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Sample records for sulfur recovery units

  1. 40 CFR 63.1568 - What are my requirements for HAP emissions from sulfur recovery units?

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are my requirements for HAP emissions from sulfur recovery units? 63.1568 Section 63.1568 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... requirements for HAP emissions from sulfur recovery units? (a) What emission limitations and work practice...

  2. 40 CFR Table 29 to Subpart Uuu of... - HAP Emission Limits for Sulfur Recovery Units

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true HAP Emission Limits for Sulfur Recovery Units 29 Table 29 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... to Subpart UUU of Part 63—HAP Emission Limits for Sulfur Recovery Units As stated in § 63.1568(a)(1...

  3. Petroleum Refineries (Catalytic Cracking, Catalytic Reforming and Sulfur Recovery Units): National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    learn more about the NESHAP for catalytic cracking and reforming units, as well as sulfur recovery units in petroleum refineries by reading the rule history, rule summary, background information documents, and compliance information

  4. 40 CFR Table 30 to Subpart Uuu of... - Operating Limits for HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits for HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units 30 Table 30 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Table 30 Table 30 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Operating Limits for HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery...

  5. Recovery of vanadium (V) from used catalysts in sulfuric acid production units by oxalic acid

    Abdulbaki, M.; Shino, O.

    2009-07-01

    Vanadium penta oxide (V 2 O 5 ), is used, in large quantities as a catalyst for the oxidation of SO 2 to SO 3 in sulfuric acid production units, during the oxidation process the level of the oxidation declines with the time because of catalyst poisoning. So the spent catalyst is usually through out in a specified special places by General Fertilizer Company which causes a pollution of the land. The present paper, studies the recovery of vanadium from the spent catalyst by using the oxalic acid. The optimal conditions of spent catalyst leaching have been studied. It has been shown that 2%(w/w) of oxalic acid is the most suitable for leaching process at 70 degree centigrade. The precipitation of vanadium using some alkaline media NH 4 OH has been also studied, it has been shown that ammonium hydroxide was the best at 50 degree centigrade. (author)

  6. 40 CFR Table 33 to Subpart Uuu of... - Initial Compliance With HAP Emission Limits for Sulfur Recovery Units

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Initial Compliance With HAP Emission Limits for Sulfur Recovery Units 33 Table 33 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment..., Subpt. UUU, Table 33 Table 33 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Initial Compliance With HAP Emission Limits for...

  7. 40 CFR Table 31 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuous Monitoring Systems for HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units 31 Table 31 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment..., Subpt. UUU, Table 31 Table 31 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Continuous Monitoring Systems for HAP Emissions...

  8. 40 CFR Table 34 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With HAP Emission Limits for Sulfur Recovery Units

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With HAP Emission Limits for Sulfur Recovery Units 34 Table 34 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment..., Subpt. UUU, Table 34 Table 34 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With HAP Emission Limits...

  9. The Effect of Fuel Mass Fraction on the Combustion and Fluid Flow in a Sulfur Recovery Unit Thermal Reactor

    Chun-Lang Yeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur recovery unit (SRU thermal reactors are negatively affected by high temperature operation. In this paper, the effect of the fuel mass fraction on the combustion and fluid flow in a SRU thermal reactor is investigated numerically. Practical operating conditions for a petrochemical corporation in Taiwan are used as the design conditions for the discussion. The simulation results show that the present design condition is a fuel-rich (or air-lean condition and gives acceptable sulfur recovery, hydrogen sulfide (H2S destruction, sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions and thermal reactor temperature for an oxygen-normal operation. However, for an oxygen-rich operation, the local maximum temperature exceeds the suggested maximum service temperature, although the average temperature is acceptable. The high temperature region must be inspected very carefully during the annual maintenance period if there are oxygen-rich operations. If the fuel mass fraction to the zone ahead of the choke ring (zone 1 is 0.0625 or 0.125, the average temperature in the zone behind the choke ring (zone 2 is higher than the zone 1 average temperature, which can damage the downstream heat exchanger tubes. If the zone 1 fuel mass fraction is reduced to ensure a lower zone 1 temperature, the temperature in zone 2 and the heat exchanger section must be monitored closely and the zone 2 wall and heat exchanger tubes must be inspected very carefully during the annual maintenance period. To determine a suitable fuel mass fraction for operation, a detailed numerical simulation should be performed first to find the stoichiometric fuel mass fraction which produces the most complete combustion and the highest temperature. This stoichiometric fuel mass fraction should be avoided because the high temperature could damage the zone 1 corner or the choke ring. A higher fuel mass fraction (i.e., fuel-rich or air-lean condition is more suitable because it can avoid deteriorations of both zone 1

  10. Desulfurisation and sulfur recovery

    Hughes, P.; Finn, A.; Scott, L. [Costain Oil, Gas and Process Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    This article highlights technical issues associated with different sulphur recovery processes in the hydrocarbon processing industry. Details are given of the Stretford process developed by British Gas for the removal of low concentrations of hydrogen sulphide from natural gas and other hydrocarbon gases; the SulFerox process developed by Shell and Dow for removing moderate amounts of sulphur from contaminated gases using a proprietary iron salt for extracting the sulphur; solvent systems for removing moderately high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide in sour gas or liquid petroleum gases (LPG); the simple Claus process involving the partial combustion of hydrogen sulphide forming sulphur dioxide which reacts with hydrogen sulphide to form sulphur; and enhanced Claus processes. Sour water stripping processes for hydrogen sulphide contaminated water from hydrocarbon processing, tail gas treatment of Claus plant offgases, and hydrotreating are also discussed.

  11. Thermo-kinetic modeling and optimization of the sulfur recovery unit thermal stage

    Zarei, Samane; Ganji, Hamid; Sadi, Maryam; Rashidzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The Claus reaction furnace was modeled using the corrected Gibbs energy minimization. • Using the corrected model, a significant error reduction from 33.50 to 7.86% occurred. • The waste heat boiler was modeled using plant data and a new H_2S decomposition rate. • The combined model could reasonably predict the experimental data with 6.50% error. • An optimization was carried out to control the operating variables of an existing plant. - Abstract: In this study, the reaction furnace of Claus process was modeled using the Gibbs free energy minimization method, which involved new parameters in correlations of thermodynamic properties. Using the new parameters, a significant error reduction from 33.50% to 7.86% occurred in the prediction of molar flow rate of components. Subsequently, the waste heat boiler attached to the reaction furnace was modeled using experimental plant data and a new hydrogen sulfide decomposition rate. Utilizing this new rate expression, the capability of the model in H_2 molar flow rate prediction was enhanced, and the mean absolute percentage error of the model for H_2 and H_2S species reached 12.94% and 9.43%, respectively. The combined model including corrected equilibrium model for the reaction furnace and corrected kinetic model for the waste heat boiler could reasonably predict the experimental data so that the mean absolute percentage error reached to 6.50%. An optimization study was carried out to examine the operating condition of the Claus reaction furnace and the waste heat boiler in order to maximize sulfur production and minimize COS emission while maintaining H_2S to SO_2 flow ratio at constant value of 2.

  12. Recovery of vanadium (V) from spent catalysts used in sulfuric acid production units by acid or alkaline leaching

    Abdulbaki, M.; Stas, J.; Shino, O.; Asaad, K.; Al-Kassemi, H.; Al-Qabani, F.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper, studies the recovery of vanadium from the spent catalyst by using acidic or alkaline leaching technique. The optimal conditions of spent catalyst leaching have been studied. It has been shown that 20%(w/w) of sulfuric acid is the most suitable for leaching process at 70 Centigrade. The precipitation of vanadium using some alkaline media (Na 2 CO 3 , (NH 4 )CO 3 and NH 4 OH) has been also studied, it has been shown that ammonium hydroxide was the best at 60 degree, and iron was co-precipitated with vanadium which pollute the obtained red cake. So it is necessary to use liquid-liquid extraction technique for the separation between vanadium and iron and to have iron free red cake. (author)

  13. Hot-Gas Desulfurization with Sulfur Recovery

    Portzer, Jeffrey W.; Damle, Ashok S.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a second generation HGD process that regenerates the sulfided sorbent directly to elemental sulfur using SO 2 , with minimal consumption of coal gas. The goal is to have better overall economics than DSRP when integrated with the overall IGCC system

  14. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2001-01-01

    This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H(sub 2)S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf(trademark) (service mark of Gas Research Institute) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H(sub 2)S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H(sub 2)S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO(sub 2) at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H(sub 2)S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. During this reporting periods new catalyst formulations were tested. The experiments showed that the newest catalyst has slightly better performance, but catalyst TDA No.2 is still superior overall for use with the hybrid CrystaSulf process due to lower costs. Plans for catalyst pelletization and continued testing are described

  15. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-01-01

    This first quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H(sub 2)S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf(sup SM) (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H(sub 2)S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H(sub 2)S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO(sub 2) at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H(sub 2)S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. In a previous reporting period tests were done to determine the effect of hydrocarbons such as n-hexane on catalyst performance with and without H(sub 2)S present. The experiments showed that hexane oxidation is suppressed when H(sub 2)S is present. Hexane represents the most reactive of the C1 to C6 series of alkanes. Since hexane exhibits low reactivity under H(sub 2)S oxidation conditions, and more importantly, does not change

  16. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  17. New unit for sulfuric acid alkylation of isobutane by olefins

    Khadzhiev, S.N.; Baiburskii, V.L.; Deineko, P.S.; Gruzdev, A.S.; Tagavov, I.T.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe and illustrate a sulfuric acid alkylation unit with a horizontal contact. As a result of the use of this design solution, the isobutane/olefin ratio is 10/1 in comparison with 4/1 to 5/1 in the other types of units, namely vertical reactors and cascade tank reactors. The unit was designed to process the butane-butylene cut (BBC) and part of the propane-propylene cut (PPC) from the G-43-107 cat cracker. The unit design includes provisions for controlled caustic washing of the feed and dehydration in an electric field. The authors present the basic data obtained in the three months of unit operation after startup, in comparison with the operating indexes of a sulfuric acid alkylation unit.

  18. Method of simultaneous recovery of oil and sulfur from bituminous shales

    1919-02-25

    The method consists of means for dry distillation of bituminous shales in furnaces heated from inside to recover simultaneously oil and sulfur, and is characterized by obtaining the sulfur partly in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen as a direct distillation product produced in the upper part of the furnace and partly in the form of free sulfur formed in the reduction zone of the furnace by the reduction of the sulfur dioxide formed in the burning zone. It is also characterized by the recovery of sulfur--in so far as the reduction and formation of sulfur dioxide are concerned--being regulated by means of the corresponding regulation of the proportion of the speed of discharging to the amount of air introduced into the process.

  19. Mobile vapor recovery and vapor scavenging unit

    Stokes, C.A.; Steppe, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a mobile anti- pollution apparatus, for the recovery of hydrocarbon emissions. It comprises a mobile platform upon which is mounted a vapor recovery unit for recovering vapors including light hydrocarbons, the vapor recovery unit having an inlet and an outlet end, the inlet end adapted for coupling to an external source of hydrocarbon vapor emissions to recover a portion of the vapors including light hydrocarbons emitted therefrom, and the outlet end adapted for connection to a means for conveying unrecovered vapors to a vapor scavenging unit, the vapor scavenging unit comprising an internal combustion engine adapted for utilizing light hydrocarbon in the unrecovered vapors exiting from the vapor recovery unit as supplemental fuel

  20. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    Towler, Gavin P.; Lynn, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  1. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

  2. Removal and recovery of nitrogen and sulfur oxides from gaseous mixtures containing them

    Cooper, H.B.H.

    1984-01-01

    A cyclic process for removing lower valence nitrogen oxides from gaseous mixtures includes treating the mixtures with an aqueous media including alkali metal carbonate and alkali metal bicarbonate and a preoxygen oxidant to form higher valence nitrogen oxides and to capture these oxides as alkali metal salts, expecially nitrites and nitrates, in a carbonate/bicarbonate-containing product aqueous media. Highly selective recovery of nitrates in high purity and yield may then follow, as by crystallization, with the carbonate and bicarbonate alkali metal salts strongly increasing the selectivity and yield of nitrates. The product nitrites are converted to nitrates by oxidation after lowering the product aqueous media pH to below about 9. A cyclic process for removing sulfur oxides from gas mixtures includes treating these mixtures includes treating these mixtures with aqueous media including alkali metal carbonate and alkali metal bicarbonate where the ratio of alkali metal to sulfur dioxide is not less than 2. The sulfur values may be recovered from the resulting carbonate/bicarbonate/-sulfite containing product aqueous media as alkali metal sulfate or sulfite salts which are removed by crystallization from the carbonate-containing product aqueous media. As with the nitrates, the carbonate/bicarbonate system strongly increases yield of sulfate or sulfite during crystallization. Where the gas mixtures include both sulfur dioxide and lower valence nitrogen oxides, the processes for removing lower valence nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide may be combined into a single removal/recovery system, or may be effected in sequence

  3. Recovery of sulfur from residue gases of low H/sub 2/S concentration

    Bratzler, K; Doerges, A; Schlauer, J

    1976-01-01

    The Lucas process is intended for reduction of SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S in Claus tail gas or other low-sulfur residue gases to levels below 200 ppm (H/sub 2/S only in traces). In the first stage, all sulfur compounds are burned to SO/sub 2/; in the second stage, a coke reactor reduces SO/sub 3/ and O/sub 2/; and in the third stage, the SO/sub 2/ is absorbed in an aqueous alkali phosphate solution. Concentrated SO/sub 2/ from regeneration of the solution is returned to the Claus plant, or can be catalystically reduced to elemental sulfur. The process was proven out in a semitechnical pilot plant, with satisfactory results as follows: sulfur recovery, 97 to 99.8%; energy consumption per 1,000 cu m feed gas, 2.6 to 3.7 kw-hr plus 860 to 930 MJ heating gas (however, 300 to 350 kg steam was generated); 0.15 kg chemicals; 0.7 to 1.5 kg coke; and a minimal amount of catalyst if sulfur is produced. Investment is only 60 to 80% of that in a 2-stage Claus process, with which the Lucas process is competitive.

  4. Leaching and recovery of zinc and copper from brass slag by sulfuric acid

    Ahmed, I.M.; Nayl, A.A.; Daoud, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Leaching and recovery processes for zinc and copper from brass slag by sulfuric acid were carried out and iron and aluminum were also precipitated as hydroxides in addition to silica gel. The factors affecting the performance and efficiency of the leaching processsuch as agitation rate, leaching time, acid concentration and temperature were separately investigated. The results obtained revealed that zinc and copper are successfully recovered from these secondary resources, where the percent r...

  5. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-01

    Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe-Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC2O4 ⋅ 2H2O and Li2CO3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Operating experience with unit for sulfuric acid alkylation of isobutane by butylenes

    Tagavov, I.T.; Sumanov, V.T.; Khadzhiev, S.N.

    1988-09-01

    The operation of units for the sulfuric acid alkylation of isobutanes by butylenes have been performed. The reaction was carried out in a KSG-3 horizontal sulfuric acid contractor. A butane-butylene fraction from catalytic cracking and an isobutane fraction from the central gas fractionating unit were used as a feedstock. The studies have shown that the unit will give a high-quality product under various conditions of operation. The specific consumption of sulfuric acid in processing different types of feed remains within acceptable limits.

  7. Significance of the Capacity Recovery Effect in Pouch Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cells

    Knap, Vaclav; Zhang, Teng; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries are an emerging energy storage technology, which is technically-attractive due to its high theoretical limits; practically, it is expected that Li-S batteries will result into lighter energy storage devices with higher capacities than traditional Lithium-ion...... batteries. One of the actual disadvantages for this technology is the highly pronounced rate capacity effect, which reduces the available capacity to be discharged when high currents are used. This drawback might be addressed by the use of the capacity recovery effect, which by introducing relaxation...... periods between consecutive pulse discharges of the battery, increases the available discharge capacity of the cell. The capacity recovery effect of the Li-S cell is studied in this paper using the pulse discharge technique, considering its dependence on the applied current, discharge step length...

  8. Leaching and recovery of zinc and copper from brass slag by sulfuric acid

    I.M. Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaching and recovery processes for zinc and copper from brass slag by sulfuric acid were carried out and iron and aluminum were also precipitated as hydroxides in addition to silica gel. The factors affecting the performance and efficiency of the leaching processsuch as agitation rate, leaching time, acid concentration and temperature were separately investigated. The results obtained revealed that zinc and copper are successfully recovered from these secondary resources, where the percent recovery amounts to 95% and 99% for zinc and copper, respectively. The experimental data of this leaching process were well interpreted with the shrinking core model under chemically controlled processes. The apparent activation energy for the leaching of zinc has been evaluated using the Arrhenius expression. Based on the experimental results, a separation method and a flow sheet were developed and tested to separate zinc, copper, iron, aluminum and silica gel from the brass slag.

  9. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao, E-mail: zhoutao@csu.edu.cn; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Selective precipitation and solvent extraction were adopted. • Nickel, cobalt and lithium were selectively precipitated. • Co-D2EHPA was employed as high-efficiency extraction reagent for manganese. • High recovery percentages could be achieved for all metal values. - Abstract: Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe–Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor.

  10. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Selective precipitation and solvent extraction were adopted. • Nickel, cobalt and lithium were selectively precipitated. • Co-D2EHPA was employed as high-efficiency extraction reagent for manganese. • High recovery percentages could be achieved for all metal values. - Abstract: Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe–Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC 2 O 4 ⋅2H 2 O and Li 2 CO 3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor

  11. Reductive-sulfurizing smelting treatment of smelter slag for copper and cobalt recovery

    Li Y.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of copper and cobalt from smelter slag using reductive-sulfurizing smelting method was performed in this study. The effects of reductive agent (coke, sulfurizing agent (pyrite, slag modifier (CaO and smelting temperature and duration on the extractive efficiencies of Cu, Co and Fe were discussed. The phase compositions and microstructure of the materials, copper-cobalt matte and cleaned slag were determined. The results showed that copper and cobalt contents in cleaned slag could decrease averagely to 0.18% and 0.071% respectively after cleaning. 91.99% Cu and 92.94% Co and less than 38.73% Fe were recovered from the smelter slag under the optimum conditions: 6 wt.% coke, 20 wt.% pyrite and 6 wt.% CaO addition to the smelter slag, smelting temperature of 1350°C and smelting duration of 3h. The addition of CaO can increase the selectivity of Co recovery. The cleaning products were characterized by XRD and SEM-EDS analysis. The results showed that the main phases of copper-cobalt matte were iron sulfide (FeS, geerite (Cu8S5, iron cobalt sulfide (Fe0.92Co0.08S and Fe-Cu-Co alloy. The cleaned slag mainly comprised fayalite (Fe2SiO4, hedenbergite (CaFe(Si2O6 and magnetite (Fe3O4.

  12. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition.

  13. Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit

    Huang, B. S.; Yin, W. F.; Sang, D. H.; Jiang, Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 °C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr5S8 phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

  14. Surface acoustic wave sensors/gas chromatography; and Low quality natural gas sulfur removal and recovery CNG Claus sulfur recovery process

    Klint, B.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-12-01

    This topical report consists of the two titled projects. Surface Acoustic Wave/Gas Chromatography (SAW/GC) provides a cost-effective system for collecting real-time field screening data for characterization of vapor streams contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Model 4100 can be used in a field screening mode to produce chromatograms in 10 seconds. This capability will allow a project manager to make immediate decisions and to avoid the long delays and high costs associated with analysis by off-site analytical laboratories. The Model 4100 is currently under evaluation by the California Environmental Protection Agency Technology Certification Program. Initial certification focuses upon the following organics: cis-dichloroethylene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, tetrachloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and o-xylene. In the second study the CNG Claus process is being evaluated for conversion and recovery of elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide, especially found in low quality natural gas. This report describes the design, construction and operation of a pilot scale plant built to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integrated CNG Claus process.

  15. Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit

    Huang, B.S., E-mail: yinwenfeng2010@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Sichuan, Chengdu, 610500 (China); Yin, W.F. [College of Mechatronic Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Sichuan, Chengdu, 610500 (China); Sang, D.H. [Sheng Li Construction Group International Engineering Department, Shandong, Dongying, 257000 (China); Jiang, Z.Y. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Sichuan, Chengdu, 610500 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion of a carbon-manganese steel and a stainless steel in sulfur and/or naphthenic acid media was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion rate of the carbon-manganese steel increased with the increase of the acid value and sulfur content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The critical values of the concentration of sulfur and acid for corrosion rate of the stainless steel were ascertained respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stainless steel is superior to the carbon-manganese steel in corrosion resistance because of the presence of stable Cr{sub 5}S{sub 8} phases. - Abstract: The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 Degree-Sign C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr{sub 5}S{sub 8} phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

  16. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  17. Improved Recovery Boiler Performance Through Control of Combustion, Sulfur, and Alkali Chemistry

    Baxter, Larry L.

    2008-06-09

    This project involved the following objectives: 1. Determine black liquor drying and devolatilization elemental and total mass release rates and yields. 2. Develop a public domain physical/chemical kinetic model of black liquor drop combustion, including new information on drying and devolatilization. 3. Determine mechanisms and rates of sulfur scavenging in recover boilers. 4. Develop non-ideal, public-domain thermochemistry models for alkali salts appropriate for recovery boilers 5. Develop data and a one-dimensional model of a char bed in a recovery boiler. 6. Implement all of the above in comprehensive combustion code and validate effects on boiler performance. 7. Perform gasification modeling in support of INEL and commercial customers. The major accomplishments of this project corresponding to these objectives are as follows: 1. Original data for black liquor and biomass data demonstrate dependencies of particle reactions on particle size, liquor type, gas temperature, and gas composition. A comprehensive particle submodel and corresponding data developed during this project predicts particle drying (including both free and chemisorbed moisture), devolatilization, heterogeneous char oxidation, char-smelt reactions, and smelt oxidation. Data and model predictions agree, without adjustment of parameters, within their respective errors. The work performed under these tasks substantially exceeded the original objectives. 2. A separate model for sulfur scavenging and fume formation in a recovery boiler demonstrated strong dependence on both in-boiler mixing and chemistry. In particular, accurate fume particle size predictions, as determined from both laboratory and field measurements, depend on gas mixing effects in the boilers that lead to substantial particle agglomeration. Sulfur scavenging was quantitatively predicted while particle size required one empirical mixing factor to match data. 3. Condensed-phase thermochemistry algorithms were developed for salt

  18. Some performance characteristics of a fluidized bed heat recovery unit

    Militzer, J.; Basu, P.; Adaikkappan, N.

    1985-01-01

    The advantages of using fluidized bed heat recovery units with diesel engines are well documented. Two of those are: significantly less tube fouling and heat transfer coefficient four to five time higher than that of conventional shell and tube heat exchangers. The high concentration of soot in the exhaust gases of diesel engines make fouling a major concern in design of any kind of heat recovery unit. In the experiment a conventional fluidized bed heat exchanger was connected to the exhaust of a diesel engine mounted on a dynamometer. With this arrangement it was possible to test the heat recovery unit under a wide range of operating conditions. The main objective of this experiment was the determination of the performance characteristics of the heat recovery unit, especially with reference to its heat transfer and fouling characteristics. (author)

  19. Advances in computational modeling of catalytic systems used in Claus sulfur recovery

    Clark, P.D.; Lo, J. [Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Center for Applied Catalysis and Industrial Sulfur Chemistry

    2010-01-15

    This poster session discussed advances in computation modeling of catalytic systems used in Claus sulfur recovery, focusing on the hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) and sulphur dioxide (S{sub O}2) absorption of non-alumina Claus active metal oxides, such as titanium oxide and vanadium oxide. These metal oxides were chosen because they promote carbon disulphide (CS{sub 2}) conversion and have a potential use in olefin chemistry. The redox process of H{sub 2}S dissociation on vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 2}) can take place in single-site reaction or multiple site reactions. Both mechanisms lead to the production of V{sub 2}O{sub 4}S, water (H{sub 2}O) and other species. The overall process of forming VO{sub 4}S is neutral, but kinetics is a controlling factor. The surface sulfidation to form V{sub 2}O{sub 3}S{sub 2} requires a small energy cost but possesses a huge reaction barrier. The formation of H{sub 2}S{sub 2} is energetically favorable. The silica (SiO{sub 2})-supported V{sub 2}O{sub 2} catalyst was described. A proposed mechanism of H{sub 2}S conversion to H{sub 2}O and V=S group was presented along with another reaction route in which the dissociative absorption of H{sub 2}S takes place on O-bridges instead of V=O. Two vanadia catalysts were compared: V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. 7 figs.

  20. Manufacturing A Refrigerator with Heat Recovery Unit

    Mustafa Mohammed Kadhim

    2018-02-01

    refrigerator with heat recovery cabinet by 20% more than that of the operation of refrigerator only. This improvement is due to the reduction in the condenser exit temperature by 4 to 6 C˚, and the super heat removing process in reheating cabinet. The temperature of the cabinet reachs to 60 C˚ which is a sufficient for the food heating. A small amount of refrigerant pressure reduction due to these additions, and its effect on the preformace of the refrigerator  may be not considerable.

  1. Trace recovery of uranium and rare earth contained in phosphates by liquid-liquid extraction in sulfuric attack liquor

    Bousquet, F.; Foraison, D.; Leveque, A.; Sabot, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    Uranium and rare earths can be recovered in sedimentary phosphates during the wet processing of the ore by sulfuric acid giving raw phosphoric acid at 30 per cent of P 2 O 5 . Practically all the uranium contained and only part of rare earths are put into solution in this treatment. Separation of these elements in the phosphoric solution is obtained by liquid-liquid extraction with alkylphosphoric acids and especially with their mono and di esters. Partition isotherms are determined and counter-current tests are effected. Uranium and rare earths reextraction from these solvents can be simultaneous or separate with aqueous solutions alkaline or containing HF or by antisynergism. Pros and cons of each reextraction process are discussed. In conclusion HDEHP or OPPA are recommended because of availability, stability and hydrodynamic, OPPA less selective with rare earths allows the recovery with uranium of ceric earths, yttrium and yttric earths [fr

  2. ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR; FINAL

    Robert S. Weber

    1999-01-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO(sub 2)-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO(sub 2)-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing

  3. ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    Robert S. Weber

    1999-05-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO{sub 2}-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing

  4. Environmental protection uranium recovery issues in the United States

    Peake, R.T.; Cherepy, A.; Rosnick, R.; Schultheisz, D.; Setlow, L. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Uranium recovery activities in the United States were at a standstill just a few years ago. Demand for processed uranium yellowcake has increased, as has its price, though the price is down since the Fukushima reactor accident. Interest in producing uranium has increased, too. Currently the most preferred, low-cost uranium extraction method in the United States is in-situ leach (ISL) recovery where the geohydrology is conducive to injection, mobilization and pumping. A number of applications for new ISL and conventional mills have recently been submitted or are expected to be submitted for licensing by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings under the authority of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). These standards are found in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 192 (40 CFR Part 192). The NRC develops implementing regulations for 40 CFR Part 192 and then NRC or delegated States enforce the NRC and EPA regulations. Facilities regulated under 40 CFR Part 192 include conventional uranium and thorium mills as well as in-situ leach operations, which are considered to be 'milling underground' for regulatory purposes. However, there are no explicit standards for ISL operations in 40 CFR Part 192. In addition, EPA has determined that portions of the operations at uranium recovery operations, specifically the radon emissions from tailings impoundments, are covered by Section 112 of the Clean Air Act as a source of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). EPA addresses these operations in 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart W. EPA is in the process of reviewing both 40 CFR Part 192 and 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart W for possible revision. This paper presents some of the issues related to uranium recovery that are being considered in the current regulatory review. (author)

  5. Avoiding total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from sodium sulfite pulping recovery processes

    Norman, J.C.; Sell, N.J.; Ciriacks, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the current trends in paper-making with cellulose pulping is the use of high-yield processes. With yields greater than 65%, these processes include mechanical pulps (groundwood and thermomechanical pulps or TMP), and semichemical types (chemi-TMP or CTMP). Groundwood and TMP make up about 10% of North American pulp production. Semichemical pulp makes up about 7% and is mostly used for corrugating medium. High-yield pulping for linerboard, particularly using the alkaline sulfite process, is also likely to be used in the future. High-yield pulping is based primarily on the sulfite process using mostly sodium-based chemicals. A disadvantage of this process is the unavailability of a recovery system for the inorganic pulping chemicals. Generally, mills have not accepted any particular recovery system for this process. For this and other reasons, sulfite processes constitute only 3-4% of the total North American pulp production. If high-yield processes continue to increase in popularity, a sodium sulfite chemical recovery system will be needed. A number of chemical recovery systems have been developed in the past 30 years for sodium-based sulfite pulping processes, with most of the mills successfully using this process located in Scandinavia

  6. The changing face of lower tropospheric sulfur oxides in the United States

    G. M. Hidy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sulfur oxides, sulfur dioxide and airborne sulfate, SOx, are short-lived species in the troposphere whose concentrations in air and precipitation have changed dramatically in association with fossil fuel combustion. The historic rise in concentration is coincident with the era of the so-called “Anthropocene.” Unlike concentrations of long-lived species such as carbon dioxide, atmospheric SOx in the United States (US peaked between 1970 and 2005 then declined. The rise and fall of SOx is traced by comparing national data on emission changes, ambient concentrations, and precipitation sulfate from prior to World War II to the present. Surface SOx concentrations and precipitation sulfate have decreased with emissions in most parts of the US after the late 1970s. Continued reduction toward a natural “background” condition has depended on aggressive management of anthropogenic emission sources. Annual average ambient concentrations of SO2 and SO4 have become more uniform across the US at levels of 1–3 ppbv and 0.3–3 µg/m3, respectively. Precipitation SO4 has a nominal concentration generally less than 0.5 mg/L. The effective lifetime of SOx in the troposphere is a few days. This duration limits the spatial extent of emission source influence of SOx to regional scales, wherein spatial gradients in species concentrations lead to variations in human exposure and impacts on vulnerable terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The effects of domestic emission reductions on SOx levels are moderated by intra- and intercontinental transport of SOx from Canada, Mexico, Asia and elsewhere. The trends in tropospheric SOx concentrations illustrate the results of more than a century of rising public awareness and action to progressively reduce a US environmental risk, accomplished with advances in energy production technology that have maintained economic well-being.

  7. Effective sulfur and energy recovery from hydrogen sulfide through incorporating an air-cathode fuel cell into chelated-iron process.

    Sun, Min; Song, Wei; Zhai, Lin-Feng; Cui, Yu-Zhi

    2013-12-15

    The chelated-iron process is among the most promising techniques for the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal due to its double advantage of waste minimization and resource recovery. However, this technology has encountered the problem of chelate degradation which made it difficult to ensure reliable and economical operation. This work aims to develop a novel fuel-cell-assisted chelated-iron process which employs an air-cathode fuel cell for the catalyst regeneration. By using such a process, sulfur and electricity were effectively recovered from H2S and the problem of chelate degradation was well controlled. Experiment on a synthetic sulfide solution showed the fuel-cell-assisted chelated-iron process could maintain high sulfur recovery efficiencies generally above 90.0%. The EDTA was preferable to NTA as the chelating agent for electricity generation, given the Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) of 17.8 ± 0.5% to 75.1 ± 0.5% for the EDTA-chelated process versus 9.6 ± 0.8% to 51.1 ± 2.7% for the NTA-chelated process in the pH range of 4.0-10.0. The Fe (III)/S(2-) ratio exhibited notable influence on the electricity generation, with the CEs improved by more than 25% as the Fe (III)/S(2-) molar ratio increased from 2.5:1 to 3.5:1. Application of this novel process in treating a H2S-containing biogas stream achieved 99% of H2S removal efficiency, 78% of sulfur recovery efficiency, and 78.6% of energy recovery efficiency, suggesting the fuel-cell-assisted chelated-iron process was effective to remove the H2S from gas streams with favorable sulfur and energy recovery efficiencies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 'It’s Recovery United for Me': Promises and Pitfalls of Football as Part of Mental Health Recovery

    Magee, J.; Spaaij, R.; Jeanes, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper builds on the concept of mental health recovery to critically examine three football projects in the United Kingdom and their effects on the recovery process. Drawing on qualitative research on the lived experiences of mental health clients and service providers across the three projects,

  9. Comparison of 2-Octanol and Tributyl Phosphate in Recovery of Tungsten from Sulfuric-Phosphoric Acid Leach Solution of Scheelite

    Liao, Yulong; Zhao, Zhongwei

    2018-04-01

    Tungsten was recovered from sulfuric-phosphoric acid leach solution of scheelite using 2-octanol and tributyl phosphate (TBP). Approximately 76% of the tungsten and less than 6.2% of the iron were extracted when using 70% 2-octanol, showing good selectivity for tungsten over iron; the tungsten extraction could not be significantly enhanced using a three-stage countercurrent simulation test. Moreover, more than 99.2% of the W and 91.0% of the Fe were extracted when using 70% TBP, showing poor selectivity, but after pretreating the leach solution with iron powder, less than 5.5% of the Fe was extracted. The loaded phases were stripped using deionized water and ammonia solution. The maximum stripping rate of tungsten from loaded 2-octanol was 45.6% when using water, compared with only 13.1% from loaded TBP. Tungsten was efficiently stripped from loaded phases using ammonia solution without formation of Fe(OH)3 precipitate. Finally, a flow sheet for recovery of tungsten with TBP is proposed.

  10. Heat recovery unit operation of HVAC system in IMEF

    Paek, S. R.; Oh, Y. W.; Song, E. S.; Park, D. K.; Joo, Y. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    HVAC system including a supply and exhaust air system in IMEF(Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) is an essential facility for preventing a leakage of radioactive materials and for a preservation of a working environment. It costs a lot to operate the HVAC system in IMEF because our ventilation type is once-through system, and an air flow is maintained from low level contamination area to high level and maintained high turns of ventilation air under certain conditions. As HRU(Heat Recovery Unit) at HVAC system based on PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) operation experiences is designed and adopted, it prevents from a heating coil freezing destruction in winter and makes much energy saving etc.. Heat pipe type HRU is adopted in IMEF, and a construction and operation result of HRU is examined

  11. Ahead of his time: Jacob Lipman's 1930 estimate of atmospheric sulfur deposition for the conterminous United States

    Landa, Edward R.; Shanley, James B.

    2015-01-01

    A 1936 New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin provided an early quantitative assessment of atmospheric deposition of sulfur for the United States that has been compared in this study with more recent assessments. In the early 20th century, anthropogenic sulfur additions from the atmosphere to the soil by the combustion of fossil fuels were viewed as part of the requisite nutrient supply of crops. Jacob G. Lipman, the founding editor of Soil Science, and his team at Rutgers University, made an inventory of such additions to soils of the conterminous United States during the economic depression of the 1930s as part of a federally funded project looking at nutrient balances in soils. Lipman's team gathered data compiled by the US Bureau of Mines on coal and other fuel consumption by state and calculated the corresponding amounts of sulfur emitted. Their work pioneered a method of assessment that became the norm in the 1970s to 1980s—when acid rain emerged as a national issue. Lipman's estimate of atmospheric sulfur deposition in the 1930 is in reasonable agreement with recent historic reconstructions.

  12. Trends in lumber processing in the Western United States. Part II: Overrun and lumber recovery factors.

    Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Keith A. Blatner; Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    This article describes trends in three measures of lumber recovery for sawmills in the western United States: lumber overrun (LO), lumber recovery factor (LRF), and cubic lumber recovery (CLR). All states and regions showed increased LO during the last three decades. Oregon and Montana had the highest LO at 107 and 100 percent, respectively. Alaska had the lowest LO at...

  13. ALARA approach on Qinshan unit I lower internals recovery project

    Wu Meijing; Xu Hongming; Jiang Jianqi; Chen Zhongyu

    2000-01-01

    Qinshan unit-1 is a 300 Mwe prototype PWR. It has been successfully operating for 4 fuel cycles about 10 years. Some loose parts by the failure of the guide tube of the reactor core neutron flux measurement thimble were observed on the lower structure of Core Barrel during periodical inspection after unloading all fuel assemblies. Qinshan Nuclear Power Company selected Westinghouse Electric Company as contractor to perform the reactor core barrel recovery service after negotiated with 4 world big company. QNPC and Westinghouse worked together to approach the ALARA by increasing water shielding, adding additional steel shielding, fuel pool cleaning and using the long hand tools, remote camera system. The training, mock-up exercise, good personal behavior was greatly contributed to the ALARA approaching. The collective dose and personal exposure of this job were successful controlled by implementing the preset ALARA program. The job was done by the cost of 70 man.mSv collective dose and 3.5 mSv maximum personal exposure despite of the high dose-rate which hot spot in some place is up to several hundred Sv per hour. (author)

  14. Sulfur gained from flue gas, a demonstration unit of the Wellman-Lord process annexed to a black coal power plant

    Schulte, H

    1977-12-16

    Details of reducing air pollution by desulfurization of flue gases are presented. The demonstration unit is annexed to a 115 MW block at the Gary power plant in Indiana, USA. A second unit is being installed at the larger coal power plant in San Juan, New Mexico. The Wellman-Lord technology achieves a higher than 90% desulfurization of industrial waste gases. The technology is based on washing the gases with sodium sulfide. The resulting concentrated sulfur dioxide gas is used for pure sulfur and sulfuric acid production. Sodium sulfate is another commercial by-product obtained from the sodium sulfide regeneration cycle. Chemical details and the technological flow sheet are discussed. Electricity production costs in the power plants due to desulfurization of waste gases will increase by an estimated 15%. Advantages, in addition to reducing air pollution and marketing sulfur products, are also seen in the absence of sulfur containing wastes for disposal. (In German)

  15. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  16. New treating processes for sulfur-containing natural gases

    Kislenko, N.; Aphanasiev, A.; Nabokov, S.; Ismailova, H. [VNIIGAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The traditional method of removing H{sub 2}S from sour natural gases is first to treat the gas with a solvent and then to recover the H{sub 2}S from the sour stream in a Claus plant. This method recovers up to 97% of the sulfur when a three-stage Claus unit is employed. Amine/Claus units have operating difficulties for small sulfur capacities (up to 5 tons/day) because the operation of the fired equipment (reaction furnace) is much more difficult. Therefore, for small scale sulfur recovery plants redox processes which exhibit a significant reduction in investment and operating costs are normally used. Many different factors influence the choice of gas desulfurization technology--composition and gas flow, environmental sulfur recovery requirements and CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S ratio.

  17. Thermal recovery characteristics of Kori-unit 1 linde 80 weld

    Chi, S. H.; Hong, J. H.; Kuk, I. H.; Kim, I. S.

    1997-01-01

    The recovery activation energy, the order of reaction and the characteristic recovery rate constant were determined by isochronal (573K -823K) and isothermal (723K - 775K) annealing experiments on specimens made from a broken half of a Kori-Unit 1 surveillance weld specimen (fluence: 1.21 x 10 23 n/m 2 , E (1MeV, Cu: 0.29 wt%) to investigate the recovery characteristics of a high copper weld of neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Vickers microhardness tests were conducted to trace the recovery behavior after heat treatments. The results were analyzed in terms of recovery stages, behavior of responsible defects and recovery kinetics. It was shown that recovery occurred through two annealing stages (stage I: 673K - 753K, stage II: 753K - 823K) with recovery activation energies of 2.68 eV and 2.83 eV for stage I and II, respectively. The isothermal hardness recovery at 723 K and 775 K coincided with the ratio of the characteristic rate constant for each recovery stage. The order of reaction was 2 for both recovery stages. The recovery activation energies of present specimens are approximately equal to that of copper diffusion in α-iron in the presence of vacancies, suggesting that recovery may occur through the diffusion of copper atoms. The present results strongly support the copper precipitate coarsening model. (author)

  18. An Approach for Measuring the Sorptive Behavior of Odorants Using a Multifunction Thermal Desorber Unit: Preliminary Tests on Reduced Sulfur Compounds

    Sang-Woo Joo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the sorptive behavior of reduced sulfur compounds (RSC was investigated using a combination of thermal desorber (TD unit and gas chromatography (GC. To examine the sorptive properties of RSC on textile materials, two types of experiments were conducted under experimental conditions favorable for sorptive processes. In all the experiments, gaseous standards of hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were supplied to initiate the adsorption processes on textile pieces. The textile pieces were then forced to release those adsorbed RSC under a fixed condition. It was found that the extent of adsorption, if evaluated quantitatively, occurred at approximately 1/1000 to 1/100 of the level of RSC standards supplied originally to induce adsorption. It also indicated that RSC adsorption was affected very sensitively by the initial exposure durations to induce RSC adsorption with an exponential decrease in relative recovery (RR values with increasing exposure time. The relative sorptive patterns, when compared between different RSCs, were affected most sensitively by such factors as molecular weight and/or physical contact conditions.

  19. Experimental study on mass transfer of contaminants through an enthalpy recovery unit with polymer membrane foils

    Nie, Jinzhe; Fang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experimental studies were conducted to investigate the mass transfer of contaminants through a total heat recovery unit with polymer membranes foils. The studies were conducted in twin climate chambers which simulated outdoor and indoor thermal climates. One manufacturd total heat...... chemical gases were used to simulate air contaminants. The concentrations of dosed contaminants in the supply and exhaust air upstream and downstream of the total heat recovery unit were measured with Multi-Gas Monitor Innova 1316 in real time. Experiment results showed that 5% to 9% of dosed contaminants...... could transfer from exhaust air to supply air through the enthalpy recovery unit. The mass transfer efficiency of contaminants was independent of the hygro-thermal differences between indoor and outdoor climate conditions. The mass transfer ratio of the chemical contaminants in the total heat recovery...

  20. Advancing the recovery orientation of hospital care through staff engagement with former clients of inpatient units.

    Kidd, Sean A; McKenzie, Kwame; Collins, April; Clark, Carrie; Costa, Lucy; Mihalakakos, George; Paterson, Jane

    2014-02-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the impact of consumer narratives on the recovery orientation and job satisfaction of service providers on inpatient wards that focus on the treatment of schizophrenia. It was developed to address the paucity of literature and service development tools that address advancing the recovery model of care in inpatient contexts. A mixed-methods design was used. Six inpatient units in a large urban psychiatric facility were paired on the basis of characteristic length of stay, and one unit from each pair was assigned to the intervention. The intervention was a series of talks (N=58) to inpatient staff by 12 former patients; the talks were provided approximately biweekly between May 2011 and May 2012. Self-report measures completed by staff before and after the intervention assessed knowledge and attitudes regarding the recovery model, the delivery of recovery-oriented care at a unit level, and job satisfaction. In addition, focus groups for unit staff and individual interviews with the speakers were conducted after the speaker series had ended. The hypothesis that the speaker series would have an impact on the attitudes and knowledge of staff with respect to the recovery model was supported. This finding was evident from both quantitative and qualitative data. No impact was observed for recovery orientation of care at the unit level or for job satisfaction. Although this engagement strategy demonstrated an impact, more substantial change in inpatient practices likely requires a broader set of strategies that address skill levels and accountability.

  1. Development of a stable uranium recovery regulatory framework for uranium recovery activities in the United States

    Layton, M.C.; Abrams, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has historically regulated operations at all uranium and thorium recovery facilities under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. Uranium recovery facilities are those plants, or portions of facilities that process uranium- or thorium-bearing material primarily for its source material content. The uranium recovery industry expressed some concerns over several aspects of the NRC's practices, as described in the NRC's guidance documents. In April 1998, the National Mining Association submitted a report to the Commission, that identified specific concerns with NRC's current position and guidance regarding concurrent jurisdiction at uranium mills; dual regulatory authority at in situ leach facilities; the use of mill tailings impoundments for disposal of radioactive material other than 11e.(2) byproduct material; and the ability to process alternate feed material at uranium mills. The NRC staff addressed most of these concerns in two SECY (staff recommendations) papers that were concurrently provided to the Commission, along with a SECY paper on a draft rulemaking plan relating to these and other issues. The issues addressed in these papers included a new rulemaking, disposal of materials other than 11 e.(2) byproduct material, processing of materials other than natural ores, and improved efficiency for regulating in situ leach uranium facilities. The Commission issued final policy decisions on these issues and directions for NRC staff to implement those decisions in July 2000. (author)

  2. Experimental Evaluation of a Total Heat Recovery Unit with Polymer Membrane Foils

    Fang, Lei; Yuan, Shu; Nie, Jinzhe

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experimental study was conducted to investigate the energy performance of a total heat recovery unit using a polymer membranes heat exchanger. The study was conducted in twin climate chambers. One of the chambers simulated outdoor climate conditions and the other simulated the climate...... condition indoors. The airflows taken from the two chambers were connected into the total heat recovery unit and exchange heat in a polymer membrane foil heat exchanger installed inside the unit. The temperature and humidity of the air upstream and downstream of the heat exchanger were measured. Based...... on the measured temperature and humidity values, the temperature, humidity, and enthalpy efficiencies of the total heat recovery unit were calculated. The experiment was conducted in different combinations of outdoor climate conditions simulating warm and humid outdoor climates and air-conditioned indoor climate...

  3. Recovery-Oriented Mental Health Practice in a Community Care Unit: An Exploratory Study.

    McKenna, Brian; Oakes, Jane; Fourniotis, Niki; Toomey, Nigel; Furness, Trentham

    A recovery-oriented model of care has become the major focus of mental health service delivery in the state of Victoria, Australia. However, there is a total absence of knowledge of recovery-oriented mental health practice in community care units (CCUs). Therefore, the aims of this exploratory study were to: (a) describe what aspects of the current model of care fit within the domains of recovery; and (b) describe the pragmatic processes that staff use to mold their care within the domains of recovery. Twenty-one key stakeholders provided informed voluntary consent to participate in one-to-one interviews. Six content domains evolved to include: (a) a common vision: "a continuous journey"; (b) promoting hope; (c) promoting autonomy and self-determination; (d) meaningful engagement; (e) holistic and personalized care; and (f) community participation and citizenship. The CCU appeared to be on a journey of transformation toward personal recovery. However, clinicians were grappling with an identified tension among personal recovery and clinical recovery. The tension among personal recovery and clinical recovery may be attributed to the psychosocial rehabilitation model of care, which was previously systemic in Victorian CCUs.

  4. Nuclear fuel element recovery using PEDSCO RMI Unit

    Martin, D.G.; Pedersen, B.V.

    1984-01-01

    In September 1982, a PEDSCO Remote Mobile Investigation Unit was used to recover damaged irradiated fuel elements from a fueling machine and trolley deck at Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A'. This Canadian-made remote controlled vehicle was originally designed for explosive ordinance disposal by law enforcement agencies. This paper describes its adaptation to nuclear service and its first mission, within a nuclear facility

  5. Use of sulfuric-nitric acid for the recovery of plutonium from HEPA filters. (620.2, WH001/LWE)

    Clark, D.E.

    1978-09-01

    Contaminated high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter media, containing PuO 2 powder which had been calcined at 700 0 C, were treated with concentrated H 2 SO 4 -HNO 3 at 190 to 200 0 C for periods ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 hours. When followed by a dilute HNO 3 rinse, this treatment was shown to be very effective as a plutonium recovery operation (approximately greater than 97% of the plutonium was solubilized). A proposed treatment scheme is given which could provide both a plutonium recovery option for HEPA filters and a reduction in overall waste volume

  6. Recovery of Silver Using Adsorption Gels Prepared from Microalgal Residue Immobilized with Functional Groups Containing Sulfur or Nitrogen

    Kanjana Khunathai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although biodiesel oil extracted from microalgae attracts much attention as one of the most promising green energies, its high production cost is a big problem, impeding its extensive use. In order to lower the production cost, the effective use of microalgal residue after extracting biofuel was investigated as a feed material of functional materials. In the present work, a new adsorbent for silver(I was prepared by immobilizing functional groups of polyethylene-polyamine or dithiooxamide, which exhibita high affinity for soft Lewis acids such as silver(I ions. Their adsorption behaviors for silver(I were investigated from aqueous nitrate and acidothiourea media. The effects of the concentrations of nitrate and thiourea, as well as of sulfuric acid, were qualitatively interpreted. From the study of adsorption isotherms on these gels, they were found to exhibita higher adsorption capacity than the majority of those reported to date.

  7. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    2010-07-01

    ... Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam generating units... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat...

  8. Digestive recovery of sulfur-methyl-L-methionine and its bioaccessibility in Kimchi cabbages using a simulated in vitro digestion model system.

    Lee, Hae-Rim; Cho, Sun-Duk; Lee, Woon Kyu; Kim, Gun-Hee; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2014-01-15

    Sulfur-methyl-L-methionine (SMM) has been known to provide various biological functions such as radical scavenging effect, inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, and prevention of gastric mucosal damage. Kimchi cabbages are known to be a major food source providing SMM but its bioaccessibility has not been studied. The objective of current study was to determine both the digestive stability of SMM and the amount released from Kimchi cabbages under a simulated in vitro digestion model system. The in vitro digestion model system simulating a human gastrointestinal tract was carried out for measuring digestive recovery and bioaccessibility of SMM. SMM was quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Recovery of an SMM standard after digestion was 0.68 and 0.65% for fasted and fed conditions, respectively, indicating that the digestive stability of the SMM standard was not affected by dietary energy or co-ingested food matrix. The SMM standard was also significantly stable in acidic pH (P < 0.05). The bioaccessibility of SMM from Kimchi cabbages was measured under a fasted condition, resulted in 8.83, 14.71 and 10.88%, for salivary, gastric and small intestinal phases, respectively. Results from our study suggest that SMM from Kimchi cabbages, a component of food sources, is more bioavailable than SMM by itself. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. [Factors affecting the recovery in the intensive care unit].

    Turkov, P N; Nikitin, V V; Antsupova, M A; Podkopaev, V N; Panfilova, R P; Ivanova, I N; Nesterova, L I

    2013-01-01

    Urgency of the problem is defined by economical, regulatory and legislative acts, regional social and moral factors. There is critical situation in Russian Pediatric Healthcare system. This situation is due to inadequate funding, high medical technologies inaccessibility for some Russian children, their adverse health state. The article presents a retrospective analysis of intensive therapy and resuscitation outcomes with technical equipment and work environment assessment in the intensive care unit of Tushinskaya city pediatric clinic for the period from 2007 to 2011. Anaesthetic and emergency care quality and safety depend on several factors: permanent equipment improvement, comprehensive analysis of every fatal case and full implementation of "Anti-epidemic (prophylactic) actions plan" and "Program of monitoring compliance with the sanitary norms".

  10. High-threshold motor unit firing reflects force recovery following a bout of damaging eccentric exercise

    Macgregor, Lewis J.

    2018-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with impaired muscle function and reduced neuromuscular recruitment. However, motor unit firing behaviour throughout the recovery period is unclear. EIMD impairment of maximal voluntary force (MVC) will, in part, be caused by reduced high-threshold motor unit firing, which will subsequently increase to recover MVC. Fourteen healthy active males completed a bout of eccentric exercise on the knee extensors, with measurements of MVC, rate of torque development and surface electromyography performed pre-exercise and 2, 3, 7 and 14 days post-exercise, on both damaged and control limb. EIMD was associated with decreased MVC (235.2 ± 49.3 Nm vs. 161.3 ± 52.5 Nm; p motor unit firing rate was reduced (16.4 ± 2.2 Hz vs. 12.6 ± 1.7 Hz; p motor units only, 48h post-exercise, and common drive was elevated (0.36 ± 0.027 vs. 0.56 ± 0.032; pmotor units was reduced in parallel with impaired muscle function, whilst early recruited motor units remained unaltered. Common drive of motor units increased in offset to the firing rate impairment. These alterations correlated with the recovery of force decrement, but not of pain elevation. This study provides fresh insight into the central mechanisms associated with EIMD recovery, relative to muscle function. These findings may in turn lead to development of novel management and preventative procedures. PMID:29630622

  11. Recovery of valuable products in liquid effluents from uranium and thorium pilot units

    Jardim, E.A.; Abrao, A.

    1988-01-01

    IPEN-CNEN/SP has being very active in refining yellowcake to pure ammonium diuranate which is converted to uranium trioxide, uranium dioxide, uranium tetra- and hexafluoride in a sequential way. The technology of the thorium purification and its conversion to nuclear grade products has been a practice since several years as well. For both elements the major waste to be worked is the refinate from the solvent extraction column where uranium and thorium are purified via TBP-varsol in pulsed columns. In this paper the actual processing technology is reviewed with special emphasis on the recovery of valuable products, mainly nitric acid and ammonium nitrate. Distilled nitric acid and the final sulfuric acid as residue are recycle. Ammonium nitrate from the precipitation of uranium diuranate is of good quality, being radioactivity and uranium-free, and recommended to be applied as fertilizer. In conclusion the main effort is to maximise the recycle and reuse of the abovementioned chemicals. (author) [pt

  12. Modelling of an industrial NGL-Recovery unit considering environmental and economic impacts

    Sharratt, P. N.; Hernandez-Enriquez, A.; Flores-Tlacuahuac, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, an integrated model is presented that identifies key areas in the operation of a cryogenic NGL-recovery unit. This methodology sets out to provide deep understanding of various interrelationship across multiple plant operating factors including reliability, which could be essential for substantial improvement of process performance. The integrated model has been developed to predict the economic and environmental impacts of a real cryogenic unit (600 MMCUF/D) during normal operation, and has been built in Aspen TM. (Author)

  13. Mapping critical levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide for crops, forests and natural vegetation in the United States

    Rosenbaum, B.J.; Strickland, T.C.; McDowell, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution abatement strategies for controlling nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone emissions in the United States focus on a 'standards-based' approach. This approach places limits on air pollution by maintaining a baseline value for air quality, no matter what the ecosystem can or cannot withstand. This paper, presents example critical levels maps for the conterminous U.S. developed using the 'effects-based' mapping approach as defined by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, Task Force on Mapping. This approach emphasizes the pollution level or load capacity an ecosystem can accommodate before degradation occurs, and allows for analysis of cumulative effects. Presents the first stage of an analysis that reports the distribution of exceedances of critical levels for NO 2 , SO 2 , and O 3 in sensitive forest, crop, and natural vegetation ecosystems in the contiguous United States. It is concluded that extrapolation to surrounding geographic areas requires the analysis of diverse and compounding factors that preclude simple extrapolation methods. Pollutant data depicted in this analysis are limited to locationally specific data, and would be enhanced by utilizing spatial statistics, along with converging associated anthropogenic and climatological factors. Values used for critical levels were derived from current scientific knowledge. While not intended to be a definitive value, adjustments will occur as the scientific community gains new insight to pollutant/receptor relationships. We recommend future analysis to include a refinement of sensitive receptor data coverages and to report relative proportions of exceedances at varying grid scales. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment (HTRE)-3 Container Storage Unit Resource Conservation Recovery Act closure plan

    Spry, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the closure of the HTRE-3 Container Storage Unit under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The unit's location, size, history, and current status are described. The document also summarizes the decontamination and decommissioning efforts performed in 1983 and provides an estimate of,waste residues remaining in the HTRE-3 assembly. A risk evaluation was performed that demonstrates that the residue does not pose a hazard to public health or the environment. Based on the risk evaluation, it is proposed that the HTRE-3 Container Storage Unit be closed in its present condition, without further decontamination or removal activities

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Xiii to Part 266 - Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units XIII Appendix XIII to Part 266 Protection of Environment... XIII to Part 266—Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units These...

  16. Geochemical mass balance for sulfur- and nitrogen-bearing acid components: Eastern United States

    Bischoff, W.D.; Mackenzie, F.T.; Paterson, V.L.

    1984-01-01

    The impact on a geographical region of SO 2 and nitrogen oxides (NO /SUB x/ ) emissions to the atmosphere because of man's activities (e.g., burning of fossil fuels and smelting of sulfide ores) usually has not been considered in terms of a regional geochemical mass balance model. Mass balance models, however, have been employed extensively on a global scale. The models evaluate reservoir sizes, processes and fluxes associated with the transfer of a substance within a system of interest. The models may be steady- or transient-state, and include assessment of historical (geologic), present and future data and processes. In this chapter a geochemical mass balance model is applied to constituents of acid precipitation (H + , NO - 3 and SO 2- ) to evaluate the impact of acid precipitation on the eastern United States

  17. Recovery of uranium from seawater using wave power and floating offshore units

    Bjoerk, B.; Vallander, P.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a final contribution to a study of the technical and economic feasibility of floating units for the recovery of uranium from seawater. The seawater is supplied by wave energy and received by a sloping plane. An optimization was carried out which involved study of the number of storeys of adsorbent beds in a floating unit, the number and tonnage of service vessels and the number of moorings. Different adsorbent bed areas, thickness of layers of adsorbent material, length of floating units and length of extraction cycles were considered. The costs of a plant for each combination of optimization parameters were calculated and are presented. The most feasible offshore plant will recover uranium at a cost of about 1900 SEK/kg. It will comprise 22 floating units, each with an adsorbent bed area of 300 m 2 per metre of the unit and an adsorbent thickness of 0.10 metres. (Authors)

  18. High-threshold motor unit firing reflects force recovery following a bout of damaging eccentric exercise.

    Macgregor, Lewis J; Hunter, Angus M

    2018-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with impaired muscle function and reduced neuromuscular recruitment. However, motor unit firing behaviour throughout the recovery period is unclear. EIMD impairment of maximal voluntary force (MVC) will, in part, be caused by reduced high-threshold motor unit firing, which will subsequently increase to recover MVC. Fourteen healthy active males completed a bout of eccentric exercise on the knee extensors, with measurements of MVC, rate of torque development and surface electromyography performed pre-exercise and 2, 3, 7 and 14 days post-exercise, on both damaged and control limb. EIMD was associated with decreased MVC (235.2 ± 49.3 Nm vs. 161.3 ± 52.5 Nm; p exercise. Mean motor unit firing rate was reduced (16.4 ± 2.2 Hz vs. 12.6 ± 1.7 Hz; p motor units only, 48h post-exercise, and common drive was elevated (0.36 ± 0.027 vs. 0.56 ± 0.032; pexercise. The firing rate of high-threshold motor units was reduced in parallel with impaired muscle function, whilst early recruited motor units remained unaltered. Common drive of motor units increased in offset to the firing rate impairment. These alterations correlated with the recovery of force decrement, but not of pain elevation. This study provides fresh insight into the central mechanisms associated with EIMD recovery, relative to muscle function. These findings may in turn lead to development of novel management and preventative procedures.

  19. Work disability in the United States, 1968–2015: Prevalence, duration, recovery, and trends

    James N. Laditka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The United States workforce is aging. At the same time more people have chronic conditions, for longer periods. Given these trends the importance of work disability, physical or nervous problems that limit a person’s type or amount of work, is increasing. No research has examined transitions among multiple levels of work disability, recovery from work disability, or trends. Limited research has focused on work disability among African Americans and Hispanics, or separately for women and men. We examined these areas using data from 30,563 adults in the 1968–2015 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We estimated annual probabilities of work disability, recovery, and death with multinomial logistic Markov models. Microsimulations accounting for age and education estimated outcomes for African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white women and men. Results from these nationally representative data suggested that the majority of Americans experience work disability during working life. Most spells ended with recovery or reduced severity. Among women, African Americans and Hispanics had less moderate and severe work disability than whites. Among men, African Americans became severely work disabled more often than whites, recovered from severe spells more often and had shorter severe spells, yet had more severe work disability at age 65. Hispanic men were more likely to report at least one spell of severe work disability than whites; they also had substantially more recovery from severe work disability, and a lower percentage of working years with work disability. Among African Americans and Hispanics, men were considerably more likely than women to have severe work disability at age 65. Work disability declined significantly across the study period for all groups. Although work disability has declined over several decades, it remains common. Results suggest that the majority of work disability spells end with recovery, underscoring the importance of

  20. EnviroAtlas - Atmospheric Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States (2011)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes annual nitrogen and sulfur deposition within each 12-digit HUC subwatershed for the year 2011. Values are provided for total...

  1. Work disability in the United States, 1968–2015: Prevalence, duration, recovery, and trends

    Laditka, James N.; Laditka, Sarah B.

    2017-01-01

    The United States workforce is aging. At the same time more people have chronic conditions, for longer periods. Given these trends the importance of work disability, physical or nervous problems that limit a person’s type or amount of work, is increasing. No research has examined transitions among multiple levels of work disability, recovery from work disability, or trends. Limited research has focused on work disability among African Americans and Hispanics, or separately for women and men. ...

  2. Organic Rankine cycle unit for waste heat recovery on ships (PilotORC)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    The project PilotORC was aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the use of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units to recover low-temperature waste heat sources (i.e. exhaust gases, scavenge air, engine cooling system, and lubricant oil system) on container vessels. The project...... included numerical simulations and experimental tests on a 125 kW demonstration ORC unit that utilizes the waste heat of the main engine cooling system on board one of Mærsk's container vessels. During the design of the demonstration ORC unit, different alternatives for the condenser were analyzed in order...... of using ORC units for maritime applications, and the relevance of this technology for new-building projects. Firstly, an evaluation of the waste heat resources available on board Mærsk containers fleet, and an estimation of the potential energy recovery by means of the ORC technology was performed...

  3. Centrifugal Compressor Unit-based Heat Energy Recovery at Compressor Stations

    V. S. Shadrin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available About 95% of the electricity consumed by air compressor stations around the world, is transformed into thermal energy, which is making its considerable contribution to global warming. The present article dwells on the re-use (recovery of energy expended for air compression.The article presents the energy analysis of the process of compressing air from the point of view of compressor drive energy conversion into heat energy. The temperature level of excess heat energy has been estimated in terms of a potential to find the ways of recovery of generated heat. It is shown that the temperature level formed by thermal energy depends on the degree of air compression and the number of stages of the compressor.Analysis of technical characteristics of modern equipment from leading manufacturers, as well as projects of the latest air compressor stations have shown that there are two directions for the recovery of heat energy arising from the air compression: Resolving technological problems of compressor units. The use of the excess heat generation to meet the technology objectives of the enterprise. This article examines the schematic diagrams of compressor units to implement the idea of heat recovery compression to solve technological problems: Heating of the air in the suction line during operation of the compressor station in winter conditions. Using compression heat to regenerate the adsorbent in the dryer of compressed air.The article gives an equity assessment of considered solutions in the total amount of heat energy of compressor station. Presented in the present work, the analysis aims to outline the main vectors of technological solutions that reduce negative impacts of heat generation of compressor stations on the environment and creating the potential for reuse of energy, i.e. its recovery.

  4. Characteristics and adaptability of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms used for the recovery of metals from minerals and their concentrates

    Rawlings Douglas E

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microorganisms are used in large-scale heap or tank aeration processes for the commercial extraction of a variety of metals from their ores or concentrates. These include copper, cobalt, gold and, in the past, uranium. The metal solubilization processes are considered to be largely chemical with the microorganisms providing the chemicals and the space (exopolysaccharide layer where the mineral dissolution reactions occur. Temperatures at which these processes are carried out can vary from ambient to 80°C and the types of organisms present depends to a large extent on the process temperature used. Irrespective of the operation temperature, biomining microbes have several characteristics in common. One shared characteristic is their ability to produce the ferric iron and sulfuric acid required to degrade the mineral and facilitate metal recovery. Other characteristics are their ability to grow autotrophically, their acid-tolerance and their inherent metal resistance or ability to acquire metal resistance. Although the microorganisms that drive the process have the above properties in common, biomining microbes usually occur in consortia in which cross-feeding may occur such that a combination of microbes including some with heterotrophic tendencies may contribute to the efficiency of the process. The remarkable adaptability of these organisms is assisted by several of the processes being continuous-flow systems that enable the continual selection of microorganisms that are more efficient at mineral degradation. Adaptability is also assisted by the processes being open and non-sterile thereby permitting new organisms to enter. This openness allows for the possibility of new genes that improve cell fitness to be selected from the horizontal gene pool. Characteristics that biomining microorganisms have in common and examples of their remarkable adaptability are described.

  5. Questions about the reliability of recovery boilers of steel smelting units

    Sazykin, Yu K; Mukhametzyanov, N K

    1979-01-01

    Because the main reason for failure of recovery boilers is contamination of the heating surfaces, the operational conditions of individual elements of boiler units, equipped with vibrational and pulsed cleaning are analyzed and the reliability of the cleaning systems in use today is evaluated. The recovery boilers from open hearth furnaces and two bath steel smelting units from the Magnitogorsk Metallurgic Combine were selected as the subjects of the study. It is established that the boiler heating surface cleaning system has a quite large number of failures. The vibrational cleaning readiness factor is rated at 0.9323 and that of the pulsed cleaning system, 0.9698. For the KU-100 recovery boilers with a mean productivity of 18-20 t/h, the losses caused by failures during operation with vibration and pulsed cleaning were 3,200 and 1,700 rubles per year, respectively. With reconstruction of the boilers, which is associated with an increase in their reliability, the vibration cleaning of the heating surface was replaced by pulsed cleaning.

  6. Modelling of a Naphtha Recovery Unit (NRU with Implications for Process Optimization

    Jiawei Du

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The naphtha recovery unit (NRU is an integral part of the processes used in the oil sands industry for bitumen extraction. The principle role of the NRU is to recover naphtha from the tailings for reuse in this process. This process is energy-intensive, and environmental guidelines for naphtha recovery must be met. Steady-state models for the NRU system are developed in this paper using two different approaches. The first approach is a statistical, data-based modelling approach where linear regression models have been developed using Minitab® from plant data collected during a performance test. The second approach involves the development of a first-principles model in Aspen Plus® based on the NRU process flow diagram. A novel refinement to this latter model, called “withdraw and remix”, is proposed based on comparing actual plant data to model predictions around the two units used to separate water and naphtha. The models developed in this paper suggest some interesting ideas for the further optimization of the process, in that it may be possible to achieve the required naphtha recovery using less energy. More plant tests are required to validate these ideas.

  7. Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects. Summary Report. Three Mile Island Unit 2 Polar Crane Recovery

    Doerge, D. H.; Miller, R. L.

    1984-08-01

    This document summarizes information concerning restoration of the Three Mile Island-Unit 2 Polar Crane to a fully operational condition following the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were placed in a computerized information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific data which could be utilized in planning for recovery activities should a similar accident occur in a nuclear generating plant. The information is presented in both computer output form and a manually assembled summarization. This report contains only the manpower requirements and radiation exposures actually incurred during recovery operations within the reactor containment and does not include support activities or costs. (author)

  8. 40 CFR 60.105a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking...

    2010-07-01

    ..., Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units. (iii) The owner or operator shall install, operate... for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking units (FCU). 60.105a Section 60.105a... and operations for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking units (FCU). (a) FCCU and...

  9. Work disability in the United States, 1968-2015: Prevalence, duration, recovery, and trends.

    Laditka, James N; Laditka, Sarah B

    2018-04-01

    The United States workforce is aging. At the same time more people have chronic conditions, for longer periods. Given these trends the importance of work disability, physical or nervous problems that limit a person's type or amount of work, is increasing. No research has examined transitions among multiple levels of work disability, recovery from work disability, or trends. Limited research has focused on work disability among African Americans and Hispanics, or separately for women and men. We examined these areas using data from 30,563 adults in the 1968-2015 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We estimated annual probabilities of work disability, recovery, and death with multinomial logistic Markov models. Microsimulations accounting for age and education estimated outcomes for African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white women and men. Results from these nationally representative data suggested that the majority of Americans experience work disability during working life. Most spells ended with recovery or reduced severity. Among women, African Americans and Hispanics had less moderate and severe work disability than whites. Among men, African Americans became severely work disabled more often than whites, recovered from severe spells more often and had shorter severe spells, yet had more severe work disability at age 65. Hispanic men were more likely to report at least one spell of severe work disability than whites; they also had substantially more recovery from severe work disability, and a lower percentage of working years with work disability. Among African Americans and Hispanics, men were considerably more likely than women to have severe work disability at age 65. Work disability declined significantly across the study period for all groups. Although work disability has declined over several decades, it remains common. Results suggest that the majority of work disability spells end with recovery, underscoring the importance of rehabilitation and

  10. Recovery of uranium from seawater using wave power and floating offshore units

    Bjoerk, B.; Vallander, P.

    1981-03-01

    This report is the final contribution to a study of the technical and economic feasibility of floating units for the recovery of uranium from seawater. The seawater is supplied by wave energy and received by a sloping plane. An optimization was carried out which involved study of the number of storeys of adsorbent beds in a floating unit, the number and tonnage of service vessels and the number of moorings. Different absorbent bed areas, thicknesses of layers of adsorbent material, length of floating units and length of extraction cycles were considered. The annual uranium uptake was calculated for an offshore location 20 nautical miles to the south-east of South Africa. The costs of the total plant for each combination of optimization parameters were calculated and are presented. The cost of the recovered uranium for each combination of optimization parameters is shown. The most feasible offshore plant will recover uranium at a cost of about 1 900 SEK/kg. It will comprise 22 floating units, each with an adsorbent bed area of 300 m 2 per metre of the unit and an adsorbent thickness of 0.10 metres. A conceptual layout of the selected floating unit is shown in drawings. (author)

  11. Experimental evaluation of enthalpy efficiency and gas-phase contaminant transfer in an enthalpy recovery unit with polymer membrane foils

    Nie, Jinzhe; Yang, Jianrong; Fang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies were conducted in a laboratory setting to investigate the enthalpy efficiency and gas-phase contaminant transfer in a polymer membrane enthalpy recovery unit. One commercially available polymer membrane enthalpy recovery unit was used as a reference unit. Simulated indoor air...... and outdoor air by twin chambers was connected to the unit. Three chemical gases were dosed to the indoor exhaust air to mimic indoor air contaminants. Based on the measurements of temperature, humidity ratio, and contaminant concentrations of the indoor exhaust air and outdoor air supply upstream...

  12. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  13. Conversion of a deasphalting unit for use in the process of supercritical solvent recovery

    Waintraub S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce energy consumption and to increase deasphalted oil yield, an old PETROBRAS deasphalting unit was converted for use in the process of supercritical solvent recovery. In-plant and pilot tests were performed to determine the ideal solvent-to-oil ratio. The optimum conditions for separation of the supercritical solvent from the solvent-plus-oil liquid mixture were determined by experimental tests in PVT cells. These tests also allowed measurement of the dew and bubble points, determination of the retrograde region, observation of supercritical fluid compressibility and as a result construction of a phase equilibrium diagram.

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure sumamry for the Uranium Treatment Unit

    1996-05-01

    This closure summary has been prepared for the Uranium Treatment Unit (UTU) located at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The actions required to achieve closure of the UTU area are outlined in the Closure Plan, submitted to and approved by the Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation staff, respectively. The UTU was used to store and treat waste materials that are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This closure summary details all steps that were performed to close the UTU in accordance with the approved plan

  15. Flue gas moisture capacity calculation at the outlet of the condensation heat recovery unit

    Galashov Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result, study equation has been obtained which determine the flue gas moisture capacity at the outlet of the condensation heat recovery unit with an error of less than 1%. It possible to at the temperature of the flue gas below the dew point and the known air-fuel ratio efficient. The equation can be used to calculate plants operating on products of gas combustion without Use of tables and programs for calculating the water-vapor saturation pressure.

  16. Play-level distributions of estimates of recovery factors for a miscible carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery method used in oil reservoirs in the conterminous United States

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2016-03-02

    In a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, recovery-factor estimates were calculated by using a publicly available reservoir simulator (CO2 Prophet) to estimate how much oil might be recovered with the application of a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method to technically screened oil reservoirs located in onshore and State offshore areas in the conterminous United States. A recovery factor represents the percentage of an oil reservoir’s original oil in place estimated to be recoverable by the application of a miscible CO2-EOR method. The USGS estimates were calculated for 2,018 clastic and 1,681 carbonate candidate reservoirs in the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012).

  17. Cooling energy efficiency and classroom air environment of a school building operated by the heat recovery air conditioning unit

    Wang, Yang; Zhao, Fu-Yun; Kuckelkorn, Jens; Liu, Di; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xiao-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    The recently-built school buildings have adopted novel heat recovery ventilator and air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification and indoor air quality indicated by the CO 2 concentration have been numerically modeled concerning the effects of delivering ventilation flow rate and supplying air temperature. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of mechanical ventilation rate can simultaneously boost the dilution of indoor air pollutants and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal and pollutant distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of supplying air. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented. - Highlights: • Low energy school buildings and classroom environment. • Heat recovery facility operating with an air conditioning unit. • Displacement ventilation influenced by the heat recovery efficiency. • Energy conservation of cooling and ventilation through heat recovery. • Enhancement of classroom environment with reduction of school building energy

  18. Computer aided design of operational units for tritium recovery from Li17Pb83 blanket of a DEMO fusion reactor

    Malara, C.; Viola, A.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of tritium recovery from Li 17 Pb 83 blanket of a DEMO fusion reactor is analyzed with the objective of limiting tritium permeation into the cooling water to acceptable levels. To this aim, a mathematical model describing the tritium behavior in blanket/recovery unit circuit has been formulated. By solving the model equations, tritium permeation rate into the cooling water and tritium inventory in the blanket are evaluated as a function of dimensionless parameters describing the combined effects of overall resistance for tritium transfer from Li 17 Pb 83 alloy to cooling water, circulating rate of the molten alloy in blanket/recovery unit circuit and extraction efficiency of tritium recovery unit. The extraction efficiency is, in turn, evaluated as a function of the operating conditions of recovery unit. The design of tritium recovery unit is then optimized on the basis of the above parametric analysis and the results are herein reported and discussed for a tritium permeation limit of 10 g/day into the cooling water. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Carbon Consequences of Forest Disturbance and Recovery Across the Conterminous United States

    Williams, Christopher A.; Collatz, G. James; Masek, Jeffrey; Goward, Samuel N.

    2012-01-01

    Forests of North America are thought to constitute a significant long term sink for atmospheric carbon. The United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program has developed a large data base of stock changes derived from consecutive estimates of growing stock volume in the US. These data reveal a large and relatively stable increase in forest carbon stocks over the last two decades or more. The mechanisms underlying this national increase in forest stocks may include recovery of forests from past disturbances, net increases in forest area, and growth enhancement driven by climate or fertilization by CO2 and Nitrogen. Here we estimate the forest recovery component of the observed stock changes using FIA data on the age structure of US forests and carbon stocks as a function of age. The latter are used to parameterize forest disturbance and recovery processes in a carbon cycle model. We then apply resulting disturbance/recovery dynamics to landscapes and regions based on the forest age distributions. The analysis centers on 28 representative climate settings spread about forested regions of the conterminous US. We estimate carbon fluxes for each region and propagate uncertainties in calibration data through to the predicted fluxes. The largest recovery-driven carbon sinks are found in the South central, Pacific Northwest, and Pacific Southwest regions, with spatially averaged net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of about 100 g C / square m / a driven by forest age structure. Carbon sinks from recovery in the Northeast and Northern Lake States remain moderate to large owing to the legacy of historical clearing and relatively low modern disturbance rates from harvest and fire. At the continental scale, we find a conterminous U.S. forest NEP of only 0.16 Pg C/a from age structure in 2005, or only 0.047 Pg C/a of forest stock change after accounting for fire emissions and harvest transfers. Recent estimates of NEP derived from inventory stock change

  20. Decommissioning cost recovery in the United States: lessons learned from Connecticut Yankee NPP

    Joosten, J.

    1999-01-01

    The international audience at ICONE-7 is already familiar with the roles of the owner and the NRC in ensuring the technical and safety performance goals of nuclear plant decommissioning. This paper addresses the role of the economic regulator since the pursuit of technical and safety goals must necessarily carry with them -a price tag- and owners must be concerned with the recovery of those costs. Answers to questions about how to pay and who should pay for decommissioning can very often influence nuclear power plant owner's decision-making. In the United States, most nuclear power plants are privately owned. Nevertheless, their owners are not totally free to determine the plant's economics or profitability. Instead, plant owners must sell their electricity to consumers in a regulated market wherein the price of electricity and terms of sale are controlled by the government. Under this regulatory regime, utilities are generally allowed to recover their investment costs -including decommissioning costs- provided that such costs are prudently, incurred. However, when an owner retires the plant prematurely, the prudence of his actions -up to and including the shutdown- are likely to be challenged. In 1997, for example, the owners of the Connecticut Yankee reactor faced a stiff challenge to the recovery of decommissioning costs when they shut down the plant ten years before license expiration. The Connecticut Yankee case thus provides valuable insights into the role of economic regulation on a nuclear plant's decommissioning strategy. (author)

  1. Spatial resolution recovery utilizing multi-ray tracing and graphic processing unit in PET image reconstruction

    Liang, Yicheng; Peng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) poses a major challenge for a PET system to achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view, particularly for small animal and organ-dedicated PET systems. In this work, we implemented an analytical method to model system matrix for resolution recovery, which was then incorporated in PET image reconstruction on a graphical processing unit platform, due to its parallel processing capacity. The method utilizes the concepts of virtual DOI layers and multi-ray tracing to calculate the coincidence detection response function for a given line-of-response. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated for a small-bore PET insert to be used for simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging. In addition, the performance comparisons were studied among the following three cases: 1) no physical DOI and no resolution modeling; 2) two physical DOI layers and no resolution modeling; and 3) no physical DOI design but with a different number of virtual DOI layers. The image quality was quantitatively evaluated in terms of spatial resolution (full-width-half-maximum and position offset), contrast recovery coefficient and noise. The results indicate that the proposed method has the potential to be used as an alternative to other physical DOI designs and achieve comparable imaging performances, while reducing detector/system design cost and complexity. (paper)

  2. Sulfur cycle

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Microbes, especially bacteria, play an important role in oxidative and reductive cycle of sulfur. The oxidative part of the cycle is mediated by photosynthetic bacteria in the presence of light energy and chemosynthetic forms in the absence of light...

  3. Sulfur Mustard

    ... in of the vapors can cause chronic respiratory disease, repeated respiratory infections, or death. Extensive eye exposure can cause permanent blindness. Exposure to sulfur mustard may increase a person’s risk for lung and respiratory cancer. ...

  4. MHD (Magnetohydrodynamics) recovery and regeneration

    McIlroy, R. A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Probert, P. B. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Lahoda, E. J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Swift, W. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jackson, D. M. [Univ. of Tennessee Space Inst. (UTSI), Tullahoma, TN (United States); Prasad, J. [Univ. of Tennessee Space Inst. (UTSI), Tullahoma, TN (United States); Martin, J. [Hudson Engineering (United States); Rogers, C. [Hudson Engineering (United States); Ho, K. K. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Senary, M. K. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)

    1988-10-01

    A two-phase program investigating MHD seed regeneration is described. In Phase I, bench scale experiments were carried out to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a proposed Seed Regeneration Process. The Phase I data has been used for the preliminary design of a Proof-of-Concept (POC) plant which will be built and tested in Phase II. The Phase I data will also be used to estimate the costs of a 300 Mw(t) demonstration plant for comparison with other processes. The Seed Regeneration Process consists of two major subprocesses; a Westinghouse Dry Reduction process and a modified Tampella (sulfur) Recovery process. The Westinghouse process reduces the recovered spent seed (i.e., potassium sulfate) to potassium polysulfide in a rotary kiln. The reduction product is dissolved in water to form green liquor, clarified to remove residual coal ash, and sent to the Tampella sulfur release system. The sulfur is released using carbon dioxide from flue gas in a two stage reaction. The sulfur is converted to elemental sulfur as a marketable by product. The potassium is crystallized from the green liquor and dried to the anhydrous form for return to the MHD unit.

  5. 76 FR 77528 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    2011-12-13

    ...In accordance with Section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of response costs concerning the North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, located in the vicinity of Los Angeles, California, with the following settling parties: Pick-Your-Part Auto Wrecking; Hayward Associates, LLC; and PNM Properties, LLC. The settlement requires the settling parties to pay a total of $102,161 to the North Hollywood Operable Unit Special Account within the Hazardous Substance Superfund. The settlement also includes a covenant not to sue the settling parties pursuant to Section 107(a) of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9607(a). For thirty (30) days following the date of publication of this notice, the Agency will receive written comments relating to the settlement. The Agency will consider all comments received and may modify or withdraw its consent to the settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or inadequate. The Agency's response to any comments received will be available for public inspection at the City of Los Angeles Central Library, Science and Technology Department, 630 West 5th Street, Los Angeles, CA 90071 and at the EPA Region 9 Superfund Records Center, Mail Stop SFD-7C, 95 Hawthorne Street, Room 403, San Francisco, CA 94105.

  6. 76 FR 79678 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    2011-12-22

    ...In accordance with Section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of response costs concerning the North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, located in the vicinity of Los Angeles, California, with the following settling parties: Pick-Your-Part Auto Wrecking; Hayward Associates, LLC; and PNM Properties, LLC. The settlement requires the settling parties to pay a total of $102,161 to the North Hollywood Operable Unit Special Account within the Hazardous Substance Superfund. The settlement also includes a covenant not to sue the settling parties pursuant to Section 107(a) of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9607(a). For thirty (30) days following the date of publication of this notice, the Agency will receive written comments relating to the settlement. The Agency will consider all comments received and may modify or withdraw its consent to the settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or inadequate. The Agency's response to any comments received will be available for public inspection at the City of Los Angeles Central Library, Science and Technology Department, 630 West 5th Street, Los Angeles, CA 90071 and at the EPA Region 9 Superfund Records Center, Mail Stop SFD-7C, 95 Hawthorne Street, Room 403, San Francisco, CA 94105.

  7. 77 FR 123 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    2012-01-03

    ...In accordance with Section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of response costs concerning the North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, located in the vicinity of Los Angeles, California, with the following settling party: Waste Management Recycling & Disposal Services of California, Inc., dba Bradley Landfill & Recycling Center. The settlement requires the settling party to pay a total of $185,734 to the North Hollywood Operable Unit Special Account within the Hazardous Substance Superfund. The settlement also includes a covenant not to sue the settling party pursuant to Section 107(a) of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9607(a). For thirty (30) days following the date of publication of this notice, the Agency will receive written comments relating to the settlement. The Agency will consider all comments received and may modify or withdraw its consent to the settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or inadequate. The Agency's response to any comments received will be available for public inspection at the City of Los Angeles Central Library, Science and Technology Department, 630 West 5th Street, Los Angeles CA 90071 and at the EPA Region 9 Superfund Records Center, Mail Stop SFD-7C, 95 Hawthorne Street, Room 403, San Francisco, CA 94105.

  8. Opportunities and Barriers to Resource Recovery and Recycling from Shredder Residue in the United States

    Nayak, Naren; Apelian, Diran

    2014-11-01

    Shredder residue is the by-product remaining after ferrous and nonferrous metals have been recovered from the processing of vehicles, white goods, and peddler scrap. Shredder residue consists of glass, plastics, rubber, dirt, and small amounts of metal. It is estimated that 5-7 million tons of this shredder residue are landfilled each year in the United States. Technical advancements, coupled with European Union directives and the economic climate, have transformed the recycling of shredder residue in Europe. In the United States, however, regulatory controls and the cheap cost of landfill have worked against the advancement of recycling and recovery of this resource. The Argonne National Laboratory, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, has investigated the effectiveness of recycling shredder residue into polymers. Other research has examined the use of shredder residue in waste-to-energy applications. To improve our ability to process and recycle shredder residue, an investigation of the regulatory, economic, and technological challenges was undertaken. The objective was to conduct a comprehensive review of work done to date, to document the composition of typical shredder output and to identify potential recoverable items (residual metals, plastics, rubber, foam, etc.). Along with uncovering potential new markets, the research would identify the technical, regulatory, and economic barriers to developing those markets.

  9. Evolutionary synthesis of optimum light ends recovery unit with exergy analysis application

    Khalili-Garakani, Amirhossein; Ivakpour, Javad; Kasiri, Norollah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Presenting an evolutionary synthesis algorithm. • Reducing configuration nominees based on exergy loss diagram of distillation columns. • Reduction of search space without decreasing the comprehensiveness and precision of the synthesis algorithm. • Rigorous simulation and optimization of sequences. - Abstract: Exergy analysis proved to be important in understanding of regions with poor energy efficiency and improve the design of distillation processes. In this study a new method based on exergy analysis is developed for the synthesis of a light ends recovery unit. The algorithm is some kinds of evolutionary one which employ total exergy loss diagrams of distillation columns for limiting the search space and reducing configuration nominees. The new method presented here for the light end separation unit, applies exergy loss diagrams as a powerful tool in locating the weak spot in the distillation columns of the Brugma sequence (as a first guess) and change the structure of the sequence step by step to achieve the best sequence. The results show that the new method could reduce the amount of calculations between 16% and 55% of the cases considered in this case study. The reduction of the search space takes place without decreasing the comprehensiveness and precision of the synthesis algorithm. Besides the amount of reduction in total annual cost and exergy loss of the optimum sequence is considerable.

  10. 40 CFR Table 11 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units Not...

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63, Subpt. UUU... Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units Not Subject to New Source Performance Standard (NSPS... From Catalytic Cracking Units Not Subject to New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for Carbon Monoxide...

  11. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  12. Clastic compaction unit classification based on clay content and integrated compaction recovery using well and seismic data

    Zhong Hong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Compaction correction is a key part of paleo-geomorphic recovery methods. Yet, the influence of lithology on the porosity evolution is not usually taken into account. Present methods merely classify the lithologies as sandstone and mudstone to undertake separate porosity-depth compaction modeling. However, using just two lithologies is an oversimplification that cannot represent the compaction history. In such schemes, the precision of the compaction recovery is inadequate. To improve the precision of compaction recovery, a depth compaction model has been proposed that involves both porosity and clay content. A clastic lithological compaction unit classification method, based on clay content, has been designed to identify lithological boundaries and establish sets of compaction units. Also, on the basis of the clastic compaction unit classification, two methods of compaction recovery that integrate well and seismic data are employed to extrapolate well-based compaction information outward along seismic lines and recover the paleo-topography of the clastic strata in the region. The examples presented here show that a better understanding of paleo-geomorphology can be gained by applying the proposed compaction recovery technology.

  13. Surgical stress response and the potential role of preoperative glucocorticoids on post-anesthesia care unit recovery

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin J; Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske K

    2017-01-01

    The immediate postoperative course in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) remains a challenge across surgical procedures. Postoperative pain, sedation/cognitive dysfunction, nausea and vomiting (PONV), circulatory and respiratory problems and orthostatic intolerance constitute the bulk of the di......-anesthesia care unit (PACU), but with a scarcity of intervention studies using glucocorticoids to control inflammation. We, therefore, suggest a future research focus on the role of inflammation and effect of glucocorticoids in the PACU setting to improve patient recovery....

  14. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart Uuu of... - Initial Compliance With Inorganic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units 26 Table 26 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery... HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units As stated in § 63.1567(b)(4), you shall meet each...

  15. 40 CFR Table 27 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Inorganic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units

    2010-07-01

    ... HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units 27 Table 27 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery... Inorganic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units As stated in § 63.1567(c)(1), you shall meet...

  16. Sulfur Earth

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  17. Humidification of Blow-By Oxygen During Recovery of Postoperative Pediatric Patients: One Unit's Journey.

    Donahue, Suzanne; DiBlasi, Robert M; Thomas, Karen

    2018-02-02

    To examine the practice of nebulizer cool mist blow-by oxygen administered to spontaneously breathing postanesthesia care unit (PACU) pediatric patients during Phase one recovery. Existing evidence was evaluated. Informal benchmarking documented practices in peer organizations. An in vitro study was then conducted to simulate clinical practice and determine depth and amount of airway humidity delivery with blow-by oxygen. Informal benchmarking information was obtained by telephone interview. Using a three-dimensional printed simulation model of the head connected to a breathing lung simulator, depth and amount of moisture delivery in the respiratory tree were measured. Evidence specific to PACU administration of cool mist blow-by oxygen was limited. Informal benchmarking revealed that routine cool mist oxygenated blow-by administration was not widely practiced. The laboratory experiment revealed minimal moisture reaching the mid-tracheal area of the simulated airway model. Routine use of oxygenated cool mist in spontaneously breathing pediatric PACU patients is not supported. Copyright © 2017 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Heat recovery from UPS units - Analysis of a first unit and technology assessment; Waermerueckgewinnung in USV-Anlagen. Analyse einer Erstanlage und Potentialabschaetzung

    Stahl, S.; Schlegel, A.

    2009-11-15

    UPS units (uninterruptible power supply) generate large heat losses, which have to be dissipated with cooling units. awtec has developed a unique UPS system with integrated heat recovery which was installed in 2001 (Building Gretag/SAP in Regensdorf) and which is still running error-free. With this system the waste heat can be recovered and electrical energy for the refrigeration system can be saved likewise. The measured data shows that during the heating season, the unit transfers virtually all heat loss (about 20 MWh/year) to the space heating system. The building's refrigeration system, however, has its own heat recovery system, so the actual annual energy savings can be estimated to be only about 4 MWh of electricity. The prototype shows that awtec built a robust unit which - given an appropriate cooling and heating system - has the potential for high energy savings (without central heat recovery system: 4 MWh electric + 20 MWh thermal) without increased investment. Based on the UPS heat recovery development, previous projects of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy and a market survey, scenarios for the cooling and heat recovery from UPS units were developed. Since the same concepts also apply to the cooling of servers and other IT components, they were also included in the analysis. The scenario analysis shows that a high potential for savings of electric energy and heat exists in this area. In particular, the direct cooling of the IT components with cooling water offers big benefits for heat recovery and free cooling (cooling without the use of the refrigeration system) compared to conventional air cooling. These direct cooling systems are currently mainly used for special applications or as a fallback in case of overheating problems. Passive cooling through geothermal probes, which are now mainly used for buildings with small heat pump systems, provides an interesting approach to the cooling of IT equipment in accordance with the temperature level. It

  19. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility mixed waste container storage units

    Nolte, E.P.; Spry, M.J.; Stanisich, S.N.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the proposed plan for clean closure of the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility mixed waste container storage units at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure requirements. Descriptions of the location, size, capacity, history, and current status of the units are included. The units will be closed by removing waste containers in storage, and decontamination structures and equipment that may have contacted waste. Sufficient sampling and documentation of all activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure. A tentative schedule is provided in the form of a milestone chart

  20. Understanding the Factors that Influence Perceptions of Post-Wildfire Landscape Recovery Across 25 Wildfires in the Northwestern United States

    Kooistra, C.; Hall, T. E.; Paveglio, T.; Pickering, M.

    2018-01-01

    Disturbances such as wildfire are important features of forested landscapes. The trajectory of changes following wildfires (often referred to as landscape recovery) continues to be an important research topic among ecologists and wildfire scientists. However, the landscape recovery process also has important social dimensions that may or may not correspond to ecological or biophysical perspectives. Perceptions of landscape recovery may affect people's attitudes and behaviors related to forest and wildfire management. We explored the variables that influence people's perceptions of landscape recovery across 25 fires that occurred in 2011 or 2012 in the United States of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana and that represented a range of fire behavior characteristics and landscape impacts. Residents near each of the 25 fires were randomly selected to receive questionnaires about their experiences with the nearby fire, including perceived impacts and how the landscape had recovered since the fire. People generally perceived landscapes as recovering, even though only one to two years had passed. Regression analysis suggested that perceptions of landscape recovery were positively related to stronger beliefs about the ecological role of fire and negatively related to loss of landscape attachment, concern about erosion, increasing distance from the fire perimeter, and longer lasting fires. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analysis indicated that the above relationships were largely consistent across fires. These findings highlight that perceptions of post-fire landscape recovery are influenced by more than vegetation changes and include emotional and cognitive factors. We discuss the management implications of these findings.

  1. Getting sulfur on target

    Halbert, T.R.; Brignac, G.B. [ExxonMobil Process Research Labs. (United States); Greeley, J.P.; Demmin, R.A.; Roundtree, E.M. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The paper focuses on how the required reductions in sulfur levels in motor vehicle fuel may be achieved over about the next five years. It is said that broadly there are two possible approaches, they are: (a) to hydrotreat the feed to the FCC unit and (b) to treat the naphtha produced by the FCC unit. The difficulties associated with these processes are mentioned. The article is presented under the sub-headings of (i) technology options for cat naphtha desulfurisation; (ii) optimising fractionator design via improved VLE models; (iii) commercial experience with ICN SCANfining; (iv) mercaptan predictive models and (v) process improvements. It was concluded that the individual needs of the refiner can be addressed by ExxonMobil Research and Engineering (EMRE) and the necessary reductions in sulfur levels can be achieved.

  2. Species recovery in the United States: Increasing the effectiveness of the Endangered Species Act

    Daniel M. Evans; Judy P. Che-Castaldo; Deborah Crouse; Frank W. Davis; Rebecca Epanchin-Niell; Curtis H. Flather; R. Kipp Frohlich; Dale D. Goble; Ya-Wei Li; Timothy D. Male; Lawrence L. Master; Matthew P. Moskwik; Maile C. Neel; Barry R. Noon; Camille Parmesan; Mark W. Schwartz; J. Michael Scott; Byron K. Williams

    2016-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) has succeeded in shielding hundreds of species from extinction and improving species recovery over time. However, recovery for most species officially protected by the ESA - i.e., listed species - has been harder to achieve than initially envisioned. Threats to species are persistent and pervasive, funding has been insufficient...

  3. Assessment in rats of the reproductive toxicity of gasoline from a gasoline vapor recovery unit.

    McKee, R H; Trimmer, G W; Whitman, F T; Nessel, C S; Mackerer, C R; Hagemann, R; Priston, R A; Riley, A J; Cruzan, G; Simpson, B J; Urbanus, J H

    2000-01-01

    Gasoline (CAS 86290-81-5) is one of the world's largest volume commercial products. Although numerous toxicology studies have been conducted, the potential for reproductive toxicity has not been directly assessed. Accordingly, a two-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats was conducted to provide base data for hazard assessment and risk characterization. The test material, vapor recovery unit gasoline (68514-15-8), is the volatile fraction of formulated gasoline and the material with which humans are most likely to come in contact. The study was of standard design. Exposures were by inhalation at target concentrations of 5000, 10 000, and 20 000 mg/m(3). The highest exposure concentration was approximately 50% of the lower explosive limit and several orders of magnitude above anticipated exposure during refueling. There were no treatment-related clinical or systemic effects in the parental animals, and no microscopic changes other than hyaline droplet nephropathy in the kidneys of the male rats. None of the reproductive parameters were affected, and there were no deleterious effects on offspring survival and growth. The potential for endocrine modulation was also assessed by analysis of sperm count and quality as well as time to onset of developmental landmarks. No toxicologically important differences were found. Therefore, the NOAEL for reproductive toxicity in this study was > or =20 000 mg/m(3). The only systemic effects, in the kidneys of the male rats, were consistent with an alpha-2 u-globulin-mediated process. This is a male rat-specific effect and not relevant to human health risk assessment.

  4. Recovery of manganese and zinc from spent Zn-C cell powder: Experimental design of leaching by sulfuric acid solution containing glucose.

    Biswas, Ranjit K; Karmakar, Aneek K; Kumar, Sree L

    2016-05-01

    The spent Zn-C cell powder, containing ZnMn2O4, ZnO, MnO(OH) and possibly Mn2O3 and Mn3O4, can be leached by a sulfuric acid solution mixed with some glucose. The leaching is found to be dependent on solid to liquid (S/L) ratio, amount of glucose, concentration of sulfuric acid solution, time and pulp agitation speed. For 5g powder (S), 1h leaching time and 300rpm pulp agitation speed, two-level four-factor (2(4)) experimental designs have been carried out to derive models for extraction of both Mn(II) and Zn(II). Amount of glucose (G, g), concentration of H2SO4 solution (C, mol/L), volume of H2SO4 solution as leachant (L, mL) and leaching temperature (T, °C) are considered as factors (variables). The model in both cases consists of mean, factor effects and interaction effects. The four-factor interaction effect is observed in neither of the cases. Some two-factor and three-factor effects are found to have produced positive or negative contributions to dissolution percentage in both cases. The models are examined for comparison with experimental results with good fits and also used for optimization of factors. At optimized condition (G=0.50g, C=2mol/L, L=250mL and T=100°C), an aliquot of 5g powder in 1h and at 300rpm produces a solution containing (7.08±0.10)g/L Mn(II) and (2.20±0.06)g/L Zn(II) corresponding to almost 100% extraction of both metal ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    1994-09-01

    This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials.

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    1994-09-01

    This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials

  7. SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION

    KALB, P.

    2001-01-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ((approx)$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not

  8. Biologically produced sulfur

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  9. Licensing Status of New and Expanding In-Situ Recovery Uranium Projects in the United States

    Catchpole, G.; Thomas, M., E-mail: gccatchpole@uranerz.com [Uranerz Energy Corporation (URZ), Casper, WY (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The authors investigated the licensing status of new in-situ recovery (“ISR”) uranium projects, as well as the expansion of existing projects, within the United States (“US”). Specific emphasis and analysis is placed on those projects within the states of Texas and Wyoming. Of note, information used to prepare this paper was obtained from public sources that included company web sites, the US Securities and Exchange Commission, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (“NRC”), the US Energy Information Agency (“EIA”), and the relevant state regulatory agencies. The renewed interest in the production of natural uranium has been motivated, in part, by the increased sale price of yellowcake beginning around 2003 resulting in numerous new and existing natural resources companies acquiring mineral rights in the United States. Because of the economic favorability in terms of both operating and capital costs of ISR mines versus conventional mines in the US (with its relatively low grade of uranium ore), the model for most companies was to acquire mineral properties that had the potential for being mined using the ISR method. There were, however, exceptions to this model. The Uravan mineral district in southwest Colorado and southeast Utah, where relatively high-grade, shallow uranium deposits have the potential to be mined using underground methods, is one such exception. However, the focus of this paper will be on ISR projects. In Wyoming, which has been the top producer of natural uranium among the 50 states for the past seven years, there is one producing ISR mine (Bill Smith — Highland), one ISR mine on standby (Christensen Ranch), and two ISR uranium projects licensed but not yet built (Gas Hills and North Butte). Cameco Resources is planning to develop two ISR projects in Wyoming that have been licensed but not yet constructed. Additionally, three new uranium companies (Ur-Energy, Uranerz and Uranium One) have filed applications with the federal and

  10. Assessment of the Performance of a Ventilated Window Coupled with a Heat Recovery Unit through the Co-Heating Test

    Ludovico Danza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to describe the results of an experimental campaign based on the assessment of a heat recovery unit coupled with a dynamic window. Two fully monitored and calibrated outdoor test cells are used, in order to evaluate the energy performance and the related thermal comfort. The former presents a traditional window with double-glazing, aluminum frame and indoor blind and a centrifugal extractor for the air circulation. The latter is equipped with a dynamic window with ventilated and blinded double-glazing provided with a heat exchanger. The connection of the dynamic window and heat recovery unit provides different actions: heat recovery; heat transfer reduction; pre-heating before the exchanger. Different operating configurations allowed the trends of the dynamic system to be assessed in different seasons in terms of energy saving, thermal comfort behavior and energy efficiency. The results showed an overall lower consumption of the innovative system, both in winter and summer, with 20% and 15% energy saving, respectively. In general, the dynamic system provided the best comfort conditions, even if it involves a worse behavior than expected, in the summer season.

  11. Target loads of atmospheric sulfur deposition for the protection and recovery of acid-sensitive streams in the Southern Blue Ridge Province.

    Sullivan, Timothy J; Cosby, Bernard J; Jackson, William A

    2011-11-01

    An important tool in the evaluation of acidification damage to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems is the critical load (CL), which represents the steady-state level of acidic deposition below which ecological damage would not be expected to occur, according to current scientific understanding. A deposition load intended to be protective of a specified resource condition at a particular point in time is generally called a target load (TL). The CL or TL for protection of aquatic biota is generally based on maintaining surface water acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) at an acceptable level. This study included calibration and application of the watershed model MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) to estimate the target sulfur (S) deposition load for the protection of aquatic resources at several future points in time in 66 generally acid-sensitive watersheds in the southern Blue Ridge province of North Carolina and two adjoining states. Potential future change in nitrogen leaching is not considered. Estimated TLs for S deposition ranged from zero (ecological objective not attainable by the specified point in time) to values many times greater than current S deposition depending on the selected site, ANC endpoint, and evaluation year. For some sites, one or more of the selected target ANC critical levels (0, 20, 50, 100μeq/L) could not be achieved by the year 2100 even if S deposition was reduced to zero and maintained at that level throughout the simulation. Many of these highly sensitive streams were simulated by the model to have had preindustrial ANC below some of these target values. For other sites, the watershed soils contained sufficiently large buffering capacity that even very high sustained levels of atmospheric S deposition would not reduce stream ANC below common damage thresholds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Art Therapy on a Hospital Burn Unit: A Step towards Healing and Recovery.

    Russel, Johanna

    1995-01-01

    Describes how art therapy can benefit patients hospitalized due to severe burns, who suffer psychological as well as physical trauma. Outlines the psychological phases, identifies how burn patients typically experience their healing process, and discusses how art therapy can assist the patient at each stage of the recovery process. (JPS)

  13. Implications of stock recovery for a neighbouring management unit: experience from the Baltic cod

    Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hüssy, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Cod in the Baltic Sea is assessed and managed as two separate stocks, i.e. eastern and western Baltic cod. The eastern Baltic cod has recently started to recover after several decades of severe depletion. In the present study, we suggest that the recovery of the eastern Baltic cod population has ...

  14. Overcoming challenges to the recovery of declining amphibian populations in the United States

    Walls, Susan; Ball, Lianne C.; Barichivich, William J.; Dodd, Kenneth; Enge, Kevin M; Gorman, Thomas A.; O'Donnell, Katherine; Palis, John G; Semlitsch, Raymond D.

    2016-01-01

    The US Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) affords many potential benefits to species threatened with extinction. However, most at-risk amphibians—one of the most imperiled vertebrate groups—remain unlisted under the provisions of the ESA, and many impediments to recovery exist for those species that have been listed. Of the 35 US amphibian species and distinct population segments (“taxa”) listed under the ESA, 40% currently lack a final (completed) recovery plan, 28.6% lack designated critical habitat, and 8.6% lack both. For taxa that have recovery plans, the time between their listing and the development of those plans was from 2 to 29 years, and the time between their listing and the designation of critical habitat ranged from 0 to 14 years. The underlying causes of such delays in protection are complex and constitute obstacles to recovery of imperiled species. We outline a series of strategic actions by which these challenges may be overcome.

  15. Groundwater Drought and Recovery: a Case Study from the United Kingdom

    Peach, D.; McKenzie, A. A.; Bloomfield, J.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of the processes leading to the onset, duration and end of hydrological droughts is necessary to help improve the management of stressed or scarce water resources during such periods. In particular, the role and use of groundwater during episodes of drought is crucially important, since groundwater can provide relatively resilient water supplies during early stages of drought but maybe highly susceptible to relatively persistent or sustained droughts. Nevertheless, groundwater is seldom considered in drought analyses, and compared with other types of hydrological drought there have been few studies to date. The few previous studies of groundwater droughts at catchment- and regional-scale have shown that catchment and aquifer characteristics exert a strong influence on the spatio-temporal development of groundwater droughts as water deficit propagates through the terrestrial water cycle. In this context, the relationships between hydrogeological heterogeneity, catchment engineering infrastructure (storage), and decisions related to water resource management during drought events all shape the evolution and consequences of groundwater droughts. Here we examine the evolution of a recent regionally significant two-year drought across the United Kingdom (UK) and use it to investigate these relationships. We identify the drivers, characterise the development and spatio-temporal extent of the groundwater drought. In particular, we focus on the unusually rapid end and recovery from drought during what would normally be a period of groundwater recession. The UK, and in particular southern England, relies extensively on groundwater for public water supply, agricultural and industrial use, as well as for sustaining river flows that are essential to ecosystem health. In normal years relatively consistent rainfall patterns prevail, recharging aquifers over winter when evapotranspiration is minimal. However, by March 2012 large parts of the southern UK had

  16. Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Dahl, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria are characterized by oxidizing various inorganic sulfur compounds for use as electron donors in carbon dioxide fixation during anoxygenic photosynthetic growth. These bacteria are divided into the purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and the green sulfur bacteria (GSB......). They utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate and sometimes also ferrous iron and hydrogen as electron donors. This review focuses on the dissimilatory and assimilatory metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds in these bacteria and also briefly discusses these metabolisms...... in other types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. The biochemistry and genetics of sulfur compound oxidation in PSB and GSB are described in detail. A variety of enzymes catalyzing sulfur oxidation reactions have been isolated from GSB and PSB (especially Allochromatium vinosum, a representative...

  17. In place chemical cleaning of Will County Unit 4 high pressure turbine for efficiency recovery

    Cloffi, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Due to the proliferation of nuclear units and the economic penalties associated with nuclear unit's following load, the fossil industry has had to switch gears in their mode of operation. A fossil unit must be able to cycle on and off if it is to remain useful to system power supply. Furthermore, a fossil unit is indispensable if it can go to a low load at night and ramp up during the day to meet load demand. Despite the cautions, warnings, and lack of information from turbine and boiler manufactures, Will County Unit 4 achieved such minimum load operation in November 1987. Within the year, Unit 4 experienced numerous cycle chemistry upsets and a steady decline in turbine capability. In depth turbine testing coupled with the chemistry characteristics reveal the cause to be copper deposits on the second and third stages of the high pressure turbine. This paper details the investigation, remedial action, and possible solutions to this turbine capability problem

  18. International Space Station United States Laboratory Module Water Recovery Management Subsystem Verification from Flight 5A to Stage ULF2

    Williams, David E.; Labuda, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system comprises of seven subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Vacuum System (VS), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), and Waste Management (WM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the United States (U.S.) Laboratory Module WRM design and detailed element methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase of the U.S. Laboratory Module prior to launch and the Qualification of all of the modification kits added to it from Flight 5A up and including Stage ULF2.

  19. 15 CFR 971.501 - Resource assessment, recovery plan, and logical mining unit.

    2010-01-01

    ..., and logical mining unit. 971.501 Section 971.501 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR... mining unit. (a) The applicant must submit with the application a resource assessment to provide a basis...

  20. Progressing recovery-oriented care in psychiatric inpatient units: Occupational therapy’s role in supporting a stronger peer workforce

    Chris Lloyd

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Initiated by the service user movement, recovery-oriented practices are one of the keystones of modern mental health care. Over the past two decades, substantial gains have been made with introducing recovery-oriented practice in many areas of mental health practice, but there remain areas where progress is delayed, notably, the psychiatric inpatient environment. The peer support workforce can play a pivotal role in progressing recovery-oriented practices. The purpose of this paper is to provide a pragmatic consideration of how occupational therapists can influence mental health systems to work proactively with a peer workforce. Design/methodology/approach - The authors reviewed current literature and considered practical approaches to building a peer workforce in collaboration with occupational therapists. Findings - It is suggested that the peer support workforce should be consciously enhanced in the inpatient setting to support culture change as a matter of priority. Occupational therapists working on inpatient units should play a key role in promoting and supporting the growth in the peer support workforce. Doing so will enrich the Occupational Therapy profession as well as improving service user outcomes. Originality/value - This paper seeks to provide a pragmatic consideration of how occupational therapists can influence mental health systems to work proactively with a peer workforce.

  1. Experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Diz, Ruben; Uhia, Francisco J.; Dopazo, Alberto; Ferro, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit equipped with a sensible polymer plate heat exchanger (PHE) for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings. The PHE is arranged in parallel triangular ducts. An experimental facility was designed to reproduce the typical outdoor and exhaust air conditions with regard to temperature and humidity. The unit was tested under balanced operation conditions, as commonly used in practice. A set of tests was conducted under the reference operating conditions to evaluate the PHE performance. Afterwards, an experimental parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of changing the operating conditions on the PHE performance. Experiments were carried out varying the inlet fresh air temperature, the exhaust air relative humidity and the air flow rate. The experimental results are shown and discussed in this paper.

  2. A Comparison of Organic and Steam Rankine Cycle Power Systems for Waste Heat Recovery on Large Ships

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Meroni, Andrea; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    %) fuel case. The processes were compared based on their off-design performance for diesel engine loads in the range between 25% and 100%. The fluids considered in the organic Rankine cycle process were MM(hexamethyldisiloxane), toluene, n-pentane, i-pentane and c-pentane. The results of the comparison....... The net power production from the waste heat recovery units is generally higher for the low-sulfur fuel case. The steam Rankine cycle unit produces 18% more power at design compared to the high-sulfur fuel case, while the organic Rankine cycle unit using MM produces 33% more power....

  3. Recovery at the post anaesthetic care unit after breast cancer surgery

    Gärtner, Rune; Callesen, Torben; Kroman, Niels Thorndahl

    2010-01-01

    Extant literature shows that women having undergone breast cancer surgery have substantial problems at the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU). Based on nursing reports and elements of the discharge scoring system recommended by The Danish Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine...

  4. Woody residues and solid waste wood available for recovery in the United States, 2002

    David B. McKeever; Robert H. Falk

    2004-01-01

    Large amounts of woody residues and solid wood waste are generated annually in the United States from the extraction of timber from forests, from forestry cultural operations, in the conversion of forest land to nonforest uses, in the initial processing of roundwood timber into usable products, in the construction and demolition of buildings and structures, and in the...

  5. Penentuan Efisiensi Penyerapan Sulfur Oleh Sponge Iron Vessel (61-201-DA) Unit Desulfurizer Pada Ammonia Plant-II PT. Pupuk Iskandar Muda-Lhokseumawe

    Ricky Hidayat

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan pengamatan data life time sponge iron pada sponge iron vessel 61-201-DA charge 10. Dari pengamatan data dapat dhitung efisiensi penyerapan sulfur oleh sponge iron vessel 61-201-DA sebesar 232,6% dengan life time selama 144 hari. 09E02841

  6. Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water

    Nakajima, Hayato; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji; Onuki, Kaoru

    2007-01-01

    Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water, which is a unit reaction in the IS process for thermochemical hydrogen production, was studied experimentally at 323 K under iodine saturation. Quasi-equilibrium state was observed in the presence of sulfur dioxide gas at constant pressure. The composition of the poly-hydriodic acid solution formed was discussed assuming an ideal desulfurization by the reverse reaction of the Bunsen reaction. The value of HI/(HI+H 2 O) of the desulfurized solution was large at high sulfur dioxide pressure and reached the maximum of 15.7 ± 0.3 mol%. (author)

  7. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom

    Burnley, Stephen; Phillips, Rhiannon; Coleman, Terry; Rampling, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. → For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. → For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. → For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure report: Area 2 Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells, Correction Action Unit 90

    1996-12-01

    This Closure Report provides documentation of the activities conducted during the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Spring Quadrangle (USGS, 1986), Township 10 South, Range 53 East, Nye County, Nevada. This report discusses the Bitcutter Shop Inside Injection Well (CAU 90-A) closure-in-place and the Bitcutter Shop Outside Injection Well (CAU 90-B) and Postshot Containment Shop Injection Well (CAU 90-C) clean closures. This Closure Report provides background information about the unit, the results of the characterization activities and actions conducted to determine the closure design. It also provides a discussion of the drainage analysis, preliminary closure activities, final closure activities, waste management activities, and the Post-Closure Care requirements

  9. Environmental behavior and analysis of agricultural sulfur.

    Griffith, Corey M; Woodrow, James E; Seiber, James N

    2015-11-01

    Sulfur has been widely used for centuries as a staple for pest and disease management in agriculture. Presently, it is the largest-volume pesticide in use worldwide. This review describes the sources and recovery methods for sulfur, its allotropic forms and properties and its agricultural uses, including development and potential advantages of nanosulfur as a fungicide. Chemical and microbial reactivity, interactions in soil and water and analytical methods for determination in environmental samples and foodstuffs, including inexpensive analytical methods for sulfur residues in wine, beer and other food/beverage substrates, will be reviewed. The toxicology of sulfur towards humans and agriculturally important fungi is included, with some restrictions on use to promote safety. The review concludes with areas for which more research is warranted. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Sulfur poisoning in cattle

    Julian, R J; Harrison, K B

    1975-01-01

    A case of sulfur poisoning is described in which 12 of 20 cattle died following the feeding of sulfur. Respiratory distress and abdominal pain were the prominent signs. Examination of one animal revealed vasculitis and necrosis of the rumen and abomasal wall. The possible toxic effects of sulfur are discussed.

  11. Damage caused to vegetation by sulfurous and sulfuric acids in the atmosphere

    Tatlock, R R; Thomson, R T

    1914-05-01

    This report, written in 1914, documents injuries to trees and shrubs in the United Kingdom which are attributed to sulfur compounds in air pollutions. Sampling, analytical and experimental procedures are discussed.

  12. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    a twenty-five-cycle test. The sorbent was exposed for 58 consecutive days to temperatures between 600°C and 800°C and gas atmospheres from highly reducing to highly oxidizing without measurable loss of sulfur capacity or reactivity. In the process analysis phase of this study, a two-stage desulfurization process using cerium sorbent with SO2 regeneration followed by zinc sorbent with dilute O2 regeneration was compared to a single-stage process using zinc sorbent and O2 regeneration with SO2 in the regeneration product gas converted to elemental sulfur using the direct sulfur recovery process (DSRP). Material and energy balances were calculated using the process simulation package PRO/II. Major process equipment was sized and a preliminary economic analysis completed. Sorbent replacement rate, which is determined by the multicycle sorbent durability, was found to be the most significant factor in both processes. For large replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 250 cycles or less, the single-stage zinc sorbent process with DSRP was estimated to be less costly. However, the cost of the two-stage cerium sorbent process was more sensitive to sorbent replacement rate, and, as the required replacement rate decreased, the economics of the two-stage process improved. For small sorbent replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 1000 cycles or more, the two-stage cerium process was estimated to be less costly. In the relatively wide middle range of sorbent replacement rates, the relative economics of the two processes depends on other factors such as the unit cost of sorbents, oxygen, nitrogen, and the relative capital costs.

  13. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot-gas desulfurization technology

    Lopez Ortiz, A.; Harrison, D.P.; Groves, F.R.; White, J.D.; Zhang, S.; Huang, W.N.; Zeng, Y.

    1998-01-01

    twenty-five-cycle test. The sorbent was exposed for 58 consecutive days to temperatures between 600C and 800C and gas atmospheres from highly reducing to highly oxidizing without measurable loss of sulfur capacity or reactivity. In the process analysis phase of this study, a two-stage desulfurization process using cerium sorbent with SO2 regeneration followed by zinc sorbent with dilute O2 regeneration was compared to a single-stage process using zinc sorbent and O2 regeneration with SO2 in the regeneration product gas converted to elemental sulfur using the direct sulfur recovery process (DSRP). Material and energy balances were calculated using the process simulation package PRO/II. Major process equipment was sized and a preliminary economic analysis completed. Sorbent replacement rate, which is determined by the multicycle sorbent durability, was found to be the most significant factor in both processes. For large replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 250 cycles or less, the single-stage zinc sorbent process with DSRP was estimated to be less costly. However, the cost of the two-stage cerium sorbent process was more sensitive to sorbent replacement rate, and, as the required replacement rate decreased, the economics of the two-stage process improved. For small sorbent replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 1000 cycles or more, the two-stage cerium process was estimated to be less costly. In the relatively wide middle range of sorbent replacement rates, the relative economics of the two processes depends on other factors such as the unit cost of sorbents, oxygen, nitrogen, and the relative capital costs

  14. Sulfur-Containing Agrochemicals.

    Devendar, Ponnam; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2017-10-09

    Modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers by providing innovative agrochemicals. In this context, the introduction of sulfur atoms into an active ingredient is still an important tool in modulating the properties of new crop-protection compounds. More than 30% of today's agrochemicals contain at least one sulfur atom, mainly in fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. A number of recently developed sulfur-containing agrochemical candidates represent a novel class of chemical compounds with new modes of action, so we intend to highlight the emerging interest in commercially active sulfur-containing compounds. This chapter gives a comprehensive overview of selected leading sulfur-containing pesticidal chemical families namely: sulfonylureas, sulfonamides, sulfur-containing heterocyclics, thioureas, sulfides, sulfones, sulfoxides and sulfoximines. Also, the most suitable large-scale synthetic methods of the recently launched or provisionally approved sulfur-containing agrochemicals from respective chemical families have been highlighted.

  15. Sulfur flows and biosolids processing: Using Material Flux Analysis (MFA) principles at wastewater treatment plants.

    Fisher, R M; Alvarez-Gaitan, J P; Stuetz, R M; Moore, S J

    2017-08-01

    High flows of sulfur through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may cause noxious gaseous emissions, corrosion of infrastructure, inhibit wastewater microbial communities, or contribute to acid rain if the biosolids or biogas is combusted. Yet, sulfur is an important agricultural nutrient and the direct application of biosolids to soils enables its beneficial re-use. Flows of sulfur throughout the biosolids processing of six WWTPs were investigated to identify how they were affected by biosolids processing configurations. The process of tracking sulfur flows through the sites also identified limitations in data availability and quality, highlighting future requirements for tracking substance flows. One site was investigated in more detail showing sulfur speciation throughout the plant and tracking sulfur flows in odour control systems in order to quantify outflows to air, land and ocean sinks. While the majority of sulfur from WWTPs is removed as sulfate in the secondary effluent, the sulfur content of biosolids is valuable as it can be directly returned to soils to combat the potential sulfur deficiencies. Biosolids processing configurations, which focus on maximising solids recovery, through high efficiency separation techniques in primary sedimentation tanks, thickeners and dewatering centrifuges retain more sulfur in the biosolids. However, variations in sulfur loads and concentrations entering the WWTPs affect sulfur recovery in the biosolids, suggesting industrial emitters, and chemical dosing of iron salts are responsible for differences in recovery between sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulation of Concentrations and Dispersion of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S Due to Incinerators of Sulfur Recovery Units in a Gas Refinery in Asaluyeh

    Azam Minabi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the variations of measured concentrations were consistent with those of simulated ones. Meanwhile, the contribution of neighbor industries was determined. Comparision of 8-h H2S concentrations with OSHA and NIOSH standard limits indicated that there was no significant health risk in this refinery.

  17. 40 CFR Table 32 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units Not Subject to...

    2010-07-01

    ... sampling port's location and the number of traverse ports. Method 1 or 1A appendix A to part 60 of this... incinerator: oxygen concentration (percent, dry basis) in the vent stream. Data from the continuous parameter monitoring system. Collect oxygen concentration (percent, dry basis) data every 15 minutes during the entire...

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for tank storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    1994-05-01

    In compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), this report discusses information relating to permit applications for three tank storage units at Y-12. The storage units are: Building 9811-1 RCRA Tank Storage Unit (OD-7); Waste Oil/Solvent Storage Unit (OD-9); and Liquid Organic Solvent Storage Unit (OD-10). Numerous sections discuss the following: Facility description; waste characteristics; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification. Sixteen appendices contain such items as maps, waste analyses and forms, inspection logs, equipment identification, etc

  19. Effects of sulfur dioxide on vegetation

    Whitby, G S

    1939-11-11

    A discussion is presented on the effects of sulfur dioxide on vegetation as observed at Trail, British Columbia. The investigation was carried out over a period of eight years, 1929 to 1937. The concentration of sulfur dioxide at the United States border was carefully determined throughout the crop season at a point 16 miles from the source of sulfur dioxide. Maximum and average concentrations in part per million are given. The sulfur content of vegetation was determined and was found to diminish as the distance from the smelter increased. It was determined that the sulfur content may rise to four times the normal amount without injurious effect. This is particularly so with prolonged low concentration. The effect on the soil was determined by measuring soluble sulfate, pH and exchangeable bases. The soil near the plant was affected, but this fell off rapidly with increase in distance so that eight miles from the smelter the soil was substantially normal. No effect on water supplies was found. An appreciable retardation in growth, as determined by annular rings, was noted for trees exposed to the sulfur dioxide. This effect was lost following installation of sulfur dioxide control at Trail. Conifers were found more susceptible during periods of active growth than when dormant. Also, transplanted conifers were more severly affected than native trees. Seedlings were less resistant that older trees.

  20. Sulfur polymer cement concrete

    Weber, H.H.; McBee, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sulfur-based composite materials formulated using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and mineral aggregates are described and compared with conventional portland cement based materials. Materials characteristics presented include mechanical strength, chemical resistance, impact resistance, moisture permeation, and linear shrinkage during placement and curing. Examples of preparation and placement of sulfur polymer cement concrete (SC) are described using commercial scale equipment. SC applications presented are focused into hostile chemical environments where severe portland cement concrete (PCC) failure has occurred

  1. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  2. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes

    Yang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Digestion of Bangka monazite with sulfuric acid

    Riesna Prassanti

    2012-01-01

    Technology of Bangka monazite processing with alkaline method has been mastered by PPGN BATAN with the product in the form of RE (Rare Earth) which is contain U < 2 ppm and Th 12 - 16 ppm. Hence, as comparator, the research of Bangka monazite processing with acid method using sulfuric acid has been done. The aim of this research is to obtain the optimal condition of Bangka monazite's digestion using sulfuric acid so that all elements contained in the monazite that are U, Th, RE, PO 4 dissolved as much as possible. The research parameter's arc monazite particle's size, sulfuric acid consumption (weight ratio of monazite ore : sulfuric acid), digestion temperature, digestion time and consumption of wash water. The results showed that the optimal conditions of digestion are 250+ 325 mesh of monazite particle's size, 1 : 2.5 of weight ratio of monazite ore: sulfuric acid, 190°C of digestion temperature, 3 hours of digestion time and 8 times of weight monazite's feed of wash water with the recovery of digested U = 99.90 %, Th = 99.44 %, RE = 98.64 % and PO 4 = 99.88 %. (author)

  4. Dramatic reduction of sulfur dioxide emission in Northeastern China in the last decade

    Yuan, J.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of spatial and temporal variations of sulfur dioxide concentration in planetary boundary layer were conducted. The data were generated by NASA satellite daily from October of 2004 and were obtained through NASA Giovanni. The global monthly mean spatial distribution of sulfur dioxide showed several hot spots including: several spots on some islands in the Pacific Ocean, several spots in central America, and central Africa. Most of these hot spots of sulfur dioxide are related to known active volcanos. The biggest hot spot of sulfur dioxide were observed in Northeastern China. While high concentration sulfur dioxide was still observed in Northeastern China in 2017. The area averaged concentration of sulfur dioxide declined dramatically since its peak in 2008. This temporal trend indicates that sulfur reduction effort has been effective in the last decade or post 2008 financial crisis recovery lead an industry less sulfur dioxide emission.

  5. Sulfur metabolism in the extreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus caldus

    Stefanie eMangold

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the challenges to life at low pH, an analysis of inorganic sulfur compound oxidation was initiated in the chemolithoautotrophic extremophile Acidithiobacillus caldus. A. caldus is able to metabolize elemental sulfur and a broad range of inorganic sulfur compounds. It has been implicated in the production of environmentally damaging acidic solutions as well as participating in industrial bioleaching operations where it forms part of microbial consortia used for the recovery of metal ions. Based upon the recently published A. caldus type strain genome sequence, a bioinformatic reconstruction of elemental sulfur and inorganic sulfur compound metabolism predicted genes included: sulfide quinone reductase (sqr, tetrathionate hydrolase (tth, two sox gene clusters potentially involved in thiosulfate oxidation (soxABXYZ, sulfur oxygenase reductase (sor, and various electron transport components. RNA transcript profiles by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR suggested up-regulation of sox genes in the presence of tetrathionate. Extensive gel based proteomic comparisons of total soluble and membrane enriched protein fractions during growth on elemental sulfur and tetrathionate identified differential protein levels from the two Sox clusters as well as several chaperone and stress proteins up-regulated in the presence of elemental sulfur. Proteomics results also suggested the involvement of heterodisulfide reductase (HdrABC in A. caldus inorganic sulfur compound metabolism. A putative new function of Hdr in acidophiles is discussed. Additional proteomic analysis evaluated protein expression differences between cells grown attached to solid, elemental sulfur versus planktonic cells. This study has provided insights into sulfur metabolism of this acidophilic chemolithotroph and gene expression during attachment to solid elemental sulfur.

  6. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    Moore, Robert [Edgewood, NM; Pickard, Paul S [Albuquerque, NM; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E [Albuquerque, NM; Gelbard, Fred [Albuquerque, NM; Lenard, Roger X [Edgewood, NM

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  7. A Comparison of Organic and Steam Rankine Cycle Power Systems for Waste Heat Recovery on Large Ships

    Jesper Graa Andreasen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of the conventional dual pressure steam Rankine cycle process and the organic Rankine cycle process for marine engine waste heat recovery. The comparison was based on a container vessel, and results are presented for a high-sulfur (3 wt % and low-sulfur (0.5 wt % fuel case. The processes were compared based on their off-design performance for diesel engine loads in the range between 25% and 100%. The fluids considered in the organic Rankine cycle process were MM(hexamethyldisiloxane, toluene, n-pentane, i-pentane and c-pentane. The results of the comparison indicate that the net power output of the steam Rankine cycle process is higher at high engine loads, while the performance of the organic Rankine cycle units is higher at lower loads. Preliminary turbine design considerations suggest that higher turbine efficiencies can be obtained for the ORC unit turbines compared to the steam turbines. When the efficiency of the c-pentane turbine was allowed to be 10% points larger than the steam turbine efficiency, the organic Rankine cycle unit reaches higher net power outputs than the steam Rankine cycle unit at all engine loads for the low-sulfur fuel case. The net power production from the waste heat recovery units is generally higher for the low-sulfur fuel case. The steam Rankine cycle unit produces 18% more power at design compared to the high-sulfur fuel case, while the organic Rankine cycle unit using MM produces 33% more power.

  8. Energy Recovery from Wastewater Treatment Plants in the United States: A Case Study of the Energy-Water Nexus

    Ashlynn S. Stillwell; David C. Hoppock; Michael E. Webber

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript uses data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to analyze the potential for energy recovery from wastewater treatment plants via anaerobic digestion with biogas utilization and biosolids incineration with electricity generation. These energy recovery strategies could help offset the electricity consumption of the wastewater sector and represent possible areas for sustainable energy policy implementation. We estimate that anaerobic digestion could save 628 to 4,940 mil...

  9. Effects on the forest of sulfur dioxide from a sulfur fire near Edson, Alberta

    Hocking, D

    1975-01-01

    Sulfur was burnt in a sanitary landfill during August 9 and 10, 1974. Resulting sulfur dioxide impinged on the surrounding mixed forest for 29 h. About 4 ha of forest displayed visible injury symptoms of varying intensity soon after. However, only .4 ha remained permanently injured the next season. Here, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and scattered individuals of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), alder (Alnus tenuifolia Nutt.), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) were killed. This report describes the extent of injury, relative sensitivities of affected plant species, and recovery in the spring in 1975.

  10. Increase of propylene production and recovery in a PETROBRAS FCC units; Aumento da producao e recuperacao de propeno em uma Unidade de FCC da PETROBRAS

    Penna, Elisangela Melo; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende; Wolff, Marcelo Straubel [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Propylene is one of the major petrochemical raw materials and its demand has been growing rapidly in recent years. Projections for future years indicate that the growth in propylene production via pyrolysis tends to be lower than the growth in the demand for ethylene, creating a supply deficit of this product. The FCC units are in a unique position to meet this increase in propylene demand due to its operational flexibility. Although their primary function in recent decades has been the gasoline production, FCC units are often operated for maximizing other products, such as LPG or distillates. At the FCC conversion section, the increase of propylene yield requires some increase in reaction severity, which can be obtained by increasing reactor riser temperature, and the use of catalyst additives based on ZSM-5. However, besides maximizing the propylene production in the reactor, a second objective should be pursued: the propylene recovery increase in the gas recovery section. In this section, the yield is affected by the gas compressor performance, the equipment design and process scheme. Eventually, new equipment may be installed, such as chillers, aimed at improving the absorption system. Predicting a real increase in propylene demand in the Brazilian market, this study aims to evaluate the adequacy of the gas recovery section of a PETROBRAS FCC unit, analyzing the impacts that a new products yields profile, which bend the propylene production compared to a conventional operation, would cause on this unit. In this paper, the main limitations and modifications that would be needed for an operation were identified, aiming at maximizing the propylene production, as well as proposed changes in the hardware of the unit. (author)

  11. Individual stem value recovery of modified and conventional tree-length systems in the southeastern United States

    Amanda H. Lang; Shawn A. Baker; W. Dale Greene; Glen E. Murphy

    2010-01-01

    We compared value recovery of a modified treelength (MTL) logging system that measures product diameter and length using a Waratah 626 harvester head to that of a treelength (TL) system that estimates dimensions. A field test compared the actual value cut to the maximum potential value suggested by the log bucking optimization program Assessment of Value by Individual...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2025 - What if my chemical recovery unit is not listed in § 60.2020(n)?

    2010-07-01

    ... materials that are recovered. (3) A description (including a process flow diagram) of the process in which... process. (4) A description (including a process flow diagram) of the chemical constituent recovery process, highlighting the type, design, and operation of the equipment used in this process. (5) A description of the...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2558 - What if a chemical recovery unit is not listed in § 60.2555(n)?

    2010-07-01

    ... process flow diagram) of the process in which the materials are burned, highlighting the type, design, and operation of the equipment used in this process. (4) A description (including a process flow diagram) of the chemical constituent recovery process, highlighting the type, design, and operation of the equipment used...

  14. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    Elkins, Perry E.

    1981-01-01

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

  15. Comprehensive Energy Assessment: EE and RE Project Optimization Modeling for United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Papatyi, Anthony F.; Perkins, Casey J.

    2010-09-30

    This report summarizes a study and corresponding model development conducted in support of the United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) as part of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA). This research was aimed at developing a mathematical programming framework and accompanying optimization methodology in order to simultaneously evaluate energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) opportunities. Once developed, this research then demonstrated this methodology at a USPACOM installation - Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii. We believe this is the first time such an integrated, joint EE and RE optimization methodology has been constructed and demonstrated.

  16. The evolving regulation of uranium recovery operations in the United States: Inovative approaches are necessary for cost effective regulatory oversight

    Thompson, A.J.; Lehrenbaum, W.U.; Lashway, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The US domestic uranium industry is at a crossroads. Historic low prices for uranium, combined with stringent and often irrational regulatory requirements, pose a very real threat to the industry's continued viability. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has taken a number of innovative steps to reform and rationalize its regulatory program. However, if the domestic uranium recovery industry is to remain viable, additional steps toward innovation and reform are needed, and effective implementation of reforms adopted by the Commission is essential. (author)

  17. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Brown, R C; Anderson, M R; Miake-Lye, R C; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A A; Buriko, Y I [Scientific Research Center ` Ecolen` , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  18. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  19. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). TORIS is a tested and verified system maintained and operated by the Department of Energy's Bartlesville Project Office. The TORTS system was used to evaluate over 2,300 major reservoirs in a consistent manner and on an individual basis, the results of which have been aggregated to arrive at the national total

  20. Io's theothermal (sulfur) - Lithosphere cycle inferred from sulfur solubility modeling of Pele's magma supply

    Battaglia, Steven M.; Stewart, Michael A.; Kieffer, Susan W.

    2014-06-01

    Surface deposits of volatile compounds such as water (Earth) or sulfur (Io) on volcanically active bodies suggest that a magmatic distillation process works to concentrate volatiles in surface reservoirs. On Earth, this is the combined hydrologic and tectonic cycle. On Io, sulfurous compounds are transferred from the interior to the surface reservoirs through a combination of a mantle-sourced magmatic system, vertical cycling of the lithosphere, and a sulfur-dominated crustal thermal system that we here call the "theothermal" system. We present a geochemical analysis of this process using previously inferred temperature and oxygen fugacity constraints of Pele's basaltic magma to determine the behavior of sulfur in the ionian magmas. Sulfate to sulfide ratios of Pele's magma are -4.084 ± 0.6 and -6.442 ± 0.7 log10 units, comparable to or lower than those of mid-ocean ridge basalts. This reflects the similarity of Io's oxidation state with Earth's depleted mantle as previously suggested by Zolotov and Fegley (Zolotov, M.Y., Fegley, B. [2000]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2789-2792). Our calculated limits of sulfur solubility in melts from Pele's patera (˜1100-1140 ppm) are also comparable to terrestrial mid-ocean ridge basalts, reflecting a compositional similarity of mantle sources. We propose that the excess sulfur obvious on Io's surface comes from two sources: (1) an insoluble sulfide liquid phase in the magma and (2) theothermal near-surface recycling.

  1. Sulfur activation in Hiroshima

    Kerr, G.D.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1987-01-01

    In 1979, we attempted to establish the validity of source terms for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs using experimental data on sulfur activation. Close agreement was observed between measured and calculated values for test firings of Nagasaki-type bombs. The calculated values were based on source terms developed by W.E. Preeg at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A discrepancy was found, however, when we compared calculated values for the two bombs because a 1956 report by R.R. Wilson stated that sulfur acitvation by fast neutrons in Hiroshima was approximately three times greater than in Nagasaki. Our calculations based on Preeg's source-term data predicted about equal sulfur activation in the two cities

  2. Environmental aspects of the combustion of sulfur-bearing fuels

    Manowitz, B.; Lipfert, F.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the origins of sulfur in fossil fuels and the consequences of its release into the environment after combustion, with emphasis on the United States. Typical sulfur contents of fuels are given, together with fuel uses and the resulting air concentrations of sulfur air pollutants. Atmospheric transformation and pollutant removal processes are described, as they affect the pathways of sulfur through the environment. The environmental effects discussed include impacts on human health, degradation of materials, acidification of ecosystems, and effects on vegetation and atmospheric visibility. The paper concludes with a recommendation for the use of risk assessment to assess the need for regulations which may require the removal of sulfur from fuels or their combustion products

  3. Tort recovery of acid rain damages in the United States--observations on plaintiff's prima facie case

    Honabach, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Common law tort doctrine has long supplied a judicially administered vehicle for dealing with harms suffered by one party as a result of the activities of another. As such, it might be used to address the problem of acid rain. Before tort law may be used, however, a would-be plaintiff must make out a prima facie case. While traditional applications of tort doctrine might effectively prevent plaintiff from doing so, recent court decisions suggest that plaintiff might nevertheless be successful in obtaining at least partial recovery.

  4. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  5. Structure of amorphous sulfur

    Eichinger, BE

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The lambda-transition of elemental sulfur occurring at about 159°C has long been associated with the conversion of cyclic S8 rings (c-S8) to amorphous polymer (a-S) via a ring opening polymerization. It is demonstrated, with the use of both density...

  6. Recovery of wolverines in the western United States: Recent extirpation and recolonization or range retraction and expansion?

    Kevin S. McKelvey; Keith B. Aubry; Neil J. Anderson; Anthony P. Clevenger; Jeffrey P. Copeland; Kimberley S. Heinemeyer; Robert M. Inman; John R. Squires; John S. Waller; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Michael K. Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    Wolverines were greatly reduced in number and possibly extirpated from the contiguous United States (U.S.) by the early 1900s. Wolverines currently occupy much of their historical range in Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, but are absent from Utah and only single individuals are known to occur in California and Colorado. In response, the translocation of...

  7. A database and probabilistic assessment methodology for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery and associated carbon dioxide retention in the United States

    Warwick, Peter D.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Attanasi, Emil; Olea, Ricardo A.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip; Brennan, Sean T.; Merrill, Matthew; Jahediesfanjani, Hossein; Roueche, Jacqueline; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed an assessment methodology for estimating the potential incremental technically recoverable oil resources resulting from carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) in reservoirs with appropriate depth, pressure, and oil composition. The methodology also includes a procedure for estimating the CO2 that remains in the reservoir after the CO2-EOR process is complete. The methodology relies on a reservoir-level database that incorporates commercially available geologic and engineering data. The mathematical calculations of this assessment methodology were tested and produced realistic results for the Permian Basin Horseshoe Atoll, Upper Pennsylvanian-Wolfcampian Play (Texas, USA). The USGS plans to use the new methodology to conduct an assessment of technically recoverable hydrocarbons and associated CO2 sequestration resulting from CO2-EOR in the United States.

  8. Change in cognitive performance is associated with functional recovery during post-acute stroke rehabilitation: a multi-centric study from intermediate care geriatric rehabilitation units of Catalonia.

    Pérez, Laura Mónica; Inzitari, Marco; Roqué, Marta; Duarte, Esther; Vallés, Elisabeth; Rodó, Montserrat; Gallofré, Miquel

    2015-10-01

    Recovery after a stroke is determined by a broad range of neurological, functional and psychosocial factors. Evidence regarding these factors is not well established, in particular influence of cognition changes during rehabilitation. We aimed to investigate whether selective characteristics, including cognitive performance and its change over time, modulate functional recovery with home discharge in stroke survivors admitted to post-acute rehabilitation units. We undertook a multicenter cohort study, including all patients discharged from acute wards to any geriatric rehabilitation unit in Catalonia-Spain during 2008. Patients were assessed for demographics, clinical and functional variables using Conjunt Mínim Bàsic de Dades dels Recursos Sociosanitaris (CMBD-RSS), which adapts the Minimum Data Set tool used in America's nursing homes. Baseline-to-discharge change in cognition was calculated on repeated assessments using the Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS, range 0-6, best-worst cognition). The multivariable effect of these factors was analyzed in relation to the outcome. 879 post-stroke patients were included (mean age 77.48 ± 10.18 years, 52.6% women). A worse initial CPS [OR (95% CI) = 0.851 (0.774-0.935)] and prevalent fecal incontinence [OR (95% CI) = 0.560 (0.454-0.691)] reduced the likelihood of returning home with functional improvement; whereas improvement of CPS, baseline to discharge, [OR (95% CI) = 1.348 (1.144-1.588)], more rehabilitation days within the first 2 weeks [OR (95% CI) = 1.011 (1.006-1.015)] and a longer hospital stay [OR (95% CI) = 1.011 (1.006-1.015)] were associated with the outcome. In our sample, different clinical characteristics, including cognitive function and its improvement over time, are associated with functional improvement in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation. Our results might provide information to further studies aimed at exploring the influence of cognition changes during rehabilitation.

  9. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  10. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  11. Acidophilic sulfur disproportionation

    Hardisty, Dalton S.; Olyphant, Greg A.; Bell, Jonathan B.; Johnson, Adam P.; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur (S0) is a well-studied metabolism and is not previously reported to occur at pH values less than 4.5. In this study, a sediment core from an abandoned-coal-mine-waste deposit in Southwest Indiana revealed sulfur isotope fractionations between S0 and pyrite (Δ34Ses-py) of up to -35‰, inferred to indicate intense recycling of S0 via bacterial disproportionation and sulfide oxidation. Additionally, the chemistry of seasonally collected pore-water profiles were found to vary, with pore-water pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.8 and observed seasonal redox shifts expressed as abrupt transitions from Fe(III) to Fe(II) dominated conditions, often controlled by fluctuating water table depths. S0 is a common product during the oxidation of pyrite, a process known to generate acidic waters during weathering and production of acid mine drainage. The H2S product of S0 disproportionation, fractionated by up to -8.6‰, is rapidly oxidized to S0 near redox gradients via reaction with Fe(III) allowing for the accumulation of isotopically light S0 that can then become subject to further sulfur disproportionation. A mass-balance model for S0 incorporating pyrite oxidation, S0 disproportionation, and S0 oxidation readily explains the range of observed Δ34Ses-py and emphasizes the necessity of seasonally varying pyrite weathering and metabolic rates, as indicated by the pore water chemistry. The findings of this research suggest that S0 disproportionation is potentially a common microbial process at a pH < 4.5 and can create large sulfur isotope fractionations, even in the absence of sulfate reduction.

  12. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot gas desulfurization technology

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H 2 S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct. The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading process for producing an elemental sulfur byproduct in hot-gas desulfurization systems, incurs a coal gas use penalty, because coal gas is required to reduce the SO 2 in regeneration off-gas to elemental sulfur. Alternative regeneration schemes, which avoid coal gas use and produce elemental sulfur, will be evaluated. These include (i) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using SO 2 ; (ii) partial oxidation of sulfided sorbent in an O 2 starved environment; and (iii) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using steam to produce H 2 S followed by direct oxidation of H 2 S to elemental sulfur. Known regenerable sorbents will be modified to improve the feasibility of the above alternative regeneration approaches. Performance characteristics of the modified sorbents and processes will be obtained through lab- and bench-scale testing. Technical and economic evaluation of the most promising processes concept(s) will be carried out

  13. Indium recovery by solvent extraction

    Fortes, Marilia Camargos Botelho

    1999-04-01

    Indium has been recovered as a byproduct from residues generated from the sulfuric acid leaching circuits in mineral plants for zinc recovery. Once its recovery comes from the slags of other metals recovery, it is necessary to separate it from the other elements which usually are present in high concentrations. Many works have been approaching this separation and indicate the solvent extraction process as the main technique used. In Brazilian case, indium recovery depends on the knowledge of this technique and its development. This paper describes the solvent extraction knowledge for the indium recovery from aqueous solutions generated in mineral plants. The results for determination of the best experimental conditions to obtain a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with di (2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) solubilized in isoparafin and exxsol has been presented. (author)

  14. Use of Flumazenil to Provide Adequate Recovery Time Post-Midazolom Infusion in a General Intensive Care Unit

    MOJTABA MOJTAHEDZADEH

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Sedation permits patients to tolerate the various treatment modalities to which they are subjected. However it may sometimes cause prolonged sedation in critically ill patients. Flumazenil, a benzo¬diazepine antagonist, reverses midazolam-induced sedation and amnesia. We prospectively designed a double-blind randomized study to evaluate the effects of flumazenil on thirty (30 Iranian General Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients. They were requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 12 hours and they were sedated by midazolam infusions. Sedation levels were measured hourly during the infusion, at the end of the infusion, and at 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min after cessation of the mida¬zolam infusion. Reversal of sedation was observed in all patients who received flumazenil, and re-sedation occurred in seven of these patients. Reversal was not seen in any of the patients who receiv-ed placebo.

  15. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  16. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  17. Changes in the levels of major sulfur metabolites and free amino acids in pea cotyledons recovering from sulfur deficiency

    Macnicol, P.K.; Randall, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in levels of sulfur metabolites and free amino acids were followed in cotyledons of sulfur-deficient, developing pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) for 24 hours after resupply of sulfate, during which time the legumin mRNA levels returned almost to normal. Two recovery situations were studied: cultured seeds, with sulfate added to the medium, and seeds attached to the intact plant, with sulfate added to the roots. In both situations the levels of cysteine, glutathione, and methionine rose rapidly, glutathione exhibiting an initial lag. In attached but not cultured seeds methionine markedly overshot the level normally found in sulfur-sufficient seeds. In the cultured seed S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), but not S-methylmethionine, showed a sustained rise; in the attached seed the changes were slight. The composition of the free amino acid pool did not change substantially in either recovery situation. In the cultured seed the large rise in AdoMet level occurred equally in nonrecovering seeds. It was accompanied by 6-fold and 10-fold increases in γ-aminobutyrate and alanine, respectively. These effects are attributed to wounding resulting from excision of the seed. 35 S-labeling experiments showed that there was no significant accumulation of label in unidentified sulfur-containing amino compounds in either recovery situation. It was concluded from these results and those of other workers that, at the present level of knowledge, the most probable candidate for a signal compound, eliciting recovery of legumin mRNA level in response to sulfur-feeding, is cysteine

  18. Proceedings of preparing for a significant Central United States earthquake-Science needs of the response and recovery community

    Witt, Emitt C.

    2010-01-01

    Preface Imagine waking up at 2 o'clock in the morning by a violent rumbling that causes ceilings to fall, furniture to topple over, and windows to break. Your home is crumbling, it is dark, and by the time you realize what is going on the shaking stops. You quickly determine that your family members are okay, but you also realize your power is out, all the windows are broken, and there is substantial damage to your home possibly making it unsafe to remain inside. The temperature outside is in the 20s, there is a heavy snow on the ground, and the flu season is at its peak with two of your family members affected. Unfortunately your family is one of thousands in a similar circumstance and the response to your needs may not be immediate, if at all. Could an earthquake like this happen unannounced? It did in the Central United States during the great New Madrid earthquake of 1811-12. A resident of New Madrid, Missouri writes (Martin, 1848 ): 'On the 16th of December 1811, about 2 o'clock, AM, we were visited by a violent shock of an earthquake accompanied by a very awful noise resembling loud but distant thunder, but more hoarse and vibrating, which was followed in a few minutes by the complete saturation of the atmosphere with sulphurious vapor, causing total darkness. The screams of the affrighted inhabitants running to and fro, not knowing where to go, or what to do-the cries of the fowls and beasts of every species-the crackling of trees falling, and the roar of the Mississippi-the current of which was retrograde for a few minutes, owing as is supposed to an irruption in its bed-formed a scene truly horrible.' Eliza Bryan, March 22, 1816 The residents of the Central United States during the great New Madrid earthquake were accustomed to living rugged life styles. Electrical power was not a reality, water was drawn from shallow hand-dug wells or retrieved from streams, food was hunted or grown, and the homes typically were log structures with dirt floors. Though

  19. Managing Postoperative Analgesic Failure: Tramadol Versus Morphine for Refractory Pain in the Post-Operative Recovery Unit.

    Byrne, Kelly; Nolan, Aoife; Barnard, John; Tozer, Megan; Harris, David; Sleigh, Jamie

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to discover whether co-analgesia with tramadol or additional morphine was more effective for patients who still had severe pain despite being given 10 mg intravenous morphine in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). All eligible patients were consented and recruited to the trial pre-operatively, but only a small subgroup – whose pain was not successfully controlled (pain score 6/10 or more) after receiving 10 mg of morphine in the PACU—were then randomized to enter the trial and receive, in a double blinded fashion, the analgesic study drug; which consisted of either a further 10 mg of morphine, or 100 mg of tramadol, titrated intravenously to control their pain. The groups were compared as to: the time to readiness for discharge, the patient’s pain scores over time, and the presence of side effects. There was no statistically significant difference in any of the outcomes measured. The time to readiness for discharge from PACU was 119 minutes in the morphine group and 120 minutes in the tramadol group. However in approximately half the cases who entered the trial (i.e., where pain had not been controlled with the pre-enrollment baseline 10 mg of morphine in PACU) neither a further 10 mg of morphine nor 100 mg of tramadol effectively relieved the patient’s pain. We found no difference between additional morphine and co-analgesia with tramadol in this study. Patients who don’t respond to reasonable doses of opioids in PACU are very likely to be unresponsive to further opioids, and other non-opioid analgesic techniques (such as regional anesthesia) should be considered early in this group of patients.

  20. An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste.

    Garg, A; Smith, R; Hill, D; Longhurst, P J; Pollard, S J T; Simms, N J

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly ( approximately 2500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and approximately 1500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( 95 pounds/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.

  1. An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste

    Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Hill, D.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly (∼2500 g CO 2 eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and ∼1500 g CO 2 eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( Pounds 95/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.

  2. Experimental and numerical modeling of sulfur plugging in carbonate reservoirs

    Abou-Kassem, J.H. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, UAE University, PO Box 17555, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2000-05-01

    Sour gas, mainly in the form of hydrogen sulfide, is produced in large amounts from many oil and gas reservoirs in the United Arab Emirates. In addition to creating problems in production lines, the precipitation of elemental sulfur in vicinity of the wellbore is often reported to cause wellbore damage. While there have been several studies performed on the role of solid deposition in gas reservoirs, the role of sulfur deposition in oil reservoirs has not been investigated. This paper presents experimental results along with a comprehensive wellbore model that predicts sulfur precipitation as well as plugging. Two separate sets of experiments, one for a gas phase system and another for a crude oil system, were conducted to investigate the deposition of elemental sulfur in (linear) carbonate cores. The gas flow tests were conducted with elemental sulfur being carried with nitrogen through limestone cores. Changes in gas flow rate were monitored while the injection pressure was held constant. A series of experiments generated valuable data for plugging with elemental sulfur. X-ray diffraction tests provided evidence of sulfur deposition along the cores. The oil flow tests were carried out to observe sulfur precipitation and plugging in a carbonate core. The crude oil was de-asphalted before conducting these tests in order to isolate the effect of asphaltene plugging. Significant plugging was observed and was found to be dependent on flow rate and initial sulfur concentration. This information was used in a phenomenological model that was incorporated in the wellbore numerical model. The data for the numerical model were obtained from both test tube and oil flow experiments. By using a phenomenological model, the wellbore plugging was modeled with an excellent match (with experimental results)

  3. Phosphorus, sulfur and pyridine

    Schönberger, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of distinct neutral or anionic P,S compounds in solution provides a great challenge for chemists. Due to the similarity in the energies of the P–P, P–S and S–S bonds nearly solely a mixture of compounds with different composition and charge is obtained. Our interest focuses on the system consisting of phosphorus, sulfur and pyridine, with the aim of a greater selectivity of P,S compounds in solution. The combination of these three components offers the opportunity...

  4. Sulfur problems in Swedish agriculture

    Johansson, O

    1959-01-01

    The present paper deals with some aspects of the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture with special emphasis on the importance of and relationships among various sources of sulfur supply. An inventory of the sulfur content of Swedish soils and hay crops includes 649 soil samples and a corresponding number of hay samples from 59 locations. In a special investigation the samples were found to be representative of normal Swedish farm land. It is concluded that the amount of sulfur compounds in the air is the primary factor which determines the amount of sulfur added to the soil from the atmosphere. Compared with values obtained in other countries, the amount of sulfur added by the precipitation in Sweden is very low. The distribution in air and precipitation of sulfur from an industrial source was studied in a special investigation. An initial reason for the present study was the damage to vegetation caused by smoke from an industrial source. It was concluded that the average conditions in the vicinity of the industrial source with respect to smoke constituents in the air and precipitation were unfavorable only to the plants directly within a very narrow region. Relationships among the sulfur contents of air, of precipitation, of soils and of plants have been subject to special investigations. In the final general discussion and conclusions it is pointed out that the results from these investigations indicate evident differences in the sulfur status of Swedish soils. The present trend toward the use of more highly concentrated fertilizers poor in sulfur may be expected to cause a considerable change in the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture. 167 references, 40 figures, 44 tables.

  5. Lithium sulfur batteries and electrolytes and sulfur cathodes thereof

    Visco, Steven J.; Goncharenko, Nikolay; Nimon, Vitaliy; Petrov, Alexei; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Katz, Bruce D.; Loginova, Valentina

    2017-05-23

    Lithium sulfur battery cells that use water as an electrolyte solvent provide significant cost reductions. Electrolytes for the battery cells may include water solvent for maintaining electroactive sulfur species in solution during cell discharge and a sufficient amount of a cycle life-enhancing compound that facilitates charging at the cathode. The combination of these two components enhances one or more of the following cell attributes: energy density, power density and cycle life. For instance, in applications where cost per Watt-Hour (Wh) is paramount, such as grid storage and traction applications, the use of an aqueous electrolyte in combination with inexpensive sulfur as the cathode active material can be a key enabler for the utility and automotive industries, for example, providing a cost effective and compact solution for load leveling, electric vehicles and renewable energy storage. Sulfur cathodes, and methods of fabricating lithium sulfur cells, in particular for loading lithium sulfide into the cathode structures, provide further advantages.

  6. Danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid

    Mirsaidov, U.; Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by sulfuric acid. The process of decomposition of danburite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied. The chemical nature of decomposition process of boron containing ore was determined. The influence of temperature on the rate of extraction of boron and iron oxides was defined. The dependence of decomposition of boron and iron oxides on process duration, dosage of H 2 SO 4 , acid concentration and size of danburite particles was determined. The kinetics of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was studied as well. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was calculated. The flowsheet of danburite processing by sulfuric acid was elaborated.

  7. Post-Closure Report for Closed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Units, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, for Fiscal Year 2014

    Silvas, Alissa J. [Nevada Field Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report serves as the combined annual report for post-closure activities for several Corrective Action Units (CAUs). The locations of the sites are shown in Figure 1. This report covers fiscal year 2014 (October 2013–September 2014). The post-closure requirements for these sites are described in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit Number NEV HW0101 and summarized in each CAU-specific section in Section 1.0 of this report. The results of the inspections, a summary of maintenance activities, and an evaluation of monitoring data are presented in this report. Site inspections are conducted semiannually at CAUs 90 and 91 and quarterly at CAUs 92, 110, 111, and 112. Additional inspections are conducted at CAU 92 if precipitation occurs in excess of 0.50 inches (in.) in a 24-hour period and at CAU 111 if precipitation occurs in excess of 1.0 in. in a 24-hour period. Inspections include an evaluation of the condition of the units, including covers, fences, signs, gates, and locks. In addition to visual inspections, soil moisture monitoring, vegetation evaluations, and subsidence surveys are conducted at CAU 110. At CAU 111, soil moisture monitoring, vegetation evaluations, subsidence surveys, direct radiation monitoring, air monitoring, radon flux monitoring, and groundwater monitoring are conducted. The results of the vegetation surveys and an analysis of the soil moisture monitoring data at CAU 110 are presented in this report. Results of additional monitoring at CAU 111 are documented annually in the Nevada National Security Site Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites and in the Nevada National Security Site Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, which will be prepared in approximately June 2015. All required inspections, maintenance, and monitoring were conducted in accordance with the post-closure requirements of the permit. It is recommended to continue

  8. Experimental study of desulfurization of Zhong Liang Shau high sulfur coal by flotation

    Jiang, Z.; Huang, B.; Cao, J. [China University of Mining and Technology (China). Beijing Graduate School

    1994-12-01

    Emission of large amount of SO{sub 2} from combustion of high sulfur coal causes serious environmental pollution. Pre-combustion desulfurization of high sulfur coal has become a necessity. This paper reports test results of fine coal desulfurization with different flotation technology and the effect of pyrite depressant. Test work showed that when the coal sample from Zhong Liang Shau was processed with a Free Jet Flotation Column its pyritic sulfur content was reduced from 3.08% to 0.84%, with 72.22% recovery of combustible matter in clean coal. The concept of Desulfurization Efficiency Index E{sub ds} for comprehensive evaluation of desulfurization process is proposed, which is defined as the product of the ratio of sulfur content reduction of clean coal and the recovery of combustible matters. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Power recovery method for testing the efficiency of the ECD of an integrated generation unit for offshore wind power and ocean wave energy

    CHEN WeiXing; GAO Feng; MENG XiangDun; REN AnYe; HU Yan

    2017-01-01

    Offshore wind power and ocean wave energy are clean,renewable and rich resources.The integrated generation unit for the two kinds of energy is introduced.The energy conversion device (ECD) is utilized to convert the mechanical energy absorbed from the wind power and wave energy into the hydraulic energy,the conversion efficiency of which is significant.In this paper,a power recovery method for testing the efficiency of the ECD is proposed.A simulation desktop is developed to validate the proposed method.The efficiency of the ECD is influenced by the hydraulic cylinders and the mechanical transmission.Here,the static efficiency of the hydraulic cylinders of the ECD is tested first.The results show that the static mechanical efficiency is about 95 % and that the volumetric efficiency is over 99%.To test the effects induced by the mechanical transmission of the ECD,each hydraulic cylinder of the ECD is substituted with two springs.Then the power loss of the ECDM under different rotational speeds is obtained.Finally,a test platform is built and the efficiency of the ECD under different rotational speeds and pressures is obtained.The results show that the efficiency is about 80%.

  10. Post-Closure Report for Closed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Units, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for Fiscal Year 2011 (October 2010-September 2011)

    2012-01-01

    This report serves as the combined annual report for post-closure activities for the following closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs): (1) CAU 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment; (2) CAU 91, Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well; (3) CAU 92, Area 6 Decon Pond Facility; (4) CAU 110, Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater; and (5) CAU 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches. This report covers fiscal year 2011 (October 2010-September 2011). The post-closure requirements for these sites are described in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit Number NEV HW0101 and summarized in each CAU-specific section in Section 1.0 of this report. Site inspections are conducted semiannually at CAUs 90 and 91 and quarterly at CAUs 92, 110, and 112. Additional inspections are conducted at CAU 92 if precipitation occurs in excess of 0.50 inches in a 24-hour period. Inspections include an evaluation of the condition of the units and identification of any deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the units. The condition of covers, fencing, signs, gates, and locks is documented. In addition, soil moisture monitoring and subsidence surveys are conducted at CAU 110. The results of the inspections, summary of maintenance activities, results of vegetations surveys, and analysis of monitoring data are presented in this report. Copies of the inspection checklists are included as Appendix A. Field notes completed during each inspection are included in Appendix B. Photographs taken during the inspections are included in Appendix C. It is recommended to continue semiannual inspections at CAUs 90 and 91; quarterly inspections at CAUs 92, 110, and 112; and additional inspections at CAU 92 if precipitation occurs in excess of 0.50 inches in a 24-hour period. At CAU 92, it is recommended to remove the wave barriers, as they have not proven to be necessary to protect the cover. At CAU 110, it is recommended to continue annual vegetation monitoring and soil moisture monitoring, and to reduce the frequency of

  11. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  12. Incineration with energy recovery

    Mahoney, T.G.

    1986-02-01

    Motherwell Bridge Tacol Ltd. operate a 'Licence Agreement' with Deutsche Babcock Anlagen of Krefeld, West Germany, for the construction of Municipal Refuse Incineration plant and Industrial Waste plant with or without the incorporation of waste heat recovery equipment. The construction in the UK of a number of large incineration plants incorporating the roller grate incinerator unit is discussed. The historical background, combustion process, capacity, grate details, refuse analysis and use as fuel, heat recovery and costs are outlined.

  13. Demand outlook for sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke

    Koshkarov, V.Ya.; Danil' yan, P.G.; Feotov, V.E.; Gimaev, R.N.; Koshkarova, M.E.; Sadykova, S.R.; Vodovichenko, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke fines in pyrometallurgical processes and also in the chemical and coal-tar chemical industry is examined. Results of industrial tests on briquetting fines of petroleum coke with a petroleum binder are presented. The feasibility of using the obtained briquets in shaft furnace smelting of oxidized nickel ores, production of anode stock, and also in the chemical industry are demonstrated.

  14. Sulfur equilibrium desulfurization of sulfur containing products of combustion

    Woodroffe, J.A.; Abichandani, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes the method for the combustion of a carbon- and sulfur-containing fuel for substantially reducing emission of gaseous sulfur compounds formed during combustion of the fuel in a combustion zone. The zone having one or more fuel inlets and one or more oxidizer inlets, and having a combustion products outlet spaced therefrom, and having one or more inorganic sorbent inlets downstream of the fuel inlet(s) and oxidizer inlet(s) and upstream of the combustion products outlet

  15. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2014-06-17

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  16. Sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium

    Berry, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter on the coordination compounds of sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium starts with an introduction to the bonding, valence and geometry of the elements. Complexes of the group VIB elements are discussed with particular reference to the halo and pseudohalide complexes, oxo acid complexes, oxygen and nitrogen donor complexes and sulfur and selenium donor complexes. There is a section on the biological properties of the complexes discussed. (UK)

  17. New uses of sulfur - update

    Almond, K.P.

    1995-07-01

    An update to an extensive bibliography on alternate uses of sulfur was presented. Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., previously compiled a bibliography in volume 24 of this quarterly bulletin. This update provides an additional 44 new publications. The information regarding current research focusses on topics regarding the use of sulfur in oil and gas applications, mining and metallurgy, concretes and other structural materials, waste management, rubber and textile products, asphalts and other paving and highway applications.

  18. For sale: Sulfur emissions

    Heiderscheit, J.

    1992-01-01

    The allowance trading market has started a slow march to maturity. Competitive developers should understand the risks and opportunities now presented. The marketplace for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions allowances - the centerpiece of Title 4's acid rain reduction program - remains enigmatic 19 months after the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 were passed. Yet it is increasingly clear that the emission allowance market will likely confound the gloom and doom of its doubters. The recently-announced $10 million dollar Wisconsin Power and Light allowance sales to Duquesne Light and the Tennessee Valley Authority are among the latest indications of momentum toward a stabilizing market. This trend puts additional pressure on independent developers to finalize their allowance strategies. Developers who understand what the allowance trading program is and what it is not, know the key players, and grasp the unresolved regulatory issues will have a new competitive advantage. The topics addressed in this article include the allowance marketplace, marketplace characteristics, the regulatory front, forward-looking strategies, and increasing marketplace activity

  19. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    1995-05-01

    Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification.

  2. Anthropogenic emissions of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen into the atmosphere of the former Soviet Union in 1985 and 1990

    Ryaboshapko, A.G.; Brukhanov, P.A.; Gromov, S.A.; Proshina, Yu.V; Afinogenova, O.G. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-09-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen over the former Soviet Union for 1985 and 1990 were calculated on the basis of a combination of `bottom-up` and `top-down` approaches. Sulfur dioxide emissions from combustion of hard coal, brown coal, oil products, natural gas, shale oil, peat, wood as well as from metallurgy, sulfuric acid production, and cement production were estimated. Nitrogen oxides emissions were considered separately for large power plants, small power plants, industrial boilers, residential combustion units, and for transport. The sulfur and nitrogen emissions were spatially distributed over the former Soviet Union with 1 x 1 degree resolution. Data on 721 point sources of sulfur dioxide emissions and on the 242 largest power stations as nitrogen oxides sources were used. The area sources of both sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were distributed according to the population density separately for about 150 administrative units of the former Soviet Union. 63 refs., 19 tabs.

  3. Biogenic sulfur compounds and the global sulfur cycle

    Aneja, V.P.; Aneja, A.P.; Adams, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Field measurements of biogenic sulfur compounds shows a great variation in concentrations and emission rates for H 2 S, DMS, CS 2 and COS. Measurements by the chamber method and estimates from micrometeorological sampling are employed to determine the earth-atmosphere flux of these gases. Much of the variation can be attributed to differences of climate and surface conditions, with marshes being a large source of biogenic sulfur (mean contribution 4 x 10 to the 6th ton/year maximum contribution 142 x 10 to the 6th ton/year). Considering that the estimated biogenic contribution needed to balance the global sulfur cycle ranges from 40- 230 x 10 to the 6th tons/year, the mean values are not sufficient to balance this cycle. Further experimental investigations are suggested in order to characterize the biogenic processes adequately

  4. The use of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) principles in Scottish orthopaedic units--an implementation and follow-up at 1 year, 2010-2011: a report from the Musculoskeletal Audit, Scotland.

    Scott, Nicholas B; McDonald, David; Campbell, Jane; Smith, Richard D; Carey, A Kate; Johnston, Ian G; James, Kate R; Breusch, Steffen J

    2013-01-01

    To establish whether a nationally guided programme can lead to more widespread implementation of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS), a well-established optimised care pathway for lower limb arthroplasty. In 2010, National Services Scotland's Musculoskeletal Audit was asked to perform a 'snapshot' audit of the current peri-operative management of patients undergoing total hip and knee arthroplasty in all 22 Scottish orthopaedic units with an identical follow-up audit in 2011 after input and support from the national steering group. Audit 1 and audit 2 involved 1,345 and 1,278 patients, respectively. The number of Scottish units that developed an ERAS programme increased from 8 (36 %) to 15 (68 %). Units that included more ERAS patients had earlier mobilisation rates (146/474, 36 % ERAS patients mobilised same day vs. 34/873, 4 % non-ERAS; n = 22 units, r = 0.55, p = 0.008) and shorter post-operative length of stay (median 4 days vs. ERAS, 5 days non-ERAS, n = 22 units, r = -0.64, p = 0.001). ERAS knee arthroplasty patients had lower blood transfusion rates (5/205, 2 % vs. 51/399, 13 %, n = 22 units, r = -0.62, p = 0.002). Units that restricted the use of IV fluids post-operatively had higher early mobilisation rates (n = 22 units, r = 0.48, p = 0.03) and shorter post-operative length of stay (n = 22 units, r = -0.56, p = 0.007). Reduced use of patient-controlled analgesia was also associated with earlier mobilisation (n = 22 units, r = 0.49, p = 0.02) and shorter length of stay (n = 22 units, r = -0.39, p = 0.07). Urinary catheterisation rates also dropped from 468/1,345 (35 %) in 2010 to 337/1,278 (26 %) in 2011 (n = 22 units, z = 2.19, p = 0.03). A clinically guided and nationally supported process has proven highly successful in achieving a further uptake of enhanced recovery principles after lower limb arthroplasty in Scotland, which has resulted in clinical benefits to patients and reduced length of hospital stay.

  5. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Final report

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1995-06-01

    This project has investigated new metal oxide catalysts for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as CO. Significant progress in catalyst development has been made during the course of the project. We have found that fluorite oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, and rare earth zirconates such as Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are active and stable catalysts for reduction Of SO{sub 2} by CO. More than 95% sulfur yield was achieved at reaction temperatures about 450{degrees}C or higher with the feed gas of stoichiometric composition. Reaction of SO{sub 2} and CO over these catalysts demonstrated a strong correlation of catalytic activity with the catalyst oxygen mobility. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and resistance to H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} poisoning of these catalysts were significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Co, etc. The resulting transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalyst has superior activity and stability, and shows promise in long use for the development of a greatly simplified single-step sulfur recovery process to treat variable and dilute SO{sub 2} concentration gas streams. Among various active composite catalyst systems the Cu-CeO{sub 2} system has been extensively studied. XRD, XPS, and STEM analyses of the used Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst found that the fluorite crystal structure of ceria was stable at the present reaction conditions, small amounts of copper was dispersed and stabilized on the ceria matrix, and excess copper oxide particles formed copper sulfide crystals of little contribution to catalytic activity. A working catalyst consisted of partially sulfated cerium oxide surface and partially sulfided copper clusters. The overall reaction kinetics were approximately represented by a first order equation.

  6. Improved analytical techniques of sulfur isotopic composition in nanomole quantities by MC-ICP-MS.

    Yu, Tsai-Luen; Wang, Bo-Shian; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wang, Pei-Ling; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Burr, George S; Chen, Yue-Gau

    2017-10-02

    We propose an improved method for precise sulfur isotopic measurements by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) in conjunction with a membrane desolvation nebulization system. The problems of sulfur loss through the membrane desolvation apparatus are carefully quantified and resolved. The method overcomes low intrinsic sulfur transmission through the instrument, which was initially 1% when operating at a desolvation temperature of 160 °C. Sulfur loss through the membrane desolvation apparatus was resolved by doping with sodium. A Na/S ratio of 2 mol mol -1 produced sulfur transmissions with 98% recovery. Samples of 3 nmol (100 ng) sulfur achieved an external precision of ±0.18‰ (2 SD) for δ 34 S and ±0.10‰ (2 SD) for Δ 33 S (uppercase delta expresses the extent of mass-independent isotopic fractionation). Measurements made on certified reference materials and in-house standards demonstrate analytical accuracy and reproducibility. We applied the method to examine microbial-induced sulfur transformation in marine sediment pore waters from the sulfate-methane transition zone. The technique is quite versatile, and can be applied to a range of materials, including natural waters and minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sulfur isotope signatures in New Zealand

    Cainey, J.

    2001-01-01

    The role of sulfur in cloud formation makes it a crucial ingredient in the global climate change debate. So it is important to be able to measure sulfur in the atmosphere and identify where it came from. (author)

  8. Model Prebiotic Iron-Sulfur Peptides

    Bonfio, C.; Scintilla, S.; Shah, S.; Evans, D. J.; Jin, L.; Szostak, J. W.; Sasselov, D. D.; Sutherland, J. D.; Mansy, S. S.

    2017-07-01

    Iron-sulfur clusters form easily in aqueous solution in the presence of thiolates and iron ions. Polymerization of short, iron-sulfur binding tripeptide sequences leads to ferredoxin-like ligand spacing and activity.

  9. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    2013-08-05

    ... Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO[bdi2]) Primary National Ambient Air Quality... air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for the 2010 primary Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The EPA is issuing this rule to identify areas...

  10. Air Quality Criteria for Sulfur Oxides.

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a literature review which comprehensively discusses knowledge of the sulfur oxides commonly found in the atmosphere. The subject content is represented by the 10 chapter titles: Physical and Chemical Properties and the Atmospheric Reactions of the Oxides of Sulfur; Sources and Methods of Measurements of Sulfur Oxides in the Atmosphere;…

  11. Biologically removing sulfur from dilute gas flows

    Ruitenberg, R.; Dijkman, H.; Buisman, C. J. N.

    1999-05-01

    A biological process has been developed to clean off-gases containing sulfur dioxide from industrial installations. The sulfur dioxide is converted into hydrogen sulfide, which can then be oxidized to elemental sulfur if not used on-site. The process produces no waste products that require disposal and has a low reagent consumption.

  12. Method of distillation of sulfurous bituminous shales

    Hallback, A J.S.; Bergh, S V

    1918-04-22

    A method of distillation of sulfur-containing bituminous shales is characterized by passing the hot sulfur-containing and oil-containing gases and vapors formed during the distillation through burned shale containing iron oxide, so that when these gases and vapors are thereafter cooled they will be, as far as possible, free from sulfur compounds. The patent contains six more claims.

  13. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. Radiation induced sulfur dioxide removal

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    The biggest source of air pollution is the combustion of fossil fuels, were pollutants such as particulate, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) are emitted. Among these pollutants, sulfur dioxide plays the main role in acidification of the environment. The mechanism of sulfur dioxide transformation in the environment is partly photochemical. This is not direct photooxidation, however, but oxidation through formed radicals. Heterogenic reactions play an important role in this transformation as well; therefore, observations from environmental chemistry can be used in air pollution control engineering. One of the most promising technologies for desulfurization of the flue gases (and simultaneous denitrification) is radiation technology with an electron accelerator application. Contrary to the nitrogen oxides (NO x ) removal processes, which is based on pure radiation induced reactions, sulfur dioxide removal depends on two pathways: a thermochemical reaction in the presence of ammonia/water vapor and a radiation set of radiochemical reactions. The mechanism of these reactions and the consequent technological parameters of the process are discussed in this paper. The industrial application of this radiation technology is being implemented in an industrial pilot plant operated by INCT at EPS Kaweczyn. A full-scale industrial plant is currently in operation in China, and two others are under development in Japan and Poland. (author)

  16. Improved method for minimizing sulfur loss in analysis of particulate organic sulfur.

    Park, Ki-Tae; Lee, Kitack; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, Kwang Young

    2014-02-04

    The global sulfur cycle depends primarily on the metabolism of marine microorganisms, which release sulfur gas into the atmosphere and thus affect the redistribution of sulfur globally as well as the earth's climate system. To better quantify sulfur release from the ocean, analysis of the production and distribution of organic sulfur in the ocean is necessary. This report describes a wet-based method for accurate analysis of particulate organic sulfur (POS) in the marine environment. The proposed method overcomes the considerable loss of sulfur (up to 80%) that occurs during analysis using conventional methods involving drying. Use of the wet-based POS extraction procedure in conjunction with a sensitive sulfur analyzer enabled accurate measurements of cellular POS. Data obtained using this method will enable accurate assessment of how rapidly sulfur can transfer among pools. Such information will improve understanding of the role of POS in the oceanic sulfur cycle.

  17. Industrial recovery capability. Final report

    Gregg, D.W.

    1984-12-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the vulnerability - to a nuclear strike, terrorist attack, or natural disaster - of our national capacity to produce chlorine, beryllium, and a particular specialty alumina catalyst required for the production of sulfur. All of these industries are of critical importance to the United States economy. Other industries that were examined and found not to be particularly vulnerable are medicinal drugs and silicon wafers for electronics. Thus, only the three more vulnerable industries are addressed in this report

  18. Development of once-through hybrid sulfur process for nuclear hydrogen production

    Jung, Yong Hun

    2010-02-01

    without concentration process depending on the acid concentration they need. It is reasonable to assume that nearly all the recovered sulfur is reportedly consumed after first converted to sulfuric acid, which is the leading sulfur end-use in all forms. Ot-HyS could meet the additionally rising sulfuric acid demand by feeding severely increasing sulfur surplus. Flowsheet for the sulfur combustion and SCHRS (Sulfur Combustion Heat Recovery System) including Rankine cycle, developed by referring to the existing facilities under some assumptions, was simulated using Aspen Plus with an ideal Henry model and STEAMNBS model. Other part of the flowsheet, modified from the SRNL's work, was simulated using Aspen Plus with OLI-MSE model. Acid concentration of sulfuric acid product was set to be 75 wt% and SDE was treated as a black box under the reasonable assumptions including a cell potential of 0.6 V versus current density of 500 mA/cm 2 , which is a development performance target of the SRNL. As the results, it was demonstrated that net thermal efficiency of Ot-HyS is 47.1 % (based on LHV) and 55.7 % (based on HHV) assuming 33.3 % thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency of nuclear power plant. Hydrogen produced through the energy-efficient Ot-HyS would be used as off-peak electricity storage, to relieve the burden of load-following and help to expand applications of nuclear energy, which is regarded as a 'sustainable development' technology. Further detailed economic feasibility study could help to show the feasibility of Ot-HyS

  19. Ventilation with heat recovery

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences from the use of ventilation with heat recovery in several experimental single-family houses developed and built within the last four years to meet the new Danish energy requirements of 2005. Included are descriptions of the ventilation system components...... and the main functional demands as well as measurements of the thermal efficiency, electricity consumptions and building air tightness. The paper addresses the aspects of minimizing the heat loss from the duct system and the heat recovery unit (when placed in an unheated attic space) in order to obtain...

  20. Antibotulinal efficacy of sulfur dioxide in meat.

    Tompkin, R B; Christiansen, L N; Shaparis, A B

    1980-01-01

    The addition of sodium metabisulfite as a source of sulfur dioxide delayed botulinal outgrowth in perishable canned comminuted pork when it was temperature abused at 27 degree C. The degree of inhibition was directly related to the level of sulfur dioxide. Levels greater than 100 microgram of sulfur dioxide per g were necessary to achieve significant inhibition when a target level of 100 botulinal spores per g was used. Sodium nitrite partially reduced the efficacy of the sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide offers a new option for the control of botulinal outgrowth in cured or noncured meat and poultry products. PMID:6996613

  1. CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana

    Frailey, Scott M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Krapac, Ivan G. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Damico, James R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Okwen, Roland T. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); McKaskle, Ray W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-03-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding.

  2. The evolving regulation of uranium recovery operations in the United States of America: Innovative approaches are necessary for cost effective regulatory oversight

    Thompson, A.J.; Lehrenbaum, W.U.; Lashway, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    The US domestic uranium industry is at a crossroads. Historic low prices for uranium, combined with stringent and often irrational regulatory requirements, pose a very real threat to the industry's continued viability. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has taken a number of innovative steps to reform and rationalize its regulatory programme. However, if the domestic uranium recovery industry is to remain viable, additional steps toward innovation and reform are needed, and effective implementation of reforms adopted by the Commission is essential. (author)

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for container storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    1994-08-01

    This document contains Part B of the Permit Application for Container Storage Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Sections cover the following areas: Facility description; Waste characteristics; Process information; Ground water monitoring; Procedures to prevent hazards; Contingency plan; Personnel training; Closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; Recordkeeping; Other federal laws; Organic air emissions; Solid waste management units; and Certification.

  4. Losses of ammonia and nitrate from agriculture and their effect on nitrogen recovery in the European Union and the United States between 1900 and 2050

    van Grinsven, Hans J.M.; Bouwman, Lex|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090428048; Cassman, Kenneth G.; van Es, Harold M.; McCrackin, Michelle L.; Beusen, Arthur H.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/109357302

    2015-01-01

    Historical trends and levels of nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to air and water in the European Union and the United States are markedly different. Agro-environmental policy approaches also differ, with emphasis on voluntary or incentive-based schemes in the United States versus a more

  5. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for container storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    1994-08-01

    This document contains Part B of the Permit Application for Container Storage Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Sections cover the following areas: Facility description; Waste characteristics; Process information; Ground water monitoring; Procedures to prevent hazards; Contingency plan; Personnel training; Closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; Recordkeeping; Other federal laws; Organic air emissions; Solid waste management units; and Certification

  6. Removal of sulfur from process streams

    Brignac, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    A process wherein water is added to a non-reactive gas stream, preferably a hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas stream, sufficient to raise the water level thereof to from about 0.2 percent to about 50 percent, based on the total volume of the process gas stream, and the said moist gas stream is contacted, at elevated temperature, with a particulate mass of a sulfur-bearing metal alumina spinel characterized by the formula MAl 2 O 4 , wherein M is chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, cadmium, mercury, or zinc to desorb sulfur thereon. In the sulfur sorption cycle, due to the simultaneous adsorption of water and sulfur, the useful life of the metal alumina spinel for sulfur adsorption can be extended, and the sorbent made more easily regenerable after contact with a sulfur-bearing gas stream, notably sulfur-bearing wet hydrogen or wet hydrogen-rich gas streams

  7. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  8. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  9. A sulfuric-lactic acid process for efficient purification of fungal chitosan with intact molecular weight.

    Naghdi, Mitra; Zamani, Akram; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2014-02-01

    The most recent method of fungal chitosan purification, i.e., two steps of dilute sulfuric acid treatment, pretreatment of cell wall at room temperature for phosphate removal and extraction of chitosan from the phosphate free cell wall at high temperature, significantly reduces the chitosan molecular weight. This study was aimed at improvement of this method. In the pretreatment step, to choose the best conditions, cell wall of Rhizopus oryzae, containing 9% phosphate, 10% glucosamine, and 21% N-acetyl glucosamine, was treated with sulfuric, lactic, acetic, nitric, or hydrochloric acid, at room temperature. Sulfuric acid showed the best performance in phosphate removal (90%) and cell wall recovery (89%). To avoid depolymerisation of chitosan, hot sulfuric acid extraction was replaced with lactic acid treatment at room temperature, and a pure fungal chitosan was obtained (0.12 g/g cell wall). Similar pretreatment and extraction processes were conducted on pure shrimp chitosan and resulted in a chitosan recovery of higher than 87% while the reduction of chitosan viscosity was less than 15%. Therefore, the sulfuric-lactic acid method purified the fungal chitosan without significant molecular weight manipulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of desulfurization, denitrogenation and process sulfur transfer during hydropyrolysis of Chinese high sulfur coals

    Sun Chenggong; Li Baoqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Conversion; Snape, C.E. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    The process desulphurization and denitrogenation of Chinese high sulfur coals and the characteristics of sulfur transformation during non-catalytic hydropyrolysis were investigated by a 10 g fixed-bed reactor and a small-scaled reactor with online spectrometry respectively. It was indicated that more than 70% of the total sulfur of the two high sulfur coals and almost all pyritic sulfur are removed as H{sub 2}S, leaving the char and tar products with much less sulfur distribution. The liability of sulfur transformation to tar products is closely related to the thiophenic structure forms rather than sulfidic forms. At the same time, the formation of trace amount of sulfur dioxide indicates the presence of inherent sulfur oxidation reactions inside coal frame structures even under H{sub 2} pressure. (orig.)

  11. Volatile earliest Triassic sulfur cycle

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Algeo, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    model experiment. Exposure of evaporite deposits having a high δ 34S may account for the source change, with a possible role for the Siberian Traps volcanism by magmatic remobilization of Cambrian rock salt. A high sulfur cycle turnover rate would have left the ocean system vulnerable to development......Marine biodiversity decreases and ecosystem destruction during the end-Permian mass extinction (EPME) have been linked to widespread marine euxinic conditions. Changes in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR), and marine dissolved sulfate concentrations during...... fractionation and point to a more universal control, i.e., contemporaneous seawater sulfate concentration.The MSR-trend transfer function yielded estimates of seawater sulfate of 0.6-2.8mM for the latest Permian to earliest Triassic, suggesting a balanced oceanic S-cycle with equal S inputs and outputs...

  12. Prevalence and pathways of recovery from drug and alcohol problems in the United States population: Implications for practice, research, and policy.

    Kelly, John F; Bergman, Brandon; Hoeppner, Bettina B; Vilsaint, Corrie; White, William L

    2017-12-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems confer a global, prodigious burden of disease, disability, and premature mortality. Even so, little is known regarding how, and by what means, individuals successfully resolve AOD problems. Greater knowledge would inform policy and guide service provision. Probability-based survey of US adult population estimating: 1) AOD problem resolution prevalence; 2) lifetime use of "assisted" (i.e., treatment/medication, recovery services/mutual help) vs. "unassisted" resolution pathways; 3) correlates of assisted pathway use. Participants (response=63.4% of 39,809) responding "yes" to, "Did you use to have a problem with alcohol or drugs but no longer do?" assessed on substance use, clinical histories, problem resolution. Weighted prevalence of problem resolution was 9.1%, with 46% self-identifying as "in recovery"; 53.9% reported "assisted" pathway use. Most utilized support was mutual-help (45.1%,SE=1.6), followed by treatment (27.6%,SE=1.4), and emerging recovery support services (21.8%,SE=1.4), including recovery community centers (6.2%,SE=0.9). Strongest correlates of "assisted" pathway use were lifetime AOD diagnosis (AOR=10.8[7.42-15.74], model R2=0.13), drug court involvement (AOR=8.1[5.2-12.6], model R2=0.10), and, inversely, absence of lifetime psychiatric diagnosis (AOR=0.3[0.2-0.3], model R2=0.10). Compared to those with primary alcohol problems, those with primary cannabis problems were less likely (AOR=0.7[0.5-0.9]) and those with opioid problems were more likely (AOR=2.2[1.4-3.4]) to use assisted pathways. Indices related to severity were related to assisted pathways (R2<0.03). Tens of millions of Americans have successfully resolved an AOD problem using a variety of traditional and non-traditional means. Findings suggest a need for a broadening of the menu of self-change and community-based options that can facilitate and support long-term AOD problem resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Recovery Spirituality

    Ernest Kurtz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.

  14. 78 FR 54892 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; NESHAP...

    2013-09-06

    ...: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units (Renewal) AGENCY... submitted an information collection request (ICR), ``NESHAP for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart UUU) (Renewal...

  15. Ácido sulfúrico superação da dormência de unidade de dispersão de juazeiro (Zizyphus joazeiro Mart. The use of sulfuric acid to break dispersal unit dormancy of Zizyphus joazeiro Mart.

    Edna Ursulino Alves

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O Zizyphus joazeiro Mart. apresenta redução sensível no número de indivíduos em seu ambiente natural devido, entre outras causas, à ocorrência de dormência exógena da unidade de dispersão (impermeabilidade à água. Avaliou-se o efeito do período de imersão (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 min dessas unidades de dispersão, em ácido sulfúrico (98 %, na emergência e vigor das sementes (primeira contagem, índice de velocidade e tempo médio de emergência, altura e massa seca de plantas. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. O pré-condicionamento das unidades de dispersão de Zizyphus joazeiro Mart., em ácido sulfúrico concentrado, mostrou-se eficiente na superação da dormência dessa espécie, promovendo aumento na porcentagem e velocidade de emergência, primeira contagem de emergência, na altura e massa seca de plantas e redução no tempo médio para emergência. A eficiência do tratamento químico com ácido sulfúrico concentrado depende do período de imersão, sendo a faixa entre 74 e 115 min mais adequada para proporcionar maiores porcentagens de emergência e de vigor.Zizyphus joazeiro Mart. trees have been declining in number in their natural habitat due to, among other reasons, the occurrence of dormancy of dispersal units (water impermeability. The effect of the immersion time (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes of Zizyphus joazeiro Mart. dispersal units in concentrated sulfuric acid (95-98 % was evaluated through the emergency and vigor (first count, speed index and mean emergence time, plant height and dry matter weight. The experiment was performed under greenhouse conditions, with a completely randomized experimental design, six treatments and four replications. The pre-conditioning of Zizyphus joazeiro Mart. dispersal units with immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid was efficient for breaking the seed

  16. Prehydrolysis of aspen wood with water and with dilute aqueous sulfuric acid

    Edward L. Springer; John F. Harris

    1982-01-01

    Water prehydrolysis of aspen wood was compared with 0.40% sulfuric acid prehydrolysis at a reaction temperature of 170°C. Acid prehydrolysis gave much higher yields of total anhydroxylose units in the prehydrolyzate and removed significantly less anhydroglucose from the wood than did the water treatment. At maximum yields of total anhydroxylose units in the...

  17. Determination of sulfur in food by high resolution continuum source flame molecular absorption spectrometry

    Zambrzycka, Elżbieta; Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz, Beata, E-mail: bgodlew@uwb.edu.pl

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, a fast, simple and sensitive analytical method for determination of sulfur in food and beverages by high resolution continuum source flame molecular absorption spectrometry was developed. The determination was performed via molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide, CS. Different CS rotational lines (257.959 nm, 258.033 nm, 258.055 nm), number of pixels and types of standard solution of sulfur, namely: sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium sulfite, sodium sulfide, DL-cysteine, and L-cystine, were studied in terms of sensitivity, repeatability of results as well as limit of detection and limit of quantification. The best results were obtained for measurements of absorption of the CS molecule at 258.055 nm at the wavelength range covering 3 pixels and DL-cysteine in 0.2 mol L{sup −1} HNO{sub 3} solution as a calibration standard. Under optimized conditions the limit of detection and the limit of quantification achieved for sulfur were 10.9 mg L{sup −1} and 36.4 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. The repeatability of the results expressed as relative standard deviation was typically < 5%. The accuracy of the method was tested by analysis of digested biological certified reference materials (soya bean flour, corn flour and herbs) and recovery experiment for beverage samples with added known amount of sulfur standard. The recovery of analyte from such samples was in the range of 93–105% with the repeatability in the range of 4.1–5.0%. The developed method was applied for the determination of sulfur in milk (194 ± 10 mg kg{sup −1}), egg white (2188 ± 29 mg kg{sup −1}), mineral water (31.0 ± 0.9 mg L{sup −1}), white wine (260 ± 4 mg L{sup −1}) and red wine (82 ± 2 mg L{sup −1}), as well as in sample rich in ions, such as bitter mineral water (6900 ± 100 mg L{sup −1}). - Highlights: • HR-CS FMAS technique was used for sulfur measurement via molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide, CS. • Organic DL

  18. Effect of different sulfur levels from various sources on brassica napus growth and soil sulfur fractions

    Khalid, R.; Khan, K.S.; Islam, M.; Yousaf, M.; Shabbir, G.

    2012-01-01

    A two year field study was conducted at two different locations in northern rain fed Punjab, Pakistan to assess the effect of different rates of sulfur application from various sources on soil sulfur fractions and growth of Brassica napus. The treatments included three sulfur sources i. e., single super phosphate, ammonium sulfate and gypsum each applied at five different rates (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg S ha/sup -1/ ). Sulfur application had a significant positive effect on the growth and yield parameters of Brassica napus. Among the sulfur sources ammonium sulfate resulted in maximum increase in plant growth and yield parameters, followed by single super phosphate. Sulfur content and uptake by crop plants was significantly higher with ammonium sulfate application as compared to other two sulfur sources. Sulfur application also exerted a significant positive effect on different S fractions in the soils. On an average, 18.0% of the applied sulfur got incorporated into CaCl/sub 2/ extractable sulfur fraction, while 15.6% and 35.5% entered into adsorbed and organic sulfur fractions in the soils, respectively. The value cost ratio increased significantly by sulfur application up to 30 kg ha/sup -1/. Among sulfur sources, ammonium sulfate performed best giving the highest net return. (author)

  19. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-05

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems.

  20. Losses of Ammonia and Nitrate from Agriculture and Their Effect on Nitrogen Recovery in the European Union and the United States between 1900 and 2050.

    van Grinsven, Hans J M; Bouwman, Lex; Cassman, Kenneth G; van Es, Harold M; McCrackin, Michelle L; Beusen, Arthur H W

    2015-03-01

    Historical trends and levels of nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to air and water in the European Union and the United States are markedly different. Agro-environmental policy approaches also differ, with emphasis on voluntary or incentive-based schemes in the United States versus a more regulatory approach in the European Union. This paper explores the implications of these differences for attaining long-term policy targets for air and water quality. Nutrient surplus problems were more severe in the European Union than in the United States during the 1970s and 1980s. The EU Nitrates and National Emission Ceilings directives contributed to decreases in fertilizer use, N surplus, and ammonia (NH) emissions, whereas in the United States they stabilized, although NH emissions are still increasing. These differences were analyzed using statistical data for 1900-2005 and the global IMAGE model. IMAGE could reproduce NH emissions and soil N surpluses at different scales (European Union and United States, country and state) and N loads in the Rhine and Mississippi. The regulation-driven changes during the past 25 yr in the European Union have reduced public concerns and have brought agricultural N loads to the aquatic environment closer to US levels. Despite differences in agro-environmental policies and agricultural structure (more N-fixing soybean and more spatially separated feed and livestock production in the United States than in the European Union), current N use efficiency in US and EU crop production is similar. IMAGE projections for the IAASTD-baseline scenario indicate that N loading to the environment in 2050 will be similar to current levels. In the United States, environmental N loads will remain substantially smaller than in the European Union, whereas agricultural production in 2050 in the United States will increase by 30% relative to 2005, as compared with an increase of 8% in the European Union. However, in the United States, even rigorous mitigation

  1. Toward a unifying model for the late Neoproterozoic sulfur cycle

    Johnston, D. T.; Gill, B. C.; Ries, J. B.; OBrien, T.; Macdonald, F. A.

    2011-12-01

    The latest Proterozoic has always fascinated Earth historians. Between the long identified enigmas surrounding the sudden appearance of animals and the more recent infatuation with large-sale geochemical anomalies (i.e. the Shuram - Wonaka event), the closing 90 million years of the Proterozoic - the Ediacaran - houses a number of important and unanswered questions. Detailed redox geochemistry and stable isotope reconstructions of stratigraphic units covering this time interval have begun to unravel some of it's mysteries, however much remains to be explained. The sulfur cycle, with it's intimate links to both the marine carbon cycle (through remineralization reactions) and overall oxidant budgets (via seawater sulfate), sits poised to provide a sharp tool to track environmental change. Previous work has recognized this potential, and serves as a point of entrance for our current work. However what is lacking - and the goal of this study - is to place quantitative constraints the geochemical evolution of marine basins through this interval. Here we will present multiple sulfur isotope data from pyrite and sulfates through Ediacaran stratigraphy from the Yukon, Russia and Namibia. To maximize the utility of sulfur isotope studies, we have focused on Ediacaran stratigraphic sections from multiple continents that record both the Shuram anomaly and contain rich fossil records. These sections provide, when interpreted together, a fresh opportunity to revisit the geochemical setting that gave rise to animals. Importantly, the inclusion of multiple sulfur isotope data allows us to place further constraints on the mechanisms underpinning isotopic variability. For instance, when coupled with new experimental data, tighter constraints are provided on how fractionation scales with sulfate concentrations. This may allow for decoupling changes in biological fractionations from modifications to the global sulfur cycle (i.e. changes in seawater sulfate concentrations or the vigor

  2. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9), also...

  3. Toluene destruction in the Claus process by sulfur dioxide: A reaction kinetics study

    Sinha, Sourab; Raj, Abhijeet Dhayal; Alshoaibi, Ahmed S.; Alhassan, Saeed M.; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The presence of aromatics such as benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) as contaminants in the H2S gas stream entering Claus sulfur recovery units has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX forms soot particles and clogs and deactivates the catalysts. BTX oxidation, before they enter catalyst beds, can solve this problem. A theoretical investigation is presented on toluene oxidation by SO2. Density functional theory is used to study toluene radical (benzyl, o-methylphenyl, m-methylphenyl, and p-methylphenyl)-SO2 interactions. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radical through one of the O atoms rather than the S atom. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers of 4.8-6.1 kJ/mol for different toluene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO. The reaction rate constants are evaluated to facilitate process simulations. Among four toluene radicals, the resonantly stabilized benzyl radical exhibited lowest SO2 addition rate. A remarkable similarity between toluene oxidation by O2 and by SO2 is observed.

  4. Toluene destruction in the Claus process by sulfur dioxide: A reaction kinetics study

    Sinha, Sourab

    2014-10-22

    The presence of aromatics such as benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) as contaminants in the H2S gas stream entering Claus sulfur recovery units has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX forms soot particles and clogs and deactivates the catalysts. BTX oxidation, before they enter catalyst beds, can solve this problem. A theoretical investigation is presented on toluene oxidation by SO2. Density functional theory is used to study toluene radical (benzyl, o-methylphenyl, m-methylphenyl, and p-methylphenyl)-SO2 interactions. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radical through one of the O atoms rather than the S atom. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers of 4.8-6.1 kJ/mol for different toluene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO. The reaction rate constants are evaluated to facilitate process simulations. Among four toluene radicals, the resonantly stabilized benzyl radical exhibited lowest SO2 addition rate. A remarkable similarity between toluene oxidation by O2 and by SO2 is observed.

  5. Determination of sulfur content in fuels

    Daucik, P.; Zidek, Z.; Kalab, P.

    1998-01-01

    The sulfur content in fuels, Diesel fuels, and in the solutions of dibutylsulfide in a white oil was determined by various methods. The results obtained by elemental analysis have shown that the method is not advisable for the determination of sulfur in fuels. A good agreement was found by comparing the results in the determination of the sulfur by Grote-Krekeler's and Hermann-Moritz's methods and by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. The last method is the modern, comfortable, and timesaving method enabling the fast and precise determination of sulfur contents in the various types of samples. (authors)

  6. Use of the Moessbauer effect for determining pyritic sulfur content in coal

    Czerw, B; Sikora, T

    1986-10-01

    This paper discusses investigations into resonance absorption of gamma radiation. Standard equipment for measuring the Moessbauer effect in black coal consisting of a measuring head, the SM-4T spectrometer, a multichannel analyzer, the Standard electronic unit and a printer is evaluated. The MSP measuring system developed jointly by the EMAG Mine Automation Company and the Nuclear Research Institute in Swierk is described. The MSP equipment is used for measuring content of pyritic sulfur in coal. Its accuracy is satisfactory. Results of measuring pyritic and total sulfur content by means of quantitative chemical analysis and by the MSP resonance absorption method (Moessbauer effect) are compared. The mean standard deviation for pyritic sulfur is 0.14% and for total sulfur content 0.21%. 11 refs.

  7. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL; SEMIANNUAL

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO(sub X) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO(sub 3) formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO(sub X) control than at removing SO(sub 3) formed in the furnace. The SO(sub 3) removal results were presented in the

  8. Control Room Habitability for Accidental Sulfuric Acid Release

    Cho, Sungmin; Lee, Heedo; Song, Dongsoo

    2006-01-01

    The 10 CFR 50 Appendix A Criterion 19, 'Control Room', requires that a control room be provided from which actions can be taken to operate the nuclear power unit safely under normal conditions and to maintain it in a safe condition under accident conditions. For compliance with the requirement, the control room of a nuclear power plant should be appropriately protected from hazardous chemicals that may be discharged as a result of equipment failures, operator errors, or events and conditions outside the control of the nuclear power plant. We have excluded sulfuric acid from a target of estimation for control room habitability merely because its boiling point is too high; qualitative analysis in this paper shows that we can exclude sulfuric acid from the target of habitability estimation

  9. The significance of elemental sulfur dissolution in liquid electrolyte lithium sulfur batteries

    Harks, Peter Paul R.M.L.; Robledo, Carla B.; Verhallen, Tomas W.; Notten, Peter H.L.; Mulder, Fokko M.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that the dissolution of elemental sulfur into, and its diffusion through, the electrolyte allows cycling of lithium–sulfur batteries in which the sulfur is initially far removed and electrically insulated from the current collector. These findings help to understand why liquid

  10. Characterization and uranium bioleaching performance of mixed iron- and sulfur-oxidizers versus iron-oxidizers

    Qian Li; Jing Sun; Dexin Ding; Qingliang Wang; Wenge Shi; Eming Hu; Xiaoyu Jiang; University of South China, Hengyang; Xingxing Wang

    2017-01-01

    In order to develop and apply mixed iron- and sulfur-oxidizers in uranium bioleaching, the characteristics of a mixed iron- and sulfur-oxidizing consortium (Consortium ISO) were comparatively investigated versus an iron-oxidizing consortium (Consortium IO). The results showed, the Consortium ISO exerted stronger oxidative ability and acid-producing ability than Consortium IO did. The synergy of sulfur-oxidizers and iron-oxidizers could change the structure and properties of the passivation substance, and work positively for eliminating the accumulation of passivation substance. In the bioleaching process, the uranium bioleaching experiments showed the recovery percentage of uranium reached 99.5% with Consortium ISO, 6.3% more than that of Consortium IO. (author)

  11. Post-Closure Report for Closed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Units, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, for fiscal year 2013 (October 2012 - September 2013)

    2014-01-01

    This report serves as the combined annual report for post-closure activities for the following closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs): CAU 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment; CAU 91, Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well; CAU 92, Area 6 Decon Pond Facility; CAU 110, Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater; CAU 111, Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits; and, CAU 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches

  12. Post-Closure Report for Closed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Units, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for fiscal year 2013 (October 2012 - September 2013)

    None, None

    2014-01-31

    This report serves as the combined annual report for post-closure activities for the following closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs): CAU 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment; CAU 91, Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well; CAU 92, Area 6 Decon Pond Facility; CAU 110, Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater; CAU 111, Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits; and, CAU 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches.

  13. Extraction and Analysis of Sulfur Mustard (HD) from Various Food Matrices by Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry

    2016-01-01

    9 8. (a) GC chromatogram and (b) mass spectrum for HD extracted from hot dog; (c) mass spectrum at Rt = 5.08 min (benzoic acid ...shows the mass spectrum for benzoic acid . Percent recoveries were calculated based on an external calibration curve for HD (Figure 14). The recoveries...EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF SULFUR MUSTARD ( HD ) FROM VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY–MASS

  14. Post-Closure Report for Closed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Units, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada: For Fiscal Year 2015 (October 2014–September 2015), Revision 0

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report serves as the combined annual report for post-closure activities for the following closed corrective action units (CAUs); CAU 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment; CAU 91, Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well; CAU 92, Area 6 Decon Pond Facility; CAU 110, Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater; CAU 111, Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits; and CAU 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches. This report covers fiscal year 2015 (October 2014 through September 2015). The post-closure requirements for these sites are described in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit Number NEV HW0101 and are summarized in each CAU-specific section in Section 1.0 of this report. The results of the inspections, a summary of maintenance activities, and an evaluation of monitoring data are presented in this report.

  15. Post-Closure Report for Closed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Units, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada: For Fiscal Year 2015 (October 2014-September 2015), Revision 0

    Matthews, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This report serves as the combined annual report for post-closure activities for the following closed corrective action units (CAUs); CAU 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment; CAU 91, Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well; CAU 92, Area 6 Decon Pond Facility; CAU 110, Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater; CAU 111, Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits; and CAU 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches. This report covers fiscal year 2015 (October 2014 through September 2015). The post-closure requirements for these sites are described in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit Number NEV HW0101 and are summarized in each CAU-specific section in Section 1.0 of this report. The results of the inspections, a summary of maintenance activities, and an evaluation of monitoring data are presented in this report.

  16. Graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres with ultra-high sulfur loading for high energy density lithium–sulfur batteries

    Liu, Ya; Guo, Jinxin; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@zjnu.cn; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui, E-mail: gaohuidu@zjnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite with 91 wt% S is prepared. • It shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for Li–S cell. • The PVP coating and conductive graphene minimize polysulfides dissolution. • The flexible coatings with void space accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur. - Abstract: Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery with high theoretical energy density is one of the most promising energy storage systems for electric vehicles and intermittent renewable energy. However, due to the poor conductivity of the active material, considerable weight of the electrode is occupied by the conductive additives. Here we report a graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite (S-nanosphere@G) with sulfur content up to 91 wt% as the high energy density cathode material for Li–S battery. The sulfur nanospheres with diameter of 400–500 nm are synthesized through a solution-based approach with the existence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Then the sulfur nanospheres are uniformly wrapped by conductive graphene sheets through the electrostatic interaction between graphene oxide and PVP, followed by reducing of graphene oxide with hydrazine. The design of graphene wrapped sulfur nanoarchitecture provides flexible conductive graphene coating with void space to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur and to minimize polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the S-nanosphere@G nanocomposite with 91 wt% sulfur shows a reversible initial capacity of 970 mA h g{sup −1} and an average columbic efficiency > 96% over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. Taking the total mass of electrode into account, the S-nanosphere@G composite is a promising cathode material for high energy density Li–S batteries.

  17. Sulfur-carbon nanocomposites and their application as cathode materials in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J.; Howe, Jane Y.

    2017-08-01

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to a sulfur-carbon composite material comprising: (i) a bimodal porous carbon component containing therein a first mode of pores which are mesopores, and a second mode of pores which are micropores; and (ii) elemental sulfur contained in at least a portion of said micropores. The invention is also directed to the aforesaid sulfur-carbon composite as a layer on a current collector material; a lithium ion battery containing the sulfur-carbon composite in a cathode therein; as well as a method for preparing the sulfur-composite material.

  18. Peatland Acidobacteria with a dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.

    Hausmann, Bela; Pelikan, Claus; Herbold, Craig W; Köstlbacher, Stephan; Albertsen, Mads; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Huemer, Martin; Nielsen, Per H; Rattei, Thomas; Stingl, Ulrich; Tringe, Susannah G; Trojan, Daniela; Wentrup, Cecilia; Woebken, Dagmar; Pester, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2018-02-23

    Sulfur-cycling microorganisms impact organic matter decomposition in wetlands and consequently greenhouse gas emissions from these globally relevant environments. However, their identities and physiological properties are largely unknown. By applying a functional metagenomics approach to an acidic peatland, we recovered draft genomes of seven novel Acidobacteria species with the potential for dissimilatory sulfite (dsrAB, dsrC, dsrD, dsrN, dsrT, dsrMKJOP) or sulfate respiration (sat, aprBA, qmoABC plus dsr genes). Surprisingly, the genomes also encoded DsrL, which so far was only found in sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. Metatranscriptome analysis demonstrated expression of acidobacterial sulfur-metabolism genes in native peat soil and their upregulation in diverse anoxic microcosms. This indicated an active sulfate respiration pathway, which, however, might also operate in reverse for dissimilatory sulfur oxidation or disproportionation as proposed for the sulfur-oxidizing Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus. Acidobacteria that only harbored genes for sulfite reduction additionally encoded enzymes that liberate sulfite from organosulfonates, which suggested organic sulfur compounds as complementary energy sources. Further metabolic potentials included polysaccharide hydrolysis and sugar utilization, aerobic respiration, several fermentative capabilities, and hydrogen oxidation. Our findings extend both, the known physiological and genetic properties of Acidobacteria and the known taxonomic diversity of microorganisms with a DsrAB-based sulfur metabolism, and highlight new fundamental niches for facultative anaerobic Acidobacteria in wetlands based on exploitation of inorganic and organic sulfur molecules for energy conservation.

  19. Comparative Genomics of Green Sulfur Bacteria

    Ussery, David; Davenport, C; Tümmler, B

    2010-01-01

    Eleven completely sequenced Chlorobi genomes were compared in oligonucleotide usage, gene contents, and synteny. The green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are equipped with a core genome that sustains their anoxygenic phototrophic lifestyle by photosynthesis, sulfur oxidation, and CO(2) fixation. Whole...... weight of 10(6), and are probably instrumental for the bacteria to generate their own intimate (micro)environment....

  20. Halophilic and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.; Robertson, L.A.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muntyan, M.S.; Muyzer, G.; Rosenberg, E.; DeLong, F.; Delong, E.; Lory, S.; Stackebrandt, E.; Thompson, F.

    2013-01-01

    Chemotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) represent an important functional group of microorganisms responsible for the dark oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds generated by sulfidogens. Until recently, only a single genus of halophilic SOB (Halothiobacillus) has been described, and nothing was

  1. Stability of sulfur slopes on Io

    Clow, G. D.; Carr, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical properties of elemental sulfur are such that the upper crust of Io cannot be primarily sulfur. For heat flows in the range 100-1000 ergs/sq cm sec sulfur becomes ductile within several hundred meters of the surface and would prevent the formation of calderas with depths greater than this. However, the one caldera for which precise depth data are available is 2 km deep, and this value may be typical. A study of the mechanical equilibrium of simple slopes shows that the depth to the zone of rapid ductile flow strongly controls the maximum heights for sulfur slopes. Sulfur scarps with heights greater than 1 km will fail for all heat flows greater than 180 ergs/sq cm sec and slope angles greater than 22.5 deg. The observed relief on Io is inconsistent with that anticipated for a predominantly sulfur crust. However, a silicate crust with several percent sulfur included satisfies both the mechanical constraints and the observed presence of sulfur on Io.

  2. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide and su...

  3. Multiple-heteroatom-containing sulfur compounds in a high sulfur coal

    Winans, R.E.; Neill, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis of a high sulfur coal has been combined with high resolution mass spectrometry yielding information on aromatic sulfur compounds containing an additional heteroatom. Sulfur emission from coal utilization is a critical problem and in order to devise efficient methods for removing organic sulfur, it is important to know what types of molecules contain sulfur. A high sulfur Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal (Argonne Premium Coal Sample No. 3) was pyrolyzed on a platinum grid using a quartz probe inserted into a modified all glass heated inlet system and the products characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). A significant number of products were observed which contained both sulfur and an additional heteroatom. In some cases two additional heteroatoms were observed. These results are compared to those found in coal extracts and liquefaction products

  4. Sulfur Removal by Adding Iron During the Digestion Process of High-sulfur Bauxite

    Zhanwei, Liu; Hengwei, Yan; Wenhui, Ma; Keqiang, Xie; Dunyong, Li; Licong, Zheng; Pengfei, Li

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to sulfur removal by adding iron during the digestion process. Iron can react with high-valence sulfur (S2O3 2-, SO3 2-, SO4 2-) to generate S2- at digestion temperature, and then S2- enter red mud in the form of Na3FeS3 to be removed. As iron dosage increases, high-valence sulfur concentration decreases, but the concentration of S2- increases; sulfur digestion rate decreases while sulfur content in red mud markedly increases; the alumina digestion rate, conversely, remains fairly stable. So sulfur can be removed completely by adding iron in digestion process, which provide a theoretical basis for the effective removal of sulfur in alumina production process.

  5. Wolframite Conversion in Treating a Mixed Wolframite-Scheelite Concentrate by Sulfuric Acid

    Shen, Leiting; Li, Xiaobin; Zhou, Qiusheng; Peng, Zhihong; Liu, Guihua; Qi, Tiangui; Taskinen, Pekka

    2018-02-01

    Complete wolframite conversion in sulfuric acid is significant for expanding the applicability of the sulfuric acid method for producing ammonium paratungstate. In this paper, the conversion of wolframite in treating a mixed wolframite-scheelite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied systematically. The results show that the conversion of wolframite in sulfuric acid is more difficult than that of scheelite, requiring rigorous reaction conditions. A solid H2WO4 layer forms on the surfaces of the wolframite particles and becomes denser with increasing H2SO4 concentration, thus hindering the conversion. Furthermore, the difficulty in wolframite conversion can be mainly attributed to the accumulation of Fe2+ (and/or Mn2+) in the H2SO4 solution, which can be solved by reducing Fe2+ (and/or Mn2+) concentration through oxidization and/or a two-stage process. Additionally, the solid converted product of the mixed wolframite-scheelite concentrate has an excellent leachability of tungsten in an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution at ambient temperature, with approximately 99% WO3 recovery. This work presents a route for manufacturing ammonium paratungstate by treating the mixed concentrate in sulfuric acid followed by leaching in ammonium carbonate solution.

  6. Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes Modified with Cobalt Phthalocyanine for Selective Sulfur Detection in Cosmetic Products

    Ying Shih

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc films were deposited on the surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode using a simple drop coating method. The cyclic voltammogram of the resulting CoPc modified screen-printed electrode (CoPc/SPE prepared under optimum conditions shows a well-behaved redox couple due to the (CoI/CoII system. The CoPc/SPE surface demonstrates excellent electrochemical activity towards the oxidation of sulfur in a 0.01 mol·L−1 NaOH. A linear calibration curve with the detection limit (DL, S/N = 3 of 0.325 mg·L−1 was achieved by CoPc/SPE coupled with flow injection analysis of the sulfur concentration ranging from 4 to 1120 mg·L−1. The precision of the system response was evaluated (3.60% and 3.52% RSD for 12 repeated injections, in the range of 64 and 480 mg·L−1 sulfur. The applicability of the method was successfully demonstrated in a real sample analysis of sulfur in anti-acne creams, and good recovery was obtained. The CoPc/SPE displayed several advantages in sulfur determination including easy fabrication, high stability, and low cost.

  7. Recovery Room

    defined postoperative unit or on the hospital ward. Patients were frequently transferred from the operating room directly to the ward where they were placed close to the nursing station. In 1947 the. Anesthesia Study Commission of the Philadelphia.

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) general contingency plan for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Skaggs, B.E.

    1993-11-01

    The Y-12 RCRA Contingency Plan will be continually reviewed and revised if any of the following occur: the facility permit is revised, the plan is inadequate in an emergency, the procedures herein can be improved, the operations of the facility change in a way that alters the plan, the emergency coordinator changes, or the emergency equipment list changes. Copies of the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan are available at the Plant Shift Superintendent's Office and the Emergency Management Office. This document serves to supplement the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan to be appropriate for all RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal units. The 90-day accumulation areas at the Y-12 Plant have a separate contingency supplement as required by RCRA and are separate from this supplement

  9. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) contingency plan for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    1994-08-01

    The Y-12 RCRA Contingency Plan will be continually reviewed and revised if any of the following occur: the facility permit is revised, the plan is inadequate in an emergency, the procedures can be improved, the operations of the facility change in a way that alters the plan, the emergency coordinator changes, or the emergency equipment list changes. Copies of the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan are available at the Plant Shift Superintendent's Office and the Emergency Management Office. This document serves to supplement the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan to be appropriate for all RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal units. The 90-day accumulation areas at the Y-12 Plant have a separate contingency supplement as required by RCRA and are separate from this supplement

  10. Results of Steam-Water-Oxygen Treatment of the Inside of Heating Surfaces in Heat-Recovery Steam Generators of the PGU-800 Power Unit at the Perm' District Thermal Power Station

    Ovechkina, O. V.; Zhuravlev, L. S.; Drozdov, A. A.; Solomeina, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    Prestarting, postinstallation steam-water-oxygen treatment (SWOT) of the natural circulation/steam reheat heat-recovery steam generators (HRSG) manufactured by OAO Krasny Kotelshchik was performed at the PGU-800 power unit of the Perm District Thermal Power Station (GRES). Prior to SWOT, steam-oxygen cleaning, passivation, and preservation of gas condensate heaters (GCH) of HRSGs were performed for 10 h using 1.3MPa/260°C/70 t/h external steam. After that, test specimens were cut out that demonstrated high strength of the passivating film. SWOT of the inside of the heating surfaces was carried out during no-load operation of the gas turbine unit with an exhaust temperature of 280-300°C at the HRSG inlet. The steam turbine was shutdown, and the generated steam was discharged into the atmosphere. Oxygen was metered into the discharge pipeline of the electricity-driven feed pumps and downcomers of the evaporators. The behavior of the concentration by weight of iron compounds and the results of investigation of cutout specimens by the drop or potentiometric method indicate that the steam-water-oxygen process makes it possible to remove corrosion products and reduce the time required to put a boiler into operation. Unlike other processes, SWOT does not require metal-intensive cleaning systems, temporary metering stations, and structures for collection of the waste solution.

  11. Biological removal of sulfur from coal flotation concentrate by culture isolated from coal washery plant tailing dump

    Jorjani, E. [Azad University, Tehran (Iran). Mining Engineering Dept.

    2005-10-15

    A combination of flotation and microbial leaching processes was used to achieve acceptable level of sulfur and ash in Tabas coal sample of Iran. Representative sample of the minus 500 micron size fraction was subjected to flotation separation for the removal of ash and sulfur. The final concentrate with recovery, combustion value and sulfur content of 86.03, 86.45 and 1.35% respectively was achieved at pH 8 and following reagent dosage and operating conditions: collector: diesel oil (1200 g/ton), frother: MIBC (5%) + pine oil (95%) with concentration of 120 (g/ton), depressant: sodium silicate (1000 g/ton), particle size: {lt} 500 {mu} m and pulp density: 7%. Because of fine distribution of sulfur on Tabas coal macerals and lithotypes, high percentage of total sulfur (79.9%) is distributed in flotation concentrate and only 20.1% is yielded in the tails. So microbial leaching using a species isolated from coal washery plant tailing dump was used in batch system to remove sulfur from flotation concentrate. The conditions were optimized for the maximum removal of sulfur. These conditions were found to be pH of 2, particle size less than 0.18 mm; pulp density: 8%, temperature: 30 {sup o}C, shaking rate: 150 rpm conditions. Total sulfur and ash content was reduced by bioleaching from 13.55 and 1.35 in flotation concentrate to 9.47 and 0.55 in the final leached concentrate, a reduction of 35 and 61.9% respectively. Sterilization of coal adversely affects the sulfur reduction. The results suggest that the isolated culture is sufficiently effective for depyritization of Tabas coal flotation concentrate in stirred system.

  12. Sulfur isotope studies of biogenic sulfur emissions at Wallops Island, Virginia

    Hitchcock, D.R.; Black, M.S.; Herbst, R.P.

    1978-03-01

    This research attempted to determine whether it is possible to measure the stable sulfur isotope distributions of atmospheric particulate and gaseous sulphur, and to use this information together with measurements of the ambient levels of sulfur gases and particulate sulfate and sodium in testing certain hypotheses. Sulfur dioxide and particulate sulfur samples were collected at a coastal marine location and their delta (34)S values were determined. These data were used together with sodium concentrations to determine the presence of biogenic sulfur and the identity of the biological processes producing it. Excess (non-seasalt) sulfate levels ranged from 2 to 26 micrograms/cu m and SO2 from 1 to 9 ppb. Analyses of air mass origins and lead concentrations indicated that some anthropogenic contaminants were present on all days, but the isotope data revealed that most of the atmospheric sulfur originated locally from the metabolism of bacterial sulfate reducers on all days, and that the atmospheric reactions leading to the production of sulfate from this biogenic sulfur source are extremely rapid. Delta 34 S values of atmospheric sulfur dioxide correlated well with those of excess sulfate, and implied little or no sulfur isotope fractionation during the oxidation of sulfur gases to sulfate

  13. Sulfur nanocrystals anchored graphene composite with highly improved electrochemical performance for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Zimin; Wang, Xiuli; Zhao, Xuyang; Tu, Jiangping; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui

    2014-12-01

    Two kinds of graphene-sulfur composites with 50 wt% of sulfur are prepared using hydrothermal method and thermal mixing, respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectra mapping show that sulfur nanocrystals with size of ∼5 nm dispersed on graphene sheets homogeneously for the sample prepared by hydrothermal method (NanoS@G). While for the thermal mixed graphene-sulfur composite (S-G mixture), sulfur shows larger and uneven size (50-200 nm). X-ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS) reveals the strong chemical bonding between the sulfur nanocrystals and graphene. Comparing with the S-G mixture, the NanoS@G composite shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. The NanoS@G composite delivers an initial capacity of 1400 mAh g-1 with the sulfur utilization of 83.7% at a current density of 335 mA g-1. The capacity keeps above 720 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles. The strong adherence of the sulfur nanocrystals on graphene immobilizes sulfur and polysulfides species and suppressed the "shuttle effect", resulting higher coulombic efficiency and better capacity retention. Electrochemical impedance also suggests that the strong bonding enabled rapid electronic/ionic transport and improved electrochemical kinetics, therefore good rate capability is obtained. These results demonstrate that the NanoS@G composite is a very promising candidate for high-performance Li-S batteries.

  14. Sulfur removal from low-sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel by metal-organic frameworks

    Hagen, G.; Haemmerle, M.; Moos, R. [Functional Materials, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany); Malkowsky, I.M.; Kiener, C. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Achmann, S.

    2010-02-15

    Several materials in the class of metal-organic frameworks (MOF) were investigated to determine their sorption characteristics for sulfur compounds from fuels. The materials were tested using different model oils and common fuels such as low-sulfur gasoline or diesel fuel at room temperature and ambient pressure. Thiophene and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) were chosen as model substances. Total-sulfur concentrations in the model oils ranged from 30 mg/kg (S from thiophene) to 9 mg/kg (S from tetrahydrothiophene) as determined by elementary analysis. Initial sulfur contents of 8 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg were identified for low-sulfur gasoline and for diesel fuel, respectively, by analysis of the common liquid fuels. Most of the MOF materials examined were not suitable for use as sulfur adsorbers. However, a high efficiency for sulfur removal from fuels and model oils was noticed for a special copper-containing MOF (copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate, Cu-BTC-MOF). By use of this material, 78 wt % of the sulfur content was removed from thiophene containing model oils and an even higher decrease of up to 86 wt % was obtained for THT-based model oils. Moreover, the sulfur content of low-sulfur gasoline was reduced to 6.5 mg/kg, which represented a decrease of more than 22 %. The sulfur level in diesel fuel was reduced by an extent of 13 wt %. Time-resolved measurements demonstrated that the sulfur-sorption mainly occurs in the first 60 min after contact with the adsorbent, so that the total time span of the desulfurization process can be limited to 1 h. Therefore, this material seems to be highly suitable for sulfur reduction in commercial fuels in order to meet regulatory requirements and demands for automotive exhaust catalysis-systems or exhaust gas sensors. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Determination of sulfur in bovine serum albumin and L-cysteine using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry of the CS molecule

    Andrade-Carpente, Eva; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the content of sulfur in bovine serum albumin and L-cysteine was determined using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry of the CS molecule, generated in a reducing air-acetylene flame. Flame conditions (height above the burner, measurement time) were optimized using a 3.0% (v/v) sulfuric acid solution. A microwave lab station (Ethos Plus MW) was used for the digestion of both compounds. During the digestion step, sulfur was converted to sulfate previous to the determination. Good repeatability (4-10%) and analytical recovery (91-106%) was obtained.

  16. Influence of sulfurous oxide on plants

    Schroeder, J

    1872-01-01

    It has been determined that of the trees living in an atmosphere containing sulfurous oxide, the conifers suffer more injuries than ordinary foliaged trees. Experiments were conducted to find the causes of injuries and their relation in these two kinds of plants. Pine and alder were chosen as test plants. It was found that 1000 square centimeters of pine leaves had absorbed 1.6 c.c. of sulfurous oxide and the same surface area of alder leaves had accumulated 7.9 c.c. of sulfurous oxide. Experiments were also conducted to determine the effects of sulfurous oxide on transpiration in plants. Two similar twigs of a sycamore were arranged so that the water transpired could be weighed. Results indicate that the ratio between the total amount of water transpired by the leaves not acted on by the sulfurous oxide and those under its influence was 3.8:1. The author concludes that the amount of sulfurous oxide absorbed by pine leaves is smaller than that absorbed by trees with ordinary foliage for equal surfaces. Since its effect on transpiration is less in the case of pine, the cause of the greater injury to pine trees in nature must be due to the accumulation of sulfur. In trees annual leaves the damage to one year's foliage would have only an indirect influence on that of the following year.

  17. RECYCLING OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS AIMING SILVER RECOVERY: A HYDROMETALLURGICAL ROUTE STUDY

    Marcos Paulo Kohler Caldas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is characterize printed circuit board of computers and propose a hydrometallurgical route for silver recovery present in its composition. Initially, the printed circuit board was comminuted in both knife and hammer mills. The comminuted material was characterized by sieve analysis, chemical analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES and loss on ignition. Leaching tests were conducted in sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid in an oxidizing medium and nitric acid. The results indicated that the printed circuit board is mainly composed of copper (19.42%. Silver content of 0.045% was found. The route for silver recovery was leaching in sulfuric acid at 75°C for 18 hours. Then, leaching in sulfuric acid at 75°C in an oxidizing medium for 6 hours and nitric acid leaching at room temperature for 2 hours. Through of this route, 96.6% of silver was recovered.

  18. Estimating the short-term recovery potential of little brown bats in the eastern United States in the face of White-nose syndrome

    Russell, Robin E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Szymanski, Jennifer A.; Tinsley, Karl

    2015-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) was first detected in North American bats in New York in 2006. Since that time WNS has spread throughout the northeastern United States, southeastern Canada, and southwest across Pennsylvania and as far west as Missouri. Suspect WNS cases have been identified in Minnesota and Iowa, and the causative agent of WNS (Pseudogymnoascus destructans) has recently been detected in Mississippi. The impact of WNS is devastating for little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), causing up to 100% mortality in some overwintering populations, and previous research has forecast the extirpation of the species due to the disease. Recent evidence indicates that remnant populations may persist in areas where WNS is endemic. We developed a spatially explicit model of little brown bat population dynamics to investigate the potential for populations to recover under alternative scenarios. We used these models to investigate how starting population sizes, potential changes in the number of bats overwintering successfully in hibernacula, and potential changes in demographic rates of the population post WNS may influence the ability of the bats to recover to former levels of abundance. We found that populations of the little brown bat and other species that are highly susceptible to WNS are unlikely to return to pre-WNS levels in the near future under any of the scenarios we examined.

  19. Early intra-intensive care unit psychological intervention promotes recovery from post traumatic stress disorders, anxiety and depression symptoms in critically ill patients.

    Peris, Adriano; Bonizzoli, Manuela; Iozzelli, Dario; Migliaccio, Maria Luisa; Zagli, Giovanni; Bacchereti, Alberto; Debolini, Marta; Vannini, Elisetta; Solaro, Massimo; Balzi, Ilaria; Bendoni, Elisa; Bacchi, Ilaria; Trevisan, Monica; Giovannini, Valtere; Belloni, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Critically ill patients who require intensive care unit (ICU) treatment may experience psychological distress with increasing development of psychological disorders and related morbidity. Our aim was to determine whether intra-ICU clinical psychologist interventions decrease the prevalence of anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after 12 months from ICU discharge. Our observational study included critical patients admitted before clinical psychologist intervention (control group) and patients who were involved in a clinical psychologist program (intervention group). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Impact of Event Scale-Revised questionnaires were used to assess the level of posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression symptoms. The control and intervention groups showed similar demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients in the intervention group showed lower rates of anxiety (8.9% vs. 17.4%) and depression (6.5% vs. 12.8%) than the control group on the basis of HADS scores, even if the differences were not statistically significant. High risk for PTSD was significantly lower in patients receiving early clinical psychologist support than in the control group (21.1% vs. 57%; P < 0.0001). The percentage of patients who needed psychiatric medications at 12 months was significantly higher in the control group than in the patient group (41.7% vs. 8.1%; P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that that early intra-ICU clinical psychologist intervention may help critically ill trauma patients recover from this stressful experience.

  20. Intrinsic bacterial burden associated with intensive care unit hospital beds: effects of disinfection on population recovery and mitigation of potential infection risk.

    Attaway, Hubert H; Fairey, Sarah; Steed, Lisa L; Salgado, Cassandra D; Michels, Harold T; Schmidt, Michael G

    2012-12-01

    Commonly touched items are likely reservoirs from which patients, health care workers, and visitors may encounter and transfer microbes. A quantitative assessment was conducted of the risk represented by the intrinsic bacterial burden associated with bed rails in a medical intensive care unit (MICU), and how disinfection might mitigate this risk. Bacteria present on the rails from 36 patient beds in the MICU were sampled immediately before cleaning and at 0.5, 2.5, 4.5, and 6.5 hours after cleaning. Beds were sanitized with either a bottled disinfectant (BD; CaviCide) or an automated bulk-diluted disinfectant (ABDD; Virex II 256). The majority of bacteria recovered from the bed rails in the MICU were staphylococci, but not methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were recovered from 3 beds. Bottled disinfectant reduced the average bacterial burden on the rails by 99%. However, the burden rebounded to 30% of that found before disinfection by 6.5 hours after disinfection. ABDD reduced the burden by an average of 45%, but levels rebounded within 2.5 hours. The effectiveness of both disinfectants was reflected in median reductions to burden of 98% for BD and 95% for ABDD. Cleaning with hospital-approved disinfectants reduced the intrinsic bacterial burden on bed rail surfaces by up to 99%, although the population, principally staphylococci, rebounded quickly to predisinfection levels. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Viscosity of liquid sulfur under high pressure

    Terasaki, Hidenori; Kato, T; Funakoshi, K; Suzuki, A; Urakawa, S

    2004-01-01

    The viscosity of liquid sulfur up to 9.7 GPa and 1067 K was measured using the in situ x-ray radiography falling sphere method. The viscosity coefficients were found to range from 0.11 to 0.69 Pa s, and decreased continuously with increasing pressure under approximately constant homologous temperature conditions. The observed viscosity variation suggests that a gradual structural change occurs in liquid sulfur with pressure up to 10 GPa. The L-L' transition in liquid sulfur proposed by Brazhkin et al (1991 Phys. Lett. A 154 413) from thermobaric measurements has not been confirmed by the present viscometry

  2. Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 2009 United States Department of Energy

    Singh, Mohit [Seeo, Incorporated, Hayward, CA (United States); Grape, Ulrik [Seeo, Incorporated, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-07-29

    The purpose of this project was for Seeo to deliver the first ever large-scale or grid-scale prototype of a new class of advanced lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. The technology combines unprecedented energy density, lifetime, safety, and cost. The goal was to demonstrate Seeo’s entirely new class of lithium-based batteries based on Seeo’s proprietary nanostructured polymer electrolyte. This technology can enable the widespread deployment in Smart Grid applications and was demonstrated through the development and testing of a 10 kilowatt-hour (kWh) prototype battery system. This development effort, supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) enabled Seeo to pursue and validate the transformational performance advantages of its technology for use in grid-tied energy storage applications. The focus of this project and Seeo’s goal as demonstrated through the efforts made under this project is to address the utility market needs for energy storage systems applications, especially for residential and commercial customers tied to solar photovoltaic installations. In addition to grid energy storage opportunities Seeo’s technology has been tested with automotive drive cycles and is seen as equally applicable for battery packs for electric vehicles. The goals of the project were outlined and achieved through a series of specific tasks, which encompassed materials development, scaling up of cells, demonstrating the performance of the cells, designing, building and demonstrating a pack prototype, and providing an economic and environmental assessment. Nearly all of the tasks were achieved over the duration of the program, with only the full demonstration of the battery system and a complete economic and environmental analysis not able to be fully completed. A timeline over the duration of the program is shown in figure 1.

  3. Insight into the loading temperature of sulfur on sulfur/carbon cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Ye, Huan; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A cost-effective chemical activation method to prepare porous carbon nanospheres. • Carbon nanospheres with bimodal microporous structure show high specific area and large micropore volume. • The S/C composite cathodes with in-situformed S−C bond exhibit high sulfur activity with a reversible capacity of 1000 mA h g −1 . • S−C bond enables well confinement on sulfur and polysulfides. - Abstract: Lithium–sulfur batteries are highly desired because of their characteristics such as high energy density. However, the applications of Li-S batteries are limited because they exist dissolution of polysulfides into electrolytes. This study reports the preparation of sulfur cathodes by using bimodal microporous (0.5 nm and 0.8 nm to 2.0 nm) carbon spheres with high specific area (1992 m 2 g −1 ) and large micropore volume (1.2 g cm −1 ), as well as the encapsulation of polysulfides via formation of carbon–sulfur bonds in a sealed vacuum glass tube at high temperature. Given that sulfur and polysulfides are well confined by the S−C bond, the shuttle effect is effectively suppressed. The prepared S/C cathodes with a sulfur loading of up to 75% demonstrate high sulfur activity with reversible capacity of 1000 mA h g −1 at the current density of 0.1 A g −1 and good cycling stability (667 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles).

  4. Graphene oxide as a sulfur immobilizer in high performance lithium/sulfur cells

    Zhang, Yuegang; Cairns, Elton J.; Ji, Liwen; Rao, Mumin

    2017-06-06

    The loss of sulfur cathode material as a result of polysulfide dissolution causes significant capacity fading in rechargeable lithium/sulfur cells. Embodiments of the invention use a chemical approach to immobilize sulfur and lithium polysulfides via the reactive functional groups on graphene oxide. This approach obtains a uniform and thin (.about.tens of nanometers) sulfur coating on graphene oxide sheets by a chemical reaction-deposition strategy and a subsequent low temperature thermal treatment process. Strong interaction between graphene oxide and sulfur or polysulfides demonstrate lithium/sulfur cells with a high reversible capacity of 950-1400 mAh g.sup.-1, and stable cycling for more than 50 deep cycles at 0.1 C.

  5. Sulfurized carbon: a class of cathode materials for high performance lithium/sulfur batteries

    Sheng S. Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries cannot come into practical applications because of many problems such as low energy efficiency, short cycle life, and fast self-discharge. All these problems are related to the dissolution of lithium polysulfide, a series of sulfur reduction intermediates, in the liquid electrolyte, and resulting parasitic reactions with the Li anode. Covalently binding sulfur onto carbon surface is a solution to completely eliminate the dissolution of lithium polysulfide and make the Li/S battery viable for practical applications. This can be achieved by replacing elemental sulfur with sulfurized carbon as the cathode material. This article reviews the current efforts on this subject and discusses the syntheses, electrochemical properties, and prospects of the sulfurized carbon as a cathode material in the rechargeable Li/S batteries.

  6. Graphene oxide as a sulfur immobilizer in high performance lithium/sulfur cells

    Zhang, Yuegang; Cairns, Elton J.; Ji, Liwen; Rao, Mumin

    2017-12-26

    The loss of sulfur cathode material as a result of polysulfide dissolution causes significant capacity fading in rechargeable lithium/sulfur cells. Embodiments of the invention use a chemical approach to immobilize sulfur and lithium polysulfides via the reactive functional groups on graphene oxide. This approach obtains a uniform and thin (.about.tens of nanometers) sulfur coating on graphene oxide sheets by a chemical reaction-deposition strategy and a subsequent low temperature thermal treatment process. Strong interaction between graphene oxide and sulfur or polysulfides demonstrate lithium/sulfur cells with a high reversible capacity of 950-1400 mAh g.sup.-1, and stable cycling for more than 50 deep cycles at 0.1 C.

  7. Sulfur-Kβ /sub emission studies on sulfur-bearing heterocycles

    Phillips, D.R.; Andermann, G.G.; Fujiwara, F.

    1986-01-01

    Sulfur-K/β /sub x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFS) has been used to study the electronic structure and bonding in sulfur-bearing heterocycles. XFS not only has the capability of experimentally measuring valence electron energies in molecular species, but can also provide intensity data which can help define the nature of the molecular orbitals defined by the electrons. This report discusses the feasibility of using XFS as an analytical tool for the determination of total and specific sulfur heterocycle content in samples. A variety of compounds were studied. These include thiophene, thiophene derivatives, tetranydrothiophene, several more complex saturated and unsaturated sulfur heterocycles, and heterocycles containing both sulfur and nitrogen. The sulfur-K/β /sub spectra were obtained using a double crystal spectrometer which provided an instrumental resolution of about 0.7 eV

  8. Identification of sulfur heterocycles in coal liquids and shale oils. Technical progress report, August 1, 1980-May 1, 1981

    Lee, M. L.; Castle, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur heterocycle separation scheme which was described in the last progress report was evaluated for quantitative recovery of individual components. The results indicate that recoveries can range from 10% to approx. 30% depending on the structure of the compound. During this period, 23 unsubstituted sulfur-containing heterocyclic ring systems were synthesized in oder to confirm GC/MS identifications and for biological testing. The four possible 3-ring heterocycles and the thirteen possible 4-ring heterocycles were tested for mutagenic activity in the histidine reversion (Ames assay) system. One of the 3-ring isomers, naphtho(1,2-b)-thiophene, and six of the 4-ring isomers induced mutations in Salmonella test strains. One of these compounds, phenanthro(3,4-b)thiophene, displayed approximately the same mutagenic activity as benzo(a)pyrene. A two-step adsorption chromatographic procedure was developed in order to fractionate synthetic fuels into various chemical-type classes for studying the relative concentrations and mutagenic activities of the various types. An SRC-II Heavy Distillate was fractionated into aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur heterocycles, indoles and carbazoles, azaarenes, and amino polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It was found that the amino-PAH fraction contained most of the mutagenic activity. A survey was made for compounds containing both nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms in their structures. A number of these compounds were detected by GC using nitrogen- and sulfur-selective detection.

  9. Sour streams in appalachia: mapping nature’s buffer against sulfur deposition

    Natasha Vizcarra; Nicholas Povak; Paul Hessburg; Keith Reynolds

    2015-01-01

    Even while emissions are in decline, sulfur released into the air primarily by coal- and oil-burning power plants continues to acidify streams in the eastern United States, stressing vegetation and harming aquatic life. Watersheds rich in base cations—nutrients that attract and bind acidic molecules—naturally buffer streams against acidification. These watersheds can...

  10. Split heat pipe heat recovery system

    E. Azad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a split heat pipe heat recovery system. The analysis is based on an Effectiveness-NTU approach to deduce its heat transfer characteristics. In this study the variation of overall effectiveness of heat recovery with the number of transfer units are presented. Copyright , Manchester University Press.

  11. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination...

  12. Study on the Influence of Sulfur Fumigation on Chemical ...

    Purpose: To study the influence of different sulfur fumigation time and ... after sulfur fumigation though sulfur fumigation time and dosage were at low levels – 2 h ... Conclusion: Sulfur fumigation is not a desirable method for field processing of ...

  13. 46 CFR 151.50-21 - Sulfuric acid.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 151.50-21 Section 151.50-21 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-21 Sulfuric acid. (a) How sulfuric acid may be carried. (1) Sulfuric acid of concentration of 77.5 percent (1.7019 specific gravity) (59.8...

  14. Use of sulfur concrete for radioecological problems solution in Kazakhstan

    Takibaev, Zh.; Belyashov, D.; Vagin, S.

    2001-01-01

    At present during intensive development of oil and gas fields in Kazakhstan a lot amount of sulfur is extracting. The problem of sulfur utilization demands its immediate solution. One of the perspective trends of sulfur utilization is use it in production of sulfur polymer concrete. It is well known, that encapsulation of low level radioactive and toxic wastes in sulfur polymer concrete and design from it radiation protection facilities have good perspectives for solution of radioecological problems. Sulfur concrete has high corrosion and radiation stability, improved mechanical and chemical properties. Unique properties of sulfur concrete allow to use it in materials ensuring protection from external irradiation

  15. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  16. Electrochemical reduction of sulfur dioxide in sulfolane

    Vorob' ev, A.S.; Gavrilova, A.A.; Kolosnitsyn, V.S.; Nikitin, Yu.E.

    1985-09-01

    Solutions of sulfur dioxide in aproptic media are promising electrolyte oxidizing agents for chemical current sources with anodes of active metals. This work describes the electrochemical reduction of sulfur dioxide in sulfolane in a lithium halide supporting electrolyte which was investigated by the methods of voltamperometry and chronopotentiometry. The dependence of the current of the cathodic peak on the concentration of the supporting electrolyte salts, sulfur dioxide and water, was studied. On the basis of the data obtained, a hypothesis was advanced on the nature of the limiting step. The investigation showed that at low polarizing current densities, a substantial influence on the reduction of sulfur dioxide in sulfolane in a lithium halide supporting electrolyte is exerted by blockage of the electrode surface by sparingly soluble reaction products.

  17. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan; Stephan, Arul Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  18. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  19. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Stephan, Arul Manuel, E-mail: arulmanuel@gmail.com [Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR-CECRI), Karaikudi (India)

    2015-05-21

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  20. Properties of sulfur-extended asphalt concrete

    Gladkikh Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, increased functional reliability of asphalt concrete coatings associated with various modifying additives that improve the durability of pavements. Promising builder is a technical sulfur. Asphalt concrete, made using a complex binder consisting of petroleum bitumen and technical sulfur, were calledsSulfur-Extended Asphalt Concrete. Such asphalt concrete, due to changes in the chemical composition of particulate and bitumen, changes the intensity of the interaction at the interface have increased rates of physical and mechanical properties. There was a lack of essential knowledge concerning mechanical properties of the sulfur-bituminous concrete with such an admixture; therefore, we had carried out the necessary examination. It is revealed that a new material satisfies local regulations in terms of compressive and tensile strength, shear resistance, and internal friction.

  1. Developing porous carbon with dihydrogen phosphate groups as sulfur host for high performance lithium sulfur batteries

    Cui, Yanhui; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Junwei; Liang, Xiao; Baker, Andrew P.; Qu, Deyang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Huayu; Zhang, Xinhe

    2018-02-01

    Carbon matrix (CM) derived from biomass is low cost and easily mass produced, showing great potential as sulfur host for lithium sulfur batteries. In this paper we report on a dihydrogen phosphate modified CM (PCM-650) prepared from luffa sponge (luffa acutangula) by phosphoric acid treatment. The phosphoric acid not only increases the surface area of the PCM-650, but also introduces dihydrogen phosphate onto PCM-650 (2.28 at% P). Sulfur impregnated (63.6 wt%) PCM-650/S, in comparison with samples with less dihydrogen phosphate LPCM-650/S, shows a significant performance improvement. XPS analysis is conducted for sulfur at different stages, including sulfur (undischarged), polysulfides (discharge to 2.1 V) and short chain sulfides (discharge to 1.7 V). The results consistently show chemical shifts for S2p in PCM-650, suggesting an enhanced adsorption effect. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) calculations is used to clarify the molecular binding: carbon/sulfur (0.86 eV), carbon/Li2S (0.3 eV), CH3-O-PO3H2/sulfur (1.24 eV), and CH3-O-PO3H2/Li2S (1.81 eV). It shows that dihydrogen phosphate group can significantly enhance the binding with sulfur and sulfide, consistent with XPS results. Consequently a CM functionalised with dihydrogen phosphate shows great potential as the sulfur host in a Li-S battery.

  2. Sulfur-centered reactive intermediates derived from the oxidation of sulfur compounds of biological interest

    Abedinzadeh, Z. [Lab. de Chimie Physique, UMR, Univ. Rene Descartes, Paris (France)

    2001-02-01

    Sulphur compounds play a central role in the structure and activity of many vital systems. In the living cell, sulfur constitutes an essential part of the defense against oxidative damage and is transformed into a variety of sulfur free radical species. Many studies of the chemistry of sulfur-centered radicals using pulse radiolysis and photolysis techniques to detect and measure the kinetics of these radicals have been published and reviewed. This paper discusses the present state of research on the formation and reactivity of certain sulfur-centered radicals [RS{sup .}, RSS{sup .}, RS{sup .+}, (RSSR){sup .+}] and their implications for biological systems. (author)

  3. Sulfur-centered reactive intermediates derived from the oxidation of sulfur compounds of biological interest

    Abedinzadeh, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Sulphur compounds play a central role in the structure and activity of many vital systems. In the living cell, sulfur constitutes an essential part of the defense against oxidative damage and is transformed into a variety of sulfur free radical species. Many studies of the chemistry of sulfur-centered radicals using pulse radiolysis and photolysis techniques to detect and measure the kinetics of these radicals have been published and reviewed. This paper discusses the present state of research on the formation and reactivity of certain sulfur-centered radicals [RS . , RSS . , RS .+ , (RSSR) .+ ] and their implications for biological systems. (author)

  4. Sensing sulfur oxides and other sulfur bearing pollutants with solid electrolyte pellets. I. Gas concentration cells

    Chamberland, A M; Gauthier, J M

    1977-01-01

    A new sensing technique using a solid electrolyte has been demonstrated for sulfur-bearing pollutants. Based on potentiometric measurements across a pellet of potassium sulfate, this sensor allows concentrations of sulfur dioxides, sulfur trioxide, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and carbonyl sulfide in air to be measured with accuracy. Its operational concentration range at the present time is 0.1 ppM up to at least 10,000 ppM. The presence of other common pollutants such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide does not interfere with the measurement of air samples containing sulfur-bearing pollutants.

  5. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-01-20

    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  7. Plutonium oxides analysis. Sulfur potentiometric analysis

    Anon.

    Total sulfur determination (sulfur, sulfates, sulfides ...) in plutonium oxides, suitable for sulfate ion content between 0.003 percent to 0.2 percent, by dissolution in nitric hydrofluoric acid, nitrates elimination, addition of hydrochloric acid and reduction in hydrogen sulfide which is carried by an inert gas and neutralized by sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulfide is titrated with mercuric acetate by constant intensity potentiometry [fr

  8. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  9. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

    2012-09-01

    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed.

  10. The Chicxulub event - sulfur-bearing minerals and lithologies

    Strauss, H.; Deutsch, A.

    2003-04-01

    Evaporates form a major target lithology at the Chicxulub impact site. One of the postulated effects of the impact event at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary is the impact-induced dissociation of anhydrite to form sulfur-oxides and a solid residue; large isotope fractionation effects in sulfur should accompany this process. We have analyzed the sulfur isotope composition of (i) annealed anhydrite clasts in impact melt breccias of PEMEX core Yucatan-6 N 19, (ii) unshocked anhydrite from the CSDP well Yaxcopoil-1, which belong to the megabreccia below the suevite layer (YAX-1 1369, and 1376 m depth), and (iii) sulfide grains of hydrothermal origin in a finest-grained breccia, which transects a large limestone block of this megabreccia at a depth of 1369 m. Samples of groups (i) and (ii) yielded δ34S values between 18.0 and 19.8 ppm CDT (unweighted mean is 18.3 ppm, n=7), with one slightly lower value of 15.3 ppm for an anhydrite clast in Y-6 N19/Part 6. These data are in agreement with the δ34S value for the Late Cretaceous seawater (Strauss 1999). The δ34S obviously remained unchanged despite the fact that textural features indicate a severe annealing of the clasts in the impact melt. Sulfides of group (iii) show δ34S values around 41 ppm CDT (n=7), which are quite unusual values if these minerals are of non-biogenic origin. In contrast, δ34S for the yellow glass from the K/T boundary at Haiti range from 1.5 to 13.2 ppm (Chaussidon et al. 1996). Using this preliminary evidence, we conclude that only distant ejecta lithologies, and probably secondary material inside the crater, may display impact-related fractionation of sulfur isotopes. This observation is consistent with petrologic data, modeling results as well as of shock recovery and annealing experiments: anhydrite obviously is quite resistant to shock-related dissociation.

  11. Effect of sulfur dioxide on proteins of the vegetable organism

    Reckendorfer, P; Beran, F

    1931-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of sulfur dioxide on red clover in a controlled environment. An increase in the concentration of sulfur dioxide caused a significant decrease in the digestible protein. However, after the sulfur dioxide was discontinued, there was a decrease in the indigestible protein. The leaves showed an increase in spotting with an increase in sulfur dioxide concentration. Chemical analysis of the soil revealed a higher sulfur content in these experiments.

  12. Sulfur sources in protein supplements for ruminants

    Cássio José da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the efficiency of different sulfur sources for ruminant nutrition. The fiber digestibility and the amino acid profile were analyzed in the duodenal digesta of crossbred steers fed Brachiaria dictyoneurahay. The sources utilized were elemental sulfur (ES70S, elemental sulfur (ES98S; calcium sulfate in hydrated (HCS, CaSO4.2H2O, and anhydrous (ACS, CaSO4, forms; and ammonium sulfate (AS, (NH42SO4, keeping a nitrogen:sulfur ratio of 11:1. The iso-protein supplements had 50% of protein in the total dry matter (DM. Five Holstein × Zebu steers, which were fistulated in the rumen and abomasum, were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The different sulfur sources in the supplement did not affect any of the evaluated nutritional factors, such as intake of hay dry matter and protein supplement, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, organic matter (OM, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC, ether extract (EE, total digestible nutrients (TDN, NDFap and CP digestibility coefficients, ruminal pH, and ruminal ammonia concentration. The concentrations of amino acids available in the abomasal digesta did not differ significantly in the tested diets. The sulfur sources evaluated in the present study are suitable as supplement for cattle, and their employment may be important to avoid environmental contaminations.

  13. Determination of sulfur in food by high resolution continuum source flame molecular absorption spectrometry

    Zambrzycka, Elżbieta; Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz, Beata

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, a fast, simple and sensitive analytical method for determination of sulfur in food and beverages by high resolution continuum source flame molecular absorption spectrometry was developed. The determination was performed via molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide, CS. Different CS rotational lines (257.959 nm, 258.033 nm, 258.055 nm), number of pixels and types of standard solution of sulfur, namely: sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium sulfite, sodium sulfide, DL-cysteine, and L-cystine, were studied in terms of sensitivity, repeatability of results as well as limit of detection and limit of quantification. The best results were obtained for measurements of absorption of the CS molecule at 258.055 nm at the wavelength range covering 3 pixels and DL-cysteine in 0.2 mol L- 1 HNO3 solution as a calibration standard. Under optimized conditions the limit of detection and the limit of quantification achieved for sulfur were 10.9 mg L- 1 and 36.4 mg L- 1, respectively. The repeatability of the results expressed as relative standard deviation was typically beverage samples with added known amount of sulfur standard. The recovery of analyte from such samples was in the range of 93-105% with the repeatability in the range of 4.1-5.0%. The developed method was applied for the determination of sulfur in milk (194 ± 10 mg kg- 1), egg white (2188 ± 29 mg kg- 1), mineral water (31.0 ± 0.9 mg L- 1), white wine (260 ± 4 mg L- 1) and red wine (82 ± 2 mg L- 1), as well as in sample rich in ions, such as bitter mineral water (6900 ± 100 mg L- 1).

  14. An Experimental Study of Low-Temperature Sulfurization of Carbohydrates Using Various Sulfides Reveals Insights into Structural Characteristics and Sulfur Isotope Compositions of Macromolecular Organic Matter in the Environment

    OBeirne, M. D.; Werne, J. P.; Van Dongen, B.; Gilhooly, W., III

    2017-12-01

    Sulfurization of carbohydrates has been suggested as an important mechanism for the preservation of organic matter in anoxic/euxinic depositional environments. In this study, glucose was sulfurized under laboratory conditions at room temperature (24°C) using three commercially available sulfides - ammonium sulfide ([NH4]2S), sodium sulfide (Na2S), and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), each mixed with elemental sulfur to produce polysulfide solutions. The reaction products were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which revealed structural differences among the products formed via the three sulfide reactants. Additionally, analysis of the bulk sulfur isotope compositions of reactants and products was used to determine the fractionation(s) associated with abiotic sulfur incorporation into organic matter. Samples from both modern (Mahoney Lake, British Colombia, Canada) and ancient (Jurassic aged Blackstone Band from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, Dorset, United Kingdom) euxinic systems were also analyzed for comparison to laboratory samples. Results from this study provide experimental evidence for the structural and sulfur isotopic relationships of sulfurized organic matter in the geosphere.

  15. Accelerated recovery after cardiac operations.

    Kaplan, Mehmet; Kut, Mustafa Sinan; Yurtseven, Nurgul; Cimen, Serdar; Demirtas, Mahmut Murat

    2002-01-01

    The accelerated-recovery approach, involving early extubation, early mobility, decreased duration of intensive care unit stay, and decreased duration of hospitalization has recently become a controversial issue in cardiac surgery. We investigated timing of extubation, length of intensive care unit stay, and duration of hospitalization in 225 consecutive cardiac surgery patients. Of the 225 patients, 139 were male and 86 were female; average age was 49.73 +/- 16.95 years. Coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in 127 patients; 65 patients underwent aortic and/or mitral or pulmonary valvular operations; 5 patients underwent valvular plus coronary artery operations; and in 28 patients surgical interventions for congenital anomalies were carried out. The accelerated-recovery approach could be applied in 169 of the 225 cases (75.11%). Accelerated-recovery patients were extubated after an average of 3.97 +/- 1.59 hours, and the average duration of stay in the intensive care unit was 20.93 +/- 2.44 hours for these patients. Patients were discharged if they met all of the following criteria: hemodynamic stability, cooperativeness, ability to initiate walking exercises within wards, lack of pathology in laboratory investigations, and psychological readiness for discharge. Mean duration of hospitalization for accelerated-recovery patients was 4.24 +/- 0.75 days. Two patients (1.18%) who were extubated within the first 6 hours required reintubation. Four patients (2.36%) who were sent to the wards returned to intensive care unit due to various reasons and 6 (3.55%) of the discharged patients were rehospitalized. Approaches for decreasing duration of intubation, intensive care unit stay and hospitalization may be applied in elective and uncomplicated cardiac surgical interventions with short duration of aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass, without risking patients. Frequencies of reintubation, return to intensive care unit, and rehospitalization are quite

  16. Acidithiobacillus caldus sulfur oxidation model based on transcriptome analysis between the wild type and sulfur oxygenase reductase defective mutant.

    Linxu Chen

    Full Text Available Acidithiobacillus caldus (A. caldus is widely used in bio-leaching. It gains energy and electrons from oxidation of elemental sulfur and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs for carbon dioxide fixation and growth. Genomic analyses suggest that its sulfur oxidation system involves a truncated sulfur oxidation (Sox system (omitting SoxCD, non-Sox sulfur oxidation system similar to the sulfur oxidation in A. ferrooxidans, and sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR. The complexity of the sulfur oxidation system of A. caldus generates a big obstacle on the research of its sulfur oxidation mechanism. However, the development of genetic manipulation method for A. caldus in recent years provides powerful tools for constructing genetic mutants to study the sulfur oxidation system.An A. caldus mutant lacking the sulfur oxygenase reductase gene (sor was created and its growth abilities were measured in media using elemental sulfur (S(0 and tetrathionate (K(2S(4O(6 as the substrates, respectively. Then, comparative transcriptome analysis (microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR of the wild type and the Δsor mutant in S(0 and K(2S(4O(6 media were employed to detect the differentially expressed genes involved in sulfur oxidation. SOR was concluded to oxidize the cytoplasmic elemental sulfur, but could not couple the sulfur oxidation with the electron transfer chain or substrate-level phosphorylation. Other elemental sulfur oxidation pathways including sulfur diooxygenase (SDO and heterodisulfide reductase (HDR, the truncated Sox pathway, and the S(4I pathway for hydrolysis of tetrathionate and oxidation of thiosulfate in A. caldus are proposed according to expression patterns of sulfur oxidation genes and growth abilities of the wild type and the mutant in different substrates media.An integrated sulfur oxidation model with various sulfur oxidation pathways of A. caldus is proposed and the features of this model are summarized.

  17. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two

  18. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  19. The life sulfuric: microbial ecology of sulfur cycling in marine sediments.

    Wasmund, Kenneth; Mußmann, Marc; Loy, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Almost the entire seafloor is covered with sediments that can be more than 10 000 m thick and represent a vast microbial ecosystem that is a major component of Earth's element and energy cycles. Notably, a significant proportion of microbial life in marine sediments can exploit energy conserved during transformations of sulfur compounds among different redox states. Sulfur cycling, which is primarily driven by sulfate reduction, is tightly interwoven with other important element cycles (carbon, nitrogen, iron, manganese) and therefore has profound implications for both cellular- and ecosystem-level processes. Sulfur-transforming microorganisms have evolved diverse genetic, metabolic, and in some cases, peculiar phenotypic features to fill an array of ecological niches in marine sediments. Here, we review recent and selected findings on the microbial guilds that are involved in the transformation of different sulfur compounds in marine sediments and emphasise how these are interlinked and have a major influence on ecology and biogeochemistry in the seafloor. Extraordinary discoveries have increased our knowledge on microbial sulfur cycling, mainly in sulfate-rich surface sediments, yet many questions remain regarding how sulfur redox processes may sustain the deep-subsurface biosphere and the impact of organic sulfur compounds on the marine sulfur cycle. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Quantification of Discrete Oxide and Sulfur Layers on Sulfur-Passivated InAs by XPS

    Petrovykh, D. Y; Sullivan, J. M; Whitman, L. J

    2005-01-01

    .... The S-passivated InAs(001) surface can be modeled as a sulfur-indium-arsenic layer-cake structure, such that characterization requires quantification of both arsenic oxide and sulfur layers that are at most a few monolayers thick...

  1. Sulfur Isotope Exchange between S-35 Labeled Inorganic Sulfur-Compounds in Anoxic Marine-Sediments

    FOSSING, H.; THODEANDERSEN, S.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    of isotope exchange, specific radioactivities of the reduced sulfur pools were poorly defined and could not be used to calculate their rates of formation. Such isotope exchange reactions between the reduced inorganic sulfur compounds will affect the stable isotope distribution and are expected to decrease...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    2010-07-01

    ....0 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million BTU actual heat input for the coal-fired boiler and 0.4... BTU actual heat input for coal-fired boiler C exiting through stack 5. (3) 2.24 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million BTU acutal heat input for coal-fired boiler D exiting through stack 6. (E) In lieu of...

  3. Sulfur and Oxygen Isotope Fractionation During Bacterial Sulfur Disproportionation Under Anaerobic Haloalkaline Conditions

    Poser, Alexander; Vogt, Carsten; Knöller, Kay; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Finster, Kai W.; Richnow, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation of elemental sulfur disproportionation at anaerobic haloalkaline conditions was evaluated for the first time. Isotope enrichment factors of the strains Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus and Dethiobacter alkaliphilus growing at pH 9 or 10 were −0.9‰ to −1‰ for

  4. Sulfur polymer cement, a solidification and stabilization agent for hazardous and radioactive wastes

    Darnell, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    Hydraulic cements have been the primary radioactive waste stabilization agents in the United States for 50 years. Twelve years ago, Brookhaven National Laboratory was funded by the Department of Energy's Defense Low-Level Waste Management Program to test and develop sulfur polymer cement (SPC). It has stabilized routine wastes as well as some troublesome wastes with high waste-to-agent ratios. The Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program joined the effort by providing funding for testing and developing sulfur polymer cement as a hazardous-waste stabilization agent. Sulfur polymer cement has passed all the laboratory scale tests required by the US Environmental Protection Agency and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two decades of tests by the US Bureau of Mines and private concrete contractors indicate this agent is likely to exceed other agents in longevity. This bulletin provides technical data from pertinent tests conducted by these various entities

  5. Genomic Insights into the Sulfur Metabolism of Phototrophic Green Sulfur Bacteria

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, ferrous iron, and hydrogen for anaerobic photoautotrophic growth. Genome sequence data is currently available for 12 strains of GSB. We present here a genome-based survey of the distribution...... and phylogenies of genes involved in oxidation of sulfur compounds in these strains. Sulfide:quinone reductase, encoded by sqr, is the only known sulfur-oxidizing enzyme found in all strains. All sulfide-utilizing strains contain the dissimilatory sulfite reductase dsrABCEFHLNMKJOPT genes, which appear...... to be involved in elemental sulfur utilization. All thiosulfate-utilizing strains have an identical sox gene cluster (soxJXYZAKBW). The soxCD genes found in certain other thiosulfate-utilizing organisms like Paracoccus pantotrophus are absent from GSB. Genes encoding flavocytochrome c (fccAB), adenosine-5...

  6. Effect of sulfur content in a sulfur-activated carbon composite on the electrochemical properties of a lithium/sulfur battery

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Changhyeon; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Kim, Ki-Won [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon [Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Guoxiu [School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ahn, Jae-Pyeung [Advanced Analysis Center, Research Planning & Coordination Division, KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyo-Jun, E-mail: ahj@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The content of sulfur in activated carbon was controlled by solution process. • The sulfur electrode with low sulfur content shows the best performance. • The Li/S battery has capacity of 1360 mAh/g at 1 C and 702 mAh/g at 10 C. - Abstract: The content of sulfur in sulfur/activated carbon composite is controlled from 32.37 wt.% to 55.33 wt.% by a one-step solution-based process. When the sulfur content is limited to 41.21 wt.%, it can be loaded into the pores of an activated carbon matrix in a highly dispersed state. On the contrary, when the sulfur content is 55.33 wt.%, crystalline sulfur can be detected on the surface of the activated carbon matrix. The best electrochemical performance can be obtained for a sulfur electrode with the lowest sulfur content. The sulfur/activated carbon composite with 32.37 wt.% sulfur afforded the highest first discharge capacity of 1360 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C rate and a large reversible capacity of 702 mAh g{sup −1} at 10 C (16.75 A/g)

  7. Dew point of gases with low sulfuric acid content

    Fieg, J.

    1981-07-01

    Discusses control of air pollution caused by sulfur compounds in solid fuels during combustion. Excessive amount of oxygen during combustion leads to formation of sulfur trioxide. Sulfur trioxide reacts with water vapor and forms sulfuric acid. Chemical reactions which lead to formation of sulfuric acid are described. Conditions for sulfuric acid condensation are analyzed. Several methods for determining dew point of flue gases with low sulfuric acid content are reviewed: methods based on determination of electric conductivity of condensed sulfuric acid (Francis, Cheney, Kiyoure), method based on determination of sulfuric acid concentration in the gaseous phase and in the liquid phase after cooling (Lee, Lisle and Sensenbaugh, Ross and Goksoyr). (26 refs.) (In Polish)

  8. The effective synthesis of Insoluble sulfur using electron beam

    Kim, Daejin; Yu, Kookhyun [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Vulcanization is process that formed crosslinking by Insoluble sulfur between linear structure of rubber polymer. Recently, Synthesis of Insoluble sulfur is used Thermal polymerization using about 250 {approx} 300 .deg. C and extraction process is used carbon disulfide(CS2) for separation between soluble sulfur and insoluble sulfur. But this process isn't environmental, economical and safety. This research was focus on developing of insoluble sulfur synthesis process using electron beam. This new process is using under the 140 .deg. C. Because of that, explosion risk is decrease, environmental and economical factor is increased. The sulfur can be melt by increase temperature or made solution using carbon disulfide. And electron beam is irradiated melting sulfur or sulfur solution. After irradiation, The high purity insoluble sulfur can be obtained by separation with carbon disulfide.

  9. Short, intermediate and mesoscopic range order in sulfur-rich binary glasses

    Bychkov, E.; Miloshova, M.; Price, D.L.; Benmore, C.J.; Lorriaux, A.

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed neutron and high-energy X-ray diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering, Raman spectroscopy and DSC were used to study structural changes on the short, intermediate and mesoscopic range scale for sulfur-rich AsS x (x (ge) 1.5) and GeS x (x (ge) 2) glasses. Two structural regions were found in the both systems. (1) Between stoichiometric (As 2 S 3 and GeS 2 ) and 'saturated' (AsS 2.2 and GeS 2.7 ) compositions, excessive sulfur atoms form sulfur dimers and/or short chains, replacing bridging sulfur in corner-sharing AsS 3/2 and GeS 4/2 units. (2) Above the 'saturated' compositions at (As) x system) appear in the glass network. The glasses become phase separated with the domains of 20-50 (angstrom), presumably enriched with sulfur rings. The longer chains Sn are not stable and crystallize to c-S 8 on ageing of a few days to several months, depending on composition.

  10. Experimental and numerical modeling of sulfur plugging in a carbonate oil reservoir

    Al-Awadhy, F. [ADMA-OPCO, Abudhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kocabas, I.; Abou-Kassem, J.H. [UAE University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Islam, M.R. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (United States)

    2005-01-15

    Many oil and gas reservoirs in the United Arab Emirates produce large amounts of sour gas, mainly in the form of hydrogen sulfide. In addition to creating problems in the production line, wellbore damage is often reported due to the precipitation of elemental sulfur in the vicinity of the wellbore. While there have been several studies performed on the role of solid deposition in a gas reservoir, the role of sulfur deposition in oil reservoirs has not been investigated. This article presents experimental results along with a comprehensive wellbore model that predicts sulfur precipitation as well as plugging. The experiments were conducted in a core (linear) system. Both analytical and numerical modelings were performed in a linear coordinate system. Data for the numerical model was obtained from both test tube and coreflood experiments. By using a phenomenological model, the wellbore plugging was modeled with an excellent match (with experimental results). The crude oil was de-asphalted prior to conducting the experiment in order to isolate the effect of asphaltene plugging. A series of coreflood tests was carried out to observe sulfur precipitation and plugging in a carbonate rock. Significant plugging was observed and was found to be dependent on flow rate and initial sulfur concentration. This information was used in the phenomenological model and can be incorporated in the wellbore numerical model. (author)

  11. Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    Zheng, Guangyuan

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li2S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO3 additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. A primer on sulfur for the planetary geologist

    Theilig, E.

    1982-01-01

    Sulfur has been proposed as the dominant composition for the volcanic material on Io. Sulfur is a complex element which forms many intramolecular and intermolecular allotropes exhibiting a variety of physical properties. Cyclo-S8 sulfur is the most abundant and stable molecular form. The important molecular species within liquid sulfur change in concentration with temperature. Concentrations of the allotropes control the physical properties of the melt. Discontinuities in density, viscosity, and thermal properties reflect the polymerization process within liquid sulfur. Variations in the melting point are related to autodissociation of the liquid. Many solids forms of sulfur have been identified but only orthorhombic alpha and monoclinic beta sulfur, both composed of cyclo-S8 sulfur, are stable under terrestrial conditions. Physical properties of solid sulfur are dependent on the allotrope and, in some cases, the thermal history. Three natural terrestrial sulfur flows are described: (1) Siretoko-Iosan, Japan; (2) Volcan Azufre, Galapagos Islands; and (3) Mauna Loa, Hawaii. All of the flows are associated with fumarolic areas and are considered to have formed by the melting and mobilization of sulfur deposits. Surface textures of the flows indicate a behavior of molten sulfur similar to that of silicate lava. Channels, rivulets, and lobate edges were described for the flows. The solidification of man-made sulfur flows formed as part of the Frasch mining process by which sulfur is removed from the subsurface in a liquid state is described.

  13. Sulfuric acid baking and leaching of spent Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst.

    Kim, Hong-In; Park, Kyung-Ho; Mishra, Devabrata

    2009-07-30

    Dissolution of metals from a pre-oxidized refinery plant spent Co-Mo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst have been tried through low temperature (200-450 degrees C) sulfuric acid baking followed by mild leaching process. Direct sulfuric acid leaching of the same sample, resulted poor Al and Mo recoveries, whereas leaching after sulfuric acid baking significantly improved the recoveries of above two metals. The pre-oxidized spent catalyst, obtained from a Korean refinery plant found to contain 40% Al, 9.92% Mo, 2.28% Co, 2.5% C and trace amount of other elements such as Fe, Ni, S and P. XRD results indicated the host matrix to be poorly crystalline gamma- Al(2)O(3). The effect of various baking parameters such as catalyst-to-acid ratio, baking temperature and baking time on percentage dissolutions of metals has been studied. It was observed that, metals dissolution increases with increase in the baking temperature up to 300 degrees C, then decreases with further increase in the baking temperature. Under optimum baking condition more than 90% Co and Mo, and 93% Al could be dissolved from the spent catalyst with the following leaching condition: H(2)SO(4)=2% (v/v), temperature=95 degrees C, time=60 min and Pulp density=5%.

  14. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Corbus, D.

    1992-09-01

    Recycling and disposal of spent sodium-sulfur (Na/S) batteries are important issues that must be addressed as part of the commercialization process of Na/S battery-powered electric vehicles. The use of Na/S batteries in electric vehicles will result in significant environmental benefits, and the disposal of spent batteries should not detract from those benefits. In the United States, waste disposal is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Understanding these regulations will help in selecting recycling and disposal processes for Na/S batteries that are environmentally acceptable and cost effective. Treatment processes for spent Na/S battery wastes are in the beginning stages of development, so a final evaluation of the impact of RCRA regulations on these treatment processes is not possible. The objectives of tills report on battery recycling and disposal are as follows: Provide an overview of RCRA regulations and requirements as they apply to Na/S battery recycling and disposal so that battery developers can understand what is required of them to comply with these regulations; Analyze existing RCRA regulations for recycling and disposal and anticipated trends in these regulations and perform a preliminary regulatory analysis for potential battery disposal and recycling processes. This report assumes that long-term Na/S battery disposal processes will be capable of handling large quantities of spent batteries. The term disposal includes treatment processes that may incorporate recycling of battery constituents. The environmental regulations analyzed in this report are limited to US regulations. This report gives an overview of RCRA and discusses RCRA regulations governing Na/S battery disposal and a preliminary regulatory analysis for Na/S battery disposal.

  15. Uranium and thorium recovery in thorianite ore-preliminary results

    Gaiotte, Joao V.M. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Villegas, Raul A.S.; Fukuma, Henrique T., E-mail: rvillegas@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: htfukuma@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of the studies aiming to develop a hydrometallurgical process to produce uranium and thorium concentrates from thorianite ore from Amapa State, Brazil. This process comprises two major parts: acid leaching and Th/U recovery using solvent extraction strategies. Thorianite ore has a typical composition of 60 - 70% of thorium, 8 - 10% lead and 7 - 10% uranium. Sulfuric acid leaching operational conditions were defined as follows: acid/ore ratio 7.5 t/t, ore size below 65 mesh (Tyler), 2 hours leaching time and temperature of 100 deg C. Leaching tests results showed that uranium and thorium recovery exceeded 95%, whereas 97% of lead ore content remained in the solid form. Uranium and thorium simultaneous solvent extraction is necessary due to high sulfate concentration in the liquor obtained from leaching, so the Primene JM-T primary anime was used for this extraction step. Aqueous raffinate from extraction containing sulfuric acid was recycled to the leaching step, reducing acid uptake around 60%, to achieve a net sulfuric acid consumption of 3 t/t of ore. Uranium and thorium simultaneous stripping was performed using sodium carbonate solution. In the aqueous stripped it was added sulfuric acid at pH 1.5, followed by a second solvent extraction step using the tertiary amine Alamine 336. The following stripping step was done with a solution of sodium chloride, resulting in a final solution of 23 g L-1 uranium. (author)

  16. Clues to early diagenetic sulfurization processes from mild chemical cleavage of labile sulfur-rich geomacromolecules

    Adam, P.; Schneckenburger, P.; Schaeffer, P.; Albrecht, P.

    2000-10-01

    Macromolecular fractions, isolated from the solvent extract of sulfur-rich Recent (Siders Pond, USA; Lake Cadagno, Switzerland; Walvis Bay, Namibia) and immature sediments (Gibellina, Messinian of Sicily; Vena del Gesso, Messinian of Italy), were investigated by chemical degradation using sodium ethanethiolate/methyliodide. This mild reagent which cleaves polysulfide bonds to yield methylsulfides has the advantage over other methods of leaving intact other functionalities (like double bonds) and preserving sulfur atoms at their incorporation site. The method is, therefore, well-suited to the molecular level investigation of sulfur-rich macromolecules from Recent sediments containing highly functionalized polysulfide-bound subunits. In Recent anoxic sulfur-rich sediments, the release of various methylthioethers clearly demonstrates that intermolecular sulfurization of organic matter does occur at the earliest stages of diagenesis. Steroids and phytane derivatives are the major sulfurized lipids, a feature also observed in more mature sulfur-rich sediments. Several phytene derivatives, such as cis and trans 1-methylthiophyt-2-enes, as well as methylthiosteroids, including 5α- and 5β-3-(methylthio)-cholest-2-enes, were identified by comparison with synthesized standards. Steroid methylthioenolethers are released from polysulfide-bound steroid enethiols present in the macromolecular fractions. The latter, which correspond to thioketones, can be considered as intermediates in the reductive sulfurization pathway leading from steroid ketones to polysulfide-bound saturated steroid skeletons and are characterized for the first time in the present study. Thus, it could be shown that the major part of the polysulfide-bound lipids occurring in Recent sediments is apparently the result of sulfurization processes affecting carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones). The unsaturated methylthioethers obtained from Recent sediments were not present in more mature evaporitic samples, which

  17. Self-assembled peptides for coating of active sulfur nanoparticles in lithium–sulfur battery

    Jewel, Yead; Yoo, Kisoo; Liu, Jin; Dutta, Prashanta

    2016-01-01

    Development of lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery is hindered by poor cyclability due to the loss of sulfur, although Li–S battery can provide high energy density. Coating of sulfur nanoparticles can help maintain active sulfur in the cathode of Li–S battery, and hence increase the cyclability. Among myriad of coating materials, synthetic peptides are very attractive because of their spontaneous self-assembly as well as electrical conductive characteristics. In this study, we explored the use of various synthetic peptides as a coating material for sulfur nanoparticles. Atomistic simulations were carried out to identify optimal peptide structure and density for coating sulfur nanoparticles. Three different peptide models, poly-proline, poly(leucine–lysine) and poly-histidine, are selected for this study based on their peptide–peptide and peptide-sulfur interactions. Simulation results show that both poly-proline and poly(leucine–lysine) can form self-assembled coating on sulfur nanoparticles (2–20 nm) in pyrrolidinone, a commonly used solvent for cathode slurry. We also studied the structural integrity of these synthetic peptides in organic [dioxolane (DOL) and dimethoxyethane (DME)] electrolyte used in Li–S battery. Both peptides show stable structures in organic electrolyte (DOL/DME) used in Li–S battery. Furthermore, the dissolution of sulfur molecules in organic electrolyte is investigated in the absence and presence of these peptide coatings. It was found that only poly(leucine–lysine)-based peptide can most effectively suppress the sulfur loss in electrolyte, suggesting its potential applications in Li–S battery as a coating material.Graphical abstract

  18. Heat recovery system series arrangements

    Kauffman, Justin P.; Welch, Andrew M.; Dawson, Gregory R.; Minor, Eric N.

    2017-11-14

    The present disclosure is directed to heat recovery systems that employ two or more organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units disposed in series. According to certain embodiments, each ORC unit includes an evaporator that heats an organic working fluid, a turbine generator set that expands the working fluid to generate electricity, a condenser that cools the working fluid, and a pump that returns the working fluid to the evaporator. The heating fluid is directed through each evaporator to heat the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit, and the cooling fluid is directed through each condenser to cool the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit. The heating fluid and the cooling fluid flow through the ORC units in series in the same or opposite directions.

  19. Claus sulphur recovery potential approaches 99% while minimizing cost

    Berlie, E M

    1974-01-21

    In a summary of a paper presented to the fourth joint engineering conference of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and the Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering, the Claus process is discussed in a modern setting. Some problems faced in the operation of sulfur recovery plants include (1) strict pollution control regulations; (2) design and operation of existing plants; (3) knowledge of process fundamentals; (4) performance testing; (5) specification of feed gas; (6) catalyst life; (7) instrumentation and process control; and (8) quality of feed gas. Some of the factors which must be considered in order to achieve the ultimate capability of the Claus process are listed. There is strong evidence to support the contention that plant operators are reluctant to accept new fundamental knowledge of the Claus sulfur recovery process and are not taking advantage of its inherent potential to achieve the emission standards required, to minimize cost of tail gas cleanup systems and to minimize operating costs.

  20. Sulfur deactivation of fatty ester hydrogenolysis catalysts

    Brands, D.S.; U-A-Sai, G.; Poels, E.K.; Bliek, A. [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-08-15

    Trace organosulfur compounds present as natural impurities in oleochemical feedstocks may lead to activation of copper-containing catalysts applied for hydrogenolysis of esters toward fatty alcohols. In this paper, the sulfur deactivation of Cu/SiO{sub 2} and Cu/ZnO/SiO{sub 2} catalysts was studied in the liquid-phase hydrogenolysis of methyl palmitate. The rate of deactivation is fast and increases as a function of the sulfur-containing compound present: octadecanethiol {approx} dihexadecyl disulfide < benzyl isothiocyanate < methyl p-toluene sulfonate < dihexadecyl sulfide < dibenzothiophene. The rapid deactivation is caused by the fact that sulfur is quantitatively removed from the reaction mixture and because mainly surface sulfides are formed under hydrogenolysis conditions. The life time of a zinc-promoted catalyst is up to two times higher than that of the Cu/SiO{sub 2} catalyst, most likely due to zinc surface sulfide formation. The maximum sulfur coverage obtained after full catalyst deactivation with dibenzothiophene and dihexadecyl sulfide--the sulfur compounds that cause the fastest deactivation--may be as low as 0.07. This is due to the fact that decomposition of these compounds as well as the hydrogenolysis reaction itself proceeds on ensembles of copper atoms. Catalyst regeneration studies reveal that activity cannot be regained by reduction or combined oxidation/reduction treatments. XRD, TPR, and TPO results confirm that no distinct bulk copper or zinc sulfide or sulfate phases are present.

  1. Simple spectrophotometry method for the determination of sulfur dioxide in an alcohol-thionyl chloride reaction

    Zheng, Jinjian, E-mail: jinjian.zheng@merck.com; Tan, Feng; Hartman, Robert

    2015-09-03

    negligible UV absorbance at 276 nm, and the UV absorbance is attributed only to sample matrix. Quantitation of sulfur dioxide is achieved by subtracting the UV absorbance of sample solution at pH 4.0 from that at pH 1.3. The method is simple but sensitive, with a limit of quantitation of 80 μg L{sup −1}. The method linearity was demonstrated from 2 mg L{sup −1} to 40 mg L{sup −1} with an R{sup 2} of 0.998, and the spiked recovery ranges from 94% to 105% within the same range. The results are comparable with those obtained using inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), suggesting that this method is accurate. - Highlights: • Simple UV spectrometry method to quantitate sulfur dioxide in complex matrix. • Excellent sensitivity, linearity and accuracy. • Potential for real time monitoring using process analytical technology. • Possible applications in chemical, pharmaceutical, beverage and wine industries.

  2. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850–2005

    S. J. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850–2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5° grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  3. Sulfur isotope in nature. Determination of sulfur isotope ratios in coal and petroleum by mass spectrometry

    Derda, M.

    1999-01-01

    Elementary sulfur or in chemical compounds is one of the elements widespread in the earth's crust and biosphere. Its participation in earth's crust amounts to 0.26 % by weight. Measurement of isotope composition of natural samples can deliver many information about origin, creation and transformation ranges of rocks and minerals. Sulfur isotope ratio contained in minerals is variable and for this reason investigation of isotope sulfur composition can deliver useful information about the geochemistry of each component. Therefore in the investigated sample it is necessary to determine not only the content of sulfur but also the isotope composition of each component. Differentiation of contents of sulfur-34 in natural sulfur compounds can reach up to 110 per mile. So large divergences can be explained by a kinetic effect or by bacterial reduction of sulphates. In this report a wide review of the results of investigations of isotope sulfur compositions in coal and petroleum are presented as well as the methods for the preparation of samples for mass spectrometry analysis are proposed. (author)

  4. Conductive framework of inverse opal structure for sulfur cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Jin, Lu; Huang, Xiaopeng; Zeng, Guobo; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-09-07

    As a promising cathode inheritor for lithium-ion batteries, the sulfur cathode exhibits very high theoretical volumetric capacity and energy density. In its practical applications, one has to solve the insulating properties of sulfur and the shuttle effect that deteriorates cycling stability. The state-of-the-art approaches are to confine sulfur in a conductive matrix. In this work, we utilize monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles as sacrificial templates to build polypyrrole (PPy) framework of an inverse opal structure to accommodate (encapsulate) sulfur through a combined in situ polymerization and melting infiltration approach. In the design, the interconnected conductive PPy provides open channels for sulfur infiltration, improves electrical and ionic conductivity of the embedded sulfur, and reduces polysulfide dissolution in the electrolyte through physical and chemical adsorption. The flexibility of PPy and partial filling of the inverse opal structure endure possible expansion and deformation during long-term cycling. It is found that the long cycling stability of the cells using the prepared material as the cathode can be substantially improved. The result demonstrates the possibility of constructing a pure conductive polymer framework to accommodate insulate sulfur in ion battery applications.

  5. Sulfur contents and sulfur-isotope compositions of thiotrophic symbioses in bivalve molluscs and vestimentiferan worms

    Vetter, R.D.; Fry, B.

    1998-01-01

    Total sulfur (S(TOT)), elemental sulfur (S??) and sulfur-isotope compositions (??34S) of marine animals were analyzed to determine whether these chemical characteristics could help distinguish animals with a sulfur-based, thiotrophic nutrition from animals whose nutrition is based on methanotrophy or on more normal consumption of phytoplankton-derived organic matter. The presence of S??was almost entirely confined to the symbiont-containing tissues of thiotrophs, but was sometimes undetectable in thiotrophic species where sulfide availability was probably low. When S??contents were subtracted, the remaining tissue-sulfur concentrations were similar for all nutritional groups. ??34S values were typically lower for thiotrophs than for other groups, although there was overlap in methanotroph and thiotroph values at some sites. Field evidence supported the existence of small to moderate (1 to 10???)34S fractionations in the uptake of sulfides and metabolism of thiosulfate. In general, a total sulfur content of >3% dry weight, the presence of elemental sulfur, and ??34S values less than + 5??? can be used to infer a thiotrophic mode of nutrition.

  6. Confine sulfur in mesoporous metal–organic framework @ reduced graphene oxide for lithium sulfur battery

    Bao, Weizhai; Zhang, Zhian; Qu, Yaohui; Zhou, Chengkun; Wang, Xiwen; Li, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal organic framework @ reduced graphene oxide was applied for sulfur cathode. • MIL-101(Cr)@rGO/S composites are synthesized by a facile two-step liquid method. • Cycling stability of MIL-101(Cr)@rGO/S sulfur cathode was improved. -- Abstract: Mesoporous metal organic framework @ reduced graphene oxide (MIL-101(Cr)@rGO) materials have been used as a host material to prepare the multi-composite sulfur cathode through a facile and effective two-step liquid phase method successfully, which is different from the simple MIL-101(Cr)/S mixed preparation method. The successful reduced graphene oxide coating in the MIL-101(Cr)@rGO improve the electronic conductivity of meso-MOFs effectively. The discharge capacity and capacity retention rate of MIL-101(Cr)@rGO/S composite sulfur cathode are as high as 650 mAh g −1 and 66.6% at the 50th cycle at the current density of 335 mA g −1 . While the discharge capacity and capacity retention rate of MIL-101(Cr)/S mixed sulfur cathode is 458 mAh g −1 and 37.3%. Test results indicate that the MIL-101(Cr)@rGO is a promising host material for the sulfur cathode in the lithium–sulfur battery applications

  7. RECOVERY OF LIQUID WASTE FROM A CURTIEMBRE STAGE UNHAIRING

    Salas C., Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study on precipitation and recovery of dissolved proteins in wastewater from a tannery, which is achieved is when its isoelectric point is reached pH between 4.6 to 5.5 using acid solutions in the present work sulfuric (H2SO4). The recovery of the protein is above 80% and the reduction of BOD in the effluent is greater than 50%. En el presente trabajo se presenta un estudio experimental sobre la precipitación y recuperación de proteínas disueltas contenidas en las aguas res...

  8. Extraction of sulfuric acid with TOPO

    Shuyun, Xue; Yonghui, Yang; Yanzhao, Yang; Sixiu, Sun; Borong, Bao

    1998-01-01

    A study on solvent extraction of sulfuric acid by tri-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in n-heptane has been made. Extraction coefficients of H 2 SO 4 as a function of H 2 SO 4 concentration in aqueous phase, and extractant concentrations in organic phase have been studied. The composition of extracted species, equilibrium constants of extraction reaction have been evaluated. These results are important for interpreting extraction equilibrium data of uranium(VI) or other metal ions with TOPO in sulfuric acid media. (author)

  9. Genomic and Evolutionary Perspectives on Sulfur Metabolism in Green Sulfur Bacteria

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are anaerobic photoautotrophs that oxidize sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, ferrous iron, and hydrogen for growth. We present here an analysis of the distribution and evolution of enzymes involved in oxidation of sulfur compounds in GSB based on genome sequence......, in combination with phylogenetic analyses, suggests that the Dsr system in GSB could be a recent acquisition, which was obtained by lateral gene transfer in part from sulfideoxidizing bacteria and in part from sulfate-reducing bacteria. All thiosulfate-utilizing GSB strains have an identical sox gene cluster...

  10. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19, 2014 AGENCY: International Trade... Japan-United States Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum (``Fukushima Recovery Forum...

  11. Sulfur-induced structural motifs on copper and gold surfaces

    Walen, Holly [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of sulfur with copper and gold surfaces plays a fundamental role in important phenomena that include coarsening of surface nanostructures, and self-assembly of alkanethiols. Here, we identify and analyze unique sulfur-induced structural motifs observed on the low-index surfaces of these two metals. We seek out these structures in an effort to better understand the fundamental interactions between these metals and sulfur that lends to the stability and favorability of metal-sulfur complexes vs. chemisorbed atomic sulfur. The experimental observations presented here—made under identical conditions—together with extensive DFT analyses, allow comparisons and insights into factors that favor the existence of metal-sulfur complexes, vs. chemisorbed atomic sulfur, on metal terraces. We believe this data will be instrumental in better understanding the complex phenomena occurring between the surfaces of coinage metals and sulfur.

  12. Determination of sulfur dioxide by a radiorelease method

    Sriman Narayanan, S.; Rao, V.R.S. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras. Dept. of Chemistry)

    1983-04-13

    A radiorelease technique for the determination of sulfur dioxide using radiochlor /sup 36/Cl-amine-T is described. Methods for the elimination of interference from coexisting gases are also reported. 1-40 ppm sulfur dioxide can be determined.

  13. Determination of sulfur dioxide by a radiorelease method

    Sriman Narayanan, S.; Rao, V.R.S.

    1983-01-01

    A radiorelease technique for the determination of sulfur dioxide using radiochlor 36 Cl-amine-T is described. Methods for the elimination of interference from coexisting gases are also reported. 1-40 ppm sulfur dioxide can be determined. (author)

  14. Total Sulfur Deposition (wet+dry) from the Atmosphere

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is emitted primarily as a by-product of coal combustion from power plants. Sulfur Dioxide reacts in the atmosphere to form other chemical such...

  15. Sulfur dioxide initiates global climate change in four ways

    Ward, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    1980 anthropogenic sulfur emissions peaked and began to decrease because of major efforts especially in Japan, Europe, and the United States to reduce acid rain. Atmospheric concentrations of methane began decreasing in 1990 and have remained nearly constant since 2000, demonstrating an increase in oxidizing capacity. Global temperatures became roughly constant around 2000 and even decreased beginning in late 2007. Meanwhile atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide have continued to increase at the same rate that they have increased since 1970. Thus SO 2 is playing a far more active role in initiating and controlling global warming than recognized by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Massive reduction of SO 2 should be a top priority in order to reduce both global warming and acid rain. But man is also adding two to three orders of magnitude more CO 2 per year to the climate than one 'large' volcanic eruption added in the past. Thus CO 2 , a greenhouse gas, is contributing to global warming and should be reduced. We have already significantly reduced SO 2 emissions in order to reduce acid rain. We know how to do it both technically and politically. In the past, sudden climate change was typically triggered by sudden increases in volcanic activity. Slow increases in greenhouse gases, therefore, do not appear as likely as currently thought to trigger tipping points where the climate suddenly changes. However we do need to start planning an appropriate human response to future major increases in volcanic activity.

  16. Oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds in acidophilic prokaryotes

    Rohwerder, T.; Sand, W. [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Biofilm Centre, Aquatic Biotechnology, Duisburg (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid is of great importance for biohydrometallurgical technologies as well as the formation of acidic (below pH 3) and often heavy metal-contaminated environments. The use of elemental sulfur as an electron donor is the predominant energy-yielding process in acidic natural sulfur-rich biotopes but also at mining sites containing sulfidic ores. Contrary to its significant role in the global sulfur cycle and its biotechnological importance, the microbial fundamentals of acidophilic sulfur oxidation are only incompletely understood. Besides giving an overview of sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles, this review describes the so far known enzymatic reactions related to elemental sulfur oxidation in acidophilic bacteria and archaea. Although generally similar reactions are employed in both prokaryotic groups, the stoichiometry of the key enzymes is different. Bacteria oxidize elemental sulfur by a sulfur dioxygenase to sulfite whereas in archaea, a sulfur oxygenase reductase is used forming equal amounts of sulfide and sulfite. In both cases, the activation mechanism of elemental sulfur is not known but highly reactive linear sulfur forms are assumed to be the actual substrate. Inhibition as well as promotion of these biochemical steps is highly relevant in bioleaching operations. An efficient oxidation can prevent the formation of passivating sulfur layers. In other cases, a specific inhibition of sulfur biooxidation may be beneficial for reducing cooling and neutralization costs. In conclusion, the demand for a better knowledge of the biochemistry of sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles is underlined. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery in arctic climate

    Kragh, Jesper; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical ventilations systems with highly effective heat recovery units in arctic climate have problems with condensing water from the extracted humid indoor air. If the condensing water freezes to ice in the heat recovery unit, the airflow rate will quickly diminish due to the increasing...... pressure drop. Preheating the inlet air (outdoor air) to a temperature just above 0ºC is typically used to solve the problem. To minimize the energy cost, a more efficient solution to the problem is therefore desirable. In this project a new design of a heat recovery unit has been developed to the low......-energy house in Sisimiut, which is capable of continuously defrosting itself. The disadvantage of the unit is that it is quite big compared with other units. In this paper the new heat recovery unit is described and laboratory measurements are presented showing that the unit is capable of continuously...

  18. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR; F

    K.C. Kwon

    2002-01-01

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H(sub 2)S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced Vision 21 plants that employ coal and natural gas and produce electric power and clean transportation fuels. These Vision 21 plants will require highly clean coal gas with H(sub 2)S below 1 ppm and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation Vision 21 plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at Research Triangle Institute (RTI) in which the H(sub 2)S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H(sub 2)S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term DOE efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. Specifically, we aim to: Measure the kinetics of direct oxidation of H(sub 2)S to elemental sulfur over selective catalysts in the presence of major

  19. Mercury chemisorption by sulfur adsorbed in porous materials

    Steijns, M.; Peppelenbos, A.; Mars, P.

    1976-01-01

    The sorption of mercury vapor by adsorbed sulfur in the zeolites CaA (= 5A) and NaX (=13X) and two types of active carbon has been measured at a temperature of 50°C. With increasing degree of micropore filling by sulfur the fraction of sulfur accessible to mercury atoms decreased for CaA and NaX.

  20. Relationship between corrosion and the biological sulfur cycle: A review

    Little, B.J.; Ray, R.I.; Pope, R.K.

    2000-04-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds can produce pitting, crevice corrosion, dealloying, stress corrosion cracking, and stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking of susceptible metals and alloys. Even though the metabolic by-products of the biological sulfur cycle are extremely corrosive, there are no correlations between numbers and types of sulfur-related organisms and the probability or rate of corrosion, Determination of specific mechanisms for corrosion caused by microbiologically mediated oxidation and reduction of sulfur and sulfur compounds is complicated by the variety of potential metabolic-energy sources and by-products; the coexistence of reduced and oxidized sulfur species; competing reactions with inorganic and organic compounds; and the versatility and adaptability of microorganisms in biofilms. The microbial ecology of sulfur-rich environments is poorly understood because of the association of aerobes and anaerobes and the mutualism or succession of heterotrophs to autotrophs. The physical scale over which the sulfur cycle influences corrosion varies with the environment. The complete sulfur cycle of oxidation and reduction reactions can take place in macroenvironments, including sewers and polluted harbors, or within the microenvironment of biofilms. In this review, reactions of sulfur and sulfur compounds resulting in corrosion were discussed in the context of environmental processes important to corrosion.

  1. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    2010-07-01

    ... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following raw agricultural... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for...

  2. Physiology of alkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from soda lakes

    Banciu, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    The inorganic sulfur oxidation by obligate haloalkaliphilic chemolithoautotrophs was only recently discovered and investigated. These autotrophic sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB), capable of oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds at moderate to high salt concentration and at high pH, can be divided

  3. Biologically produced sulfur particles and polysulfide ions

    Kleinjan, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effects of particles of biologically produced sulfur (or 'biosulfur') on a biotechnological process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams. Particular emphasis is given to the role of polysulfide ions in such a process. These

  4. Intestinal metabolism of sulfur amino acids

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a metabolically significant site of sulfur amino acid (SAA) metabolism in the body and metabolizes approx. 20% of the dietary methionine intake that is mainly transmethylated to homocysteine and transsulfurated to cysteine. The GIT accounts for approx. 25% of the ...

  5. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides ...

    This draft document provides EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science related to the health effects of sulfur oxides. When final, it will provide a critical part of the scientific foundation for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current primary (health-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for sulfur dioxide. The references considered for inclusion in or cited in the external review draft ISA are available at https://hero.epa.gov/hero/sulfur-oxides. The intent of the ISA, according to the CAA, is to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air” (U.S. Code, 1970a, 1970b). It includes an assessment of scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure sciences, dosimetry, mode of action, animal and human toxicology, and epidemiology. Key information and judgments formerly found in the Air Quality Criteria Documents (AQCDs) for sulfur oxides (SOx) are included; Annexes provide additional details supporting the ISA. Together, the ISA and Annexes serve to update and revise the last SOx ISA which was published in 2008.

  6. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Richardson, P.E.

    1996-03-01

    Research at Virginia Tech led to the development of two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from many eastern U.S. coals. These concepts are referred to as Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) and Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) processes. The EESR process uses electrochemical techniques to suppress the formation of hydrophobic oxidation products believed to be responsible for the floatability of coal pyrite. The PESR process uses polymeric reagents that react with pyrite and convert floatable middlings, i.e., composite particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions, into hydrophilic particles. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications to existing coal preparation facilities, thereby enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that these processes can be used simultaneously to maximize the rejection of both well-liberated pyrite and composite coal-pyrite particles. The project was initiated on October 1, 1992 and all technical work has been completed. This report is based on the research carried out under Tasks 2-7 described in the project proposal. These tasks include Characterization, Electrochemical Studies, In Situ Monitoring of Reagent Adsorption on Pyrite, Bench Scale Testing of the EESR Process, Bench Scale Testing of the PESR Process, and Modeling and Simulation.

  7. Methane oxidation in presence of sulfur dioxide

    Mantashyan, A.A.; Avetisyan, A.M.; Makaryan, E.M.; Wang, H.

    2006-01-01

    The emission of sulfurous gases including SO 2 from stationary power generation remains to be a serious environmental and ecological problem. Sulfurous gases are almost entirely produced from the combustion of sulfur-containing fuels. While fuel desulfurization and flue gas scrubbing is a viable solution, in the developing countries it remains to be an economical challenge to implement these SO x reduction technologies. The oxidation of methane in presence of sulfurous gas (SO 2 ) addition was studied experimentally. Te experiments were conducted in a static reactor at temperature of 728-786 K, and for mixture of C 4 /O 2 ≡ 1/2 at a pressure of 117 Torr with varying amount of SO 2 addition. It was observed that SO 2 addition accelerated the oxidation process, reduced the induction period and increased the extent of methane consumption. At the relatively short resident time (less than 50 sec) SO 3 was detected, but at longer residence time SO 3 was reduced spontaneously to SO 2

  8. Behaviour of organic sulfur compounds in HPLC

    Freyholdt, T.

    1982-01-01

    The retention behaviour of organic sulfur compounds in the reverse-bonded-phase chromatography is characterized by determining the retention indices according to Kovats. The results of these studies show that the solubility of organic compounds in the eluting agent and the molar sorption surfaces of the solutes are the main factors determining the retention behaviour. Knowledge of the retention indices of above-mentioned compounds allows a quick interpretation of chromatograms obtained through a product analysis of γ-irradiated aqueous solutions of organic sulfur compounds. Dithia compounds of the type CH 3 -S-(CH 2 )sub(n)-S-Ch 3 (1 1. 2,4-Dithiapentane (n = 1) however will yield primarily monothio-S-methyl formate as a stable end product. The formation of oxygenic reaction products proceeds via sulfur-centred radical kations. Spin trapping experiments with nitroxyl radicals show that it is possible to trap radiation-chemically produced radicals of sulfurous substrates, but the thus obtained adducts with half-life periods of 4-5 min. cannot be identified by means of NMR, IR or mass spectroscopy. (orig.) [de

  9. Sulfur and selenium isotope separation by distillation

    Mills, T. R.; McInteer, B. B.; Montoya, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur and selenium isotopes are used for labeled compounds and as precursors for radioisotope production; however, both limited availability and high costs are problems. A new method is needed for large-scale separation of these isotopes. Experimental distillation columns were used to measure isotopic separations for sulfur and selenium compounds. The maximum total isotope separation of 32 S vs. 34 S were 1.127 for H 2 S, 1.048 for COS, 0.838 for SF 4 , and 1.058 for CH 3 SH. Relative volatilities of 32 S vs. 34 S are 1.0006 for COS and 0.9976 for SF 4 . There is a reverse isotope effect for carbon in COS. No isotopic separation was observed for dimethyl selenide. The lower mass selenium isotopes in H 2 Se are more volatile. Distillation is a promising method for separating sulfur isotopes on a production scale. Existing distillation technology produced separated isotopes with an effect similar to that found for sulfur in SF 4 . 8 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Sulfur and selenium isotope separation by distillation

    Mills, T.R.; McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Sulfur and selenium isotopes are used for labeled compounds and as precursors for radioisotope production; however, both limited availability and high costs are problems. A new method is needed for large-scale separation of theses isotopes. Experimental distillation columns were used to measure isotopic separations for sulfur and selenium compounds. The maximum total isotope separations of 32 S vs. 34 S were 1.127 for H 2 S, 1.048 for COS, 0.838 for SF 4 , and 1.058 for CH 3 SH. Relative volatilities of 32 S and 34 S are 1.0006 for COS and 0.9976 for SF 4 . There is a reverse isotope effect for carbon in COS. No isotopic separation was observed for dimethyl selenide. The lower mass selenium isotopes in H 2 Se are more volatile. Distillation is a promising method for separating sulfur isotopes on a production scale. Existing distillation technology produces separated isotopes with an effect similar to that found for sulfur in SF 4 . (author). 8 refs.; 2 tabs

  11. Helium and Sulfur Hexafluoride in Musical Instruments

    Forinash, Kyle; Dixon, Cory L.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of inhaled helium on the human voice were investigated in a recent article in "The Physics Teacher." As mentioned in that article, demonstrations of the effect are a popular classroom activity. If the number of YouTube videos is any indication, the effects of sulfur hexafluoride on the human voice are equally popular.…

  12. Isotope effects of sulfur in chemical reactions

    Mikolajczuk, A.

    1999-01-01

    Sulfur is an important component of organic matter because it forms compounds with many elements. Due to high chemical activity of sulfur, it takes part in biological and geological processes in which isotope effects are occurring. It has been shown during last years research of isotope effects that we have take into account not only mass difference but also many other physical properties of nuclides e.g. even or odd number of neutrons in nuclei, shape and distribution of charge, turn of nuclear spin etc. The factor remains that new theoretical ideas have been formed on the base of data, being obtained in fractionation processes of heavy element isotope, particularly uranium. Now it is being well known that effects unconnected with vibration energy have also caused an effect on fractionation of considerably lighter elements like iron and magnesium. The important question is, if these effects would come to light during the separation of sulfur isotopes. Sulfur have three even isotopes M = (32, 34, 36) and one odd M 33). This problem is still open. (author)

  13. Annotated bibliography of methods for determining sulfur and forms of sulfur in coal and coal-related materials

    Chriswell, C.D.; Norton, G.A.; Akhtar, S.S.; Straszheim, W.E.; Markuszewski, R.

    1993-01-01

    Over 400 published papers, presentations at scientific meetings, and reports relating to the determination of sulfur and sulfur forms in coal-related materials have been accumulated, classified, and an evaluation made of their content.

  14. Effects of elemental sulfur and sulfur-containing waste on nutrient ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... grown twice on the same soils to determine initial and residual effects of applied S. Results showed that applications of ... Key words: Calcareous soil, plant growth, plant nutrition, sulfur application. ...... Colombia. Can. J. Soil ...

  15. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash

    Rochelle, Gary T.; Chang, John C. S.

    1991-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

  16. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  17. Organic sulfur metabolisms in hydrothermal environments.

    Rogers, Karyn L; Schulte, Mitchell D

    2012-07-01

    Sulfur is central to the metabolisms of many organisms that inhabit extreme environments. While biotic and abiotic cycling of organic sulfur compounds has been well documented in low-temperature anaerobic environments, cycling of organic sulfur in hydrothermal environments has received less attention. Recently published thermodynamic data have been used to estimate aqueous alkyl thiol and sulfide activities in deep-sea hydrothermal systems. Here we use geochemical mixing models to predict fluid compositions that result from mixing end-member hydrothermal fluid from the East Pacific Rise with bottom seawater. These fluid compositions are combined with estimates of methanethiol and dimethylsulfide activities to evaluate energy yields for potential organic sulfur-based metabolisms under hydrothermal conditions. Aerobic respiration has the highest energy yields (over -240 kJ/mol e⁻) at lower temperature; however, oxygen is unlikely to persist at high temperatures, restricting aerobic respiration to mesophilic communities. Nitrite reduction to N₂ has the highest energy yields at higher temperatures (greater than ∼40 °C). Nitrate and nitrite reduction to ammonium also yield significant energy (up to -70 kJ/mol e⁻). Much lower, but still feasible energy yields are calculated for sulfate reduction, disproportionation, and reduction with H₂. Organic compound family and the activity of methanethiol and dimethylsulfide were less important than metabolic strategy in determining overall energy yields. All metabolic strategies considered were exergonic within some portion of the mixing regime suggesting that organic sulfur-based metabolisms may be prevalent within deep-sea hydrothermal vent microbial communities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Effects of sulfur oxides on eicosanoids

    Chen, L.C.; Miller, P.D.; Amdur, M.O.

    1989-01-01

    Ultrafine metal oxides and SO2 react during coal combustion or smelting operations to form primary emissions coated with an acidic SOx layer. Ongoing work in this laboratory has examined the effects of sulfur oxides on pulmonary functions of guinea pigs. We have previously reported that 20 micrograms/m3 acidic sulfur oxide as a surface layer on ultrafine ZnO particles decreases lung volumes, decreases carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, and causes lung inflammation in guinea pigs after 4 daily 3-h exposures. It also produces bronchial hypersensitivity following a single 1-h exposure. The importance of this surface layer is demonstrated by our observation that 200 micrograms/m3 of sulfuric acid droplets of equivalent size are needed to produce the same degree of hypersensitivity. This study characterized the concentration-dependent effects of in vivo exposures to sulfur oxides on arachidonic acid metabolism in the guinea pig lung, and investigated the time course and the relation between eicosanoid composition and pulmonary functions. We focused specifically on four cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, that is, prostaglandins (PG) E1, F2 alpha, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, and thromboxane (Tx) B2, and two groups of sulfidopeptide leukotrienes (C4, D4, E4, and F4). Guinea pigs were exposed to ultrafine ZnO aerosol (count median diameter = 0.05 microns, sigma g = 1.80) with a layer of acidic sulfur oxide on the surface of the particles. Lung lavage was collected after exposures, and the levels of arachidonic acid metabolites were determined using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Concentration-dependent promotion of PGF2 alpha and concentration-dependent suppression of LtB4 were observed. The increased PGF2 alpha was associated with depressed vital capacity and diffusing capacity of the lungs measured in guinea pigs exposed to the same atmosphere described in a previous study

  19. Dermatotoxicology of sulfur mustard: Historical perspectives from World War I.

    Jiang, Austin; Maibach, Howard

    2018-01-01

    Sulfur mustard has been used as a chemical warfare agent for the past century. After its introduction by the Germans in World War I, investigators quickly began studying its impact on the human body including its deleterious effects on skin. This review focuses on two groups in particular who conducted experiments from 1917 to 1918: the United States Army at the American University Experiment Station Laboratories and Torald Sollmann at Western Reserve University. Through this work, these researchers proved far ahead of their time by anticipating dermatologic phenomena not described in the literature until later in the twentieth century. These include regional variation of percutaneous penetration, effect of vehicle on penetration and predicting immunologic contact urticaria. The work conducted by these researchers set the groundwork for much of twentieth century dermatotoxicology. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Preparation and electrochemical performance of sulfur-alumina cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Dong, Kang [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo Road, 430074 Wuhan (China); Wang, Shengping, E-mail: spwang@cug.edu.cn [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo Road, 430074 Wuhan (China); Zhang, Hanyu; Wu, Jinping [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo Road, 430074 Wuhan (China)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Micron-sized alumina was synthesized as adsorbent for lithium-sulfur batteries. ► Sulfur-alumina material was synthesized via crystallizing nucleation. ► The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can provide surface area for the deposition of Li{sub 2}S and Li{sub 2}S{sub 2}. ► The discharge capacity of the battery is improved during the first several cycles. - Abstract: Nano-sized sulfur particles exhibiting good adhesion with conducting acetylene black and alumina composite materials were synthesized by means of an evaporated solvent and a concentrated crystallization method for use as the cathodes of lithium-sulfur batteries. The composites were characterized and examined by X-ray diffraction, environmental scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods, such as cyclic voltammetry, electrical impedance spectroscopy and charge–discharge tests. Micron-sized flaky alumina was employed as an adsorbent for the cathode material. The initial discharge capacity of the cathode with the added alumina was 1171 mAh g{sup −1}, and the remaining capacity was 585 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at 0.25 mA cm{sup −2}. Compared with bare sulfur electrodes, the electrodes containing alumina showed an obviously superior cycle performance, confirming that alumina can contribute to reducing the dissolution of polysulfides into electrolytes during the sulfur charge–discharge process.

  1. Effects of Sulfurization Temperature on Properties of CZTS Films by Vacuum Evaporation and Sulfurization Method

    Jie Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper zinc tin sulfur (CZTS thin films have been extensively studied in recent years for their advantages of low cost, high absorption coefficient (≥104 cm−1, appropriate band gap (~1.5 eV, and nontoxicity. CZTS thin films are promising materials of solar cells like copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS. In this work, CZTS thin films were prepared on glass substrates by vacuum evaporation and sulfurization method. Sn/Cu/ZnS (CZT precursors were deposited by thermal evaporation and then sulfurized in N2 + H2S atmosphere at temperatures of 360–560°C to produce polycrystalline CZTS thin films. It is found that there are some impurity phases in the thin films with the sulfurization temperature less than 500°C, and the crystallite size of CZTS is quite small. With the further increase of the sulfurization temperature, the obtained thin films exhibit preferred (112 orientation with larger crystallite size and higher density. When the sulfurization temperature is 500°C, the band gap energy, resistivity, carrier concentration, and mobility of the CZTS thin films are 1.49 eV, 9.37 Ω · cm, 1.714×1017 cm−3, and 3.89 cm2/(V · s, respectively. Therefore, the prepared CZTS thin films are suitable for absorbers of solar cells.

  2. Determining total sulfur content in coal by MSC radiometric sulfur meter

    Czerw, B; Sikora, T; Golebiowski, W

    1976-01-01

    The MSC radiometric sulfur meter is used to determine total sulfur content in brown and black coals. Sulfur content is determined by measuring intensity of radiation beam which has travelled through a coal sample with the optimum constant surface mass. Construction of the MSC, consisting of a measuring head and the electronic measuring system, is shown in a scheme. AM-241 (with activity of 50 mCi) is the source of radiation. Energy of 25.3 keV (tin disc) is selected as the optimum. The SSU-70 probe with NaJ/Tl crystal is the radiation detector. The black coal sample weighs 10 g and the brown coal sample weighs 18 g. Duration of sulfur determination is 10 min. Error of sulfur determination ranges from plus or minus 0.2% to 0.3%. The results of operational tests of MSC radiometric sulfur meters in black and brown coal mines are discussed. Accuracy of measurement is shown in 5 tables. (8 refs.)

  3. Preparation and electrochemical performance of sulfur-alumina cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Dong, Kang; Wang, Shengping; Zhang, Hanyu; Wu, Jinping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Micron-sized alumina was synthesized as adsorbent for lithium-sulfur batteries. ► Sulfur-alumina material was synthesized via crystallizing nucleation. ► The Al 2 O 3 can provide surface area for the deposition of Li 2 S and Li 2 S 2 . ► The discharge capacity of the battery is improved during the first several cycles. - Abstract: Nano-sized sulfur particles exhibiting good adhesion with conducting acetylene black and alumina composite materials were synthesized by means of an evaporated solvent and a concentrated crystallization method for use as the cathodes of lithium-sulfur batteries. The composites were characterized and examined by X-ray diffraction, environmental scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods, such as cyclic voltammetry, electrical impedance spectroscopy and charge–discharge tests. Micron-sized flaky alumina was employed as an adsorbent for the cathode material. The initial discharge capacity of the cathode with the added alumina was 1171 mAh g −1 , and the remaining capacity was 585 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles at 0.25 mA cm −2 . Compared with bare sulfur electrodes, the electrodes containing alumina showed an obviously superior cycle performance, confirming that alumina can contribute to reducing the dissolution of polysulfides into electrolytes during the sulfur charge–discharge process

  4. Functional Recovery After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Hart, Tessa; Kozlowski, Allan; Whyte, John

    2014-01-01

    recovery was best modeled with linear, cubic, and quadratic components: relatively steep recovery was followed by deceleration of improvement, which attenuated prior to discharge. Slower recovery was associated with older age, longer coma, and interruptions to rehabilitation. Patients admitted at lower...... multi-disciplinary teams were recorded daily in 15-minute units provided to patients and family members, separately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Motor and Cognitive FIM measured on admission, discharge, and every 2 weeks in between, analyzed with Individual Growth Curve methodology. RESULTS: Inpatient...... functional levels received more treatment and more treatment was associated with slower recovery, presumably because treatment was allocated according to need. Thus, effects of treatment on outcome could not be disentangled from effects of case mix factors. CONCLUSIONS: FIM gain during inpatient recovery...

  5. A Study on the Properties and Chloride Resistance of Modified Sulfur Concrete for Nuclear Power Plant and Marine Structures

    Wang, Soon Myun; Chang, Hyun Young; Park, Heung Bae [KEPCO EnC, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of concrete with modified sulfur have been compared and assessed against ordinary concrete. As its excellent chloride resistance and extended service life have been verified, the technology to apply modified sulfur to the construction of nuclear power plant and marine structures has been developed and secured. Recently, modified sulfur concrete has been applied for road pavement and repair works in more than 20 sites including highway and airport in Korea. Also, in the U.S., Federal Highway Administration and Virginia Department of Transportation are implementing tests to apply modified sulfur to bridge road pavement, and the modified sulfur concrete has been recognized for its good performance. Based on these cases, this study carried out tests on physical, mechanical and chemical properties of concrete after adding modified sulfur by building concrete specimens based on the concrete mix design employed to construct the Shin-Kori Units 3 and 4 containment building. Multiple tests were performed particularly for chemical resistance, a factor directly related to concrete service life. As a result, it has been verified that concrete with 5% modified sulfur content relative to cement weight has equal mechanical properties (compressive strength, tensile strength, etc.) and much better workability (slump change) and chemical resistance (resistance to chloride ion penetration, concrete carbonation) compared with ordinary concrete. Based on this, it has been concluded that an addition of modified sulfur can double the service life of concrete. In general, studies demonstrate that a significant amount of slag should be mixed into concrete to raise chemical resistance (but with decreasing mechanical properties). Considering this, this study is unparalleled.

  6. A Study on the Properties and Chloride Resistance of Modified Sulfur Concrete for Nuclear Power Plant and Marine Structures

    Wang, Soon Myun; Chang, Hyun Young; Park, Heung Bae

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of concrete with modified sulfur have been compared and assessed against ordinary concrete. As its excellent chloride resistance and extended service life have been verified, the technology to apply modified sulfur to the construction of nuclear power plant and marine structures has been developed and secured. Recently, modified sulfur concrete has been applied for road pavement and repair works in more than 20 sites including highway and airport in Korea. Also, in the U.S., Federal Highway Administration and Virginia Department of Transportation are implementing tests to apply modified sulfur to bridge road pavement, and the modified sulfur concrete has been recognized for its good performance. Based on these cases, this study carried out tests on physical, mechanical and chemical properties of concrete after adding modified sulfur by building concrete specimens based on the concrete mix design employed to construct the Shin-Kori Units 3 and 4 containment building. Multiple tests were performed particularly for chemical resistance, a factor directly related to concrete service life. As a result, it has been verified that concrete with 5% modified sulfur content relative to cement weight has equal mechanical properties (compressive strength, tensile strength, etc.) and much better workability (slump change) and chemical resistance (resistance to chloride ion penetration, concrete carbonation) compared with ordinary concrete. Based on this, it has been concluded that an addition of modified sulfur can double the service life of concrete. In general, studies demonstrate that a significant amount of slag should be mixed into concrete to raise chemical resistance (but with decreasing mechanical properties). Considering this, this study is unparalleled

  7. Sulfur dimers adsorbed on Au(111) as building blocks for sulfur octomers formation: A density functional study

    Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E.; Montero-Alejo, Ana Lilian; Pujals, Daniel Codorniu; Mikosch, Hans; Hernández, Mayra P.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies have shown for more than two decades rectangular formations when sulfur atoms are deposited on Au(111) surfaces. The precursors have ranged from simple molecules or ions, such as SO 2 gas or sulfide anions, to more complex organosulfur compounds. We investigated, within the framework of the Density Functional Theory, the structure of these rectangular patterns assuming them entirely composed of sulfur atoms as the experimental evidence suggests. The sulfur coverage at which the simulations were carried out (0.67 ML or higher) provoked that the sulfur-sulfur association had to be taken into account for achieving a good agreement between the sets of simulated and experimental STM images. A combination of four sulfur dimers per rectangular formation properly explained the trends obtained by the experimental STM analysis which were related with the rectangles' size and shape fluctuations together with sulfur-sulfur distances within these rectangles. Finally, a projected density of states analysis showed that the dimers were capable of altering the Au(5d) electronic states at the same level as atomic sulfur adsorbed at low coverage. Besides, sulfur dimers states were perfectly distinguished, whose presence near and above the Fermi level can explain both: sulfur-sulfur bond elongation and dimers stability when they stayed adsorbed on the surface at high coverage

  8. Sulfur dimers adsorbed on Au(111) as building blocks for sulfur octomers formation: A density functional study

    Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E.; Montero-Alejo, Ana Lilian [Laboratory of Computational and Theoretical Chemistry (LQCT), Faculty of Chemistry, Havana University, Havana 10400 (Cuba); Pujals, Daniel Codorniu [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences (InSTEC), Havana 10400 (Cuba); Mikosch, Hans [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/E164-EC, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Hernández, Mayra P., E-mail: mayrap@imre.oc.uh.cu [Instituto de Ciencias y Tecnologías de Materiales (IMRE), Havana 10400 (Cuba)

    2014-07-28

    Experimental scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies have shown for more than two decades rectangular formations when sulfur atoms are deposited on Au(111) surfaces. The precursors have ranged from simple molecules or ions, such as SO{sub 2} gas or sulfide anions, to more complex organosulfur compounds. We investigated, within the framework of the Density Functional Theory, the structure of these rectangular patterns assuming them entirely composed of sulfur atoms as the experimental evidence suggests. The sulfur coverage at which the simulations were carried out (0.67 ML or higher) provoked that the sulfur-sulfur association had to be taken into account for achieving a good agreement between the sets of simulated and experimental STM images. A combination of four sulfur dimers per rectangular formation properly explained the trends obtained by the experimental STM analysis which were related with the rectangles' size and shape fluctuations together with sulfur-sulfur distances within these rectangles. Finally, a projected density of states analysis showed that the dimers were capable of altering the Au(5d) electronic states at the same level as atomic sulfur adsorbed at low coverage. Besides, sulfur dimers states were perfectly distinguished, whose presence near and above the Fermi level can explain both: sulfur-sulfur bond elongation and dimers stability when they stayed adsorbed on the surface at high coverage.

  9. Numerical investigation of the energy performance of an Opaque Ventilated Façade system employing a smart modular heat recovery unit and a latent heat thermal energy system

    Diallo, Thierno M.O.; Zhao, Xudong; Dugue, Antoine; Bonnamy, Paul; Javier Miguel, Francisco; Martinez, Asier; Theodosiou, Theodoros; Liu, Jing-Sheng; Brown, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An innovative E2VENT ventilated façade system is presented and modelled with TRNSYS. •The energy efficiency of the system is assessed for five climates in Europe. •The E2VENT retrofitting system is compared with a traditional retrofit method. •The E2VENT system achieves 16.5–23.5% primary energy saving. •The E2VENT system saves twice as much primary energy as the traditional retrofit. -- Abstract: The building sector is responsible for more than 40% of the EU’s total energy consumption. To reduce the energy consumption in buildings and to achieve the EU’s fossil fuel saving targets for 2020 and beyond 2050, the energy efficient retrofitting strategies are critically important and need to be implemented effectively. This paper presents a dynamic numerical investigation of the energy performance of an innovative façade integrate-able energy efficient ventilation system (E2VENT) that incorporates a smart modular heat recovery unit (SMHRU) and a latent heat thermal energy system (LHTES). A number of component simulation models, including SMHRU, LHTES, Cladding and Building Energy Management System (BEMS), were developed and then integrated using the TRNSYS software which is an advanced building energy performance simulation tool. On this basis, sizing, optimisation and characterisation of the system elements including the HVAC system and insulation layer thickness were carried out. The overall energy efficiency of the E2VENT system and its impact on the energy performance of a post-retrofit building were then investigated. In particular, the heating and cooling energy performance of the E2VENT façade module was numerically studied at five different climatic conditions in Europe. Furthermore, the innovative E2VENT retrofitting was compared with traditional retrofittings in terms of the energy efficiency and primary energy savings. It was found that the innovative E2VENT solution can achieve 16.5–23.5% building primary energy saving and

  10. Experiments on contrail formation from fuels with different sulfur content

    Busen, R; Kuhn, M; Petzold, A; Schroeder, F; Schumann, U [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Baumgardner, D [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Borrmann, S [Mainz Univ. (Germany); Hagen, D; Whitefield, Ph [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Bureau of Mines; Stroem, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    A series of both flight tests and ground experiments has been performed to evaluate the role of the sulfur contained in kerosene in condensation trail (contrail) formation processes. The results of the first experiments are compiled briefly. The last SULFUR 4 experiment dealing with the influence of the fuel sulfur content and different appertaining conditions is described in detail. Different sulfur mass fractions lead to different particle size spectra. The number of ice particles in the contrail increases by about a factor of 2 for 3000 ppm instead of 6 ppm sulfur fuel content. (author) 10 refs.

  11. Experiments on contrail formation from fuels with different sulfur content

    Busen, R.; Kuhn, M.; Petzold, A.; Schroeder, F.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Baumgardner, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Borrmann, S. [Mainz Univ. (Germany); Hagen, D.; Whitefield, Ph. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Bureau of Mines; Stroem, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    A series of both flight tests and ground experiments has been performed to evaluate the role of the sulfur contained in kerosene in condensation trail (contrail) formation processes. The results of the first experiments are compiled briefly. The last SULFUR 4 experiment dealing with the influence of the fuel sulfur content and different appertaining conditions is described in detail. Different sulfur mass fractions lead to different particle size spectra. The number of ice particles in the contrail increases by about a factor of 2 for 3000 ppm instead of 6 ppm sulfur fuel content. (author) 10 refs.

  12. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    ... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  13. Water Recovery Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is advancing environmental control and life support systems water recovery technologies to support human exploration beyond low...

  14. EPA Recovery Mapper

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  15. Strontium-90 and promethium-147 recovery

    Hoisington, J.E.; McDonell, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and promethium-147 are fission product radionuclides with potential for use as heat source materials in high reliability, non-interruptible power supplies. Interest has recently been expressed in their utilization for Department of Defense (DOD) applications. This memorandum summarizes the current inventories, the annual production rates, and the possible recovery of Sr-90 and Pm-147 from nuclear materials production operations at Hanford and Savannah River. Recovery of these isotopes from LWR spend fuel utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP) is also considered. Unit recovery costs at each site are provided

  16. Sulfur-binding in recent environments: II. Speciation of sulfur and iron and implications for the occurrence of organo-sulfur compounds

    Hartgers, Walter A.; Lòpez, Jordi F.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Reiss, Christine; Maxwell, James R.; Grimalt, Joan O.

    1997-11-01

    Speciation of iron and sulfur species was determined for two recent sediments (La Trinitat and Lake Cisó) which were deposited in environments with a high biological productivity and sulfate-reducing activity. In sediments from calcite ponds of La Trinitat an excess of reactive iron species (iron monosulfides, iron hydroxides) results in a depletion of reactive sulfur which is accompanied by a virtual absence of organo-sulfur compounds, both in low (LMW) and high molecular-weight (HMW) fractions. Small amounts of phytanyl and highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) thiophenes in the extract demonstrate that these molecules exhibit a higher reactivity towards reduced sulfur species as compared to detrital iron. Euxinic sediments from Lake Cisó are characterised by an excess of reduced sulfur species which can rapidly trap reactive iron. High concentrations of H 2S results in the formation of organo-sulfur compounds which were encountered in both LMW and HMW fractions. The major part of the organic sulfur is bound to the carbohydrate portion of woody tissues, whose presence was revealed by a specific alkylthiophene distribution in the flash pyrolysate and by Li/EtNH 2 desulfurisation of the kerogen which resulted in the solubilisation of the sulfur-enriched hemicellulose fraction. Relatively high amounts of sulfurised C 25 HBI compounds in the sediment extract of Lake Cisó reflect the incorporation of sulfur into algal derived organic matter upon early diagenesis. The combined approach of the speciation of iron and sulfur species and the molecular analysis of sedimentary fractions demonstrates that abiotic sulfur binding to organic matter occurs at the earliest stages of diagenesis under specific depositional conditions (anoxic, stratified water column) in which an excess of reduced sulfur species relative to the amount of reactive iron is a controlling factor.

  17. Recovery from mental illness

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  18. Improving sample recovery

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the tasks, i.e., tests, studies, external support and modifications planned to increase the recovery of the recovery of the waste tank contents using combinations of improved techniques, equipment, knowledge, experience and testing to better the recovery rates presently being experienced

  19. Sulfur containing nanoporous materials, nanoparticles, methods and applications

    Archer, Lynden A.; Navaneedhakrishnan, Jayaprakash

    2018-01-30

    Sulfur containing nanoparticles that may be used within cathode electrodes within lithium ion batteries include in a first instance porous carbon shape materials (i.e., either nanoparticle shapes or "bulk" shapes that are subsequently ground to nanoparticle shapes) that are infused with a sulfur material. A synthetic route to these carbon and sulfur containing nanoparticles may use a template nanoparticle to form a hollow carbon shape shell, and subsequent dissolution of the template nanoparticle prior to infusion of the hollow carbon shape shell with a sulfur material. Sulfur infusion into other porous carbon shapes that are not hollow is also contemplated. A second type of sulfur containing nanoparticle includes a metal oxide material core upon which is located a shell layer that includes a vulcanized polymultiene polymer material and ion conducting polymer material. The foregoing sulfur containing nanoparticle materials provide the electrodes and lithium ion batteries with enhanced performance.

  20. Flow injection gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection for the analysis of total sulfur in complex hydrocarbon matrixes.

    Hua, Yujuan; Hawryluk, Myron; Gras, Ronda; Shearer, Randall; Luong, Jim

    2018-01-01

    A fast and reliable analytical technique for the determination of total sulfur levels in complex hydrocarbon matrices is introduced. The method employed flow injection technique using a gas chromatograph as a sample introduction device and a gas phase dual-plasma sulfur chemiluminescence detector for sulfur quantification. Using the technique described, total sulfur measurement in challenging hydrocarbon matrices can be achieved in less than 10 s with sample-to-sample time ideal for fast analysis or trace sulfur analysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Layered sulfur/PEDOT:PSS nano composite electrodes for lithium sulfur cell applications

    Anilkumar, K. M.; Jinisha, B.; Manoj, M.; Pradeep, V. S.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2018-06-01

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) cells are emerging as the next generation energy storage devices owing to their impressive electrochemical properties with high theoretical specific capacity of 1675 mAh/g. Lack of electronic conductivity of sulfur, its volume expansion during high lithium intake and the shuttling effect due to the formation of soluble polysulfides are the main limitations, delaying the commercialization of this technology. To address these challenges, in the present work, the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS is used as the covering matrix over the sulfur particles to improve their Li storage properties. The sulfur/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite is synthesised using the hydrothermal process and its formation with the polymer coating over sulfur nanoparticles is established from the XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FE-SEM and TEM studies. The electrochemical studies show that the cells assembled using the sulfur/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite as the cathode, with the components taken in the weight ratio of 9:1, offer a reversible capacity of 1191 mAh g-1 at 0.1C rate. These cells display stable electrochemical capacities over 200 cycles at gradually increasing current rates. The polymer layer facilitates electronic conduction and suppresses the polysulfide formation and the volume expansion of sulfur. A reversible capacity of 664 mAh g-1 is observed after 200 cycles at 1C rate with the capacity retention of 75 % of the initial stable capacity. The highlight of the present work is the possibility to achieve high discharge capacities at high C rates and the retention of a good percentage of the initial capacity over 200 cycles, for these Li-S cells.

  2. Inhalation and Percutaneous Toxicokinetics of Sulfur Mustard and Its Adducts in Hairless Guinea Pigs and Marmosets. Efficacy of Naval Scavengers

    2005-08-01

    activity ca. 40 units/mg protein) from Boehringer (Mannheim, Germany); RNase A, and Tween 20 from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA); and skimmed milk ...al. 1997). This hypothesis is still awaiting falsification . Measurement of the concentration-time course of the adduct of sulfur mustard to hemoglobin

  3. Acid Tar Lagoons: Management and Recovery

    Bohers, Anna; Hroncová, Emília; Ladomerský, Juraj

    2017-04-01

    This contribution presents the issue with possibility of definitive removal of dangerous environmental burden in Slovakia - serious historical problem of two acid tar lagoons. In relation to their removal, no technology has been found so far - technologically and economically suitable, what caused problems with its management. Locality Predajná is well known in Slovakia by its character of contrasts: it is situated in the picturesque landscape of National Park buffer zone of Nízke Tatry, on the other site it is contaminated by 229 211m3 of acid tar with its characteristics of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity and toxicity especially for animals and plants. Acid tar in two landfills with depth of 1m in case of the first lagoon and 9,5m in case of the second lagoon is a waste product derived from operation of Petrochema Dubová - refinery and petrochemical plant whose activity was to process the crude oil through processes of sulfonation and adsorption technology for producing lubricating and special oils, synthetic detergents and special white oils for cosmetic and medical purposes. A part of acid tar was incinerated in two incineration plats. Concentration of SO2 in combustion gases was too high and it was not possible to decrease it under the value of 2000 mg.mn-3 [LADOMERSKÝ, J. - SAMEŠOVÁ, D.: Reduction in sulfur dioxide emissions waste gases of incineration plant. Acta facultatis ecologiae. 1999, p. 217-223]. That is why it was necessary to put them out of operation. Later, because of public opposition it was not possible to build a new incineration plat corresponding to the state of the art. Even though actual Slovak and European legislative for protection of environment against such impacts, neither of tried methods - bio or non-biologic treatment methods - was proved as suitable for processing or for recovery in the reason of different factors admission: i.e. strong aggressivity, difficulty with handling because of its sludgy and

  4. Solvent extraction of elemental sulfur from coal and a determination of its source using stable sulfur isotopes

    Hackley, K.C.; Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.; Chaven, C.; Kruse, C.W. (Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL (USA). Chemistry Dept.)

    1990-01-01

    Hot tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylen PCE) extracts significant amounts of elemental sulfur (S{sup o}) from weathered coals but not from pristine coals. The objective of this study was to determine whether S{sup o} extracted by PCE is an oxidation product of pyrite or whether it originates in some way from unstable, organically-bound sulfur. The isotopic composition of the PCE-extracted S{sup o} was compared to the isotopic compositions of the pyritic and the organic sulfur in a coal. The S{sup o} was shown to have an isotopic signature similar to the pyritic sulfur. Additionally, the isotopic differences observed between the pyritic, S{sup o} and sulfatic sulfur were consistent with bacterial mediated oxidation of sulfide sulfur (pyrite) as the source of both the sulfatic and elemental sulfur. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Solvent extraction of elemental sulfur from coal and a determination of its source using stable sulfur isotopes

    Hackley, Keith C.; Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.; Chaven, C.; Kruse, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Hot tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylene, PCE) extracts significant amounts of elemental sulfur (So) from weathered coals but not from pristine coals. The objective of this study was to determine whether So extracted by PCE is an oxidation product of pyrite or whether it originates in some way from unstable, organically-bound sulfur. The isotopic composition of the PCE-extracted So was compared to the isotopic compositions of the pyritic and the organic sulfur in a coal. The So was shown to have an isotopic signature similar to the pyritic sulfur. Additionally, the isotopic differences observed between the pyritic, So and sulfatic sulfur were consistent with bacterial mediated oxidation of sulfide sulfur (pyrite) as the source of both the sulfatic and elemental sulfur. ?? 1990.

  6. Sulfur dioxide: foe or friend for life?

    Wang, Xin-Bao; Cui, Hong; Liu, Xiaohong; Du, Jun-Bao

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is a toxic gas and air pollutant. The toxic effects of SO₂ have been extensively studied. Oxidative damage due to SO₂ can occur in multiple organs. Inhaled SO₂ can also cause chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage and gene mutations in mammals. However, SO₂ can also be generated from the sulfur-containing amino acid, L-cysteine. Recent studies have shown that SO₂ has a vasorelaxant effect, and ameliorates pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. SO₂ can also reduce lung injury and myocardial injury in rats. In addition, SO₂ reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, SO₂ exerts both detrimental and protective effects in mammals. Is SO₂ a foe or friend for life?.

  7. Volatile sulfur compounds in tropical fruits

    Robert J. Cannon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global production and demand for tropical fruits continues to grow each year as consumers are enticed by the exotic flavors and potential health benefits that these fruits possess. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs are often responsible for the juicy, fresh aroma of tropical fruits. This poses a challenge for analytical chemists to identify these compounds as most often VSCs are found at low concentrations in most tropical fruits. The aim of this review is to discuss the extraction methods, enrichment techniques, and instrumentation utilized to identify and quantify VSCs in natural products. This will be followed by a discussion of the VSCs reported in tropical and subtropical fruits, with particular attention to the odor and taste attributes of each compound. Finally, the biogenesis and enzymatic formation of specific VSCs in tropical fruits will be highlighted along with the contribution each possesses to the aroma of their respective fruit. Keywords: Tropical fruits, Volatile sulfur compounds, Extraction methods

  8. Mixed total screening for sulfur isotope

    Cui Bin; Zhao Lei; Zhan Zhaoyang; He Zhijun

    2003-01-01

    The research on modern economic geology indicates that most ore deposits formed with characters of multi-origin, multi-stage and multi-genesis. Quantificational research of Sulfur isotope origin is a difficult problem that puzzles Geochemists all along. So the formation process of an ore deposit can be taken as the mix or the superposition of multi totals, which can be described by the mathematics model of mixed total screening. In the study of mid-down Yangtze River and Dongpo ore field in Hunan province, the authors successfully applied the mathematics model of mixed total screening, quantificationally resolved the problem of Sulfur isotope origin and mineralizing matter origin, and found out the mineralizing mechanism. This is very valuable. (authors)

  9. Global Sulfur Emissions in the 1990s

    David I. Stern

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides global and individual country estimates of sulfur emissions from 1991-2000. Raw estimates are obtained in two ways. For countries and years with published data I compile that data from the available sources. For the remaining countries and for missing years for countries with some published data, I use either the decomposition model estimated by Stern (2002), the first differences environmental Kuznets curve model estimated by Stern and Common (2001), or a simple extrapola...

  10. Titanium leaching from red mud by diluted sulfuric acid at atmospheric pressure

    Agatzini-Leonardou, S.; Oustadakis, P.; Tsakiridis, P.E.; Markopoulos, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-scale research has focused on the recovery of titanium from red mud, which is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production. The leaching process is based on the extraction of this element with diluted sulfuric acid from red mud under atmospheric conditions and without using any preliminary treatment. Statistical design and analysis of experiments were used, in order to determine the main effects and interactions of the leaching process factors, which were: acid normality, temperature and solid to liquid ratio. The titanium recovery efficiency on the basis of red mud weight reached 64.5%. The characterization of the initial red mud, as well as this of the leached residues was carried out by X-ray diffraction, TG-DTA and scanning electron microscopy

  11. Membrane Assisted Simultaneous Extraction and Derivatization with Triphenylphosphine of Elemental Sulfur in Arabian Crude Samples by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Ibrahim Al-Zahrani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of trace level elemental sulfur from crude oil samples is a tedious task. Recently, several gas chromatographic methods were reported in which selective triphenylphosphine derivatization of sulfur was used to form triphenylphosphine sulfide. Direct quantitation of elemental sulfur from crude oil requires an efficient sample preparation method. This paper describes how simultaneous extraction derivatization of elemental sulfur was performed for the first time using porous hollow fiber membrane. A thick (0.25 um pore size; 1550 μm wall thickness; and 5500 μm inner diameter hollow fiber membrane filled with triphenylphosphine (dissolved N-methylpyrrolidone is used as a solvent bar. The solvent bar is tumbled freely in the crude oil sample; the elemental sulfur was extracted and derivatized. Finally, the derivatized sulfur was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Various experimental conditions of solvent bar microextraction (SBME were optimized to achieve higher extraction. The linear range was established between 1 and 50 μg/mL, while a squared regression coefficient was found to be 0.9959 μg/mL. Relative standard deviation (RSD was below 10%. Relative recoveries were calculated for SBME in crude oil samples and were in the range between 98.2% and 101.2%.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide oxidation by a microbial consortium in a recirculation reactor system: sulfur formation under oxygen limitation and removal of phenols.

    Alcantara, Sergio; Velasco, Antonio; Muñoz, Ana; Cid, Juan; Revah, Sergio; Razo-Flores, Elías

    2004-02-01

    Wastewater from petroleum refining may contain a number of undesirable contaminants including sulfides, phenolic compounds, and ammonia. The concentrations of these compounds must be reduced to acceptable levels before discharge. Sulfur formation and the effect of selected phenolic compounds on the sulfide oxidation were studied in autotrophic aerobic cultures. A recirculation reactor system was implemented to improve the elemental sulfur recovery. The relation between oxygen and sulfide was determined calculating the O2/S2- loading rates (Q(O2)/Q(S)2- = Rmt), which adequately defined the operation conditions to control the sulfide oxidation. Sulfur-producing steady states were achieved at Rmt ranging from 0.5 to 1.5. The maximum sulfur formation occurred at Rmt of 0.5 where 85% of the total sulfur added to the reactor as sulfide was transformed to elemental sulfur and 90% of it was recovered from the bottom of the reactor. Sulfide was completely oxidized to sulfate (Rmt of 2) in a stirred tank reactor, even when a mixture of phenolic compounds was present in the medium. Microcosm experiments showed that carbon dioxide production increased in the presence of the phenols, suggesting that these compounds were oxidized and that they may have been used as carbon and energy source by heterotrophic microorganisms present in the consortium.

  13. Comparative analysis of the mechanisms of sulfur anion oxidation and reduction by dsr operon to maintain environmental sulfur balance.

    Ghosh, Semanti; Bagchi, Angshuman

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur metabolism is one of the oldest known redox geochemical cycles in our atmosphere. These redox processes utilize different sulfur anions and the reactions are performed by the gene products of dsr operon from phylogenetically diverse sets of microorganisms. The operon is involved in the maintenance of environmental sulfur balance. Interestingly, the dsr operon is found to be present in both sulfur anion oxidizing and reducing microorganisms and in both types of organisms DsrAB protein complex plays a vital role. Though there are various reports regarding the genetics of dsr operon there are practically no reports dealing with the structural aspects of sulfur metabolism by dsr operon. In our present study, we tried to compare the mechanisms of sulfur anion oxidation and reduction by Allochromatium vinosum and Desulfovibrio vulgaris respectively through DsrAB protein complex. We analyzed the modes of bindings of sulfur anions to the DsrAB protein complex and observed that for sulfur anion oxidizers, sulfide and thiosulfate are the best substrates whereas for reducers sulfate and sulfite have the best binding abilities. We analyzed the binding interaction pattern of the DsrA and DsrB proteins while forming the DsrAB protein complexes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Allochromatium vinosum. To our knowledge this is the first report that analyzes the differences in binding patterns of sulfur substrates with DsrAB protein from these two microorganisms. This study would therefore be essential to predict the biochemical mechanism of sulfur anion oxidation and reduction by these two microorganisms i.e., Desulfovibrio vulgaris (sulfur anion reducer) and Allochromatium vinosum (sulfur anion oxidizer). Our observations also highlight the mechanism of sulfur geochemical cycle which has important implications in future study of sulfur metabolism as it has a huge application in waste remediation and production of industrial bio-products viz. vitamins, bio-polyesters and bio

  14. A composite of hollow carbon nanospheres and sulfur-rich polymers for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Zeng, Shao-Zhong; Yao, Yuechao; Zeng, Xierong; He, Qianjun; Zheng, Xianfeng; Chen, Shuangshuang; Tu, Wenxuan; Zou, Jizhao

    2017-07-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are the most promising candidates for future high-energy applications because of the unparalleled capacity of sulfur (1675 mAh g-1). However, lithium-sulfur batteries have limited cycle life and rate capability due to the dissolution of polysulfides and the extremely low electronic conductivity of sulfur. To solve these issues, various porous carbons including hollow carbon nanospheres (HCNs) have been used for improving the conductivity. However, these methods still suffer from polysulfides dissolution/loss owing to their weak physical adsorption to polysulfides. Herein, we introduced a covalent grafting route to composite the HCNs and the vulcanized trithiocyanuric acid (TTCA). The composite exhibits a high loading of the vulcanized TTCA by the HCNs with high surface area and large pore volume, and covalent bonds to sulfur, effectively depressing the dissolution of polysulfides. The first discharge capacity of the composite reaches 1430 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 1227 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C.

  15. Improved Cyclability of Liquid Electrolyte Lithium/Sulfur Batteries by Optimizing Electrolyte/Sulfur Ratio

    Sheng S. Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S cell is a liquid electrochemical system. In discharge, sulfur is first reduced to highly soluble Li2S8, which dissolves into the organic electrolyte and serves as the liquid cathode. In solution, lithium polysulfide (PS undergoes a series of complicated disproportionations, whose chemical equilibriums vary with the PS concentration and affect the cell’s performance. Since the PS concentration relates to a certain electrolyte/sulfur (E/S ratio, there is an optimized E/S ratio for the cyclability of each Li/S cell system. In this work, we study the optimized E/S ratio by measuring the cycling performance of Li/S cells, and propose an empirical method for determination of the optimized E/S ratio. By employing an electrolyte of 0.25 m LiSO3CF3-0.25 m LiNO3 dissolved in a 1:1 (wt:wt mixture of dimethyl ether (DME and 1,3-dioxolane (DOL in an optimized E/S ratio, we show that the Li/S cell with a cathode containing 72% sulfur and 2 mg cm−2 sulfur loading is able to retain a specific capacity of 780 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 mA cm−2 between 1.7 V and 2.8 V.

  16. Formation of CuxS Layers on Polypropylene Sulfurized by Molten Sulfur

    Rasa ALABURDAITĖ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of formation of electrically conductive layers of copper sulfides CuxS by the sorption-diffusion method on polypropylene (PP using molten sulfur as sulfurizing agent was investigated. The amount of sorbed sulfur increased with the increase of the duration of treatment. Copper sulfide layers were formed on the surface of polypropylene after the treatment of sulfurized polymer with Cu(II/I salt solution. The amount of copper sulfide in layer increased with the increase of treatment duration in copper salt solution. XRD spectra of PP films treated for 3 min with molten sulfur and then with Cu(II/I salt solution for the different time showed that the copper sulfide phases, mostly digenite, Cu2-xS and a-chalcocite, Cu2S were formed in the layers. Electromotive force measurement results confirmed the composition of formed CuxS layers on PP. The phase composition of layers also changed after the annealing. The value of electrical resistance of copper sulfide layers on PP varied from 20 W/cm2 to 80 W/cm2 and after annealing at 80 °C - in the interval of 10 W/cm2 - 60 W/cm2.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.776

  17. Biomimetic Ant-Nest Electrode Structures for High Sulfur Ratio Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Ai, Guo; Dai, Yiling; Mao, Wenfeng; Zhao, Hui; Fu, Yanbao; Song, Xiangyun; En, Yunfei; Battaglia, Vincent S; Srinivasan, Venkat; Liu, Gao

    2016-09-14

    The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) rechargeable battery has the benefit of high gravimetric energy density and low cost. Significant research currently focuses on increasing the sulfur loading and sulfur/inactive-materials ratio, to improve life and capacity. Inspired by nature's ant-nest structure, this research results in a novel Li-S electrode that is designed to meet both goals. With only three simple manufacturing-friendly steps, which include slurry ball-milling, doctor-blade-based laminate casting, and the use of the sacrificial method with water to dissolve away table salt, the ant-nest design has been successfully recreated in an Li-S electrode. The efficient capabilities of the ant-nest structure are adopted to facilitate fast ion transportation, sustain polysulfide dissolution, and assist efficient precipitation. High cycling stability in the Li-S batteries, for practical applications, has been achieved with up to 3 mg·cm(-2) sulfur loading. Li-S electrodes with up to a 85% sulfur ratio have also been achieved for the efficient design of this novel ant-nest structure.

  18. Growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans on elemental sulfur

    Espejo, R.T.; Romero, P.

    1987-01-01

    Growth kinetics of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in batch cultures, containing prills of elementary sulfur as the sole energy source, were studied by measuring the incorporation of radioactive phosphorus in free and adsorbed bacteria. The data obtained indicate an initial exponential growth of the attached bacteria until saturation of the susceptible surface was reached, followed by a linear release of free bacteria due to successive replication of a constant number of adsorbed bacteria. These adsorbed bacteria could continue replication provided the colonized prills were transferred to fresh medium each time the stationary phase was reached. The bacteria released from the prills were unable to multiply, and in the medium employed they lost viability with a half-live of 3.5 days. The spreading of the progeny on the surface was followed by staining the bacteria on the prills with crystal violet; this spreading was not uniform but seemed to proceed through distortions present in the surface. The specific growth rate of T. ferrooxidans ATCC 19859 was about 0.5 day -1 , both before and after saturation of the sulfur surface. The growth of adsorbed and free bacteria in medium containing both ferrous iron and elementary sulfur indicated that T. ferrooxidans can simultaneously utilize both energy sources

  19. Biological effects data: Fluoride and sulfur dioxide

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Holton, R.L.; Ulbricht, R.J.; Morgan , J.B.

    1975-04-01

    The Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation has proposed construction of an aluminum reduction facility near Youngs Bay at Warrenton, Oregon. This report comprises one part of the final report to Alumax on a research project entitled, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies of Youngs Bay.'' It presents data pertaining to the potential biological effects of fluoride and sulfur dioxide, two potentially hazardous plant-stack emissions, on selected aquatic species of the area. Companion volumes provide a description of the physical characteristics the geochemistry, and the aquatic animals present in Youngs Bay and adjacent ecosystems. An introductory volume provides general information and maps of the area, and summarizes the conclusions of all four studies. The data from the two phases of the experimental program are included in this report: lethal studies on the effects of selected levels of fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the survival rate of eleven Youngs Bay faunal species from four phyla, and sublethal studies on the effects of fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the rate of primary production of phytoplankton. 44 refs., 18 figs., 38 tabs.

  20. Sulfur status in long distance runners

    Kovacs, L; Zamboni, C; Lourenço, T; Macedo, D

    2015-01-01

    In sports medicine, sulfur plays an important role and its deficiency can cause muscle injury affecting the performance of the athletes. However, its evaluation is unusual in conventional clinical practice. In this study the sulfur levels were determined in Brazilian amateur athlete's blood using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. Twenty six male amateur runners, age 18 to 36 years, participated of this study. The athletes had a balanced diet, without multivitamin/mineral supplements. The blood collection was performed at LABEX (Laboratoriode Bioquimica do Exercicio, UNICAMP-SP) and the samples were irradiated for 300 seconds in a pneumatic station in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 3-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP. The results were compared with the control group (subjects of same age but not involved with physical activities) and showed that the sulfur concentration was 44% higher in amateurs athletes than control group. These data can be considered for preparation of balanced diet, as well as contributing for proposing new protocols of clinical evaluation. (paper)

  1. Sulfur status in long distance runners

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C.; Lourenço, T.; Macedo, D.

    2015-07-01

    In sports medicine, sulfur plays an important role and its deficiency can cause muscle injury affecting the performance of the athletes. However, its evaluation is unusual in conventional clinical practice. In this study the sulfur levels were determined in Brazilian amateur athlete's blood using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. Twenty six male amateur runners, age 18 to 36 years, participated of this study. The athletes had a balanced diet, without multivitamin/mineral supplements. The blood collection was performed at LABEX (Laboratoriode Bioquimica do Exercicio, UNICAMP-SP) and the samples were irradiated for 300 seconds in a pneumatic station in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 3-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP. The results were compared with the control group (subjects of same age but not involved with physical activities) and showed that the sulfur concentration was 44% higher in amateurs athletes than control group. These data can be considered for preparation of balanced diet, as well as contributing for proposing new protocols of clinical evaluation.

  2. Sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings

    Warren, Lesley; Stephenson, Kate [Earth Sciences, McMaster University (Canada)], email: warrenl@mcmaster.ca; Penner, Tara [Syncrude Environmental Research (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings (CT). The Government of Alberta is accelerating reclamation activities on composite tailings. As a CT pilot reclamation operation, Syncrude is currently constructing the first freshwater fen. Minor unpredicted incidents with H2S gas released from the dewatering process associated with these reclamations have been reported. The objective of this study is to ascertain the connection between microbial activity and H2S generation within CT and to assess the sulfur biogeochemistry of untreated and treated (fen) CT over seasonal and annual timescales. The microbial geochemical interactions taking place are shown using a flow chart. CT is composed of gypsum, sand, clay and organics like naphthenic acids and bitumen. Sulfur and Fe cycling in mining systems and their microbial activities are presented. The chemistry and the processes involved within CT are also given along with the results. It can be said that the diverse Fe and S metabolizing microorganisms confirm the ecology involved in H2S dynamics.

  3. Action of sulfurous oxide on plants

    Schroeder, J

    1873-01-01

    In order to ascertain which trees best withstand the action of sulfurous oxide, and are, therefore, best suited for planting in neighborhoods where this gas is given off, young trees of various kinds growing in the open ground, were exposed under glass shades to air containing quantities of sulfurous oxide, varying from 1/10,000 to 1/70,000, under circumstances most favorable to its action, viz., in direct sunlight and after having been watered. The sensitiveness of the leaves was carefully noticed, and also the power which the trees possessed of compensating for injury by the reproduction of leaves; this was found to vary considerably in different trees, as did also the resisting power in the first case. Alder, sycamore, ash, and especially maple, are recommended for growth where exposed to smoke containing sulfurous oxide; next follow birch, hornbeam, and oak, and last, beech. The pines did not give constant results, but in nature they suffer more than other trees, and this is owing to the fact that, although their sensitiveness at first is less than that of other trees, their power of restoring lost leaves is much less.

  4. Global sulfur emissions from 1850 to 2000.

    Stern, David I

    2005-01-01

    The ASL database provides continuous time-series of sulfur emissions for most countries in the World from 1850 to 1990, but academic and official estimates for the 1990s either do not cover all years or countries. This paper develops continuous time series of sulfur emissions by country for the period 1850-2000 with a particular focus on developments in the 1990s. Global estimates for 1996-2000 are the first that are based on actual observed data. Raw estimates are obtained in two ways. For countries and years with existing published data I compile and integrate that data. Previously published data covers the majority of emissions and almost all countries have published emissions for at least 1995. For the remaining countries and for missing years for countries with some published data, I interpolate or extrapolate estimates using either an econometric emissions frontier model, an environmental Kuznets curve model, or a simple extrapolation, depending on the availability of data. Finally, I discuss the main movements in global and regional emissions in the 1990s and earlier decades and compare the results to other studies. Global emissions peaked in 1989 and declined rapidly thereafter. The locus of emissions shifted towards East and South Asia, but even this region peaked in 1996. My estimates for the 1990s show a much more rapid decline than other global studies, reflecting the view that technological progress in reducing sulfur based pollution has been rapid and is beginning to diffuse worldwide.

  5. Surviving ICU: Stories of recovery.

    Ewens, Beverley A; Hendricks, Joyce M; Sundin, Deborah

    2018-02-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate stories of recovery through the lens of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Survival from ICUs is increasing, as are associated physical and psychological complications. Despite the significant impact on survivors, there is inadequate support provision in Australia and world-wide for this population. An interpretive biographical approach of intensive care survivors' experiences of recovery. Data were collected during 2014-2015 from diaries, face to face interviews, memos and field notes. Six participants diarized for 3 months commencing 2 months after hospital discharge. At 5 months, participants were interviewed about the content of their diaries and symbols and signifiers in them to create a shared meaning. Analysis of diaries and interviews were undertaken using two frameworks to identify themes throughout participants' stories and provides a unique portrait of recovery through their individual lens. Participants considered their lives had irreparably changed and yet felt unsupported by a healthcare system that had "saved" them. This view through their lens identified turmoil, which existed between their surface and inner worlds as they struggled to conform to what recovery "should be". The novel biographical methods provided a safe and creative way to reveal survivors' inner thoughts and feelings. Participants' considered creating their stories supported their recovery process and in particular enabled them to reflect on their progress. Findings from this study may lead to increased awareness among health care providers about problems survivors face and improved support services more broadly, based on frameworks appropriate for this population. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. In situ tribochemical sulfurization of molybdenum oxide nanotubes.

    Rodríguez Ripoll, Manel; Tomala, Agnieszka; Gabler, Christoph; DraŽić, Goran; Pirker, Luka; Remškar, Maja

    2018-02-15

    MoS 2 nanoparticles are typically obtained by high temperature sulfurization of organic and inorganic precursors under a S rich atmosphere and have excellent friction reduction properties. We present a novel approach for making the sulfurization unnecessary for MoO 3 nanotubes during the synthesis process for friction and wear reduction applications while simultaneously achieving a superb tribological performance. To this end, we report the first in situ sulfurization of MoO 3 nanotubes during sliding contact in the presence of sulfur-containing lubricant additives. The sulfurization leads to the tribo-chemical formation of a MoS 2 -rich low-friction tribofilm as verified using Raman spectroscopy and can be achieved both during sliding contact and under extreme pressure conditions. Under sliding contact conditions, MoO 3 nanotubes in synergy with sulfurized olefin polysulfide and pre-formed zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate tribofilms achieve an excellent friction performance. Under these conditions, the tribochemical sulfurization of MoO 3 nanotubes leads to a similar coefficient of friction to the one obtained using a model nanolubricant containing MoS 2 nanotubes. Under extreme pressure conditions, the in situ sulfurization of MoO 3 nanotubes using sulfurized olefin polysulfide results in a superb load carrying capacity capable of outperforming MoS 2 nanotubes. The reason is that while MoO 3 nanotubes are able to continuously sulfurize during sliding contact conditions, MoS 2 nanotubes progressively degrade by oxidation thus losing lubricity.

  7. The analysis of thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composite

    Książek, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Specific chemical environments step out in the industry objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated by using the special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot was applied as the industrial waste. Portland cement composites were made of the same aggregate, cement and water. The process of special polymer sulfur composite applied as the industrial waste is a thermal treatment process in the temperature of about 150-155°C. The result of such treatment is special polymer sulfur composite in a liquid state. This paper presents the plastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of special polymer sulfur composites, with isotropic porous matrix, reinforced by disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions with orthotropic symmetry of the thermoplastic properties. The investigations are based on the stochastic differential equations of solid mechanics. A model and algorithm for calculating the effective characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites are suggested. The effective thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites, with disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions, are calculated in two stages: First, the properties of materials with oriented inclusions are determined, and then effective constants of a composite with disoriented inclusions are determined on the basis of the Voigt or Rice scheme. A brief summary of new products related to special polymer sulfur composites is given as follows: Impregnation, repair, overlays and precast polymer concrete will be presented. Special polymer sulfur as polymer coating impregnation, which has received little attention in recent years, currently has some very interesting applications.

  8. Transformation of sulfur during pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of coal

    Chen, H.; Li, B.; Yang, J.; Zhang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Coal Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    It is reported that the transformation of sulfur during pyrolysis (Py) under nitrogen and hydropyrolysis (HyPy) of Chinese Yanzhou high sulfur bituminous coal and Hongmiao lignite was studied in a fixed-bed reactor. The volatile sulfur-containing products were determined by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. The sulfur in initial coal and char (mainly aliphatic and thiophenic sulfur forms) was quantitatively analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The desulfurization yield was calculated by elemental analysis. The main volatile sulfur-containing gas was H{sub 2}S in both Py and HyPy. Both the elemental analysis and XPS results indicated that more sulfur was removed in HyPy than in Py under nitrogen. Thiophenic sulfur can be partially hydrogenated and removed in HyPy. Pyrite can be reduced to a ferrous sulfide completely even as low as 400{degree}C in HyPy while in Py the reduction reaction continues up to 650{degree}C. Mineral matter can not only fix H{sub 2}S produced in Py and HyPy to form higher sulfur content chars but also catalyses the desulfurization reactions to form lower sulfur content tars in HyPy. 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Sulfur isotopes in coal constrain the evolution of the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Sulfate is the second most abundant anion (behind chloride) in modern seawater, and its cycling is intimately coupled to the cycling of organic matter and oxygen at the Earth’s surface. For example, the reduction of sulfide by microbes oxidizes vast amounts of organic carbon and the subsequent......, these compositions do not deviate substantially from the modern surface-water input to the oceans. When applied to mass balance models, these results support previous interpretations of sulfur cycle operation and counter recent suggestions that sulfate has been a minor player in sulfur cycling through...... reaction of sulfide with iron produces pyrite whose burial in sediments is an important oxygen source to the atmosphere. The concentrations of seawater sulfate and the operation of sulfur cycle have experienced dynamic changes through Earth’s history, and our understanding of this history is based mainly...

  10. Performance investigation of advanced adsorption desalination cycle with condenser-evaporator heat recovery scheme

    Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Youngdeuk; Myat, Aung; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Energy or heat recovery schemes are keys for the performance improvement of any heat-activated cycles such as the absorption and adsorption cycles. We present two innovative heat recovery schemes between the condensing and evaporating units

  11. Sandwich-like graphene-mesoporous carbon as sulfur host for enhanced lithium-sulfur batteries

    Tian, Ting; Li, Bin; Zhu, Mengqi; Liu, Jianhua; Li, Songmei

    2017-10-01

    Graphene-mesoporous carbon/sulfur composites (G-MPC/S) were constructed by melt-infiltration of sulfur into graphene-mesoporous carbon which was synthesized by soft template method. The SEM and BET results of the graphene-mesoporous carbon show that the as-prepared sandwich-like G-MPC composites with a unique microporous-mesoporous structure had a high specific surface area of 554.164 m2 · g-1 and an average pore size of about 13 nm. The XRD analysis presents the existence of orthorhombic sulfur in the G-MPC/S composite, which indicates the complete infiltration of sulfur into the pores of the G-MPC. When the graphene-mesoporous carbon/surfur composites (G-MPC/S) with 53.9 wt.% sulfur loading were used as the cathode for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, it exhibited an outstanding electrochemical performance including excellent initial discharge specific capacity of 1393 mAh · g-1 at 0.1 °C, high cycle stability (731 mAh · g-1 at 200 cycles) and good rate performance (1038 mAh · g-1, 770 mAh · g-1, 518 mAh · g-1 and 377 mAh · g-1 at 0.1 °C, 0.2 °C, 0.5 °C and 1 °C, respectively), which suggested the important role of the G-MPC composite in providing more electrons and ions channels, in addition, the shuttle effect caused by the dissolved polysulfide was also suppressed.

  12. Recovery boiler model; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe III

    Janka, K.; Ylitalo, M.; Sundstroem, K.; Helke, R.; Heinola, M. [Kvaerner Pulping Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The recovery boiler model was further tested and developed. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. During 1996 the formation of CH{sub 4} during pyrolysis and release of sulfur was included to the model. Further the formation of NO from fuel nitrogen and formation of thermal- NO were included to the model using Arrhenius type reaction rate equations. The calculated results are realistic and the model is used as a tool to find out methods to increase the efficiency and availability and decrease the emissions. Analysing the results of the earlier field study of 8 boilers showed that the furnace heat load, fuming rate, find the black liquor composition have influence on the enrichment of the potassium to the fly ash. (orig.)

  13. Attribution of atmospheric sulfur dioxide over the English Channel to dimethyl sulfide and changing ship emissions

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) was measured continuously from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) near Plymouth, United Kingdom, between May 2014 and November 2015. This coastal site is exposed to marine air across a wide wind sector. The predominant southwesterly winds carry relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, air from the southeast is heavily influenced by exhaust plumes from ships in the English Channel as well as near Plymouth Sound. A new International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulation came into force in January 2015 to reduce the maximum allowed sulfur content in ships' fuel 10-fold in sulfur emission control areas such as the English Channel. Our observations suggest a 3-fold reduction in ship-emitted SO2 from 2014 to 2015. Apparent fuel sulfur content calculated from coincidental SO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2) peaks from local ship plumes show a high level of compliance to the IMO regulation (> 95 %) in both years (˜ 70 % of ships in 2014 were already emitting at levels below the 2015 cap). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important source of atmospheric SO2 even in this semi-polluted region. The relative contribution of DMS oxidation to the SO2 burden over the English Channel increased from about one-third in 2014 to about one-half in 2015 due to the reduction in ship sulfur emissions. Our diel analysis suggests that SO2 is removed from the marine atmospheric boundary layer in about half a day, with dry deposition to the ocean accounting for a quarter of the total loss.

  14. Carbon/Sulfur Composite Cathodes for Flexible Lithium/Sulfur Batteries: Status and Prospects

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yongguang; Bakenova, Zagipa; Bakenov, Zhumabay

    2015-01-01

    High specific energy and low cost flexible lithium/sulfur batteries have attracted significant attention as a promising power source to enable future flexible and wearable electronic devices. Here, we review recent progress in the development of free-standing sulfur composite cathodes, with special emphasis on electrode material selectivity and battery structural design. The mini-review is organized based on the dimensionality of different scaffold materials, namely one-dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT), two-dimensional graphene, and three-dimensional CNT/graphene composite, respectively. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives of the future research directions are discussed.

  15. Sulfur concentration at sulfide saturation (SCSS) in magmatic silicate melts

    Liu, Yanan; Samaha, Naji-Tom; Baker, Don R.

    2007-04-01

    The sulfur concentration in silicate melts at sulfide saturation (SCSS) was experimentally investigated in a temperature range from 1150 to 1450 °C and a pressure range from 500 MPa to 1 GPa in a piston-cylinder apparatus. The investigated melt compositions varied from rhyolitic to basaltic and water concentrations varied from 0 to ˜9 wt%. All experiments were saturated with FeS melt or pyrrhotite crystals. Temperature was confirmed to have a positive effect on the SCSS. Experimental oxygen fugacities were either near the carbon-carbon monoxide buffer or one log unit above the nickel-nickel oxide buffer, and found to positively affect the SCSS. Combining our results with data from the literature we constructed a model to predict the SCSS in melts ranging in composition from komatiitic to rhyolitic, with water concentrations from 0 to 9 wt%, at pressures from 1 bar to 9 GPa and oxygen fugacities between ˜2 log units below the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer to ˜2 log units above it. The coefficients were obtained by multiple linear regression of experimental data and the best model found for the prediction of the SCSS is: ln(Sinppm)=11.35251-{4454.6}/{T}-0.03190{P}/{T}+0.71006ln(MFM)-1.98063[(MFM)(XO)]+0.21867ln(XO)+0.36192lnX where P is in bar, T is in K, MFM is a compositional parameter describing the melt based upon cation mole fractions: MFM={Na+K+2(Ca+Mg+Fe)}/{Si×(Al+Fe)}, XO is the mole fraction of water in the melt, and X is the mole fraction of FeO in the melt. This model was independently tested against experiments performed on anhydrous and hydrous melts in the temperature range from 800 to 1800 °C and 1-9 GPa. The model typically predicts the measured values of the natural log of the SCSS (in ppm) for komatiitic to rhyolitic (˜42 to ˜74 wt% SiO 2) melts to within 5% relative, but is less accurate for high-silica (>76 wt% SiO 2) rhyolites, especially those with molar ratios of iron to sulfur below 2. We demonstrate how this model can be used with

  16. Recovery and money management.

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-06-01

    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Sulfurized activated carbon for high energy density supercapacitors

    Huang, Yunxia; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Li, Yanwei; Li, Zhimin; Tian, Jianjun; Zhang, Lili; Cao, Guozhong

    2014-04-01

    Sulfurized activated carbon (SAC), made by coating the pore surface with thiophenic sulfur functional groups from the pyrolysis of sulfur flakes, were characterized and tested for supercapacitor applications. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the sulfur content in the SAC was found to be 2.7 at%. Electrochemical properties from potentiostatic and galvanostatic measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to evaluate the effect of sulfur on porous carbon electrodes. The SAC electrode exhibits better conductivity, and an obvious increase in specific capacitance that is almost 40% higher than plain activated carbons (ACs) electrode at a high current density of 1.4 A g-1. The proposed mechanism for improved conductivity and capacitive performance due to the sulfur functional groups on ACs will be discussed.

  18. Evaporite-hosted native sulfur in Trans-Pecos Texas: Relation to late-phase basin and range deformation

    Hentz, T.F.; Henry, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Major deposits of biogenic native sulfur are associated with narrow, northeast-trending grabens and normal faults that disrupt the gently tilted, east-dipping Upper Permian evaporite succession of the western Delaware Basin in Trans-Pecos Texas. Orebodies are restricted to geologic traps in the fractured and dissolution-modified downfaulted blocks of the grabens. Other parallel, regionally distributed grabens and normal faults are commonly the sites of noncommercial sulfur deposits and genetically related secondary-replacement (diagenetic) limestone bodies. The sulfur-bearing structures probably formed during the later of two episodes of Basin and Range extension that have not previously been differentiated in Texas but are well defined elsewhere in the western United States. In Texas several lines of evidence collectively support the existence of late-phase, northwest-directed extension that was initiated in the middle Miocene

  19. Catalytic processing of high-sulfur fuels for distributed hydrogen production

    Muradov, Nazim; Ramasamy, Karthik; Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [Central Florida Univ., FL (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, the development of a new on-demand hydrogen production technology is reported. In this process, a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., high-S diesel) is first catalytically pre-reformed to shorter chain gaseous hydrocarbons (predominantly, C{sub 1}-C{sub 3}) before being directed to the steam reformer, where it is converted to syngas and then to high-purity hydrogen. In the pre-reformer, most sulfurous species present in the fuel are catalytically converted to H{sub 2}S. In the desulfurization unit, H{sub 2}S is scrubbed and converted to H{sub 2} and elemental sulfur. Desulfurization of the pre-reformate gas is carried out in a special regenerative redox system, which includes Fe(II)/Fe(III)-containing aqueous phase scrubber coupled with an electrolyzer. The integrated pre-reformer/scrubber/electrolyzer unit operated successfully on high-S diesel fuel for more than 100 hours meeting the required desulfurization target of >95 % sulfur removal. (orig.)

  20. Tenth oil recovery conference

    Sleeper, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project is sponsored by the State of Kansas to introduce Kansas producers to the economic potential of enhanced recovery methods for Kansas fields. Specific objectives include estimation of the state-wide tertiary oil resource, identification and evaluation of the most applicable processes, dissemination of technical information to producers, occasional collaboration on recovery projects, laboratory studies on Kansas applicable processes, and training of students and operators in tertiary oil recovery methods. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  1. Estimation of sulfur in coal by fast neutron activation

    Das, G.C.; Bhattacharyya, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    A simple method is described for estimation of sulfur in coal using fast neutron activation of sulfur, i.e. 32 S(n,p) 32 P and subsequent measurement of 32 P β-activity (1.72 MeV) by a Geiger-Mueller counter. Since the sulfur content of Indian coal ranges from 0.25 to 3%, simulated samples of coal containing sulfur in the range from 0.25 to 3% and common impurities like oxides of aluminium, calcium, iron and silicon have been used to establish the method. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Mercury adsorption properties of sulfur-impregnated adsorbents

    Hsi, N.-C.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chen, S.; Chang, R.

    2002-01-01

    Carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous adsorbents were impregnated with elemental sulfur to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the adsorbents and their equilibrium mercury adsorption capacities. Simulated coal combustion flue gas conditions were used to determine the equilibrium adsorption capacities for Hg0 and HgCl2 gases to better understand how to remove mercury from gas streams generated by coal-fired utility power plants. Sulfur was deposited onto the adsorbents by monolayer surface deposition or volume pore filling. Sulfur impregnation increased the total sulfur content and decreased the total and micropore surface areas and pore volumes for all of the adsorbents tested. Adsorbents with sufficient amounts of active adsorption sites and sufficient microporous structure had mercury adsorption capacities up to 4,509 ??g Hg/g adsorbent. Elemental sulfur, organic sulfur, and sulfate were formed on the adsorbents during sulfur impregnation. Correlations were established with R2>0.92 between the equilibrium Hg0/HgCl2 adsorption capacities and the mass concentrations of elemental and organic sulfur. This result indicates that elemental and organic sulfur are important active adsorption sites for Hg0 and HgCl2.

  3. Single and multiple ionization of sulfur atoms by electron impact

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the cross sections for single, double, triple, and quadruple ionization of sulfur atoms by electron impact are presented for collision energies from threshold to 500 eV. The cross sections for single ionization of sulfur are measured relative to those of several elements whose absolute cross sections for single ionization are known. Cross sections for each multiple ionization process are then measured relative to those for single ionization. The configuration and operation of the apparatus for these measurements are described. The possible effects of excited sulfur reactants are examined, and the reported cross sections are felt to be characteristic of ground state sulfur atoms

  4. Sub-aqueous sulfur volcanos at Waiotapu, New Zealand

    Grimes, S.; Rickard, D. [University of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Browne, P.; Simmons, S. [University of Auckland (New Zealand). Geothermal Institute and Geology Dept.; Jull, T. [University of Arizona, Tucson (United States). AMS Facility

    1999-12-01

    Exhumed, sub-aqueous sulfur mounds occur in the Waiotapu geothermal area, New Zealand. The extinct mounds are < 2 m high and composed of small (< 0.5 cm) hollow spheres, and occasional teardrop-shaped globules. They are located within a drained valley that until recently was connected to Lake Whangioterangi. They were formed a maximum of 820 {+-} 80 years BP as a result of the rapid sub-aqueous deposition of sulfur globules, formed when fumarolic gases discharged through molten sulfur pools. Similar globules are now being formed by the discharge of fumarolic gases through a sub-aqueous molten sulfur pool in Lake Whangioterangi. (author)

  5. Isolation of Sulfur Reducing and Oxidizing Bacteria Found in Contaminated Drywall

    Frederick T. Guilford

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Drywall from China has been reported to release sulfur producing products which are corrosive to metals, result in noxious odors, and represent a significant health risk. It has been reported that these emissions produce medical symptoms such as respiratory or asthma type problems, sinusitis, gastrointestinal disorders, and vision problems in home owners and their household pets. We report here a method of identifying a causative agent for these emissions by sampling affected gypsum wallboard and subjecting those samples to Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction [RT-PCR] studies. Specific DNA probes and primers have been designed and patented that detect a specific iron and sulfur reducing bacterium (i.e., Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. One hundred percent of affected drywall samples obtained from homes located in the southeastern United States tested positive for the presence of T. ferrooxidans. All negative controls consisting of unaffected wallboard and internal controls, Geotrichum sp., tested negative within our limits of detection.

  6. Sulfur based electrode materials for secondary batteries

    Hao, Yong

    Developing next generation secondary batteries has attracted much attention in recent years due to the increasing demand of high energy and high power density energy storage for portable electronics, electric vehicles and renewable sources of energy. This dissertation investigates sulfur based advanced electrode materials in Lithium/Sodium batteries. The electrochemical performances of the electrode materials have been enhanced due to their unique nano structures as well as the formation of novel composites. First, a nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets/sulfur (NGNSs/S) composite was synthesized via a facile chemical reaction deposition. In this composite, NGNSs were employed as a conductive host to entrap S/polysulfides in the cathode part. The NGNSs/S composite delivered an initial discharge capacity of 856.7 mAh g-1 and a reversible capacity of 319.3 mAh g-1 at 0.1C with good recoverable rate capability. Second, NGNS/S nanocomposites, synthesized using chemical reaction-deposition method and low temperature heat treatment, were further studied as active cathode materials for room temperature Na-S batteries. Both high loading composite with 86% gamma-S8 and low loading composite with 25% gamma-S8 have been electrochemically evaluated and compared with both NGNS and S control electrodes. It was found that low loading NGNS/S composite exhibited better electrochemical performance with specific capacity of 110 and 48 mAh g-1 at 0.1C at the 1st and 300th cycle, respectively. The Coulombic efficiency of 100% was obtained at the 300th cycle. Third, high purity rock-salt (RS), zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) MnS nanocrystals with different morphologies were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. RS-, ZB- and WZ-MnS electrodes showed the capacities of 232.5 mAh g-1, 287.9 mAh g-1 and 79.8 mAh g-1 at the 600th cycle, respectively. ZB-MnS displayed the best performance in terms of specific capacity and cyclability. Interestingly, MnS electrodes

  7. Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Sulfur Dioxide Cell

    1991-11-01

    AD-A274 908IIIIlIIIE McDonald , P. Harris, F. Goebel, S. Hossi ierra, M. Guentert, C. Todino 7 ad r nse TECHNICAL PRODUCTS INCY DTIC ELECTE JAN26 1994...Pawcatuck, CT 06379 94-02298 1425 Best Available Copy I ADVANCED RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL I R.C. McDonald , P. Harris, F. Goebel, S. Hossain...20 minutes. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using a I Starbuck 20-station cycler system which is connected to a computer to monitor

  8. Reduced graphene oxide encapsulated sulfur spheres for the lithium-sulfur battery cathode

    Feiyan Liu

    Full Text Available Reduced graphene oxide (rGO encapsulated sulfur spheres for the Li-S batteries were prepared via the redox reaction between sodium polysulfide. XRD spectra showed that the diffraction peak of graphite oxide (GO at 10° disappeared, while the relatively weak diffraction peak at 27° belongs to graphene emerged. FT-IR spectra showed that the vibrations of the functional groups of GO, such as 3603 cm−1, 1723 cm−1and 1619 cm−1 which contributed from OH, COC and CO respectively, disappeared when compared to the spectra of GSC. SEM observations indicated that the optimum experimental condition followed as: mass ratio of GO and S was 1:1, 10% NaOH was used to adjust the pH. EDX analysis showed that the sulfur content reached at 68.8% of the composite material. The resultant electric resistance was nearly less than GO’s resistance in three orders of magnitude under same condition. Further electrochemical performance tests showed a coulombic efficiency was 96% from the first cycle capacity was 827 mAh g−1, to 388 mAh g−1 in the 100 cycles. This study carries substantial significance to the development of Li-S battery cathode materials. Keywords: Lithium-sulfur battery, Graphene, Sulfur spheres, Cathode material

  9. Capacity Fade Analysis of Sulfur Cathodes in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Yan, Jianhua; Liu, Xingbo

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries are receiving ever‐increasing attention due to their high theoretical energy density and inexpensive raw sulfur materials. However, their rapid capacity fade has been one of the key barriers for their further improvement. It is well accepted that the major degradation mechanisms of S‐cathodes include low electrical conductivity of S and sulfides, precipitation of nonconductive Li2S2 and Li2S, and poly‐shuttle effects. To determine these degradation factors, a comprehensive study of sulfur cathodes with different amounts of electrolytes is presented here. A survey of the fundamentals of Li–S chemistry with respect to capacity fade is first conducted; then, the parameters obtained through electrochemical performance and characterization are used to determine the key causes of capacity fade in Li–S batteries. It is confirmed that the formation and accumulation of nonconductive Li2S2/Li2S films on sulfur cathode surfaces are the major parameters contributing to the rapid capacity fade of Li–S batteries. PMID:27981001

  10. A dual coaxial nanocable sulfur composite for high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Li, Zhen; Yuan, Lixia; Yi, Ziqi; Liu, Yang; Xin, Ying; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Huang, Yunhui

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have great potential for some high energy applications such as in electric vehicles and smart grids due to their high capacity, natural abundance, low cost and environmental friendliness. But they suffer from rapid capacity decay and poor rate capability. The problems are mainly related to the dissolution of the intermediate polysulfides in the electrolyte, and to the poor conductivity of sulfur and the discharge products. In this work, we propose a novel dual coaxial nanocable sulfur composite fabricated with multi-walled nanotubes (MWCNT), nitrogen-doped porous carbon (NPC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), i.e. MWCNTs@S/NPC@PEG nanocable, as a cathode material for Li-S batteries. In such a coaxial structure, the middle N-doped carbon with hierarchical porous structure provides a nanosized capsule to contain and hold the sulfur particles; the inner MWCNTs and the outer PEG layer can further ensure the fast electronic transport and prevent the dissolution of the polysulfides into the electrolyte, respectively. The as-designed MWCNT@S/NPC@PEG composite shows good cycling stability and excellent rate capability. The capacity is retained at 527 mA h g(-1) at 1 C after 100 cycles, and 791 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C and 551 mA h g(-1) at 2 C after 50 cycles. Especially, the high-rate capability is outstanding with 400 mA h g(-1) at 5 C.

  11. An efficient hybrid sulfur process using PEM electrolysis with a bayonet decomposition reactor - HTR2008-58207

    Gorensek, M. B.; Summers, W. A.; Lahoda, E. J.; Bolthrunis, C. O.; Greyvenstein, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process is being developed to produce hydrogen by water-splitting using heat from advanced nuclear reactors. It has the potential for high efficiency and competitive hydrogen production cost, and has been demonstrated at a laboratory scale. As a two-step process, the HyS is one of the simplest thermochemical cycles. The sulfuric acid decomposition reaction is common to all sulfur cycles, including the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) cycle. What distinguishes the HyS Process from the other sulfur cycles is the use of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) to depolarize the anode of a water electrolyzer. The two critical HyS Process components are the SO 2 - depolarized electrolyzer (SDE), and the high-temperature decomposition reactor. A proton exchange membrane (PEM)- type SDE and a silicon carbide bayonet-type high-temperature decomposition reactor are being developed for DOE's Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), respectively. The ultimate goal of the NHI-sponsored work is to couple the SDE and the reactor in an integrated laboratory scale experiment to prove the technical readiness of the HyS cycle for the NGNP demonstration. This paper describes the flowsheet that is being prepared to combine these two components into a viable process and presents the latest performance projections and economics for a HyS Process coupled to a PBMR heat source. The basic flowsheet for this process has been described elsewhere [4]. It requires an acid concentration section because the SDE product, which is limited to no more than 50% H 2 SO 4 by cell voltage considerations, is too dilute to be fed directly to the bayonet, which needs at least 65% H 2 SO 4 in the feed for acceptable performance. Optimization involved trade-offs between decomposition reaction and acid concentration heat requirements. The PBMR heat source can split its heat output between the decomposition reaction and either steam

  12. Recovery of lanthanides

    Tilley, G.L.; Doyle, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for recovering a lanthanide and thorium from a material containing a fluorine compound and the lanthanide and thorium. It comprises a. obtaining the material from a roasted, acid-leached bastnasite ore; b. forming a mixture of the material with at least about ten weight percent of silica; c. contacting the mixture with sulfuric acid; d. heating the mixture and sulfuric acid to a temperature of at least about 150 degrees C for at least about 3 hours to cause most of the fluorine to be released as a volatile material containing silicon and fluorine; e. contacting the reacted mixture with an aqueous medium consisting essentially of water to solubilize the lanthanide and thorium while leaving an insoluble residue; and f. separating the aqueous solution of the lanthanide and thorium from the insoluble residue

  13. Solar unit

    Sukhanov, A M; Trushevskiy, S N; Tveryanovich, E V

    1982-01-01

    A solar unit is proposed which contains an inclined solar collector with supply and outlet pipelines, the first of which is connected to the source of a heat carrier, while the second is connected through the valve to the tank for collecting heated heat carrier equipped with a device for recovery. In order to improve the effectiveness of heating the heat carrier, it additionally contains a concentrator of solar radiation and a device for maintaining a level of the heat carrier in the collector in the zone of the focal spot of the concentrator, while the heat pipeline is connected to the source of the heat carrier with the help of a device for maintaining the level of the heat carrier.

  14. In-situ sulfuration synthesis of sandwiched spherical tin sulfide/sulfur-doped graphene composite with ultra-low sulfur content

    Zhao, Bing; Yang, Yaqing; Wang, Zhixuan; Huang, Shoushuang; Wang, Yanyan; Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Zhiwen; Jiang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    SnS is widely studied as anode materials since of its superior structural stability and physicochemical property comparing with other Sn-based composites. Nevertheless, the inconvenience of phase morphology control and excessive consumption of sulfur sources during synthesis hinder the scalable application of SnS nanocomposites. Herein, we report a facile in-situ sulfuration strategy to synthesize sandwiched spherical SnS/sulfur-doped graphene (SnS/S-SG) composite. An ultra-low sulfur content with approximately stoichiometric ratio of Sn:S can effectively promote the sulfuration reaction of SnO2 to SnS and simultaneous sulfur-doping of graphene. The as-prepared SnS/S-SG composite shows a three-dimensional interconnected spherical structure as a whole, in which SnS nanoparticles are sandwiched between the multilayers of graphene sheets forming a hollow sphere. The sandwiched sphere structure and high S doping amount can improve the binding force between SnS and graphene, as well as the structural stability and electrical conductivity of the composite. Thus, a high reversibility of conversion reaction, promising specific capacity (772 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 C) and excellent rate performance (705 and 411 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 10 C, respectively) are exhibited in the SnS/S-SG electrode, which are much higher than that of the SnS/spherical graphene synthesized by traditional post-sulfuration method.

  15. Contribution to the study of sulfur trioxide formation and determination of the sulfuric acid dew point in boiler plants

    Mueller, H.

    1983-11-01

    This paper analyzes chemical reaction kinetics of the formation of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid in combustion air and flue gas of steam generators. Formulae for sulfuric acid equilibrium reactions according to Wahnschaffe (W. Grimm, 1972) and R. Hasse, H.W. Borgmann (1962) are presented. Theoretical acid dew point, combustion parameters with influence on the dew point temperature and formation of sulfates are further discussed. Sulfur trioxide formation at temperatures above 1,000 C as a non-equilibrium reaction is outlined as another variant of chemical reactions. A graphic evaluation is made of dew point conditions in brown coal dust fired, and heating oil fired steam generators. (11 refs.)

  16. Analysis of sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle for solar hydrogen production. Part 1: decomposition of sulfuric acid

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [Central Florida Univ., Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2005-05-01

    The sulfur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical water splitting cycle is one of the most studied cycles for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production. S-I cycle consists of four sections: (I) acid production and separation and oxygen purification, (II) sulfuric acid concentration and decomposition, (III) hydroiodic acid (HI) concentration, and (IV) HI decomposition and H{sub 2} purification. Section II of the cycle is an endothermic reaction driven by the heat input from a high temperature source. Analysis of the S-I cycle in the past thirty years have been focused mostly on the utilization of nuclear power as the high temperature heat source for the sulfuric acid decomposition step. Thermodynamic as well as kinetic considerations indicate that both the extent and rate of sulfuric acid decomposition can be improved at very high temperatures (in excess of 1000 deg C) available only from solar concentrators. The beneficial effect of high temperature solar heat for decomposition of sulfuric acid in the S-I cycle is described in this paper. We used Aspen Technologies' HYSYS chemical process simulator (CPS) to develop flowsheets for sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) decomposition that include all mass and heat balances. Based on the HYSYS analyses, two new process flowsheets were developed. These new sulfuric acid decomposition processes are simpler and more stable than previous processes and yield higher conversion efficiencies for the sulfuric acid decomposition and sulfur dioxide and oxygen formation. (Author)

  17. Parameters Influencing Sulfur Speciation in Environmental Samples Using Sulfur K-Edge X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure

    Siwatt Pongpiachan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to enhance the credibility of applying the sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy as an innovative “fingerprint” for characterizing environmental samples. The sensitivities of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra of ten sulfur compound standards detected by two different detectors, namely, Lytle detector (LyD and Germanium detector (GeD, were studied and compared. Further investigation on “self-absorption” effect revealed that the maximum sensitivities of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra were achieved when diluting sulfur compound standards with boron nitride (BN at the mixing ratio of 0.1%. The “particle-size” effect on sulfur K-edge XANES spectrum sensitivities was examined by comparing signal-to-noise ratios of total suspended particles (TSP and particulate matter of less than 10 millionths of a meter (PM10 collected at three major cities of Thailand. The analytical results have demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratios of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra were positively correlated with sulfate content in aerosols and negatively connected with particle sizes. The combination of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA has proved that sulfur K-edge XANES spectrum can be used to characterize German terrestrial soils and Andaman coastal sediments. In addition, this study highlighted the capability of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra as an innovative “fingerprint” to distinguish tsunami backwash deposits (TBD from typical marine sediments (TMS.

  18. Illness management and recovery

    Dalum, Helle Stentoft; Waldemar, Anna Kristine; Korsbek, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a psychosocial intervention with a recovery-oriented approach. The program has been evaluated in different settings; however evidence for the effects of IMR is still deficient. The aim of this trial was to investigate the benefits and harms...

  19. Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.

    Konidaris, Dimitrios N

    2010-10-01

    This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash.

  20. Assessment of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis potentialities to recover metals, sulfuric acid, and recycled water from acid gold mining effluent.

    Ricci, Bárbara C; Ferreira, Carolina D; Marques, Larissa S; Martins, Sofia S; Amaral, Míriam C S

    This work assessed the potential of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to treat acid streams contaminated with metals, such as effluent from the pressure oxidation process (POX) used in refractory gold ore processing. NF and RO were evaluated in terms of rejections of sulfuric acid and metals. Regarding NF, high sulfuric acid permeation (∼100%), was observed, while metals were retained with high efficiencies (∼90%), whereas RO led to high acid rejections (acid solutions contaminated by metals, such as POX effluent. In this context, a purified acid stream could be recovered in NF permeate, which could be further concentrated in RO. Recovered acid stream could be reused in the gold ore processing or commercialized. A metal-enriched stream could be also recovered in NF retentate and transferred to a subsequent metal recovery stage. In addition, considering the high acid rejection obtained through the proposed system, RO permeate could be used as recycling water.

  1. A Foldable Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Li, Lu; Wu, Zi Ping; Sun, Hao; Chen, Deming; Gao, Jian; Suresh, Shravan; Chow, Philippe; Singh, Chandra Veer; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2015-11-24

    The next generation of deformable and shape-conformable electronics devices will need to be powered by batteries that are not only flexible but also foldable. Here we report a foldable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) rechargeable battery, with the highest areal capacity (∼3 mAh cm(-2)) reported to date among all types of foldable energy-storage devices. The key to this result lies in the use of fully foldable and superelastic carbon nanotube current-collector films and impregnation of the active materials (S and Li) into the current-collectors in a checkerboard pattern, enabling the battery to be folded along two mutually orthogonal directions. The carbon nanotube films also serve as the sulfur entrapment layer in the Li-S battery. The foldable battery showed batteries with significantly greater energy density than traditional lithium-ion batteries could power the flexible and foldable devices of the future including laptops, cell phones, tablet computers, surgical tools, and implantable biomedical devices.

  2. Cell Concepts of Metal-Sulfur Batteries (Metal = Li, Na, K, Mg): Strategies for Using Sulfur in Energy Storage Applications.

    Medenbach, Lukas; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2017-09-29

    There is great interest in using sulfur as active component in rechargeable batteries thanks to its low cost and high specific charge (1672 mAh/g). The electrochemistry of sulfur, however, is complex and cell concepts are required, which differ from conventional designs. This review summarizes different strategies for utilizing sulfur in rechargeable batteries among membrane concepts, polysulfide concepts, all-solid-state concepts as well as high-temperature systems. Among the more popular lithium-sulfur and sodium-sulfur batteries, we also comment on recent results on potassium-sulfur and magnesium-sulfur batteries. Moreover, specific properties related to the type of light metal are discussed.

  3. Extractive de-sulfurization and de-ashing of high sulfur coals by oxidation with ionic liquids

    Saikia, Binoy K.; Khound, Kakoli; Baruah, Bimala P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Extractive de-sulfurization and de-ashing process for cleaning high sulfur coals. • The process removes inorganic as well as organic sulfur components from high sulfur coals. • The process has less risk to chemists and other surroundings. - Abstract: The environmental consequences of energy production from coals are well known, and are driving the development of desulfurization technologies. In this investigation, ionic liquids were examined for extractive desulfurization and de-ashing in industrially important high sulfur sub-bituminous Indian coals. The ionic liquids, namely, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IL1) and 1-n-butyl 3-methylimidazolium chloride (IL2) were employed for desulfurization of a few Indian coal samples in presence of HCOOH/H 2 O 2 and V 2 O 5 . Results show the maximum removal of 50.20% of the total sulfur, 48.00% of the organic sulfur, and 70.37 wt% of the ash in this process. The ionic liquids were recovered and subsequently used for further desulfurization. FT-IR spectra reveal the transformation of organic sulfur functionalities into the sulfoxides (S=O) and sulfones (-SO 2 ) due to the oxidative reactions. The sulfate, pyrite and sulfides (aryls) signals in the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of the oxidized coal samples showed sulfur transformation during the desulfurization process. The study demonstrates the removal of significant amount of inorganic as well as organic sulfur (aryls) components from the original high sulfur coal samples to make them cleaner

  4. Using lichens as physiological indicators of sulfurous pollutants

    Sundstroem, K R; Haellgren, J E

    1973-01-01

    Lichens are known to be extremely sensitive to sulfurous pollutants and have thus disappeared from the regions around urban areas. The authors give the physiological background to this sensitivity and an outline for a test system for sulfurous pollutants based on lichens.

  5. Sulfur in human nutrition - effects beyond protein synthesis

    Gertjan Schaafsma

    2008-01-01

    That sulfur is essential to humans is based on the requirement of S-animo acids for normal growth and maintenance of nitrogen balance and not on the optimization of metabolic proccesses involving the synthesis of non-protein sulphur containing compounds. This paper reviews the significance of sulfur

  6. Seed production and dispersal of sulfur cinquefoil in northeast Oregon

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Catherine G. Parks; Michael L. McInnis; Bridgett J. Naylor

    2006-01-01

    Sulfur cinquefoil (family Rosaceae) is an invasive, herbaceous perennial, native to Eurasia. It has wide ecological amplitude and has become established throughout North America in numerous habitat types. Sulfur cinquefoil reproduces only by seed (achenes); however, little is known about its regenerative strategy or reproductive biology. To improve understanding of the...

  7. Sulfur K-edge absorption spectroscopy on selected biological systems

    Lichtenberg, Henning

    2008-07-01

    Sulfur is an essential element in organisms. In this thesis investigations of sulfur compounds in selected biological systems by XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy are reported. XANES spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge provides an excellent tool to gain information about the local environments of sulfur atoms in intact biological samples - no extraction processes are required. Spatially resolved measurements using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror focusing system were carried out to investigate the infection of wheat leaves by rust fungi. The results give information about changes in the sulfur metabolism of the host induced by the parasite and about the extension of the infection into visibly uninfected plant tissue. Furthermore, XANES spectra of microbial mats from sulfidic caves were measured. These mats are dominated by microbial groups involved in cycling sulfur. Additionally, the influence of sulfate deprivation and H 2 S exposure on sulfur compounds in onion was investigated. To gain an insight into the thermal degradation of organic material the influence of roasting of sulfur compounds in coffee beans was studied. (orig.)

  8. Sulfur accumulation and atmospherically deposited sulfate in the Lake States.

    Mark B. David; George Z. Gernter; David F. Grigal; Lewis F. Ohmann

    1989-01-01

    Characterizes the mass of soil sulfur (adjusted for nitrogen), and atmospherically deposited sulfate along an acid precipitation gradient from Minnesota to Michigan. The relationship of these variables, presented graphically through contour mapping, suggests that patterns of atmospheric wet sulfate deposition are reflected in soil sulfur pools.

  9. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... Energy Incorporated. This disapproval does not in and of itself result in the growth restrictions of...

  10. Two-step rapid sulfur capture. Final report

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    The primary goal of this program was to test the technical and economic feasibility of a novel dry sorbent injection process called the Two-Step Rapid Sulfur Capture process for several advanced coal utilization systems. The Two-Step Rapid Sulfur Capture process consists of limestone activation in a high temperature auxiliary burner for short times followed by sorbent quenching in a lower temperature sulfur containing coal combustion gas. The Two-Step Rapid Sulfur Capture process is based on the Non-Equilibrium Sulfur Capture process developed by the Energy Technology Office of Textron Defense Systems (ETO/TDS). Based on the Non-Equilibrium Sulfur Capture studies the range of conditions for optimum sorbent activation were thought to be: activation temperature > 2,200 K for activation times in the range of 10--30 ms. Therefore, the aim of the Two-Step process is to create a very active sorbent (under conditions similar to the bomb reactor) and complete the sulfur reaction under thermodynamically favorable conditions. A flow facility was designed and assembled to simulate the temperature, time, stoichiometry, and sulfur gas concentration prevalent in the advanced coal utilization systems such as gasifiers, fluidized bed combustors, mixed-metal oxide desulfurization systems, diesel engines, and gas turbines.

  11. Sulfur pollution: an environmental study of Welland, Ontario

    Michael R. Moss

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of sulfur as an environmental pollutant is analysed in the vicinity of Welland, Ontario. A biogeochemical-cycle approach enables areas of excess accumulation to be compared among all linked ecosystem components. Although the patterns of distribution are similar, the amounts of sulfur accumulated in different ecosystems, grassland and woodland, show...

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-55 - Sulfur (molten).

    2010-10-01

    ... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-55 Sulfur (molten). (a.... Heat transfer media shall be steam, and alternate media will require specific approval of the... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfur (molten). 151.50-55 Section 151.50-55 Shipping...

  13. Partial substitution of asphalt pavement with modified sulfur

    E.R. Souaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of sulfur in pavement laying was developed in 1980 but it was restricted in the late 19th century due to its environmental problems and its high reactivity toward oxidation processes which give sulfuric acid products that are capable of destroying the asphalt mixture. The study involved the conversion of elemental sulfur to a more stable modified one using a combination of byproducts of olefin hydrocarbons that were obtained from petroleum fractional distillates and cyclic hydrocarbon bituminous residue at 145 °C. The changes in the structural characteristics and morphology of prepared modified sulfur were studied using XRD and SEM respectively. Also DSC curves help us to elucidate the changes in sulfur phases from α-orthorhombic to β-mono clinic structure. The technique of nanoindentation helps us to compare the mechanical properties of modified and pure sulfur including modulus of elasticity and hardness. The hot mixture asphalt designs were prepared according to the Marshall Method in which the asphalt binder content was partially substituted with 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% modified sulfur. The mechanical properties were measured including Marshall Stability, flow, air voids, and Marshall Stiffness. From the overall study, the results indicated that asphalt could partially be substituted with modified sulfur with no significant deleterious effect on performance and durability of hot mixed asphalt.

  14. Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur metabolism in natural Thioploca samples

    Otte, S.; Kuenen, JG; Nielsen, LP

    1999-01-01

    Filamentous sulfur bacteria of the genus Thioploca occur as dense mats on the continental shelf off the coast of Chile and Peru. Since little is known about their nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon metabolism, this study was undertaken to investigate their (eco)physiology. Thioploca is able to store...

  15. Whole body exposure of rats to sulfur mustard vapor.

    Dachir, Shlomit; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Yaacov, Guy; Gutman, Hila; Cohen, Liat; Horwitz, Vered; Cohen, Maayan; Kadar, Tamar

    2017-11-24

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an incapacitating chemical warfare agent used in numerous conflicts around the world and it is still a major threat for both, army troops and civilians. To evaluate its multiple targets effects in experimental setup, a model of whole body exposure (WBE) to SM vapor was established in rats and its simultaneous effects on lungs and eyes as well as on general wellbeing were examined. Rats were exposed to SM vapor. Evaluation (up to 10 weeks post-exposure) included body weight, general observation, blood counts and histological analysis. Results showed that following a latency-period of several hours, rats typical symptoms developed over a period of more than one week. The initial symptoms, characterized by swollen and erythematic nose, deteriorated into extensive rhinorrhea, eye closure, excessive lacrimation as well as rhonchi, wheezing and breathing difficulties. Alopecia and behavioral abnormality were also recorded. A weight loss of up to 40% was measured within one week with spontaneous recovery to baseline level within three weeks after exposure. Blood counts revealed leukopenia during the first three days post-exposure. Histological evaluation revealed a long lasting damage to the trachea, lungs and eyes. Thus, WBE to SM, was found to closely mimic the deleterious effects of SM on the sensitive tissues previously described in human victims during WWI and the Iran-Iraq war. The use of this animal model will enable comprehensive characterization of changes in biological processes that may lead to the development of therapeutic measures to ameliorate SM induced multi-system injuries.

  16. Protein Changes in Sulfur Mustard Exposure: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications

    Ray, P.; Jin, X.; Ray, R.

    2007-01-01

    Laminin-5, a heterotrimer of laminin α3, β3, and γ2 subunits, is a component of the skin basal epithelium. Laminin-5 functions as a ligand of the α3β1 and α6β4 integrins in epidermal keratinocytes to regulate cell adhesion, migration, morphogenesis, and assembly of basement membranes; thus it is essential for a stable attachment of the epidermis to the dermis and recovery of damaged skin. Sulfur mustard (SM), also known as mustard gas, is a vesicant chemical warfare and terrorism agent. Skin exposure to SM results in fluid-filled blisters; proposed mechanisms are inflammation, protease stimulation, basal cell death, and separation of the epidermis from the dermis apparently due to the degradation of attachment proteins like laminin-5. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SM exposure on the degradation of laminin-5 by exposing normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) to SM (0-300 μM, 1-24 hours). We found that SM degraded laminin-5 and its two subunits β3 and γ2, but not α3. Preincubation of cells with a serine protease inhibitor (PMSF), or a metalloprotease inhibitor (1, 10-phenanthroline) prior to SM exposure partially prevented SM-induced degradation of laminin-5 subunits, β3 and γ2. Regarding specificity, laminin-5 γ2 was degraded due to a bifunctional mustard compound like SM, but not due to the other alkylating agents tested. Our results support that laminin-5 degradation is an important mechanism of SM injury as well as a useful biomarker of SM exposure. This knowledge of the mechanism of laminin-5 degradation due to SM has potential application in developing cutaneous therapeutics against SM.(author)

  17. Structural change of the porous sulfur cathode using gelatin as a binder during discharge and charge

    Wang You; Huang Yaqin; Wang Weikun; Huang Chongjun; Yu Zhongbao; Zhang, Hao; Sun Jing; Wang Anbang; Yuan Keguo

    2009-01-01

    The structural change of the porous sulfur cathode using gelatin as a binder was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The original sulfur cathode exhibited a homogenous distribution of sulfur, carbon and pores. During the discharge process, the pores and elemental sulfur disappeared gradually. However, those changes were reversed and elemental sulfur was reformed after the charge process, which improved the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  18. 40 CFR 63.1577 - What parts of the General Provisions apply to me?

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Other Requirements and Information...

  19. The importance of pre-treatment of spent hydrotreating catalysts on metals recovery

    Alexandre Luiz de Souza Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a three-step pre-treatment route for processing spent commercial NiMo/Al2O3 catalysts. Extraction of soluble coke with n-hexane and/or leaching of foulant elements with oxalic acid were performed before burning insoluble coke under air. Oxidized catalysts were leached with 9 mol L-1 sulfuric acid. Iron was the only foulant element partially leached by oxalic acid. The amount of insoluble matter in sulfuric acid was drastically reduced when iron and/or soluble coke were previously removed. Losses of active phase metals (Ni, Mo during leaching with oxalic acid were compensated by the increase of their recovery in the sulfuric acid leachate.

  20. The importance of pre-treatment of spent hydrotreating catalysts on metals recovery

    Pereira, Alexandre Luiz de Souza; Silva, Cristiano Nunes da; Afonso, Julio Carlos, E-mail: julio@iq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica; Mantovano, Jose Luiz [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (CNEN/IEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Materiais Nucleares

    2011-07-01

    This work describes a three-step pre-treatment route for processing spent commercial Ni Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Extraction of soluble coke with n-hexane and/or leaching of foulant elements with oxalic acid were performed before burning insoluble coke under air. Oxidized catalysts were leached with 9 mol L{sup -1} sulfuric acid. Iron was the only foulant element partially leached by oxalic acid. The amount of insoluble matter in sulfuric acid was drastically reduced when iron and/or soluble coke were previously removed. Losses of active phase metals (Ni, Mo) during leaching with oxalic acid were compensated by the increase of their recovery in the sulfuric acid leachate. (author)