Effectiveness was evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM–EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Infrared Transform Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). We also evaluated the effect of the radiation on granite-forming minerals and on the colour of the stone using Scanning Electron Microscopy and spectrophotometry colour measurements respectively. SEM–EDS, XRD and ATR-FTIR analyses show that the higher the wavelength, the more efficient the cleaning, so samples cleaned using 1064 nm pulsed laser recovered its original colour. Nevertheless, the Nd:YAG laser did not completely eliminate the crust, and gypsum crystals remaining on the rock surface are observed, even at the most effective wavelength.

  1. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the

  2. Tank 241-AP-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-11-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AP-104

  3. Avaliação do fluxo salivar total não estimulado, após o emprego do lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio associado ao hidróxido de cálcio em pacientes irradiados com carcinoma espinocelular da boca e orofaringe Total salivary non stimulated flow evaluation, after radiotherapy for patients with mouth and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma with the association of lauryl-dietylene-glycol-ether sodium sulphate and calcium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano M. Correia

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Avaliar quantitativamente o índice de fluxo salivar total não estimulado de pacientes portadores de carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe, após tratamento radioterápico, exclusivo, tratados com a associação de lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio e hidróxido de cálcio. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico não randomizado. Método: o fluxo salivar foi avaliado em 11 pacientes (n=11 em três fases: 1ª. durante sete semanas, quando foram submetidos à telecobaltoterapia na dose total de 7.000 cGy, sem utilização de medicamento para estimular a salivação; 2ª. em seguida, durante oito semanas após o tratamento radioterápico, quando os pacientes utilizaram a associação medicamentosa como estimulante da salivação; 3ª. finalmente, durante oito semanas após ter sido interrompido o tratamento com a associação de drogas. Resultados: os valores obtidos foram analisados com vistas a avaliação da eficácia da medicação utilizada para evitar a hipofunção salivar no período pós-radioterapia. Dos 11 pacientes, 10 apresentaram melhora significante dos índices de fluxo salivar com o uso da associação de drogas, em relação aos valores do período final do tratamento radioterápico, e mantiveram esses índices mesmo com a suspensão do medicamento. Conclusões: a associação de drogas foi eficaz no tratamento da hipofunção salivar, e proporcionou aumento do índice salivar total não estimulado em 10 dos 11 pacientes, sendo esse aumento mantido por dois meses após a interrupção do uso do medicamento.Introduction: Evaluation of quantitative non-stimulated salivary flow rate in 11 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma after exclusive radiation therapy, treated with the association of lauryl-diethylene-glycol-ether-sodium sulfate and calcium hydroxide. Study design: Prospective clinical no randomized. Method: salivary flow was evaluated in three phases: 1 during seven

  4. AP1000 design and construction integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, James W.; Clelland, Jill A.

    2004-01-01

    Construction costs of commercial nuclear generating plants must be reduced in order to expand the future use of nuclear energy. Two of the drivers of plant construction costs are the cost of financing during the construction duration and the substantial amount of skilled craft labor hours needed on site during construction. The application of information technology (IT) has been used to understand and reduce both of these drivers by establishing parallel construction paths using modules and integrating construction sequence review into the design process. In a program sponsored by EPRI, Westinghouse has modeled the construction of AP1000 in '4D' to show its viability, to improve its logic, to improve the plant design for constructibility and overall to reduce time and risk in the construction schedule. The design of most of AP1000 was constrained to be a duplicate of AP600 except where components required expansion for the higher power level. As a result, the construction schedule for AP1000 is as mature and as robust as that for AP600. Two areas important to the construction of AP1000 did require some design work because they could not remain the same as AP1000. First, the turbine building had to be redesigned to accommodate the larger turbine and its support systems. Again, as much of the AP600 design and philosophy as possible was retained. The building required enlargement and the basemat, foundations, steel structure and structural modules required modification. As concrete, steel, and equipment were defined by the designers, they were matched to the original AP600 turbine building schedule. This forced designers to assemble files to be consistent with building assembly activities and to think about constructibility as they defined the final design. Second, the reinforcement structure within the concrete under and supporting the containment vessel required detail design. Westinghouse was fortunate to have the constructor Obayashi of Japan recommend a detailed

  5. Serum and urinary oestrone sulphate in pregnancy and delivery measured by a direct radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honjo, Hideo; Kitawaki, Jo; Itoh, Masafumi; Yasuda, Jinsuke; Yamamoto, Takara; Yamamoto, Takao; Okada, Hiroji; Ohkubo, Tadashi; Nambara, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    Serum and urinary levels of oestrone sulphate in pregnancy and delivery were measured by a direct radioimmunoassay without hydrolysis. the serum and urinary oestrone sulphate increased as pregnancy progressed. the mean level of serum oestrone sulphate increased to the highest peak of 494 pmol/ml at the 35th gestational week and then decreased. The mean level of urinary oestrone sulphate increased to the highest peak of 1.28 μmol/l at the 34th gestational week and the decreased. At vaginal deliveries, the mean level of maternal peripheral serum oestrone sulphate increased hourly at as high a level as 979 pmol/ml. The mean serum level of oestrone sulphate was 204 pmol/ml in the umbilical artery and 145 pmol/ml in the umbilical vein. At Caesarean section, on the other hand, the maternal peripheral serum level of oestrone sulphate averaged 362 pmol/ml. The mean serum levels of oestrone sulphate wre 90.7 pmol/ml and 171 pmol/ml in the umbilical artery and umbilical vein, respectively. These results suggest a maternal origin of oestrone sulphate in pregnancy, with fluctuations in the levels being of interest in relation to labour pain. (author)

  6. Recovery of uranium from sulphate solutions containing molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, D.R.; Genik-Sas-Berezowsky, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    A process for recovering uranium from a sulphate solution containing dissolved uranium and molybdenum includes reacting the solution with ammonia (pH 8 to 10), the pH of the original solution must not exceed 5.5 and after the addition of ammonia the pH must not be in the vicinity of 7 for a significant time. The resultant uranium precipitate is relatively uncontaminated by molybdenum. The precipitate is then separated from the remaining solution while the pH is maintained within the stated range

  7. Effect of radiation on activity of sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaev, N.M.; Smorodin, A.E.; Gusejnov, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of γ-radiation on activity of sulphate reducing bacteria has been studied. Concentration of biogenic hydrogen, generated in the medium, is the main criterion, characterizing corrosion activity of the bacteria studied. The developed method of suppression of active development of sulfate reducing bacteria considerably reduces, and at lethal doses of γ-radiation eliminates altogether the bacteria activity and formation of the main corrosion agent-hydrogen sulphide-in the medium and that, in its turn, liquidates hydrogen sulphide corrosion

  8. Pyroelectric effect in tryglicyne sulphate single crystals - Differential measurement method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybus, M.

    2018-06-01

    A simple mathematical model of the pyroelectric phenomenon was used to explain the electric response of the TGS (triglycine sulphate) samples in the linear heating process in ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Experimental verification of mathematical model was realized. TGS single crystals were grown and four electrode samples were fabricated. Differential measurements of the pyroelectric response of two different regions of the samples were performed and the results were compared with data obtained from the model. Experimental results are in good agreement with model calculations.

  9. Development and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh Singh; Poddar, S S

    2009-01-01

    Mucoadhesive patch releasing the drug in the oral cavity at predetermined rate may present distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms such as tablets, gels and solutions. The present study was concerned with the preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal patches for the controlled systemic delivery of Salbutamol sulphate to avoid first pass hepatic metabolism. The developed patches were evaluated for the physicochemical, mechanical and drug release characteristics. The patches showed desired mechanical and physicochemical properties to withstand environment of oral cavity. The in-vitro release study showed that patches could deliver drug to the oral mucosa for a period of 7 h. the patches exhibited adequate stability when tested under accelerated conditions.

  10. Dielectric dispersion in pure and doped lithium rubidium sulphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, M. E.; El-Muraikhi, M.; Al-Houty, L.; Mohamed, A. A.

    The frequency (102 - 105 Hz) dependence of the dielectric properties of lithium rubidium sulphate (LRS) are reported in the vicinity of the transition temperature Tc = 477 K. The a.c. conductivity σ(ω) shows a strong temperature dependence and weak frequency response. The dielectric constant in this region shows a strong frequency dispersion. A Cole-Cole diagram was used to determine the distribution parameter and the molecular relaxation time. The effect of doping with Dy+3, Sm+3 and V+3, was also studied. It was found that doping gives rise to localized states which produce a disorder in the structure of LiRbSO4.

  11. Interactions between cement grouts and sulphate bearing ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, P.L.; Duerden, S.L.; Atkins, K.M.; Majumdar, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of mixtures of Ordinary Portland cement and blastfurnace slag or pulverized fuel ash, exposed to a sulphate-bearing ground water at different temperatures and pressures, were investigated in order to assess the long term durability of cements for encapsulating radioactive waste and backfilling a repository. The effect of the ground water on the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the cements is minimal. Calcite and C-S-H are present in all the samples and are durable throughout the test. Dimensional changes in the cements during setting and curing may cause weaknesses in the materials which may increase the effects of a percolating ground water. (author)

  12. AP1000{sup TM} plant modularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantarero L, C.; Demetri, K. J. [Westinghouse Electric Co., 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Quintero C, F. P., E-mail: cantarc@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Spain, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    The AP1000{sup TM} plant is an 1100 M We pressurized water reactor (PWR) with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance and safety. Modules are used extensively in the design of the AP1000 plant nuclear island. The AP1000 plant uses modern, modular-construction techniques for plant construction. The design incorporates vendor-designed skids and equipment packages, as well as large, multi-ton structural modules and special equipment modules. Modularization allows traditionally sequential construction tasks to be completed simultaneously. Factory-built modules can be installed at the site in a planned construction schedule. The modularized AP1000 plant allows many more construction activities to proceed in parallel. This reduces plant construction calendar time, thus lowering the costs of plant financing. Furthermore, performing less work onsite significantly reduces the amount of skilled field-craft labor, which costs more than shop labor. In addition to labor cost savings, doing more welding and fabrication in a factory environment raises the quality of work, allowing more scheduling flexibility and reducing the amount of specialized tools required onsite. The site layout for the AP1000 plant has been established to support modular construction and efficient operations during construction. The plant layout is compact, using less space than previous conventional plant layouts. This paper provides and overview of the AP1000 plant modules with an emphasis on structural modules. Currently the Westinghouse AP1000 plant has four units under construction in China and four units under construction in the United States. All have shown successful fabrication and installation of various AP1000 plant modules. (Author)

  13. AP1000"T"M plant modularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantarero L, C.; Demetri, K. J.; Quintero C, F. P.

    2016-09-01

    The AP1000"T"M plant is an 1100 M We pressurized water reactor (PWR) with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance and safety. Modules are used extensively in the design of the AP1000 plant nuclear island. The AP1000 plant uses modern, modular-construction techniques for plant construction. The design incorporates vendor-designed skids and equipment packages, as well as large, multi-ton structural modules and special equipment modules. Modularization allows traditionally sequential construction tasks to be completed simultaneously. Factory-built modules can be installed at the site in a planned construction schedule. The modularized AP1000 plant allows many more construction activities to proceed in parallel. This reduces plant construction calendar time, thus lowering the costs of plant financing. Furthermore, performing less work onsite significantly reduces the amount of skilled field-craft labor, which costs more than shop labor. In addition to labor cost savings, doing more welding and fabrication in a factory environment raises the quality of work, allowing more scheduling flexibility and reducing the amount of specialized tools required onsite. The site layout for the AP1000 plant has been established to support modular construction and efficient operations during construction. The plant layout is compact, using less space than previous conventional plant layouts. This paper provides and overview of the AP1000 plant modules with an emphasis on structural modules. Currently the Westinghouse AP1000 plant has four units under construction in China and four units under construction in the United States. All have shown successful fabrication and installation of various AP1000 plant modules. (Author)

  14. Sulphurous Mineral Waters: New Applications for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Carbajo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphurous mineral waters have been traditionally used in medical hydrology as treatment for skin, respiratory, and musculoskeletal disorders. However, driven by recent intense research efforts, topical treatments are starting to show benefits for pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, peptic ulcer, and acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. The beneficial effects of sulphurous mineral waters, sulphurous mud, or peloids made from sulphurous mineral water have been attributed to the presence of sulphur mainly in the form of hydrogen sulphide. This form is largely available in conditions of low pH when oxygen concentrations are also low. In the organism, small amounts of hydrogen sulphide are produced by some cells where they have numerous biological signalling functions. While high levels of hydrogen sulphide are extremely toxic, enzymes in the body are capable of detoxifying it by oxidation to harmless sulphate. Hence, low levels of hydrogen sulphide may be tolerated indefinitely. In this paper, we review the chemistry and actions of hydrogen sulphide in sulphurous mineral waters and its natural role in body physiology. This is followed by an update of available data on the impacts of exogenous hydrogen sulphide on the skin and internal cells and organs including new therapeutic possibilities of sulphurous mineral waters and their peloids.

  15. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-23

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document.

  16. Identification and treatment of APS renal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tektonidou, M G

    2014-10-01

    Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), either primary or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related APS, includes renal artery stenosis or thrombosis, renal infarction, renal vein thrombosis and a small-vessel vaso-occlusive nephropathy defined as "antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-associated nephropathy." aPL-associated nephropathy is characterized by acute lesions, thrombotic microangiopathy, and chronic lesions such as fibrous intimal hyperplasia, organizing thrombi with or without recanalization, fibrous occlusions of arteries or arterioles and focal cortical atrophy. Systemic hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria (ranging from mild to nephrotic level) and renal insufficiency represent the major clinical manifestations associated with aPL-associated nephropathy. Similar renal histologic and clinical characteristics have been described among all different groups of patients with positive aPL (primary APS, SLE-related APS, catastrophic APS and SLE/non-APS with positive aPL). In patients with aPL-associated nephropathy lesions in the absence of other causes associated with similar histological characteristics, aPL testing needs to be considered. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Vascular Manifestations in Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS): Is APS a Thrombophilia or a Vasculopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Salma; Risse, Jessie; Canaud, Guillaume; Zuily, Stéphane

    2017-09-04

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is characterized primarily by thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity. Chronic vascular lesions can also occur. While the underlying mechanisms of these vascular lesions are not entirely known, there have been multiple theories describing the potential process of vasculopathy in APS and the various clinical manifestations associated with it. Recently, it has been demonstrated that endothelial proliferation in kidneys can be explained by the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) pathway by antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). These data support the existence of an APS-related vasculopathy in different locations which can explain-in part-the different manifestations of APS. This review focuses on the various manifestations of APS as a result of APS-related vasculopathy, as well as pathophysiology, current screening, and treatment options for clinicians to be aware of.

  18. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    flux. Circulation of seawater through the oceanic crust and upper mantle gives rise to a complex series of physical and chemical reactions that lead to the 1) formation of seafloor mineral deposits; 2) alteration of oceanic crust; 3) control... temperature in the high-temperature reaction zone near the heat source. Important parameters in determining the high- temperature fluid composition are • pressure, • temperature, • water/rock ratio, • rock composition, • recharge fluid...

  19. Acid sulphate soil disturbance and metals in groundwater: Implications for human exposure through home grown produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinwood, Andrea Lee; Horwitz, Pierre; Appleyard, Steve; Barton, Caroline; Wajrak, Magda

    2006-01-01

    A significant emerging environmental problem is the disturbance and oxidation of soils with high levels of iron sulphide minerals resulting in acidification and causing the mobilization of metals into groundwater. This process is occurring in many parts of the world. In Western Australia, impacted groundwater is extracted by residents for domestic use. We sought to establish domestic use patterns of bore water and the concentration of metals. Sixty-seven domestic bore water samples clearly indicated oxidation of sulphidic materials with heavy metal concentrations ranging for aluminium (< DL-37.0 mg/L), arsenic (< DL-6.6 mg/L), iron (< DL-1200 mg/L), cadmium (< DL-0.021 mg/L), lead (< DL-0.040 mg/L), selenium (< DL-0.006 mg/L). A high proportion of residents used bore water on home grown produce. The study suggests that there is potential for human exposure to heavy metals via the consumption of home grown produce. This warrants further investigation in light of increasing acid sulphate soil disturbance in many locations. - Acidified bore water may introduce metals into produce for home consumption

  20. Kepler observations of rapidly oscillating Ap, δ Scuti and γ Doradus pulsations in Ap stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balona, Luis A.; Cunha, Margarida S.; Kurtz, Donald W.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of the A5p star KIC 8677585 obtained during the Kepler 10-d commissioning run with 1-min time resolution show that it is a rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star with several frequencies with periods near 10 min. In addition, a low frequency at 3.142 d−1 is also clearly present....... Multiperiodic γ Doradus (γ Dor) and δ Scuti (δ Sct) pulsations, never before seen in any Ap star, are present in Kepler observations of at least three other Ap stars. Since γ Dor pulsations are seen in Ap stars, it is likely that the low frequency in KIC 8677585 is also a γ Dor pulsation. The simultaneous...... presence of both γ Dor and roAp pulsations and the unexpected detection of δ Sct and γ Dor pulsations in Ap stars present new opportunities and challenges for the interpretation of these stars. Since it is easy to confuse Am and Ap stars at classification dispersions, the nature of these Ap stars...

  1. Ice and mineral licks used by caribou in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Heard

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available In winter, barren-ground caribou obtain minerals from ice and soil licks. Between December and April we have seen caribou cratering on the surface of frozen lakes and licking the ice. Ice samples from eight licks on four lakes contained concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, chloride and sulphate many times higher than in the surrounding unlicked ice or than would be expected in lake water. Soil licks being used in March and June had high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium phosphorus and potassium. In winter caribou may be seeking supplements of all of the major mineral elements (calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium at ice and soil licks because lichens, their staple winter diet, are low in minerals and may also reduce the absorption of some minerals.

  2. Gasification of sulphate soap for the lime kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saviharju, Kari (Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology); Timonen, Tuomas (Finnish Energy Economy Association, Espoo (Finland). Finnish Recovery Boiler Committee)

    1993-01-01

    Sulphate soap is a by-product of pulp mills utilized as a raw material for the chemical industry. However, this results in an increase in sulphur input of several kilograms SO[sub 2] per ADt pulp into the mill. Another increasingly interesting alternative is to utilize soap in the lime kiln of the mill. This has a positive effect, in addition to sulphur problems, on the energy balance of the mill. The crucial problem is the high Na + K content of soap, from 4 to 8%, which can result in plugging of the lime kiln. The operational problems can be avoided by gasifying the soap and by separating the inorganic materials from the product gas before the kiln. This paper describes research work on the gasification of crude sulphate soap carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) over the years 1991 and 1992. This work will be continued in 1993 by focusing on specified problems, after which commercial applications should be available. (author)

  3. Preparation of Magnetite Nanocrystals from Ferrous Sulphate Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho Yu Mon; Tint Tint Kywe; Moe Moe Kyaw

    2010-12-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticle were prepared by hydrothermal process in two ways, which would be used for production of copier toner.In this investigation, the first process was made from ferrous sulphate (FeSO4 . 7H2O) by using 10 M sodium hydroxide solution. In this method, magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by changing aeration time from 1 to 3 hr and heated at 90C for 15 min. The alternative process was carried out from ferrous sulphate (FeSO4.7H2O) by using 6.6 M sodium hydroxide solution and sodium silicate solution.Magnetite (black iron oxide) was synthesized by using different aeration times and reaction times. Aeration time was changed from 1 to 2 hr and reaction time was changed from 1 to 5.5 hr at 85 C. The magnetites obtained were examined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) technique. The average particle size range of magnetite nanoprticles were 90-120 nm and 120-150 nm in each process. The maximum yied percentages of magnetite based on FeSO4 in both processing were found to be 46.30% and 60.72%. The precent yields of magnetite in both preparation based on theoretical yields were 91.02% and 94.83% respectively.

  4. Polyferric sulphate: preparation, characterisation and application in coagulation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, A I; Moussas, P A; Vasilakou, F

    2008-07-15

    The process of coagulation is a core environmental protection technology, which is mainly used in the water or wastewater treatment facilities. Research is now focused on the development of inorganic pre-polymerised coagulants. A characteristic example is PFS (polyferric sulphate), a relatively new pre-polymerised inorganic coagulant with high cationic charge. In this paper, the role of major parameters, including temperature, types of chemical reagents, ratio r=[OH]/[Fe], rate of base addition in the preparation stages of PFS were investigated. Furthermore, the prepared PFS was characterised based on typical properties, such as the percentage of the polymerised iron present in the compound, z-potential, pH, etc. Moreover, dynamics of coagulation process were examined by means of the Photometric Dispersion Analyzer (PDA). Finally, the coagulation efficiency of PFS in treating kaolin suspension and biologically pre-treated wastewater was evaluated in comparison with the respective conventional coagulant agent. The results indicate that certain parameters, such as the r value, the rate of base addition and the duration and temperature of the polymerisation stage, significantly affected the properties of the PFS. Additionally, the prepared PFS polymerised coagulants exhibit a significantly better coagulation performance than the respective non-polymerised one, i.e. ferric sulphate.

  5. The solvent extraction of cerium from sulphate solution - mini plant trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldenhoff, K.; Wilkins, D.; Ring, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Mt. Weld deposit in Western Australia has a complex rare earth mineralisation. The rare earth phosphate minerals, which include monazite, are amenable to conventional caustic cracking followed by hydrochloric acid dissolution of the trivalent rare earths. The presence of the mineral cerianite in the ore, which is unaffected by the alkali attack, results in rejection of a considerable proportion of the cerium to the acid leach residue. The recovery of cerium from a sulphate solution, resulting from the processing of such a residue, is the subject of the current paper. The liquor treated by solvent extraction contained 63 g L -1 rare earths and the cerium to total rare earth ratio was 75%. Other impurities, including Fe and Th, totalled 2000 ppm. A solvent mixture of commercially available extractants in a low aromatic content diluent was used to extract Ce 4+ selectively over the trivalent rare earths. Partial co-extraction of Fe and Th occurred but it was found that these elements were not easily stripped and therefore selective back extraction of cerium was possible. The cerium was stripped from the organic phase by hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide. In continuous counter-current trials two extraction stages and three strip stages were used. In order to produce two grades of strip liquor, stripping was divided into two circuits. The first strip circuit consisting of a single stage, contained proportionally more of the trivalent rare earths. The second strip circuit, consisting of two stages, removed the remaining cerium with proportionally less of the rare earths. A bleed solvent stream was treated for removal of impurities to prevent build-up in the solvent. In the continuous counter current trials, 95% Ce 4+ extraction was achieved and the Ce to total rare earth ratio was upgraded to > 99%

  6. Are high rates of sulphate reduction associated with anaerobic oxidation of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devol, A H; Ahmed, S I

    1981-01-01

    Classical models of sulphur diagenesis in marine sediments are based on the assumption that the rate of sulphate reduction is first order with respect to oxidizable particulate organic carbon (POC). This assumption requires that oxidizable POC, sulphate concentration and the sulphate reduction rate be highest at the top of the sulphate reduction zone and decrease exponentially with increasing sediment depth. However, to explain recent observations of concave upwards methane distributions, the anaerobic consumption of methane has been proposed. Furthermore, it has been proposed that this consumption takes place near the bottom of the sulphate reducing zone where sulphate concentrations are low. Thus, if sulphate reducing bacteria are associated with the anaerobic oxidation of methane, a peak in sulphate reduction rate might be expected in this deep consumption zone. The importance of the process in sedimentary sulphur diagenesis is indicated by calculations estimating that 30 to 75% of the downward sulphate flux at depth may be consumed by methane oxidation within this zone. We present here profiles of sulphate reduction rate in anoxic sediments that show distinct local maxima at the depth where the anaerobic oxidation of methane would be expected. Our measurements were made during July and August 1978 in Saanich Inlet, an anoxic fjord located on the south-east of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The inlet has a shallow sill (approx 70 m) which restricts circulation of the deeper water (maximum depth 225 m) inside the basin to the extent that for about 8 months of the year the bottom waters contain hydrogen sulphide, the inlet is an ideal location for studying sedimentary sulphate reduction because reactions with oxygen and the effects of burrowing organisms can be neglected.

  7. Westinghouse AP600 advanced nuclear plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, W.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the cooperative US Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Program and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Westinghouse AP600 team has developed a simplified, safe, and economic 600-megawatt plant to enter into a new era of nuclear power generation. Designed to satisfy the standards set by DOE and defined in the ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD), the Westinghouse AP600 is an elegant combination of innovative safety systems that rely on dependable natural forces and proven technologies. The Westinghouse AP600 design simplifies plant systems and significant operation, inspections, maintenance, and quality assurance requirements by greatly reducing the amount of valves, pumps, piping, HVAC ducting, and other complex components. The AP600 safety systems are predominantly passive, depending on the reliable natural forces of gravity, circulation, convection, evaporation, and condensation, instead of AC power supplies and motor-driven components. The AP600 provides a high degree of public safety and licensing certainty. It draws upon 40 years of experience in light water reactor components and technology, so no demonstration plant is required. During the AP600 design program, a comprehensive test program was carried out to verify plant components, passive safety systems components, and containment behavior. When the test program was completed at the end of 1994, the AP600 became the most thoroughly tested advanced reactor design ever reviewed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The test results confirmed the exceptional behavior of the passive systems and have been instrumental in facilitating code validations. Westinghouse received Final Design Approval from the NRC in September 1998. (author)

  8. Correlation analysis between sulphate content and leaching of sulphates in recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbudo, Auxi; Galvín, Adela P; Agrela, Francisco; Ayuso, Jesús; Jiménez, Jose Ramón

    2012-06-01

    In some recycled aggregates applications, such as component of new concrete or roads, the total content of soluble sulphates should be measured and controlled. Restrictions are usually motivated by the resistance or stability of the new structure, and in most cases, structural concerns can be remedied by the use of techniques such as sulphur-resistant cements. However, environmental risk assessment from recycling and reuse construction products is often forgotten. The purpose of this study is to analyse the content of soluble sulphate on eleven recycled aggregates and six samples prepared in laboratory by the addition of different gypsum percentages. As points of reference, two natural aggregates were tested. An analysis of the content of the leachable amount of heavy metals regulated by European regulation was included. As a result, the correlation between solubility and leachability data allow suggest a limiting gypsum amount of 4.4% on recycled aggregates. This limit satisfies EU Landfill Directive criteria, which is currently used as reference by public Spanish Government for recycled aggregates in construction works. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of Pb (II from Aqueous Solutions Using Mixtures of Bamboo Biochar and Calcium Sulphate, and Hydroxyapatite and Calcium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorption characteristics of Pb(II from aqueous solutions through a low-cost adsorbent mixture comprising of Bamboo biochar (BB and Calcium Sulphate (CS, and a more expensive mixture of Hydroxyapatite (HAP and Calcium Sulphate (CS, were investigated. The effects of equilibrium contact time, and adsorbate concentration conducted in batch experiments were studied. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 40 (min. The adsorption mechanism of Pb(II from these two adsorbent mixtures was carried out through a kinetic rate order. A pseudo second-order kinetic model was applied for the adsorption processes. The model yielded good correlation (R2 >0.999 of the experimental data. Adsorption of Pb(II using (BB&CS and (HAP&CS correlated well (R2 >0.99 with both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations under the concentration range studied. Hence, the effectiveness of an inexpensive natural material (BB&CS mixture in Pb(II removal is established, and is promising for use in other heavy metal adsorptions.

  10. Phase Behavior and Rheology of Fatty Alcohol Sulphate, Fatty Alcohol Ether Sulphate from Palm based and Mixtures with other Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.K.; Nur Syazani Harun; Mohd Suzeren Mohd Jamil; Rahimi Mohd Yusop

    2013-01-01

    The phase diagrams of fatty alcohol sulphate (FAS)/ fatty alcohol ether sulphate (FAES)/ soap (4.5:4.5:1.0)/ propylene glycol/ water mixtures were established at 60 degree Celsius. The birefringence was observed under cross polarizers and their phases changes examined under a polarized microscope. The results showed that the liquid crystalline region for FAS and FAES occurred only in a small region. The optical patterns of lamellar liquid crystal were identified as oily streaks structure. The rheological tests of lamellar liquid crystal were carried out in the region of 4.5/ 4.5/ 1 FAES/ FAS/ soap with 0 % PG and 10 % of water. The rheological tests used were flow curve, 3 interval thixotropy test (3ITT), oscillation (dynamic test) stress sweep test and frequency sweep test measurement done using a cone-plate sensor (25 mm, 1 degree). The flow curve was fitted to a Casson model to obtain values for the consistency coefficient and the flow behavior index. The lamellar liquid crystal show typical flow behavior and stress influenced the recovery of the structure. Linear visco-elastic (LVE) range analysis show the critical stress value at 0.475%, and elastic modulus was dominant over an angular frequency range studied. (author)

  11. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, F.H.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-107 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 1 on September 11, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Nuier, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). A notification was made to East Tank Farms Operations concerning low hydroxide in the tank and a hydroxide (caustic) demand analysis was requested. The request for sample analysis (RSA) (Attachment 2) received for AP-107 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. Therefore, prior to performing the requested analyses, aliquots were made to perform PCB analysis in accordance with the 222-S Laboratory administrative procedure, LAP-101-100. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at 50 ppm and analysis proceeded as non-PCB samples. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis will be included in a revision to this document. The sample breakdown diagrams (Attachment 1) are provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed

  12. Modelling the competition between sulphate reducers and methanogens in a thermophilic methanol-fed bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.; Weijma, J.; Abusam, A.

    2002-01-01

    Sulphate can be removed from wastewater by means of biological anaerobic reduction to sulphide. The reduction requires the presence of a substrate that can serve as an electron donor. Methanol a suitable electron donor for sulphate reduction under thermophilic conditions. In an anaerobic system

  13. Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyle, Lex W.; Crowther, Caroline A.; Middleton, Philippa; Marret, Stephane; Rouse, Dwight

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and basic science evidence suggests that magnesium sulphate before birth may be neuroprotective for the fetus. Objectives To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate as a neuroprotective agent when given to women considered at risk of preterm birth. Search strategy We

  14. Treatment of acid and sulphate-rich effluents in an integrated biological/chemical process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maree, JP

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available .4 g SO4/(l.d). The rate of biological sulphate removal was found to be directly related to the square root of sulphate, COD and VSS concentrations respectively, and inversely proportional to sulphide concentration. The practical value of simultaneous...

  15. Performance of cement solidification with barium for high activity liquid waste including sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, Toshikazu; Yamada, Motoyuki; Horikawa, Yoshihiko; Kaneko, Masaaki; Saso, Michitaka; Haruguchi, Yoshiko; Yamashita, Yu; Sakai, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    The target liquid waste to be solidified is generated from PWR primary loop spent resin treatment with sulphate acid, so, its main constituent is sodium sulphate and the activity of this liquid is relatively high. Waste form of this liquid waste is considered to be a candidate for the subsurface disposal. The disposed waste including sulphate is anticipated to rise a concentration of sulphate ion in the ground water around the disposal facility and it may cause degradation of materials such as cement and bentonite layer and comprise the disposal facility. There could be two approaches to avoid this problem, the strong design of the disposal facility and the minimization of sulphaste ion migration from the solidified waste. In this study, the latter approach was examined. In order to keep the low concentration of sulphate ion in the ground water, it is effective to make barium sulphate by adding barium compound into the liquid waste in solidification. However, adding equivalent amount of barium compound with sulphate ion causes difficulty of mixing, because production of barium sulphate causes high viscosity. In this study, mixing condition after and before adding cement into the liquid waste was estimated. The mixing condition was set with consideration to keep anion concentration low in the ground water and of mixing easily enough in practical operation. Long term leaching behavior of the simulated solidified waste was also analyzed by PHREEQC. And the concentration of the constitution affected to the disposal facility was estimated be low enough in the ground water. (author)

  16. Complete sulphate removal from neutralised acidic mine drainage with barium carbonate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, H

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available -barium-calcium) Desalination process which uses barium salts to further reduce the sulphate concentration to acceptable levels with the added advantage that sulphate removal can be controlled due to the low solubility of BaSO4. This paper reports on the results...

  17. Studies on calcium, magnesium and sulphate in the Mandovi and Zuari river system (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Naik, S.

    -conservative parameters. Sulphate, however behaves in a purely conservative manner and remains in a steady state in the rivers. A'Simple mixture'relationship is applied to calculate the dilution and mixing processes in the rivers using calcium, magnesium and sulphate...

  18. Hydrothermal Alteration in an Acid-Sulphate Geothermal Field: Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Barrett, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sulphur Springs is a vigorous geothermal field associated with the Soufrière Volcanic Centre in southern Saint Lucia. Bubbling hydrothermal pools are rich in sodium-calcium sulphate, with pHs of 3-7 and temperatures of 41-97ºC. Fumaroles have temperatures up to, and at times above, 100°C. Gases from bubbling pools and fumaroles have high contents of CO2 (601-993 mmol/mol) and H2S (3-190 mmol/mol). To investigate the nature and extent of hydrothermal alteration, detailed chemical analysis was carried out on 25 altered rocks, 10 sediments from pools and creeks in the main discharge area, and 15 little-altered rocks up to 2 km away from geothermal field. Eight altered samples were also analysed for stable isotope compositions, with mineralogy determined by X-ray diffraction and mineral liberation analysis. Least-altered host rocks comprise calc-alkaline feldspar-quartz-porphyritic dacites of near-uniform composition that form massive domes and volcaniclastic units. These rocks were emplaced 10-30 Ka ago (Lindsay et al. 2013). Within the geothermal field, the dacites have been highly altered to kaolinite, quartz, cristobalite, alunite, natroalunite, smectite, native sulphur, jarosite, gypsum and amorphous compounds. Muds from grey to blackish hydrothermal pools additionally contain iron sulphides, mainly pyrite. Despite intense alteration of the original dacites, Zr and Ti have remained essentially immobile, allowing the calculation of mass changes. Major depletions of Fe, Mg, Ca, Na and commonly Si occur over an area of at least 200 x 400 m. The most altered rocks also show losses of Al, light REE and Y, implying leaching by highly acidic waters. A few altered rocks have, however, gained Al together with Si and P. Also present are m-scale zones of silica + native sulphur, wherein the silica appears to represent a residue from the leaching of dacite, rather than a hydrothermal addition. Delta-34S values of samples containing mixtures of sulphates, native sulphur and

  19. Effect of chemical mixing state on the hygroscopicity and cloud nucleation properties of calcium mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Sullivan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mineral dust particles can alter cloud properties and thus climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN that form cloud droplets. The CCN activation properties of various calcium mineral dust particles were studied experimentally to investigate the consequences of field observations showing the segregation of sulphate from nitrate and chloride between individual aged Asian dust particles, and the enrichment of oxalic acid in Asian dust. Each mineral's observed apparent hygroscopicity was primarily controlled by its solubility, which determines the degree to which the mineral's intrinsic hygroscopicity can be expressed. The significant increase in hygroscopicity caused by mixing soluble hygroscopic material with insoluble mineral particles is also presented. Insoluble minerals including calcium carbonate, representing fresh unprocessed dust, and calcium sulphate, representing atmospherically processed dust, had similarly small apparent hygroscopicities. Their activation is accurately described by a deliquescence limit following the Kelvin effect and corresponded to an apparent single-hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of ~0.001. Soluble calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, representing atmospherically processed mineral dust particles, were much more hygroscopic, activating similar to ammonium sulphate with κ~0.5. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (κ=0.05 was significantly less CCN-active than oxalic acid (κ=0.3, but not as inactive as its low solubility would predict. These results indicate that the common assumption that all mineral dust particles become more hygroscopic and CCN-active after atmospheric processing should be revisited. Calcium sulphate and calcium oxalate are two realistic proxies for aged mineral dust that remain non-hygroscopic. The dust's apparent hygroscopicity will be controlled by its chemical mixing state, which is determined by its mineralogy and the chemical reaction pathways it experiences

  20. Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique, E-mail: torres@udc.es; Abalde, Julio

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sulphate effect on cadmium toxicity in the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii Gerloff. • Cadmium increases the sulphur requirements in Chlamydomonas moewusii. • Kinetic coefficients for sulphate utilization and cadmium effect on them. • Sulphate and cadmium influence on the biosynthesis of low-molecular mass thiols. • Cadmium toxicity reduction by sulphate due to higher biosynthesis of thiols. - Abstract: Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, γ-Glu–Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1 mM sulphate. The maximum EC{sub 50} value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ± 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1 m

  1. Center for Geometrisk Metrologi CGM ApS, Årsberetning 2001 til DANAK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    Denne årsberetning omfatter CGM ApS' akkrediterede virksomhed i kalenderåret 2001. Årsberetningen er udarbejdet til DANAK (Dansk Akkreditering, Erhvervsfremme Styrelsen), som led i opfyldelsen af laboratoriets informationspligt i henhold til gældende regler (Teknisk Forskrift Nr. TF4 af 2000...

  2. Sulphation reactions of oxidic dust particles in waste heat boiler environment. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranki, T.

    1999-09-01

    Sulphation of metal oxides has an important role in many industrial processes. In different applications sulphation reactions have different aims and characteristics. In the flash smelting process sulphation of oxidic flue dust is a spontaneous and inevitable phenomena, which takes place in the waste heat boiler (WHB) when cooling down hot dust laden off-gases from sulphide smelters. Oxidic dust particles (size 0 - 50 {mu}m) react with O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3} in a certain temperature range (500 - 800 deg C). Sulphation reactions are highly exothermic releasing large amount of heat, which affects the gas cooling and thermal performance of the boiler. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the system have to be known to improve the process and WHB operation. The rate of sulphation is affected by the prevailing conditions (temperature, gas composition) and particle size and microstructure (porosity, surface area). Some metal oxides (CuO) can react readily with SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and act as self-catalysts, but others (NiO) require the presence of an external catalyst to enhance the SO{sub 3} formation and sulphation to proceed. Some oxides (NiO) sulphate directly, some (CuO) may form first intermediate phases (basic sulphates) depending on the reaction conditions. Thus, the reaction mechanisms are very complex. The aim of this report was to search information about the factors affecting the dust sulphation reactions and suggested reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Many investigators have studied sulphation thermodynamics and reaction kinetics and mechanisms of macroscopical metal oxide pieces, but only few articles have been published about sulphation of microscopical particles, like dust. All the found microscale studies dealt with sulphation reactions of calcium oxide, which is not present in the flash smelting process, but used as an SO{sub 2} absorbent in the combustion processes. However, also these investigations may give some hints about the sulphation

  3. AP600 - an ALWR conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.A.; Vijuk, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute is spearheading an effort to develop utility requirements for the Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) plants which will become the next generation nuclear power plants for the U.S. This EPRI ALWR Program involves utilities, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and various industry suppliers. The ALWR Program is aimed at ALWR plants which incorporate step improvements in safety, reliability, operability and power generation costs. As part of the ALWR efforts, a Westinghouse team is conducting conceptual design development of a PWR plant design called the AP600, reflecting advanced passive safety features and the chosen 600 MWe plant output. The AP600 conceptual design provides significant improvements while employing proven component technology. This paper describes the basic reactor and primary coolant system features, the passive safety system features, and plant arrangement/construction features of AP600

  4. AP1000, a nuclear central of advanced design; AP1000, una central nuclear de diseno avanzado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, N.; Viais J, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: nhm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The AP1000 is a design of a nuclear reactor of pressurized water (PWR) of 1000 M We with characteristic of safety in a passive way; besides presenting simplifications in the systems of the plant, the construction, the maintenance and the safety, the AP1000 is a design that uses technology endorsed by those but of 30 years of operational experience of the PWR reactors. The program AP1000 of Westinghouse is focused to the implementation of the plant to provide improvements in the economy of the same one and it is a design that is derived directly of the AP600 designs. On September 13, 2004 the US-NRC (for their initials in United States- Nuclear Regulatory Commission) approved the final design of the AP1000, now Westinghouse and the US-NRC are working on the whole in a complete program for the certification. (Author)

  5. An analysis of AP600 design features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Kyoon; Jang, Moon Heui; Hwang, Yung Dong

    1994-01-01

    In the aspect of engineering, passive safety system concept has improved the safety degree of nuclear power plant. Therefore, the objective of this study is to check on the possibility of the capacity upgrade of nuclear power plant in the case of adopting the passive safety system concept of AP 600. The characteristics of AP 600 are the advanced functions in ECCS, heat removal of containment building and residual heat removal under the passive safety system concept. The result of this study will become the basic data of capacity upgrade of nuclear power plant and will be widely used in second year project. (Author)

  6. An analysis of AP600 design features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyoon; Jang, Moon Heui; Hwang, Yung Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1994-01-01

    In the aspect of engineering, passive safety system concept has improved the safety degree of nuclear power plant. Therefore, the objective of this study is to check on the possibility of the capacity upgrade of nuclear power plant in the case of adopting the passive safety system concept of AP 600. The characteristics of AP 600 are the advanced functions in ECCS, heat removal of containment building and residual heat removal under the passive safety system concept. The result of this study will become the basic data of capacity upgrade of nuclear power plant and will be widely used in second year project. (Author).

  7. Shuttle APS propellant thermal conditioner study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, W. E.

    1971-01-01

    A study program was performed to allow selection of thermal conditioner assemblies for superheating O2 and H2 at supercritical pressures. The application was the auxiliary propulsion system (APS) for the space shuttle vehicle. The O2/H2 APS propellant feed system included propellant conditioners, of which the thermal conditioner assemblies were a part. Cryogens, pumped to pressures above critical, were directed to the thermal conditioner assembly included: (1) a gas generator assembly with ignition system and bipropellant valves, which burned superheated O2 and H2 at rich conditions; (2) a heat exchanger assembly for thermal conditioning of the cryogenic propellant; and (3) a dump nozzle for heat exchanger exhaust.

  8. Bioactivity and Applications of Sulphated Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Santos Costa de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina, and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS. It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review.

  9. Identification of nitrates and sulphates with dynamic SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, M.; Goschnick, J.; Ache, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sputter conditions are outlined for the identification of chemically sensitive salt compounds, such as nitrates or sulphates, in multicomponent samples of environmental origin using dynamic SIMS for depth-profiling with nanoscale resolution. Sputtering with 1 keV Xe + has been found to be appropriate to enable both the emission of decisive molecular ions with enough intensity as well as substantial erosion for depth-profiling. The use of heavy projectiles reduces the destruction of chemical compounds in the surface of the solid and enhances sensitivity and identification power of SIMS. The method was applied to the analysis of urban outdoor aerosol particles to investigate the conversion of NaCl into Na 2 SO 4 or NaNO 3 by the interaction of sea salt aerosol with the atmospheric pollutants NO x and SO x . Only NaNO 3 was found in the sea salt fraction. (orig.)

  10. Bronchography in dogs. Comparative study with two barium sulphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibaut, J.; Gallardo, P.; Vargas, L.; Deppe, R.; Born, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two solutions of barium sulphate, 60 and 30% w/v, were compared with the ''overflow'' Bronchographic method. Two groups of eight healthy adult does of both sexes, weighing 7 to 18 kg were used for the study. The dogs were anaesthetised with thiopentone sodium 2% (20 mg/kg iv). After intubation, each dog received contrast medium by a catheter connected to a syringe, in a 9 mi dose. Two series of two x-rays plates were taken in left lateral recumbent, 3 and 6 min after administering the contrast medium and in ventrodorsal projection, 30 sec. later. The x-ray plates obtained were analysed and compared intra and inter group considering the advance speed of the contrast medium, the radiographic density and outlines. Adverse reactions were controlled

  11. Barite mineralization in Kalana speleothems, Central Estonia: Sr, S and O isotope characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikk Gaškov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Barite mineralization in association with calcitic speleothem precipitates in cave structures in Silurian Aeronian carbonate rocks in Kalana quarry, Central Estonia, was studied. Barite mineralization in Kalana occurs in two generations – euhedral bladed-tabular barite zonal crystals from a few to 10 cm in size, growing on the limestone-dolomite wall-rock (generation I, and sparsely placed thin tabular crystals a few millimetres thick and up to 1 cm in size, growing on calcitic crusts (generation II. The barite crystals of generation I are frequently found embedded by paragenetically later calcitic botryoidal crusts. The Sr and S isotopic composition of barite crystals shows a trend of increasing Sr isotope ratios (from 0.7114 to 0.7120 and δ34S values (from 13‰ to 33‰ from the central parts towards the edges of zonal crystals. This suggests barite precipitation by mixing of two endmember fluids at varying ratios during barite formation: warm (up to 70 °C reducing fluid bearing Ba, characterized by an elevated radiogenic Sr- and 34S-enriched isotopic signal, and a cooler ambient fluid bearing an isotopically lighter dissolved sulphate, characterized by lower Sr isotope ratios. The excess of radiogenic 87Sr in barite compared to Phanerozoic seawater values suggests Sr derived from a continental source, whereas sulphate was derived either from oxidized H2S or a modified seawater source. Gradual increase in δ34S values towards the outer zones could also indicate the 34S enrichment due to bacterial sulphate reduction, even though there is no paired 34S and 18O enrichment of sulphate, characteristic of bacterial reworking. This can be interpreted as indicating an open system with limited sulphate resupply where the δ18O composition of sulphate was equilibrated with warm ascending hydrothermal fluid.

  12. The Promise of AP World History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

  13. Structuring the AP Art History Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herscher, Walter R.

    2013-01-01

    While AP (Advanced Placement) Art History may be taught within the art department in many schools, social studies teachers are equally capable of teaching the course well. They have the historical background to discuss the reasons for changes in art styles. A teacher's preparation is similar to teaching a course stressing political history,…

  14. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AP-107

  15. The Demographic Wave: Rethinking Hispanic AP Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kelcey; Sawtell, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Las Vegas, NV in July 2013. This presentation reviews new research examining the AP® experience of Hispanic graduates over the past decade. Topics include an in-depth look at the AP Spanish Language and Culture gateway hypothesis and trends in family characteristics such as parent…

  16. Functional description of APS beamline front ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.

    1993-02-01

    Traditional synchrotron sources were designed to produce bending magnet radiation and have proven to be an essential scientific tool. Currently, a new generation of synchrotron sources is being built that will be able to accommodate a large number of insertion device (ID) and high quality bending magnet (BM) sources. One example is the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory. The research and development effort at the APS is designed to fully develop the potential of this new generation of synchrotron sources. Of the 40 straight sections in the APS storage ring, 34 will be available for IDs. The remaining six sections are reserved for the storage ring hardware and diagnostics. Although the ring incorporates 80 BMs, only 40 of them can be used to extract radiation. The accelerator hardware shadows five of these 40 bending magnets, so the maximum number of BM sources on the lattice is 35. Generally, a photon beamline consists of four functional sections. The first section is the ID or the BM, which provides the radiation source. The second section, which is immediately outside the storage ring but inside a concrete shielding tunnel, is the front end, which is designed to control, define, and/or confine the x-ray beam. In the case of the APS, the front ends are designed to confine the photon beam. The third section, just outside the concrete shielding tunnel and on the experimental floor, is the first optics enclosure, which contains optics to filter and monochromatize the photon beam. The fourth section of a beamline consists of beam transports, additional optics, and experiment stations to do the scientific investigations. This document describes only the front ends of the APS beamlines

  17. Development of a glass matrix for vitrification of sulphate bearing high level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Mishra, R.K.; Thorat, Vidya; Ramchandran, M.; Amar Kumar; Ozarde, P.D.; Raj, Kanwar; Das, D.

    2004-07-01

    High level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) is generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. In the earlier reprocessing flow sheet ferrous sulphamate has been used for valancy adjustment of Pu from IV to III for effective separation. This has resulted in generation of HLW containing significance amount of sulphate. Internationally borosilicate glass matrix has been adopted for vitrification of HLW. The first Indian vitrification facility at Waste Immobilislition Plant (WIP), Tarapur a five component borosilicate matrix (SiO 2 :B 2 O 3 :Na 2 O : MnO : TiO 2 ) has been used for vitrification of waste. However at Trombay HLW contain significant amount of sulphate which is not compatible with standard borosilicate formulation. Extensive R and D efforts were made to develop a glass formulation which can accommodate sulphate and other constituents of HLW e.g., U, Al, Ca, etc. This report deals with development work of a glass formulations for immobilization of sulphate bearing waste. Different glass formulations were studied to evaluate the compatibility with respect to sulphate and other constituents as mentioned above. This includes sodium, lead and barium borosilicate glass matrices. Problems encountered in different glass matrices for containment of sulphate have also been addressed. A glass formulation based on barium borosilicate was found to be effective and compatible for sulphate bearing high level waste. (author)

  18. Automatic colorimetric determination of low concentrations of sulphate for measuring sulphur dioxide in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, G A

    1966-01-01

    An automatic colorimetric method for the determination of low concentrations of sulphate (0-10 microgram/ml) using the thoron indicator is described. Total amounts of sulphate as small as 0.3 micrograms can be determined. The sulphate is precipitated with barium perchlorate and the excess of barium is indicated with 1-(o-arsenophenylazo)-2-naphthol-3-6-disulfonic acid(thoron). The procedure is worked out primarily for the determination of sulphur dioxide in air after absorption in diluted hydrogen peroxide.

  19. Tyrosine sulphation is not required for microvillar expression of intestinal aminopeptidase N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1988-01-01

    incorporation of [35S]sulphate into aminopeptidase N and other major microvillar hydrolases by 70-85% compared with controls, indicating an inhibition of their post-translational tyrosine sulphation. In labelling experiments with [35S]methionine from 0.5 to 5 h, DCNP was tested for its possible influence...... on synthesis, processing and microvillar expression of aminopeptidase N, but no effect on any of these parameters could be detected. It can therefore be concluded that tyrosine sulphation is not required (for instance as a sorting signal) for the targeting of newly synthesized enzymes to the microvillar...

  20. A heterodimer of human 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases is a new sulphate activating complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grum, Daniel; Boom, Johannes van den; Neumann, Daniel; Matena, Anja; Link, Nina M.; Mueller, Jonathan W.

    2010-01-01

    3'-Phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases are fundamental to mammalian sulphate metabolism. These enzymes have recently been linked to a rising number of human diseases. Despite many studies, it is not yet understood how the mammalian PAPS synthases 1 and 2 interact with each other. We provide first evidence for heterodimerisation of these two enzymes by pull-down assays and Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Kinetics of dimer dissociation/association indicates that these heterodimers form as soon as PAPSS1 and -S2 encounter each other in solution. Affinity of the homo- and heterodimers were found to be in the low nanomolar range using anisotropy measurements employing proteins labelled with the fluorescent dye IAEDANS that - in spite of its low quantum yield - is well suited for anisotropy due to its large Stokes shift. Within its kinase domain, the PAPS synthase heterodimer displays similar substrate inhibition by adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as the homodimers. Due to divergent catalytic efficacies of PAPSS1 and -S2, the heterodimer might be a way of regulating PAPS synthase function within mammalian cells.

  1. Bioavailability of nitrogen from sewage sludge using 15N-labelled ammonium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The high nutrient nitrogen and organic matter contents of sewage sludge (SS) make it a potential organic fertilizer for sandy soil. In this study, 15 N-labelled ammonium sulphate was used to investigate the availability of nitrogen from irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge to tomato plants. The application of sewage sludge to sandy soil increased dry matter production (DMP), nitrogen yield (NY) and nitrogen recovery (NR) over two successive years. A positive relationship was found between sludge application rate and DMP and NY. The increase was significantly higher (P=0.05) in irradiated than non-irradiated sewage sludge. Total nitrogen derived from non-irradiated sewage sludge are : 48.0, 63.7, 73.5, 105.2 Kg/ha, whereas, the total nitrogen derived from irradiated sewage sludge are: 55.1, 72.5, 88.9, 141.4 Kg/ha corresponding to application rates of 10 t/ha, 20 t/ha, 30 t/ha, respectively. This was attributed to higher dry matter production in the later than the former. A highly significant correlation (0.945**) was found between dry matter production and sludge nitrogen yield (i.e. nitrogen derived from sewage sludge). Fertilizer nitrogen yield (total nitrogen derived from fertilizer) was high in treatment receiving mineral fertilizer, however, the 15 N recovery by tomato was only 13.8%. Soil did not contribute well towards total nitrogen yield in tomato and most nitrogen was derived from sewage sludge. Percent nitrogen derived from sewage sludge was in the range 88-92%, depending on the application rate

  2. Detecting the global and regional effects of sulphate aerosol geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Highwood, Ellie

    2017-04-01

    Climate warming is unequivocal. In addition to carbon dioxide emission mitigation, some geoengineering ideas have been proposed to reduce future surface temperature rise. One of these proposals involves injecting sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere to increase the planet's albedo. Monitoring the effectiveness of sulphate aerosol injection (SAI) would require us to be able to distinguish and detect its cooling effect from the climate system's internal variability and other externally forced temperature changes. This research uses optimal fingerprinting techniques together with simulations from the GeoMIP data base to estimate the number of years of observations that would be needed to detect SAI's cooling signal in near-surface air temperature, should 5 Tg of sulphur dioxide be injected into the stratosphere per year on top of RCP4.5 from 2020-2070. The first part of the research compares the application of two detection methods that have different null hypotheses to SAI detection in global mean near-surface temperature. The first method assumes climate noise to be dominated by unforced climate variability and attempts to detect the SAI cooling signal and greenhouse gas driven warming signal in the "observations" simultaneously against this noise. The second method considers greenhouse gas driven warming to be a non-stationary background climate and attempts to detect the net cooling effect of SAI against this background. Results from this part of the research show that the conventional multi-variate detection method that has been extensively used to attribute climate warming to anthropogenic sources could also be applied for geoengineering detection. The second part of the research investigates detection of geoengineering effects on the regional scale. The globe is divided into various sub-continental scale regions and the cooling effect of SAI is looked for in the temperature time series in each of these regions using total least squares multi

  3. The investigation of deactivation the tailings from sulphate uranium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, V.I.; Knjazev, O.I.; Ruzin, L.I.; Smolnya, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of investigation is to decrease contamination of the environment from wastes, produced on treatment of uranium ores by traditional sulphate uranium technology. In the result of treatment the sulphate uranium leaching cakes by 1-3 M chloride or nitrate of alkali-earth metals solutions, the content of radium decrease till (2.4 - 3.0) x 10 -8 Ci/kg. Produced deactivating solutions in which the content of radium-226 and other natural radionuclides exceeds of ten times the limit of tolerance safe concentrations for water (5.4 x 10 -11 Ci/l Ra-226) further may be treated by sorption or extraction. Due to the reason we pay our attention to the class of non-traditional ion-exchangers, which is the micellar wastes from production of antibiotics (MPW). The problems of it's utilization is very acute. MPW from antibiotics generates everyday is amount of tens tones (on dried mass), contents till 80% of moisture and include in solid phase 50 - 95 % organics in the work we used MPW from erythromycin in form of dried powder with size of particles to 0.05 - 0.16 mm. The possibility of radionuclides extraction by mixture of D2EHPA with TBP or TOPO for nitric deactivated solutions are investigated. It was received the complete extraction Th-230 into organic phase and next concentration with high content of isotope Th-230. Ra-D and Po are not recovered by the extractant. Using the extractant preliminary saturated with barium permit to extract completely Ra from solution. The method purification of technological solutions from activity with using solid extractants - TVEKS was developed. The TVEKS samples on styren-divinylbenzen copolymer base with size 1.0 - 1.5 mm were synthesized. The solid carrier was impregnated by D2EHPA or PN-1200 extractant solution in kerosene and used for extraction of radioactive elements (mainly Ra) from chloride acid solutions with summary activity 8.7 x 10 -10 Ci/l. TVEKS was activated by barium to capacity 1-3 mg/l for increasing purification

  4. Sulphate-reducing bacteria associated with biocorrosion: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania C. de Araujo-Jorge

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion means any process of corrosion in wich microorganisms are somehow involved. As far as the petroleum industry is concerned, the anaerobic type is the more important, with Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB accouting for half of the described processes. SRB are obligate anaerobs that use sulphur, sulphate or other oxidized sulphur compounds as oxidizing agents when decomposing organic material. A typical product of SRB metabolism, hydrogen sulphide -H2S-, is extremely toxic. In the present work we review the literature on mechanisms underlying biocorrosive process in wich SRB are involved and summarize some of the ultrastructural and eletrochemical work developed using SRB obtained from water injection flow in wells located on PETROBRAS offshore marine plataforms, sampled directly in the field over metallic probes, or cultured under laboratory conditions. Biofilms develop when SRB adhere to inert surfaces. A high diversity of morphological types is found inside these biofilms. Their extracellular matrix is highly hydrated and mainly anionic, as shown by its avid reaction with cationic compounds like ruthenium red. We have noted that variations in iron contet lead to interesting changes in the ultrastructure of the bacterial cell coat and also in the rate of corrosion induced in metallic test cupons. Since routine methods to prevent and treat SRB contamination and biodeterioration involve the use of biocides that are toxic and always have some environmental impact, an accurate diagnosis of biocorrosion is always required prior to a treatment decision. We developed a method that detects and semi-quantifies the presence of living or dead SRB by using free silver potentials as an indicator of corrosive action by SRB-associated sulphides. We found a correlation between sulphide levels (determined either by spectrophotometry, or using a silver electrode -E(Ag- that measured changes in free potentials induced by the presence of exogeneously

  5. Greenhouse evaluation of Bacillus subtilis AP-01 and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 in controlling tobacco diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maketon, Monchan; Apisitsantikul, Jirasak; Siriraweekul, Chatchai

    2008-04-01

    Two biological control agents, Bacillus subtilis AP-01 (Larminar(™)) and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 (Trisan(™)) alone or/in combination were investigated in controlling three tobacco diseases, including bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), damping-off (Pythium aphanidermatum), and frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora nicotiana). Tests were performed in greenhouse by soil sterilization prior to inoculation of the pathogens. Bacterial-wilt and damping off pathogens were drenched first and followed with the biological control agents and for comparison purposes, two chemical fungicides. But for frogeye leaf spot, which is an airborne fungus, a spraying procedure for every treatment including a chemical fungicide was applied instead of drenching. Results showed that neither B. subtilis AP-01 nor T harzianum AP-001 alone could control the bacterial wilt, but when combined, their controlling capabilities were as effective as a chemical treatment. These results were also similar for damping-off disease when used in combination. In addition, the combined B. subtilis AP-01 and T. harzianum AP-001 resulted in a good frogeye leaf spot control, which was not significantly different from the chemical treatment.

  6. Comparative analysis between radiographic views for knee osteoarthrosis (bipedal AP versus monopedal AP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pires e Albuquerque

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A comparative analysis by applying the criteria of the original classification Ahlbäck in the anteroposterior (AP bipedal knee in extension and anteroposterior (AP monopodal knee in symptomatic knee arthrosis. With this analysis we intend to observe the agreement, any advantage or difference between the incidence and degree of joint involvement between the orthopedic surgeons and radiologists with the referring physician. METHODS: From January 2012 to March 2012, was a prospective study of 60 symptomatic arthrosis knees (60 patients, clinically selected group of outpatient knee and radiographic proposals submitted to the search. Of the 60 patients, 39 were female and 21 male, mean age 64 years (ranging from 50 to 84 years. Of the 60 knees studied, 37 corresponded to the right side and 23 on the left side. Statistical analysis was performed by Kappa statistics, which evaluates the interobserver agreement for qualitative data. RESULTS: According to the scale of Ahlbäck, there was a significant agreement (p < 0.0001 intra-observer in the classification of knee osteoarthritis among the five evaluators. There was a significant agreement (p < 0.0001 with inter-observer referring physician in the incidence of AP monopodal and AP bipedal for the four raters. CONCLUSION: The study found no difference between the incidence in the AP monopodal versus AP bipedal in osteoarthritis of the knee.

  7. Radiation effects on active pixel sensors (APS); Effets de l'irradiation sur les capteurs a pixels actifs (APS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M.; David, J.P. [ONERA-CERT/, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1999-07-01

    Active pixel sensor (APS) is a new generation of image sensors which presents several advantages relatively to charge coupled devices (CCDs) particularly for space applications (APS requires only 1 voltage to operate which reduces considerably current consumption). Irradiation was performed using {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at room temperature and at a dose rate of 150 Gy(Si)/h. 2 types of APS have been tested: photodiode-APS and photoMOS-APS. The results show that photoMOS-APS is more sensitive to radiation effects than photodiode-APS. Important parameters of image sensors like dark currents increase sharply with dose levels. Nevertheless photodiode-APS sensitivity is one hundred time lower than photoMOS-APS sensitivity.

  8. Radiation effects on active pixel sensors (APS); Effets de l'irradiation sur les capteurs a pixels actifs (APS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M; David, J P [ONERA-CERT/, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1999-07-01

    Active pixel sensor (APS) is a new generation of image sensors which presents several advantages relatively to charge coupled devices (CCDs) particularly for space applications (APS requires only 1 voltage to operate which reduces considerably current consumption). Irradiation was performed using {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at room temperature and at a dose rate of 150 Gy(Si)/h. 2 types of APS have been tested: photodiode-APS and photoMOS-APS. The results show that photoMOS-APS is more sensitive to radiation effects than photodiode-APS. Important parameters of image sensors like dark currents increase sharply with dose levels. Nevertheless photodiode-APS sensitivity is one hundred time lower than photoMOS-APS sensitivity.

  9. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  10. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  11. CLEARING MAGNET DESIGN FOR APS-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abliz, M.; Grimmer, J.; Jaski, Y.; Westferro, F.; Ramanathan, M.

    2017-06-25

    The Advanced Photon Source is in the process of developing an upgrade (APS-U) of the storage ring. The upgrade will be converting the current double bend achromat (DBA) lattice to a multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice. In addition, the storage ring will be operated at 6 GeV and 200 mA with regular swap-out injection to keep the stored beam current constant [1]. The swap-out injection will take place with beamline shutters open. For radiation safety to ensure that no electrons can exit the storage ring, a passive method of protecting the beamline and containing the electrons inside the storage ring is proposed. A clearing magnet will be located in all beamline front ends inside the storage ring tunnel. This article will discuss the features and design of the clearing magnet scheme for APS-U.

  12. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  13. Correction magnet power supplies for APS machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source machine requires a number of correction magnets; five kinds for the storage ring, two for the injector synchrotron, and two for the positron accumulator ring. Three types of bipolar power supply will be used for all the correction magnets. This paper describes the design aspects and considerations for correction magnet power supplies for the APS machine. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Final report for tank 241-AP-108, grab samples 8AP-96-1, 8AP-96-2 and 8AP-96-FB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the final report deliverable for the tank 241-AP-108 grab samples. The samples were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the TSAP. Included in this report are the results for the Waste Compatibility analyses, with the exception of DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results which were presented in the 45 Day report (Part 2 of this document). The raw data for all analyses, with the exception of DSC and TGA, are also included in this report

  15. Children born to SLE and APS mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalli, C; Iodice, A; Andreoli, L; Lojacono, A; Motta, M; Fazzi, E; Tincani, A

    2014-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) are autoimmune diseases that affect women of childbearing age. Pregnancies in these patients carry several complications such as prematurity. Maternal IgG antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) can cross the placenta but they don't generally cause any neonatal thrombotic event. Because of the incompleteness of the fetal blood-brain barrier, aPL could theoretically reach the fetal brain. Whether this can have an effect on brain development is still under investigation. Some studies performed in children of patients with SLE and/or APS showed an increased number of learning disabilities without impairment in intelligence level. The objectives of this article are to evaluate the neurodevelopment outcome in 30 children (median age 9 years) born to mothers with SLE and/or APS with IgG anti-beta2-glycoprotein I during the third trimester of pregnancy and found positive for the same antibodies at birth. A neurological physical exam was performed in all children. We submitted some questionnaires to the mothers: the Child Behavior CheckList (CBCL) and a homemade set of questions obtained by a team composed of rheumatologists and pediatric neurologists. Intellectual functioning was determined by the Wechsler scale for corrected age. In all children neurological physical exam and intelligence levels were found to be normal but mild behavior disorders and history of neurological manifestations were shown in three children. Offspring of patients with SLE and/or APS are generally healthy. We and others observed the occurrence of minor neurological disorders that might be related to maternal disease or to prematurity. The limited number of the available data on this sensitive issue supports the need for further studies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Sherwood/APS 2006 Conference. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, James F.

    2009-01-01

    The International Sherwood Theory Meeting is a yearly meeting that focuses on the theory of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. There are many topics of common interest in fusion plasma systems and space and astrophysical plasmas. These common topics include such key topics as magnetic reconnection, the dynamo, turbulence and transport and particle heating and acceleration. One of the major participants of the April APS meeting is the APS Division of Astrophysics (DAP). The goal of having the Sherwood Meeting jointly with the April meeting was to promote discussion of topics of common interest in fusion and space and astrophysics. Scientists from the DAP, the Division of Plasma Physics (DPP), the Topical Group on Plasma Astrophysics (GPAP) and Sherwood worked together closely to produce a joint program that addressed areas of common interest. Four sessions of invited talks were sponsored jointly by the DAP, DPP and GPAP on laboratory experiments related to astrophysics. Plasma scientists working in theory and computation play a key role in connecting these laboratory experiments to the very disparate conditions found in fusion and astrophysical systems. Thus, the attendees of the Sherwood Theory meeting were critical to facilitating this effort at cross-disciplinary communication. Noteworthy were the selection of two of the prestigious plenary talks at the joint meeting on plasma topics - one related to the gyrokinetic modeling of turbulence and the other related to the structure of collisionless shocks. It is rare to see even a single plenary talk on plasma physics at the APS April Meeting. There were additional costs associated with hosting a joint meeting. The Office of Fusion Energy Sciences contributed $3000 in partial support of this meeting. This funding covered part of the costs of the poster boards and A. V. equipment that was used in the presentation of nearly 200 scientific papers related to magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The APS waived its

  17. APS storage ring vacuum system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, J.R.; Gagliano, J.; Goeppner, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operated with 7-GeV, 100-mA positron beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented

  18. APS [Advanced Photon Source] interests in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncton, D.E.; Shenoy, G.K.; Mills, D.M.

    1987-11-01

    As one of the very few high-energy electron storage rings in the world, potentially available for synchrotron radiation studies, PEP represents an opportunity to accomplish certain preconstruction R and D tasks relevant to the successful construction and operation of dedicated user facilities such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne. Three topical areas are discussed: Accelerator R and D, Insertion Devices (ID) R and D, and Beam Line Instrumentation R and D

  19. Use of labeled ions to determine the effect of APS-750 on liver and kidney physiology in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, J.M.; Gracia, I.; Fabila, L.; Urbina, V.M.; Flores, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Mineral ions 45 Ca ++ and 32 PO 4 - seem to be filtered in greater amounts by organic tissues of plants and mice when they are mixed with APS-750, a commercial product developed in Mexico, as a dietary complement for breeding animals. This work compares the concentration of both ions in blood serum and urine of mice, finding that the circulation and excretion rate of these electrolytes is much faster if they are mixed with APS-750, which seems to be the starting point to develop the good properties showed by this product as health promoter in vertebrates. (author)

  20. APS - Diagnostics and challenges for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengo, V; Bison, E; Zoppellaro, G; Padayattil Jose, S; Denas, G; Hoxha, A; Ruffatti, A; Banzato, A

    2016-11-01

    Diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is essentially based on the detection of circulating antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies. Progress have been made on the standardization of tests exploring the presence of aPL as guidelines on coagulation and immunological tests were recently published in the literature. Clinical relevance of aPL profile has come from prospective cohort studies in populations with a homogeneous antibody profile supporting the view that triple positivity is a high risk pattern in patients and carriers. In addition to the classic ones, several other tests have been proposed for the diagnosis of APS. The detection of antibodies directed to domain 1 and 4/5 of β2-Glycoprotein I (β2GP1) were found to be particularly sound. Several issues remain to be addressed. We do not yet know what is the physiological function of β2GP1 and the pathophysiology of thrombosis and pregnancy loss in these patients. Moreover, treatment is poorly defined especially in the case of feared catastrophic APS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Overview of the advanced photon source (APS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source facility dedicated to the production of extremely brilliant x-ray beams for research. Its super-intense x-ray beams will be used in many areas of research including industrial research, biological and medical research, defense-related research, and basic research. The APS x-ray beams will allow scientists to study smaller samples, more complex systems, faster reactions and processes, and gather data at a greater level of detail than has been possible to date. Creation of these beams begins with electron production by an electron gun with a thermionic cathode. The electrons are accelerated to 200 MeV by a linear accelerator (linac) and then impinge on a tungsten target, resulting in electron-positron pair production. The positrons are accelerated to 450 MeV in the remainder of the linac, then accumulated, damped, and transferred to a synchrotron that increases their energy to 7 GeV. The 7-GeV positrons are injected into a storage ring, where they pass through special magnets that cause them to emit x-rays of the desired quality. Construction at ANL is nearly complete at this time, and the APS will begin operating for users in 1996. The accelerator and experimental facilities are described in this paper, and a brief overview of some of the experimental programs is given

  2. Bio-corrosion of water pipeline by sulphate-reducing bacteria in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    esiri

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... Key words: Sulphate-reducing bacteria, corrosion, water pipeline, biocide. INTRODUCTION ... small amount of organic material required to produce biomass):. )1(. 3. 2 .... Oil, gas and shipping industries are seriously affected.

  3. Measurement of dynamic wedge angles and beam profiles by means of MRI ferrous sulphate gel dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Magnus; Furre, Torbjørn; Rødal, Jan; Skretting, Arne; Olsen, Dag R.

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the possible value of measuring the dose distribution in dynamic wedge photon beams using ferrous sulphate gel phantoms analysed by MRI. The wedge angles and dose profiles were measured for a field size of and for dynamic wedge angles of , , and using a 15 MV photon beam generated from a Clinac 2100 CD (Varian). The dose profiles obtained from MRI ferrous sulphate gel were in good agreement with the dose measurements performed with a diode detector array. Also, the wedge angles determined from the MRI ferrous sulphate gel agreed well with the values obtained by using film dosimetry and with calculations by use of TMS (treatment planning system) (Helax, Uppsala, Sweden). The study demonstrated that MRI ferrous sulphate gel dosimetry is an adequate tool for measurements of some beam characteristics of dynamic radiation fields.

  4. Particle engineering using sonocrystallization: salbutamol sulphate for pulmonary delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumal, Ravindra S; Biradar, Shailesh V; Paradkar, Anant R; York, Peter

    2009-02-23

    The aim of present work was to produce fine elongated crystals of salbutamol sulphate (SS) by sonocrystallization for pulmonary delivery and compare with micronized and spray dried SS (SDSS) for in vitro aerosolization behavior. Application of ultrasound during anti-solvent crystallization resulted in fine elongated crystals (sonocrystallized SS; SCSS) compared to aggregates of large irregular crystals obtained without sonication. Higher sonication amplitude, time, concentration and lower processing temperatures favored formation of smaller crystals with narrow particle size distribution (PSD). SCSS was separated from dispersion by spray drying in the form of loose aggregates (SD-SCSS). The fine particle fraction (FPF) of formulations with coarse lactose carrier in cascade impactor increased from 16.66% for micronized SS to 31.12% for SDSS (obtained by spray drying aqueous SS solution) and 44.21% for SD-SCSS, due to reduced cohesive/adhesive forces and aerodynamic size by virtue of elongated shape of crystals. SD-SCSS was stable without any change in crystallinity and aerodynamic behavior for 3 months at 40 degrees C/75% RH, but amorphous SDSS showed recrystallization with poor aerosolization performance on storage. Sonocrystallization, a rapid and simple technique is reported for production of SS crystals suitable for inhalation delivery.

  5. Absorption of ammonium sulphate 15N by coffee plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenilli, Tatiele Anete Bergamo; Reichardt, Klaus; Bacchi, Osny Oliveira Santos; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Dourado Neto, Durval

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the absorption of ammonium sulphate 15 N by coffee plants. Treatments consisted of five sub-plots of 9 plants, of which the three central ones received 280 kg ha -1 of 15 N, applied at four times: 1/4 on 01 Set 03; 1/4 on 03 Nov 03; 1/4 on 15 Dec 03 and 1/4 on 30 Jan 04. The isotopic enrichment was 2,072 ± 0,001 atom % 15 N. The dry matter of the shoot was evaluated every 60 days, using one plant per replicate, collected outside the sub-plot. They were as similar as possible to the labeled plants, which were used only for isotopic and Total N analysis, after being dried at 65 deg C until constant weight. At harvest, plants had absorbed 42,88% of the fertilizer N. Leaves accumulated the largest amount of fertilizer N, and were also the compartments that received most N from other parts of the plant. The following partition of the fertilizer N was found at harvest: 23.01% in young leaves, 6.23% in old leaves, 4,46% in stem, 3.46% in fruits, 3.10% in young branches and 2.63% in old branches. (author)

  6. Chitosan microparticles for sustaining the topical delivery of minoxidil sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Gratieri, Taís; Simão, Patrícia Sper; de Freitas, Luís Alexandre Pedro; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2011-01-01

    Given the hypothesis that microparticles can penetrate the skin barrier along the transfollicular route, this work aimed to obtain and characterise chitosan microparticles loaded with minoxidil sulphate (MXS) and to study their ability to sustain the release of the drug, attempting a further application utilising them in a targeted delivery system for the topical treatment of alopecia. Chitosan microparticles, containing different proportions of MXS/polymer, were prepared by spray drying and were characterised by yield, encapsulation efficiency, size and morphology. Microparticles selected for further studies showed high encapsulation efficiency (∼82%), a mean diameter of 3.0 µm and a spherical morphology without porosities. When suspended in an ethanol/water solution, chitosan microparticles underwent instantaneous swelling, increasing their mean diameter by 90%. Release studies revealed that the chitosan microparticles were able to sustain about three times the release rate of MXS. This feature, combined with suitable size, confers to these microparticles the potential to target and improve topical therapy of alopecia with minoxidil.

  7. Chondroitin sulphate-guided construction of polypyrrole nanoarchitectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhengnan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhu, Wenjun [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Liao, Jingwen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Huang, Shishu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University (China); Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong (China); Chen, Junqi; He, Tianrui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Tan, Guoxin, E-mail: tanguoxin@126.com [Faculty of Light and Chemical, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ning, Chengyun, E-mail: imcyning@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2015-03-01

    Nanospheres, nanocones, and nanowires are three typical polypyrrole (PPy) nanoarchitectures and electrochemically polymerized with the dope of chondroitin sulphate (CS) in this study. CS, a functional biomacromolecule, guides the formation of PPy nanoarchitectures as the dopant and morphology-directing agent. Combined with our previous reported other PPy nanoarchitectures (such as nanotube arrays and nanowires), this work further proposed the novel mechanism of the construction of PPy/CS nanoarchitectures with the synergistic effect of CS molecular chains structure and the steric hindrance. Compared to the undoped PPy, MC3T3-E1 cells with PPy/CS nanoarchitectures possessed stronger proliferation and osteogenic differentiation capability. This suggests that PPy/CS nanoarchitectures have appropriate biocompatibility. Altogether, the nanoarchitectured PPy/CS may find application in the regeneration of bone defect. - Highlights: • The formation mechanism of PPy nanoarchitectures was proposed. • CS acted as biofunctional dopant and morphology-directing agent in PPy forming. • PPy-CS nanoarchitectures were dependent on the Py/CS ratio.

  8. Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Non-criteria APS Manifestations (II): thrombocytopenia and skin manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, R; Tektonidou, M G; Espinosa, G; Cabral, A R; González, E B; Erkan, D; Vadya, S; Adrogué, H E; Solomon, M; Zandman-Goddard, G; Shoenfeld, Y

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of the 'Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Non-criteria APS Manifestations' were to assess the clinical utility of the international consensus statement on classification criteria and treatment guidelines for the catastrophic APS, to identify and grade the studies that analyze the relationship between the antiphospholipid antibodies and the non-criteria APS manifestations, and to present the current evidence regarding the accuracy of these non-criteria APS manifestations for the detection of patients with APS. This article summarizes the studies analyzed on thrombocytopenia and skin manifestations, and presents the recommendations elaborated by the Task Force after this analysis.

  9. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  10. Effect of temperature on sulphate reduction, growth rate and growth yield in five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria from Arctic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    Five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria (strains ASv26, LSv21, PSv29, LSv54 and LSv514) isolated from Arctic sediments were examined for their adaptation to permanently low temperatures, All strains grew at -1.8 degrees C, the freezing point of sea water, but their optimum temperature...... and T(opt). For strains LSv21 and LSv514, however, growth yields were highest at the lowest temperatures, around 0 degrees C. The results indicate that psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria are specially adapted to permanently low temperatures by high relative growth rates and high growth yields...... at in site conditions....

  11. Determination of Oversulphated Chondroitin Sulphate and Dermatan Sulphate in unfractionated heparin by (1)H-NMR - Collaborative study for quantification and analytical determination of LoD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, I; Mulloy, B; Hellwig, E; Kozerski, L; Beyer, T; Holzgrabe, U; Wanko, R; Spieser, J-M; Rodomonte, A

    2008-12-01

    Oversulphated Chondroitin Sulphate (OSCS) and Dermatan Sulphate (DS) in unfractionated heparins can be identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). The limit of detection (LoD) of OSCS is 0.1% relative to the heparin content. This LoD is obtained at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 2000:1 of the heparin methyl signal. Quantification is best obtained by comparing peak heights of the OSCS and heparin methyl signals. Reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD) has been obtained. The accuracy of quantification was good.

  12. Sulphate Potasium Extraction From Banana Stem Ash with Bleaching Earth Waste Liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Edahwati, Luluk

    2010-01-01

    Sulphate potassium is one of the important chemistry compound for industrial at our country, usually for fertilizerindustry. Therefore, necessary done sulphate potassium maker watchfulness from various ingredient that containsulphate potassium compound. Among others with extract banana stem ash. Watchfulness methodology that is withmix banana stem ash with aquadest (20 gram ash/1 water litre) in temperature 100oc during 30 minutes and stirringrotation 300 rpm. Ash extract that got reaction wi...

  13. Performance of Electrocoagulation Process for Removal of Sulphate Ion from Aqueous Environments Using Plate Aluminum Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a.h Mahvi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Sulphate ion is one of the main ions available in natural and waste water. The high rate of sulphate in drinking water causes health problems such as irritation and digestive problems and makes water taste bitter. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of sulphate ion removal from drinking water through Electrocogualation process (EC using plate aluminum electrodes. Methods: This study was conducted as a pilot plant using one glass tank in the volume of 1.3liter containing 6 plate aluminum electrodes. These electrodes were attached to a power supply in a mono-polar and parallel arrangement in order to switch the alternating current to the direct one. That is, each electrode was attached to positive and negative poles directly and alternately. The tank was filled with synthetic water containing sulphate ion with the concentration of 350 & 700mg/L. Percentage of sulphate ion removal in potential range of 10, 20 and 30 V, reaction times of 40, 20 and 60min and pH 7.0, 3.0 & 11.0 were measured. Results: In this study the maximum efficiency of sulphate ion removal was in the electrical potential of 30 V, reaction time of 60min and pH 11.0. With increase of ion concentration, the time needed to achieve a suitable efficiency of removal increased, that is, it indicated the direct effect of pH and difference of electrical potential on removal of sulphate ion through EC process. Conclusion: The results of this research show that Electrocogualation technology can be introduced as a suitable and promising technique to remove sulphate ion from aqueous environments using plate aluminum electrodes.

     

  14. Performance of Electrocoagulation Process for Removal of Sulphate Ion from Aqueous Environments Using Plate Aluminum Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajabizadeh A.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Sulphate ion is one of the main ions available in natural and waste water. The high rate of sulphate in drinking water causes health problems such as irritation and digestive problems and makes water taste bitter. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of sulphate ion removal from drinking water through Electrocogualation process (EC using plate aluminum electrodes.Methods: This study was conducted as a pilot plant using one glass tank in the volume of 1.3liter containing 6 plate aluminum electrodes. These electrodes were attached to a power supply in a mono-polar and parallel arrangement in order to switch the alternating current to the direct one. That is, each electrode was attached to positive and negative poles directly and alternately. The tank was filled with synthetic water containing sulphate ion with the concentration of 350 & 700mg/L. Percentage of sulphate ion removal in potential range of 10, 20 and 30 V, reaction times of 40, 20 and 60min and pH 7.0, 3.0 & 11.0 were measured.Results: In this study the maximum efficiency of sulphate ion removal was in the electrical potential of 30 V, reaction time of 60min and pH 11.0. With increase of ion concentration, the time needed to achieve a suitable efficiency of removal increased, that is, it indicated the direct effect of pH and difference of electrical potential on removal of sulphate ion through EC process.Conclusion: The results of this research show that Electrocogualation technology can be introduced as a suitable and promising technique to remove sulphate ion from aqueous environments using plate aluminum electrodes.

  15. Formation of sulphite, cysteic acid and taurine from sulphate by the egg embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapeville, F.; Fromageot, P.

    1959-01-01

    It is shown that the formation of taurine from sulphate by the chicken embryo involves the reduction of sulphate to sulphite (I), the synthesis of cysteic acid (II) and its decarboxylation (Ill). The reaction (I) takes place in the vitellin sac. The reaction (II) results from the condensation of the sulphite with a-amino-acrylic acid and is carried out by the yolk. The enzymes responsible for the decarboxylation (III) are distributed both in the embryo and in its appendages. (author) [fr

  16. Susceptibility of salmonid fish to poisons under estuarine conditions. I. Zinc sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, D W.M.; Wakeford, A C

    1964-01-01

    The resistance of yearling rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon smolts to zinc sulphate increases with salinity up to 30-40 percent sea water, in which these species can withstand for 2 days respectively 15 and 13 times as much zinc sulphate as on fresh water. Further increase in salinity to 72 percent sea water reduces tolerance for the zinc salt. Salmon smolts were more susceptible to zinc poisoning than trout in fresh water and at all salinities tested.

  17. High dose, fast delivery magnesium sulphate in a 3-year-old acute severe asthmatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Elton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute severe asthma when respiratory failure is imminent is not addressed in world asthma guidelines. Intravenous magnesium sulphate, salbutamol and aminophylline all have advocates but what order, speed of delivery or dosage is left up to the individual physician treating the patient. A child in respiratory failure was given a large, fast dose of intravenous magnesium sulphate before intravenous salbutamol which relaxed bronchial smooth muscle immediately and tracheal intubation and lung ventilation was avoided. Justification for this treatment is discussed.

  18. Production of ferric sulphate from pyrite by thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Application to uranium ore leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouas, C.

    1988-12-01

    A process for uranium extraction by oxidizing solutions of ferric sulphate produced by T. ferrooxidans from pyrite is developed. A new counting method specific of T. ferrooxidans is designed. An uranium resistant wild strain, with oxidizing properties as high as the strain ATCC 19859, is isolated. Optimal conditions for ferric sulphate production from pyrite are defined (pH 1.8, density of the medium 1.2%, pyrite granulometry [fr

  19. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van, J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulf...

  20. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Tenback, Diederik E.; Quekel, Lorentz G. B. A.; de Rijke, Yolanda B.; Boot, Annemieke M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). Design: Physically healthy 10- to

  1. A novel homozygous AP4B1 mutation in two brothers with AP-4 deficiency syndrome and ocular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accogli, Andrea; Hamdan, Fadi F; Poulin, Chantal; Nassif, Christina; Rouleau, Guy A; Michaud, Jacques L; Srour, Myriam

    2018-04-01

    Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) is a heterotetrameric protein complex which plays a key role in vesicle trafficking in neurons. Mutations in genes affecting different subunits of AP-4, including AP4B1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4M1, have been recently associated with an autosomal recessive phenotype, consisting of spastic tetraplegia, and intellectual disability (ID). The overlapping clinical picture among individuals carrying mutations in any of these genes has prompted the terms "AP-4 deficiency syndrome" for this clinically recognizable phenotype. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a novel homozygous mutation (c.991C>T, p.Q331*, NM_006594.4) in AP4B1 in two siblings from a consanguineous Pakistani couple, who presented with severe ID, progressive spastic tetraplegia, epilepsy, and microcephaly. Sanger sequencing confirmed the mutation was homozygous in the siblings and heterozygous in the parents. Similar to previously reported individuals with AP4B1 mutations, brain MRI revealed ventriculomegaly and white matter loss. Interestingly, in addition to the typical facial gestalt reported in other AP-4 deficiency cases, the older brother presented with congenital left Horner syndrome, bilateral optic nerve atrophy and cataract, which have not been previously reported in this condition. In summary, we report a novel AP4B1 homozygous mutation in two siblings and review the phenotype of AP-4 deficiency, speculating on a possible role of AP-4 complex in eye development. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Minerals from Macedonia: XV. Sivec mineral assemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Jovanovski, Gligor; Makreski, Petre; Bermanec, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents investigations carried out on the collected minerals from the Sivec deposit. It is situated in the vicinity of the town of Prilep, representing a rare occurrence of sugary white dolomite marbles. The application of suitable methods of exploitation of decorative-dimension stones makes possible to obtain large amounts of commercial blocks well known in the world. Despite the existence of dolomite marbles, a series of exotic minerals are typical in Sivec mineralization. Among them, the most significant are: calcite, fluorite, rutile, phlogopite, corundum, diaspore, almandine, kosmatite (clintonite or margarite), clinochlore, muscovite, quartz, pyrite, tourmaline and zoisite. An attempt to identify ten collected minerals using the FT IR spectroscopy is performed. The identification of the minerals was based on the comparison of the infrared spectra of our specimens with the corresponding literature data for the mineral species originating all over the world. The coloured pictures of all studied silicate minerals are presented as well. (Author)

  3. Characteristics and antioxidant of Ulva intestinalis sulphated polysaccharides extracted with different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasura, Napassorn; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Wanlapa, Sorada

    2015-11-01

    Ulva intestinalis, a tubular green seaweed, is a rich source of nutrient, especially sulphated polysaccharides. Sulphated polysaccharides from U. intestinalis were extracted with distilled water, 0.1N HCl, and 0.1N NaOH at 80°C for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h to study the effect of the extraction solvent and time on their chemical composition and antioxidant activity. Different types of solvents and extraction time had a significant influence on the chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity (pMonosaccharide composition and FT-IR spectra analyses revealed that sulphated polysaccharides from all solvent extractions have a typical sugar backbone (glucose, rhamnose, and sulphate attached at C-2 or C-3 of rhamnose). Sulphated polysaccharides extracted with acid exhibited greater antioxidant activity than did those extracted with distilled water and alkali. The results indicated that solvent extraction could be an efficacious method for enhancing antioxidant activity by distinct molecular weight and chemical characteristic of sulphated polysaccharides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment in vivo by dextran sulphate and fucoidan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Van Osselaer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The selectin-mediated rolling of leukocytes along the endothelial cells is a prerequisite step followed by firm adhesion and extravasation into the inflamed tissue. This initial contact can be suppressed by sulphated polysaccharides. We have studied the effect of sulphated polysaccharides on the ultimate polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN recruitment and plasma leakage in rabbit skin in response to intradermal injection of various inflammatory mediators. PMN infiltration evoked by various PMN chemoattractants (FMLP, C5a desArg, LTB4 and IL-8 was significantly inhibited after intravenous injection of dextran sulphate (25 mg/kg, heparin (2 × 90 mg/kg or fucoidan (1 mg/kg. PMN-dependent plasma leakage was equally well reduced by the different sulphated polymers. Vascular permeability induced by histamine or thrombin acting via a PMN-independent mechanism was not reduced. Fucoidan was the only polysaccharide able to suppress IL-1-induced PMN infiltration for 60–70%. Local administration of dextran sulphate had no effect on PMN-dependent plasma leakage. Differential inhibition of PMN recruitment was determined after injection of dextran sulphate or fucoidan depending on the type of insult. Therefore, these results suggest that different adhesion pathways are utilized during PMN recruitment in vivo in response to chemoattractants and IL-1.

  5. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution (translated from German)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1990-07-01

    In connection with the Swedish project for the final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister without the intervention of sulphate-reducing bacteria. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible. On the other hand, copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron is available. Because little specific information is available about this subject the problem was extended to the much more general question of the reducibility of sulphur in dilute aqueous solution. It is a part of the general knowledge of chemistry, and there is also unanimity about it in the geochemical literature, that purely chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100 degrees C. This fact is, however, poorly documented and it was therefore necessary to substantiate it by drawing on numerous individual findings from different areas of pure and applied chemistry. The investigation confirms that sulphur in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be ruled out with a probability verging on certainty. (85 refs.)

  6. Teaching Materials and Strategies for the AP Music Theory Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Each year, many students take the Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory Exam, and the majority of these students enroll in specialized AP music theory classes as part of the preparation process. For the teachers of these AP music theory classes, a number of challenges are presented by the difficulty and complexity of the exam subject material as…

  7. AIRE variations in Addison's disease and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøe Wolff, A S; Oftedal, B; Johansson, S

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is often associated with other components in autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS). Whereas APS I is caused by mutations in the AIRE gene, the susceptibility genes for AAD and APS II are unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether polymorphisms...

  8. MINERAL WATERS IN RUPEA CITY: PHYSICOCHEMICAL FEATURES AND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MEREŢ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse and highlight certain specificities of mineral waters in Rupea city (Braşov County: physicochemical characteristics, a short history of their use, and future use options. The article is based on the synthesis and analysis of information obtained from scientific papers, archival sources, and field investigations conducted between 2010 and 2015. Rupea City is located in the area situated at the contact between the Transylvanian Subcarpathians the Hârtibaciului Plateau, at 64 km northwest of Braşov and 53 km southeast of Sighişoara. The presence of the salt layer in the Tortonian deposits (Miocene at different depths and thickness accounts for the occurrence of concentrated chlorinated-sodic waters, discovered as early as the second half of the 19th century. The first analyses of the Rupea mineral waters were conducted by Henrik Muller (1856, who considered the mineral waters at Băile Cohalm (old name of the Rupea city to be “among the few chlorinated-sodic-sulphated waters of Transylvania”. The measurements conducted on physico-geographical parameters in the study period and the analysis of water samples performed in specialized laboratories showed that these mineral waters preserved their physicochemical characteristics (chorosodic, sulphated, hypertonic, athermal and, consequently, can be used for therapeutic purposes as was the case in the past. The pavilions of the old spa establishment “survived” until the year 2003 when they began to be gradually demolished, and the mineral water storage basins were consolidated and covered. The only one which is still currently being used (for household activities or sheepfold cheese processing is the “muriatic” salt water from the well locals call “Slatina”, located 1.5 km east towards Homorod, in close proximity to Cozd River (ancient name of the Valea Mare River.

  9. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal pain in workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, A; Prodi, A; Pesel, G; Ronchese, F; Bovenzi, M; Negro, C; Larese Filon, F

    2017-12-30

    The serum level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) has been suggested as a biological marker of stress. To assess the association between serum DHEA-S, psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal (MS) pain in university workers. The study population included voluntary workers at the scientific departments of the University of Trieste (Italy) who underwent periodical health surveillance from January 2011 to June 2012. DHEA-S level was analysed in serum. The assessment tools included the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and a modified Nordic musculoskeletal symptoms questionnaire. The relation between DHEA-S, individual characteristics, pain perception and psychological factors was assessed by means of multivariable linear regression analysis. There were 189 study participants. The study population was characterized by high reward and low effort. Pain perception in the neck, shoulder, upper limbs, upper back and lower back was reported by 42, 32, 19, 29 and 43% of people, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, gender, age and pain perception in the shoulder and upper limbs were significantly related to serum DHEA-S. Effort and overcommitment were related to shoulder and neck pain but not to DHEA-S. The GHQ score was associated with pain perception in different body sites and inversely to DHEA-S but significance was lost in multivariable regression analysis. DHEA-S was associated with age, gender and perception of MS pain, while effort-reward imbalance dimensions and GHQ score failed to reach the statistical significance in multivariable regression analysis. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Copper sulphate use in South African traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Renée A; Kabera, Gaëtan M; Connolly, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential element to humans; however, exposure to elevated concentrations through occupational hazard and/or environmental means may be detrimental. This paper provides results of a cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of copper sulphate (CuSO 4 ) use in South African traditional medicine by traditional health practitioners (THPs) and details the use thereof. A total of 201 THPs were enrolled from two main municipal areas of KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Information on demographic characteristics of THPs, reasons for using or not using CuSO 4 as well as administration methods and age groups of recipients were collected. Of the 201 THPs interviewed, 145 (72 %) use CuSO 4 for healing purposes. The use of CuSO 4 was strongly associated with gender (p = 0.009) where the proportion of CuSO 4 users was higher for female than male THPs. CuSO 4 was reportedly administered to individuals of all ages, including infants and children. The main routes of administration were enema (n = 110; 76 %), oral (n = 40; 28 %) and use in bath (n = 40; 28 %). The reasons cited for use are diverse and included skin rashes (n = 43; 30 %), aches, pains and swelling (n = 38; 28 %) as well as sexually transmitted diseases (n = 28; 19 %). This study identified a high prevalence of THPs using CuSO 4 for healing purposes. These findings support the need to regulate South African traditional medicine to safeguard the user.

  11. Thermochemical sulphate reduction can improve carbonate petroleum reservoir quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Worden, Richard H.; Yang, Changbing

    2018-02-01

    Interest in the creation of secondary pore spaces in petroleum reservoirs has increased because of a need to understand deeper and more complex reservoirs. The creation of new secondary porosity that enhances overall reservoir quality in deeply buried carbonate reservoirs is controversial and some recent studies have concluded it is not an important phenomenon. Here we present petrography, geochemistry, fluid inclusion data, and fluid-rock interaction reaction modeling results from Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Sichuan Basin, China, core samples and explore the relative importance of secondary porosity due to thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR) during deep burial diagenesis. We find that new secondary pores result from the dissolution of anhydrite and possibly from dissolution of the matrix dolomite. Assuming porosity before TSR was 16% and the percentage of anhydrite was 6%, modelling shows that, due to TSR, 1.6% additional porosity was created that led to permeability increasing from 110 mD (range 72-168 mD within a 95% confidence interval) to 264 mD (range 162-432 mD within a 95% confidence interval). Secondary porosity results from the density differences between reactant anhydrite and product calcite, the addition of new water during TSR, and the generation of acidity during the reaction of new H2S with the siderite component in pre-existing dolomite in the reservoir. Fluid pressure was high during TSR, and approached lithostatic pressure in some samples; this transient overpressure may have led to the maintenance of porosity due to the inhibition of compactional processes. An additional 1.6% porosity is significant for reserve calculations, especially considering that it occurs in conjunction with elevated permeability that results in faster flow rates to the production wells.

  12. AP600 containment purge radiological analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, M.; Schulz, J.; Tan, C. [Bechtel Power Corporation (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    The AP600 Project is a passive pressurized water reactor power plant which is part of the Design Certification and First-of-a-Kind Engineering effort under the Advanced Light Water Reactor program. Included in this process is the design of the containment air filtration system which will be the subject of this paper. We will compare the practice used by previous plants with the AP600 approach to meet the goals of industry standards in sizing the containment air filtration system. The radiological aspects of design are of primary significance and will be the focus of this paper. The AP600 Project optimized the design to combine the functions of the high volumetric flow rate, low volumetric flow rate, and containment cleanup and other filtration systems into one multi-functional system. This achieves a more simplified, standardized, and lower cost design. Studies were performed to determine the possible concentrations of radioactive material in the containment atmosphere and the effectiveness of the purge system to keep concentrations within 10CFR20 limits and within offsite dose objectives. The concentrations were determined for various reactor coolant system leakage rates and containment purge modes of operation. The resultant concentrations were used to determine the containment accessibility during various stages of normal plant operation including refueling. The results of the parametric studies indicate that a dual train purge system with a capacity of 4,000 cfm per train is more than adequate to control the airborne radioactivity levels inside containment during normal plant operation and refueling, and satisfies the goals of ANSI/ANS-56.6-1986 and limits the amount of radioactive material released to the environment per ANSI/ANS 59.2-1985 to provide a safe environment for plant personnel and offsite residents.

  13. The APS machine protection system (MPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuja, R.; Berg, B.; Arnold, N.

    1996-01-01

    The machine protection system (MPS) that protects the APS storage ring vacuum chamber from x-ray beams, is active. There are over 650 sensors monitored and networked through the MPS system. About the same number of other process variables are monitored by the much slower EPICS control system, which also has an input to the rf abort chain. The MPS network is still growing with the beam position limits detection system coming on-line. The network configuration, along with a limited description of individual subsystems, is presented

  14. The APS machine protection system (MPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuja, R.; Berg, B.; Arnold, N. [and others

    1996-08-01

    The machine protection system (MPS) that protects the APS storage ring vacuum chamber from x-ray beams, is active. There are over 650 sensors monitored and networked through the MPS system. About the same number of other process variables are monitored by the much slower EPICS control system, which also has an input to the rf abort chain. The MPS network is still growing with the beam position limits detection system coming on-line. The network configuration, along with a limited description of individual subsystems, is presented.

  15. The APS thin pulsed septum magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, F.; Mills, F.; Milton, S.; Reeves, S.; Sheynin, S.; Thompson, K.; Turner, L.

    1994-01-01

    A thin (2-mm) eddy-current pulsed septum magnet was developed for use in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) machines. A number of different configurations of the magnet were assembled and tested in an effort to minimize the undesired leakage field in the stored-beam region. However, because of measured excessive leakage fields, an alternative direct-drive septum magnet was also constructed and tested. We present here the design specifications and acceptable performance criteria along with results of magnetic field measurements

  16. Ozone mitigation tests at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.T.; Pisharody, M.; Job, P.K.; Wang Zhibi.

    1996-09-01

    Ozone is generated in the APS experimental stations whenever the x-ray beam has a chance to interact with air. Ozone concentrations in an experimental station have to be below a certain defined limit (current OSHA regulations specify 0.08 ppm as the maximum limit) before an experimenter can reenter the hutch. This limit is said to be currently under study for a downward adjustment. One method of depleting the ozone generated in an experimental station is mitigation through either adsorption or direct destruction. In recent tests, both methods were tried using commercially available units. Test results and some analytical predictions are presented

  17. Studies of microparticles in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikerfors, A; Mobarrez, F; Bremme, K; Holmström, M; Ågren, A; Eelde, A; Bruzelius, M; Antovic, A; Wallén, H; Svenungsson, E

    2012-06-01

    To study circulating platelet, monocyte and endothelial microparticles (PMPs, MMPs and EMPs) in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in comparison with healthy controls. Fifty-two patients with APS and 52 healthy controls were investigated. MPs were measured on a flow cytometer (Beckman Gallios) and defined as particles sized APS patients versus controls (p APS patients. We observed a high number of EMPs expressing TF in APS patients. The numbers of MMPs and total EMPs were also higher as compared with healthy controls but in contrast to previous reports, the number of PMPs did not differ between groups.

  18. Proactive AP Selection Method Considering the Radio Interference Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taenaka, Yuzo; Kashihara, Shigeru; Tsukamoto, Kazuya; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Oie, Yuji

    In the near future, wireless local area networks (WLANs) will overlap to provide continuous coverage over a wide area. In such ubiquitous WLANs, a mobile node (MN) moving freely between multiple access points (APs) requires not only permanent access to the Internet but also continuous communication quality during handover. In order to satisfy these requirements, an MN needs to (1) select an AP with better performance and (2) execute a handover seamlessly. To satisfy requirement (2), we proposed a seamless handover method in a previous study. Moreover, in order to achieve (1), the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is usually employed to measure wireless link quality in a WLAN system. However, in a real environment, especially if APs are densely situated, it is difficult to always select an AP with better performance based on only the RSSI. This is because the RSSI alone cannot detect the degradation of communication quality due to radio interference. Moreover, it is important that AP selection is completed only on an MN, because we can assume that, in ubiquitous WLANs, various organizations or operators will manage APs. Hence, we cannot modify the APs for AP selection. To overcome these difficulties, in the present paper, we propose and implement a proactive AP selection method considering wireless link condition based on the number of frame retransmissions in addition to the RSSI. In the evaluation, we show that the proposed AP selection method can appropriately select an AP with good wireless link quality, i.e., high RSSI and low radio interference.

  19. Sulphation of calcium-based sorbents in circulating fluidised beds under oxy-fuel combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco Garcia-Labiano; Luis F. de Diego; Alberto Abad; Pilar Gayan; Margarita de las Obras-Loscertales; Aranzazu Rufas; Juan Adanez [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. Energy and Environment

    2009-07-01

    Sulphur Retention (SR) by calcium-based sorbents is a process highly dependent on the temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. In circulating fluidised beds combustors (CFBC's) operating under oxy-fuel conditions, the sulphation process takes place in atmospheres enriched in CO{sub 2} with bed concentrations that can vary from 40 to 95%. Under so high CO{sub 2} concentrations, very different from that in conventional coal combustion atmosphere with air, the calcination and sulphation behaviour of the sorbent must be defined to optimise the SR process in the combustor. The objective of this work was to determine the SO{sub 2} retention capacity of a Spanish limestone at typical oxy-fuel conditions in CFBC's. Long term duration tests of sulphation (up to 24 h), to simulate the residence time of sorbents in CFBC's, were carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Clear behaviour differences were found under calcining and non-calcining conditions. Especially relevant was the result obtained at calcining conditions but close to the thermodynamic temperature given for sorbent calcination. This situation must be avoided in CFBC's because the CO{sub 2} produced inside the particle during calcination can destroy the particles if a non-porous sulphate product layer has been formed around the particle. The effect of the main variables on the sorbent sulphation such as SO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and particle size were analysed in the long term TGA tests. These data were also used to determine the kinetic parameters for the sulphation under oxy-fuel combustion conditions, which were able to adequately predict the sulphation conversion values in a wide range of operating conditions. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Comparison of methods for the determination of reduced inorganic sulphur in acid sulphate soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santomartino, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The management of acid sulphate soils requires analytical methods that provide accurate data on the quantity of reduced inorganic sulphur within a soil, as it is this fraction that produces acid upon oxidation. This study uses sulphidic Coode Island Silt samples to compare common analytical methods including POCAS (Peroxide Oxidation-Combined Acidity and Sulphate) which consists of TSA (Total Sulphidic Acidity), S pos (Peroxide Oxidisable Sulphur), TOS (Total Oxidisable Sulphur) and chromium-reducible sulphur. The determination of total sulphur by Leco sulphur is strongly correlated with, but slightly less than, that analysed by XRF. Comparison of soil sulphide content by chromium-reducible sulphur, TSA and TOS methods indicates that TOS values are substantially higher than both other methods. The problem with the TOS method lies in the sulphate extraction procedure. Hot distilled water and HCI are commonly used as extractants, however hot distilled water fails to remove organic sulphur, thereby overestimating the sulphide content of the soil. Leco carbon analyses verify that a substantial proportion of organic matter exists within the samples. The HCI extraction process, which uses Ion Chromatography to analyse for sulphate, produces highly inaccurate results due to the interference of the sulphate peak by the chloride peak during analysis. An alternative method involving HCI extraction and XRF analysis of the soil residue is currently being undertaken. The use of KCI to extract sulphate generally produces values similar to the hot distilled water method. The sulphidic content measured by TSA is strongly correlated with, but slightly higher than that determined by the chromium-reducible sulphur method. This is attributed to the use of hydrogen peroxide in the TSA method, which oxidises organic matter to organic acids in addition to oxidising sulphides. These preliminary findings indicate that the chromium-reducible sulphur method is the most suitable

  1. Sulphate content of the Muntimpa dam water and its impact on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tembo, F; Shitumbanuma, V; Simukanga, S; Mudenda, G; Chileshe, P; Mulenga, S; Phiri, Y

    2004-01-01

    This article presents results of a study of the quality of water from Muntimpa Dam, a reservior of waste mine water released from the processing of copper and cobalt ores by Konkola Copper Mines(KCM) Plc in Chingola. The mine water is discharged into the local Muntimpa stream, a possible source of drinking and domestic water for the local population. The purpose of the study was to determine levels of sulphate in the dam and stream water and recommend possible methods of partial sulphate removal to levels below the recommended statutory limits and secondly, to assess the impact of high sulphate levels on water quality. Study methods included the sampling of water from the Muntimpa dam and catchment area. Stream water samples were collected about 5m from the stream banks while water samples from the dam were randomly collected from the near the centre of the dam at a depth of 50cm. Laboratory methods involved the determination of physical and chemical properties of the water using standard analytical techniques. Results of the study indicate that both total (2470mg/l) and available (1965mg/l) sulphate concentrations are higher than the recommended statutory limit for the discharge of sulphates into natural streams of 1500mg/l. From the study it is concluded that water in Muntimpa dam and stream is not suitable for drinking and other domestic use due to the high sulphate levels. From theorectical considerations, it was established that sulphate reduction could be achieved by addition of lime, which however had the consquence of increasing the pH of the water in excess of the recommended Zambian statutory value of nine, and would thus require an additional process to reduce the pH. (author)

  2. Westinghouse AP1000 advanced passive plant: design features and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, S.J.; Cummins, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    The Westinghouse AP1000 Program is aimed at implementing the AP1000 plant to provide a further major improvement in plant economics while maintaining the passive safety advantages established by the AP600. An objective is to retain to the maximum extent possible the plant design of the AP600 so as to retain the licensing basis, cost estimate, construction schedule, modularization scheme, and the detailed design from the AP600 program. Westinghouse and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff have embarked on a program to complete Design Certification for the AP1000 by 2004. A pre-certification review phase was completed in March 2002 and was successful in establishing the applicability of the AP600 test program and AP600 safety analysis codes to the AP1000 Design Certification. On March 28, 2002, Westinghouse submitted to US NRC the AP1000 Design Control Document and Probabilistic Risk Assessment, thereby initiating the formal design certification review process. The results presented in these documents verify the safety performance of the API 000 and conformance with US NRC licensing requirements. Plans are being developed for implementation of a series of AP1000 plants in the US. Key factors in this planning are the economics of AP1000, and the associated business model for licensing, constructing and operating these new plants. Similarly plans are being developed to get the AP1000 design reviewed for use in the UK. Part of this planning has been to examine the AP1000 design relative to anticipated UK safety and licensing issues. (author)

  3. The APS control system network upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorowicz, K. v.; Leibfritz, D.; McDowell, W. P.

    1999-01-01

    When it was installed,the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system network was at the state-of-the-art. Different aspects of the system have been reported at previous meetings [1,2]. As loads on the controls network have increased due to newer and faster workstations and front-end computers, we have found performance of the system declining and have implemented an upgraded network. There have been dramatic advances in networking hardware in the last several years. The upgraded APS controls network replaces the original FDDI backbone and shared Ethernet hubs with redundant gigabit uplinks and fully switched 10/100 Ethernet switches with backplane fabrics in excess of 20 Gbits/s (Gbps). The central collapsed backbone FDDI concentrator has been replaced with a Gigabit Ethernet switch with greater than 30 Gbps backplane fabric. Full redundancy of the system has been maintained. This paper will discuss this upgrade and include performance data and performance comparisons with the original network

  4. Structural modules in AP1000 plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, N.; Tunon-Sanjur, L.

    2007-01-01

    Structural modules are extensively used in AP1000 plant design. The shop manufacturing of modules components improves the quality and reliability of plant structures. The application of modules has a positive impact on construction schedules, and results in substantial savings in the construction cost. This paper describes various types of structural modules used for AP1000 plant structures. CA structural wall modules are steel plate modules with concrete placed, on or within the module, after module installation. The layout and design of the largest CA wall modules, CA01 and CA20, is described in detail. General discussion of structural floor modules, such as the composite and finned floors, is also included. Steel form CB modules (liners) consist of plate reinforced with angle stiffeners and tee sections. The angles and the tee sections are on the concrete side of the plate. Design of CB20 has been included as an example of CB type modules. Design codes and structural concepts related to module designs are discussed. (authors)

  5. Correction magnet power supplies for APS machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.G.

    1991-04-01

    A number of correction magnets are required for the advanced photon source (APS) machine to correct the beam. There are five kinds of correction magnets for the storage ring, two for the injector synchrotron, and two for the positron accumulator ring (PAR). Table I shoes a summary of the correction magnet power supplies for the APS machine. For the storage ring, the displacement of the quadrupole magnets due to the low frequency vibration below 25 Hz has the most significant effect on the stability of the positron closed orbit. The primary external source of the low frequency vibration is the ground motion of approximately 20 μm amplitude, with frequency components concentrated below 10 Hz. These low frequency vibrations can be corrected by using the correction magnets, whose field strengths are controlled individually through the feedback loop comprising the beam position monitoring system. The correction field require could be either positive or negative. Thus for all the correction magnets, bipolar power supplies (BPSs) are required to produce both polarities of correction fields. Three different types of BPS are used for all the correction magnets. Type I BPSs cover all the correction magnets for the storage ring, except for the trim dipoles. The maximum output current of the Type I BPS is 140 Adc. A Type II BPS powers a trim dipole, and its maximum output current is 60 Adc. The injector synchrotron and PAR correction magnets are powered form Type III BPSs, whose maximum output current is 25 Adc

  6. RELAP5/MOD3 AP600 problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemke, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    RELAP5/MOD3 is a reactor systems analysis code that has been developed jointly by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and a consortium consisting of several of the countries and domestic organizations that were members of the International Code Assessment and Applications Program (ICAP). The code is currently being used to simulate transients for the next generation of advanced light water reactors (ALWR's). One particular reactor design is the Westinghouse AP600 pressurized water reactor (PWR), which consists of two hot legs and four cold legs as well as passive emergency core cooling (ECC) systems. Initial calculations with RELAP5/MOD3 indicated that the code was not as robust as RELAP5/MOD2.5 with regard to AP600 calculations. Recent modifications in the areas of condensation wall heat transfer, interfacial heat transfer in the presence of noncondensibles, bubbly flow interfacial heat transfer, and time smoothing of both interfacial drag and interfacial heat transfer have improved the robustness, although more reliability is needed

  7. AP1000 shield building: a constructability challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Bonanno, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    The AP1000 Shield Building, an enhanced structure which surrounds the containment vessel, consists of standard Reinforced Concrete (RC) and composite Steel and Concrete (SC) construction. In the SC module the surface steel plates, (with attached shear studs and angles) filled with concrete, act as the steel reinforcement in concrete. This is a relatively new design technology that required the appropriate use of structural codes, supplemented with information from applicable tests on similar composite steel and concrete construction. Being a newer design concept, existing codes do not provide explicit guidance on SC construction so a review of literature and test data on composite structures similar to AP1000 shield building was done in order to confirm the technical basis for the design. The SC walls, air inlet structure and roof of the Shield Building will be constructed using modular construction practices and then transported to site and lifted into place. These modules, working also as permanent form-work, will be filled with high strength Self- Consolidating Concrete. (SCC) This paper provides a focused and integrated presentation of the enhanced shield building design methodology, testing, constructability and inspection. (authors)

  8. The nature and significance of sulphate-rich, aluminous efflorescences from the Te Kopia geothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.; Rodgers, K.A. [University of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology; Browne, P.R.L. [University of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology; University of Auckland (New Zealand). Geothermal Institute

    1999-06-01

    Alunogen and meta-alunogen are the dominant phases present in transient sulphate efflorescences that are the latest products of the alteration of ignimbrite country rocks in the long-lived Te Kopia geothermal field. Meta-alunogen pseudomorphs alunogen and both species occur as white, fibrous. tangled masses, as prismatic, parallel growths, and as thin. platy, crystals, 8-15 ({mu}m across, that coalesce in an open cellular network. Small (<2 mm diam.) spherical aggregates of radiating, acicular halotriechite (Fe{sub 0.51}Mg{sub 0.49}Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4.22}H{sub 2}O), potash alum, mirabilite, melanterite and tschermigite are present locally. The cations needed to form these minerals derive from the host rocks with the exception of sulphur and ammonia that come from H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} gases ascending with steam. The particular efflorescence assemblage reflects the prevailing conditions and ionic activities of a local micro-environment. Kaolinite formed by acid sulphate alteration is now being altered by steam to yield alunogen. In turn, alunogen can react with silica, or co-dissociate with silicic acid, to form kaolinite The alternating dissolution and reprecipitation of kaolinite and alunogen moves aluminium in and through the surficial environment at Te Kopia.

  9. Selection of Suitable Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulphate Source for the Production of Alkaline Protease by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath BHUNIA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selection of suitable carbon, nitrogen and sulphate sources were carried out by one-variable-at-time approach for the production of alkaline protease enzyme by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042. Maximum levels of alkaline protease were found in culture media supplemented with magnesium sulphate, starch and soybean meal as a good sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources which influenced the maximum yield of this enzyme (137.69�4.57, 135.23�1.73 and 134.74�1.77, respectively in comparison with the other sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources.

  10. Selection of Suitable Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulphate Source for the Production of Alkaline Protease by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath BHUNIA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selection of suitable carbon, nitrogen and sulphate sources were carried out by one-variable-at-time approach for the production of alkaline protease enzyme by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042. Maximum levels of alkaline protease were found in culture media supplemented with magnesium sulphate, starch and soybean meal as a good sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources which influenced the maximum yield of this enzyme (137.694.57, 135.231.73 and 134.741.77, respectively in comparison with the other sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources.

  11. Influence of Height Waterlogging on Soil Physical Properties of Potential and Actual Acid Sulphate Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Fahmi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Water management is main factor that determines the successful of rice cultivation in acid sulphate soil. Soil waterlogging determines the direction and rate of chemical, geochemical and biological reaction in the soil, indirectly these reactions may influence to the changes of soil psycal properties during soil waterlogging process. The experiment was aimed to study the changes of two type of acid sulphate soils physical properties during rice straw decomposition processes. The research was conducted in the greenhouse consisting of the three treatment factors using the completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was soil type: potential acid sulphate soil (PASS and actual acid sulphate soil (AASS. The second factor was height of water waterlogging: 0.5-1.0 cm (muddy water–level condition and 4.0 cm from above the soil surface (waterlogged. The third factor was organic matter type: rice straw (RS, purun tikus (Eleocharis dulcis (PT and mixed of RS and PT (MX. Soil physical properties such as aggregate stability, total soil porosity, soil permeability, soil particle density and bulk density were observed at the end of experiment (vegetative maximum stage. The results showed that acid sulphate soil type had large effect on soil physicl properties, soil waterlogging decreased aggregate stability, soil particle density and bulk density both of soil type.

  12. Evaluating portland cement concrete degradation by sulphate exposure through artificial neural networks modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Douglas Nunes de; Bourguignon, Lucas Gabriel Garcia; Tolentino, Evandro, E-mail: tolentino@timoteo.cefetmg.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Timoteo, MG (Brazil); Costa, Rodrigo Moyses, E-mail: rodrigo@moyses.com.br [Universidade de Itauna, Itauna, MG (Brazil); Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    A concrete is durable if it has accomplished the desired service life in the environment in which it is exposed. The durability of concrete materials can be limited as a result of adverse performance of its cement-paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either chemical or physical attack. Among other aggressive chemical exposures, the sulphate attack is an important concern. Water, soils and gases, which contain sulphate, represent a potential threat to the durability of concrete structures. Sulphate attack in concrete leads to the conversion of the hydration products of cement to ettringite, gypsum, and other phases, and also it leads to the destabilization of the primary strength generating calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. The formation of ettringite and gypsum is common in cementitious systems exposed to most types of sulphate solutions. The present work presents the application of the neural networks for estimating deterioration of various concrete mixtures due to exposure to sulphate solutions. A neural networks model was constructed, trained and tested using the available database. In general, artificial neural networks could be successfully used in function approximation problems in order to approach the data generation function. Once data generation function is known, artificial neural network structure is tested using data not presented to the network during training. This paper is intent to provide the technical requirements related to the production of a durable concrete to be used in the structures of the Brazilian near-surface repository of radioactive wastes. (author)

  13. Influence on ammonium-sulphate fertilizer on P-uptake by upland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, N; Mitrosuhardjo, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment to study the influence of ammonium -sulphate fertilizer on P-uptake by Atomita I/1 rice variety on latosol soil of Pasar Jumat has been conducted. Factorial experiment consisting of eight treatments was arrange in a fully randomized design. Each treatment was replicated three times. The rate of ammonium sulphate fertilizer was equivalent to 0, 30, 60, and 90 kg N/ha, and TSP at the rate of 90 and 180 kg P/ha. Ammonium sulphate fertilizer with 2% atom 15-N and TSP with specific activity of 0.2 mCi/g P2O5 were used in the experiment. The plant was harvested 70 days after planting, It was turned out that ammonium sulphate fertilizer gave a highly significant difference (p=<0.01) of dry weight of plant. The rate of TSP did not effect significantly on plant dry weight. Ammonium sulphate fertilizer gave highly significant difference on P-uptake. Fertilizer use efficiency was in the range of 3.88 - 6.60% for 90 kg P and 2.51 - 4.46% for 180 kg P. Fertilizer-N uptake was significantly increased (p=<0.05) with the increase of N rate. Rate of fertilizer-N use efficiency was in the range of 47-60% of the applied fertilizer. (authors). 4 refs, 9 tabs

  14. [Concordance between the zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inês, Elizabete De Jesus; Pacheco, Flavia Thamiris Figueiredo; Pinto, Milena Carneiro; Mendes, Patrícia Silva de Almeida; Da Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Soares, Neci Matos; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina Aquino

    2016-12-01

    The diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections depends on the parasite load, the specific gravity density of the parasite eggs, oocysts or cysts, and the density and viscosity of flotation or sedimentation medium where faeces are processed. To evaluate the concordance between zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation in the recovery of parasites in faecal samples of children. Faecal samples of 330 children from day care centers were evaluated by zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation techniques. The frequencies of detection of parasites by each method were determined and the agreement between the diagnostic techniques was evaluated using the kappa index, with 95% confidence intervals. The faecal flotation in zinc sulphate diagnosed significantly more cases of Trichuris trichiura infection when compared to centrifugal sedimentation (39/330; 11.8% vs. 13/330; 3.9%, p<0.001), with low diagnostic concordance between methods (kappa=0.264; 95% CI: 0.102-0.427). Moreover, all positive samples for Enterobius vermicularis eggs (n=5) and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (n=3) were diagnosed only by zinc sulphate. No statistical differences were observed between methods for protozoa identification. The results showed that centrifugal flotation in zinc sulphate solution was significantly more likely to detect light helminths eggs such as those of T. trichiura and E. vermicularis in faeces than the centrifugal sedimentation process.

  15. Risk minimisation of FGD gypsum leachates by incorporation of aluminium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E. [Department of Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA, CSIC, Apto. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain)], E-mail: ealvarez@ija.csic.es; Querol, X. [Department of Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ballesteros, J.C.; Gimenez, A. [Endesa Generacion, S.A., C/ Ribera de Loira, 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    The incorporation of aluminium sulphate to (flue gas desulphurisation) FGD gypsum before its disposal was investigated as a way to minimise the risk supposed by the high fluoride content of its leachates. Using a bath method the kinetic and equilibrium processes of fluoride removal by aluminium sulphate were studied at fluoride/aluminium molar concentration (F/Al) ratios in the range 1.75 10{sup -2}-1.75 under the pH conditions (about 6.5) of FGD gypsum leachates. It was found that fluoride removal was a very fast process at any of the (F/Al) ratios subject of study, with equilibrium attained within the first 15 min of interaction. High decreases in solution fluoride concentrations (50-80%) were found at the equilibrium state. The use of aluminium sulphate in the stabilization of FGD gypsum proved to greatly decrease its fluoride leachable content (in the range 20-90% for aluminium sulphate doses of 0.1-5%, as determined by the European standard EN 12457-4). Such fluoride leaching minimisation assures the characterization of this by-product as a waste acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous wastes according to the Council Decision 2003/33/EC on waste disposal. Furthermore, as derived from column leaching studies, the proposed stabilization system showed to be highly effective in simulated conditions of disposal, displaying fluoride leaching reduction values about 55 and 80% for aluminium sulphate added amounts of 1 and 2%, respectively.

  16. The Protective Role of Zinc Sulphate on Ethanol -Induced Liver and Kidney Damages in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Damegh, Mona Abdalla

    2007-01-01

    Around the world more and more people suffer from alcoholism. Addiction problems, alcoholism and excessive use of drugs both medical and nonmedical, are major causes of liver and kidney damage in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate on the protective role of zinc sulphate on liver and kidney in rats with acute alcoholism. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I; control group, group 2; given only Zinc Sulphate (100 mg/kg/day for 3days), group 3; rats given absolute ethanol (1 ml of absolute ethanol administrated by gavage technique to each rat), group 4 given Zinc sulphate prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. The results of this study revealed that acute ethanol exposure caused degenerative morphological changes in the liver and kidney. Significant difference were found in the levels of serum, liver, kidney super oxide dismutase(SOD), catalase (CAT), nitric oxide(NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ethanol group compared to the control group. Moreover ,serum urea, creatnine, uric acid, alkaline phoshpatase and transaminases activities (GOTand GPT) were increased in the ethanol group compared to the control group. On the other hand,administration of zinc sulphate in the ethanol group caused a significant decrease in the degenerative changes, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, and nitric oxide in serum, liver, and kidney. It can be concluded that zinc Sulphate has a protective role on the ethanol induced liver and kidney injury. In addition ,nitric oxide is involved in the mechanism of acute alcohol intoxication. (author)

  17. Evaluating portland cement concrete degradation by sulphate exposure through artificial neural networks modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Douglas Nunes de; Bourguignon, Lucas Gabriel Garcia; Tolentino, Evandro; Costa, Rodrigo Moyses; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2015-01-01

    A concrete is durable if it has accomplished the desired service life in the environment in which it is exposed. The durability of concrete materials can be limited as a result of adverse performance of its cement-paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either chemical or physical attack. Among other aggressive chemical exposures, the sulphate attack is an important concern. Water, soils and gases, which contain sulphate, represent a potential threat to the durability of concrete structures. Sulphate attack in concrete leads to the conversion of the hydration products of cement to ettringite, gypsum, and other phases, and also it leads to the destabilization of the primary strength generating calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. The formation of ettringite and gypsum is common in cementitious systems exposed to most types of sulphate solutions. The present work presents the application of the neural networks for estimating deterioration of various concrete mixtures due to exposure to sulphate solutions. A neural networks model was constructed, trained and tested using the available database. In general, artificial neural networks could be successfully used in function approximation problems in order to approach the data generation function. Once data generation function is known, artificial neural network structure is tested using data not presented to the network during training. This paper is intent to provide the technical requirements related to the production of a durable concrete to be used in the structures of the Brazilian near-surface repository of radioactive wastes. (author)

  18. Biotreatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters by sulphate reducing bacteria fed with ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnanelli, F., E-mail: francesca.pagnanelli@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cruz Viggi, C., E-mail: carolina.cruzviggi@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cibati, A., E-mail: alessio.cibati@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Uccelletti, D., E-mail: daniela.uccelletti@uniroma1.it [Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Toro, L., E-mail: luigi.toro@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Palleschi, C., E-mail: claudio.palleschi@uniroma1.it [Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of ethanol as electron donor for sulphate-reducing bacteria for the treatment of Cr(VI). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation of contribution in Cr removal (adsorption vs. bioprecipitation). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioassessment of the process effectiveness by ecotoxicological in vivo tests using C. elegans. - Abstract: Biological treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters was performed in fixed bed reactors inoculated with SRB (sulphate-reducing bacteria) growing on ethanol. Treatment efficiency was evaluated by checking chemical abatement of Cr(VI) and by ecotoxicological tests using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A preliminary comparison between ethanol and lactate was performed, denoting that using ethanol, the same values of final sulphate abatement were obtained. In addition ethanol showed to be a substrate more competitive than lactate in kinetic terms. Fixed bed column reactors were continuously fed with a solution containing sulphates (3 g L{sup -1}), ethanol (1.5 g L{sup -1}) and Cr(VI) (50 mg L{sup -1}). At steady state the column inoculated with SRB removed 65 {+-} 5% of sulphate and 95 {+-} 5% of chromium. Bioactive removal mechanisms predominated over biosorption. Diminution of Cr(VI) toxicity was assessed by using the nematode C. elegans as a test organism showing that the survival of nematodes was 20% in the presence of the untreated influent and raised up to 53% when the nematodes were exposed to the treated effluent.

  19. Biotreatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters by sulphate reducing bacteria fed with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnanelli, F.; Cruz Viggi, C.; Cibati, A.; Uccelletti, D.; Toro, L.; Palleschi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Use of ethanol as electron donor for sulphate-reducing bacteria for the treatment of Cr(VI). ► Isolation of contribution in Cr removal (adsorption vs. bioprecipitation). ► Bioassessment of the process effectiveness by ecotoxicological in vivo tests using C. elegans. - Abstract: Biological treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters was performed in fixed bed reactors inoculated with SRB (sulphate-reducing bacteria) growing on ethanol. Treatment efficiency was evaluated by checking chemical abatement of Cr(VI) and by ecotoxicological tests using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A preliminary comparison between ethanol and lactate was performed, denoting that using ethanol, the same values of final sulphate abatement were obtained. In addition ethanol showed to be a substrate more competitive than lactate in kinetic terms. Fixed bed column reactors were continuously fed with a solution containing sulphates (3 g L −1 ), ethanol (1.5 g L −1 ) and Cr(VI) (50 mg L −1 ). At steady state the column inoculated with SRB removed 65 ± 5% of sulphate and 95 ± 5% of chromium. Bioactive removal mechanisms predominated over biosorption. Diminution of Cr(VI) toxicity was assessed by using the nematode C. elegans as a test organism showing that the survival of nematodes was 20% in the presence of the untreated influent and raised up to 53% when the nematodes were exposed to the treated effluent.

  20. Effect of clonidine and magnesium sulphate on anaesthetic consumption, haemodynamics and postoperative recovery: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjushree Ray

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to assess the effect of intravenous clonidine and magnesium sulphate on intraoperative haemodynamics, anaesthetic consumption and postoperative recovery. Seventy five patients undergoing elective upper limb orthopaedic surgery were randomised into three groups. Group C received clonidine 3 μg/kg as a bolus before induction and 1μg/kg/hour by infusion intraopertively. Group M received magnesium sulphate 30 mg/kg as a bolus before induction and 10 mg/kg/hour by infusion. Group P received same volume of isotonic saline. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with fentanyl citrate and propofol. Muscular relaxation was achieved by vecuronium bromide. Induction time, recovery time and consumption of propofol as well as fentanyl citrate were recorded. Induction of anaesthesia was rapid with both clonidine and magnesium sulphate. Time of bispectral index (BIS to reach 60 was significantly lower in Group C and Group M (P < 0.0001. Requirements of propofol and fentanyl were significantly less in Group C and Group M (P < 0.001. Postoperative recovery was slower in Group M compared with other two groups (P < 0.001. Perioperative use of both clonidine and magnesium sulphate significantly reduced the consumption of propofol and fentanyl citrate. Magnesium sulphate caused a delayed recovery.

  1. Utilization of nitrogen from green manure and mineral fertilizer by sugarcane Aproveitamento do nitrogênio da adubação verde e da fertilização mineral pela cana - de - açucar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson José Ambrosano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Given their potential for biological nitrogen fixation, legumes used as green manure are an alternative source of nitrogen to crops, and can supplement or even replace mineral nitrogen fertilization. The utilization of nitrogen by sugarcane (Saccharum spp. fertilized with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. and ammonium sulphate (AS was evaluated using the 15N tracer technique. Amounts of 195.8 kg and 70 kg N per hectare, respectively, of sunn hemp and AS were added in the following treatments: without green manure and without AS; without green manure, with AS -15N; with green manure-15N and with AS; with green manure-15N, without AS; with green manure and with AS-15N. Four samples from the leaves +3 were collected and 2 m of the sugar cane row were harvested to estimate crop yield. The results for N contents (g kg-1, isotopic abundance of N (atoms % 15N in leaf +3 samples, and sugarcane productivity were used to calculate cumulative N, nitrogen in the plant derived from the fertilizer-Ndff (% and kg ha-1, as well as percent recovery of fertilizer N (R%. Sugarcane was analysed and pol and total recovered sugar calculated. The highest Ndff percentages were observed eight months after sugarcane planting for treatments containing green manure without mineral N, and green manure with mineral N, at 15.3 and 18.4%, respectively. The best nitrogen recovery was observed during harvest, 18 months after planting; the treatment containing mineral fertilizer showed 34.4% recovery, while the sum between mineral N plus green manure N showed 40.0%. Treatments containing green manure plus mineral N changed soil attributes, by increasing Ca and Mg contents, sum of bases, pH, and base saturation, and decreasing potential acidity. In the plant, those treatments increased Ca and K contents.Em função de seu potencial de fixação de nitrogênio, as leguminosas adubos verdes representam uma alternativa ao suprimento, substituição ou complementação da aduba

  2. Control units for APS power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despe, O.D.; Saunders, C.; McGhee, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) accelerator facility is made up of five major subsystems in addition to the linac: the positron accumulator ring (PAR), low energy transport (LET), booster synchrotron (SYNCH), high energy transport (HET), the storage ring (SR). Each subsystem has multiple magnet power supply combinations, some requiring multiple of operation. These magnet and power supply combinations computer controlled and monitored. The power supply control unit (PSCU) is the first layer of hardware and software above the power supply itself and is described in this paper. The description includes the basic philosophy for each of operation and how it influences the topology and of implementing control. The design of the analog reference blocks (ARBs) influenced the design of other custom functions well as the feedback controls for vibration and other dynamic corrections. The command set supported by the PSCU is discussed

  3. The positron accumulator ring for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses are injected into the horizontal phase space of the PAR at a 60-Hz rate. Each injected pulse occupies about 1.3 of the circumference of the accumulator ring. After 0.1 s for longitudinal damping, the single accumulated bunch is transferred to one of the 353-MHz buckets of the injector synchrotron RF system. The bunch is accelerated to 7 GeV and transferred to the storage ring, while the PAR accumulates the next bunch of positrons. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. The positron accumulator ring for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses are injected into the horizontal phase space of the PAR at a 60-Hz rate. Each injected pulse occupies about 1/3 of the circumference of the accumulator ring. After 0.1 s for longitudinal damping, the single accumulated bunch is transferred to one of the 353-MHz buckets of the injector synchrotron RF system. The bunch is accelerated to 7 GeV and transferred to the storage ring, while the PAR accumulates the next bunch of positrons. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. A study to evaluate therapeutic properties of minerals of manghopir hot spring, karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.; Iqbal, J.; Khan, F.A.; Siddiqui, I.

    2009-01-01

    European balneologists have extensively studied the therapeutic value of mineral water. Mineral springs with different mineral contents are recommended for various therapeutic uses. People have been using geothermal water for bathing and good health for many thousands of years A mineral hot spring has greater than 1000 mg/L (ppm) of naturally dissolved solids. Hot mineral spring water contains elements like calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium as sulphates, bi- carbonates and chlorides, which are used externally to cure many diseases. Manghopir spring contain 38-84 mg/L calcium, 29-56 mg/L magnesium, 388-555 mg/L sodium, 411-599 mg/L chloride, 186-442 mg/L sulphate, 10-25 mg/L potassium, and 1509-2188 mg/L total dissolved solids while the pH was in the range of 7.2-7.8. The temperature of Manghopir Euthermal hot spring remains constant ranging between 40 to 47 degree C. (author)

  6. CHRONIC Cd TOXICITY OF BEAN PLANTS CAN BE PARTIALLY REDUCED BY SUPPLY OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon VASSILEV

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ammonium sulphate supply on plant Cd uptake, growth and photosynthesis of bean plants (cv. Limburgse vroege grown in Cd-contaminated artifi cial soil was studied. The experiments were performed at controlled conditions in absence or presence of Cd (0 or 50 mg Cd kg-1 soil and with or without supply of ammonium sulphate [0 or 0.687 g (NH42SO4 kg-1]. Cadmium inhibited both growth and photosynthetic activity of bean plants. The supply of ammonium sulphate had no signifi cant effect on plant Cd uptake and growth inhibition, but to some extend, reduced Cd-induced stress and its negative impact on the photosynthetic performance.

  7. Precipitation of calcium sulphate on hot walls - influence of impurities, thermal and hydraulic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermin, Roger

    1973-01-01

    After some generalities on desalination by distillation processes and on problems due to scaling, this research thesis aims at a better understanding of the formation of deposits and their effects in the case of precipitation of calcium sulphate hemihydrate which precipitates above 100 C in pure solution and between 100 and 300 C in brine. Deposit growth, influence of impurities, and influence of the deposit on heat exchange and loss of load are the main issues of this research. The author addresses general principles of salt crystallization and the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of calcium sulphate precipitation, studies the growth kinetics of the calcium sulphate hemihydrate in a transient concentration regime, reports the study of thermal and hydraulic effects of the formation of a hemihydrate deposit, notably by discussing the different phases involved in the covering of a metallic surface

  8. Barium sulphate preparations for use in double contrast examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.; Harthill, J.E.; James, W.B.; Montgomery, D.

    1980-01-01

    Physical properties relevant to upper gastrointestinal radiology have been compared for five barium sulphate preparations and related to radiographic results. Evaluation of particles (size and stability) and whole suspension (dispersibility and fluidity) resulted in ranking of the preparations generally in accord with that based on radiological experience in double contrast examinations of the stomach. Experiments with extirpated pig stomach revealed a tendency for large particles in a low viscosity barium sulphate suspension to settle in mucosal grooves. This is believed to contribute to good radiographic definition of both the areae gastricae and small lesions. Particle size is therefore important and susceptibility to flocculation, a possible cause of random change in size during use, was assessed by measuring particle electrophoretic mobility under varying conditions; quantitative differences in suspension flow and dispersibility were also demonstrated. Fluidity and dispersibility together with rapid sedimentation of suitably sized particles resistant to flocculation underlie the successful use of low viscosity high density barium sulphate suspensions. (U.K.)

  9. The influence of nickel sulphate on some physiological aspects of two cultivars of Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Helmy H.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study two cultivars of radish Raphanus sativus cv. longipinnatus (white radish and Raphanus sativus cv. Cherry Belle (red radish were treated with different concentrations of nickel sulphate (0.0-50-100-150-200 ppm. The fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigments, some antioxidant enzymes, total carbohydrates, total proteins and the SDS-PAGE protein profile of both cultivars were determined after 32 days. The results showed that increasing nickel sulphate concentrations decreased the fresh and dry weights of the shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates and total protein in both cultivars. Higher concentrations of nickel sulphate increased the activity of catalase, peroxidase and polypenol oxidase. Electrophoresis banding profiles of proteins revealed qualitative and quantitative changes, and also the appearance or disappearance of some bands of the two cultivars. .

  10. Performance of Periwinkle Shell Ash Blended Cement Concrete Exposed to Magnesium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umoh A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the compressive strength of periwinkle shell ash (PSA blended cement concrete in magnesium sulphate medium. Specimens were prepared from designed characteristics strength of 25 MPa. The cement replacement with PSA ranged between 0 and 40% by volume. A total of 180 cube specimens were cast and cured in water. At 28 days curing, 45 specimens each were transferred into magnesium sulphate of 1%, 3%, and 5% solution, while others were continuously cured in water and tested at 62, 92, and 152 days. The results revealed a higher loss in compressive strength with the control mix, and that it increases with increased in MgSO4 concentration and exposure period, whereas, the attack on the PSA blended cement concrete was less and the least value recorded by 10% PSA content. Therefore, the study concluded that the optimum percentage replacement of cement with 10% PSA could mitigate magnesium sulphate attack.

  11. Magnesium sulphate as a safe treatment for persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn resistant to mechanical hyperventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehdashtian, M.; Tebatebae, K.

    2007-01-01

    To see the effects of magnesium sulphate in newborn with persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN) who did not respond to mechanical hyperventilation and are candidate for Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO). Ten newborn who were admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) with profound hypoxia and respiratory failure due to PPHN were treated with conventional mechanical ventilation and then mechanical hyperventilation. The newborns who did not respond to mechanical Hyperventilation were treated with magnesium sulphate infusion. Nine out of ten babies survived and one of them died. The differences between the mean AaDo2, OI index, and PH after mechanical hyperventilation and magnesium sulphate administration was significant. Magnesium has a role in the treatment of PPHN patients who do not respond to hyperventilation or may be applied instead of hyperventilation. (author)

  12. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  13. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  14. Clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) with and without antiphospholipid antibodies (the so-called 'seronegative APS').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Jose Luis; Bertolaccini, Maria Laura; Cuadrado, Maria Jose; Sanna, Giovanni; Ateka-Barrutia, Oier; Khamashta, Munther A

    2012-02-01

    Although the medical literature currently provides a growing number of isolated case reports of patients with clinically well-defined antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and persistently negative antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), there are no studies including a series of patients addressing the clinical features of this condition. The authors assessed clinical manifestations of APS in 154 patients: 87 patients with seropositive APS and 67 patients with thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity persistently negative for aPL and presenting with at least two additional non-criteria manifestations of APS (the so-called 'seronegative APS', SN-APS). Patients were interviewed at the time of recruitment, and a retrospective file review was carried out. There were no significant differences in the frequency of thrombotic events or obstetric morbidity in patients with SN-APS versus patients with seropositive APS: deep vein thrombosis (31.4% vs 31.0%), pulmonary embolism (23.8% vs 28.7%), stroke (14.9% vs 17.2%), transient ischaemic attack (11.9% vs 10.3%), early spontaneous abortions (67.1% vs 52.1%), stillbirths (62.5% vs 59.4%), prematurity (28.1% vs 21.7%) or pre-eclampsia (28.1% vs 23.1%). Classic and SN-APS patients show similar clinical profiles. The results suggest that clinical management in patients with APS should not be based only on the presence of conventional aPL.

  15. Mineral commodity summaries 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  16. Analgesic effect of intra-articular magnesium sulphate compared with bupivacaine after knee arthroscopic menisectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. Radwan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of intra-articular injection of magnesium sulphate (4% compared with equivalent volume of bupivacaine (0.5% after outpatient knee arthroscopic meniscectomy. Forty patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Group M (n = 20 received intra-articular magnesium sulphate 4%, group B (n = 20 received bupivacaine (0.5%. Analgesic effect was evaluated by analgesic duration, and by measuring pain intensity at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 h both at rest and on knee movement to 90°. The primary outcome variable was pain intensity on the VAS at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 h post arthroscopy at rest and on movement (flexion of knee to 90°, although the magnesium group had lower time weighted averages (TWAs at rest and on movement, these TWAs were not statistically significant. The median duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly longer in the patients treated with magnesium sulphate (528 min than in the bupivacaine group (317 min (p < 0.0001, with less number of patients needing supplementary analgesia in magnesium group (8/20 than those of the bupivacaine group (16/20 (p < 0.022. Also analgesic consumption was significantly lower in the magnesium sulphate group (p < 0.002. We concluded that the use of magnesium sulphate is rational and effective in reducing pain, and is more physiological and shortens convalescence after outpatient arthroscopic meniscectomy, however our hypotheses that analgesic efficacy of intra-articular isotonic magnesium sulphate would be superior to intra-articular local anaesthetic cannot be supported with this study.

  17. Auricular Chondritis in a Postpartum Flare of SLE and APS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Ponce

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Auricular chondritis has been occasionally described in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. Materials and methods: We report the case of a woman with a previous history of APS who presented with auricular chondritis with onset of SLE symptoms during the postpartum period. Conclusion: SLE and APS should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of auricular chondritis.

  18. FRANX. Application for analysis and quantification of the APS fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snchez, A.; Osorio, F.; Ontoso, N.

    2014-01-01

    The FRANX application has been developed by EPRI within the Risk and Reliability User Group in order to facilitate the process of quantification and updating APS Fire (also covers floods and earthquakes). By applying fire scenarios are quantified in the central integrating the tasks performed during the APS fire. This paper describes the main features of the program to allow quantification of an APS Fire. (Author)

  19. Essence and characteristics of the Westinghouse technology AP1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llovet, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The AP1000 nuclear power plant can place the reactor in a Safe Shutdown Condition within the first 72 hours of a Station Blackout, without the use of AC power or operator action •With some operator action after 3 days, the AP1000 nuclear power plant continues to maintain reactor core cooling and Spent Fuel Pool cooling indefinitely •The AP1000 nuclear power plant has superior coping capabilities as well as significantly reduced risk for core damage

  20. Effects of Manganese (Ii Sulphate on Structural, Spectral, Optical, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of L-Alanine Sodium Sulphate Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Praveena

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available New Non-linear Optical materials have been attracting in the research world for their potential applications in emerging opto-electronic technology. The dipolar nature of amino acid leads to peculiar physical and chemical properties, thus making a good candidate for NLO applications. Single crystals of manganese(II sulphate doped L-Alanine sodium sulphate(LASS has been synthesized by slow evaporation technique. Structural property of the grown crystals are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction,FT-IR spectral analysis conforms all the functional groups. Thermogravity (TG and differential themogravimetric (DTA analysis have been performed to study the thermal stability of the crystals. The second harmonic generation efficiency was measured by Kurtz-Perry powder technique. The transmission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation is analysed through UV-VIS spectrum. Microhardness was measured at different applied load to understand the mechanical stability of the crystal.

  1. Toxic effects of chromic sulphate on the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M.H.; Lau, W.M.; Tong, T.Y.; Liu, W.K.; Luk, K.C.

    1982-02-01

    The effects of chromic sulphate, which is commonly used in the tanning of leather, on the common carp, Cyprinus carpio and the bighead, Aristichthys nobilis, were studied. C. carpio was found to be more susceptible than A. nobilis to chromic sulphate at the lowest concentration tested (100 mg/l) whereas results obtained at other concentration were similar for both species. Damage to the gills, liver and intestine was observed by histopathological examination. A wide range of chemicals is used in the different stages of treating leather and a possible treatment of the effluent from the tanneries is suggested.

  2. Thalassiolin D: a new flavone O-glucoside Sulphate from the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawas, Usama W; Abou El-Kassem, Lamia T

    2017-10-01

    Thalassiolin D, a new flavone O-glucoside sulphate along with three flavonoids, two steroids, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone and nitrogen compound, octopamine were isolated from the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii, collected from the Saudi Red Sea coast. By extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and MS data, the structure of the new compound was elucidated as diosmetin 7-O-β-glucosyl-2″-sulphate. The new compound displayed moderately in vitro antiviral HCV protease activity with IC 50 value 16 μM.

  3. The bioactivation procedure for increasing the sulphate-reducing bacteria in a UASB reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. M. Gonçalves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivation, a procedure to obtain anaerobic sulphidogenic sludge, was developed in order to increase sulphate reduction and, consequently, sulphide production to remove metals from effluents. This procedure, in which the source of carbon/energy (lactate is gradually replaced, consisted of three operational conditions. It was observed that bioactivation took six months so there was a 100-fold increase in the population of sulphate-reducing bacteria estimated by the most-probable-number (MPN when molasses was employed as a new source.

  4. Yield of castor bean fertilized with sewage sludge and potassium and magnesium sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti,Thâmara F. M.; Zuba,Geraldo R.; Sampaio,Regynaldo A.; Carneiro,João P.; Oliveira,Ely S. A. de; Rodrigues,Márcio N.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and nutrition of castor bean in response to fertilization with sewage sludge and potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) sulphate. The experiment was carried out from January to July 2011. The treatments, in a randomized block design with three replicates, in a Nitosol, corresponded to a factorial scheme (2 x 4 +1): two doses of K and Mg sulphate combined with four doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.60, 5.20 and 10.40 t ha-1, dry basis), applied base...

  5. Theoretical studies on the electronic and optoelectronic properties of [A.2AP(w)/A*.2AP(WC)/C.2AP(w)/C*.2AP(WC)/C.A(w)/C*.A(WC)]-Au8 mismatch nucleobase complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ruby

    2018-01-01

    The electronic and optoelectronic properties of [A.2AP(w)/A*.2AP(WC)/C.2AP(w)/C*.2AP(WC)/C.A(w)/ C*.A(WC)]-Au8 metal-mismatch nucleobase complexes are investigated by means of density functional theory and time-dependent methods. We selected these mispairs as 2-aminopurine (2AP) produces incorporation errors when binding with cytosine (C) into the wobble (w) C.2AP(w) mispair, and is tautomerised into Watson-Crick (WC)-like base mispair C*.2AP(WC) and less effectively produces A.2AP(w)/A*.2AP(WC) mispairs. The vertical ionisation potential, vertical electron affinity, hardness and electrophilicity index of these complexes have also been discussed. The modifications of energy levels and charge density distributions of the frontier orbitals are also analysed. The absorption spectra of these complexes lie in the visible region, which suggests their application in fluorescent-bio imaging. The mechanism of cooperativity effect is studied by molecular orbital potential (MEP), atoms-in-molecules (AIM) and natural bond orbital analyses. Most metalated pairs have smaller HOMO-LUMO band gaps than the isolated mismatch nucleobases which suggest interesting consequences for electron transfer through DNA duplexes.

  6. Market analysis of APS/SCM applications and technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Prášil, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor thesis aims to describe a current worldwide market of APS/SCM technologies and applications , i.e. advanced planned scheduling /supply chain management. In the first part, the APS/SCM is described in theory. The APS/SCM is defined and its benefits and impacts on company are discussed. The next part of the work is focused on the market with APS/SCM and the distribution of forces in the market. The demand and supply of this market segment is analyzed. In the last part, solutions of...

  7. Classification of Ap-stars HR 830 and ZI CVn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zverko, J.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguously classified Ap-stars, HR 830 and 21 CVn, are studied. The observational data are compared with the data for normal stars αDel and αLyr. Star HR 830 is classified as Ap of type Si based on the enhanced absorption in the Si lines and photometric variability in UBV. 21 CVn is classified as Ap Si based on weaker absorption of helium, the variability of helium lines, photometric periodic variability and the properties of the UV spectrum. It is concluded that the photometric periodic variability is a good indicator of Ap-properties of rapidly rotating A and late B stars. (author)

  8. The Ped-APS Registry: the antiphospholipid syndrome in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcin, T; Cimaz, R; Rozman, B

    2009-09-01

    In recent years, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has been increasingly recognised in various paediatric autoimmune and nonautoimmune diseases, but the relatively low prevalence and heterogeneity of APS in childhood made it very difficult to study in a systematic way. The project of an international registry of paediatric patients with APS (the Ped-APS Registry) was initiated in 2004 to foster and conduct multicentre, controlled studies with large number of paediatric APS patients. The Ped-APS Registry is organised as a collaborative project of the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Working Group of the Paediatric Rheumatology European Society. Currently, it documents a standardised clinical, laboratory and therapeutic data of 133 children with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL)-related thrombosis from 14 countries. The priority projects for future research of the Ped-APS Registry include prospective enrollment of new patients with aPL-related thrombosis, assessment of differences between the paediatric and adult APS, evaluation of proinflammatory genotype as a risk factor for APS manifestations in childhood and evaluation of patients with isolated nonthrombotic aPL-related manifestations.

  9. ONLINE MINIMIZATION OF VERTICAL BEAM SIZES AT APS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yipeng

    2017-06-25

    In this paper, online minimization of vertical beam sizes along the APS (Advanced Photon Source) storage ring is presented. A genetic algorithm (GA) was developed and employed for the online optimization in the APS storage ring. A total of 59 families of skew quadrupole magnets were employed as knobs to adjust the coupling and the vertical dispersion in the APS storage ring. Starting from initially zero current skew quadrupoles, small vertical beam sizes along the APS storage ring were achieved in a short optimization time of one hour. The optimization results from this method are briefly compared with the one from LOCO (Linear Optics from Closed Orbits) response matrix correction.

  10. Sulphatising roasting of a Greenlandic uranium ore, reactivity of minerals and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamborg Hansen, J.K.

    1977-03-01

    Uranium in the lujavrite ore from Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, can be solubilised by sulphatising roasting at 700degC. The reactivity of various lujavrite minerals in the roasting process and the mechanism of the reaction were investigated by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, electron microprobe, thermal analysis, Moessbauer and infrared spectroscopy. Soluble sulphates are formed on the surface of the grains; an outer zone of the grains is transformed; usually a core remains unchanged. Variations in uranium recovery can be explained by variations in the contents of the uranium-bearing minerals, steenstrupine and uranium-containing pigmentary material (altered Zr containing silicate minerals), and in the degree of alteration os steenstrupine. Characterization of these minerals required many qualitative and a few quantitative electron microprobe analyses. (author)

  11. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-02-25

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability.

  12. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability

  13. AE8/AP8 Implementations in AE9/AP9, IRBEM, and SPENVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-18

    period applies to orbit generation only; AE8/AP8 utilizes geomagnetic field models from other epochs as specified in the table below.) SHIELDOSE2 model...finite and semi- infinite slab data tables for Bremsstrahlung have been reversed [Heynderickx, private communication, May 2013]. This correction is...Cain, J. C., S. J. Hendricks, R. A. Langel, and W. V. Hudson (1967), A proposed model for the international geomagnetic reference field, 1965, J

  14. AP-2α and AP-2β cooperatively orchestrate homeobox gene expression during branchial arch patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Otterloo, Eric; Li, Hong; Jones, Kenneth L; Williams, Trevor

    2018-01-25

    The evolution of a hinged moveable jaw with variable morphology is considered a major factor behind the successful expansion of the vertebrates. DLX homeobox transcription factors are crucial for establishing the positional code that patterns the mandible, maxilla and intervening hinge domain, but how the genes encoding these proteins are regulated remains unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that the concerted action of the AP-2α and AP-2β transcription factors within the mouse neural crest is essential for jaw patterning. In the absence of these two proteins, the hinge domain is lost and there are alterations in the size and patterning of the jaws correlating with dysregulation of homeobox gene expression, with reduced levels of Emx, Msx and Dlx paralogs accompanied by an expansion of Six1 expression. Moreover, detailed analysis of morphological features and gene expression changes indicate significant overlap with various compound Dlx gene mutants. Together, these findings reveal that the AP-2 genes have a major function in mammalian neural crest development, influencing patterning of the craniofacial skeleton via the DLX code, an effect that has implications for vertebrate facial evolution, as well as for human craniofacial disorders. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Bacterial sulphate reduction and the development of alklinity. III. Experiments under natural conditions in the Wadi Natrun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-El-Malek, Y; Rizk, S G

    1963-01-01

    Evidence that microbial sulphate reduction is mainly responsible for the formation of the natron (hydrated Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) deposits in Wadi Natrun is presented. The sulphate in the infiltrating water is reduced during passage through the surrounding waterlogged soil and the bicarbonate formed is later concentrated by evaporation in the lakes.

  16. Early postmenopausal diminution of forearm and spinal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, K; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1995-01-01

    Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT) and ante......Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT......) and anteroposterior (AP) projections, and in the distal third of the forearm. The postmenopausal diminution of BMD was best described by an exponential fit. The initial rate of postmenopausal diminution of BMD was highest in the most trabecular sites (LAT > AP > forearm), but 10-year diminution was similar at all...

  17. Fissure minerals, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.Aa.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

  18. ApS de Mediación Artística: Mujer y violencia de género

    OpenAIRE

    GUILLEM CASAÑ, LIVIA

    2018-01-01

    Proyecto basado en ApS a través de la programación de acción de Mediación Artística dirigida a un colectivo con necesidades especiales, en este caso, mujeres que han sufrido maltrato. Proponiendo realizar una serie de prácticas artísticas que tienen como objetivos ayudar a potenciar la confianza, el desarrollo integral, la autonomía, la cooperación y la superación de conflictos. Todo ello coordinado junto con las terapeutas de la Asociación ALANNA y LILITH. Project based on ApS through the...

  19. Genome-Wide Identification of the Target Genes of AP2-O, a Plasmodium AP2-Family Transcription Factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Kaneko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stage-specific transcription is a fundamental biological process in the life cycle of the Plasmodium parasite. Proteins containing the AP2 DNA-binding domain are responsible for stage-specific transcriptional regulation and belong to the only known family of transcription factors in Plasmodium parasites. Comprehensive identification of their target genes will advance our understanding of the molecular basis of stage-specific transcriptional regulation and stage-specific parasite development. AP2-O is an AP2 family transcription factor that is expressed in the mosquito midgut-invading stage, called the ookinete, and is essential for normal morphogenesis of this stage. In this study, we identified the genome-wide target genes of AP2-O by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and elucidate how this AP2 family transcription factor contributes to the formation of this motile stage. The analysis revealed that AP2-O binds specifically to the upstream genomic regions of more than 500 genes, suggesting that approximately 10% of the parasite genome is directly regulated by AP2-O. These genes are involved in distinct biological processes such as morphogenesis, locomotion, midgut penetration, protection against mosquito immunity and preparation for subsequent oocyst development. This direct and global regulation by AP2-O provides a model for gene regulation in Plasmodium parasites and may explain how these parasites manage to control their complex life cycle using a small number of sequence-specific AP2 transcription factors.

  20. Metallized solid rocket propellants based on AN/AP and PSAN/AP for access to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, S.; Signoriello, D.; Gabardi, A.; Molinari, M.; Galfetti, L.; Deluca, L. T.; Cianfanelli, S.; Klyakin, G. F.

    2009-09-01

    Solid rocket propellants based on dual mixes of inorganic crystalline oxidizers (ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium perchlorate (AP)) with binder and a mixture of micrometric-nanometric aluminum were investigated. Ammonium nitrate is a low-cost oxidizer, producing environment friendly combustion products but with lower specific impulse compared to AP. The better performance obtained with AP and the low quantity of toxic emissions obtained by using AN have suggested an interesting compromise based on a dual mixture of the two oxidizers. To improve the thermal response of raw AN, different types of phase stabilized AN (PSAN) and AN/AP co-crystals were investigated.

  1. AIRE variations in Addison's disease and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS): partial gene deletions contribute to APS I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe Wolff, A S; Oftedal, B; Johansson, S; Bruland, O; Løvås, K; Meager, A; Pedersen, C; Husebye, E S; Knappskog, P M

    2008-03-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is often associated with other components in autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS). Whereas APS I is caused by mutations in the AIRE gene, the susceptibility genes for AAD and APS II are unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether polymorphisms or copy number variations in the AIRE gene were associated with AAD and APS II. First, nine SNPs in the AIRE gene were analyzed in 311 patients with AAD and APS II and 521 healthy controls, identifying no associated risk. Second, in a subgroup of 25 of these patients, AIRE sequencing revealed three novel polymorphisms. Finally, the AIRE copy number was determined by duplex quantitative PCR in 14 patients with APS I, 161 patients with AAD and APS II and in 39 healthy subjects. In two Scandinavian APS I patients previously reported to be homozygous for common AIRE mutations, we identified large deletions of the AIRE gene covering at least exon 2 to exon 8. We conclude that polymorphisms in the AIRE gene are not associated with AAD and APS II. We further suggest that DNA analysis of the parents of patients found to be homozygous for mutations in AIRE, always should be performed.

  2. Beam instability studies at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Argonne Advanced Photon Source, APS (Fig. 1), is a 7-GeV positron storage ring with a circumference of 1104 m. It has a ''third generation, DBA or Chasman-Green'' lattice composed of 40 sectors each having a ∼6 m long zero-dispersion straight-section for accommodating insertion devices. Neighboring straight-sections are connected by a 360 degrees/40 = 9 degrees double-bend-achromatic bending section designed to produce the smallest emittance attainable with reasonable component parameter values and dynamic apertures. Thus, it is a very strongly focusing lattice with v x = 35.22 and v y = 14.30. The beam chamber of the storage ring including all rf, vacuum and photon beam components is designed to ensure that a beam current > 100 mA can be stably stored. We expect that the maximum stable beam current could be as high as 300 mA. This paper will give some details of the studies and computations to ensure the stability of such a beam. The discussions will be organized in the following three parts: Coupled-bunch instability caused by the higher-order modes (HOMs) of the rf cavities; Single-bunch instability due to the resistive wall impedance; and Single-bunch instability due to broadband impedances arising from beam chamber irregularities

  3. High Pressure Reverse Flow APS Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    A design and test demonstration effort was undertaken to evaluate the concept of the reverse flow engine for the APS engine application. The 1500 lb (6672 N) thrust engine was designed to operate on gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen propellants at a mixture ratio of 4 and to achieve the objective performance of 435 sec (4266 Nsec/kg) specific impulse. Superimposed durability requirements called for a million-cycle capability with 50 hours duration. The program was undertaken as a series of tasks including the initial preliminary design, design of critical test components and finally, the design and demonstration of an altitude engine which could be used interchangeably to examine operating parameters as well as to demonstrate the capability of the concept. The program results are reported with data to indicate that all of the program objectives were met or exceeded within the course of testing on the program. The analysis effort undertaken is also reported in detail and supplemented with test data in some cases where prior definitions could not be made. The results are contained of these analyses as well as the test results conducted throughout the course of the program. Finally, the test data and analytical results were combined to allow recommendations for a flight weight design. This preliminary design effort is also detailed.

  4. APS Storage Ring Monopulse RF BPM Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, R.; Pietryla, A.; Norum, E.; Lenkszus, F.

    2004-11-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron light source in its ninth year of operation. The storage ring monopulse radio frequency (rf) beam position monitor (BPM) was designed to measure single-turn and multi-turn beam positions for operations and machine physics studies. Many of the components used in the original design are obsolete and costly to replace. In this paper we present a proposal to upgrade the monopulse rf BPMs in which the existing system hardware is repartitioned and the aging data acquisition system is replaced. By replacing only the data acquisition system, we will demonstrate a cost-effective approach to improved beam stability, reliability, and enhanced postmortem capabilities. An eight-channel ADC/digitizer VXI board with sampling rate of up to 105 MHz (per channel) and 14-bit resolution coupled with a field-programmable gate array and embedded central processing will provide the flexibility to revitalize this system for another decade of operation. We will discuss the upgrade system specifications, design, and prototype test results.

  5. Sulphur-oxidising and Sulphate-reducing Communities in Brazilian Mangrove Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varon-Lopez, Maryeimy; Dias, A.C.F; Fasanella, C.C.; Durrer, A.; Melo, I.S.; Kuramae, E.E.; Andreote, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove soils are anaerobic environments rich in sulphate and organic matter. Although the sulphur cycle is one of the major actors in this ecosystem, little is known regarding the sulphur bacteria communities in mangrove soils. We investigated the abundance, composition and diversity of

  6. Effect of water hyacinth on distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laub, on the distribution of populations of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sediments from various stations on the shores of Lake Victoria around Mwanza Municipality, Tanzania, was studied. Lactate-utilising SRB were observed to be the dominant ...

  7. Thermal decomposition of hydrotalcite with chromate, molybdate or sulphate in the interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Ray L. [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia)]. E-mail: r.frost@qut.edu.au; Musumeci, Anthony W. [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia); Bostrom, Thor [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia); Adebajo, Moses O. [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia); Weier, Matt L. [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia); Martens, Wayde [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia)

    2005-05-15

    The thermal decomposition of hydrotalcites with chromate, molybdate and sulphate in the interlayer has been studied using thermogravimetric analysis coupled to a mass spectrometer measuring the gas evolution. X-ray diffraction shows the hydrotalcites have a d(0 0 3) spacing of 7.98 A with very small differences in the d-spacing between the three hydrotalcites. XRD was also used to determine the products of the thermal decomposition. For the sulphate-hydrotalcite decomposition the products were MgO and a spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, for the chromate interlayered hydrotalcite MgO, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and spinel. For the molybdate interlayered hydrotalcite the products were MgO, spinel and MgMoO{sub 4}. EDX analyses enabled the formula of the hydrotalcites to be determined. Two processes are observed in the thermal decomposition namely dehydration and dehydroxylation and for the case of the sulphate interlayered hydrotalcite, a third process is the loss of sulphate. Both the dehydration and dehydroxylation take place in three steps each for each of the hydrotalcites.

  8. The reductive decomposition of calcium sulphate I. Kinetics of the apparent solid-solid reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, B.; Potma, A.W.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1992-01-01

    The reductive decomposition of calcium sulphate by hydrogen is used for the regeneration of calcium-based atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) SO2 sorbents. The apparent solid¿solid reaction between CaS and CaSO4, one of the steps involved in the reaction mechanism of the reductive

  9. Behaviour of Type 316 steel in acidic sulphate solutions at 300-3500C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, J.F.

    1987-11-01

    Most cation resin beds in service in CEGB power stations, and particularly those in AGR stations, are regenerated with sulphuric acid. Slippage results in trace levels of sulphate passing into the boilers. Previous work has shown that in once-through boilers, feedwater containing 2 μg kg -1 of sulphate could concentrate at localized dry-out sites to form solutions having from 0.1 to 7 wt% of solute. It has been shown also that if the sulphate was present in an acidic solution and it were to be in contact with Type 316 austentitic superheater steel, then intergranular corrosion and intergranular cracking could occur. Previous data, including some unreported results, are tabulated and discussed. The current work had two main objectives. The first was to extend the previous investigations to examine a wider range of acidic sulphate concentrations (as indicated by calculations on the concentration of solute in feedwater), the influence of environment pH, and the effect of sensitization of specimens. The second objective was primarily concerned with elucidating the causes of scatter in the results. This involved examining the influence of electrode potential, the ageing characteristics of the environment, and the method of applying stress to the specimens. (author)

  10. Optimisation of the zinc sulphate turbidity test for the determination of immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, I; Doherty, M; Fagan, J; Kennedy, E; Conneely, M; Crowe, B; Lorenz, I

    2016-02-13

    Failure of passive transfer of maternal immunity occurs in calves that fail to absorb sufficient immunoglobulins from ingested colostrum. The zinc sulphate turbidity test has been developed to test bovine neonates for this failure. The specificity of this test has been shown to be less than ideal. The objective was to examine how parameters of the zinc sulphate turbidity test may be manipulated in order to improve its diagnostic accuracy. One hundred and five blood samples were taken from calves of dairy cows receiving various rates of colostrum feeding. The zinc sulphate turbidity test was carried out multiple times on each sample, varying the solution strength, time of reaction and wavelength of light used and the results compared with those of a radial immunodiffusion test, which is the reference method for measuring immunoglobulin concentration in serum. Reducing the time over which the reaction occurs, or increasing the wavelength of light used to read the turbidity, resulted in decreased specificity without improving sensitivity. Increasing the concentration of the zinc sulphate solution used in the test was shown to improve the specificity without decreasing sensitivity. Examination of the cut-off points suggested that a lower cut-off point would improve the performance. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Aluminum-contaminant transport by surface runoff and bypass flow from an acid sulphate soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying the process and the amount of acid-contaminant released to the surroundings is important in assessing the environmental hazards associated with reclaiming acid sulphate soils (ASS). The roles of surface runoff and bypass flow (i.e. the rapid downward flow of free water along macropores

  12. Treatment of acid and sulphate-rich effluents in an integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-04-02

    Apr 2, 2004 ... sludge obtained from a sewage treatment plant. Sludge was recy- ... tration (0 - 1 g/l); alkalinity (0 - 1 g/l); CaCO3 solids concentration. (0 - 1 g/l); COD (0.5 - 2 ..... Ph.D. Thesis, Agricultural University of Wageningen. 103 pp. ... VISSER A (1995) The Anaerobic Treatment of Sulphate Containing Waste. Water.

  13. Should Magnesium Sulphate Prophylaxis be Used in all Cases of Severe Preeclampsia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Bhattacharya,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case control study, undertaken in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in a tertiary referral centre, was designed to administer standard dose of magnesium sulphate to 50 randomly selected severely preeclamptic women in labor (Group 1. 48 women who formed the control group did not receive the drug (Group 2. The admission – delivery interval, rate of Cesarean section showed no statistically significant difference. Four patients developed convulsions in Group 1 in contrast to twelve patients in Group 2. Efficacy of magnesium sulphate at preventing eclampsia was calculated as 68%. Mild respiratory depression occurred in two cases and oliguria in eight cases in Group 1. Both the conditions improved on suspending further doses of magnesium sulphate. No patient had post partum haemorrhage in Group 1 although 4% patients had it in Group 2. Neonatal outcome was comparable in both the groups. Hence magnesium sulphate may be regarded as a fairly safe and effective prophylactic agent for eclampsia when used in severe preeclampsia in labor.

  14. Underground Corrosion by Microorganisms Part II : Role of Anaerobic Sulphate Reducing Bacteria-Desulfotomaculum SP

    OpenAIRE

    H. M. Dayal; K. C. Tiwari; Kamlesh Mehta; Mr. Chandrashekhar

    1988-01-01

    During the course of studies on the corrosion causing soil microflora from different geoclimatic regions of India, several strains of anaerobic sulphate reducing bacteria belonging to genus Desulfotomaculum were isolated and characterised. Their corrosive action on mild steel, galvanised iron and structural aluminium, the three main metals of construction of underground structures, have been studied under laboratory conditions.

  15. The use of magnesium sulphate for the treatment of severe pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background : Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are important causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. There is need to provide the most effective management to pre-eclamptic and eclamptic patients. There is now evidence that magnesium sulphate is the most effective ...

  16. Conductance and bulk vertical detachment energy of hydrated sulphate and oxalate dianions: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arup Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Analytical expressions have been derived for the vertical detachment energy (VDE) for hydrated sulphate (SO2 -4) and oxalate (C2O2 -4) dianions that can be used to calculate the same over a wide range of cluster sizes including the bulk from the knowledge of VDE for a finite number of stable clusters. The calculated bulk detachment energies are found to be very good in agreement (within 5%) with the available experimental results for both the systems. It is observed that two or more water molecules will be essential for the stability of sulphate and oxalate dianions against spontaneous electron loss and this is consistent with the experiment. We have, for the first time, provided a scheme to calculate the radius of the solvent berg for sulphate and oxalate dianions. The calculated conductivity values for the sulphate and oxalate dianions using Stokes-Einstein relation and the radius of solvent berg are found to be very good in agreement (within 4%) with the available experimental results.

  17. Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide concentration in the sulphidogenic bioreactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The product of the biological sulphate reduction is sulphide. High concentrations of molecular H2S(g) can be inhibitory for microbial activity, especially at a reactor pH of 6 to 7. This paper focuses on the effect of high sulphide concentrations...

  18. Enhanced Soil Chemical Properties and Rice Yield in Acid Sulphate Soil by Application of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurzakiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Swampland development such as acid sulphate soil for agricultural cultivation has various problem, including highsoil acidity, fluctuated and unpredictable water flooding and the presence of toxic elements such as Fe whichresulting in low crop yields. The research was conducted at the experimental station Belandean, Barito Kualaregency in dry season 2007. The objective of research was to study the effect of rice straw on the dynamic of soilpH, the concentration of iron and sulphate and yield on tidal land acid sulphate soil at two different water inletchannel. This research was designed in RCBD (Randomized Completely Block Design with five treatments (0, 2.5,5.0, 7.5 and 10 Mg ha-1 and four replications. Dolomite as much as 1 Mg ha-1 was also applied. This research wasdivided into two sub-units experiment i.e. two conditions of different water inlet channel. The first water channelswere placed with limestone and the second inlet was planted with Eleocharis dulcis. The results showed that (i ricestraw application did not affect the dynamic of soil pH, concentration of iron and sulphate, and (ii the highest yieldwas obtained with 7.5 Mg ha-1 of rice straw.

  19. Highly sulphated galactan from Halymenia durvillei (Halymeniales, Rhodophyta), a red seaweed of Madagascar marine coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoradosoa, T A; Delattre, C; Laroche, C; Wadouachi, A; Dulong, V; Picton, L; Andriamadio, P; Michaud, P

    2009-08-01

    Halymenia durvillei is a red seaweed with a great potential as sulphated galactan producer collected in the coastal waters of small island of Madagascar (Nosy-be in Indian Ocean). To elucidate the structure of its polysaccharide, NMR (1H and 13C), FTIR, HPAEC and different colorimetric methods were carried out. It has been shown that this polysaccharide, consisted mainly of galactose, was branched by xylose and galactose in minor amounts. Arabinose and fucose were also detected. This galactan was found highly sulphated (42%, w/w) and pyruvylated (1.8%, w/w). Analysis of glycosidic linkages by CPG-MS and 13C NMR indicated that the polysaccharide has the defining linear backbone of alternating 3-beta-D-galactopyranosyl units and 4-linked alpha-L/D-galactopyranosyl residues. 3,6-Anhydrogalactose units have been also detected in minor quantity. This lambda-carrageenan like polysaccharide has shown original sulphatation patterns with 2-O (26%) or 2/6-O (58%) sulphated 3-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl units and 6-O (19%) or 2/6-O (47%) 4-linked alpha-L/D-galactopyranosyl residues.

  20. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR

  1. Does folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention affect endocrine parameters and sperm characteristics in men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebisch, T.M.; Pierik, F.H.; Jong, F.H. de; Thomas, C.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated pre- and post-intervention endocrine and semen parameters in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the underlying mechanism of increased sperm concentration after folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention. A total of 47 fertile and 40 subfertile males

  2. Nickel-sulphate-induced contact dermatitis in the guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohold, A E; Nielsen, G D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1991-01-01

    Nickel sulphate is a sensitizer in guinea pigs, but the frequency of sensitization varies from study to study. The dose-response relationship for NiSO4.6H2O was evaluated in the guinea pig maximization test in this study. 6 intradermal (0.01%-3.0% aq.) and 6 topical (0.25%-10.0% pet.) concentrati...

  3. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.; Petit, P. O.

    2009-01-01

    with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in an ordered distribution. The interlayers contain sulphate, water and sodium in an arrangement characteristic for the nikischerite group. The crystal structure is highly disordered by slacking faults. The composition, formula and crystallographic parameters are: NaFe(II)(6)Fe...

  4. Forest land cover continues to exacerbate freshwater acidification despite decline in sulphate emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, Robert W.; Donoghue, Daniel N.M.; Burt, Tim P.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from a multi-date regional-scale analysis of both high-flow and annual-average water quality data from Galloway, south-west Scotland, demonstrates that forest land cover continues to exacerbate freshwater acidification. This is in spite of significant reductions in airborne pollutants. The relationship between freshwater sulphate and forest cover has decreased from 1996 to 2006 indicating a decrease in pollutant scavenging. The relationship between forest cover and freshwater acidity (pH) is, however, still present over the same period, and does not show conclusive signs of having declined. Furthermore, evidence for forest cover contributing to a chlorine bias in marine ion capture suggests that forest scavenging of sea-salts may mean that the forest acidification effect may continue in the absence of anthropogenic pollutant inputs, particularly in coastal areas. - Highlights: ► Forest cover and water chemistry remain linked despite decreased sulphate emissions. ► Forest cover has significant relationships SO 4 2− , Cl − , Na + , pH, ANC and Na:Cl ratio. ► Forest cover: pH relationships shows some evidence of decline 1996–2006. ► Forest cover: freshwater sulphate relationships show evidence of decline 1996–2006. ► Natural forest-mechanisms may exacerbate acidification, particularly sea-salt scavenging. - Relationships between forest land cover and freshwater pH continue to be evident despite declines in anthropogenic pollutant sulphate deposition; sea-salt scavenging may play a role.

  5. Effects of magnesium sulphate on amplitude-integrated continuous EEG in asphyxiated term neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendaal, F; Rademaker, CMA; Toet, MC; de Vries, LS

    2002-01-01

    In this study it is hypothesized that magnesium sulphate in asphyxiated full-term neonates could lead to a gradual improvement in background pattern of the amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG), an early marker of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. In a double-blind, randomized, controlled pilot study of 22

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EPIDURAL FENTANYL AND FENTANYL PLUS MAGNESIUM SULPHATE FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Magnesium has antinociceptive effects in animal and human models of pain. It is found that the addition of Magnesium sulphate to postoperative Epidural infusion of Fentanyl may decrease the need for Fentanyl. We undertook a study to compare the duration of postoperative analgesia after Epidural Fentanyl and Epidural Fentanyl plus Magnesium sulphate administered postoperatively, along with side effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients undergoing elective lower limb and abdominal surgeries were randomized into one of the two groups with 25 patients in each group. Combined Spinal Epidural Anaesthesia was used for all patients. Spinal anaesthesia with 2.5 cc of 0.5% Hyperbaric Bupivacaine was given. When sensory blockade regressed to L1, patients were given either 50 µg of Fentanyl (diluted to 6cc with normal saline, Group F or 50 µg of Fentanyl plus 50 mg Magnesium sulphate (diluted to 6cc with normal saline, Group FM. Parameters like blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were monitored, and other side effects were noted. Data were analysed by using Student t test and Chi-square/ Fisher Exact tests. RESULTS There was significant difference in duration of analgesia between Group F (107 min and Group FM (143 min. Hemodynamic parameters were stable in both the groups with minimal side effects. CONCLUSION Co-administration of Magnesium sulphate with Fentanyl for postoperative Epidural analgesia results in prolongation of Fentanyl analgesia without significant side-effects.

  7. Fentanyl versus magnesium sulphate as adjuvant to peribulbar anesthesia in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Abu Elyazed

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Addition of fentanyl (2 μg/ml or magnesium sulphate (50 mg to peribulbar block in patients undergoing cataract surgery equally prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia. In addition to this effect, fentanyl fastens the onset lid and globe akinesia and provides better akinesia score.

  8. Microfilter paper radioimmunoassay of cortisol and dehydroepiandosterone sulphate in capillary blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodrogi, L.; Feher, T.

    1982-01-01

    A microfilter paper method is reported for cortisol and dehydroepiandosterone sulphate radioimmunoassay in fingertip capillary blood. The steroid content of dry blood spot on filter paper is determined. The results are compared to those obtained by conventional technique used for venous blood. Control experiments validated the introduction of this simple and rapid method to assess hormone function in clinical chemistry. (author)

  9. AP@home: The Artificial Pancreas Is Now at Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Lutz; Benesch, Carsten; DeVries, J. Hans

    2016-01-01

    In the past years the development of an artificial pancreas (AP) has made great progress and many activities are ongoing in this area of research. The major step forward made in the last years was moving the evaluation of AP systems from highly controlled experimental conditions to daily life

  10. APS extends open access to all its journals

    CERN Multimedia

    Thomas, Kim

    2006-01-01

    "Physics research promoter and publisher the American Physical Society (APS) is to extend open access to all its journals. Th APS previously made its five print journals available through subscriptions, and its two e-journals (Physical Review Special Topics and Physics Educatoin Research) on an open access basis." (1/2 page)

  11. Training and development of the Assistant Practitioners (APs) in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart-Lord, Adéle

    2014-01-01

    A mixed methods study conducted over three phases (Phase I – scoping exercise, Phase II – questionnaire and Phase III – semi-structured interviews) aimed to explore the role and integration of the assistant practitioner (AP) practitioner in radiography from the AP perspective. Findings of the overall study are presented across a range of articles where this publication only presents the findings in relation to the training and education of APs from all three phases. Results showed the educational routes undertaken by APs in radiography during training. Training whilst working in the clinical department has highlighted a number of key issues relating to educational pathways and delivery methods. Findings showed that APs felt that more could be done to prepare the individual for clinical practice thereby increasing their confidence and facilitating role development. Results also identified a number of challenges in the training and education of APs in radiography. Clear routes of progression and career pathways are not available to APs in radiography. In conclusion the findings suggest the need for a review of existing educational programmes and future standardisation. The need exists to clarify the justifiable methods of training and differentiate between recognised educational qualifications to enable informed career development decisions by APs and their employers

  12. Discussion of QA grading for AP1000 NP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shuiyun; Zhang Qingchuan

    2012-01-01

    The grading method of quality assurance for the following AP1000 project is presented based on the Westinghouse classification principle, referring to the classification method of the AP1000 self-reliance supporting project and considering the factors of classification, which can meet the requirements of domestic nuclear safety regulation and standard of the QA classification. (authors)

  13. AP-102/104 Retrieval control system qualification test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    This Qualification Test Procedure documents the results of the qualification testing that was performed on the Project W-211, ''Initial Tank Retrieval Systems,'' retrieval control system (RCS) for tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. The results confirm that the RCS has been programmed correctly and that the two related hardware enclosures have been assembled in accordance with the design documents

  14. The Role of AP and the Composition Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahala, Daniel; Vivion, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that most programs have not based their acceptance of advanced placement credit on reasoned endorsement of the views of language, literature, and rhetoric that AP exams present. Criticizes the views implicit in the AP program and shows how they conflict with the goals of one particular college composition program. (RS)

  15. Status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.; Berg, W.; Fuja, R.; Grelick, A.; Mavrogenes, G.; Nassiri, A.; Russell, T.; Wesolowski, W.

    1993-01-01

    A 2856-MHz S-band, 450-MeV electron/positron linear accelerator is the first part of the injector for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) 7-GeV storage ring. Construction of the APS linac is currently nearing completion, and commissioning will begin in July 1993. The linac and its current status are discussed in this paper

  16. The APS SASE FEL: modeling and code comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedron, S. G.

    1999-01-01

    A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL

  17. [Diverse histological lesions in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Ermanno; Luciani, Remo; Di Palma, Annamaria; Aversano, Arturo; Stellato, Davide; Liuzzi, Marco; Iele, Emilio; Martignetti, Vinicio; Spagnuolo, Enrico; Morrone, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare autoimmune disorder. It can be secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or occur in the absence of autoimmune disease. The hallmark of this so-called primary APS is the presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. Renal involvement in primary APS is caused by thrombosis within the renal vasculature. Recently, nonthrombotic glomerulonephritic renal lesions have been described in primary APS as a new histological entity. We here report a patient with primary APS in whom both lesion types were present. A 58-year-old Caucasian man with no significant past medical history presented to our nephrology unit with diffuse edema. Urinalysis showed proteinuria exceeding 400 mg/dL. The autoantibody panel (p-ANCA, c- ANCA, anti-nucleus, anti-DS-DNA) was negative except for anticardiolipin antibodies, which tested positive in two different samples. The diagnostic workup included a kidney biopsy that revealed thrombotic lesions compatible with primary APS and a typical pattern of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The kidney is a major target in APS but the exact mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of APS nephropathy has been poorly recognized. The use of kidney biopsy is a fundamental diagnostic tool in this setting, with possible implications also from a prognostic and therapeutic viewpoint.

  18. Building an SDN enterprise WLAN based on virtual APs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sequeira, L.; Cruz, J.L. de la; Ruiz-Mas, J.; Saldana, J.; Fernandez-Navajas, J.; Almodovar, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this letter, the development and testing of an open enterprise Wi-Fi solution based on virtual access points (APs), managed by a central WLAN controller is presented. It allows seamless handovers between APs in different channels, maintaining the QoS of real-time services. The potential

  19. OpenAPS Data Commons on Open Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Dana M.; Ball, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    Poster describing OpenAPS, Open Humans, and joint work creating a data commons for OpenAPS data in the Open Humans platform. Presented at the 2017 Sage Assembly Bionetworks Assembly and recipient of a Young Innovator/Investigator award.

  20. AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Tai, Robert; Klopfenstein, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Placement (AP) program was created to enhance the experience of gifted students as they transition from high school to college. "AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program," edited by Philip M. Sadler, Gerhard Sonnert, Robert Tai, and Kirstin Klopfenstein (2010, Harvard Education Press), questions the…

  1. A Closer Examination of the Academic Benefits of AP

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillip, Mary E. M.; Rawls, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to better understand the relationship between students participating in the Advanced Placement (AP) program and subsequent performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Focusing on students graduating from U.S. public high schools in 2010, the authors used propensity scores to match junior year AP examinees in 3 subjects to…

  2. Development of a superconducting undulator for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanyushenkov, Y; Abliz, M; Doose, C; Fuerst, J; Hasse, Q; Kasa, M; Trakhtenberg, E; Vasserman, I; Gluskin, E; Lev, V; Mezentsev, N; Syrovatin, V; Tsukanov, V

    2013-01-01

    As the western hemisphere's premier x-ray synchrotron radiation source, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) continues to advance the state of the art in insertion device technology in order to maintain record high brightness, especially in the hard x-ray wavelength region. Due to the unique bunch pattern used for normal APS operations and its ultimate capabilities, the APS has chosen superconducting technology for its future hard x-ray undulator sources. In the last several years, the APS in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics has being developing the technology for planar, small-period superconducting undulators (SCUs). These developments include the design and construction of several prototypes and the construction of the necessary mechanical, vacuum, and cryogenic infrastructure at the APS site. Several prototypes of the SCU magnetic structure have been built and tested. The first SCU is assembled and will be installed in the APS storage ring at the end of 2012. Expected SCU performance in terms of x-ray brightness should noticeably exceed that of existing APS undulators. Immediately after commissioning, the SCU will be used at APS Sector 6 as the radiation source for high-energy x-ray studies.

  3. Grouping Minerals by Their Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget

    2018-01-01

    Minerals are commonly taught in ways that emphasize mineral identification for its own sake or maybe to help identify rocks. But how do minerals fit in with other science content taught? The author uses mineral formulas to help Earth science students wonder about the connection between elements, compounds, mixtures, minerals, and mineral formulas.…

  4. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry characterization of aging effects on the mineral fibers treated with aminopropylsilane and quaternary ammonium compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar, Ashar; Schjødt-Thomsen, Jan; Sodhi, R.

    2012-01-01

    (PCA) was applied to the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry spectra, and an increase in the intensities of APS characteristic peaks were observed after aging. The observed increase in the signals of APS originates from underlying silanized fibers after the removal of the surfactant......X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry were used to investigate the aging effects on the aminopropylsilane (APS) and quaternary ammonium surfactant-treated mineral fibers. APS-coated mineral fiber samples were treated with cationic surfactant...

  5. The development of beam current monitors in the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Lenkszus, F.; Rotela, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation 7-GeV synchrotron radiation source. The precision measurement of beam current is a challenging task in high energy accelerators, such as the APS, with a wide range of beam parameters and complicated noise, radiation, and thermal environments. The beam pulses in the APS injector and storage ring have charge ranging from 50pC to 25nC with pulse durations varying from 30ps to 30ns. A total of nine non- intercepting beam current monitors have been installed in the APS facility (excluding those in the linac) for general current measurement. In addition, several independent current monitors with specially designed redundant interlock electronics are installed for personnel safety and machine protection. This paper documents the design and development of current monitors in the APS,. discusses the commissioning experience in the past year, and presents the results of recent operations

  6. AP1000, a nuclear central of advanced design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, N.; Viais J, J.

    2005-01-01

    The AP1000 is a design of a nuclear reactor of pressurized water (PWR) of 1000 M We with characteristic of safety in a passive way; besides presenting simplifications in the systems of the plant, the construction, the maintenance and the safety, the AP1000 is a design that uses technology endorsed by those but of 30 years of operational experience of the PWR reactors. The program AP1000 of Westinghouse is focused to the implementation of the plant to provide improvements in the economy of the same one and it is a design that is derived directly of the AP600 designs. On September 13, 2004 the US-NRC (for their initials in United States- Nuclear Regulatory Commission) approved the final design of the AP1000, now Westinghouse and the US-NRC are working on the whole in a complete program for the certification. (Author)

  7. Maintenance of the APS of an electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Cheol; Choi, Hwa Lim; Yang, Ki Ho; Kim, Sung Chan

    2008-12-01

    APS is a part of power supply system which provides the high voltage, high current to the anode of electron beam in the irradiation facility in KAERI. This APS had been used in turn-key base for 10 years, and frequently the Russian scientists had visited to repair this machine. In Summer the humid air had been supplied to dissipate the heat of APS. There is a big and high frequency noise around the transformer in the mutation room. So we stopped the irradiation works and analyzed and repaired the APS. The main course of the problem is the deterioration of IGBT and thyristors which are components of phase controller. We replaced this by new one and APS is now operating well

  8. Reuse of partially sulphated CFBC ash as an SO{sub 2} sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.; Jia, L.; Anthony, E.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy; Nobili, M.; Telesca, A. [Basilicata Univ., Potenza (Italy). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Physics; Montagnaro, F. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-06-15

    Ash produced from circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boilers typically contains large amounts of unreacted calcium oxide (CaO) when limestone is added into the combustor for in situ removal of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). This paper reported on a study that evaluated the reactivation of partially sulphated ash obtained from an industrial circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler by hydration with liquid water and steam. A pilot-scale mini-CFBC was used to evaluate the results of reactivation on the bed ash by hydrating with liquid water and admixtures of sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in solution or as powder. Re-sulphation tests on the hydrated samples were performed in a Cahn 1000 thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at 850 degrees C for 90 minutes in a simulated flue gas environment with sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) concentration at 5000 ppm. Re-sulphation was carried out on unhydrated ash at the same conditions used in the baseline test. The TGA results showed that although liquid water and steam successfully hydrate and reactivate the unreacted CaO in the bed ash, the treated ashes sulphated to widely different extents. Attempts to reactivate fly ash with hydration failed, but the fly ash by itself was extremely reactive. When the treated ash was re-injected into the combustor with the fuel, the effect on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was negligible if Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was added as powder. Doping with aqueous solution improved SO{sub 2} removal, but to a lesser extent than if only water hydration was used. Increasing the amount of water to reactivate the ash did not improve the sulphur capture capacity in the mini-CFBC. It was concluded that reactivation by water is the most practical way to reuse the partially sulphated bed ash as a sulphur sorbent. 21 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Two case studies on the origin of aqueous sulphate in deep crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelot, J.L.; Fontes, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports preliminary results obtained from studies in Central Sweden (Stripa) and in Northern Switzerland (Boettstein). The isotopic compositions ( 34 S, 18 O) of dissolved sulphates in shallow and deep groundwaters from the Stripa test site show that (1) the origins of the salinity in the shallow and in the deep groundwaters are probably different, (2) the low sulphate content of the waters collected from the upper part of the deep aquifer system could be derived from the shallow aqueous sulphate through bacterial reduction, (3) a deeper bulk of sulphate can be identified. After examining several hypotheses, a Permian or Triassic origin is attributed to this deep sulphate. Boettstein is the first drilled borehole of the NAGRA (Swiss National Co-operative for the Storage of Radioactive Wastes programme). In the 34 S versus 18 O diagram, most of the representative points of samples collected at different depths (from apparently different water bodies), lie along a straight line. It seems that this line cannot be a reduction line, nor a precipitation line (gypsum or anhydrite). It is thus interpreted as a mixing line. The end members of this mixing line are still unknown. However, a deep brine is present at the bottom of the system, probably related to brines circulating in the Permian channel found at the same depth, a few kilometres away. A working hypothesis involving this deep brine as a source for both end members of the mixing, through two different processes, is presented, with the problem of possible connections between the different water bodies. (author). 16 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Magnesium sulphate and amiodarone prophylaxis for prevention of postoperative arrhythmia in coronary by-pass operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huysal Kagan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the use of prophylactic magnesium sulphate and amiodarone in treating arrhythmias that may occur following coronary bypass grafting operations. Methods The study population consisted of 192 consecutive patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Sixty-four patients were given 3 g of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 [20 ml = 24.32 mEq/L Mg+2] in 100 cc of isotonic 0.9% solution over 2 hours intravenously at the following times: 12 hours prior to the operation, immediately following the operation, and on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3 (Group 1. Another group of 64 patients was given a preoperative infusion of amiodarone (1200 mg on first post-operative day (Group 2. After the operation amiodarone was administered orally at a dose of 600 mg/day. Sixty-four patients in group 3 (control group had 100 cc. isotonic 0.9% as placebo, during the same time periods. Results In the postoperative period, the magnesium values were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 for all measurements. The use of amiodarone for total arrhythmia was significantly more effective than prophylactic treatment with magnesium sulphate (p = 0.015. There was no difference between the two drugs in preventing supraventricular arrhythmia, although amiodarone significantly delayed the revealing time of atrial fibrillation (p = 0.026. Ventricular arrhythmia, in the form of ventricular extra systole, was more common in the magnesium prophylaxis group. The two groups showed no significant differences in other operative or postoperative measurements. No side effects of the drugs were observed. Conclusion Prophylactic use of magnesium sulphate and amiodarone are both effective at preventing arrhythmia that may occur following coronary by-pass operations. Magnesium sulphate should be used in prophylactic treatment since it may decrease arrhythmia at low doses. If arrhythmia should occur despite this

  11. Quantitation and identification of methanogens and sulphate reducers in Olkiluoto groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomberg, M.; Nyyssoenen, M.; Itaevaara, M.

    2010-08-01

    The GEOFUNC Project focuses on the microbiology connected to safety and risk assessment of the final disposal of high radioactive nuclear waste. Methanogenic archaea and sulphate reducing bacteria are significant groups of microorganisms in anaerobic environments, and are of crucial concern for the safe long term storage of nuclear waste in deep bedrock. The sulphate reducing bacteria are able to produce sulphide which may cause corrosion of the copper in the radioactive waste storage capsules. Methanogens, on the other hand, may produce quantities of methane from various organic carbon compounds, CO 2 and H 2 . Methane may both serve as carbon source for methanotrophic microbial groups, and may also cause mobilization of radionuclides, as a result of gas discharge through fractures in the bedrock. The transition zones between the sulphate rich and methane rich waters are locations for microbial processes where the methane may serve as carbon source for sulphate reducing bacteria, which in turn would produce corrosive sulphides. It has been estimated that only 1-10 % of all the microorganisms present in the environment can be isolated and cultivated. Uncultured microorganisms can be identified and their numbers in the environment quantified by identification of specific marker genes that are essential for their functions by use of molecular methods. Methanogens, for example, can be identified by their genes for methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA), which is an essential enzyme involved in the production of methane. The mcrA is specifically present only in methanogenic archaea. Sulphate reducers are identified by their dissimilatory sulphite reductase genes (dsrB), which are present in and essential for all microorganisms performing dissimilatory sulphate reducing. In the GEOFUNC project, a quantitative PCR method (qPCR) was developed for the detection of methanogens and sulphate reducers. This method is based on specific quantitative detection of marker genes

  12. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  13. Origins of mineral matter in peat marsh and peat bog deposits, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Buendia, A.M. [Unidad Tecnica del Marmol, AIDICO, Cami de Castella, 4, 03660 Novelda, Alicante (Spain); Whateley, M.K.G. [Rio Tinto Technical Services, Castlemead, Lower Castlemead, BS99 7YR Bristol (United Kingdom); Bastida, J.; Urquiola, M.M. [Dpto. Geologia, Univ. Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50. 46100 Burjasot, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-07-02

    The mineralogy of three back-barrier peat marshes (Torreblanca, Benicasim and Moncofar marshes) from Eastern Spain and one peat bog (Orihuela del Tremedal bog) from central east Spain have been investigated, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) techniques. A combination of XRD methods was used to quantify the mineralogy of dried bulk peat samples. The water source in the peat marshes is both continental and marine. Water is highly mineralised. Water flow is both low and slow (accumulative system). The water source in the peat bog is continental, draining from the hill. The higher concentration of ions in the water of the back-barrier peat marshes leads to a higher concentration of authigenic minerals in the peat marshes compared to the peat bog. Three main mineral origins have been recognized, namely: detrital, syngenetic-epigenetic and biogenic. The more important contribution comes from the detrital system. Biogenic and bio-influenced minerals are the main non-detrital minerals in the peatlands. This paper discusses the biogenic origin of halite (and other minor halides and sulphates, such as, sylvite, carnalite, epsomite, glauberite, mirabilite and anhydrite?) from halophytic plants, as well as amorphous silica (opal-A) from sponge spicules and phytoliths of several plants. Pyrite in the peat bog has both syngenetic and epigenetic origins from plant decomposition and sulphur release. In the peat marsh the pyrite has a syngenetic origin from sulphate reduction (S{sub sulphate} {yields} S{sub pyritic}), and an epigenetic origin in the older peat, from plant decomposition (S{sub organic} {yields} S{sub pyritic}). (author)

  14. Radioactive mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1948-01-01

    This publication was designed as a guide for uranium and thorium prospectors in Australia. Physical properties, such as color, streak, luster, hardness, fracture, and specific gravity of the uranium and thorium-bearing minerals are summarized and the various methods suitable for detecting radioactivity in minerals are described. Two colored plates show samples of pitchblende (uraninite), autunite, carnotite, monazite, and others of the most important minerals sources of uranium and thorium.

  15. Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Orthorhombic Ammonium Perchlorate (o-AP) and an 0-AP/HTPB-Based Propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEHRENS JR., RICHARD; MINIER, LEANNA M.G.

    1999-01-01

    A study to characterize the low-temperature reactive processes for o-AP and an AP/HTPB-based propellant (class 1.3) is being conducted in the laboratory using the techniques of simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results presented in this paper are a follow up of the previous work that showed the overall decomposition to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The decomposition is characterized by the occurrence of one major event that consumes up to(approx)35% of the AP, depending upon particle size, and leaves behind a porous agglomerate of AP. The major gaseous products released during this event include H(sub 2)O, O(sub 2), Cl(sub 2), N(sub 2)O and HCl. The recent efforts provide further insight into the decomposition processes for o-AP. The temporal behaviors of the gas formation rates (GFRs) for the products indicate that the major decomposition event consists of three chemical channels. The first and third channels are affected by the pressure in the reaction cell and occur at the surface or in the gas phase above the surface of the AP particles. The second channel is not affected by pressure and accounts for the solid-phase reactions characteristic of o-AP. The third channel involves the interactions of the decomposition products with the surface of the AP. SEM images of partially decomposed o-AP provide insight to how the morphology changes as the decomposition progresses. A conceptual model has been developed, based upon the STMBMS and SEM results, that provides a basic description of the processes. The thermal decomposition characteristics of the propellant are evaluated from the identities of the products and the temporal behaviors of their GFRs. First, the volatile components in the propellant evolve from the propellant as it is heated. Second, the hot AP (and HClO(sub 4)) at the AP-binder interface oxidize the binder through reactions that

  16. AP1000R licensing and deployment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, R. P.; Russ, P. A.; Filiak, P. P.; Castiglione, L. L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, both domestic and foreign utilities have turned to the standardized Westinghouse AP1000 plant design in satisfying their near - and long-term - sustainable energy needs. As direct support to these actions, licensing the AP1000 design has played a significant role by providing one of the fundamental bases in clearing regulatory hurdles leading to the start of new plant construction. Within the U.S. alone, Westinghouse AP1000 licensing activities have reached unprecedented milestones with the approvals of both AP1000 Design Certification and Southern Company's combined construction permit and operating license (COL) application directly supporting the construction of two new nuclear plants in Georgia. Further COL application approvals are immediately pending for an additional two AP1000 plants in South Carolina. And, across the U.S. nuclear industry spectrum, there are 10 other COL applications under regulatory review representing some 16 new plants at 10 sites. In total, these actions represent the first wave of new plant licensing under the regulatory approval process since 1978. Fundamental to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's AP1000 Design Certification is the formal recognition of the AP1000 passive safety design through regulatory acceptance rulemaking. Through recognition and deployment of the AP1000 Design Certification, the utility licensee / operator of this reactor design are now offered an opportunity to use a simplified 'one-step' combined license process, thereby managing substantial back-end construction schedule risk from regulatory and intervention delays. Application of this regulatory philosophy represents both acceptance and encouragement of standardized reactor designs like the AP1000. With the recent AP1000 Design Certification and utility COL acceptances, the fundamental licensing processes of this philosophy have successfully proven the attainment of significant milestones with the next stage licensing actions directed

  17. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  18. Minerals industry survey, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of the statistical survey commissioned by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents the most comprehensive review of the financial position of the Australian minerals industry and provides timely financial data on the minerals industry. The tables of this survey have been prepared for AMIC by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies. For the purpose of the survey, the minerals industry has been defined as including exploration for, and extraction and primary processing of, minerals in Australia. The oil and gas industry is not included.

  19. Reagan issues mineral policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  20. International mineral economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocht, W.R.; Eggert, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    International Mineral Economics provides an integrated overview of the important concepts. The treatment is interdisciplinary, drawing on the fields of economics, geology, business, and mining engineering. Part I examines the technical concepts important for understanding the geology of ore deposits, the methods of exploration and deposit evaluation, and the activities of mining and mineral processing. Part II focuses on the economic and related concepts important for understanding mineral development, the evaluation of exploration and mining projects, and mineral markets and market models. Finally, Part III reviews and traces the historical development of the policies of international organizations, the industrialized countries, and the developing countries. (orig.)

  1. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  2. Dose-response testing with nickel sulphate using the TRUE test in nickel-sensitive individuals. Multiple nickel sulphate patch-test reactions do not cause an 'angry back'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Lidén, C; Hansen, J

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ the TRUE test assay to confirm the presence or absence of the 'angry back' phenomenon, i.e. that a strong positive patch-test reaction heightens adjacent patch-test response. In addition, we wished to establish the dose-response relationship for nickel sulphate...... back' phenomenon was not apparent in this study, as the spill-over effect was not statistically significant. Strong reactions to high concentrations of nickel sulphate did not enhance the response to adjacent lower concentrations of nickel sulphate....

  3. Comparison of the effects of the K(+)-channel openers cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate on vascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenden, A. D.; Grimwood, S.; Grant, T. L.; Todd, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    1 The actions of the potassium channel openers, cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate, were compared in a range of isolated blood vessel preparations. 2 Cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate inhibited spontaneous mechanical activity of the guinea-pig portal vein and relaxed the noradrenaline precontracted rat aorta with similar potency. In contrast, minoxidil sulphate was less potent than cromakalim in inhibiting spontaneous activity in the rat portal vein and was essentially inactive in the noradrenaline precontracted rat mesenteric artery and rabbit aorta. 3 Minoxidil sulphate did not antagonize the effects of cromakalim in the rabbit aorta indicating it was not acting as a partial 'agonist'. 4 Charybdotoxin, noxiustoxin and rubidium failed to discriminate between cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate indicating that the apparently selective effects of minoxidil sulphate were not mediated by either Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels, delayed rectifiers or rubidium impermeable potassium channels. 5 Glibenclamide antagonized the effects of cromakalim in an apparently competitive manner whereas the effects of minoxidil sulphate were antagonized in a non-competitive manner. The involvement of subtypes of ATP-sensitive potassium channels is discussed. PMID:1878752

  4. Raising the acceptance of the AP2-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trbojevic, D.

    1989-01-01

    The 120 GeV Main Ring proton beam collides with the target at the end of the AP-1 line and creates antiprotons and other secondary particles. The AP-2 line transfers the negative particles from the target to the Debuncher. To provide a bigger antiproton stack size in the Accumulator, both the Debuncher as well as the AP-2 line acceptance have to be raised. This is a proposal for the improvement of the AP-2 line acceptance. The first part of the memo presents an acceptance examination of the existing AP-2 line by computer simulation, while the second presents a short proposal for aperture corrections. The computer program TURTLE was used to trace antiprotons through the AP-2 line without taking into account other negative charged particles. Betatron functions were obtained from the output of the SYNCH computer program. The SYNCH program was also used to check the dispersion match between the AP-2 line and the Debuncher. 3 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  5. AP1000 plant construction in China: Ansaldo Nucleare contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frogheri, Monica; Saiu, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    On 24th of July 2007 Westinghouse Electric Co. signed landmark contracts with China's State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation (SNPTC), to provide four AP1000 nuclear power plants in China. The AP1000 is a two-loop 1117 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). It is based on proven technology, but with an emphasis on safety features that rely on natural driving forces, such as pressurized gas, gravity flow, natural circulation flow and convection. Ansaldo Nucleare has provided a significant support to the passive plant technology development and, starting from 2000, is cooperating with Westinghouse to development of the AP1000 Plant. In the frame of the AP1000 Chinese agreement, Ansaldo Nucleare, in Joint Venture with Mangiarotti Nuclear, has signed a contract with Westinghouse for the design and the supply of innovative components to be installed in the first AP1000 unit to be constructed at the Sanmen site. The contract includes: the design of the steel containment vessel, preparation of construction and fabrication, specifications, design and supply of SCV mechanical penetrations, air locks and equipment hatches. Moreover, Ansaldo Nucleare is in charge of the final design of the AP1000 PRHR-HX and together with Mangiarotti Nuclear will supply the component for the Sanmen Unit 1 NPP. The paper presents an overview of the design and manufacturing activities performed by Ansaldo Nucleare and its partners for the AP1000 plant in China. (authors)

  6. Determinants of magnesium sulphate use in women hospitalized at <29 weeks with severe or non-severe pre-eclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane A De Silva

    Full Text Available Magnesium sulphate is recommended by international guidelines to prevent eclampsia among women with pre-eclampsia, especially when it is severe, but fewer than 70% of such women receive magnesium sulphate. We aimed to identify variables that prompt Canadian physicians to administer magnesium sulphate to women with pre-eclampsia.Data were used from the Canadian Perinatal Network (2005-11 of women hospitalized at <29 weeks' who were thought to be at high risk of delivery due to pre-eclampsia (using broad Canadian definition. Unadjusted analyses of relative risks were estimated directly and population attributable risk percent (PAR% calculated to identify variables associated with magnesium sulphate use. A multivariable model was created and a generalized estimating equation was used to estimate the adjusted RR that explained magnesium sulphate use in pre-eclampsia. The adjusted PAR% was estimated by bootstrapping.Of 631 women with pre-eclampsia, 174 (30.1% had severe pre-eclampsia, of whom 131 (75.3% received magnesium sulphate. 457 (69.9% women had non-severe pre-eclamspia, of whom 291 (63.7% received magnesium sulphate. Use of magnesium sulphate among women with pre-eclampsia could be attributed to the following clinical factors (PAR%: delivery for 'adverse conditions' (48.7%, severe hypertension (21.9%, receipt of antenatal corticosteroids (20.0%, maternal transport prior to delivery (9.9%, heavy proteinuria (7.8%, and interventionist care (3.4%.Clinicians are more likely to administer magnesium sulphate for eclampsia prophylaxis in the presence of more severe maternal clinical features, in addition to concomitant antenatal corticosteroid administration, and shorter admission to delivery periods related to transport from another institution or plans for interventionist care.

  7. Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, Lelia; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Henderson-Smart, David J; Chou, Doris

    2010-11-10

    Eclampsia, the occurrence of a seizure (fit) in association with pre-eclampsia, is rare but potentially life-threatening. Magnesium sulphate is the drug of choice for treating eclampsia. This review assesses its use for preventing eclampsia. To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate, and other anticonvulsants, for prevention of eclampsia. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (4 June 2010), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3). Randomised trials comparing anticonvulsants with placebo or no anticonvulsant, or comparisons of different drugs, for pre-eclampsia. Two authors assessed trial quality and extracted data independently. We included 15 trials. Six (11,444 women) compared magnesium sulphate with placebo or no anticonvulsant: magnesium sulphate more than a halved the risk of eclampsia (risk ratio (RR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.58; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 100, 95% CI 50 to 100), with a non-significant reduction in maternal death (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.10) but no clear difference in serious maternal morbidity (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.32). It reduced the risk of placental abruption (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.83; NNTB 100, 95% CI 50 to 1000), and increased caesarean section (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10). There was no clear difference in stillbirth or neonatal death (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.15). Side effects, primarily flushing, were more common with magnesium sulphate (24% versus 5%; RR 5.26, 95% CI 4.59 to 6.03; number need to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) 6, 95% CI 5 to 6).Follow-up was reported by one trial comparing magnesium sulphate with placebo: for 3375 women there was no clear difference in death (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.71 to 4.53) or morbidity potentially related to pre-eclampsia (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.26) (median follow-up 26 months); for 3283 children exposed in utero

  8. Abiotic nitrate and sulphate reduction by hydrogen: a comparative experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truche, L.; Berger, G.; Albrecht, A.; Giffaut, E.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The bituminous waste which is part of the intermediate level, long-lived waste (MAVL) is characterised, amongst others, by the coexistence of nitrates, sulphates, organic matter, native metals and hydrogen gas in the waste mixture and package. It can be considered as the most complex example that will be used to discuss redox reactions occurring in such waste mixtures. The evaluation of the redox conditions requires quantification of the amount of electron acceptors and donors and definition of the kinetics of redox reaction. The objectives of an experimental study to unravel some of these reaction complexities are: - to investigate nature and rate of sulphate and nitrate reduction by hydrogen in the presence of different catalysts (stainless steel, hastelloy, magnetite and argillite); - to compare sulphate and nitrate as electron acceptors; - to provide a mechanistic model of these reactions. It is well known that reduction of sulphate and nitrate requires high activation energies, usually supplied either by thermal processes or via bacterial and surface catalysis, of which the latter has been investigated in this study. Preliminary experiments performed at 150 deg. C and under H 2 pressure show that sulphate reduction is enhanced in the presence of magnetite, but essentially under the restricted condition of low sulphate concentration and at a pH below the Point of Zero Charge of magnetite. This suggests that sorption of sulphate contributes to the catalysed reaction (at low pH) but provided that the magnetite surface sites are not saturated with respect to aqueous sulphate (low concentration). On the contrary, nitrate reduction is observed whatever the pH and the nitrate concentration in the presence of both magnetite and hastelloy C276 (Ni, Cr, Mo, W, Fe alloy). The effect of temperature on the rate of nitrate reduction (500 ppm KNO 3 solution) is shown by comparing three different experiments conducted in

  9. Alternative method of portable irradiation of manganese sulphate solution by an plutonium-beryllium source for manganese sulphate bath efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Martins, Marcelo Marques; Pereira, Walsan Wagner

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to create an alternative irradiation system from a Plutonium-Beryllium source for manganese sulphate solution using the Monte Carlo code. Thus seeking to eliminate the issue of institutes that do not have reactors or particle accelerators in its infrastructure, in order to optimize and provide independence for them to carry out efficiency measurements of MnSO_4 solution in their own locality. The Monte Carlo simulations defined the technical features of this new system so that the solution reaches the maximum neutron capture by manganese in solution. (author)

  10. MULTI-OBJECTIVE ONLINE OPTIMIZATION OF BEAM LIFETIME AT APS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yipeng

    2017-06-25

    In this paper, online optimization of beam lifetime at the APS (Advanced Photon Source) storage ring is presented. A general genetic algorithm (GA) is developed and employed for some online optimizations in the APS storage ring. Sextupole magnets in 40 sectors of the APS storage ring are employed as variables for the online nonlinear beam dynamics optimization. The algorithm employs several optimization objectives and is designed to run with topup mode or beam current decay mode. Up to 50\\% improvement of beam lifetime is demonstrated, without affecting the transverse beam sizes and other relevant parameters. In some cases, the top-up injection efficiency is also improved.

  11. A new gap separation mechanism for APS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Tcheskidov, V.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.

    1999-01-01

    A new gap separation mechanism for use with the standard Advanced Photon Source (APS) 3.3-cm-period undulator magnetic structures has been designed and built and the first system has been installed in the APS storage ring. The system allows a minimum magnetic gap of 10 mm for use with the APS 8-mm insertion device vacuum chambers. The mechanism is a bolted steel frame structure with a simple 4-motor mechanical drive train. The control system uses servomotors with incremental rotary encoders and virtual absolute linear encoders

  12. AP600 design certification thermal hydraulics testing and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochreiter, L.E.; Piplica, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, have been developing an advanced light water reactor design; the AP600. The AP600 is a 1940 Mwt, 600Mwe unit which is similar to a Westinghouse two-loop Pressurized Water Reactor. The accumulated knowledge on reactor design to reduce the capital costs, construction time, and the operational and maintenance cost of the unit once it begins to generate electrical power. The AP600 design goal is to maintain an overall cost advantage over fossil generated electrical power.

  13. Mineral oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, L.J.; Suess, M.J.; Grefen, K.; Reinisch, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter a general picture is presented of the air pollution aspects in the mineral oil industry. The complete field is covered, starting from drilling operations and the well head up to the delivery of the products to the consumer. A large field of activities as is given by the mineral oil

  14. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  15. Mineral commodity summaries 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2018-01-31

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2017 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  16. Indochina area mineral prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-05

    Prospects for commercial mining of various minerals are considered for Kampuchea (Cambodia), Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand. Mineral production is much below its geologic potential for economic and political reasons. Resource potential is limited to tin, tungsten, lead and zinc, barytes and gemstones, and coal. 1 fig.

  17. Molecular fossils of prokaryotes in ancient authigenic minerals: archives of microbial activity in reefs and mounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Katrin; Birgel, Daniel; Richoz, Sylvain; Westphal, Hildegard; Peckmann, Jörn

    2016-04-01

    Molecular fossils (lipid biomarkers) are commonly used as proxies in organic-rich sediments of various sources, including eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Usually, molecular fossils of organisms transferred from the water column to the sediment are studied to monitor environmental changes (e.g., temperature, pH). Apart from these 'allochthonous' molecular fossils, prokaryotes are active in sediments and mats on the seafloor and leave behind 'autochthonous' molecular fossils in situ. In contrast to many phototrophic organisms, most benthic sedimentary prokaryotes are obtaining their energy from oxidation or reduction of organic or inorganic substrates. A peculiarity of some of the sediment-thriving prokaryotes is their ability to trigger in situ mineral precipitation, often but not only due to metabolic activity, resulting in authigenic rocks (microbialites). During that process, prokaryotes are rapidly entombed in the mineral matrix, where the molecular fossils are protected from early (bio)degradation. In contrast to other organic compounds (DNA, proteins etc.), molecular fossils can be preserved over very long time periods (millions of years). Thus, molecular fossils in authigenic mineral phases are perfectly suitable to trace microbial activity back in time. Among the best examples of molecular fossils, which are preserved in authigenic rocks are various microbialites, forming e.g. in phototrophic microbial mats and at cold seeps. Microbialite formation is reported throughout earth history. We here will focus on reefal microbialites form the Early Triassic and the Holocene. After the End-Permian mass extinction, microbialites covered wide areas on the ocean margins. In microbialites from the Griesbachian in Iran and Turkey (both Neotethys), molecular fossils of cyanobacteria, archaea, anoxygenic phototrophs, and sulphate-reducing bacteria indicate the presence of layered microbial mats on the seafloor, in which carbonate precipitation was induced. In association with

  18. Mineral sources and transport pathways for arsenic release in a coastal watershed, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    reduction) of As-bearing secondary As and Fe hydroxide and sulphate minerals, carbonation and/or oxidation of As-sulphide minerals, and desorption of As from Fe-hydroxide mineral surfaces are all thought to be involved. All of these processes contribute to the occurrence of As in groundwaters in coastal Maine, as a result of variability in composition and in stability of the As source minerals. Arsenic contents of soils and groundwater thus reflect the predominant influence and integration of a spectrum of primary mineral reservoirs (instead of single or unique mineral reservoirs). Cycling of As through metasedimentary bedrock aquifers may therefore depend on consecutive stages of carbonation, oxidation and reductive dissolution of primary and secondary As host minerals.

  19. Measurement and Modelling of Scaling Minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villafafila Garcia, Ada

    2005-01-01

    -liquid equilibrium of sulphate scaling minerals (SrSO4, BaSO4, CaSO4 and CaSO4•2H2O) at temperatures up to 300ºC and pressures up to 1000 bar is described in chapter 4. Results for the binary systems (M2+, )-H2O; the ternary systems (Na+, M2+, )-H2O, and (Na+, M2+, Cl-)-H2O; and the quaternary systems (Na+, M2+)(Cl......-, )-H2O, are presented. M2+ stands for Ba2+, Ca2+, or Sr2+. Chapter 5 is devoted to the correlation and prediction of vapour-liquid-solid equilibria for different carbonate systems causing scale problems (CaCO3, BaCO3, SrCO3, and MgCO3), covering the temperature range from 0 to 250ºC and pressures up......-NaCl-Na2SO4-H2O are given. M2+ stands for Ca2+, Mg2+, Ba2+, and Sr2+. This chapter also includes an analysis of the CaCO3-MgCO3-CO2-H2O system. Chapter 6 deals with the system NaCl-H2O. Available data for that system at high temperatures and/or pressures are addressed, and sodium chloride solubility...

  20. Taxation of unmined minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremberg, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet which began implementing its controversial unmined minerals tax program. The Revenue Cabinet should complete its first annual assessment under this program in December, 1989. The Revenue Cabinet's initial efforts to collect basic data concerning the Commonwealth's coal bearing lands has yielded data coverage for 5 million of Kentucky's 10 million acres of coal lands. Approximately 1000 detailed information returns have been filed. The returns will be used to help create an undeveloped mineral reserves inventory, determine mineral ownership, and value mineral reserves. This new program is run by the Revenue Cabinet's Mineral Valuation Section, under the Division of Technical Support, Department of Property Taxation. It has been in business since September of 1988

  1. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  2. Lumbar pedicle screw placement: Using only AP plane imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Sethi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Placement of pedicle screws under fluoroscopic guidance using AP plane imaging alone with tactile guidance is safe, fast, and reliable. However, a good understanding of the radiographic landmarks is a prerequisite.

  3. A hot-spare injector for the APS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    Last year a second-generation SSRL-type thermionic cathode rf gun was installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. This gun (referred to as ''gun2'') has been successfully commissioned and now serves as the main injector for the APS linac, essentially replacing the Koontz-type DC gun. To help ensure injector availability, particularly with the advent of top-up mode operation at the APS, a second thermionic-cathode rf gun will be installed in the APS linac to act as a hot-spare beam source. The hot-spare installation includes several unique design features, including a deep-orbit Panofsky-style alpha magnet. Details of the hot-spare beamline design and projected performance are presented, along with some plans for future performance upgrades

  4. Effect of temperature on sulphate reduction, growth rate and growth yield in five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria from Arctic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    and T(opt). For strains LSv21 and LSv514, however, growth yields were highest at the lowest temperatures, around 0 degrees C. The results indicate that psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria are specially adapted to permanently low temperatures by high relative growth rates and high growth yields......Five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria (strains ASv26, LSv21, PSv29, LSv54 and LSv514) isolated from Arctic sediments were examined for their adaptation to permanently low temperatures, All strains grew at -1.8 degrees C, the freezing point of sea water, but their optimum temperature...... for growth (T(opt)) were 7 degrees C (PSv29), 10 degrees C (ASv26, LSv54) and 18 degrees C (LSv21, LSv514), Although T(opt) was considerably above the in situ temperatures of their habitats (-1.7 degrees C and 2.6 degrees C), relative growth rates were still high at 0 degrees C, accounting for 25...

  5. Roles of AP-2 in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Boucrot

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion that AP-2 clathrin adaptor is an essential component of an endocytic clathrin coat appears to conflict with recent observations that substantial AP-2 depletion, using RNA interference with synthesis of AP-2 subunits, fails to block uptake of certain ligands known to internalize through a clathrin-based pathway.We report here the use of in vivo imaging data obtained by spinning-disk confocal microscopy to study the formation of clathrin-coated structures at the plasma membranes of BSC1 and HeLa cells depleted by RNAi of the clathrin adaptor, AP-2. Very few clathrin coats continue to assemble after AP-2 knockdown. Moreover, there is a total absence of clathrin-containing structures completely lacking AP-2 while all the remaining coats still contain a small amount of AP-2. These observations suggest that AP-2 is essential for endocytic coated-pit and coated-vesicle formation. We also find that AP-2 knockdown strongly inhibits light-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor-mediated endocytosis, as long as cells are maintained in complete serum and at 37 degrees C. If cells are first incubated with LDL at 4 degrees C, followed by warming, there is little or no decrease in LDL uptake with respect to control cells. LDL uptake at 37 degrees C is also not affected in AP-2 depleted cells first deprived of LDL by incubation with either serum-starved or LDL-starved cells for 24 hr. The LDL-deprived cells display a significant increase in endocytic structures enriched on deeply invaginated tubes that contain LDL and we suggest that under this condition of stress, LDL might enter through this alternative pathway.These results suggest that AP-2 is essential for endocytic clathrin coated-pit and coated-vesicle formation. They also indicate that under normal conditions, functional endocytic clathrin coated pits are required for LDL internalization. We also show that under certain conditions of stress, cells can upregulate alternative endocytic structures

  6. Extraction of nickel from Ramu laterite by sulphation roasting-water leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Du, Shangchao; Liu, Guo; Tang, Jianwen; Lu, Yeda; Lv, Dong

    2017-08-01

    Recovery of nickel from a PNG nickel laterite with high content of iron by a sulphation roasting-water leaching has been studied. The influences of sulfuric acid/ore ratio, temperature of roasting and water on recovery efficiency were investigated. The effective separation of nickel over the co-existed elements including iron was achieved by the process with mixing, curing, roasting and leaching stages. Near 100% of nickel was leached from the roasted laterite by water at 80°C in an atmospheric air, while co-leaching of about 2% of iron, under the optimal pre-treatment conditions with the ratio of acid: ore around 0.45:1 and the roasting temperature about 650°C. The advantages and disadvantages of sulphation atmospheric leaching are compared with pressure acid leaching with engineering consideration.

  7. Influence of Valsartan on the thermodynamics of micellization of anionic surfactant Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopková L.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript was investigated behaviour of drug valsartan by micellar media of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate. As the method was used electrical conductivity for the determination of critical micelle concentration at different temperatures (T = 293.15 - 313.15 K, as well as calculated thermodynamic parameters like standard Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of micellization. According to contribution of Gibbs free energy is the process of micellization primarily controlled by entropy. Solubilization of valsartan was studied in surfactant system at 298.15 K and physiological conditions pH 7.4 using UV-spectrophotometry at different concentration range (0.001 - 0.07 mol/l of sodium dodecyl sulphate. The solubilization of drug was observed with increasing concentration of surfactant in aqueous solution.

  8. Isolation and characterisation of barium sulphate and titanium oxides in monument crusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis Perez-Rodriguez, Jose; Carmen Jimenez de Haro, Maria del; Maqueda, Celia

    2004-10-25

    Black crusts from historical ornamental materials contain Ba and Ti. These elements are in low proportion, making their determination difficult and especially the characterisation of the phases in which they are present. For this reason, works on the mineralogical composition of the two elements in black crusts is scarce. Thus the isolation, previous to their characterisation, is important for the study of the surface layer in altered monuments. An acid attack for the isolation of barium sulphate and titanium oxides in black crusts from polluted areas has been used. The acid employed is a mixture of HF, HNO{sub 3} and HClO{sub 4}. The residue isolated by acid attack was analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. It was characterised, and the percentages of barite (barium sulphate), anatase (titanium oxide), and rutile (titanium oxide) phases present in the surface layers were calculated.

  9. Ammonium sulphate fertiliser increases larval populations of Anopheles arabiensis and culicine mosquitoes in rice fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutero, C M; Ng'ang'a, P N; Wekoyela, P

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in central Kenya, to study the effect of ammonium sulphate fertiliser ((NH(4))(2)SO(4)) on mosquito larval populations in rice fields. The experiments used a complete randomised block design having four blocks with two experimental ponds per block, and the fertili......Field experiments were conducted in central Kenya, to study the effect of ammonium sulphate fertiliser ((NH(4))(2)SO(4)) on mosquito larval populations in rice fields. The experiments used a complete randomised block design having four blocks with two experimental ponds per block...... populations of An. arabiensis (Pmosquitoes (P... in rice fields, thereby making them visually more attractive for egg-laying by An. arabiensis and culicine mosquitoes....

  10. The Dushak–Erekdag Survey of roAp Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The search of roAp stars at Mt. Dushak–Erekdag Observatory was started in 1992 using the 0.8m Odessa telescope equipped with a two-star high-speed photometer. We have observed more than a dozen stars so far and discovered HD 99563 as roAp star while BD+8087 is suspected to have rapid ...

  11. Analysis and characterization of double shell tank 241-AP-108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    This document is the first part of a three-part report describing the analysis and characterization of double shell tank 241-AP-108 which is located at the Hanford Reservation.This document is the analytical laboratory data package entitled 'Analysis and Characterization of Double Shell Tank 241-AP-108' which contains a case sampling history, the sampling protocols, the analytical procedures, sampling and analysis quality assurance and quality control measures, and chemical analysis results for samples obtained from the tank

  12. Approaching acquisition path analysis formally. A comparison between AP and nonAP states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listner, Clemens; Canty, Morton J.; Niemeyer, Irmgard; Rezniczek, Arnold; Stein, Gotthard

    2014-01-01

    In the past, the IAEA has planned its activities mainly based on the presence of nuclear material. However, resources should be spent where they are needed most. Therefore, a new risk model was developed to change the inspection system to a comprehensive, objective‑driven approach where the State is considered as a whole, the so called State‑level concept (SLC). Acquisition path analysis (APA) is a key element of the State‑level concept. By considering the State’s nuclear profile, the APA generates a list of acquisition paths ranked by their attractiveness for the State. Currently, this process is mainly based on expert judgment. However, the IAEA’s requirements state that APA must be objective, reproducible, transparent, standardized, documented and as a result non‑discriminatory. A formal approach fulfilling the requirements was set up by the authors in the past [1]. This methodology is based on a three step approach. The process starts in the first step with the parametrization of the network. In the second step, the network is analyzed in order find all acquisition paths for a State. Finally, game theory is used in the third step to model the decisions made by the IAEA and the State. In this paper, an advanced methodology will be presented. Improvements were made in the interface definition between the three stages. Also, the general network model was updated and the automatic visualization of acquisition paths was accomplished. Furthermore, a prototype implementation will be shown. The advanced methodology was applied to two test non‑nuclear weapon States under comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA. Both States hold complex fuel cycles with only small technical differences. However,only one State is supposed to have the additional protocol (AP) in force. The example will show how the presence of the AP influences the detection probabilities of illegal behavior. As a consequence, these examples also indicate where to best focus

  13. The role of cysteine residues in the sulphate transporter, SHST1: construction of a functional cysteine-less transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Susan M

    2005-05-20

    We investigated the role of cysteine residues in the sulphate transporter, SHST1, with the aim of generating a functional cysteine-less variant. SHST1 contains five cysteine residues and none was essential for function. However, replacement of C421 resulted in a reduction in transport activity. Sulphate transport by C205 mutants was dependent on the size of the residue at this position. Alanine at position 205 resulted in a complete loss of function whereas leucine resulted in a 3-fold increase in sulphate transport relative to wild type SHST1. C205 is located in a putative intracellular loop and our results suggest that this loop may be important for sulphate transport. By replacing C205 with leucine and the other four cysteine residues with alanine, we constructed a cysteine-less variant of SHST1 that has transport characteristics indistinguishable from wild type. This construct will be useful for further structure and function studies of SHST1.

  14. Focus on CSIR research in pollution and waste: Biological sulphate removal technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Godfrey_2007.Stockholm.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3297 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Godfrey_2007.Stockholm.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Biological.... This treatment process relies on many species of degrading bacteria including the sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). Fermentation microorganisms using cattle rumen fluid The rumen is a highly cellulytic ecosystem with a complex microbial population...

  15. Reuse of Partially Sulphated CFBC Ash as an SO2 Sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yinghai; Jia, Lufei; Anthony, E.J. [CanmetENERGY, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A1M1 (Canada); Nobili, M.; Telesca, A. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Physics, University of Basilicata, Viale dell' Ateneo, Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Montagnaro, F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Monte Sant' Angelo, 80126 Naples (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Ashes produced from fluidized bed combustors (FBC) burning high-sulphur fuels often contain 20-30 % unreacted CaO because of the limestone added to remove SO2 in situ. This paper presents the results from experiments into reactivating partially sulphated FBC ash (both bed ash and fly ash) with liquid water, steam and sodium carbonate. The water- or steam-hydrated ashes were subsequently re-sulphated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) with simulated flue gas. The TGA results show that, while liquid water and steam successfully hydrate and reactivate the unreacted CaO in the bed ash, the treated ashes sulphated to widely different extents. Attempts to reactivate fly ash with hydration failed, although fly ash by itself is extremely reactive. A pilot-scale mini-circulating FBC (CFBC) was also used to evaluate the results of reactivation on the bed ash by hydrating with liquid water and admixtures of inorganic salt (Na2CO3) in the form of either powder or solution. When the treated ash was re-injected into the combustor with the fuel, the effect on SO2 removal efficiency was negligible if Na2CO3 was added as powder. Doping with aqueous solution resulted in enhanced SO2 removal; however, the extent was lower than the level achieved if only water hydration was employed. Increasing the amount of water (from 10% to 30%) to reactivate the ash did not improve the sulphur capture capacity in the mini-CFBC. Overall, this study suggests that the most practical way for re-use of the partially sulphated bed ash as a sulphur sorbent is reactivation by water. A proposal for utilization of the fly ash in an economically reasonable way is also discussed.

  16. Response of sulphur dynamics in European catchments to decreasing sulphate deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prechtel, A.; Alewell, C.; Armbruster, M.; Bittersohl, J.; Cullen, J.; Evans, C. D.; Helliwell, R.; Kopáček, Jiří; Marchetto, A.; Matzner, E.; Meesenburg, H.; Moldan, F.; Moritz, K.; Veselý, J.; Wright, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2001), s. 311-325 ISSN 1027-5606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0063 Grant - others:CEC RECOVER(XE) 2010-EVK1-CT-1999-00018; GMER(DE) PT BEO51-0339476; CEC(XE) EMERGE-EVK1-CT-1999-00032 Keywords : acidification reversal * sulphur * sulphate release Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.127, year: 2001

  17. Effects of preoperative magnesium sulphate on post-cesarean pain, a placebo controlled double blind study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohamad Mireskandari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the role of preoperative intravenous magnesium sulphate in decreasing post-cesarean pain and opioid requirement during first 24hrs.In a double blind randomized clinical trial, prior to induction of general anesthesia, fifty elective cesarean candidates were randomly assigned to one of the two groups of placebo or magnesium sulfate. After surgery visual analogue scale (VAS and infused morphine by PCA during 24 hrs were recorded. The data were analyzed by mann-Whitney -test, analysis of variance, and student t- test.VAS was significantly lower among patients in the magnesium sulphate group at intervals of 1(st, 6(th & 12(th hours after cesarean section (C/S with the mean scales of (48.9 ± 19.6 VS 74.7 ± 18.4, (42.1 ± 0.9 VS 58.3 ± 16.5 and (25.2 ± 6.1VS 30 ± 8.1 respectively and p-value of <0.001, 0.002 and 0.05 respectively. However at 24 hrs there was no significant difference in VAS with mean VAS scales of 22.6 ± 4.5 VS 23.6 ± 4.9 and p-value of 0.49. The dose of infused Morphine during 24 hrs was significantly less in the magnesium sulphate group than the placebo group with the means of 4.36 ± 1.4 VS 7.02 ± 1.9 mg respectively (p < 0.001.Administration of bolus 50 mg/kg magnesium sulphate prior to induction of general anesthesia may significantly decreased the morphine requirement during immediate post operative period and can be recommended as one of the modalities of post-operative pain control in the pregnant patients.

  18. Nature of the activates places of the acid solid catalysts of the sulphated metallic oxides type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Miguel A; Fontalvo Javier

    1998-01-01

    In this revision the state of the knowledge is presented with respect to the understanding of the nature of the active places for the strongly acid solid catalysts of the type sulphated metallic oxides. The results presented by means of models are based on the characterization of the properties physicochemical carried out by means of technical as XPS, to GO, NMR etc., and the evaluation of the catalytic activity in different applications

  19. Aluminum sulphate production and zeolite from residual muds of the company Extralum S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, C.; Montero, M.

    2002-01-01

    As part of our research on alternative raw materials for the chemical industry we studied sludge from an anodizing process at Extralum S.A. The sludge contains mainly bayerite, Al(OH) 3 and bohemite A1O (OH). Starting from these we developed a hydrothermal synthesis of Aluminium sulphate and Zeolite A. The Zeolite A was identified by Powder X-ray crystallography. The scanning electron microscope image of the Zeolite A shows a very high degree of crystallinity. (Author) [es

  20. The Application of Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria for the Heavy Metals Elimination from Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Luptáková

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems affecting mining companies around the world is the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD. AMD is characterised by its high acidity, high concentration of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd,… and high concentration of dissolved sulphates. The techniques traditionally used for the treatment of AMD have been based on chemical methods of neutralization and precipitation. A possible alternative to the chemical treatment of AMD is bioremediation using anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB. The treatment of AMD by SRB is based on the ability of SRB to reduce sulphates to hydrogen sulphide, which binds readily with metals to form sparingly soluble precipitates. In this study we have attempted to investigate the feasibility of anaerobic biotreatment of the copper contaminated model solution and a real effluent AMD from the shaft Pech (the locality Smolnik using SRB. This method involves three stages: The H2S production by sulphate-reducing bacteria, the metals precipitation by the biologically produced H2S and the metal sulphides filtration. The studies confirm that copper was effectively recovered from the solution using bacterial produced H2S. An initial copper concentration 10 mg.l-1 was decreased to less than 0.05 mg.l-1 after 3 hours. The most adequate pH value for cooper precipitation was 2.5. Results of the copper precipitation from the areal effluent indicates that the optimal pH value for the copper precipitation is 3.5, but the created precipitates contain a mixture of copper and iron sulphides.