WorldWideScience

Sample records for sulfur mustard injury-munich

  1. Sulfur Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in of the vapors can cause chronic respiratory disease, repeated respiratory infections, or death. Extensive eye exposure can cause permanent blindness. Exposure to sulfur mustard may increase a person’s risk for lung and respiratory cancer. ...

  2. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  3. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

    2012-09-01

    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed.

  4. Novel Molecular Strategies Against Sulfur Mustard Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Ilker Kunak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the available chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM, also known as mustard gas, has been widely used chemical weapon. In our laboratory, we have shown that, acute toxicity of SM is related to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, DNA damage, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase activation and energy depletion within the affected cell. In spite of the knowledge about acute SM-induced cellular toxicity, unfortunately, it is not clear how mustard gas causes severe multi-organ damage years after even a single exposure. A variety of treatment modalities including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory drugs and others have resulted no promising results. We, therefore, made an attempt whether epigenetic aberrations may contribute to pathogenesis of mustard poisoning. The term epigenetic describes the study of inheritable alterations in gene expression that occur in the absence of changes in genome sequence. Therefore, epigenetic gene regulation requires molecular mechanisms that encode information in addition to the DNA base sequence and can be propagated through mitosis and meiosis. Our current understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression involves basically two classes of molecular mechanisms: histone modifications and DNA methylation. Preliminary evidence obtained from our laboratory reveals that exposure to mustards may not only cause nitro-oxidative stress and DNA (genetic damage, but epigenetic perturbations as well. Epigenetic therapy is a new and rapidly developing field in pharmacology. Epigenetic drugs alone or in combination with conventional drugs may prove to be a significant advance over the conventional drugs used to treat both acute and delayed SM toxicity. Future studies are urgently needed to clarify the mechanism of delayed SM-induced toxicity and novel treatment modalities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 231-236

  5. Mustard gas or sulfur mustard: an old chemical agent as a new terrorist threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattana, Monica; Bey, Tareg

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is a member of the vesicant class of chemical warfare agents that causes blistering to the skin and mucous membranes. There is no specific antidote, and treatment consists of systematically alleviating symptoms. Historically, sulfur mustard was used extensively in inter-governmental conflicts within the trenches of Belgium and France during World War I and during the Iran-Iraq conflict. Longitudinal studies of exposed victims show that sulfur mustard causes long-term effects leading to high morbidity. Given that only a small amount of sulfur mustard is necessary to potentially cause an enormous number of casualties, disaster-planning protocol necessitates the education and training of first-line healthcare responders in the recognition, decontamination, triage, and treatment of sulfur mustard-exposed victims in a large-scale scenario.

  6. Sulfur Mustard Damage to Cornea: Preventive Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varma, Shambhu

    2004-01-01

    Studies are in progress to determine the efficacy and mechanism of a formulation containing anti-alkylating, antioxidants and metabolic accelerators present in VM against mustard induced skin toxicity...

  7. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P. L.; Rommereim, R. L.; Burton, F. G.; Buschbom, R. L.; Sasser, L . B.

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with 0. 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development. These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits since fetal effects were observed only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for "no observable effects levels" in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  8. Capsaicinoids, chloropicrin and sulfur mustard: Possibilities for exposure biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Pesonen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Incapacitating and irritating agents produce temporary disability persisting for hours to days after the exposure. One can be exposed to these agents occupationally in industrial or other working environments. Also general public can be exposed in special circumstances, like industrial accidents or riots. Incapacitating and irritating agents discussed in this review are chloropicrin and capsaicinoids. In addition, we include sulfur mustard, which is an old chemical warfare agent and known to cause severe long-lasting injuries or even death. Chloropicrin that was used as a warfare agent in the World War I is currently used mainly as a pesticide. Capsaicinoids, components of hot pepper plants, are used by police and other law enforcement personnel as riot control agents. Toxicity of these chemicals is associated particularly with the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Their acute effects are relatively well known but the knowledge of putative long-term effects is almost non-existent. Also, mechanisms of effects at cellular level are not fully understood. There is a need for further research to get better idea of health risks, particularly of long-term and low-level exposures to these chemicals. For this, exposure biomarkers are essential. Validated exposure biomarkers for capsaicinoids, chloropicrin and sulfur mustard do not exist so far. Metabolites and macromolecular adducts have been suggested biomarkers for sulfur mustard and these can already be measured qualitatively, but quantitative biomarkers await further development and validation. The purpose of this review is, based on the existing mechanistic and toxicokinetic information, to shed light on the possibilities for developing biomarkers for exposure biomonitoring of these compounds. It is also of interest to find ideas for early effect biomarkers considering the need for studies on subchronic and chronic toxicity.

  9. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L.; Cushing, J. A.

    1989-06-30

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.

  10. Sulfur Mustard Exposure from Dredged Artillery Shell in a Commercial Clammer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Otter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old commercial fisherman presented with a blistering second degree burn to the right arm after handling a dredged and undetonated World War I-era sulfur mustard artillery shell. He sustained isolated second degree cutaneous injury requiring wound care and skin grafting. Sulfur mustard, or dichlorethylsulphide, is a vesicant chemical warfare agent that causes significant cutaneous chemical burn and is managed with burn wound care. Long-term effects include cosmetic disfigurement and increased risk of developing cancer. Sulfur mustard exposure is a rare but devastating injury when discarded artillery shells are encountered in coastal waters.

  11. Protein Changes in Sulfur Mustard Exposure: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, P.; Jin, X.; Ray, R.

    2007-01-01

    Laminin-5, a heterotrimer of laminin α3, β3, and γ2 subunits, is a component of the skin basal epithelium. Laminin-5 functions as a ligand of the α3β1 and α6β4 integrins in epidermal keratinocytes to regulate cell adhesion, migration, morphogenesis, and assembly of basement membranes; thus it is essential for a stable attachment of the epidermis to the dermis and recovery of damaged skin. Sulfur mustard (SM), also known as mustard gas, is a vesicant chemical warfare and terrorism agent. Skin exposure to SM results in fluid-filled blisters; proposed mechanisms are inflammation, protease stimulation, basal cell death, and separation of the epidermis from the dermis apparently due to the degradation of attachment proteins like laminin-5. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SM exposure on the degradation of laminin-5 by exposing normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) to SM (0-300 μM, 1-24 hours). We found that SM degraded laminin-5 and its two subunits β3 and γ2, but not α3. Preincubation of cells with a serine protease inhibitor (PMSF), or a metalloprotease inhibitor (1, 10-phenanthroline) prior to SM exposure partially prevented SM-induced degradation of laminin-5 subunits, β3 and γ2. Regarding specificity, laminin-5 γ2 was degraded due to a bifunctional mustard compound like SM, but not due to the other alkylating agents tested. Our results support that laminin-5 degradation is an important mechanism of SM injury as well as a useful biomarker of SM exposure. This knowledge of the mechanism of laminin-5 degradation due to SM has potential application in developing cutaneous therapeutics against SM.(author)

  12. Dermatotoxicology of sulfur mustard: Historical perspectives from World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Austin; Maibach, Howard

    2018-01-01

    Sulfur mustard has been used as a chemical warfare agent for the past century. After its introduction by the Germans in World War I, investigators quickly began studying its impact on the human body including its deleterious effects on skin. This review focuses on two groups in particular who conducted experiments from 1917 to 1918: the United States Army at the American University Experiment Station Laboratories and Torald Sollmann at Western Reserve University. Through this work, these researchers proved far ahead of their time by anticipating dermatologic phenomena not described in the literature until later in the twentieth century. These include regional variation of percutaneous penetration, effect of vehicle on penetration and predicting immunologic contact urticaria. The work conducted by these researchers set the groundwork for much of twentieth century dermatotoxicology. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Sulfur mustard-induced poikiloderma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, Seyed Naser; Kaffashi, Mohammad; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Akhavan-Moghaddam, Jamal; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Emadi, Seyed Emad; Taghavi, Nez'hat-o-Sadat

    2011-06-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent chemical warfare agent that was widely used during the First World War and the Iran-Iraq conflict. This vesicant agent causes several acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye, and respiratory system. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who was injured with SM in Iraq chemical attack in 1988. After exposure, he developed severe skin blisters on his upper trunk, dorsum of hands, and genitalia. Based on several clinical observations, such as atrophy, pigmentation, and vascular changes on genitalia with relevant findings in histopathological studies, persistent pigmentation, and damaged skin appendix in hand lesions, a diagnosis of "SM-induced poikiloderma" was postulated. The absence of any complication on the palmar aspect of hands is another remarkable finding in presented case, which suggests a plausible role of the palms as a vector for transporting SM to other sites of the skin.

  14. Fluorogenic dansyl-ligated gold nanoparticles for the detection of sulfur mustard by displacement assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, Richard C; Sambrook, Mark R; Vincent, Jack C; Smith, Simon A; Serpell, Christopher J; Cookson, James; Vickers, Matthew S; Beer, Paul D

    2013-03-21

    The dansyl fluorophore ligated to gold nanoparticles via imidazole and amine groups affords conjugates capable of detecting micromolar concentrations of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard by a fluorescence switching 'ON' displacement assay.

  15. Advanced biotherapy for the treatment of sulfur mustard poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingxue; Yang, Yuyan; Meng, Wenqi; Xu, Qingqiang; Lin, Fengwu; Chen, Yongchun; Zhao, Jie; Xiao, Kai

    2018-04-25

    Sulfur mustard (SM), a bifunctional alkylating agent, can react with a variety of biochemical molecules (DNA, RNA, proteins and other cell components) to cause a series of serious health issues or even death. Although a plethora of research has been done, the pathogenesis of SM poisoning has yet to be fully understood due to its high complexity. As a consequence, a specific antidote has not yet been developed and the treatment of SM poisoning remains a medical challenge. In recent years, various biological products and cell transplantation in the treatment of SM poisoning offered a significant clinical treatment progress. By highlighting these and other research studies, we hereby summarize the progress in this field in an effort to provide useful information on the clinical treatment of SM poisoning. This review summarizes the major advances of SM poisoning therapy by means of biological products (peptide and protein drugs, polysaccharides drugs, nucleic acid drugs, etc.), and cell transplantation (e.g., bone marrow, limbal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells), as well as other relevant biotherapeutic approaches. We searched the database PubMed for published domestic and international articles using web based resources for information on histological, immunochemical, ultrastructural, and treatment features of SM-induced manifestations in both animal models and human tissues. To this end, we applied keywords containing mustard gas, chemical warfare, SM, eye, lung and skin. Our review provides a comprehensive understanding of the advances of available biotherapies in SM poisoning, and its potential for the treatment of SM-induced injuries. Potentially, our review will provide new insights for future research studies in this field. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Retrospective detection of exposure to sulfur mustard: Improvements on an assay for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of albumin/sulfur mustard adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Hulst, A.G.; Woolfitt, A.R.; Ash, D.; Barr, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    We here report on the further development of the method comprising the pronase digestion of albumin alkylated by sulfur mustard and the subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of an adducted tripeptide. This includes significant improvements in both the albumin isolation procedure and the automation

  17. Mesoporous binary metal oxide nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization and decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen Kumar, J., E-mail: praveenjella10@gmail.com; Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Singh, Beer; Gopi, T.; Krishna, R.

    2016-04-15

    Mesoporous MnO{sub 2}–ZnO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO, NiO–ZnO, and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. They were synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive analysis of X rays, X ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption techniques. The transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption data indicated the presence of pores with diameter ranging from 10 to 70 nm in the binary metal oxide nanocomposites and these materials exhibited surface area values in the range of 76–134 m{sup 2}/g. These binary metal oxide nanocomposites demonstrated large decontamination efficiencies against sulfur mustard when compared to their single component metal oxide nanoparticles. The binary metal oxide nanocomposites effectively decontaminated sulfur mustard into relatively non toxic products such as chloro ethyl vinyl sulfide, divinyl sulfide, 1,4-oxathiane, etc. The promising decontamination properties of binary metal oxide nanocomposites against sulfur mustard were attributed to the basic sites, Lewis acid sites, and the presence of these sites was confirmed by CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} temperature programmed desorption. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous MnO{sub 2}–ZnO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO, NiO–ZnO, and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. - Highlights: • Binary metal oxide nanocomposites were synthesized by co-precipitation method. • They were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. • They decontaminated sulfur mustard into non toxic products. • MnO{sub 2}–ZnO and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO nanocomposites showed greater decontamination efficiency.

  18. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m 2 g −1 when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions

  19. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K., E-mail: gkprasad2001@yahoo.com; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.

    2013-11-01

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions.

  20. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits - Part 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P L; Rommereim, R L; Burton, F G; Buschbom, R L; Sasser, L B

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with o. 0.5, 1 .0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats • and rabbits since fetal effects were obs~rved only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for •no observable effects levers· in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  1. Pathogenesis of Acute and Delayed Corneal Lesions after Ocular Exposure to Sulfur Mustard Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    14. ABSTRACT See reprint. 15. SUBJECT TERMS mustard gas keratopathy, ocular toxicity , vapor exposure , sulfur mustard, chemical warfare agent, medical...had poor outcomes . Using a rabbit corneal vapor exposure model, we previously demonstrated a clinical progression with acute and chronic sequelae...the appearance of BCN between one and two weeks suggests that necrosis is either due to delayed SM toxicity or a second-order effect indirectly

  2. Characterization of sulfur mustard induced structural modifications in human hemoglobin by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Verheij, E.R.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe the use of tandem mass spectrometry to identify modified sites in human hemoglobin after in vitro exposure to bis(2- chloroethyl) sulfide (sulfur mustard). Globin isolated from human whole blood which had been exposed to sulfur mustard was degraded with trypsin, and the

  3. Whole body exposure of rats to sulfur mustard vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachir, Shlomit; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Yaacov, Guy; Gutman, Hila; Cohen, Liat; Horwitz, Vered; Cohen, Maayan; Kadar, Tamar

    2017-11-24

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an incapacitating chemical warfare agent used in numerous conflicts around the world and it is still a major threat for both, army troops and civilians. To evaluate its multiple targets effects in experimental setup, a model of whole body exposure (WBE) to SM vapor was established in rats and its simultaneous effects on lungs and eyes as well as on general wellbeing were examined. Rats were exposed to SM vapor. Evaluation (up to 10 weeks post-exposure) included body weight, general observation, blood counts and histological analysis. Results showed that following a latency-period of several hours, rats typical symptoms developed over a period of more than one week. The initial symptoms, characterized by swollen and erythematic nose, deteriorated into extensive rhinorrhea, eye closure, excessive lacrimation as well as rhonchi, wheezing and breathing difficulties. Alopecia and behavioral abnormality were also recorded. A weight loss of up to 40% was measured within one week with spontaneous recovery to baseline level within three weeks after exposure. Blood counts revealed leukopenia during the first three days post-exposure. Histological evaluation revealed a long lasting damage to the trachea, lungs and eyes. Thus, WBE to SM, was found to closely mimic the deleterious effects of SM on the sensitive tissues previously described in human victims during WWI and the Iran-Iraq war. The use of this animal model will enable comprehensive characterization of changes in biological processes that may lead to the development of therapeutic measures to ameliorate SM induced multi-system injuries.

  4. SELECTED YIELD COMPONENTS IN WHITE MUSTARD (SINAPIS ALBA VERSUS SULFUR FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena BARCZAK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As shown by the research made based on the four-year field experiment, sulfur fertilization, in general, significantly differentiated the white mustard yield components. Of all the factors (sulfur application method, its form and dose, the greatest effect on the yield structure components was demonstrated for the sulfur dose. The use of 40 kg S·ha-1, regardless of the form applied and the sulfur application method, resulted in significant increases in most of the characters, as compared with the control. The application of sulfur into soil showed a significantly more favorable effect on the seed weigh and number per silique and on the weight of seeds of the entire plant than the foliar application of this nutrient. The white mustard seed yield size was most correlated with the number of siliques per plant, and successively less with the thousand seed weight.

  5. Kinetics of the degradation of sulfur mustard on ambient and moist concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevett, Carol A.S.; Sumpter, Kenneth B.; Nickol, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    The rate of degradation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, was measured on ambient and moist concrete using 13 C Solid State Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SSMAS NMR). Three samples of concrete made by the same formulation, but differing in age and alkalinity were used. The sulfur mustard eventually degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane via the intermediate sulfonium ions CH-TG, H-TG, H-2TG and O(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 S + CH 2 CH 2 OH on all of the concrete samples, and in addition formed 8-31% vinyl moieties on the newer, more alkaline concrete samples. This is the first observation of the formation of O(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 S + CH 2 CH 2 OH on a solid substrate. The addition of 2-chloroethanol to concrete on which mustard had fully degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane resulted in the formation of O(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 S + CH 2 CH 2 OH, thus demonstrating the reversibility of sulfur mustard degradation pathways. The sulfur mustard degradation half-lives on ambient concrete at 22 deg. C ranged from 3.5 to 54 weeks. When the substrates were moistened, the degradation half-lives at 22 deg. C ranged from 75 to 350 h. The degradation of sulfur mustard occurred more quickly at elevated temperatures and with added water. The non-volatile toxic sulfonium ions persisted for months to years on concrete at 22 deg. C and weeks to months on concrete at 35 deg. C, before decomposing to the relatively non-toxic compounds thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane

  6. Kinetics of the degradation of sulfur mustard on ambient and moist concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevett, Carol A.S. [SAIC, Gunpowder Branch, P.O. Box 68, APG, MD 21010-0068 (United States)], E-mail: carol.brevett@us.army.mil; Sumpter, Kenneth B. [U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, 5183 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5424 (United States); Nickol, Robert G. [SAIC, Gunpowder Branch, P.O. Box 68, APG, MD 21010-0068 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The rate of degradation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, was measured on ambient and moist concrete using {sup 13}C Solid State Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SSMAS NMR). Three samples of concrete made by the same formulation, but differing in age and alkalinity were used. The sulfur mustard eventually degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane via the intermediate sulfonium ions CH-TG, H-TG, H-2TG and O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH on all of the concrete samples, and in addition formed 8-31% vinyl moieties on the newer, more alkaline concrete samples. This is the first observation of the formation of O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH on a solid substrate. The addition of 2-chloroethanol to concrete on which mustard had fully degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane resulted in the formation of O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH, thus demonstrating the reversibility of sulfur mustard degradation pathways. The sulfur mustard degradation half-lives on ambient concrete at 22 deg. C ranged from 3.5 to 54 weeks. When the substrates were moistened, the degradation half-lives at 22 deg. C ranged from 75 to 350 h. The degradation of sulfur mustard occurred more quickly at elevated temperatures and with added water. The non-volatile toxic sulfonium ions persisted for months to years on concrete at 22 deg. C and weeks to months on concrete at 35 deg. C, before decomposing to the relatively non-toxic compounds thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane.

  7. Degradation of the blister agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, on concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevett, Carol A.S.; Sumpter, Kenneth B.; Wagner, George W.; Rice, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    The products formed from the degradation of the blister agent sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide] on concrete were identified using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC/MSD), 1 H NMR, 2D 1 H- 13 C NMR and 13 C solid state magic angle spinning (SSMAS) NMR. In situ and extraction experiments were performed. Sulfur mustard was detected in the in situ 13 C SSMAS samples for 12 weeks, whereas less than 5% of the sulfur mustard was detected in extracts from the concrete monoliths after 8 days. Sulfonium ions and (2-chloroethylthio)ethyl ether (T) were observed on the in situ samples after a period of 12 weeks, whereas vinyl species and bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfoxide were observed in the extracts of the concrete monoliths within 24 h. The differences between the extraction and the SSMAS data indicated that the sulfur mustard existed in the concrete in a non-extractable form prior to its degradation. Extraction methods alone were not sufficient to identify the products; methods to identify the presence of non-extractable degradation products were also required

  8. Detection of sulfur mustard adducts in human callus by phage antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, F.J.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Schans, G.P. van der

    2007-01-01

    As part of a research program to develop novel methods for diagnosis of sulfur mustard exposure in the human skin the suitability of phage display was explored. Phage display is a relative new method that enables researchers to quickly evaluate a huge range of potentially useful antibodies, thereby

  9. Kinetics of degradation of sulfur mustard and sarin simulants on HKUST-1 metal organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anuradha; Srivastava, Avanish K; Singh, Beer; Shah, Dilip; Mahato, Timir Haran; Srivastava, Anchal

    2012-10-28

    The applicability of HKUST-1 for the degradation of sulfur mustard and sarin simulants was studied with and without coadsorbed water. Degradation was found to be via hydrolysis and dependent on the nucleophilic substitution reaction, vapour pressure and molecular diameter of the toxicants.

  10. A comparison of sulfur mustard and heptane penetrating a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thomas J., E-mail: t.mueller@theo.chemie.tu-darmstadt.de [Theoretische Physikalische Chemie, Eduard-Zintl-Institut fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 20, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Mueller-Plathe, Florian [Theoretische Physikalische Chemie, Eduard-Zintl-Institut fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 20, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-08-30

    In the present molecular dynamics simulations we study the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide) and the alkane heptane inserted into a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer, a generic model for a biological membrane. We investigate the diffusion, the orientation, the preferred positioning, and the end-to-end distance of the solutes within the membrane as well as the corresponding coupling times. We compare results of equilibrium simulations and simulation at different external forces, which drag the solutes through the membrane. These properties lead to a general comparison of the rotational and translational behaviors of the two solutes during the penetration of the membrane. We show that sulfur mustard, due to its atomic charge polarization, its bigger flexibility and its smaller molecular volume, is the faster moving molecule within the membrane. In last consequence, we show that this leads to different limits for the transport mechanism as observed in these simulations. For heptane the hindrance to penetrate into the membrane is significantly higher than for sulfur mustard. In contrast to heptane molecules, which spend the most of the time penetrating the tail groups, sulfur mustard needs more time to escape the tail group-head group interface of the membrane.

  11. The Quantitation of Sulfur Mustard By-Products, Sulfur-Containing Herbicides, and Organophosphonates in Soil and Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, B.A., Sega, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)], Macnaughton, S.J. [Microbial Insights, Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Over the past fifty years, the facilities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal have been used for the manufacturing, bottling, and shipping sulfur- containing herbicides, sulfur mustard, and Sarin. There is a need for analytical methods capable of determining these constituents quickly to determine exactly how specific waste structural materials should be handled, treated, and landfilled.These species are extracted rapidly from heated samples of soil or crushed concrete using acetonitrile at elevated pressure, then analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector. Thiodiglycol, the major hydrolysis product of sulfur mustard, must be converted to a silylated derivative prior to quantitation. Detection limits, calculated using two statistically-unbiased protocols, ranged between 2-13 micrograms analyte/g soil or concrete.

  12. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Modified Dominant Lethal Study of Sulfur Mustard in Rats Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-05-01

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard (HD) [bis{2-chloroethyl)-sulfide) ' a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Little, however, is known about the mutagenic activity of HD in mammalian species and data regarding the dominant lethal effects of HD are ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to determine the dominant lethal effect in male and female rats orally exposed to HD. The study was conducted in two phases; a female dominant lethal phase and a male dominant lethal phase. Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex were administered 0.08, 0.20, or 0.50 mg/kg HD in sesame oil 5 days/week for 10 weeks. For the female phase, treated or untreated males were mated with treated females and their fetuses were evaluated at approximately 14 days after copulation. For the male dominant lethal phase, treated males cohabited with untreated femal (during 5 days of each week for 10 weeks) and females were sacrificed for fetal evaluation 14 days after the midweek of cohabitation during each of the 10 weeks. The appearance and behavior of the rats were unremarkable throughout the experiment and there were no treatment-related deaths. Growth rates were reduced in both female and male rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg HD. Indicators of reproductive performance did not demonstrate significant female dominant lethal effects, although significant male dominant lethal effects were observed at 2 and 3 week post-exposure. These effects included increases of early fetal resorptions and preimplantation losses and decreases of total live embryo implants. These effects were most consistently observed at a dose of 0.50 mg/kg, but frequently occurred at the lower doses. Although no treatment-related effects on male reproductive organ weights or sperm motility were found, a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm was detected in males exposed to 0. 50 mg/kg HD. The timing of these effects is consistent with an effect during the

  13. The Mustard Consortium’s Elucidation of the Pathophysiology of Sulfur Mustard and Antidote Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    fibrosis is well documented (4). Not unexpectedly, HD is radiomimetic, teratogenic and mutagenic (5,6). Currently, there is no effective therapy ...available. The long term goals are to further define the mode of action of mustard gas and to develop a therapy using liposomes containing both lipid...unilamellar antioxidant liposomes containing 6.6 mole percent RRR-alpha- tocopherol (as well as 66.6, 26.5 and 0.66 mole percent of soy lecithin

  14. Assay techniques for detection of exposure to sulfur mustard, cholinesterase inhibitors, sarin, soman, GF, and cyanide. Technical bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This technical bulletin provides analytical techniques to identify toxic chemical agents in urine or blood samples. It is intended to provide the clinician with laboratory tests to detect exposure to sulfur mustard, cholinesterase inhibitors, sarin, soman, GF, and cyanide.

  15. The GC/AED studies on the reactions of sulfur mustard with oxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popiel, StanisIaw; Witkiewicz, Zygfryd; Szewczuk, Aleksander

    2005-01-01

    A gas chromatograph coupled with an atomic emission detector was used to identify and to determine the products formed on oxidation of sulfur mustard. The oxidation rate and the resulting oxidates were studied in relation to oxidant type and reaction medium parameters. Hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, sodium perborate, potassium monopercarbonate, ammonium peroxydisulfate, potassium peroxymonosulfate (oxone), and tert-butyl peroxide were used as oxidants. Oxidations were run in aqueous media or in solvents of varying polarities. The oxidation rate was found to be strongly related to oxidant type: potassium peroxymonosulfate (oxone) and sodium hypochlorite were fast-acting oxidants; sodium perborate, hydrogen peroxide, ammonium peroxydisulfate, and sodium monopercarbonate were moderate oxidants; tert-butyl peroxide was the slowest-acting oxidant. In non-aqueous solvents, the oxidation rate was strongly related to solvent polarity. The higher the solvent polarity, the faster the oxidation rate. In the acid and neutral media, the mustard oxidation rates were comparable. In the alkaline medium, oxidation was evidently slower. A suitable choice of the initial oxidant-to-mustard concentration ratio allowed to control the type of the resulting mustard oxidates. As the pH of the reaction medium was increased, the reaction of elimination of hydrogen chloride from mustard oxidates becomes more and more intensive

  16. Therapeutic options to treat sulfur mustard poisoning--the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William J

    2009-09-01

    For the past 15 years the international research community has conducted a basic and applied research program aimed at identifying a medical countermeasure against chemical threat vesicant, or blistering, agents. The primary emphasis of this program has been the development of therapeutic protection against sulfur mustard and its cutaneous pathology-blister formation. In addition to the work on a medical countermeasures, significant research has been conducted on the development of topical skin protectants and medical strategies for wound healing. This review will focus on the pharmacological strategies investigated, novel therapeutic targets currently under investigation and therapeutic approaches being considered for transition to advanced development. Additionally, we will review the expansion of our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of mustard injury that has come from this research. While great strides have been made through these investigations, the complexity of the mustard insult demands that further studies extend the inroads made and point the way toward better understanding of cellular and tissue disruptions caused by sulfur mustard.

  17. Solid-Phase Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites Using an Activated Carbon Fiber Sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Young; Lee, Yong Han

    2016-01-01

    A novel solid-phase extraction method using activated carbon fiber (ACF) was developed and validated. ACF has a vast network of pores of varying sizes and microporous structures that result in rapid adsorption and selective extraction of sulfur mustard metabolites according to the pH of eluting solvents. ACF could not only selectively extract thiodiglycol and 1-methylsulfinyl-2-[2-(methylthio)-ethylsulfonyl]ethane eluting a 9:1 ratio of dichloromethane to acetone, and 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethane] and 1,1'-sulfonylbis- [2-S-(N-acetylcysteinyl)ethane] eluting 3% hydrogen chloride in methanol, but could also eliminate most interference without loss of analytes during the loading and washing steps. A sample preparation method has been optimized for the extraction of sulfur mustard metabolites from human urine using an ACF sorbent. The newly developed extraction method was applied to the trace analysis of metabolites of sulfur mustard in human urine matrices in a confidence-building exercise for the analysis of biomedical samples provided by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Temporal and spatial features of the formation of DNA adducts in sulfur mustard-exposed skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire «Lésions des Acides Nucléiques», Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire «Lésions des Acides Nucléiques», Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Cléry-Barraud, Cécile [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that targets skin where it induces large blisters. DNA alkylation is a critical step to explain SM-induced cutaneous symptoms. We determined the kinetics of formation of main SM–DNA adducts and compare it with the development of the SM-induced pathogenesis in skin. SKH-1 mice were exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM and treated skin was biopsied between 6 h and 21 days. Formation of SM DNA adducts was dose-dependent with a maximum immediately after exposure. However, adducts were persistent and still detectable 21 days post-exposure. The time-dependent formation of DNA adducts was also found to be correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells. This temporal correlation suggests that these two early events are responsible for the severity of the damage to the skin. Besides, SM–DNA adducts were also detected in areas located next to contaminated zone, thus suggesting that SM diffuses in skin. Altogether, this work provides for the first time a clear picture of SM-induced genotoxicity using DNA adducts as a marker. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard adducts are formed in DNA after skin exposure. • DNA damage formation is an early event in the pathological process of skin burn. • The amount of SM–DNA adducts is maximal at the earliest time point investigated. • Adducts are still detected 3 weeks after exposure. • Sulfur mustard diffuses in skin especially when large doses are applied.

  19. Prevalence of Skin Cancers Among Iranian Veterans, 18-23 Years Following Exposure to Sulfur Mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emadi, S. N.; Soroush, R.; Khateri, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this historical Cohort, in a population of 800 veterans with documented history of exposure to Sulfur Mustard during the period of 1984-88 (all have been under the close health monitoring program) 25 cases are found to have developed skin cancer over the past years. The most common cancer among these cases has been Basal Cell Carcinoma -BCC- with 9 cases and then Squamous Cell Carcinoma -SCC- , mycosis fungoides-MF-, Bowen disease and Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans-DFSP- (5, 5, 4 and 2 cases respectively). Considering the number of diagnosed skin cancers among the subjects of this study and new cases even 2 decades after exposure, more in depth studies are necessary to investigate the possible casual relationship between the exposure to mustard gas and the skin cancers. (author)

  20. Treatment for Sulfur Mustard Lung Injuries; New Therapeutic Approaches from Acute to Chronic Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Poursaleh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sulfur mustard (SM is one of the major potent chemical warfare and attractive weapons for terrorists. It has caused deaths to hundreds of thousands of victims in World War I and more recently during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988. It has ability to develop severe acute and chronic damage to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Understanding the acute and chronic biologic consequences of SM exposure may be quite essential for developing efficient prophylactic/therapeutic measures. One of the systems majorly affected by SM is the respiratory tract that numerous clinical studies have detailed processes of injury, diagnosis and treatments of lung. The low mortality rate has been contributed to high prevalence of victims and high lifetime morbidity burden. However, there are no curative modalities available in such patients. In this review, we collected and discussed the related articles on the preventive and therapeutic approaches to SM-induced respiratory injury and summarized what is currently known about the management and therapeutic strategies of acute and long-term consequences of SM lung injuries.Method:This review was done by reviewing all papers found by searching following key words sulfur mustard; lung; chronic; acute; COPD; treatment.Results:Mustard lung has an ongoing pathological process and is active disorder even years after exposure to SM. Different drug classes have been studied, nevertheless there are no curative modalities for mustard lung. Conclusion:Complementary studies on one hand regarding pharmacokinetic of drugs and molecular investigations are mandatory to obtain more effective treatments.

  1. Treatment for sulfur mustard lung injuries; new therapeutic approaches from acute to chronic phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poursaleh Zohreh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Sulfur mustard (SM is one of the major potent chemical warfare and attractive weapons for terrorists. It has caused deaths to hundreds of thousands of victims in World War I and more recently during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988. It has ability to develop severe acute and chronic damage to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Understanding the acute and chronic biologic consequences of SM exposure may be quite essential for developing efficient prophylactic/therapeutic measures. One of the systems majorly affected by SM is the respiratory tract that numerous clinical studies have detailed processes of injury, diagnosis and treatments of lung. The low mortality rate has been contributed to high prevalence of victims and high lifetime morbidity burden. However, there are no curative modalities available in such patients. In this review, we collected and discussed the related articles on the preventive and therapeutic approaches to SM-induced respiratory injury and summarized what is currently known about the management and therapeutic strategies of acute and long-term consequences of SM lung injuries. Method This review was done by reviewing all papers found by searching following key words sulfur mustard; lung; chronic; acute; COPD; treatment. Results Mustard lung has an ongoing pathological process and is active disorder even years after exposure to SM. Different drug classes have been studied, nevertheless there are no curative modalities for mustard lung. Conclusion Complementary studies on one hand regarding pharmacokinetic of drugs and molecular investigations are mandatory to obtain more effective treatments.

  2. Diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure to sulfur mustard: Development of a standard operating procedure for hemoglobin adducts: Exploratory research on albumin and keratin adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Schans, G.P. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    A standard operating procedure (SOP) for determination of the sulfur mustard adduct to the N-terminal valine in hemoglobin was developed. By using this SOP, it was found that the Nterminal valine adduct in globin of hairless guinea pigs and marmosets which had been exposed to sulfur mustard (0.5

  3. Alkylation of human serum albumin by sulfur mustard in vitro and in vivo : Mass spectrometric analysis of a cysteine adduct as a sensitive biomarker of exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    To develop a mass spectrometric assay for the detection of sulfur mustard adducts with human serum albumin, the following steps were performed: quantitation of the binding of the agent to the protein by using [14C] sulfur mustard and analysis of acidic and tryptic digests of albumin from blood after

  4. Quantum molecular modeling of the interaction between guanine and alkylating agents--1--sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broch, H; Hamza, A; Vasilescu, D

    1996-06-01

    Interaction between Guanine and the episulfonium form of Sulfur mustard (HD) was studied using the ab initio LCAO-MO method at the HF/6-31G level. The alkylation mechanism on guanine-N7 was analyzed by using a supermolecular modeling. Our stereostructural results associated with the molecular electrostatic potentials and HOMO-LUMO properties, show that in vacuum the alkylation of the N7 of guanine by HD in the aggressive episulfonium form is a direct process without transition state and of which the pathway is determined.

  5. Epoxy Resin Modified Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor for Chemical Warfare Agent Sulfur Mustard Vapor Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra BUNKAR

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An epoxy resin polymer coated quartz crystal microbalance (PC-QCM is used for detection of sulfur mustard vapor (SM. When SM vapor is exposed to PC-QCM sensor frequency shift is observed. The response of the sensor in ambient condition is 554 Hz with ±10 % variation upon exposure of 155 ppm of the SM concentration. The observed response loss is nearly 40 % over the period of 15 months. The response of the sensor is higher for SM than compare to structurally similar chloroethyl ether (CEE and other interferences.

  6. Skin manifestations in sulfur mustard exposed victims with ophthalmologic complications: Association between early and late phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Hejazi, MD

    Full Text Available Context: Sulfur mustard (SM was used during the Iraq-Iran war (1980–1988. Exposed veterans continue to suffer from its ocular, skin, and respiratory complications. Objective: We aimed to evaluate associations between early (at the time of acute exposure and decades later skin manifestations in individuals with severe ophthalmologic complications secondary to sulfur mustard exposure. Materials and methods: One hundred forty-nine veterans with severe ocular injuries were evaluated for acute and chronic skin complications. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between early and late skin manifestations. Results: Late skin complaints were observed in nearly all survivors who had early skin lesions (131 out of 137; 95.62%. Seven out of 12 patients (58.33% who did not have early skin lesions ultimately developed late skin complications. There was a significant relationship between the presence of lesions at the time of exposure and developing late skin complaints (two-sided Fisher's exact test, OR = 15.59, p < 0.001. There was an association between having at least one early skin lesion and occurrence of late skin complications. Survivors with blisters at the time of chemical exposure were more likely to complain of itching (95% CI: 3.63–25.97, p < 0.001, burning (OR = 11.16; 95% CI: 2.97–41.89, p < 0.001, pigmentation changes (OR = 10.17; 95% CI: 2.54–40.75, p = 0.001, dryness (OR = 6.71, 95% CI: 1.22–37.01, p = 0.03 or cherry angioma (OR = 2.59; 95% CI:1.21–5.55, p = 0.01 during the late phase. Using multivariate logistic models, early blisters remained significantly associated with latent skin complaints. Of note, the genitalia and great flexure areas were the most involved anatomical sites for both early and late skin lesions in SM exposed survivors. Conclusion: According to this study, the presence of blisters at the time of exposure to SM is the most important predictor of developing

  7. Prevention and treatment of respiratory consequences induced by sulfur mustard in Iranian casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M Razavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88. After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. Methods: For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. Results: There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Conclusions: Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes.

  8. Long Term Follow-Up of Sulfur Mustard Related Bronchiolitis Obliterans Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Abtahi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO is the most remarkable pulmonary sequels of war-related sulfur mustard inhalation. There is little if any data about long-term efficacy of associated BO treatment. Five years spirometric records of three groups of patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases (asthma, COPD, BO and documented sulfur mustard inhalation were evaluated. The BO patients were treated with inhaled Seretide 125-250/25 (2 puffs BID, azithromycin (250 mg, three times/week and N-acetylcysteine (1200-1800/day. Asthma and COPD patients were treated according to existing guidelines. Seventy-three (38 asthma, 16 COPD and 19 BO patients completed the 5 years follow-up. Basal and final FEV1 in BO patients (2.69±0.81 and 2.39±0.65 respectively were not significantly different from COPD patients (2.46±0.56 and 1.96±0.76 respectively. There was also no significant difference between the yearly FEV1 decline in BO patients compared to COPD patients (60±84 cc vs. 99±79 cc respectively, P=0.163. The non-significant difference of FEV1 decline in BO compared to COPD patients suggests the effectiveness of azithromycin, inhaled steroid and N-acetyl cysteine in BO patients. Considering safety and possible effectiveness, this treatment is recommended until more data is available from controlled clinical studies.

  9. Inhalation and Percutaneous Toxicokinetics of Sulfur Mustard and Its adducts in Hairless Guinea Pigs and Marmosets. Efficacy of Nasal Scavengers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langenberg, Jan P

    2004-01-01

    As a follow-up to DAMDl7-94-V-4OO9, the inhalation toxicokinetics of sulfur mustard are studied in more detail in the hairless guinea pig as well as in a species more relevant for man, i.e., the marmoset...

  10. Inhalation and Percutaneous Toxicokinetics of Sulfur Mustard and Its Adducts in Hairless Guinea Pigs and Marmosets. Efficacy of Naval Scavengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    activity ca. 40 units/mg protein) from Boehringer (Mannheim, Germany); RNase A, and Tween 20 from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA); and skimmed milk ...al. 1997). This hypothesis is still awaiting falsification . Measurement of the concentration-time course of the adduct of sulfur mustard to hemoglobin

  11. Determination of the sulfur mustard hydrolysis product thiodiglycol by microcolumn liquid chromatography coupled on-line with sulfur flame photometric detection using large-volume injections and peak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, E.W.J.; Kientz, C.E.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1999-01-01

    A selective, direct and relatively rapid method has been developed for the determination of thiodiglycol (TDG) in aqueous samples. TDG is the main hydrolysis product of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard. The method of analysis is based on the on-line coupling of reversed-phase microcolumn

  12. Induction and repair of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard in the A-549 cell line followed by a comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Petr; Svobodova, Hana; Stetina, Rudolf

    2015-07-25

    Sulfur mustard is a highly toxic chemical warfare agent with devastating impact on intoxicated tissues. DNA cross-links are probably the most toxic DNA lesions induced in the cell by sulfur mustard. The comet assay is a very sensitive method for measuring DNA damage. In the present study using the A-549 lung cell line, the comet assay protocol was optimized for indirect detection of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard. The method is based on the additional treatment of the assayed cells containing cross-links with the chemical mutagen, styrene oxide. Alkali-labile adducts of styrene oxide cause DNA breaks leading to the formation of comets. A significant dose-dependent reduction of DNA migration of the comet's tail was found after exposing cells to sulfur mustard, indicative of the amount of sulfur mustard induced cross-links. The remarkable decrease of % tail DNA could be observed as early as 5min following exposure to sulfur mustard and the maximal effect was found after 30min, when DNA migration was reduced to the minimum. Sulfur mustard preincubated in culture medium without cells lost its ability to induce cross-links and had a half-life of about 15min. Pre-incubation longer than 30min does not lead to a significant increase in cross-links when applied to cells. However, the amount of cross-links is decreased during further incubation due to repair. The current modification of the comet assay provides a useful tool for detecting DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard and could be used for detection of other DNA cross-linking agents such as chemotherapeutic drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cell Death Mechanisms in Sulfur Mustard Injury: Basis for Therapeutics Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, R.; Keyser, B.; Benton, B.; Rosenthal, D. S.

    2007-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM, bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide), commonly called mustard gas, is a vesicant chemical warfare agent and a potential terrorism agent. SM is relatively easy to make and to deploy, which makes this chemical most likely to be used. SM exposure causes debilitating skin blisters (vesication) and injury to the eyes and the respiratory tract. Therefore, developing an effective medical countermeasure to protect against the dermal, ocular and airway injuries due to this dreaded chemical agent is an urgent priority of the US Army. SM pathophysiology is consistent with epithelial cell damage, particularly basal cell apoptosis. SM-induced apoptosis may occur via multiple pathways dependent on one or more of the following: (a) abnormal Ca2plus homeostasis, (b) disturbed cellular bioenergetics, and (c) Fas (death receptor) response. Apoptosis pathways are characterized by the involvement of the pathway-specific caspases (cysteine aspartase). We determined caspase activity by assay of fluorogenic caspase type-specific peptide substrate hydrolysis. We studied caspase processing, i.e., proteolytic conversion of procaspase to active caspase by immunoblot analyses utilizing caspase type-specific antibodies. Our results in cell culture models of both human epidermal keratinocytes and human airway epithelial cells indicated that SM activates (a) caspase-9, an indicator of the Ca2plus/CaM-mediated mitochondrial pathway, (b) caspase-8, a marker for the Fas-mediated pathway, and (c) caspase-3, the executioner caspase involved in both pathways. A peptide caspase inhibitor, specific for caspase-3 (AC-DEVD-CHO), added to cells prior to SM decreased apoptosis. These observations suggest apoptosis as a mechanism of SM toxicity and caspase inhibitors as prospective medical countermeasures.(author)

  14. Extraction and Analysis of Sulfur Mustard (HD) from Various Food Matrices by Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    9 8. (a) GC chromatogram and (b) mass spectrum for HD extracted from hot dog; (c) mass spectrum at Rt = 5.08 min (benzoic acid ...shows the mass spectrum for benzoic acid . Percent recoveries were calculated based on an external calibration curve for HD (Figure 14). The recoveries...EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF SULFUR MUSTARD ( HD ) FROM VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY–MASS

  15. Th17/Treg immunoregulation and implications in treatment of sulfur mustard gas-induced lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iman, Maryam; Rezaei, Ramazan; Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Shariati, Parvin; Kheradmand, Farrah; Salimian, Jafar

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an extremely toxic gas used in chemical warfare to cause massive lung injury and death. Victims exposed to SM gas acutely present with inhalational lung injury, but among those who survive, some develop obstructive airway diseases referred to as SM-lung syndrome. Pathophysiologically, SM-lung shares many characteristics with smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including airway remodeling, goblet cell metaplasia, and obstructive ventilation defect. Some of the hallmarks of COPD pathogenesis, which include dysregulated lung inflammation, neutrophilia, recruitment of interleukin 17A (IL -17A) expressing CD4 + T cells (Th17), and the paucity of lung regulatory T cells (Tregs), have also been described in SM-lung. Areas covered: A literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases inclusive of all literature prior to and including May 2017. Expert commentary: Here we review some of the recent findings that suggest a role for Th17 cell-mediated inflammatory changes associated with pulmonary complications in SM-lung and suggest new therapeutic approaches that could potentially alter disease progression with immune modulating biologics that can restore the lung Th17/Treg balance.

  16. Fate of sulfur mustard on soil: Evaporation, degradation, and vapor emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunsook; Kah, Dongha; Chan Lim, Kyoung; Lee, Jin Young

    2017-01-01

    After application of sulfur mustard to the soil surface, its possible fate via evaporation, degradation following absorption, and vapor emission after decontamination was studied. We used a laboratory-sized wind tunnel, thermal desorber, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C NMR) for systematic analysis. When a drop of neat HD was deposited on the soil surface, it evaporated slowly while being absorbed immediately into the matrix. The initial evaporation or drying rates of the HD drop were found to be power-dependent on temperature and initial drop volume. Moreover, drops of neat HD, ranging in size from 1 to 6 μL, applied to soil, evaporated at different rates, with the smaller drops evaporating relatively quicker. HD absorbed into soil remained for a month, degrading eventually to nontoxic thiodiglycol via hydrolysis through the formation of sulfonium ions. Finally, a vapor emission test was performed for HD contaminant after a decontamination process, the results of which suggest potential risk from the release of trace chemical quantities of HD into the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sulfur Mustard Research—Strategies for the Development of Improved Medical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehe, Kai; Balszuweit, Frank; Emmler, Judith; Kreppel, Helmut; Jochum, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating substance being used as chemical warfare agent (vesicant). It is still regarded as a significant threat in chemical warfare and terrorism. Exposure to SM produces cutaneous blisters, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract injury, eye lesions, and bone marrow depression. Victims of World War I as well as those of the Iran-Iraq war have suffered from devastating chronic health impairment. Even decades after exposure, severe long-term effects like chronic obstructive lung disease, lung fibrosis, recurrent corneal ulcer disease, chronic conjunctivitis, abnormal pigmentation of the skin, and different forms of cancer have been diagnosed. Methods: This review briefly summarizes the scientific literature and own results concerning detection, organ toxicity of SM, its proposed toxicodynamic actions, and strategies for the development of improved medical therapy. Results: Despite extensive research efforts during the last century, efficient antidotes against SM have not yet been generated because its mechanism of action is not fully understood. However, deeper insights into these mechanisms gained in the last decade and promising developments of new drugs now offer new chances to minimize SM-induced organ damage and late effects. Conclusion: Polymerase inhibitors, anti-inflammatory drugs, antioxidants, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and probably regulators of DNA damage repair are identified as promising approaches to improve treatment. PMID:18615149

  18. Bronchiolitis obliterans following exposure to sulfur mustard: chest high resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanei, Mostafa E-mail: m.ghanei@bmsu.ac.ir; Mokhtari, Majid; Mohammad, Mehdi Mir; Aslani, Jafar

    2004-11-01

    Background: Pulmonary complications are known to occur in over half of the patients exposed to sulfur mustard (SM). Chemical weapons of mass destruction (WMD) including SM were used by Iraq during Iran-Iraq war between 1983 and 1989. We undertook this study to evaluate the chest high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) as a diagnostic tool in patients with documented exposure to SM and chronic respiratory symptoms. Method: The medical records of 155 patients exposed to SM during Iran-Iraq war and suffered respiratory complications were reviewed. Chest HRCTs of these patients were examined. Ten healthy controls with no history of exposure to HD were matched for age, gender, and chest HRCT protocol applied. Results: Fifty chest HRCTs of these patients were randomly selected for this study. The most frequent findings were; air trapping 38 (76%), bronchiectasis 37 (74%), mosaic parenchymal attenuation (MPA) 36 (72%), irregular and dilated major airways 33 (66%) bronchial wall thickening (BWT) 45 (90%), and interlobular septal wall thickening (SWT) 13 (26%), respectively. Air trapping in one patient (10%) was the only positive finding in the control group. Conclusions: Chest HRCT findings of bronchiectasis, air trapping, MPA, SWT, and BWT were seen in our patients 15 years after exposure to HD. These findings suggest the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). We did not encounter chest HRCT features consistent with pulmonary fibrosis.

  19. Behavior of sulfur mustard in sand, concrete, and asphalt matrices: Evaporation, degradation, and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunsook; Choi, Seungki

    2017-10-15

    The evaporation, degradation, and decontamination of sulfur mustard on environmental matrices including sand, concrete, and asphalt are described. A specially designed wind tunnel and thermal desorber in combination with gas chromatograph (GC) produced profiles of vapor concentration obtained from samples of the chemical agent deposited as a drop on the surfaces of the matrices. The matrices were exposed to the chemical agent at room temperature, and the degradation reactions were monitored and characterized. A vapor emission test was also performed after a decontamination process. The results showed that on sand, the drop of agent spread laterally while evaporating. On concrete, the drop of the agent was absorbed immediately into the matrix while spreading and evaporating. However, the asphalt surface conserved the agent and slowly released parts of the agent over an extended period of time. The degradation reactions of the agent followed pseudo first order behavior on the matrices. Trace amounts of the residual agent present at the surface were also released as vapor after decontamination, posing a threat to the exposed individual and environment.

  20. Epigenetic: A missing paradigm in cellular and molecular pathways of sulfur mustard lung: a prospective and comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Imani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM, bis- (2-chloroethyl sulphide is a chemical warfare agent that causes DNA alkylation, protein modification and membrane damage. SM can trigger several molecular pathways involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, which cause cell necrosis and apoptosis, and loss of cells integrity and function. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a growing research topic and is addressed by DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs expression. It seems SM can induce the epigenetic modifications that are translated into change in gene expression. Classification of epigenetic modifications long after exposure to SM would clarify its mechanism and paves a better strategy for the treatment of SM-affected patients. In this study, we review the key aberrant epigenetic modifications that have important roles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and compared with mustard lung.

  1. Sulfur mustard induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Svoboda, Kathy K. [Texas A and M University, Baylor College of Dentistry, Center for Craniofacial Research 3302 Gaston Ave, Dallas, Texas 75246 (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, 425 Volker Boulevard, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gordon, Marion K. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a cell survival pathway upregulated when cells are under severe stress. Severely damaged mouse ear skin exposed to the vesicant, sulfur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, SM), resulted in increased expression of ER chaperone proteins that accompany misfolded and incorrectly made proteins targeted for degradation. Time course studies with SM using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) showed progressive histopathologic changes including edema, separation of the epidermis from the dermis, persistent inflammation, upregulation of laminin γ2 (one of the chains of laminin-332, a heterotrimeric skin glycoprotein required for wound repair), and delayed wound healing from 24 h to 168 h post exposure. This was associated with time related increased expression of the cell survival ER stress marker, GRP78/BiP, and the ER stress apoptosis marker, GADD153/CHOP, suggesting simultaneous activation of both cell survival and non-mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Dual immunofluorescence labeling of a keratinocyte migration promoting protein, laminin γ2 and GRP78/BIP, showed colocalization of the two molecules 72 h post exposure indicating that the laminin γ2 was misfolded after SM exposure and trapped within the ER. Taken together, these data show that ER stress is induced in mouse skin within 24 h of vesicant exposure in a defensive response to promote cell survival; however, it appears that this response is rapidly overwhelmed by the apoptotic pathway as a consequence of severe SM-induced injury. - Highlights: ► We demonstrated ER stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model. ► We described the asymmetrical nature of wound repair in the MEVM. ► We identified the distribution of various ER stress markers in the MEVM.

  2. Nocturnal serum melatonin levels in sulfur mustard exposed patients with sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyyedeh Soghra; Vahedi, E; Shohrati, M; Panahi, Y; Parvin, S

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) exposure causes respiratory disorders, progressive deterioration in lung function and mortality in injured victims and poor sleep quality is one of the most common problems among SM-exposed patients. Since melatonin has a critical role in regulation of sleep and awareness, this study aimed to evaluate the serum melatonin levels in SM-injured subjects. A total of 30 SM-exposed male patients and 10 controls was evaluated. Sleep quality was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); daytime sleepiness was measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the risk of obstructive sleep apnoea was determined by the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Polysomnography (PSG) and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were also available. Nocturnal serum melatonin levels were measured using an ELISA kit. The mean of PSQI, ESS and STOP-Bang scores in patients (11.76±3.56, 12.6±3.03 and 5.03±1.09, respectively) were significantly (pmelatonin levels in patients (29.78±19.31 pg/mL) was significantly (p=0.005) lower than that in the controls (78.53±34.41 pg/mL). Reduced nocturnal serum melatonin and respiratory disorders can be the reasons for poor sleep quality among these patients. IRCT2015092924267N1, Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Biochemical and hematological findings of Khorasan veterans 23 years after sulfur mustard exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Keramati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM is an incapacitating chemical warfare agent, which has been widely employed in particular regions including Iran. We investigated and reported delayed biochemical and hematological complications of SM in severely toxic Iranian veterans 23 years after exposure. Materials and Methods : Forty-two Iranian veterans, residents of Khorasan Razavi, poisoned by SM, and suffering from clinical complications were investigated. A total of 30 healthy male volunteers were also selected as a control group. Biochemical and hematological variables were measured for the case and control groups. Data were analyzed using a Student′s t-test by InStat software (GraphPad Inc., San Diego, CA to determine significant differences between the data from the two groups. Results: The percentages of reticulocytes were significantly higher in patients (0.82 ± 0.04, P < 0.05. Total protein and albumin levels were significantly lower in veterans (total protein: 7.58 ± 0.07 g/dL, albumin: 4.97 ± 0.04 g/dL, P < 0.01. In addition, we observed a significant increase in serum cholesterol (226.74 ± 5.23 mg/dL, P < 0.01, triglyceride (173.53 ± 17.05 mg/dL, P < 0.05, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GTT activity of the patients (44.04 ± 3.35 IU/L, P < 0.05. Conclusion: Results showed that SM can cause long-term effects on some biochemical factors of veterans. As many of the functional tests of liver and kidney between two groups were statistically unchanged, it seems that the observed biochemical changes may be secondary to delayed respiratory complications of the patients.

  4. Decontamination of chemical warfare sulfur mustard agent simulant by ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Meysam; Yekta, Sina; Ghaedi, Hamed

    2016-07-01

    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been surveyed to decontaminate the chloroethyl phenyl sulfide as a sulfur mustard agent simulant. Prior to the reaction, ZnO NPs were successfully prepared through sol-gel method in the absence and presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA was utilized as a capping agent to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The formation, morphology, elemental component, and crystalline size of nanoscale ZnO were certified and characterized by SEM/EDX, XRD, and FT-IR techniques. The decontamination (adsorption and destruction) was tracked by the GC-FID analysis, in which the effects of polarity of the media, such as isopropanol, acetone and n-hexane, reaction time intervals from 1 up to 18 h, and different temperatures, including 25, 35, 45, and 55 °C, on the catalytic/decontaminative capability of the surface of ZnO NPs/PVA were investigated and discussed, respectively. Results demonstrated that maximum decontamination (100 %) occurred in n-hexane solvent at 55 °C after 1 h. On the other hand, the obtained results for the acetone and isopropanol solvents were lower than expected. GC-MS chromatograms confirmed the formation of hydroxyl ethyl phenyl sulfide and phenyl vinyl sulfide as the destruction reaction products. Furthermore, these chromatograms proved the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the catalyst considering its surface Bronsted and Lewis acid sites. A non-polar solvent aids material transfer to the reactive surface acid sites without blocking these sites.

  5. Late-onset Radiologic Findings of Respiratory System Following Sulfur Mustard Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Amini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM as a chemical warfare agent, increases permeability of bronchial vessels and damages airway epithelium. SM exposure causes debilitating respiratory complications. This study was designed to evaluate clinical respiratory manifestations, and to compare chest X ray (CXR and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of chest in SM exposed patients with respiratory complaints. Methods:All patients with history of SM exposure who visited Imam Reza Specialized Clinic of Respiratory Diseases from September 2001 to March 2011 were included. Patients with other comorbidities which affect respiratory system were excluded. CXR and chest HRCT scan were performed on the same day and were repeated after 5 years. Clinical and radiologic findings were collected and were compared with each other. Results: In total, 62 male patients with mean age of 53 (6.9, 41-65 were studied. Dyspnea (61 cases; 100%, dry cough (40 cases; 66%, hemoptysis (21 cases; 35% and productive cough (20 cases; 33% were the most common respiratory manifestations. Pulmonary infiltration (51; 83%, pleural thickening (25; 40% and emphysema (16; 26% were the most common findings on CXR. According to HRCT scan, pulmonary infiltration (53; 85%, bronchiolitis obliterans (38; 61% and pleural thickening (36; 58% were the most common findings (Table 2. Repeated radiologic assessments after 5 years showed a few additional findings in HRCT scan, while in about one fifth of CXRs, new pathologic findings were found. Conclusion: Patients with SM exposure experience debilitating respiratory disorders in long term. Repeating CXR in patients who present with subjective symptoms may show new findings; however, repeating HRCT scan is probably not necessary.

  6. Skin decontamination efficacy of potassium ketoxime on rabbits exposed to sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Hai; Sun, Pei-Pei; Zheng, Wei; Han, Song; Ying, Ying; Liu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Cheng; Zhao, Bao-Quan; Zuo, Guo-Min; Lu, Hong; Zhong, Yu-Xu

    2015-03-01

    The chemical weapon sulfur mustard (SM) is a blister agent, and currently, there is no effective antidote. To evaluate the decontamination efficacy of potassium ketoxime against SM and preliminarily elucidate its decontamination mechanism. Potassium ketoxime reacted with SM, and SM residues were tested at different time intervals by T-135 colorimetry after the reaction. Rabbit skin was topically exposed to 2 mg/cm(2) SM, treated with potassium ketoxime 1 min later, and observed after 6, 12, and 24 h. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was employed to screen and identify the main products of potassium ketoxime decontamination of SM. Potassium ketoxime had a great effect against SM contamination. With a mass ratio of decontaminant: SM of 50:1, decontamination rates against SM were 87.5% after 30 s, 95.9% after 1 min, and 99.0% after 5 min. Fifteen minutes after exposure to SM, the untreated group showed clear erythema lesions, whereas the experimental group showed no clear erythema lesions within 6 h. After 12 and 24 h, the areas of damaged skin in the experimental group were 0.038 and 0.125 cm(2), respectively, compared with 2.21 and 2.65 cm(2) in the control group. Histopathological analysis revealed that treatment with potassium ketoxime also reduced inflammation-induced damage. The results of this study indicate that potassium ketoxime reacted rapidly and completely with SM, and thus, it was found to be a suitable and effective skin decontaminant against SM. The decontamination reaction mechanism is mainly related to nucleophilic substitution.

  7. Locus-specific microemulsion catalysts for sulfur mustard (HD) chemical warfare agent decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallis, Ian A; Griffiths, Peter C; Cosgrove, Terence; Dreiss, Cecile A; Govan, Norman; Heenan, Richard K; Holden, Ian; Jenkins, Robert L; Mitchell, Stephen J; Notman, Stuart; Platts, Jamie A; Riches, James; Tatchell, Thomas

    2009-07-22

    The rates of catalytic oxidative decontamination of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chlororethyl) sulfide) and a range (chloroethyl) sulfide simulants of variable lipophilicity have been examined using a hydrogen peroxide-based microemulsion system. SANS (small-angle neutron scattering), SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering), PGSE-NMR (pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR), fluorescence quenching, and electrospray mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) were implemented to examine the distribution of HD, its simulants, and their oxidation/hydrolysis products in a model oil-in-water microemulsion. These measurements not only present a means of interpreting decontamination rates but also a rationale for the design of oxidation catalysts for these toxic materials. Here we show that by localizing manganese-Schiff base catalysts at the oil droplet-water interface or within the droplet core, a range of (chloroethyl) sulfides, including HD, spanning some 7 orders of octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)), may be oxidized with equal efficacy using dilute (5 wt. % of aqueous phase) hydrogen peroxide as a noncorrosive, environmentally benign oxidant (e.g., t(1/2) (HD) approximately 18 s, (2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide, C(6)H(5)SCH(2)CH(2)Cl) approximately 15 s, (thiodiglycol, S(CH(2)CH(2)OH)(2)) approximately 19 s {20 degrees C}). Our observations demonstrate that by programming catalyst lipophilicity to colocalize catalyst and substrate, the inherent compartmentalization of the microemulsion can be exploited to achieve enhanced rates of reaction or to exert control over product selectivity. A combination of SANS, ESI-MS and fluorescence quenching measurements indicate that the enhanced catalytic activity is due to the locus of the catalyst and not a result of partial hydrolysis of the substrate.

  8. Biochemical changes in mouse lung after subcutaneous injection of the sulfur mustard 2-chloroethyl 4-chlorobutyl sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Nabil M; Omaye, Stanley T

    2004-07-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) is a vesicant-type chemical warfare agent (CWA) introduced in World War I which continues to be produced, stockpiled, and occasionally deployed by some countries, and could be used potentially by terrorists. Exposure to HD can cause erythema, blisters, corneal opacity, and airway damage. We have reported previously that subcutaneous (SC) injection of immunodeficient athymic nude mice with the half mustard butyl 2-chloroethyl sulfide (BCS) causes systemic biochemical changes in several organs distal to the exposure site. In the present study, we examined the response of non-immunodeficient Swiss Webster mice to the mustard, 2-chloroethyl 4-chlorobutyl sulfide (CECBS). In a pilot study, we found that a single SC injection of 20-25 microl/mouse causes death within 24h. Consequently, we used 5 microl/mouse (approx. 0.017 mg/kg body weight) of neat CECBS or an equal volume of saline as control. We examined the lungs after 1, 24, and 48 h for biochemical changes including total and oxidized glutathione, protein, DNA, and lipid peroxidation contents in tissue homogenate, and superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glutathione S-transferases activities in the cytosol. After 1h and/or 24h, we found statistically significant changes that were resolved by 48 h. These changes mimicked those of HD and BCS and were generally consistent with free radical-mediated oxidative stress. The implications of these observations are two-fold. First, dermal exposure to low-dose mustard gas could elicit systemic changes impacting distal organs such as the lungs. It also suggests that antioxidants could potentially modulate the response and reduce the damage. Second, although the use of known CWAs such as HD is prohibited, analogs that are not recognized as agents are as toxic and could be dangerous if acquired and used by potential terrorists.

  9. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancourt, Raymond C.; Veress, Livia A.; Ahmad, Aftab; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; White, Carl W.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O 2 saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI had

  10. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancourt, Raymond C., E-mail: raymond.rancourt@ucdenver.edu; Veress, Livia A., E-mail: livia.veress@ucdenver.edu; Ahmad, Aftab, E-mail: aftab.ahmad@ucdenver.edu; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B., E-mail: tara.hendry-hofer@ucdenver.edu; Rioux, Jacqueline S., E-mail: jacqueline.rioux@ucdenver.edu; Garlick, Rhonda B., E-mail: rhonda.garlick@ucdenver.edu; White, Carl W., E-mail: carl.w.white@ucdenver.edu

    2013-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O{sub 2} saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI

  11. Structural flexibility of the sulfur mustard molecule at finite temperature from Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Joanna; Goclon, Jakub; Rodziewicz, Pawel

    2016-04-05

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is one of the most dangerous chemical compounds used against humans, mostly at war conditions but also in terrorist attacks. Even though the sulfur mustard has been synthesized over a hundred years ago, some of its molecular properties are not yet resolved. We investigate the structural flexibility of the SM molecule in the gas phase by Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. Thorough conformation analysis of 81 different SM configurations using density functional theory is performed to analyze the behavior of the system at finite temperature. The conformational diversity is analyzed with respect to the formation of intramolecular blue-shifting CH⋯S and CH⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that all structural rearrangements between SM local minima are realized either in direct or non-direct way, including the intermediate structure in the last case. We study the lifetime of the SM conformers and perform the population analysis. Additionally, we provide the anharmonic dynamical finite temperature IR spectrum from the Fourier Transform of the dipole moment autocorrelation function to mimic the missing experimental IR spectrum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum level of substance P in patients with lung injuries due to sulfur mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Najafian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The SP may have a role in pulmonary complications of mustard gas. The lower level of SP in the moderate to severe patients may be due to corticosteroid consumption in such severe cases. However, further studies are needed to clarify the roles and mechanism of SP in this setting.

  13. Evaluation of the pharmacoeconomics of drugs used for the treatment of long-term complications of sulfur mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur Mustard (SM, a cytotoxic vesicant chemical warfare agent, has powerful irritant and blistering effects on the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Since during the Iraq-Iran war, many Iranian soldiers and civilians were exposed to SM, there are several victims still suffering from long-term cutaneous, ocular and pulmonary complications. Currently, there is no definite treatment for long-term complications of SM, and only supportive medical care is being taken to minimize the symptoms. In this study, we compared the cost-effectiveness of common drugs that are used against long-term SM-induced complications in Iranian patients. In this review article, electronic databases were checked using the following key words: sulfur mustard, lung, skin, eye, cost-effectiveness, pharmacoeconomics and treatment. Abstracts of non-English papers and proceedings of congresses on SM were also assessed. Among the studied drugs, high-dose oral N-acetyl cysteine and long-acting inhaled corticosteroids against respiratory complications, topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines against cutaneous complications and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids ophthalmic drops against ocular complications were found to be cost-effective. Usage of different drugs in the treatment of SM injuries in Iran, have imposed a significant economic burden to patients and their families because many drugs that are effective against chemical injuries are not covered by insurance. In addition, the development of more effective drugs in this field is considered as an urgent demand that should be noticed by the pharmaceutical industry.

  14. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. New Methods for Evaluating Skin Injury from Sulfur Mustard in the Hairless Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-13

    MUSTARD IN THE HAIRLESS GUINEA PIG Ernest H. Braue, Jr., Catherine R. Bangledorf, and Robert G. Rieder "U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical...evaluating the skin hydration state. The skin of anesthetized hairless guinea pigs was exposed to saturated HD vapor (1.4mg/ml) at 4 sites for 3, 5, 7, or 9...assessment of skin damage following cutaneous exposure to HD vapor. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS Each hairless guinea pig (HGP) was exposed to saturated HD vapor

  16. The diversity of the effects of sulfur mustard gas inhalation on respiratory system 10 years after a single, heavy exposure: analysis of 197 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emad, A; Rezaian, G R

    1997-09-01

    To find out the late pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard gas inhalation in 197 veterans, 10 years after their exposure. Cross-sectional clinical study. University hospital. One hundred ninety-seven veterans with a single, heavy exposure to sulfur mustard gas in 1986 and 86 nonexposed veterans as their control group. Pulmonary function tests, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, bronchoscopy, and high-resolution CT of the chest were performed in all patients. Transbronchial lung biopsy was done in 24 suspected cases of pulmonary fibrosis. Asthma was diagnosed in 21 (10.65%), chronic bronchitis in 116 (58.88%), bronchiectasis in 17 (8.62%), airway narrowing due to searing or granulation tissue in 19 (9.64%), and pulmonary fibrosis in 24 (12.18%) cases. None of these were found among the control group except for a single case of chronic bronchitis. Although the respiratory symptoms of an acute sulfur mustard gas inhalation are usually transient and nonspecific, it can lead to the development of a series of chronic destructive pulmonary sequelae in such cases.

  17. Understanding evaporation characteristics of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) chemical agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H., E-mail: junghs@add.re.kr; Lee, H.W.

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Evaporation rates of HD are obtained from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. • The rates increase with temperature and are linearly proportional to drop size. • HD evaporation from stainless steel follows only constant contact area mechanism. • HD evaporation from aluminum proceeds by a combined mechanism. - Abstract: We report herein the evaporation rates and mechanism of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. For systematic analysis, we used a laboratory-sized wind tunnel, thermal desorption (TD) connected to gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and drop shape analysis (DSA). We found that the evaporation rates of HD from stainless steel and aluminum increased with temperature. The rates were also linearly proportional to drop size. The time-dependent contact angle measurement showed that the evaporation of the drop of HD proceeded only by constant contact area mechanism from stainless steel surface. On the other hand, the evaporation of HD from aluminum proceeded by a combined mechanism of constant contact area mode and constant contact angle mode. Our experimental data sets and analysis could be used to predict vapor and contact hazard persistence of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the air and on exterior surfaces with chemical releases, which assists the military decision influencing personnel safety and decontamination of the site upon a chemical attack event.

  18. Silibinin attenuates sulfur mustard analog-induced skin injury by targeting multiple pathways connecting oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Tewari-Singh

    Full Text Available Chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD inflicts delayed blistering and incapacitating skin injuries. To identify effective countermeasures against HD-induced skin injuries, efficacy studies were carried out employing HD analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES-induced injury biomarkers in skin cells and SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. The data demonstrate strong therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in attenuating CEES-induced skin injury and oxidative stress. In skin cells, silibinin (10 µM treatment 30 min after 0.35/0.5 mM CEES exposure caused a significant (p90%, and activation of transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 (complete reversal. Similarly, silibinin treatment was also effective in attenuating CEES-induced oxidative stress measured by 4-hydroxynonenal and 5,5-dimethyl-2-(8-octanoic acid-1-pyrolline N-oxide protein adduct formation, and 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine levels. Since our previous studies implicated oxidative stress, in part, in CEES-induced toxic responses, the reversal of CEES-induced oxidative stress and other toxic effects by silibinin in this study indicate its pleiotropic therapeutic efficacy. Together, these findings support further optimization of silibinin in HD skin toxicity model to develop a novel effective therapy for skin injuries by vesicants.

  19. Understanding evaporation characteristics of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) chemical agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H.; Lee, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaporation rates of HD are obtained from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. • The rates increase with temperature and are linearly proportional to drop size. • HD evaporation from stainless steel follows only constant contact area mechanism. • HD evaporation from aluminum proceeds by a combined mechanism. - Abstract: We report herein the evaporation rates and mechanism of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. For systematic analysis, we used a laboratory-sized wind tunnel, thermal desorption (TD) connected to gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and drop shape analysis (DSA). We found that the evaporation rates of HD from stainless steel and aluminum increased with temperature. The rates were also linearly proportional to drop size. The time-dependent contact angle measurement showed that the evaporation of the drop of HD proceeded only by constant contact area mechanism from stainless steel surface. On the other hand, the evaporation of HD from aluminum proceeded by a combined mechanism of constant contact area mode and constant contact angle mode. Our experimental data sets and analysis could be used to predict vapor and contact hazard persistence of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the air and on exterior surfaces with chemical releases, which assists the military decision influencing personnel safety and decontamination of the site upon a chemical attack event

  20. Risks of on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozabadi, Mehdi Dehghani; Sheikhi, Mohammad Ali; Rahmani, Hossein; Ebadi, Ahmad; Heidari, Amanollah; Gholizadeh, Behnam; Sharifi, Khosrow

    2017-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a toxic chemical agent that belongs to a class of vesicant compounds. In the 1980s it was used by the Iraqi army against Iranian forces. Sulfur mustard severely irritates the skin, eyes and lungs. The highest side effects seen in patients affected by this gas are pulmonary complications including different types of lung diseases such as bronchiolitis. It has also led to a certain type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease called mustard lung. Similar extra-pulmonary, molecular and hormonal effects can be observed in these patients and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Here cardiovascular complications may be one of the most dangerous visible effects. And atherosclerosis is probable following the direct effects or consequential long-term effects of SM. The development of atherosclerosis in these patients is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary artery disease. Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is the treatment of coronary artery disease. Doing this surgery by bypass pump has its own morbidity and due to local and systemic inflammation changes in patients with SM pulmonary disorders it may have more side effects. Therefore, detailed knowledge of inflammatory diseases as well as the serum level or even the local lung fluid of the inflammatory factors in these patients before surgery are needed so that it would be possible to reduce the rate of morbidity and mortality by normalizing the inflammatory conditions of the patients before cardiac surgery.

  1. Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Adrienne T.; Hayden, Patrick J.; Casillas, Robert P.; Heck, Diane E.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT TM , a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 μM) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 μM), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE 2 synthases, leukotriene (LT) A 4 hydrolase and LTC 4 synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

  2. Identification of Reliable Reference Genes for Quantification of MicroRNAs in Serum Samples of Sulfur Mustard-Exposed Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Sedigheh; Shamsara, Mehdi; Khateri, Shahriar; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Ghorbanmehr, Nassim; Tavallaei, Mahmood; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Mowla, Seyed Javad

    2015-01-01

    In spite of accumulating information about pathological aspects of sulfur mustard (SM), the precise mechanism responsible for its effects is not well understood. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. Accurate normalization using appropriate reference genes, is a critical step in miRNA expression studies. In this study, we aimed to identify appropriate reference gene for microRNA quantification in serum samples of SM victims. In this case and control experimental study, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we evaluated the suitability of a panel of small RNAs including SNORD38B, SNORD49A, U6, 5S rRNA, miR-423-3p, miR-191, miR-16 and miR-103 in sera of 28 SM-exposed veterans of Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) and 15 matched control volunteers. Different statistical algorithms including geNorm, Normfinder, best-keeper and comparative delta-quantification cycle (Cq) method were employed to find the least variable reference gene. miR-423-3p was identified as the most stably expressed reference gene, and miR- 103 and miR-16 ranked after that. We demonstrate that non-miRNA reference genes have the least stabil- ity in serum samples and that some house-keeping miRNAs may be used as more reliable reference genes for miRNAs in serum. In addition, using the geometric mean of two reference genes could increase the reliability of the normalizers.

  3. Caffeic acid, morin hydrate and quercetin partially attenuate sulfur mustard-induced cell death by inhibiting the lipoxygenase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin; Jeong, Kwang-Joon; Cho, Sung Kweon; Park, Joo-Won; Park, Woo-Jae

    2016-11-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating agent, which has been used as in chemical warfare in a number of conflicts. As the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and adducts in DNA and proteins have been suggested as the mechanism underlying SM‑induced cytotoxicity, the present study screened several antioxidant candidates, including tannic acid, deferoxamine mesylate, trolox, vitamin C, ellagic acid and caffeic acid (CA) to assess their potential as therapeutic agents for SM‑induced cell death. Among several antioxidants, CA partially alleviated SM‑induced cell death in a dose‑dependent manner. Although CA treatment decreased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen‑activated protein (MAP) kinase and p53, p38 MAP kinase inhibition by SB203580 did not affect SM‑induced cell death. As CA has also been reported as a 15‑lipoxygenase (15‑LOX) inhibitor, the role of 15‑LOX in SM‑induced cytotoxicity was also examined. Similar to the results observed with CA, treatment with PD146176, a specific 15‑LOX inhibitor, decreased SM‑induced cytotoxicity, accompanied by decreases in the production of tumor necrosis factor‑α and 15‑hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Furthermore, the present study investigated the protective effects of two natural 15‑LOX inhibitors, morin hydrate and quercetin, in SM‑induced cytotoxicity. As expected, these inhibitors had similar protective effects against SM‑induced cytotoxicity. These antioxidants also reduced the generation of ROS and nitrate/nitrite. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that the natural products, CA, quercetin and morin hydrate, offer potential as adjuvant therapeutic agents for SM‑induced toxicity, not only by reducing inflammation mediated by the p38 and LOX signaling pathways, but also by decreasing the generation of ROS and nitrate/nitrite.

  4. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Severity of Obstructive Pulmonary Complications in Sputum of Sulfur Mustard-Injured Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Heydari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM is a strong bifunctional alkylating agent that causes delayed complications in organs such as lung. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of many pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress in sputum of SM exposed patients with mild, moderate and severe pulmonary dysfunction and assessing their relationship with pulmonary function. Methods: In this cross–sectional study, oxidative stress biomarkers in sputum were examined on 26 patients with SM-induced bronchiolitis obliterans (9 mild, 14 moderate and 3 severe and 12 matched healthy controls referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran between October 2015 and April 2016. Results: Sputum superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and malondialdehyde level in moderate and severe groups were significantly higher than in the control group (P=0.002, P=0.004, P=0.014 and P=0.009, respectively. Glutathione (GSH level in moderate (22.29%, P=0.025 and severe (45.07%, P=0.004 groups were significantly lower than the control. A decreased in GSH level in severe (41.7% groups was observed as compared with the mild group. Pearson analysis revealed strong correlations between disease severity and oxidative stress biomarkers in sputum of patients with moderate and severe injuries. Conclusions: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of patients with moderate and severe pulmonary dysfunction following SM exposure. The presence of enhanced oxidative stress relates to the decline lung function and the progression of the disease. Sputum induction in SM-injured patients can be used to the assessment of the antioxidant status of bronchial secretions.

  5. The Mixture of Salvianolic Acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Total Flavonoids from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Attenuate Sulfur Mustard-Induced Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a vesicating chemical warfare agent used in numerous military conflicts and remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. Exposure to SM causes the depletion of cellular antioxidant thiols, mainly glutathione (GSH, which may lead to a series of SM-associated toxic responses. MSTF is the mixture of salvianolic acids (SA of Salvia miltiorrhiza and total flavonoids (TFA of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. SA is the main water-soluble phenolic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza. TFA mainly includes mangiferin, isomangiferin and neomangiferin. SA and TFA possess diverse activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we mainly investigated the therapeutic effects of MSTF on SM toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment with MSTF 1 h after subcutaneous injection with 3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.7 LD50 SM significantly increased the survival levels of rats and attenuated the SM-induced morphological changes in the testis, small intestine and liver tissues. Treatment with MSTF at doses of 60 and 120 mg/kg caused a significant (p < 0.05 reversal in SM-induced GSH depletion. Gene expression profiles revealed that treatment with MSTF had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by SM. Treatment with MSTF prevented SM-induced differential expression of 93.8% (973 genes of 1037 genes. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 36 pathways, such as the MAPK signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, antigen processing and presentation. These data suggest that MSTF attenuates SM-induced injury by increasing GSH and targeting multiple pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, as well as antigen processing and presentation. These results suggest that MSTF has the potential to be used as a potential therapeutic agent against SM injuries.

  6. Sulfur mustard primes human neutrophils for increased degranulation and stimulates cytokine release via TRPM2/p38 MAPK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Hwa-Yong [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Chang-Won, E-mail: chyj7983@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Warfare Research, The Armed Forces Medical Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Si-Nae [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Min-Soo [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon-Ja [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Dong-Keun, E-mail: dksong@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2′-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) has been a military threat since the World War I. The emerging threat of bioterrorism makes SM a major threat not only to military but also to civilian world. SM injury elicits an inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of neutrophils. Although SM was reported to prime neutrophils, the mechanism has not been identified yet. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of SM-induced priming in human neutrophils. SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent fashion. Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 2 inhibitors (clotrimazole, econazole and flufenamic acid) and silencing of TRPM2 by shRNA attenuated SM-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase. SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules in response to activation by fMLP as previously reported. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, inhibited SM-induced priming. Neither PD98057, an ERK inhibitor, nor SP600215, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited SM-induced priming. In addition, SM enhanced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. SB203580 inhibited SM-induced NF-kB phosphorylation and cytokine release. These results suggest the involvement of TRPM2/p38 MAPK pathway in SM-induced priming and cytokines release in neutrophils. -- Highlights: ► SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils through TPRM2-mediated calcium influx. ► SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules. ► SM enhanced p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in human neutrophils. ► SM enhanced release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from human neutrophils. ► SB203580 inhibited SM-induced priming, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and cytokine release.

  7. Prediction of Acute Mammalian Toxicity Using QSAR Methods: A Case Study of Sulfur Mustard and Its Breakdown Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wheeler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Predicting toxicity quantitatively, using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR, has matured over recent years to the point that the predictions can be used to help identify missing comparison values in a substance’s database. In this manuscript we investigate using the lethal dose that kills fifty percent of a test population (the LD50 for determining relative toxicity of a number of substances. In general, the smaller the LD50 value, the more toxic the chemical, and the larger the LD50 value, the lower the toxicity. When systemic toxicity and other specific toxicity data are unavailable for the chemical(s of interest, during emergency responses, LD50 values may be employed to determine the relative toxicity of a series of chemicals. In the present study, a group of chemical warfare agents and their breakdown products have been evaluated using four available rat oral QSAR LD50 models. The QSAR analysis shows that the breakdown products of Sulfur Mustard (HD are predicted to be less toxic than the parent compound as well as other known breakdown products that have known toxicities. The QSAR estimated break down products LD50 values ranged from 299 mg/kg to 5,764 mg/kg. This evaluation allows for the ranking and toxicity estimation of compounds for which little toxicity information existed; thus leading to better risk decision making in the field.

  8. Differential gene expression profiling of mouse skin after sulfur mustard exposure: Extended time response and inhibitor effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerecke, Donald R.; Chen Minjun; Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Gordon, Marion K.; Chang, Y.-C.; Tong Weida; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD, SM), is a chemical warfare agent that within hours causes extensive blistering at the dermal-epidermal junction of skin. To better understand the progression of SM-induced blistering, gene expression profiling for mouse skin was performed after a single high dose of SM exposure. Punch biopsies of mouse ears were collected at both early and late time periods following SM exposure (previous studies only considered early time periods). The biopsies were examined for pathological disturbances and the samples further assayed for gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix microarray analysis system. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis of the differently expressed genes, performed with ArrayTrack showed clear separation of the various groups. Pathway analysis employing the KEGG library and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) indicated that cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and hematopoietic cell lineage are common pathways affected at different time points. Gene ontology analysis identified the most significantly altered biological processes as the immune response, inflammatory response, and chemotaxis; these findings are consistent with other reported results for shorter time periods. Selected genes were chosen for RT-PCR verification and showed correlations in the general trends for the microarrays. Interleukin 1 beta was checked for biological analysis to confirm the presence of protein correlated to the corresponding microarray data. The impact of a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitor I, against SM exposure was assessed. These results can help in understanding the molecular mechanism of SM-induced blistering, as well as to test the efficacy of different inhibitors

  9. Efficacy of omeprazole on cough, pulmonary function and quality of life of patients with sulfur mustard lung injury: A placebo-control, cross-over clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Emami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD is prevalent and related to more severe disease in patients with respiratory problems. We evaluated the effects of antireflux therapy in warfare victims of exposure to Mustard gas with chronic cough. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted on 45 cases of sulfur mustard injury with chronic cough (≥8 weeks and GERD. Patients were randomized into two groups, receiving either 20 mg twice daily omeprazole-placebo (OP or matching placebo (placebo-omeprazole [PO] for 4 months, followed by a 1-month washout period and the alternative treatment for 4 months. Assessments included GERD and cough, quality of life, and pulmonary function using spirometry. Leicester Cough Questionnaire and SF-36 were used for measuring quality of life. Results: Patients in the OP group experienced a more decrease than those in the PO group in severity of Leicester cough scores during the first 4-month of trial. After crossing the groups, the OP group experienced an increase (P = 0.036 and the PO group experienced a nonsignificant decrease (P = 0.104 in the severity of scores. The OP group also experienced improvement in GERD symptoms and quality of life at the end of the trial, but changes in the PO group was not significant. There was no significant change in respiratory function indices in any groups. Conclusion: Long-term treatment with high-dose omeprazole improved GERD as well as cough, and quality of life, but not changed respiratory function indices in sulfur mustard injured cases with respiratory symptoms.

  10. H5PV2Mo10O40 encapsulated in MIL-101(Cr): facile synthesis and characterization of rationally designed composite materials for efficient decontamination of sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqin; Gao, Qi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhou, Yunshan; Zhong, Yuxu; Ying, Ying; Zhang, Mingcai; Huang, Chunqian; Wang, Yong'an

    2018-04-24

    Currently extensive effort is compulsively expended to decontaminate efficiently banned chemical war agents. In this work, H5PV2Mo10O40 molecules have been encapsulated in mesoporous MIL-101(Cr), which features two types of mesoporous cages (internal diameters of 29 Å and 34 Å) and microporous windows (diameters of 12 Å and 16 Å), leading to the formation of a new composite H5PV2Mo10O40@MIL-101(Cr) through a simple impregnation method. The composite was characterized thoroughly by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, TG/DTA, and textural analysis thereby confirming the encapsulation of the H5PV2Mo10O40 into MIL-101(Cr). The decontamination efficiency of sulfur mustard (4 μL HD in 40 μL of petroleum ether) by 20 mg of the composite is found to be 97.39% in 120 min under ambient conditions. GC-MS analysis on the decontaminated products using 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), which has been widely used as a simulant of sulfur mustard, showed that MIL-101(Cr) just decontaminates CEES by adsorption, while CEES can be decontaminated under ambient conditions by a synergetic combination of adsorption of MIL-101(Cr) and subsequent chemical oxidation degradation to nontoxic 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfoxide (CEESO) due to the presence of highly dispersed H5PV2Mo10O40 within the composites.

  11. Development of a co-culture of keratinocytes and immune cells for in vitro investigation of cutaneous sulfur mustard toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balszuweit, Frank; Menacher, Georg; Bloemeke, Brunhilde; Schmidt, Annette; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2014-11-05

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent causing skin blistering, ulceration and delayed wound healing. Inflammation and extrinsic apoptosis are known to have an important role in SM-induced cytotoxicity. As immune cells are involved in those processes, they may significantly modulate SM toxicity, but the extent of those effects is unknown. We adapted a co-culture model of immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) and immune cells (THP-1) and exposed this model to SM. Changes in necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation, depending on SM challenge, absence or presence and number of THP-1 cells were investigated. THP-1 were co-cultured for 24h prior to SM exposure in order to model SM effects on immune cells continuously present in the skin. Our results indicate that the presence of THP-1 strongly increased necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation. This effect was already significant when the ratio of THP-1 and HaCaT cells was similar to the ratio of Langerhans immune cells and keratinocytes in vivo. Any further increases in the number of THP-1 had only slight additional effects on SM-induced cytotoxicity. In order to assess the effects of immune cells migrating into skin areas damaged by SM, we added non-exposed THP-1 to SM-exposed HaCaT. Those THP-1 had only slight effects on SM-induced cytotoxicity. Notably, in HaCaT exposed to 300μM SM, necrosis and inflammation were slightly reduced by adding intact THP-1. This effect was dependent on the number of immune cells, steadily increasing with the number of unexposed THP-1 added. In summary, we have demonstrated that (a) the presented co-culture is a robust model to assess SM toxicity and can be used to test the efficacy of potential antidotes in vitro; (b) immune cells, damaged by SM strongly amplified cytotoxicity, (c) in contrast, unexposed THP-1 (simulating migration of immune cells into affected areas after exposure in vivo) had no pronounced adverse, but exhibited some protective effects. Thus, protecting immune cells

  12. Time course of skin features and inflammatory biomarkers after liquid sulfur mustard exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Batal, Mohamed; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Poyot, Thomas; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Bakdouri, Nacera El; Peinnequin, André; Douki, Thierry; Boudry, Isabelle

    2015-01-05

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a strong bifunctional alkylating agent that produces severe tissue injuries characterized by erythema, edema, subepidermal blisters and a delayed inflammatory response after cutaneous exposure. However, despite its long history, SM remains a threat because of the lack of effective medical countermeasures as the molecular mechanisms of these events remain unclear. This limited number of therapeutic options results in part of an absence of appropriate animal models. We propose here to use SKH-1 hairless mouse as the appropriate model for the design of therapeutic strategies against SM-induced skin toxicity. In the present study particular emphasis was placed on histopathological changes associated with inflammatory responses after topical exposure of dorsal skin to three different doses of SM (0.6, 6 and 60mg/kg) corresponding to a superficial, a second-degree and a third-degree burn. Firstly, clinical evaluation of SM-induced skin lesions using non invasive bioengineering methods showed that erythema and impairment of skin barrier increased in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation of skin sections exposed to SM revealed that the time to onset and the severity of symptoms including disorganization of epidermal basal cells, number of pyknotic nuclei, activation of mast cells and neutrophils dermal invasion were dose-dependent. These histopathological changes were associated with a dose- and time-dependent increase in expression of specific mRNA for inflammatory mediators such as interleukins (IL1β and IL6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP-1α, MIP-2 and MIP-1αR) and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC also called CXCL1) as well as adhesion molecules (L-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)) and growth factor (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (Csf3)). A dose-dependent increase was also noted after SM exposure for mRNA of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP9

  13. Childhood physical abnormalities following paternal exposure to sulfur mustard gas in Iran: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khademolhosseini Seyyed M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mustard gas, a known chemical weapon, was used during the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988. We aimed to determine if exposure to mustard gas among men was significantly associated with abnormalities and disorders among progenies. Methods Using a case-control design, we identified all progenies of Sardasht men (exposed group, n = 498, who were born at least nine months after the exposure, compared to age-matched controls in Rabat, a nearby city (non-exposed group, n = 689. We conducted a thorough medical history, physical examination, and appropriate paraclinical studies to detect any physical abnormality and/or disorder. Given the presence of correlated data, we applied Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE multivariable models to determine associations. Results The overall frequency of detected physical abnormalities and disorders was significantly higher in the exposed group (19% vs. 11%, Odds Ratio [OR] 1.93, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.37-2.72, P = 0.0002. This was consistent across sexes. Congenital anomalies (OR 3.54, 95% CI, 1.58-7.93, P = 0.002 and asthma (OR, 3.12, 95% CI, 1.43-6.80, P = 0.004 were most commonly associated with exposure. No single abnormality was associated with paternal exposure to mustard gas. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a generational effect of exposure to mustard gas. The lasting effects of mustard gas exposure in parents effects fertility and may impact child health and development in the long-term.

  14. Delayed Complications and Long-Term Management of Sulfur Mustard Poisoning: A Narrative Review of Recent Advances by Iranian Researchers Part ІІ: Clinical Management and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Etemad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to review and discuss the recommended and recently suggested protocols by Iranian researchers for a long-term treatment of delayed complications of sulfur mustard (DCSM in veterans. As indicated clinically, patients who suffer from delayed ocular complications of sulfur mustard (DOCS benefit from treatments for dry eyes, therapeutic contact lenses, amniotic membrane transplantation; blepharorrhaphy, tarsorrhaphy, limbal stem cell transplantation; corneal transplantation, topical steroids, and immunosuppressive. In spite of penetrating keratoplasty, lamellar keratoplasty and keratolimbal allograft had a good long-term survival. Delayed respiratory complications (DRCS are the most common effects and life-threatening in Iranian veterans. The recommended treatment protocols include regular clinical evaluations, respiratory physiotherapy and rehabilitation, N-acetyl cysteine; warm humidified air, long-acting 2-agonists, and inhaled corticosteroids. Azithromycin has also been effective in improving clinical conditions, pulmonary function tests, inflammatory indexes, and life quality of the veterans. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ and helium: oxygen combination were also used in severe DRCS with good results. Some of the delayed cutaneous complications (DCCS such as itching affects the quality of life of victims. Regular but not frequent showering and bathing, applying sunscreen compounds, topical corticosteroids, and systemic antihistamines reduce the problems of DCCS patients. Several compounds such as capsaicin cream, pimecrolimus, IFN-γ, phenol-menthol; Aloe vera/olive oil cream, cetirizine, doxepine, and hydroxyzine were evaluated in DCCS patients with some benefits. The physicians in charge of veterans emphasize the importance of a healthy lifestyle, appropriate financial/social/cultural supports, and a degree of reassurance and supportive care on the clinical improvement of patients.

  15. Hypochlorite Solution as a Decontaminant in Sulfur Mustard Contaminated Skin Defects in the Euthymic Hairless Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-13

    AD-P008 792 Hyochlorte Solution as a Decossitamrsrl nan Sultur Mustard Contaminated Skin Defects in the Euthymesc Hailess Guinea Pig Mark B. Gol, OVM...euthymic hairles guinea pigs (EHGP) (n--6) were exposed tn 0 4 LD50 HO in a hA-thickntss 8 mm surgical bmop~sy skin deflect (ioe wound) Each animal was...in a animal model of an HO contaminated wound. The euthymic hairless guinea pig (EHGP) has been extensrvely studied and aicepted as the model of

  16. CD4/CD8 ratio and cytokine levels of the BAL fluid in patients with bronchiectasis caused by sulfur mustard gas inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Yasaman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze cytokine levels in BAL fluid of patients with bronchiectasis due to mustard gas inhalation. Patients 29 victims with mustard gas-induced bronchiectasis and 25 normal veterans as control group. Intervention PFTs,, high-resolution CT scans of the chest, analyses of BAL fluids for five cytokines (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12 and analyses of BAL fluids for cellular and flow-cytometric analysis of the phenotype of bronchoalveolar cells were performed in all cases. Results CD4 lymphocytes expressed as percentage or absolute number were significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than in controls (32.17 ± 16.00 vs 23.40 ± 6.97%, respectively; p = 0.01; and 3.31 ± 2.03 vs 1.88 ± 0.83 × 103 cells/ml, respectively; p = 0.001. The CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than in controls (3.08 ± 2.05 vs 1.68 ± 0.78; p = 0.002. There were significant differences in cytokine (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12 levels of BAL fluid between patients with bronchiectasis and healthy controls. A significant correlation was observed between the HRCT scores and both the percentage and the absolute number of CD4 lymphocytes in BAL fluid in patients with bronchiectasis (r = -0.49, p = 0.009; r = -0.50, p = 0.008; respectively. HRCT scores showed a significant correlation with CD4/CD8 ratios (r = 0.54, p = 0.004 too. Of measured BAL cytokines, only IL-8 (r = -0.52, p = 0.005 and TNF-aα (r = 0.44, p = 0.01 showed significant correlations with the HRCT scores. Conclusion The increased levels of cytokines CD4 lymphocytes in the BAL fluid suggest the possible causative mechanism in the lung in sulfur mustard gas-induced bronchiectasis by the recruitment of neutrophils into the lung.

  17. Study on Effectiveness of Low Dose Theophylline as Add-on to Inhaled Corticosteroid for Patients with Sulfur Mustard Induced Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Theophylline may reverse steroid resistance and decrease inflammation in patients with chronic pulmonary disease and sulfur mustard (SM induced bronchiolitis. This study was designed to assess the effects of low-dose theophylline on improvement of pulmonary function tests (PFTs of SM exposed patients.Methods: In this comparative observational study, a group of SM-exposed victims during the Iraq-Iran war who were treated with oral slow releasing (SR theophylline, salmetrol, fluxitide, omeprazole and NAC (study group were compared to a group of age and gender matched SM-exposed patients who received same medications except oral SR theophylline (historical control group. PFTs were measured at the beginning of the study and after 8 weeks of the treatment.Results: In total, 33 subjects in the study group and 27 subjects in the control group were studied. Mean (SD age of all subjects was 51 (14.1 years. In the study group, on the 8th week post-treatment, PFTs decreased, though the differences of tests between before and after treatment were not significant. In the control group, all the tests decreased in the same period and these reductions were not also significant. However, the changes in PFTs were significantly different between the two groups. The results of most PFTs in the controls decreased in greater extents compared to theophylline treated patients. This shows that despite theophylline was unable to improve the patients; it was partially able to decelerate the reductions in PFTs.Conclusion: Theophylline may not improve PFTs of SM exposed patients but it may decelerate the progress of the underlying respiratory disease. Further studies in this setting with higher doses of theophylline and longer term of evaluation are needed to better understand the pathophysiological mechanism of SM induced bronchiolitis and the effectiveness of the treatment with theophylline.   How to cite this article: Panahi Y, Poursaleh Z, Amini-Harandi A

  18. Malignant cutaneous T-cell lymphoma among 1100 Iranian victims, two decades after exposure to sulfur mustard: a long term investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emadi, S. N.; Emadi, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur Mustard ((SM; 2, 2 -dichlorethyl sulfide)) is a potent chemical warfare agent that was widely used during First World War and Iran -Iraq conflict. Over 100,000 Iranians were injured by sulfur mustard. This vesicant agent has a lot of acute and chronic destructive influences on the skin, eye and respiratory system. SM via the alkylation of DNA and several cellular proteins (structural, cytoplasmic and enzymes) and cell nuclei; produce several toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on epidermis, dermis, dermal appendix and hypodermics. In acute phases flexural locations and thin epidermal area such as groin, scrotum, and axilla and eyelids showed the most severe complication. According to scientific studies on chemical victims depression of cell-mediated immunity and also lower percentage of NK cell has been observed in SM exposure furthermore cytokines and other growth factors produced and secreted during epidermal and dermal regeneration of healing skin blisters. In reference to the last study about long term effect of SM the cutaneous signs and disorders could be categorized into 3 different groups. Conclusion Human data on the carcinogenicity of SM are from (a) battlefield exposures, (b) accidents, and (c) workers in chemical factories. Both British and American studies and other researchers have investigated the increased incidences of leukemia, pulmonary and skin carcinoma arising from World War I battlefield exposure. Clinical documentation in our cases shows notable and common signs, symptoms and data such as 1- Middle ages 2- Location of CTCL (folds and exposed areas) 3- The similarity between CTCL and SM scar (pigmentory and vascular changes) 4- Chronic dermatitis especially xerosis and eczema with itching before the beginning of CTCL. All of this study and data leads us to the conclusion that SM can possibly cause CTCL in indirect and direct way. CTCL can be caused indirectly due to prolonged period of chronic dermatitis (xerosis, eczema

  19. Long-term neurological and neuropsychological complications of sulfur mustard and Lewisite mixture poisoning in Chinese victims exposed to chemical warfare agents abandoned at the end of WWII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, O; Kituda, A; Fujii, M; Yoshinaka, T; Nakagawa, G; Suzuki, Y

    2018-09-01

    In August 2003, 44 victims were poisoned by chemical warfare agents (CWAs) leaked from five drums that were excavated at a construction site in Qiqihar, Northeast China. The drums were abandoned by the former Japanese imperial army during World War II and contained a mixture of Sulfur mustard (SM) and Lewisite. We carried out a total of six regular check-ups between 2006 and 2014, and from 2008 we added neurological evaluations including neuropsychological test and autonomic nervous function test in parallel with medical follow-up as much as was possible. Severe autonomic failure, such as hyperhidrosis, pollakiuria, diarrhoea, diminished libido, and asthenia appeared in almost all victims. Polyneuropathy occurred in 35% of the victims and constricted vision occurred in 20% of them. The rates of abnormal response on cold pressor test (CPT), active standing test (AST), Heart rate variability (CV R-R ), performed in 2014, were 63.1%, 31.6%, and 15.9%, respectively. On neuropsychological testing evaluated in 2010, a generalized cognitive decline was observed in 42% of the victims. Memories and visuospatial abilities were affected in the remaining victims. Finally, a 17-item PTSD questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory evaluated in 2014 revealed long-lasting severe PTSD symptoms and depression of the victims. Our findings suggest that an SM/Lewisite compound have significant adverse consequences directly in cognitive and emotional network and autonomic nervous systems in the brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Therapeutic potential of a non-steroidal bifunctional anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinergic agent against skin injury induced by sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D.; Hahn, Rita A.; Gordon, Marion K.; Joseph, Laurie B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Heindel, Ned D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Young, Sherri C. [Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, Kansas City, MO (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM) is a highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agent inducing edema, inflammation, and the formation of fluid-filled blisters in the skin. Medical countermeasures against SM-induced cutaneous injury have yet to be established. In the present studies, we tested a novel, bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH 4338) designed to target cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), an enzyme that generates inflammatory eicosanoids, and acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme mediating activation of cholinergic inflammatory pathways in a model of SM-induced skin injury. Adult SKH-1 hairless male mice were exposed to SM using a dorsal skin vapor cup model. NDH 4338 was applied topically to the skin 24, 48, and 72 h post-SM exposure. After 96 h, SM was found to induce skin injury characterized by edema, epidermal hyperplasia, loss of the differentiation marker, keratin 10 (K10), upregulation of the skin wound marker keratin 6 (K6), disruption of the basement membrane anchoring protein laminin 322, and increased expression of epidermal COX2. NDH 4338 post-treatment reduced SM-induced dermal edema and enhanced skin re-epithelialization. This was associated with a reduction in COX2 expression, increased K10 expression in the suprabasal epidermis, and reduced expression of K6. NDH 4338 also restored basement membrane integrity, as evidenced by continuous expression of laminin 332 at the dermal–epidermal junction. Taken together, these data indicate that a bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug stimulates repair of SM induced skin injury and may be useful as a medical countermeasure. - Highlights: • Bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH4338) tested on SM exposed mouse skin • The prodrug NDH4338 was designed to target COX2 and acetylcholinesterase. • The application of NDH4338 improved cutaneous wound repair after SM induced injury. • NDH4338 treatment demonstrated a reduction in COX2 expression on SM injured skin. • Changes of skin repair

  1. Are generic and disease-specific health related quality of life correlated? The case of chronic lung disease due to sulfur mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the two most commonly used generic and disease specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL measures in patients with chronic lung disease due to SM: Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item (SF-36 and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ.
    • METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of Iranian Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study (ICWVHAS during October 2007 in Isfahan, Iran. In that survey, conducted in an outpatient setting, 292 patients with chronic lung disease due to SM were selected from all provinces in Iran. The total score and sub scores of correlations of SGRQ and SF-36 were assessed. Correlation of quality-of-life scores were evaluated using Pearson’s coefficient.
    • RESULTS: Samples were 276 patients who were selected for our analysis. No significant correlation was found between the total score or sub scores of SF-36 and the total score or sub scores of SGRQ (p > 0.05.
    • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic lung disease due to SM, the SF-36 and SGRQ assess different aspects of HRQoL. Therefore applying both of them together, at least in the research setting is suggested.
    • KEYWORDS: Chronic Lung Disease, Health Related Quality of Life, Generic Health Related Quality of Life, Disease Specific Health Related Quality of Life, Sulfur Mustard.

  2. Delayed Complications and Long-term Management of Sulfur Mustard Poisoning: Recent Advances by Iranian Researchers (Part І of ІІ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emadodin Darchini-Maragheh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical warfare agents are the most brutal weapons among the weapons of mass destruction. Sulfur mustard (SM is a potent toxic alkylating agent known as “the King of the Battle Gases”. SM has been the most widely used chemical weapon during the wars. It was widely used in World War I. Thereafter, it was extensively employed by the Iraqi troops against the Iranian military personnel and even civilians in the border cities of Iran and Iraq in the period between 1983 and 1988. Long-term incapacitating properties, significant environmental persistence, lack of an effective antidote, and relative ease of manufacturing have kept SM a potential agent for both terrorist and military uses. Even 3 decades after SM exposure, numerous delayed complications among Iranian victims are still being reported by researchers. The most common delayed complications have been observed in the respiratory tracts of chemically injured Iranian war veterans. Also, skin lesions and eye disorders have been observed in most Iranian SM-exposed war veterans in the delayed phase of SM intoxication. Thus, extensive research has been conducted on Iranian war veterans during the past decades. Nevertheless, major gaps still continue to exist in the SM literature. Part І of this paper will discuss the delayed complications and manifestations of exposure to SM among Iranian victims of the Iran–Iraq conflict. Part ІІ, which will appear in the next issue of Iran J Med Sci, will discuss the long-term management and therapy of SM-exposed patients.

  3. Sulfur mustard induced mast cell degranulation in mouse skin is inhibited by a novel anti-inflammatory and anticholinergic bifunctional prodrug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurie B; Composto, Gabriella M; Perez, Roberto M; Kim, Hong-Duck; Casillas, Robert P; Heindel, Ned D; Young, Sherri C; Lacey, Carl J; Saxena, Jaya; Guillon, Christophe D; Croutch, Claire R; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Heck, Diane E

    2018-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM, bis(2-chloroethyl sulfide) is a potent vesicating agent known to cause skin inflammation, necrosis and blistering. Evidence suggests that inflammatory cells and mediators that they generate are important in the pathogenic responses to SM. In the present studies we investigated the role of mast cells in SM-induced skin injury using a murine vapor cup exposure model. Mast cells, identified by toluidine blue staining, were localized in the dermis, adjacent to dermal appendages and at the dermal/epidermal junction. In control mice, 48-61% of mast cells were degranulated. SM exposure (1.4g/m 3 in air for 6min) resulted in increased numbers of degranulated mast cells 1-14days post-exposure. Treatment of mice topically with an indomethacin choline bioisostere containing prodrug linked by an aromatic ester-carbonate that targets cyclooxygenases (COX) enzymes and acetylcholinesterase (1% in an ointment) 1-14days after SM reduced skin inflammation and injury and enhanced tissue repair. This was associated with a decrease in mast cell degranulation from 90% to 49% 1-3days post SM, and from 84% to 44% 7-14days post SM. These data suggest that reduced inflammation and injury in response to the bifunctional indomethacin prodrug may be due, at least in part, to abrogating mast cell degranulation. The use of inhibitors of mast cell degranulation may be an effective strategy for mitigating skin injury induced by SM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulation of Hsp27 and Hsp70 expression in human and mouse skin construct models by caveolae following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Adrienne T.; Hayden, Patrick J.; Casillas, Robert P.; Heck, Diane E.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Dermal exposure to the vesicant sulfur mustard causes marked inflammation and tissue damage. Basal keratinocytes appear to be a major target of sulfur mustard. In the present studies, mechanisms mediating skin toxicity were examined using a mouse skin construct model and a full-thickness human skin equivalent (EpiDerm-FT TM ). In both systems, administration of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, 100-1000 μM) at the air surface induced mRNA and protein expression of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 (Hsp27 and Hsp70). CEES treatment also resulted in increased expression of caveolin-1, the major structural component of caveolae. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Hsp27, Hsp70 and caveolin-1 were localized in basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis. Caveolin-1 was also detected in fibroblasts in the dermal component of the full thickness human skin equivalent. Western blot analysis of caveolar membrane fractions isolated by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that Hsp27 and Hsp70 were localized in caveolae. Treatment of mouse keratinocytes with filipin III or methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which disrupt caveolar structure, markedly suppressed CEES-induced Hsp27 and Hsp70 mRNA and protein expression. CEES treatment is known to activate JNK and p38 MAP kinases; in mouse keratinocytes, inhibition of these enzymes suppressed CEES-induced expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70. These data suggest that MAP kinases regulate Hsp 27 and Hsp70; moreover, caveolae-mediated regulation of heat shock protein expression may be important in the pathophysiology of vesicant-induced skin toxicity.

  5. Effects of anti-inflammatory compounds on sulfur mustard injured cells: Recommendations and caveats suggested by in vitro cell culture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menacher, Georg; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Popp, Tanja; Worek, Franz; Gudermann, Thomas; Thiermann, Horst; Balszuweit, Frank

    2018-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant agent who had its first military use 100 years ago, in Ypres. Since then it has been used in several conflicts like the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. The use of SM in Syria 2015 indicated the still existing threat. Despite decades of research no causal antidote against SM intoxication is available, so far. A SM intoxication is accompanied by necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation. To counteract the SM-induced inflammation, glucocorticoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds (NSAIDs) are recommended. Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the anti-inflammatory compounds dexamethasone, ibuprofen and diclofenac in vitro. For that purpose, two different cell culture models were used. Firstly, a monoculture of keratinocytes (HaCaT) and secondly, an established co-culture of keratinocytes (HaCaT) and immunocompetent cells (THP-1) to identify the role of immune cells in the process and to mimic the dermal physiology more closely. Both models were challenged with different SM concentrations (100, 200 and 300μM) and treated with different anti-inflammatory compounds one hour after the SM exposure. Analytical analysis of necrosis (ToxiLight), apoptosis (CDDE) and inflammation (IL-6 and -8 ELISAs) followed 24h thereafter. Dexamethasone provided small but consistent protective effects in the monoculture. For the reduction of apoptosis, 3μM dexamethasone was sufficient. The most effective reduction regarding interleukin (IL) production was found with 6μM dexamethasone. Protective effects were less pronounced in co-culture, which implies, that the protective effects of dexamethasone are rather generic and not due to a modulation of the immune cells. Against our expectations, ibuprofen strongly amplified apoptosis and necrosis in SM exposed cells in the monoculture as well as the co-culture. Therefore, use of ibuprofen for treatment of SM intoxication should at least be considered most critically, if not even regarded as

  6. Dehalogenase: The Follow-Up Enzyme After Mustard Oxidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elashvili, Ilya; DeFrank, Joseph J

    2002-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since 1917. Currently fielded M258A1 and M280 decontamination kits and prospective oxidative decontaminants convert HD to HD sulfoxide (HDSO...

  7. A highly selective and sensitive "turn-on" fluorescence chemodosimeter for the detection of mustard gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavender Goud, D; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, Devendra Kumar; Kumar, Pravin; Pardasani, Deepak

    2014-10-21

    A new chemodosimetric protocol based on a tandem S-alkylation followed by desulfurisation reaction of rhodamine-thioamide with mustard gas is reported. The chemodosimeter is highly selective for potential DNA alkylating agents like sulfur mustard, over other simple alkyl halides with the limit of detection of 4.75 μM.

  8. Effects of Curcuminoids-Piperine Combination on Systemic Oxidative Stress, Clinical Symptoms and Quality of Life in Subjects with Chronic Pulmonary Complications Due to Sulfur Mustard: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Ghanei, Mostafa; Hajhashemi, Ali; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the development of chronic pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard (SM). Curcuminoids are polyphenols with documented safety and antioxidant activity. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of short-term supplementation with curcuminoids (co-administered with piperine to enhance the bioavailability of curcuminoids) in alleviating systemic oxidative stress and clinical symptoms, and improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subjects suffering from chronic pulmonary complications due to SM exposure who are receiving standard respiratory treatments. Eighty-nine subjects were recruited to this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, being randomly allocated to either curcuminoids (1500 mg/day) + piperine (15 mg/day) combination (n = 45) or placebo (n = 44) for a period of 4 weeks. High-resolution computed tomography suggested the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans in all subjects. Efficacy measures were changes in serum levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonedialdehyde (MDA). The severity and frequency of respiratory symptoms and HRQoL were also assessed using St. George respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) indices. Serum levels of GSH were increased whilst those of MDA decreased by the end of trial in both groups. Likewise, there were significant improvements in the total as well as subscale (symptoms, activity and impact) SGRQ and CAT scores in both groups. However, comparison of magnitude of changes revealed a greater effect of curcuminoids-piperine combination compared to placebo in elevating GSH, reducing MDA and improving CAT and SGRQ (total and subscale) scores (p stress, clinical symptoms and HRQoL, these phytochemicals may be used as safe adjuvants in patients suffering from chronic SM-induced pulmonary complications who are receiving standard treatments.

  9. Contact Hwersensitaity to Mustard Khal and Mustard Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes 2 females patients having contact dermatitis due to mustard khal the residue of,mustard seeds after the oil hasbeen extracted out. The dermatitis was caused by mbdng mustard khal with the cattle feed and was occurring on the hands and forearms, though the face, ear lobules and neck were also mvolved because of the practice of applying mustard oil on the hair. Patch tests were positive with the mustard khal and its fractionation products in both the patients and with mustard oil in one patient.

  10. Abundance of four sulfur mustard-DNA adducts ex vivo and in vivo revealed by simultaneous quantification in stable isotope dilution-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lijun; Wei, Yuxia; Chen, Jia; Shi, Huiqin; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yajiao; He, Jun; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Tingfen; Xie, Jianwei; Peng, Shuangqing

    2014-04-21

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a highly reactive alkylating vesicant and causes blisters upon contact with skin, eyes, and respiratory organs. It covalently links with DNAs by forming four mono- or cross-link adducts. In this article, the reference standards of SM-DNA adducts and deuterated analogues were first synthesized with simplified procedures containing only one or two steps and using less toxic chemical 2-(2-chloroethylthio)ethanol or nontoxic chemical thiodiglycol as starting materials. A sensitive and high-throughput simultaneous quantification method of N(7)-[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]-ethyl]guanine (N(7)-HETEG), O(6)-[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]-ethyl]guanine (O(6)-HETEG), N(3)-[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]-ethyl]adenine (N(3)-HETEA), and bis[2-(guanin-7-yl)ethyl]sulfide (Bis-G) in the Sprague-Dawley rat derma samples was developed by stable isotope dilution-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-UPLC-MS/MS) with the aim of revealing the real metabolic behaviors of four adducts. The method was validated, the limit of detection (S/N ratio greater than 10) was 0.01, 0.002, 0.04, and 0.11 fmol on column for N(7)-HETEG, O(6)-HETEG, Bis-G, and N(3)-HETEA, respectively, and the lower limit of quantification (S/N ratio greater than 20) was 0.04, 0.01, 0.12, and 0.33 fmol on column for N(7)-HETEG, O(6)-HETEG, Bis-G, and N(3)-HETEA, respectively. The accuracy of this method was determined to be 76% to 129% (n = 3), and both the interday (n = 6) and intraday (n = 7) precisions were less than 10%. The method was further applied for the quantifications of four adducts in the derma of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to SM ex vivo and in vivo, and all adducts had time- and dose-effect relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the real presented status of four DNA adducts was simultaneously revealed by the MS-based method, in which Bis-G showed much higher abundance than the result previously reported and N(3

  11. Contact Hwersensitaity to Mustard Khal and Mustard Oil

    OpenAIRE

    J S Pasricha; Ramji Gupta; S K Gupta

    1985-01-01

    This report describes 2 females patients having contact dermatitis due to mustard khal the residue of,mustard seeds after the oil hasbeen extracted out. The dermatitis was caused by mbdng mustard khal with the cattle feed and was occurring on the hands and forearms, though the face, ear lobules and neck were also mvolved because of the practice of applying mustard oil on the hair. Patch tests were positive with the mustard khal and its fractionation products in both the patients and with must...

  12. Medical Management of Cutaneous Sulfur Mustard Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    properties of the wounds. Measurements included reflectance colorimetry to measure erythema; evaporimetry to examine transepidermal water loss as a method of...thewounds.Measurements included reflectance colorimetry (RC) tomeasure rythema; evaporimetry to examine transepidermal water loss (TEWL) as amethod f...eacharea. RC, reflectance colorimetry ; EWL, transepidermal water loss; TB, torsional ballistometry; HFU, high frequency ltrasound. s n p w e w t o t e a m p

  13. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmudur Rahman; Amina Khatun; Lei Liu; Bronwyn J. Barkla

    2018-01-01

    Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), white mustard (Brassica alba), Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata), Asian mustard (B. juncea), oilseed rape (B. napus), black mustard (B. nigra), rapeseed (B. rapa), white ball mustard (Calepina irregularis), ball mustard (Neslia paniculata), treacle mustard (Erysimum repandum), hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale), Asian hedge mustard (S. orientale), smooth mustard (S. erysimoides) and canola are the major ec...

  14. Quantum molecular modeling of the interaction between guanine and alkylating agents--2--nitrogen mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, A; Broch, H; Vasilescu, D

    1996-06-01

    The alkylation mechanism of guanine by nitrogen mustard (HN2) was studied by using a supermolecular modeling at the ab initio 6-31G level. Our computations show that interaction of guanine with the aziridinium form of HN2 necessitates a transition state for the N7 alkylation route. The pathway of N7-guanine alkylation by nitrogen and sulfur mustards is discussed on the basis of the Molecular Electrostatic Potential and HOMO-LUMO properties of these molecules.

  15. Pulmonary Complications of Mustard Gas Exposure: A Study on Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Behnoush

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard gas is one of the chemical warfare gases that roughly about 45000 soldiers continue to suffer long-lasting consequences of exposure during the Iran-Iraq war between 1980 and 1988. According to the common pulmonary lesions due to this gas exposure, we studied gross and microscopic pulmonary lesions in cadavers and also assessed the main causes of mortality caused by mustard gas exposure. A case-series study was performed on hospital record files of 100 cadavers that were exposed with documented sulfur mustard gas during the Iran-Iraq war from 1979 to 1988 and autopsied in legal medicine organization In Tehran between 2005 and 2007 and gross and microscopic pathological findings of autopsied organs such as hematological, pulmonary, hepatic, and renal changes were evaluated. All cases were male with the mean age of 43 years. The time interval between the gas exposure and death was almost 20years. The most frequent pulmonary complication was chronic bronchitis in 81% of autopsied cadavers. Other pulmonary findings were progressive pulmonary fibrosis (9%, pulmonary infections and tuberculosis (29%, malignant cellular infiltration (4%, and aspergilloma (1%. According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the gas exposed persons and prohibiting chemical warfare are recommended.

  16. Mustard vesicant-induced lung injury: Advances in therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberger, Barry; Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Venosa, Alessandro; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Most mortality and morbidity following exposure to vesicants such as sulfur mustard is due to pulmonary toxicity. Acute injury is characterized by epithelial detachment and necrosis in the pharynx, trachea and bronchioles, while long-term consequences include fibrosis and, in some instances, cancer. Current therapies to treat mustard poisoning are primarily palliative and do not target underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. New knowledge about vesicant-induced pulmonary disease pathogenesis has led to the identification of potentially efficacious strategies to reduce injury by targeting inflammatory cells and mediators including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, proteases and proinflammatory/cytotoxic cytokines. Therapeutics under investigation include corticosteroids, N-acetyl cysteine, which has both mucolytic and antioxidant properties, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, liposomes containing superoxide dismutase, catalase, and/or tocopherols, protease inhibitors, and cytokine antagonists such as anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody and pentoxifylline. Antifibrotic and fibrinolytic treatments may also prove beneficial in ameliorating airway obstruction and lung remodeling. More speculative approaches include inhibitors of transient receptor potential channels, which regulate pulmonary epithelial cell membrane permeability, non-coding RNAs and mesenchymal stem cells. As mustards represent high priority chemical threat agents, identification of effective therapeutics for mitigating toxicity is highly significant.

  17. Mustard vesicant-induced lung injury: Advances in therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, Barry, E-mail: bweinberger@northwell.edu [Division of Neonatal and Perinatal Medicine, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, New Hyde Park, NY 11040 (United States); Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Venosa, Alessandro [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Health Science, New York Medical College, School of Public Health, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Most mortality and morbidity following exposure to vesicants such as sulfur mustard is due to pulmonary toxicity. Acute injury is characterized by epithelial detachment and necrosis in the pharynx, trachea and bronchioles, while long-term consequences include fibrosis and, in some instances, cancer. Current therapies to treat mustard poisoning are primarily palliative and do not target underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. New knowledge about vesicant-induced pulmonary disease pathogenesis has led to the identification of potentially efficacious strategies to reduce injury by targeting inflammatory cells and mediators including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, proteases and proinflammatory/cytotoxic cytokines. Therapeutics under investigation include corticosteroids, N-acetyl cysteine, which has both mucolytic and antioxidant properties, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, liposomes containing superoxide dismutase, catalase, and/or tocopherols, protease inhibitors, and cytokine antagonists such as anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody and pentoxifylline. Antifibrotic and fibrinolytic treatments may also prove beneficial in ameliorating airway obstruction and lung remodeling. More speculative approaches include inhibitors of transient receptor potential channels, which regulate pulmonary epithelial cell membrane permeability, non-coding RNAs and mesenchymal stem cells. As mustards represent high priority chemical threat agents, identification of effective therapeutics for mitigating toxicity is highly significant.

  18. Panceratic Complications of Mustard Gas Exposure: A Study on Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Farshid Fayyaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard is one of the chemical warfare gases that has been known as a vesicant or blistering agents. It is a chemical alkylating compound agent that can be frequently absorbed through skin, respiratory system, genital tract, and ocular system. This study was done to pathologically analyze the microscopic pancreatic lesions in cadavers. Methods: This case series study was performed during 2007 to 2012 in Legal Medicine Organization. Exposure was confirmed by the written reports of the field hospitals, based on acute presentation of eye, skin and pulmonary symptoms of the exposure. Results: Pancreatic autopsy findings were chronic inflammation, fibrosis and duct ectasia; acinar atrophy was also seen in 4 cases. All 4 cases had chronic pancreatic disease with abdominal pain, steatorrhea and weight loss that was confirmed by sonography. CT scan and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP have also demonstrated the chronic pancreatitis. Conclusion: According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the mustard gas exposed people in chemical factories is necessary.

  19. Lipid Profile Status in Mustard Lung Patients and its Relation to Severity of Airflow Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Attaran

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD secondary to sulfur mustard gas poisoning, known as mustard lung, is a major late pulmonary complications in chemical warfare patients. Serious comorbidities like dyslipidemia are frequently encountered in COPD. The aim of this study was to measure the serum lipid profile and evaluate the relation of lipid parameters with the severity of airway obstruction in mustard lung patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six non-smoker mustard lung patients with no history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were entered into this cross-sectional study. Control group consisted of 36 healthy non-smoker men were considered in this study. Serum lipid profile was performed in the patients and the controls. Spirometry was done in mustard lung patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47±6.80 SD years. The mean duration of COPD was 18.50±7.75 SD years. There were statistically significant differences in mean serum triglycerides and total cholesterol levels between patients and controls (p=0.04 and p=0.03, respectively.The mean levels of lipid parameters were not statistically significant different among the 4 stages of COPD severity (p>0.05. Conclusion: The current study revealed that the serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol are elevated in mustard lung patients compared with the healthy controls. Since lipid profile abnormalities are considered as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especial attention to this matter is recommended in mustard lung patients

  20. Mustard vesicants alter expression of the endocannabinoid system in mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlman, Irene M.; Composto, Gabriella M.; Heck, Diane E.; Heindel, Ned D.; Lacey, C. Jeffrey; Guillon, Christophe D.; Casillas, Robert P.; Croutch, Claire R.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Laskin, Debra L.; Joseph, Laurie B.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Vesicants including sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) are bifunctional alkylating agents that cause skin inflammation, edema and blistering. This is associated with alterations in keratinocyte growth and differentiation. Endogenous cannabinoids, including N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), are important in regulating inflammation, keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing. Their activity is mediated by binding to cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2), as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Levels of endocannabinoids are regulated by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). We found that CB1, CB2, PPARα and FAAH were all constitutively expressed in mouse epidermis and dermal appendages. Topical administration of NM or SM, at concentrations that induce tissue injury, resulted in upregulation of FAAH, CB1, CB2 and PPARα, a response that persisted throughout the wound healing process. Inhibitors of FAAH including a novel class of vanillyl alcohol carbamates were found to be highly effective in suppressing vesicant-induced inflammation in mouse skin. Taken together, these data indicate that the endocannabinoid system is important in regulating skin homeostasis and that inhibitors of FAAH may be useful as medical countermeasures against vesicants. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustard are potent skin vesicants. • The endocannabinoid system regulates keratinocyte growth and differentiation. • Vesicants are potent inducers of the endocannabinoid system in mouse skin. • Endocannabinoid proteins upregulated are FAAH, CB1, CB2 and PPARα. • FAAH inhibitors suppress vesicant-induced inflammation in mouse skin.

  1. Mustard vesicants alter expression of the endocannabinoid system in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlman, Irene M.; Composto, Gabriella M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Heindel, Ned D.; Lacey, C. Jeffrey; Guillon, Christophe D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Casillas, Robert P.; Croutch, Claire R. [MRIGlobal, Kansas City, MO (United States); Gerecke, Donald R.; Laskin, Debra L.; Joseph, Laurie B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Health, Rutgers University School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Vesicants including sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) are bifunctional alkylating agents that cause skin inflammation, edema and blistering. This is associated with alterations in keratinocyte growth and differentiation. Endogenous cannabinoids, including N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), are important in regulating inflammation, keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing. Their activity is mediated by binding to cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2), as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Levels of endocannabinoids are regulated by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). We found that CB1, CB2, PPARα and FAAH were all constitutively expressed in mouse epidermis and dermal appendages. Topical administration of NM or SM, at concentrations that induce tissue injury, resulted in upregulation of FAAH, CB1, CB2 and PPARα, a response that persisted throughout the wound healing process. Inhibitors of FAAH including a novel class of vanillyl alcohol carbamates were found to be highly effective in suppressing vesicant-induced inflammation in mouse skin. Taken together, these data indicate that the endocannabinoid system is important in regulating skin homeostasis and that inhibitors of FAAH may be useful as medical countermeasures against vesicants. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustard are potent skin vesicants. • The endocannabinoid system regulates keratinocyte growth and differentiation. • Vesicants are potent inducers of the endocannabinoid system in mouse skin. • Endocannabinoid proteins upregulated are FAAH, CB1, CB2 and PPARα. • FAAH inhibitors suppress vesicant-induced inflammation in mouse skin.

  2. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    OpenAIRE

    Paunović, Dragana; Šolević-Knudsen, Tatjana; Krivokapić, Mirjana; Zlatković, Branislav; Antić, Mališa

    2012-01-01

    Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetonitrile. The most a...

  3. The Role of Energy Metabolism in Cutaneous Sulfur Mustard Injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martens, M. E

    2006-01-01

    .... Our research has shown that inhibition of energy metabolism and depletion of energy stores are a significant consequence of HD exposure and that this inhibition is severe enough to be a determining factor in both cell survival and repair of HD-induced damage. In this paper we present an overview of our results and conclusions to date and briefly discuss their implications.

  4. Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Sulfur Mustard in Diethyl Phthalate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lancaster, Paul

    1998-01-01

    ...) that had been trapped in the solvent, diethyl phthalate (DEP) is described. The method utilises the improved sensitivity and selectivity offered by the new Pulsed Flame Photometric Detector to detect routinely samples containing...

  5. Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions (Joseph F. Bunnett and Marian Mikotajczyk, Eds.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Benjamin

    1999-10-01

    . 2. Vogel, S. Search to Resume near AU for WWI Chemicals; Washington Post, January 24, 1999, page C01. 3. Yperite is a trivial name for sulfur mustard or bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide. The name honors Ypres, Belgium, where the Germans first used sulfur mustard as a chemical weapon on July 12, 1917. 4. Zhao, L. Two Scenes of Poisonous Shells Left Over by Japan in Dunhua, Jilin Province; presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Sino-Japan relations over the past 100 years, Changchun, PRC, September 23-29, 1998.

  6. Determination of mustard and lewisite related compounds in abandoned chemical weapons (Yellow shells) from sources in China and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Shigeyuki; Nomura, Koji; Wada, Takeharu

    2006-01-06

    Knowledge of the states of the contents in chemical munitions that Japanese Imperial Forces abandoned at the end of World War II in Japan and China is gravely lacking. To unearth and recover these chemical weapons and detoxify the contents safely, it is essential to establish analytical procedures to definitely determine the CWA contents. We established such a procedure and applied it to the analysis of chemicals in the abandoned shells. Yellow shells are known to contain sulfur mustard, lewisite, or a mixture of both. Lewisite was analyzed without thiol derivatization, because it and its decomposition products yield the same substances in the derivatization. Analysis using our new procedure showed that both mustard and lewisite remained as the major components after the long abandonment of nearly 60 years. The content of mustard was 43% and that of lewisite 55%. The viscous material found was suggested to be mostly oligomers of mustard. Comparison of the components in the Yellow agents with mustard recovered in both Japan and China showed a difference in the impurities between the CWAs produced by the former Imperial navy and those by the former Imperial army.

  7. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  8. Sulforaphane induces phase II detoxication enzymes in mouse skin and prevents mutagenesis induced by a mustard gas analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, E.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Boulware, S. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, T.; McIvor, E.; Powell, K.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); DiGiovanni, J.; Vasquez, K.M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, M.C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Mustard gas, used in chemical warfare since 1917, is a mutagenic and carcinogenic agent that produces severe dermal lesions for which there are no effective therapeutics; it is currently seen as a potential terrorist threat to civilian populations. Sulforaphane, found in cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce enzymes that detoxify compounds such as the sulfur mustards that react through electrophilic intermediates. Here, we observe that a single topical treatment with sulforaphane induces mouse epidermal levels of the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis, and also increases epidermal levels of reduced glutathione. Furthermore, a glutathione S-transferase, GSTA4, is also induced in mouse skin by sulforaphane. In an in vivo model in which mice are given a single mutagenic application of the sulfur mustard analog 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), we now show that therapeutic treatment with sulforaphane abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin, measured four days after exposure. Sulforaphane, a natural product currently in clinical trials, shows promise as an effective therapeutic against mustard gas. -- Highlights: ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of glutathione in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of GSTA4 in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane, applied after CEES-treatment, completely abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► The therapeutic effect may suggest a long biological half-life for CEES in vivo.

  9. Reactions of sulphur mustard on impregnated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G K; Singh, Beer

    2004-12-31

    Activated carbon of surface area 1100 m2/gm is impregnated with 4% sodium hydroxide plus 3% Cr(VI) as CrO3 with and without 5% ethylene diamine (EDA), 4% magnesium nitrate and 5% ruthenium chloride by using their aqueous solutions. These carbons are characterized for surface area analysis by BET conventional method and exposed to the vapours of sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 degrees C). After 24 h, the reaction products are extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hemisulphur mustard, thiodiglycol, 1,4-oxathiane are observed to be the products of reaction between sulphur mustard and NaOH/CrO3/C system, whereas on NaOH/CrO3/EDA/C system HD reacted to give 1,4-thiazane. On Mg(NO3)2/C system it gave hemisulphur mustard and thiodiglycol. On RuCl3/C system it degraded to divinyl sulphone. Residual sulphur mustard is observed along with reaction products in all systems studied. Reaction mechanisms are also proposed for these interesting surface reactions. Above-mentioned carbons can be used in filtration systems for protection against hazardous gases such as sulphur mustard.

  10. Reactions of sulphur mustard on impregnated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, G.K.; Singh, Beer

    2004-01-01

    Activated carbon of surface area 1100 m 2 /gm is impregnated with 4% sodium hydroxide plus 3% Cr(Vi) as CrO 3 with and without 5% ethylene diamine (EDA), 4% magnesium nitrate and 5% ruthenium chloride by using their aqueous solutions. These carbons are characterized for surface area analysis by BET conventional method and exposed to the vapours of sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 deg. C). After 24 h, the reaction products are extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hemisulphur mustard, thiodiglycol, 1,4-oxathiane are observed to be the products of reaction between sulphur mustard and NaOH/CrO 3 /C system, whereas on NaOH/CrO 3 /EDA/C system HD reacted to give 1,4-thiazane. On Mg(NO 3 ) 2 /C system it gave hemisulphur mustard and thiodiglycol. On RuCl 3 /C system it degraded to divinyl sulphone. Residual sulphur mustard is observed along with reaction products in all systems studied. Reaction mechanisms are also proposed for these interesting surface reactions. Above-mentioned carbons can be used in filtration systems for protection against hazardous gases such as sulphur mustard

  11. Tribological Characteristics Evaluation of Mustard Oil Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hassan Jabal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A progressive increase in the desire for environmentally friendly lubricants by users and strict government regulations for the use of these lubricants has provided an opportunity to use plant oils as biodegradable lubricants, therefore vegetable oils have been investigated to replace oil lubricants because of their maintaining the conditions of nature (environment properties. In this paper, the influences of the blending ratio of mustard seeds oil with commercial mineral oil (SAE40 on the tribological characteristics were investigated and compared with mineral oil using the four-ball tribotester. Mustard seeds oil was blended with mineral oil at a volumetric ratio ranging from 22.5 to 90%. All experimental works were confirmed to ASTM D4172-B standard. The results exhibit that some blends of mustard seeds oil with mineral oil have lower wear scar diameter, friction torque, Friction coefficient and a higher parameter of flash temperature value compared to mineral oil and neat mustard seed oil. In conclusion, the mustard seed oil blend (MU22.5 shows a better anti-wear and anti-friction performance compared to oil samples. Therefore, mustard seeds oil has the potential to be used as a lubricant of mating surfaces.

  12. A Choline Oxidase Amperometric Bioassay for the Detection of Mustard Agents Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Arduini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (−50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethylamine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks.

  13. Hypothermia reduces sulphur mustard toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Lei; Gong Wenrong; Nelson, Peggy; Martin, Leanne; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of sulphur mustard (HD)-induced toxicity was investigated in first passage cultures of human skin keratinocytes and on hairless guinea pig skin. When cells exposed to HD were incubated at 37 deg. C, a concentration-dependent decline in viability was observed that was maximal by 2 days. In contrast, no significant HD-induced toxicity was evident up to 4 days posttreatment when the cells were incubated at 25 deg. C. However, these protective effects were lost by 24 h when the cells were switched back to 37 deg. C. The protective effects of hypothermia were also demonstrated when apoptotic endpoints were examined. The HD concentration-dependent induction of fragmented DNA (as quantitated using soluble DNA and the TUNEL reaction), morphology, and p53 expression were all significantly depressed when cell cultures were incubated at 25 deg. C compared to 37 deg. C. When animals were exposed to HD vapour for 2, 4, and 6 min and left at room temperature, lesions were produced whose severity was dependent on exposure time and that were maximal by 72 h posttreatment. Moderate cooling (5-10 deg. C) of HD exposure sites posttreatment (4-6 h) significantly reduced the severity of the resultant lesions. However, in contrast to the in vitro results, these effects were permanent. It appears that the early and noninvasive act of cooling HD-exposed skin may provide a facile means of reducing the severity of HD-induced cutaneous lesions

  14. The effect of nightly nasal CPAP treatment on nocturnal hypoxemia and sleep disorders in mustard gas-injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Ensieh; Fazeli Varzaneh, Ali Reza; Ghanei, Mostafa; Afsharpaiman, Shahla; Poursaleh, Zohre

    2014-12-01

    Sleep-related breathing disorders are associated with unusual respiratory pattern or an abnormal reduction in gas exchange during sleep that is common in sulfur mustard (SM) exposure. We compared 57 Iranian male patients injured with SM and had any complaints of sleep problems with an age-matched group of 21 Iranian male patients who had complaints of sleep problems and were not chemically injured; this group had Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) above 10 and whom referred for polysomnography. Split-night studies were performed for patients with diagnostic polysomnography for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and respiratory events. We then studied respiratory events including episodes of OSA, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and respiratory disturbance index (RDI). The mean age in mustard-exposed patients was 48.14±8.04 years and in age-matched group, 48.19±8.39 years. In mustard exposed patients, there were statistical differences for the episodes of OSA (p=0.001), AHI (p=0.001), and RDI (p=0.001) between two segments of split-night studies. In the age-matched group, there were statistically differences for each parameter (episodes of OSA (p=0.001), AHI (p=0.001), and RDI (p=0.001)). There were no significant differences between two groups. This study indicated that the incidence of respiratory events and nocturnal hypoxemia during sleep in mustard-exposed patients were high and treatment with CPAP significantly reduced all these events.

  15. Laminin-5 Degradation Due to Mustard in Cultured Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (NHEK)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ray, Prabhati; Jin, Xiannu; Leng, Yan; Li, Zhuangwu; Ray, Radharaman

    2003-01-01

    .... We observed that in NHEK, mustards degrade laminin-5. Calmodulin antagonist, W7 or the serine protease inhibitor, TLCK prior to mustard exposure prevented mustard-induced degradation of laminin-5...

  16. HIGH-Resolution CT in Chronic Pulmonary Changes after Mustard Gas Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, M.H.; Mostafavi, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the findings of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung in patients with previous sulfur mustard gas exposure, and to correlate these findings with clinical and chest X-ray (CXR) results. Material and Methods: 50 consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The clinical data were recorded. Standard p.a. CXR and HRCT of the lung and spirometry were performed. The findings of CXR, HRCT and clinical and spirometry results were scored between 0 and 3 according to the severity of the findings. Results: HRCT abnormality was detected in all 50 patients (100%), while CXR was abnormal in 40 patients (80%). The most common HRCT findings was airway abnormalities (bronchial wall thickening in 100% of cases). Other important findings were suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (80%), bronchiectasis (26%), and emphysema (24%). A statistically significant correlation was found between the severity of clinical presentation and that of the HCTR scores in patients with bronchiectasis, bronchitis and ILD (p< 0.05), but not with severity scores of HRCT in patients with emphysema. No significant correlation was found between severity scores of CXR findings. HRCT evidence of bronchial wall thickening and with a lower frequency ILD were present despite normal CXR in 20% of the patients. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that bronchial wall thickening, ILD and emphysema are common chronic pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard injury. HRCT of the chest should be considered as the imaging modality of choice in chemical war injury

  17. HIGH-Resolution CT in Chronic Pulmonary Changes after Mustard Gas Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, M.H.; Mostafavi, S.H. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Siences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Hosseini, S.K. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Siences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Alavi, S.A. [Medical Center for Chemical Warfare Victims Foundation, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To identify the findings of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung in patients with previous sulfur mustard gas exposure, and to correlate these findings with clinical and chest X-ray (CXR) results. Material and Methods: 50 consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The clinical data were recorded. Standard p.a. CXR and HRCT of the lung and spirometry were performed. The findings of CXR, HRCT and clinical and spirometry results were scored between 0 and 3 according to the severity of the findings. Results: HRCT abnormality was detected in all 50 patients (100%), while CXR was abnormal in 40 patients (80%). The most common HRCT findings was airway abnormalities (bronchial wall thickening in 100% of cases). Other important findings were suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (80%), bronchiectasis (26%), and emphysema (24%). A statistically significant correlation was found between the severity of clinical presentation and that of the HCTR scores in patients with bronchiectasis, bronchitis and ILD (p< 0.05), but not with severity scores of HRCT in patients with emphysema. No significant correlation was found between severity scores of CXR findings. HRCT evidence of bronchial wall thickening and with a lower frequency ILD were present despite normal CXR in 20% of the patients. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that bronchial wall thickening, ILD and emphysema are common chronic pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard injury. HRCT of the chest should be considered as the imaging modality of choice in chemical war injury.

  18. Harmony of computational quantum chemistry and experimental chemistry: Comprehensive DFT studies, microsynthesis, and characterization of mustard gas polysulfide analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidian, Hamid; Faraz, Sajjad Mousavi; Mirjafary, Zohreh; Babri, Mehran

    2018-05-01

    After microsynthesis, structures of mustard gas polysulfide analogues were characterized using electron impact (EI) mass spectrometry. General EI fragmentation pathways for such compounds are proposed. The structure of sulfur mustard (HD) and its two other polysulfide analogues have been examined through B3LYP/6-311++G(2d, 2p) calculations. Geometrical analysis of HD shows that the calculated bond distances are satisfactorily comparable with experimental results. Calculated NMR chemical shifts for HD also were compared with experimental data, indicating good agreement both for 1H and 13C atoms. The vibrational frequencies of HD and polysulfide analogues have been precisely assigned. At the end, based on visual inspection of lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals and the relative difference in the total energies of their episulfonium ions, relative reactivity of HD and its polysulfide analogues were investigated.

  19. 7 CFR 201.56-3 - Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, collards, garden cress, upland cress, water cress, kale, Chinese kale, Siberian kale, kohlrabi, mustard, pakchoi, radish, rape, rutabaga, and turnip. (a) General description. (1...

  20. Sulfur cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Microbes, especially bacteria, play an important role in oxidative and reductive cycle of sulfur. The oxidative part of the cycle is mediated by photosynthetic bacteria in the presence of light energy and chemosynthetic forms in the absence of light...

  1. Features of accumulation of inorganic elements in seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and black mustard (Brassica nigra L.)

    OpenAIRE

    О. І. Рудник-Іващенко; Л. М. Михальська; В. В. Швартау

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate special aspects of accumulation of inorganic elements including heavy metals in seeds of white and black mustard to be grown for obtaining drugs. Methods. Field experiments, microwave digestion, ICP-MS and statistical analysis. Results. The content of inorganic elements including heavy metals was determined in the seeds of white and black mustard grown in Kiev Oblast. It was revealed that during the growing season plants of white mustard were able to accumulate...

  2. Tribological Characteristics Evaluation of Mustard Oil Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Hassan Jabal; Muhannad Zaidan Khalefa

    2018-01-01

    A progressive increase in the desire for environmentally friendly lubricants by users and strict government regulations for the use of these lubricants has provided an opportunity to use plant oils as biodegradable lubricants, therefore vegetable oils have been investigated to replace oil lubricants because of their maintaining the conditions of nature (environment) properties. In this paper, the influences of the blending ratio of mustard seeds oil with commercial mineral oil (SAE40) on the ...

  3. Effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of plants of the family Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in Bałcyny (N=53°35'49"; E=19°51'20". The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of spring oilseed rape, winter oilseed rape, white mustard and Chinese mustard as well as on the species composition of fungi colonizing their seeds. Sulfur fertilization had a beneficial effect on the health of Brassicaceae plants infested by Alternaria blight, grey mould, Sclerotinia stem rot, Phoma stem canker and Verticillium wilt, but it had a varying effect on the occurrence of powdery mildew. Alternaria alternata and Penicillium spp. were isolated most frequently from Brassicaceae seeds. In general, more fungi (including pathogenic to Brassicaceae were isolated from the seeds of plants grown in non-sulfur fertilized plots. Pathogens occurred primarily on the seed surface, and their number decreased after surface disinfection of seeds.

  4. Sulfur Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  5. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to detect mustard protein in mustard seed oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Vlooswijk, R.; Bottger, G.; Duijn, G. van; Schaft, P. van der; Dekker, J.; Bemgen, H. van

    2007-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of mustard protein was developed. The assay is based on a polyclonal antiserum directed against a mixture of mustard proteins raised in rabbits. The assay has a detection limit of 1.5 ppm (milligrams per kilogram) and is suitable for the

  6. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Orlicky, David J. [Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); White, Carl W. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045USA (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@UCDenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  7. Protective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Glutathione in a Human Epidermal Model Exposed to a Mustard Gas Analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paromov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard or mustard gas (HD and its monofunctional analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, or “half-mustard gas,” are alkylating agents that induce DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. HD/CEES are rapidly absorbed in the skin causing extensive injury. We hypothesize that antioxidant liposomes that deliver both water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidants protect skin cells from immediate CEES-induced damage via attenuating oxidative stress. Liposomes containing water-soluble antioxidants and/or lipid-soluble antioxidants were evaluated using in vitro model systems. Initially, we found that liposomes containing encapsulated glutathione (GSH-liposomes increased cell viability and attenuated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in HaCaT cells exposed to CEES. Next, GSH-liposomes were tested in a human epidermal model, EpiDerm. In the EpiDerm, GSH-liposomes administered simultaneously or 1 hour after CEES exposure (2.5 mM increased cell viability, inhibited CEES-induced loss of ATP and attenuated changes in cellular morphology, but did not reduce caspase-3 activity. These findings paralleled the previously described in vivo protective effect of antioxidant liposomes in the rat lung and established the effectiveness of GSH-liposomes in a human epidermal model. This study provides a rationale for use of antioxidant liposomes against HD toxicity in the skin considering further verification in animal models exposed to HD.

  8. PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS OF MUSTARD FARMING IN JAYAPURA PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Tangkelayuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research aim was to see variability, feasibility, and mustard farm income cultivated in Jayapura . The experiment was conducted in Kampung Yobeh, District of Sentani, Jayapura regency, on November to December 2013, using data growing season in October 2013, in form of a survey involving 30 mustard farmers as respondents . Determination of respondent using simple random method by getting farmers planting mustard continuously. Results: average mustard farmers area of 0,099 ha, seed expenses of IDR 37,400, the use of 9.20 kg Urea, NPK 2.80 kg, 526 kg manure , and cost of medicines IDR 26.366, male workers 2.66 HOK and women 2.03 HOK , and other expenses (shrinkage values and land tax .The level of productivity of mustard is 538.6 kg/0.99 ha/cropping season. Total revenue mustard farming with land size 0,099 ha/growing season is IDR 1.615.800, total spending is IDR 562 18. Benefit of farmers is IDR 1,053,618 with value of R/C ratio of 2.87. Analysis shows that mustard farming in Yobeh village, Sentani, Jayapura profitable, it is advisable for further development. Need guidance from Field Extension so that increased production increased.

  9. Mustard Group Chemical War Agents from Preventive Medicine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Ucar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although many preventive efforts and treaties, chemical warfare agents have still been a severe assault form against both military and civilian individuals. The most important chemical warfare agents sulphur mustard and others are easy to handle and cheap those the important reasons to accept sulphur mustard as a chemical warfare agent. Many individuals attacked by sulphur mustard have severe health problems such as respiratory system diseases. After ten years of sulphur mustard exposure, several health problems such as respiratory tract problems (%42.5, eye problems (%40 and other systemic diseases have been observed to insist on induviduals when examined. Exposure of even single sulphur mustard exposure has been seen to result high level of disability and early deaths. In spite of the fact that there is no available antidote and/or remedy against sulphur mustard exposure, our country has an incremental chemical assault threat for both military personels and civilians because of its jeopolitics position. Experimental studies regarding sulphur mustard toxicity will be helpful for novel preventive strategies and antidot devolepment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 209-214

  10. Can Mustard Gas Induce Late Onset Polyneuropathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJ. Mousavi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:Mustard gas, lethal in high doses, affects multiple organs such as skin, eye and respiratory system. We studied the development of late onset mustardinduced polyneuropathy among chemically wounded Iranian veterans.Methods:In this descriptive study,100 chemically wounded Iranian veterans with severe eye involvement were examined for any signs and symptoms of polyneuropathy by an internist.20 patients were suspected to have neurological symptoms or signs.These patients were examined by a neurologist again. 13 showed abnormal neurological symptoms. Electrodiagnostic exams were performed for this group by another physician.Results:13 veterans had abnormal neurological exam results with prominent sensory signs and symptoms in almost all of them. Brisk deep tendon reflexes were found in 3 cases. Electrodiagnostic studies were compatible with axonal type distal sensory polyneuropathy in 6 subjects. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of late onset polyneuropathy among chemically-wounded victims who were exposed to mustard gas. The pathophysiology of this form of neuropathy is still unknown. Unlike most toxic neuropathies,obvious clinical signs and symptoms appeared several years after exposure. No specific treatment for.polyneuropathy due to chemical weapons exposure has been described to date.

  11. Combustion characteristics of the mustard methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, M.G.; Vasilev, I.P.

    2011-01-01

    Mustard Methyl Esters (further bio diesel) and regular diesel fuel were tested in direct injection diesel engine. Analysis of experimental data was supported by an analysis of fuel injection and combustion characteristics. Engine fuelled with bio diesel had increased brake specific fuel consumption, reduced nitrogen oxides emission and smoke opacity, moderate increase in carbon monoxide emission with essentially unchanged unburned hydrocarbons emission. Increase in fuel consumption was attributed to lesser heating value of bio diesel and partially to decreased fuel conversion efficiency. Analysis of combustion characteristics revealed earlier start of injection and shorter ignition delay period of bio diesel. Resulting decrease in maximum rate of heat release and cylinder pressure was the most probable reason for reduced emission of nitrogen oxides. Analysis of combustion characteristics also showed that cetane index determined by ASTM Method D976 is not a proper measure of ignition quality of bio diesel. Conclusion was made on applicability of mustard oil as a source for commercial production of bio diesel in Pakistan. Potentialities of on improving combustion and emissions characteristics of diesel engine by reformulating bio diesel were discussed. (author)

  12. Models of invasion and establishment of African Mustard (Brassica tournefortii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Miller, David M.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced exotic plants can drive ecosystem change. We studied invasion and establishment ofBrassica tournefortii (African mustard), a noxious weed, in the Chemehuevi Valley, western Sonoran Desert, California. We used long-term data sets of photographs, transects for biomass of annual plants, and densities of African mustard collected at irregular intervals between 1979 and 2009. We suggest that African mustard may have been present in low numbers along the main route of travel, a highway, in the late 1970s; invaded the valley along a major axial valley ephemeral stream channel and the highway; and by 2009, colonized 22 km into the eastern part of the valley. We developed predictive models for invasibility and establishment of African mustard. Both during the initial invasion and after establishment, significant predictor variables of African mustard densities were surficial geology, proximity to the highway and axial valley ephemeral stream channel, and number of small ephemeral stream channels. The axial valley ephemeral stream channel was the most vulnerable of the variables to invasions. Overall, African mustard rapidly colonized and quickly became established in naturally disturbed areas, such as stream channels, where geological surfaces were young and soils were weakly developed. Older geological surfaces (e.g., desert pavements with soils 140,000 to 300,000 years old) were less vulnerable. Microhabitats also influenced densities of African mustard, with densities higher under shrubs than in the interspaces. As African mustard became established, the proportional biomass of native winter annual plants declined. Early control is important because African mustard can colonize and become well established across a valley in 20 yr.

  13. Final report : multicomponent forensic signature development : interactions with common textiles; mustard precursors and simulants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2010-02-01

    2-Chloroethyl phenyl sulfide (CEPS), a surrogate compound of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, was examined using thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) and multivariate analysis. This work describes a novel method of producing multiway data using a stepped thermal desorption. Various multivariate analysis schemes were employed to analyze the data. These methods may be able to discern different sources of CEPS. In addition, CEPS was applied to cotton, nylon, polyester, and silk swatches. These swatches were placed in controlled humidity chambers maintained at 23%, 56%, and 85% relative humidity. At regular intervals, samples were removed from each test swatch, and the samples analyzed using TD/GC-MS. The results were compared across fabric substrate and humidity.

  14. Synergistic action of tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide on yield and nutritional quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyavan; Bhatia, Arti; Tomer, Ritu; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, B; Singh, S D

    2013-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted in open top chamber during rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 at the research farm of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the effect of tropospheric ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) interaction on yield and nutritional quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.). Mustard plants were grown from emergence to maturity under different treatments: charcoal-filtered air (CF, 80-85 % less O3 than ambient O3 and ambient CO2), nonfiltered air (NF, 5-10 % less O3 than ambient O3 and ambient CO2 ), nonfiltered air with elevated carbon dioxide (NF + CO2, NF air and 550 ± 50 ppm CO2), elevated ozone (EO, NF air and 25-35 ppb elevated O3), elevated ozone along with elevated carbon dioxide (EO + CO2, NF air, 25-35 ppb O3 and 550 ± 50 ppm CO2), and ambient chamber less control (AC, ambient O3 and CO2). Elevated O3 exposure led to reduced photosynthesis and leaf area index resulting in decreased seed yield of mustard. Elevated ozone significantly decreased the oil and micronutrient content in mustard. Thirteen to 17 ppm hour O3 exposure (accumulated over threshold of 40 ppm, AOT 40) reduced the oil content by 18-20 %. Elevated CO2 (500 ± 50 ppm) along with EO was able to counter the decline in oil content in the seed, and it increased by 11 to 13 % over EO alone. Elevated CO2, however, decreased protein, calcium, zinc, iron, magnesium, and sulfur content in seed as compared to the nonfiltered control, whereas removal of O3 from air in the charcoal-filtered treatment resulted in a significant increase in the same.

  15. Pityriasis rosea-like eruptions due to mustard oil application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawar Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A young man employed in a construction company, presented with cutaneous lesions clinically simulating pityriasis rosea. Satisfactory and complete response to corticosteroids and antihistamines was followed by recurrence. Multiple recurrences within a short span of time arose a suspicion of alternative diagnosis. Site visit helped us to rule out occupational contact dermatitis. Further history taking revealed that he was recently using mustard oil for body massage. Subsequent patch testing confirmed contact hypersensitivity to mustard oil. Avoidance of the contact with mustard oil arrested appearance of further skin lesions. We stress the importance of taking a good history in clinical practice in disclosing a possible contactant.

  16. Carcinogenicity of Mustard Gas: Report of the Cancer Registry Project Among Mustard Gas Exposed Iranian Veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroush, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003 The Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center in collaboration with Tehran University has conducted a nationwide cancer registry project among all Iranian Veterans with history of exposure to mustard gas during 1980-1988 Iran Iraq war. The mixed cohort study has a retrospective phase from the exposure time to 2003 and a prospective phase from 2003 to 2013. The main goal is to find any possible relationship between exposure to mustard gas and developing cancer as a long term health effect. A total number of 7500 individual (both military and civilians) with confirmed medical records of exposure to mustard gas have been included in the study to be compared with the same number of control population as well as the statistics of the national cancer registry system. The follow up of all cases is being done as a part of the national health monitoring program of the Janbazan (veterans) organization. In this report the latest findings of this project will be presented.(author)

  17. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudur Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata, white mustard (Brassica alba, Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata, Asian mustard (B. juncea, oilseed rape (B. napus, black mustard (B. nigra, rapeseed (B. rapa, white ball mustard (Calepina irregularis, ball mustard (Neslia paniculata, treacle mustard (Erysimum repandum, hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale, Asian hedge mustard (S. orientale, smooth mustard (S. erysimoides and canola are the major economically important oilseed crops in many countries. Mustards were naturalized to Australia and New Zealand and Australia is currently the second largest exporter of Brassicaceae oilseeds to meet the global demand for a healthy plant-derived oil, high in polyunsaturated fats. Apart from providing edible oil, various parts of these plants and many of their phytochemicals have been used traditionally for both agronomic as well as medicinal purposes, with evidence of their use by early Australian and New Zealand settlers and also the indigenous population. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of traditional and agronomic uses of Brassicaceae oilseeds and mustards with a focus on their importance in Australia and New Zealand.

  18. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahmudur; Khatun, Amina; Liu, Lei; Barkla, Bronwyn J

    2018-01-21

    Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard ( Alliaria petiolata ), white mustard ( Brassica alba ), Ethiopian mustard ( B. carinata ), Asian mustard ( B. juncea ), oilseed rape ( B. napus ), black mustard ( B. nigra ), rapeseed ( B. rapa ), white ball mustard ( Calepina irregularis ), ball mustard ( Neslia paniculata ), treacle mustard ( Erysimum repandum ), hedge mustard ( Sisymbrium officinale ), Asian hedge mustard ( S. orientale ), smooth mustard ( S. erysimoides ) and canola are the major economically important oilseed crops in many countries. Mustards were naturalized to Australia and New Zealand and Australia is currently the second largest exporter of Brassicaceae oilseeds to meet the global demand for a healthy plant-derived oil, high in polyunsaturated fats. Apart from providing edible oil, various parts of these plants and many of their phytochemicals have been used traditionally for both agronomic as well as medicinal purposes, with evidence of their use by early Australian and New Zealand settlers and also the indigenous population. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of traditional and agronomic uses of Brassicaceae oilseeds and mustards with a focus on their importance in Australia and New Zealand.

  19. Development of Biological Control for Alliaria petiolata (Garlic Mustard)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blossey, Bernd; Nuzzo, Victoria; Hinz, Harriet; Gerber, Esther

    2003-01-01

    Alliaria petiolata, garlic mustard, a biennial plant of European origin accidentally introduced to North America, has spread throughout much of eastern and midwestern North America and is now recorded...

  20. Diversity Analysis of Ethiopian Mustard Breeding Lines Using RAPD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) is an oilseed crop less known to the ... have also been used for cultivar identification in B. napus (Ren et al. ..... of Brassica oleracea L. group (2n=18) using random amplified polymorphic DNA.

  1. TREATMENT OF BIODIESEL WASTEWATER USING YELLOW MUSTARD SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    SAVCI, Serpil

    2017-01-01

    In thisstudy, removal of original biodiesel wastewater (BOD, COD, oil&greas) by yellow mustard seeds was examined bya batch system. The effect of the adsorption time 300 minutes, adsorbent dose(1.0 g/L) and mixing rate (120 rpm) on the adsorption capacity of pollutants.The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were examined.According to the data obtained from experiments, biodiesel wastewater can betreated by adsorption using yellow mustard seeds.

  2. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  3. Phytocontact Dermatitis due to Mustard Seed Mimicking Burn Injury: Report of a Case

    OpenAIRE

    Yabanoglu, Hakan; Akbulut, Sami; Karakayali, Feza

    2012-01-01

    Mustard seeds have been used in traditional folk medicine as a stimulant, diuretic, and purgative and to treat a variety of ailments including peritonitis and neuralgia. Mustards are still used today in mustard plasters to treat rheumatism, arthritis, chest congestion, aching back, and sore muscles. To make a mustard plaster, mix equal parts of flour and powdered mustard and spread it as a paste on a doubled piece of soft cloth. Apply mustard plaster to the affected area for a maximum of 15 m...

  4. Ionic dependence of sulphur mustard cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, Thomas W.; Nelson, Peggy; Bjarnason, Stephen; Vair, Cory; Shei Yimin; Tenn, Catherine; Lecavalier, Pierre; Burczyk, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ionic environment on sulphur mustard (bis 2-chloroethyl sulphide; HD) toxicity was examined in CHO-K1 cells. Cultures were treated with HD in different ionic environments at constant osmolar conditions (320 mOsM, pH 7.4). The cultures were refed with fresh culture medium 1 h after HD exposure, and viability was assessed. Little toxicity was apparent when HD exposures were carried out in ion-free sucrose buffer compared to LC 50 values of ∼ 100-150 μM when the cultures were treated with HD in culture medium. Addition of NaCl to the buffer increased HD toxicity in a salt concentration-dependent manner to values similar to those obtained in culture medium. HD toxicity was dependent on both cationic and anionic species with anionic environment playing a much larger role in determining toxicity. Substitution of NaI for NaCl in the treatment buffers increased HD toxicity by over 1000%. The activity of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in recovering from cytosolic acidification in salt-free and in different chloride salts did not correlate with the HD-induced toxicity in these buffers. However, the inhibition by HD of intracellular pH regulation correlated with its toxicity in NaCl, NaI and sucrose buffers. Analytical chemical studies and the toxicity of the iodine mustard derivative ruled out the role of chemical reactions yielding differentially toxic species as being responsible for the differences in HD toxicity observed. This work demonstrates that the early events that HD sets into motion to cause toxicity are dependent on ionic environment, possibly due to intracellular pH deregulation.

  5. Features of accumulation of inorganic elements in seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and black mustard (Brassica nigra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Рудник-Іващенко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate special aspects of accumulation of inorganic elements including heavy metals in seeds of white and black mustard to be grown for obtaining drugs. Methods. Field experiments, microwave digestion, ICP-MS and statistical analysis. Results. The content of inorganic elements including heavy metals was determined in the seeds of white and black mustard grown in Kiev Oblast. It was revealed that during the growing season plants of white mustard were able to accumulate such elements as aluminum, barium, strontium, zinc in seeds in concentrations that exceed their content in black mustard seeds, while compounds of calcium, cesium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium in a greater degree were accumulated in black mustard seeds. Conclusions. As legal and regulatory documents for important chemical elements don’t contain the maximum permissible limits of their content in medicinal plants, it would make sense to launch a comprehensive research with the involvement of specia­lists of relevant profiles in order to establish such a gradation. Plants of white and black mustard in Kiev Oblast have accumulated high levels of such metals as Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Sr, Zn that exceed the known limits of accumulation, indicating a partial contamination of soils in the region. Consequently, these plants can be used for phytoremediation of soils. Considering the fact that in the pharmaceutical practice refined mustard seed oil is used, revealed alterations of metal accumulation in seeds will not affect the quality of the final drugs. According to the research results, white and black mustard is promising for cultivation in Kiev Oblast with a view to obtain raw material that can be processed into drugs.

  6. Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Dahl, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria are characterized by oxidizing various inorganic sulfur compounds for use as electron donors in carbon dioxide fixation during anoxygenic photosynthetic growth. These bacteria are divided into the purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and the green sulfur bacteria (GSB......). They utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate and sometimes also ferrous iron and hydrogen as electron donors. This review focuses on the dissimilatory and assimilatory metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds in these bacteria and also briefly discusses these metabolisms...... in other types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. The biochemistry and genetics of sulfur compound oxidation in PSB and GSB are described in detail. A variety of enzymes catalyzing sulfur oxidation reactions have been isolated from GSB and PSB (especially Allochromatium vinosum, a representative...

  7. The systemic nature of mustard lung: Comparison with COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriary Alireza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard (SM is a powerful blister-causing alkylating chemical warfare agent used by Iraqi forces against Iran. One of the known complications of mustard gas inhalation is mustard lung which is discussed as a phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In this complication, there are clinical symptoms close to COPD with common etiologies, such as in smokers. Based on information gradually obtained by conducting the studies on mustard lung patients, systemic symptoms along with pulmonary disorders have attracted the attention of researchers. Changes in serum levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, interleukin (IL, chemokines, selectins, immunoglobulins, and signs of imbalance in oxidant-antioxidant system at serum level, present the systemic changes in these patients. In addition to these, reports of extra-pulmonary complications, such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease are also presented. In this study, the chance of developing the systemic nature of this lung disease have been followed on using the comparative study of changes in the mentioned markers in mustard lung and COPD patients at stable phases and the mechanisms of pathogenesis and phenomena, such as airway remodeling in these patients.

  8. Thermal and pressure stability of myrosinase enzymes from black mustard (Brassica nigra L. W.D.J Koch. var. nigra), brown mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea) and yellow mustard (Sinapsis alba L. Subsp Maire) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Okunade, O. A.; Ghawi, S. K.; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than black (1.50 un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800 MPa) and temperature (30-70 °C) for all the mustard seeds. However, at combinations of lower pressures (200-400 MPa) and high temperatures (60-80 °C), there was less i...

  9. Epigenetic perturbations in the pathogenesis of mustard toxicity; hypothesis and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, A.; Yaren, H.; Kunak, I.; Uysal, B.; Kurt, B.; Topal, T.

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of sulfur mustard (SM) toxicity is not fully understood, although it is related to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, oxidative stress, DNA damage, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activation within the affected cell. We, therefore, made an attempt whether epigenetic aberrations may contribute to pathogenesis of SM poisoning in rats' lung. A total of 40 male SD rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control and given 2 ml saline, three groups received single dose of mechlorethamine (MEC) (3.5 mg/kg subcutaneously) with the same time intervals. Group 2 received MEC only; group 3 received histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor (Trichostatine A) (1 mg/kg) and group 4 received DNA methyl transferase (DNMT) inhibitor (5-Azacytidine) (0.02 mg/kg), intraperitoneally. MEC injection resulted in severe lung toxicity with strong interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage, emphysematous changes as well as mild inflammatory cell infiltration and septal thickening. In group 3, the HDAC inhibitor significantly reduced interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltration. On the other hand, we have observed severe lung damage by using DNMT inhibitor (group 4). In HDAC inhibitor group, the results were close to sham group. In DNMT inhibitor group, however, lungs were worse than MEC group results. These preliminary results revealed that, SM itself and/or its intracellular metabolites may perturb the epigenetic environment of the affected cell in lung tissue. Hypothetically, MEC may cause HDAC induction leading to a variety of gene silencing. Trichostatine A can reduce the active enzyme level and can reactivate the already silenced genes. Further studies are needed to clarify the involvement of epigenetic perturbations in the pathogenesis of mustard toxicity.(author)

  10. Impacts of mustard gas exposure on veterans mental health: A study on the role of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam-Reza Karami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mustard gas (MG exposure can impair physical health and therefore increase the probability of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and psychological disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate long-term effects of MG exposure on veterans′ mental health. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. In order to assess prevalence of mental health and PTSD of 100 MG victims 25 years after the exposure to MG in Iran-Iraq conflict, the general health questionnaire (GHQ-28 and Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively was administered. Results: The mean (±standard deviation (SD age of participants was 40.63 (±5.86 years. The mean GHQ-28 (47.34 of the study group was higher compared to standardized cutoff point (23 of the Iranian community. Also, it was found that 38 participants (38% suffer from PTSD. The results of this study showed that academic education in the PTSD group was less than that in the non-PTSD group (P=0.03. In addition, in multivariate analysis it was found that only education level of the veterans and their wives were effective on the mental health score (adjusted P=0.036 and 0.041, respectively. The mean score of depression and psychosocial activity subscale in patients at higher education level was lower than patients at lower education level (P<0.05. Conclusion: This study found that sulfur mustard (SM exposure can be effect on mental health even 25 years after exposure. Therefore, the psychological state should be more considered in chemical injured veterans and it is important that providing more mental health centers for this community.

  11. Applications of deuterium labeling in studies of drug metabolism: metabolism of trideuteroaniline mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, P.J.; Farmer, P.B.; Foster, A.B.; Jarman, M.

    1977-01-01

    In a continuation of a study of aniline mustard, the metabolism of 2,4,6-trideuteroaniline mustard [N-N-di-(2-chloroethyl)-2,4,6-trideuteroaniline] was investigated. Measurements of the ratios of deuterated to nondeuterated species in p-hydroxyaniline mustard and N-(2-chloroethyl)-4-hydroxyaniline isolated following in vitro metabolism of a mixture of aniline mustard and aniline mustard-d 3 enabled a determination both of the kinetic isotope effect and of the extents of NIH shifts and indicated the probable metabolite sequence

  12. Mugwort-Mustard Allergy Syndrome due to Broccoli Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Sugita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS is a relatively rare form of food allergy which develops in individuals who are sensitized to pollen. Tree pollens, especially birch pollen, frequently induce PFAS; however, the incidence of PFAS due to grass or weed pollens such as ragweed or mugwort is relatively rare. Mugwort-mustard allergy syndrome (MMAS is an example of a PFAS in which individuals sensitized to mugwort may develop an allergy to mustard and experience severe reactions. We herein describe a case of MMAS due to broccoli consumption.

  13. Diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (dlco) in chemical lung injuries due to the use of mustard gas in the poisoned soldiers of Iran-Iraq war 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhi, H.; Ganji, F.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the Mustard gas exposure effects on pulmonary system, particularly on diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (DLCO) and simple spirometry. Sixty-five sulfur mustard- poisoned soldiers from Mostazafan and Janbazan organization were referred to our center in 2005. Complete history, physical examination, chest X ray, Echocardiography, Arterial blood gas, high - resolution computerized tomography, diffusion capacity for lung carbon monoxide and spirometry of these were performed and compared this result with normal value. The mean value of indices in studied injured subjects was: Spirometry: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) = 70.4, Forced vital capacity (FVC) = 66.5, EFE 25-75=81.1, FEV1/FVC=101.9, Flow 25% = 28.7, Flow 50%= 72.9, Flow 75%= 100.1, Sample volume: Functional residual capacity of lungs (FRC) = 131.5, residual volume (RV) = 157.3, RV/TLC= 169.1, Total lung capacity (TLC) = 91.3, KCO= 131.6, TLCO= 116.3. No significant correlation was observed between TLCO values with HRCT, echocardiography, ABG and spirometry values (P>0.05). We recommend TLCO and RV/TLV tests to assess severity of Injuries as there is no a suitable criterion to measure the real consequences of mustard gas on affected combatants. and Biological markers are also needed to determine cause effect relations. (author)

  14. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard ( Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of 16 mustard (Brassica spp.) genotypes by using 12 RAPD markers revealed that three primers GLA-11, OPB-04 and OPD-02 showed good technical resolution and sufficient variations among different genotypes. A total of 40 RAPD bands were scored of which 38 (94.87%) polymorphic ...

  15. Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Its Complications in Iranian Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beeta Balali-Mood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard is a chemical warfare agent, which was largelyused during the World War One and in Iraq-Iran conflict. It mayalso be used as a chemical terrorism agent. Therefore, medicalprofessions should have sufficient knowledge and be preparedfor medical intervention of any such chemical attack.Sulphur mustard exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin,and respiratory tract, with subsequent systemic actions on thenervous, immunologic, hematologic, digestive, and reproductivesystems. It is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis andthus, delayed complications have been considered since theWorld War One. Cases of malignancies in the target organs particularlyin hematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systemswere reported. Common delayed respiratory complications includechronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia,and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deterioratewith time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction ofnatural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infectionsand malignancies are also among the most distressing long-termconsequences of sulphur mustard intoxication. However, despiteextensive research that has been conducted on Iranian veteransduring the past decades, major gaps continue to remain in thesulphur mustard literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunctionsand the relationship between exposure to sulphur mustardand mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity areimportant fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranianveterans with chronic health problems caused by sulphurmustard poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on themedical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of sulphurmustard poisoning, a subject that greatly challenges themedical professions.

  16. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard (Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    successfully cultivated between Aman and Boro rice rotation without affecting this popular cropping pattern. So, it is urgent to analyze the genetic diversity and its response for the selection of short duration mustard genotypes for increasing our cropping intensity. Diversity at marker loci is currently the most feasible strategy ...

  17. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic onion production is often difficult and expensive, requiring numerous cultivations and extensive hand-weeding. Onion safety and weed control with mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba was evaluated in greenhouse and field trials. MSM applied at 110, 220, and 440 g...

  18. Response of bread wheat to increasing mustard meal nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greenhouse experiment on the nitrogen uptake from the mustard meal using 15N showed significant difference on both soil types. On the Vertisol the per cent nitrogen derived from the meal and per cent nitrogen use efficiency varied from 18 to 40 and from 18 to 62%, respectively. On the Nitosol, these values varied from 25 ...

  19. Genetic diversity in Ethiopian mustard ( Bbrassica carinata a. braun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, genetic diversity in 60 Ethiopian mustard genotypes, collected from 16 regions of Ethiopia, were assessed using the techniques of cluster and ... for the majority of traits of interest: seed yield/plot, seed yield/plant, biomass/plot, biomass/plant, plant height, number of pods/plant, 1000 seeds' weight and oil content ...

  20. 7 CFR 457.168 - Mustard crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... amount of production delivered, and the processor contract provides for delivery of the mustard under... that are identified by the Food and Drug Administration or other public health organizations of the... FCIC including, but not limited to, protein and oil will not be considered. (e) Any production...

  1. The Short-Term Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Spirometric Indices in Chemical Warfare Victims Exposed to Mustard Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABCTRACT Introduction & Objective: Chronic respiratory diseases are the most prevalent late sequels of sulfur mustard gas injury among Iranian chemical warfare victims. Chest physiotherapy is one of the useful methods in care, cure and infection prevention of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effect of chest physiotherapy on spirometric indices in chemical warfare victims exposed to sulfur mustard gas. Materials & Methods: In this study, 27 of the chemical warfare victims with respiratory diseases were selected. Chest physiotherapy including postural drainage percussion and vibration were used in four positions for all patients. Pulmonary function test (PFT was obtained before (baseline, immediately and 20 minute after the chest physiotherapy. The SPSS software was used for the data analysis of the collected data. Results: Results of this study showed the significant effect (p<0.01 of chest physiotherapy upon forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1 (baseline mean, 44.19 immediately after intervention mean 47.3 and 20 minute after intervention mean 48.3 and forced vital capacity (FVC (baseline mean, 69.37 immediately after intervention mean, 73.67 20 minute after intervention 75.74. Chest physiotherapy had significant effect (p<0.01 in asthmatic bronchitis group and also had significant effect (p<0.05 in both severe and moderate groups. Conclusion: Chest physiotherapy was able to improve pulmonary function test indices in chemical warfare victims suffering from respiratory problems. The effect on asthmatic bronchitis group, as well as both severe and moderate groups, was significant.

  2. Therapeutic journery of nitrogen mustard as alkylating anticancer agents: Historic to future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh K; Kumar, Sahil; Prasad, D N; Bhardwaj, T R

    2018-05-10

    Cancer is considered as one of the most serious health problems today. The discovery of nitrogen mustard as an alkylating agent in 1942, opened a new era in the cancer chemotherapy. This valuable class of alkylating agent exerts its biological activity by binding to DNA, cross linking two strands, preventing DNA replication and ultimate cell death. At the molecular level, nitrogen lone pairs of nitrogen mustard generate a strained intermediate "aziridinium ion" which is very reactive towards DNA of tumor cell as well as normal cell resulting in various adverse side effects alogwith therapeutic implications. Over the last 75 years, due to its high reactivity and peripheral cytotoxicity, numerous modifications have been made in the area of nitrogen mustard to improve its efficacy as well as enhancing drug delivery specifically to tumor cells. This review mainly discusses the medicinal chemistry aspects in the development of various classes of nitrogen mustards (mechlorethamine, chlorambucil, melphalan, cyclophosphamide and steroidal based nitrogen mustards). The literature collection includes the historical and the latest developments in these areas. This comprehensive review also attempted to showcase the recent progress in the targeted delivery of nitrogen mustards that includes DNA directed nitrogen mustards, antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT), nitrogen mustard activated by glutathione transferase, peptide based nitrogen mustards and CNS targeted nitrogen mustards. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Sulfur poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julian, R J; Harrison, K B

    1975-01-01

    A case of sulfur poisoning is described in which 12 of 20 cattle died following the feeding of sulfur. Respiratory distress and abdominal pain were the prominent signs. Examination of one animal revealed vasculitis and necrosis of the rumen and abomasal wall. The possible toxic effects of sulfur are discussed.

  4. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  5. A Large-Scale Quantitative Proteomic Approach to Identifying Sulfur Mustard-Induced Protein Phosphorylation Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    snapshot of SM-induced toxicity. Over the past few years, innovations in systems biology and biotechnology have led to important advances in our under...perturbations. SILAC has been used to study tumor metastasis (3, 4), focal adhesion- associated proteins, growth factor signaling, and insulin regula- tion (5...stained with colloidal Coomassie blue. After it was destained, the gel lane was excised into six regions, and each region was cut into 1 mm cubes

  6. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity Study of Lewisite in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-31

    buffered formalin (NBF). To standardize the degree of distension of pulmonary alveoli with fixative, the lungs were fixed by inserting a blunted needle into...the thickness of the mucosa, submucosa and muscular layers of the stomach and involved the serosa. Epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis of the

  7. Development of Protective Agent Against Sulfur Mustard-Induced Skin Lesions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wormser, Uri

    2001-01-01

    .... Toxicokinetic studies with male, fur-covered and hairless guinea pigs showed that SM disappeared from the skin 60 min after exposure whereas in the female, fur-covered guinea pig SM disappeared after 3 hours...

  8. Development of Protective Agent Against Sulfur Mustard-Induced Skin Lesions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wormser, Uri

    2002-01-01

    The present study is a final report of the project. During the project we developed iodine formulation proved to be efficacious against SM in the guinea pig skin model at intervals of 15 and 30 rain between exposure and treatment...

  9. Structural, Morphological, and Functional Correlates of Corneal Endothelial Toxicity Following Corneal Exposure to Sulfur Mustard Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    States Depart- ment of Agriculture certificate No. 51-F-0006). All procedures were in compliance with the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in...exposure: pathological mechanism and poten- tial therapy. Toxicology. 2009;263:59–69. 9. Gordon MK, Desantis A, Deshmukh M, et al. Doxycycline hydrogels

  10. Development of Protective Agent Against Sulfur Mustard-Induced Skin Lesions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wormser, Uri

    2002-01-01

    .... Incorporation of the antiinflammatory drug piroxicam and the steroidal antiinflamamtory agent clobetasol, caused the formulation to protect at intervals of 45 and 60 rain in the mouse ear swelling...

  11. Development of Protective Agent Against Sulfur Mustard-Induced Skin Lesions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wormser, Uri

    2001-01-01

    The present study is a continuation of two years project. During the third year of project we improved the iodine formulation by incorporating the antiinflammatory drug piroxicam and the anti H1 receptor diphehydramine...

  12. Decontamination of Sulfur Mustard from Printed Circuit Board Using Zr-Doped Titania Suspension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Opluštil, F.; Olšanská, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 9 (2013), s. 3436-3440 ISSN 0888-5885 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : chemical warfare agents * nanofiber membranes * manganese oxide * metal-oxides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2013

  13. Sulfur Mustard (SM) Lesions in Organ-Cultured Human Skin: Markers of Injury and Inflammatory Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-16

    18. SUB3ECT TERMS (oont’d) epidermal injury organ culture •ranuaear vacuoles C-leucine incorpora’tion by full-thickness human akin explants hi stamine ...mast- cell degranulation prostaglandin E2 lysobomal enzymes: acid phosphatase, B-glucuronidase, 0-galactcsidase, lysozyme and lactic dehydrogenase...that histamline (from local mast cells ), and PA and POgk (probably from mast cells and epidermal cells ) are s3e of the early mediators of the inflmma

  14. DNA modification by sulfur mustards and nitrosoureas and repair of these lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlum, D.B.; Papirmeister, B.; Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD)

    1986-01-01

    The nature and significance of DNA modifications caused by chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) is compared with those produced by chloroethyl cyclohexyl nitrosourea (CCNU). This comparison illustrates the differences in the kind of biological response which can arise from DNA modification by different agents and the role of DNA repair in determining this response. In particular, the ability of tumor cells to become resistant to therapeutic agents has some important implications for the ability of cells in general to tolerate environmental mutagens. DNA modification by CEES and CCNU can be viewed in the context of DNA modification caused by compounds which naturally react with DNA. For example, cycasin and S-adenosylmethionine both methylate DNA. Not surprisingly, a variety of repair mechanisms has evolved which serve to maintain the integrity of DNA in the presence of such naturally-occurring DNA modifiers. The ability of these enzymes to repair other DNA lesions is currently under active investigation as described here. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Sulfur-Containing Agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendar, Ponnam; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2017-10-09

    Modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers by providing innovative agrochemicals. In this context, the introduction of sulfur atoms into an active ingredient is still an important tool in modulating the properties of new crop-protection compounds. More than 30% of today's agrochemicals contain at least one sulfur atom, mainly in fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. A number of recently developed sulfur-containing agrochemical candidates represent a novel class of chemical compounds with new modes of action, so we intend to highlight the emerging interest in commercially active sulfur-containing compounds. This chapter gives a comprehensive overview of selected leading sulfur-containing pesticidal chemical families namely: sulfonylureas, sulfonamides, sulfur-containing heterocyclics, thioureas, sulfides, sulfones, sulfoxides and sulfoximines. Also, the most suitable large-scale synthetic methods of the recently launched or provisionally approved sulfur-containing agrochemicals from respective chemical families have been highlighted.

  16. Competitive Interactions of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Damesrocket (Hesperis matronalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Adams, Jean V.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive interactions between native plants and nonnative, invasive plant species have been extensively studied; however, within degraded landscapes, the effect of interspecific interactions among invasive plants is less explored. We investigated a competitive interaction between two sympatric, invasive mustard species that have similar life history strategies and growth forms: garlic mustard and damesrocket. Greenhouse experiments using a full range of reciprocal density ratios were conducted to investigate interspecific competition. Garlic mustard had a negative effect on the final biomass, number of leaves, and relative growth rate in height of damesrocket. Survival of damesrocket was not negatively affected by interspecific competition with garlic mustard; however, garlic mustard showed higher mortality because of intraspecific competition. These results indicated that although garlic mustard has been observed to be the dominant species in this landscape, it may not completely outcompete damesrocket in all situations. Studies of invasive species in competition are important in degraded landscapes because this is the common situation in many natural areas.

  17. GERD related micro-aspiration in chronic mustard-induced pulmonary disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Aliannejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO is the main pulmonary involvement resulting from sulfur mustard (SM gas exposure that was used against Iranian civilians and military forces during the Iran-Iraq war. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER and gastric micro-aspiration in SM gas injured patients with chronic pulmonary diseases and recurrent episodes of exacerbations. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Gastric micro-aspiration and GER were assessed in the enrolled patients by assessing bile acids, pepsin and trypsin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Results: Our result showed that bile acids were found to be high in 21.4% patients, and low in 53.6% of patients. Only in 16% patients, no bile was detected in the BALF. Trypsin and pepsin were detected in BAL fluid of all patients. Conclusion: Most of BO patients after exposure to SM suffer GER, while none the etiologic factors of GER in post lung transplant BO are present. It would be hypothesized that GER per se could be considered as an aggregative factor for exacerbations in patients. Further studies will provide more advances to better understanding of pathophysiological mechanism regarding GER and BO and treatment.

  18. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  19. Mercury-induced oxidative stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Han, Fengxiang X; Monts, David L; Matta, Fank B; Gu, Mengmeng; Su, Yi; Masad, Motasim A

    2009-10-01

    Mercury, a potent neurotoxin, is released to the environment in significant amounts by both natural processes and anthropogenic activities. No natural hyperaccumulator plant has been reported for mercury phytoremediation. Few studies have been conducted on the physiological responses of Indian mustard, a higher biomass plant with faster growth rates, to mercury pollution. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of mercury to Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) and mercury-induced oxidative stress in order to examine the potential application of Indian mustard to mercury phytoremediation. Two common cultivars (Florida Broadleaf and Longstanding) of Indian mustard were grown hydroponically in a mercury-spiked solution. Plant uptake, antioxidative enzymes, peroxides, and lipid peroxidation under mercury stress were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes (catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD; and superoxide dismutase, SOD) were the most sensitive indices of mercury-induced oxidative response of Indian mustard plants. Indian mustard effectively generated an enzymatic antioxidant defense system (especially CAT) to scavenge H(2)O(2), resulting in lower H(2)O(2) in shoots with higher mercury concentrations. These two cultivars of Indian mustard demonstrated an efficient metabolic defense and adaptation system to mercury-induced oxidative stress. A majority of Hg was accumulated in the roots and low translocations of Hg from roots to shoots were found in two cultivars of Indian mustard. Thus Indian mustard might be a potential candidate plant for phytofiltration/phytostabilization of mercury contaminated waters and wastewater.

  20. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Biodiesel from Mustard oil: a Sustainable Engine Fuel Substitute for Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Various attractive features of mustard oil based biodiesel as a potential substitute for engine fuel are investigated in this paper for use in Bangladesh. Although the use of mustard oil as edible oil has been reduced, Bangladesh still produces 0.22 million metric tons of mustard oil per year. This surplus mustard oil would satisfactorily be used as an alternative to diesel fuel, and thus could contribute in reducing the expenses for importing fuel from foreign countries. Moreover, the rural people of Bangladesh are capable of producing mustard oil themselves using indigenous machines. Fuel properties of biodiesel obtained from mustard oil were determined in the laboratory using standard procedure and an experimental setup was constructed to study the performance of a small diesel engine. It is observed that with biodiesel, the engine is capable of running without difficulty. Initially different lower blends of biodiesel (e.g., B20, B30 etc. have been used to avoid complicated modification of the engine and the fuel supply system. It is also found in some condition that mustard oil based biodiesel have better properties than those made from other vegetable oils. These properties of mustard oil based biodiesel were evaluated to validate its sustainability in Bangladesh. Keywords: biodiesel, indigenous machines, mustard oil, renewable energy policy, sustainability

  2. Platinum bioaccumulation by mustard plants (Sinapis alba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawienczyk, M.; Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, G.; Kowalska, J.; Asztemborska, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of hydroponically cultivated Indian mustard plants (Sinapis alba L.) to accumulate platinum was investigated. The Pt-bioaccumulation in leaves, stem and shoots of plants growing for 2 and 4 weeks at Pt-concentration of 50 and 500 μg/L was compared. The relation between dry and fresh weight was also estimated. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) were applied for determination of Pt. Increasing Pt-concentration from 50 to 500 μg/L in the medium causes: (1) reduction of the root tissue hydration level at unchanged modification in aboveground parts of the plants and (2) decrease of the Pt transfer factor (TF) for roots and increase for leaves and stem. Duration of the culture influenced on Pt-accumulation in roots and in aboveground organs of mustard plants. Transfer factor for Pt between 560 and 1600 makes Indian mustard plants one at Pt-hyperaccumulators. Distribution of Pt-bioaccumulation in the plant organs may be useful for biomonitoring of platinum in the environment. (author)

  3. Sulfur polymer cement concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.H.; McBee, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sulfur-based composite materials formulated using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and mineral aggregates are described and compared with conventional portland cement based materials. Materials characteristics presented include mechanical strength, chemical resistance, impact resistance, moisture permeation, and linear shrinkage during placement and curing. Examples of preparation and placement of sulfur polymer cement concrete (SC) are described using commercial scale equipment. SC applications presented are focused into hostile chemical environments where severe portland cement concrete (PCC) failure has occurred

  4. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  5. Declines in a ground-dwelling arthropod community during an invasion by Sahara mustard (Brassica tournefortii) in aeolian sand habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Hulton VanTassel; Anne M. Hansen; Cameron W. Barrows; Quresh Latif; Margaret W. Simon; Kurt E. Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Sahara Mustard (Brassica tournefortii; hereafter mustard), an exotic plant species, has invaded habitats throughout the arid southwestern United States. Mustard has reached high densities across aeolian sand habitats of southwestern deserts, including five distinct sand habitats in the eastern Coachella Valley, California. We examined trends in ground-dwelling...

  6. Phytocontact Dermatitis due to Mustard Seed Mimicking Burn Injury: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yabanoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustard seeds have been used in traditional folk medicine as a stimulant, diuretic, and purgative and to treat a variety of ailments including peritonitis and neuralgia. Mustards are still used today in mustard plasters to treat rheumatism, arthritis, chest congestion, aching back, and sore muscles. To make a mustard plaster, mix equal parts of flour and powdered mustard and spread it as a paste on a doubled piece of soft cloth. Apply mustard plaster to the affected area for a maximum of 15 minutes. Prolonged application can result in burns to the skin and nerve damage. Skin lesions occur within hours after exposure, and there is no significant therapy procedure. This case report is about a patient with second-degree burn, occurred when a mixture including mustard seed was exposed to her skin in the pain therapy of the osteoarthritis in her left knee. There are no studies analyzing treatment of skin burns induced by mustard seed in the literature. While in this type of burns our experience is limited, we think that conservative approach should be first choice of treatment.

  7. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Cutaneous injury-related structural changes and their progression following topical nitrogen mustard exposure in hairless and haired mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Tewari-Singh

    Full Text Available To identify effective therapies against sulfur mustard (SM-induced skin injuries, various animals have been used to assess the cutaneous pathology and related histopathological changes of SM injuries. However, these efforts to establish relevant skin injury endpoints for efficacy studies have been limited mainly due to the restricted assess of SM. Therefore, we employed the SM analog nitrogen mustard (NM, a primary vesicating and bifunctional alkylating agent, to establish relevant endpoints for efficient efficacy studies. Our published studies show that NM (3.2 mg exposure for 12-120 h in both the hairless SKH-1 and haired C57BL/6 mice caused clinical sequelae of toxicity similar to SM exposure in humans. The NM-induced cutaneous pathology-related structural changes were further analyzed in this study and quantified morphometrically (as percent length or area of epidermis or dermis of skin sections in mice showing these lesions. H&E stained skin sections of both hairless and haired mice showed that NM (12-120 h exposure caused epidermal histopathological effects such as increased epidermal thickness, epidermal-dermal separation, necrotic/dead epidermis, epidermal denuding, scab formation, parakeratosis (24-120 h, hyperkeratosis (12-120 h, and acanthosis with hyperplasia (72-120 h. Similar NM exposure in both mice caused dermal changes including necrosis, edema, increase in inflammatory cells, and red blood cell extravasation. These NM-induced cutaneous histopathological features are comparable to the reported lesions from SM exposure in humans and animal models. This study advocates the usefulness of these histopathological parameters observed due to NM exposure in screening and optimization of rescue therapies against NM and SM skin injuries.

  9. Comparing the therapeutic efficiency of aminoguanidine and 3-aminobenzamide in lung and intestine toxicity caused by nitrogen mustard in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaren, H.; Korkmaz, A.; Kunak, Z. I.; Uysal, B.; Topal, T.; Kurt, B; Kenar, L.

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and peroxynitrite are responsible for sulfur mustard (SM) induced toxicity. Since endogenous production of peroxynitrite is known to lead to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation and sometimes ultimately cell death, in this study, it was aimed to compare the therapeutic efficiencies of aminoguanidine (iNOS inhibitor) and 3 aminobenzamide (PARP inhibitor) in lung and intestine toxicity caused by nitrogen mustard in rats. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control and given 2 ml saline, three groups received single dose of mechlorethamine (MEC) (3.5 mg/kg subcutaneously) with the same time intervals. Group 2 received MEC only, group 3 received selective iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) (100 mg/kg i.p.) and, group 4 received PARP inhibitor 3 aminobenzamide (3-AB) (20 mg/kg i.p.). MEC injection resulted in severe lung toxicity with strong interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage, emphysematous changes, Mild inflammatory cell infiltration and septal thickening. MEC injection also caused mucosal thinning, mild inflammatory cell infiltration, ischemic changes and multifocal, superficial ulcerations (erosions) in small intestine. In AG group, interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage slightly reduced in lung comparing to MEC group. Inflammatory cell infiltration was minimal, septal thickening was similar to MEC group at densely edematous and hemorrhagical areas. In 3 AB group, edematous and hemorrhagic areas were very small, inflammatory cell infiltration was minimal and there were no densly densely edematous and hemorrhagical areas in lung. The results were better than AB group. In intestine, results of AG group were better than MEC group but worse than 3 AB group. These results suggest that both iNOS and PARP inhibitors are effective but PARP inhibitors may be more promising for treatment of SM induced early lung and intestinal toxicity.(author)

  10. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Novel liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for sensitive determination of the mustard allergen Sin a 1 in food

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Maes, Xavier; Muñoz-García, Esther; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Pérez-Gordo, Marina; Vivanco, Fernando; Pérez-Gordo, Carlos; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Mustard is a condiment added to a variety of foodstuffs and a frequent cause of food allergy. A new strategy for the detection of mustard allergen in food products is presented. The methodology is based on liquid chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry. Mustard allergen Sin a 1 was purified from yellow mustard seeds. Sin a 1 was detected with a total of five peptides showing a linear response (lowest LOD was 5 ng). Sin a 1 was detected in mustard sauces and salty biscuit (19 ± 3 ...

  12. Zinc and application to optimize seed yield of mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, N.; Nawaz, M.S.; Cheema, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted on a sandy clay loam soil at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan, during 2005 and 2006. The mustard (Brassica juncea) variety BARD-1 was treated with various levels of Zn and Fe, (0-0, 0-1.5, 0-3, 2.5-0, 2.5-1.5, 2.5-3, 5-0, 5-1.5 kgha/sup -1/ and 5-3 kgha/sup -1/, respectively. A basal dose of 90N and 60P kgha/sup -1/ was applied, in the form of Urea and triple super phosphate (TSP) with Zn and Fe. The increase in Zn and Fe fertility from 0-1.5 to 5-1.5 kg ha/sup -1/ increased yield of BARD-I. The maximum yield response was recorded when 5 kg ha/sup -1/ Zn and 1.5 kg ha/sup -1/ Fe were applied. Beyond this level, no further increase in yield was recorded in any mustard traits. A positive correlation was recorded between seed yield and 1000-seed weight with the application of 5 kg Zn ha-1 and 1.5 kg Fe ha/sup -1/ in combination at the time of sowing. It can therefore be concluded that 100 % seed yield of mustard variety BARD-l increased at 5 Zn: 1.5 Fc kg ha-1 as a result of increased pods plant/sup -l/, number of seeds pod-1 and 1000-seed weight. (author)

  13. Sulphur mustard degradation on zirconium doped Ti-Fe oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} New stechiometric materials for sulphur mustard degradation. {yields} High degree of degradation, more then 95% h{sup -1}. {yields} One-pot synthesis procedure. - Abstract: Zirconium doped mixed nanodispersive oxides of Ti and Fe were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of sulphate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized nanodispersive metal oxide hydroxides were characterised as the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and acid-base titration. These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (chemical warfare agent HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant tends to increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides in such a manner that it can contribute to enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface and thus accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. The addition of Zr{sup 4+} to the hydrolysis of ferric sulphate with urea shifts the reaction route and promotes formation of goethite at the expense of ferrihydrite. We discovered that Zr{sup 4+} doped oxo-hydroxides of Ti and Fe exhibit a higher degradation activity towards sulphur mustard than any other yet reported reactive sorbents. The reaction rate constant of the slower parallel reaction of the most efficient reactive sorbents is increased with the increasing amount of surface base sites.

  14. Efficacy of anti-inflammatory, antibiotic and pleiotropic agents in reversing nitrogen mustard-induced injury in ex vivo cultured rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dinesh G; Kant, Rama; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2018-09-01

    Vesicating agent, Sulfur mustard (SM), causes devastating eye injury; however, there are no effective antidotes available. Using nitrogen mustard (NM), a bi-functional analog of SM, we have earlier reported that NM-induced corneal injury in ex vivo rabbit cornea organ culture model parallels corneal injury reported with SM. Using this model, we have demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of dexamethasone (DEX), doxycycline (DOX) and silibinin (SB) in reversing NM (2h exposure)-induced corneal injuries when added immediately after washing NM. In the present study, we further examined the efficacy of similar/higher doses of these agents when added immediately, 2, or 4h after washing NM following its 2h exposure. All three treatment agents caused a reversal in established NM-induced injury biomarkers when added immediately or 2h after washing NM following its 2h exposure; however, when treatments were carried out 4h after washing NM, there was no significant effect. Together, our results further show the beneficial effect of these agents in reversing NM-induced corneal injury and indicate the time window for effective treatment. This could be useful towards future development of targeted therapeutics against vesicant-induced ocular injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Advances in Agronomic Management of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea (L. Czernj. Cosson: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapila Shekhawat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India is the fourth largest oilseed economy in the world. Among the seven edible oilseeds cultivated in India, rapeseed-mustard contributes 28.6% in the total oilseeds production and ranks second after groundnut sharing 27.8% in the India’s oilseed economy. The mustard growing areas in India are experiencing the vast diversity in the agro climatic conditions and different species of rapeseed-mustard are grown in some or other part of the country. Under marginal resource situation, cultivation of rapeseed-mustard becomes less remunerative to the farmers. This results in a big gap between requirement and production of mustard in India. Therefore site-specific nutrient management through soil-test recommendation based should be adopted to improve upon the existing yield levels obtained at farmers field. Effective management of natural resources, integrated approach to plant-water, nutrient and pest management and extension of rapeseed-mustard cultivation to newer areas under different cropping systems will play a key role in further increasing and stabilizing the productivity and production of rapeseed-mustard. The paper reviews the advances in proper land and seedbed preparation, optimum seed and sowing, planting technique, crop geometry, plant canopy, appropriate cropping system, integrated nutrient management and so forth to meet the ever growing demand of oil in the country and to realize the goal of production of 24 million tonnes of oilseed by 2020 AD through these advanced management techniques.

  16. Anionic carbonato and oxalato cobalt(III) nitrogen mustard complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Peter R; Brothers, Penelope J; Clark, George R; Wilson, William R; Denny, William A; Ware, David C

    2004-02-21

    Synthetic approaches to cobalt(III) complexes [Co(L)(L')2] containing the bidentate dialkylating nitrogen mustard N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (L = dce) together with anionic ancilliary ligands (L') which are either carbonato (CO3(2-)), oxalato (ox2-), bis(2-hydroxyethyl)dithiocarbamato (bhedtc-), 2-pyridine carboxylato (pico-) or 2-pyrazine carboxylato (pyzc-) were investigated. Synthetic routes were developed using the related amines N,N-diethyl-1,2-ethanediamine (dee) and 1,2-ethanediamine (en). The complexes [Co(CO3)2(L)]- (L = dee 1, dce 2), [Co(ox)2(L)]- (L = dee 3, dce 4), [Co(bhedtc)2(dee)]+ 5, [Co(bhedtc)2(en)]+ 6, mer-[Co(pico)3], mer-[Co(pyzc)]3 7 and [Co(pico)2(dee)]+ 8 were prepared and were characterised by IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C[1H] NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry. [Co(bhedtc)2(en)]BPh4 6b and trans(O)-[Co(pico)2(dee)]ClO4 8 were characterised by X-ray crystallography. In vitro biological tests were carried out on complexes 1-4 in order to assess the degree to which coordination of the mustard to cobalt attenuated its cytotoxicity, and the differential toxicity in air vs. nitrogen.

  17. Breeding strategy for the improvement of mustard (Brassica Juncea Coss.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    Mutants having desirable agronomic characters were obtained in the high yielding, recommended mustard (B. juncea) varieties Rai 5, RL 9 and Varuna (T 59). Following hybridizations between induced mutants or mutants with other promising varieties, recombinants having superior agronomic traits have been developed. The parent varieties are characterised by open pod arrangement and blackish brown seeds. The mutants and the recombinants have desirable agronomic characters like compact plant type, appressed pods with less shattering nature, yellow seeds, higher oil content and lighter coloured oil. Among the 12 new strains developed at this centre, five have been tested at various locations in the country. At many places, TM-(Trombay Mustard-) cultures outyielded or were at par with the local check varieties. TM-2-11 (Appressed pod mutant) and TM-4 (Yellow bold seeded Mutant) have also been included in the Initial Evaluation Trial of the All India Co-ordinated Research Project in Oilseeds (AICORPO) improvement. Reports so far received from various locations in the country indicate that TM-strains, being relatively early cultures, are suited more for states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, U.P. and Bihar. (author)

  18. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulware, Stephen [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Vasquez, Karen M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ► 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ► This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ► 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  19. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulware, Stephen; Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L.; Vasquez, Karen M.; MacLeod, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ► 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ► This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ► 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  20. Effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain on yield, growth and foliar injury of several crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J J; Neely, G E; Perrigan, S C; Grothaus, L C

    1981-01-01

    This study was designed to reveal patterns of response of major United States crops to sulfuric acid rain. Potted plants were grown in field chambers and exposed to simulated sulfuric acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5 or 4.0) or to a control rain (pH 5.6). At harvest, the weights of the marketable portion, total aboveground portion and roots were determined for 28 crops. Of these, marketable yield production was inhibited for 5 crops (radish, beet, carrot, mustard greens, broccoli), stimulated for 6 crops (tomato, green pepper, strawberry, alfalfa, orchardgrass, timothy), and ambiguously affected for 1 crop (potato). In addition, stem and leaf production of sweet corn was stimulated. Visible injury of tomatoes might have decreased their marketabiity. No statistically significant effects on yield were observed for the other 15 crops. The results suggest that the likelihood of yield being affected by acid depends on the part of the plant utilized, as well as on species. Effects on the aboveground portion of crops and on roots are also presented. Plants were regularly examined for foliar injury associated with acid rain. Of the 35 cultivars examined, the foliage of 31 was injured at pH 3.0, 28 at pH 3.5, and 5 at pH 4.0. Foliar injury was not generally related to effects on yield. However, foliar injury of Swiss chard, mustard greens and spinach was severe enough to adversely affect marketability.

  1. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R C; Anderson, M R; Miake-Lye, R C; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A A; Buriko, Y I [Scientific Research Center ` Ecolen` , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  2. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  3. 31P NMR study of phosphate metabolites in intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, P.N.; Pande, P.C.; Ratcliffe, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The study of 31 P NMR spectra of intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard and its possible use for assessing the relative degree of hypoxia under in vivo conditions are reported. 7 refs., 2 figs

  4. Sulfur activation in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1987-01-01

    In 1979, we attempted to establish the validity of source terms for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs using experimental data on sulfur activation. Close agreement was observed between measured and calculated values for test firings of Nagasaki-type bombs. The calculated values were based on source terms developed by W.E. Preeg at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A discrepancy was found, however, when we compared calculated values for the two bombs because a 1956 report by R.R. Wilson stated that sulfur acitvation by fast neutrons in Hiroshima was approximately three times greater than in Nagasaki. Our calculations based on Preeg's source-term data predicted about equal sulfur activation in the two cities

  5. Impact of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea and Flax (Linum usitatissimum Seed Meal Applications on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, and Microbial Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn S. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to investigate how land application of dedicated biofuel oilseed meals affects soil ecosystems. In this study, mustard (Brassica juncea and flax (Linum usitatissimum seed meals and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor were added to soil at levels of 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% (w/w. Both the type of amendment and application rate affected soil organic C, total C & N, and C & N mineralization. Mustard meal amendment initially inhibited C mineralization as compared to flax, but >50% of mustard and flax organic C was mineralized within 51 d. Nitrogen mineralization was similar for flax and mustard, except for the 2.5% rate for which a lower proportion of mustard N was converted to nitrate. The mustard meal greatly impacted microbial community composition, appearing to select for specific fungal populations. The potential varying impacts of different oilseed meals on soil ecosystems should be considered when developing recommendations for land application.

  6. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  7. Structure of amorphous sulfur

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Eichinger, BE

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The lambda-transition of elemental sulfur occurring at about 159°C has long been associated with the conversion of cyclic S8 rings (c-S8) to amorphous polymer (a-S) via a ring opening polymerization. It is demonstrated, with the use of both density...

  8. SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KALB, P.

    2001-01-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ((approx)$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not

  9. Getting sulfur on target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbert, T.R.; Brignac, G.B. [ExxonMobil Process Research Labs. (United States); Greeley, J.P.; Demmin, R.A.; Roundtree, E.M. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The paper focuses on how the required reductions in sulfur levels in motor vehicle fuel may be achieved over about the next five years. It is said that broadly there are two possible approaches, they are: (a) to hydrotreat the feed to the FCC unit and (b) to treat the naphtha produced by the FCC unit. The difficulties associated with these processes are mentioned. The article is presented under the sub-headings of (i) technology options for cat naphtha desulfurisation; (ii) optimising fractionator design via improved VLE models; (iii) commercial experience with ICN SCANfining; (iv) mercaptan predictive models and (v) process improvements. It was concluded that the individual needs of the refiner can be addressed by ExxonMobil Research and Engineering (EMRE) and the necessary reductions in sulfur levels can be achieved.

  10. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  11. Acidophilic sulfur disproportionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardisty, Dalton S.; Olyphant, Greg A.; Bell, Jonathan B.; Johnson, Adam P.; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur (S0) is a well-studied metabolism and is not previously reported to occur at pH values less than 4.5. In this study, a sediment core from an abandoned-coal-mine-waste deposit in Southwest Indiana revealed sulfur isotope fractionations between S0 and pyrite (Δ34Ses-py) of up to -35‰, inferred to indicate intense recycling of S0 via bacterial disproportionation and sulfide oxidation. Additionally, the chemistry of seasonally collected pore-water profiles were found to vary, with pore-water pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.8 and observed seasonal redox shifts expressed as abrupt transitions from Fe(III) to Fe(II) dominated conditions, often controlled by fluctuating water table depths. S0 is a common product during the oxidation of pyrite, a process known to generate acidic waters during weathering and production of acid mine drainage. The H2S product of S0 disproportionation, fractionated by up to -8.6‰, is rapidly oxidized to S0 near redox gradients via reaction with Fe(III) allowing for the accumulation of isotopically light S0 that can then become subject to further sulfur disproportionation. A mass-balance model for S0 incorporating pyrite oxidation, S0 disproportionation, and S0 oxidation readily explains the range of observed Δ34Ses-py and emphasizes the necessity of seasonally varying pyrite weathering and metabolic rates, as indicated by the pore water chemistry. The findings of this research suggest that S0 disproportionation is potentially a common microbial process at a pH < 4.5 and can create large sulfur isotope fractionations, even in the absence of sulfate reduction.

  12. Interaction between copper and radiocesium in Indian mustard and sunflower grown in the hydroponic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirong Tang; Xiaochang Wang

    2002-01-01

    Both Indian mustard and sunflower were grown in a hydroponic solution treated with different concentration activities of 134 Cs or with different amounts of copper or with both in order to investigate the interaction between copper and radiocesium. It was found that 134 Cs activity concentration applied in the nutrient solution exerted more influence on the uptake and translocation of copper by Indian mustard than by sunflower. Indian mustard grown in hydroponic solution containing certain levels of copper and being treated with higher 134 Cs activity concentration showed higher uptake of copper than sunflower. However, in the case of root copper concentrations, sunflower showed significantly higher copper immobilization by roots than Indian mustard. It was also found that the presence of copper the the hydroponic solution did modify radiocesium uptake by both species. The application of 1 mg/l in the growth medium could greatly increase the uptake of 134 Cs by both species. With 3 mg/l concentration of copper amended to the solution, the accumulation of 134 Cs by both species was decreased compared to the 1 mg/l copper treatment. These lines of evidence show that there is stronger interaction between copper and radiocesium in Indian mustard than in sunflower during the root uptake through nutrient solution. (author)

  13. New studies on mustard gold from the Dongping Mines, Hebei Province, China: The tellurian, plumbian, manganoan and mixed varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiuling; Makovicky, Emil

    2001-01-01

    geologi, Dongping gold tellurite deposit, mustard gold, calaverite, Fe-Pb-Te minerals, alteration, tellurium, filling in micro-porous, composite varieties, particles of gold......geologi, Dongping gold tellurite deposit, mustard gold, calaverite, Fe-Pb-Te minerals, alteration, tellurium, filling in micro-porous, composite varieties, particles of gold...

  14. 38 CFR 3.316 - Claims based on chronic effects of exposure to mustard gas and Lewisite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effects of exposure to mustard gas and Lewisite. 3.316 Section 3.316 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation Ratings and Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.316 Claims based on chronic effects of exposure to mustard gas and Lewisite. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, exposure to the...

  15. The effect of mustard seed meal (Sinapis arvensis on thyroid hormones and liver enzymes in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Mohebali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of wild black mustard seed meal on thyroid hormones (thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone in Japanese quails and also study the ability of FeSO4 to alleviate the possible negative effect of mustard meal on thyroid hormones in these birds for the first time. Methods: The experimental procedure was undertaken on 28 quails which were randomly assigned to a control and 6 test groups with 4 quails in each group for 28 days, during which the control group received basic diet with no mustard meal whereas the test groups (No. 2, 3 and 4 received mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively and test groups (No. 5, 6 and 7 received FeSO4 (1%-treated mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively on the basic of basic diet. Results: The group fed on 15% non-treated mustard seed meal had the least thyroxine level and its level backed to normal in group fed on 15% FeSO4-treated mustard seed meal although this group had the highest alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels. Conclusions: We concluded that up to 10% FeSO4 mustard seed meal could be incorporated in the quail diet successfully with the least damage to thyroids and livers, but further investigations on these birds are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  16. Genotypic variation of nitrogen use efficiency in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Altaf; Khan, Ishrat; Abrol, Yash P.; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the variation of nitrogen efficiency (NE), nitrogen uptake efficiency (UE), physiological nitrogen use efficiency (PUE) among Indian mustard genotypes, grown under N-insufficient and N-sufficient conditions. Nitrogen efficiency varied from 52.7 to 92.8. Seed yield varied from 1.14 t ha -1 to 3.21 t ha -1 under N-insufficient condition, while 2.14 t ha -1 -3.33 t ha -1 under N-sufficient condition. Physiological basis of this difference was explained in terms of nitrogen uptake efficiency and physiological nitrogen use efficiency, and their relationship with the growth and yield characteristics. While nitrogen uptake efficiency was positively correlated with plant biomass (0.793**), leaf area index (0.664*), and leaf nitrogen content (0.783**), physiological nitrogen use efficiency is positively correlated with photosynthetic rate (0.689**) and yield (0.814**). This study suggests that genotype having high nitrogen uptake efficiency and high physiological nitrogen use efficiency might help in reducing the nitrogen load on soil without any penalty on the yield. - Nitrogen efficient crop plants may help in reducing environmental contamination of nitrate without any penalty on seed yield

  17. Reduction and Coordination of Arsenic in Indian Mustard1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Ingrid J.; Prince, Roger C.; George, Martin J.; Smith, Robert D.; George, Graham N.; Salt, David E.

    2000-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of arsenic by plants may provide a means of removing this element from contaminated soils and waters. However, to optimize this process it is important to understand the biological mechanisms involved. Using a combination of techniques, including x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have established the biochemical fate of arsenic taken up by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). After arsenate uptake by the roots, possibly via the phosphate transport mechanism, a small fraction is exported to the shoot via the xylem as the oxyanions arsenate and arsenite. Once in the shoot, the arsenic is stored as an AsIII-tris-thiolate complex. The majority of the arsenic remains in the roots as an AsIII-tris-thiolate complex, which is indistinguishable from that found in the shoots and from AsIII-tris-glutathione. The thiolate donors are thus probably either glutathione or phytochelatins. The addition of the dithiol arsenic chelator dimercaptosuccinate to the hydroponic culture medium caused a 5-fold-increased arsenic level in the leaves, although the total arsenic accumulation was only marginally increased. This suggests that the addition of dimercaptosuccinate to arsenic-contaminated soils may provide a way to promote arsenic bioaccumulation in plant shoots, a process that will be essential for the development of an efficient phytoremediation strategy for this element. PMID:10759512

  18. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  19. Study on irradiation sterilization of mixture of blanched mustard greed and soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shurong; Ha Yiming; Wang Shuo; Gao Meixu; Zhou Hongjie; Li Qingpeng

    2010-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on microbiological and sensory qualities of mixture of blanched mustard green and soybean stored at commercial condition and D 10 values of pathogens of Listeria innocua were investigated. The results show that D 10 value of Listeria innocua inoculated in mixture of blanched mustard green and soybean is 0.264 kGy, and fatality rate of the Listeria irradiated by a dose of 1.2 kGy was 99.996%; Irradiation at doses less than 2.0 kGy does not have significant effects on sensory qualities, and this dose is able to decrease microbe and pathogens of Listeria innocua by 2-3 log and 6 log, respectively. A dose of 2.0 kGy might be applied to ensure the hygienic quality of mixture of blanched mustard green and soybean. (authors)

  20. Phytoextraction potential of sunflower and white mustard plants in zinc-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Zalewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction relies on plants with a high capacity to absorb heavy metals and remove them from the soil. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. for phytoextraction of Zn-contaminated soil. Research was based on a strict pot experiment conducted in a greenhouse. Seven treatments were established with increasing Zn concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg Zn kg-1 air-dry soil. The first tested plant was fodder sunflower. In the following year, white mustard was sown in the same pots. Plants were harvested at the end of the flowering stage. The toxic effect of Zn on sunflower yields occurred at the contamination level of 200 mg Zn kg-1 soil. In the second year of the experiment, a significant decrease in mustard biomass took place in response to 400 mg Zn kg-1 soil. The contamination level of 600 mg Zn kg-1 soil resulted in complete plant death. Plant growth was not inhibited even at high tissue Zn concentrations of 515 mg Zn kg-1 sunflower DM and 422 mg Zn kg-1 mustard DM. The 2-yr cropping system did not contribute to a significant decrease in soil Zn content. Despite high concentrations of Zn in sunflower and mustard plants, total Zn uptake accounted for only 1% to 8% of the Zn rate introduced into the soil. However, in the long run, the growing of crops could reduce Zn contamination levels in the soil. The relatively high tolerance of sunflower and white mustard for Zn contamination and rapid growth of these species are possible alternatives for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Zn-contaminated soil.

  1. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  2. Assessing Natural Isothiocyanate Air Emissions after Field Incorporation of Mustard Cover Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, Donna M.; LePage, Jane; Hebert, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    A regional air assessment was performed to characterize volatile natural isothiocyanate (NITC) compounds in air during soil incorporation of mustard cover crops in Washington State. Field air sampling and analytical methods were developed specific to three NITCs known to be present in air at appreciable concentrations during/after field incorporation. The maximum observed concentrations in air for the allyl, benzyl, and phenethyl isothiocyanates were respectively 188, 6.1, and 0.7 lg m-3 during mustard incorporation. Based on limited inhalation toxicity information, airborne NITC concentrations did not appear to pose an acute human inhalation exposure concern to field operators and bystanders.

  3. Availability and uptake of sulphur by mustard in three soils in Udaipur valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, S.K.; Shriniwas

    1976-01-01

    The differential behaviour of three soils (Bargaon, Bhatewar red and Bhatewar black) for availability of sulphur to mustard was studied in a greenhouse pot culture experiment using five doses of sulphur (0,20,40,80,120 ppm) applied as 35 S tagged ammonium sulphate. Application of sulphur significantly increased the dry matter of mustard over control, however, maximum dry matter was obtained when sulphur was applied at 40 ppm level, thereafter, any higher doses did not prove beneficial. Sulphur content in the plant tissue and percent of sulphur in the plant derived from fertilizer increased with successive doses of applied sulphur. (author)

  4. Phosphorus, sulfur and pyridine

    OpenAIRE

    Schönberger, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of distinct neutral or anionic P,S compounds in solution provides a great challenge for chemists. Due to the similarity in the energies of the P–P, P–S and S–S bonds nearly solely a mixture of compounds with different composition and charge is obtained. Our interest focuses on the system consisting of phosphorus, sulfur and pyridine, with the aim of a greater selectivity of P,S compounds in solution. The combination of these three components offers the opportunity...

  5. A Histological Assessment of Lung Injury in Rats Exposed to Inhaled Sulfur Mustard across Dose and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    epithelial attenuation, goblet cell hyperplasia , and squamous metaplasia (often in the same airway) along with a mostly proteinaceous exudate were a...plump epithelial cells (suggestive of type II hyperplasia ) were accompanying histologic lesions. In a few areas, rare foci of spindled cells (focal...exposure. The most striking histologic lesions were associated with the conducting airways. Epithelial necrosis, clefting, and loss; acute fibrinous

  6. Evaporation Rates of Chemical Warfare Agents Measured Using 5 CM Wind Tunnels. 2. Munitions Grade Sulfur Mustard From Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    micropores and the pH of 0.1 g sand in 2 mL water, measured after 24 hr using pH paper, was 6. The measured bulk and tapped densities of the sand...o oasr^^roryrgQcor-»infO KNceend’-ojnrS^’u:* ^ t\\i kO N © co uS oS - <- eg CM M (M n eft ^ eg ni r»i s rt...O cn o o 2 eft — cn co in ^ ^ iri — 3 *- t- — n vt rt CD £ 2 9 a H d a -i --’ p | E •i = ° 2r ^ A

  7. Evaporation Rates of Chemical Warfare Agents Using 5-CM Wind Tunnels I. CASARM Sulfur Mustard (HD) from Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    tD Is- K CO CO o S o ooooooooooooo ooooooooooooo •* ** ** v V -a *J •« "cr co CM T...I IT flj UJ tfi V> <" r ft O O Is UJ 2 01 O C i* Jf ,* * * •* * # # if iJ- ;f s< * ;,* s* * *’ 0 I ./. •^ >s. a. t^ (SI ś...ex APPENDIX II 99 o CM u) o m o o IN U E ID TD ro i- O a c <B •a o 5 ** :.1- g £ h-ri * tf * CO 6; cr ft ui IO *A s

  8. Evaporation Rates of Chemical Warfare Agents Measured using 5 cm Wind Tunnels III. Munition-Grade Sulfur Mustard on Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    tD O o o 1 1 1 1 — -_.-^_ 1 o in o...O < < < h- SH h Q 1 1-6 o o Is. c x X •g m LU o o O X o N O o c cj o LU ro ra Q "o tD w co tu o o c c s o 5...D Si a flj CO CD CO CJ o o a) » S. 8- 1 S Js 5 co 0 m 0 (£ £ £ o Q. 8 .9

  9. Novel Tissue Models of Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa to Characterize Functional Mechanisms of Sulfur Mustard Injury to Human Skin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garlick, Joanthan

    2003-01-01

    In the second year of our research, our laboratory has extensively studied skin pathophysiology in response to SM by adapting in vivo, human skin/nude mouse chimera to further understand mechanisms...

  10. Synthetic inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases prevent sulfur mustard-induced epidermal-dermal separation in human skin pieces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, M.A.E.; Alblas, S.W.; Hammer, A.; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    Degradation of proteins of the basement membrane zone (BMZ) in the skin depends on the activity of proteolytic enzymes, particularly those belonging to the group of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In the present study we have investigated the contribution of these enzymes to the epidermal-dermal

  11. Toxicology Studies of Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Genetic Toxicity of Lewisite (L) in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-31

    Density at 20°C: 1.888 g/ml State: Dark, oily liquid (stable in steel and glass ) Vapor pressure at 200C: 0.394 m Decomposition temperature: >1000C...Bradley, M.O., B. Bhuyan, M.C. Francis, R. Langenbach, A. Peterson and E. Huberman !981 Mutagenesis by chemical agents in V79 Chinese haaster ceill : a

  12. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Two-Generation Reproduction Study of Lewisite in Rats Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Mellick, P. W.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-07-15

    Occupational health standards have not been established for Lewisite [bis(2-chlorethyl)arsine], a potent toxic vesicant which reacts with the sulfhydryl groups of proteins through its arsenic group. The purposes of this study were to determine the reproductive consequences and dose~response of continuing Lewisite exposure of parental males and females and their offspring in a 42-week two-generation study. Solutions of Lewisite were prepared for administration by diluting the neat agent with sesame oil. Rats were administered Lewisite (0, 0.10, 0.25 or 0.60 mg/kg/day for 5 days a week) via intragastric intubation prior to mating, during mating and after mating until the birth of their offspring. The dams continued to receive Lewisite during lactation. At weaning, male and female offspring of each group were selected to continue on the study; rece1v1ng Lewisite during adolescence, mating and throughout gestation. Again, the dams continued to receive Lewisite until weaning of the offspring. Lewisite had no adverse effect on reproduction performance, fertility or reproductive organ weights of male or female rats through two consecutive generations. No adverse effect to offspring were attributed to Lewisite exposure. Minor changes in growth was the only maternal effect observed. Lewisite exposure of parental rats caused no gross or microscopic lesions in testes, epididymis, prostrate, seminal vesicles, ovaries, uterus or vagina. Severe inflammation of the lung was observed at necropsy in cases in which Lewisite gained access to the respiratory system from accidental dosing or reflux and aspiration; this usually caused early death of the animal. The NOEL for reproductive effects in this study was greater than 0.60 mg/kg/day.

  13. Metabolomics diagnostic approach to mustard airway diseases: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BiBi Fatemeh Nobakht Mothlagh Ghoochani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study aims to evaluate combined proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS metabolic profiling approaches, for discriminating between mustard airway diseases (MADs and healthy controls and for providing biochemical information on this disease. Materials and Methods: In the present study, analysis of serum samples collected from 17 MAD subjects and 12 healthy controls was performed using NMR. Of these subjects, 14 (8 patients and 6 controls were analyzed by GC-MS. Then, their spectral profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least squares regression discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. Results: A panel of twenty eight metabolite biomarkers was generated for MADs, sixteen  NMR-derived metabolites (3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, lactic acid, lysine, glutamic acid, proline, hydroxyproline, dimethylamine, creatine, citrulline, choline, acetic acid, acetoacetate, cholesterol, alanine, and lipid (mainly VLDL and twelve GC-MS-derived metabolites (threonine, phenylalanine, citric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, tyrosine, arachidonic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid. This composite biomarker panel could effectively discriminate MAD subjects from healthy controls, achieving an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC values of 1 and 0.79 for NMR and GC-MS, respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, a robust panel of twenty-eight biomarkers for detecting MADs was established. This panel is involved in three metabolic pathways including aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, arginine, and proline metabolism, and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and could differentiate MAD subjects from healthy controls with a higher accuracy.

  14. Accumulation of Cd in Indian mustard and sunflower for phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Satoshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Fukui, Masami

    2004-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a new method that uses plants to remove contaminants from soil without affecting soil fertility. It can therefore be used for contaminated agricultural land. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) are used in phytoremediation to remove Cadmium (Cd), which they can accumulate in large quantities. It is important to know when plants have accumulated significant Cd, so that we can decide when the plants should be harvested and synthetic chelates applied. Brassica juncea seeds and Helianthus annuus L. seeds were planted in a field in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus L. were collected at time intervals ranging from 1 to 6 months and 2 to 7 weeks, respectively, after seedling emergence and the concentration of Cd in the plants was analyzed. These results indicated that Brassica juncea should be harvested before beginning flowering and Helianthus annuus L. should be harvested after it becomes old enough. The solubility of Cd in soil is enhanced when the soil is heated or dried, and black vinyl mulch was therefore used to absorb the heat from sunlight. The difference in the Cd uptake of Brassica juncea between mulching cultivation and non-mulching cultivation was investigated in a field, and this indicated that there is no probability that mulching enhances Cd uptake in plants. The solubility of Cd in soil decreases over time. Repeated pot experiments were done. We planted Brassica juncea in pots, and investigated the uptake of Cd and the solid phase fractions in which Cd was present in each pot experiment. These did not change considerably over time, indicating that age has a negligible effect on Cd uptake in plants. (author)

  15. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oram, R N [Division of Plant industry, CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% {beta}-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  16. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oram, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% β-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  17. Sulfur problems in Swedish agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, O

    1959-01-01

    The present paper deals with some aspects of the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture with special emphasis on the importance of and relationships among various sources of sulfur supply. An inventory of the sulfur content of Swedish soils and hay crops includes 649 soil samples and a corresponding number of hay samples from 59 locations. In a special investigation the samples were found to be representative of normal Swedish farm land. It is concluded that the amount of sulfur compounds in the air is the primary factor which determines the amount of sulfur added to the soil from the atmosphere. Compared with values obtained in other countries, the amount of sulfur added by the precipitation in Sweden is very low. The distribution in air and precipitation of sulfur from an industrial source was studied in a special investigation. An initial reason for the present study was the damage to vegetation caused by smoke from an industrial source. It was concluded that the average conditions in the vicinity of the industrial source with respect to smoke constituents in the air and precipitation were unfavorable only to the plants directly within a very narrow region. Relationships among the sulfur contents of air, of precipitation, of soils and of plants have been subject to special investigations. In the final general discussion and conclusions it is pointed out that the results from these investigations indicate evident differences in the sulfur status of Swedish soils. The present trend toward the use of more highly concentrated fertilizers poor in sulfur may be expected to cause a considerable change in the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture. 167 references, 40 figures, 44 tables.

  18. Lithium sulfur batteries and electrolytes and sulfur cathodes thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Goncharenko, Nikolay; Nimon, Vitaliy; Petrov, Alexei; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Katz, Bruce D.; Loginova, Valentina

    2017-05-23

    Lithium sulfur battery cells that use water as an electrolyte solvent provide significant cost reductions. Electrolytes for the battery cells may include water solvent for maintaining electroactive sulfur species in solution during cell discharge and a sufficient amount of a cycle life-enhancing compound that facilitates charging at the cathode. The combination of these two components enhances one or more of the following cell attributes: energy density, power density and cycle life. For instance, in applications where cost per Watt-Hour (Wh) is paramount, such as grid storage and traction applications, the use of an aqueous electrolyte in combination with inexpensive sulfur as the cathode active material can be a key enabler for the utility and automotive industries, for example, providing a cost effective and compact solution for load leveling, electric vehicles and renewable energy storage. Sulfur cathodes, and methods of fabricating lithium sulfur cells, in particular for loading lithium sulfide into the cathode structures, provide further advantages.

  19. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L. cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were found on leaves and siliques. The strongest infection of leaves was in 2000 (50% and the weakest in 2001 (6,7%. In all the years of the research siliques were rather weak infected (50-8,89%. Besides powdery mildew was found on chinese mustard which injury index ranged from 0,3% in 1999 to 32,3% in 2000. Intensity of diseases was affected generally by the weather conditions. From the seeds of white mustard and chinese mustard were isolated respectively 263 and 137 colonies. Alternaria alternata was the most numerous species which makes respectively 60,9% and 42,3% isolates. Among the fungi pathogenic for white and chinese mustard were also isolated: A. brassicae, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solami.

  20. Danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by sulfuric acid. The process of decomposition of danburite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied. The chemical nature of decomposition process of boron containing ore was determined. The influence of temperature on the rate of extraction of boron and iron oxides was defined. The dependence of decomposition of boron and iron oxides on process duration, dosage of H 2 SO 4 , acid concentration and size of danburite particles was determined. The kinetics of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was studied as well. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was calculated. The flowsheet of danburite processing by sulfuric acid was elaborated.

  1. Effect of garlic mustard invasion on ectomycorrhizae in mature pine trees and pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren A. Carlson; Kelly D. McConnaughay; Sherri J. Morris

    2014-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are mutualistic fungi that colonize the roots of many terrestrial plants. These fungi increase plant vigor by acquiring nutrients from the soil for their hosts in exchange for photosynthates. We studied the effect of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion on the density of ectomycorrhizal symbionts using two approaches. We...

  2. No metabolic effects of mustard allyl-isothiocyanate compared with placebo in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, Mirjam; Tan, Chong Yew; Soeters, Maarten R.; Virtue, Samuel; Watson, Laura Pe; Murgatroyd, Peter R.; Ambler, Graeme K.; Vidal-Puig, Santiago; Chatterjee, Krishna V.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Induction of nonshivering thermogenesis can be used to influence energy balance to prevent or even treat obesity. The pungent component of mustard, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), activates the extreme cold receptor transient receptor potential channel, subfamily A, member 1 and may thus

  3. Analysis of Genetic Parameters on Ethiopian Mustard (Brassica Carinata A. Braun Genotypes in Northwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walle Tesfaye

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective to estimate the genotypic variability and other yield related traits of Ethiopian mustard in North West Ethiopia. A total of 36 genotypes of Ethiopian mustard were considered for this study. Analysis of variance was computed to contrast the variability within the collected genotypes based on yield and other yield related traits. The results revealed highly significant values(p<0.01 for days to maturity, grain filling period, number of pod per plot, secondary branches per plant, harvest index, seed yield per plot, seed yield per hectare and oil content. Significant differences (p<0.05 were noted for days to flowering, plant height, primary branch per plant, biomass per plot, oil yield per plot differences among the genotypes. Genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV % was lower than phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV % for all the traits studied. High genetic advance with heritability was observed in the following characters; plant height, biomass of the plant, number of secondary branch per plant and grain filling period. There are variations in the extent of genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of traits which can facilitate selection for further improvement of important traits of Ethiopian mustard. Therefore, it can be concluded that the variability within Ethiopian mustard genotypes collected from different areas of northern Ethiopia is high and vital for better crop improvement.

  4. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of natural antioxidants from mustard seed cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Tułodziecka, Agnieszka; Karlovits, György; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-05-01

    Modified mustard varieties can produce edible oil with reduced amounts of erucic acid and glucosinolates and enhanced antioxidant potential. Therefore, this work focused on the optimisation of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of compounds with high antioxidant capacity from three white mustard seed cultivars using response surface methodology. The predicted optimum solvent polarity (57.2, 56.5 and 57.6) and ultrasound power-to-sonication time ratio (4.5, 4.8 and 4.3 W min(-1)) resulted in antioxidant capacities determined by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay [54.37, 65.75 and 68.55 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE) kg(-1)] and the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method (141.65, 175.26 and 185.10 mmol TE kg(-1)) and total phenolics content (23.70, 27.16 and 11.29 mg sinapic acid g(-1)) for extracts obtained from one traditional and two modified mustard seed varieties. The highest FRAP and DPPH values (69.51 and 197.73 mmol TE kg(-1)) revealed 50% methanolic extract prepared from modified mustard seed cultivar without erucic acid and glucosinolates treated with ultrasound for 30 min (ultrasound power/ultrasound time = 4 W min(-1)). Ultrasound-assisted extraction was found to be a more rapid, convenient and appropriate extraction method with higher yield of antioxidants, shorter time and lower solvent consumption in comparison to conventional extraction. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effectiveness of Defatted Mustard Meals Used to Control Fungus Gnats: 2000-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffrey, J. P.; Morra, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Our objective is to develop a pesticidal product from mustard meals that can be used to control insect pests. We have focused our efforts on fungus gnats. This report details our current progress in developing a pesticidal product that can be used to control this plant pest.

  6. Covalent binding of nitrogen mustards to the cysteine-34 residue in human serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Jansen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Covalent binding of various clinically important nitrogen mustards to the cysteine-34 residue of human serum albumin, in vitro and in vivo, is demonstrated. A rapid method for detection of these adducts is presented, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the adducted

  7. Efficacy of white mustard and soybean meal as a bioherbicide in organic broccoli and spinach production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic cropping systems generally rely on mechanical or physical methods because of the lack of reliable organically accepted herbicides. Among the several potential bioherbicides being explored, white mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal is among those bioherbicides that have been sho...

  8. Isolation of low erucic acid-containing genotype of Indian mustard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reciprocal crosses were done between two cultivars; cv. RJ15 and cv. RLM198 of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Anther derived lines designated as A1 plants, were raised through anther culture from these F1 hybrid plants. 45% germination was obtained from distinctly shriveled and small A1 seeds and grown along ...

  9. Space mutation in Sulao mustard, Futian-flowering chinese cabbage and Pachi-radish breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanrong; Cao Jian; Li Guihua; Zhao Xiujuan

    2004-01-01

    Vegetable seeds of Sulao mustard, Futian flowering Chinese cabbage and Pachi-Radish were mutated by boarding on Shenzhou No.4 Spaceship. The results showed that there were no significant differences between SP 1 and control, however, some variability of plants were found in SP 2

  10. Analysis of esterase isozyme and SSR for mutagenic progenies induced by space mutation in mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jinjuan; Liu Yihua; Zhang Zhaorong; Ran Guangkui; Zhao Shouzhong; Xiao Li

    2012-01-01

    Seeds of five mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) varieties were carried into outer space by 'Shijian No.8' satellite. After five years' consecutive planting and selection, ten relatively stable mutant lines were obtained, which had significant variation in agronomic and economic characters. The mutant lines and their original varieties without space mutation treatment as control were studied by esterase isozyme and SSR analyses. Electrophoresis analysis of esterase isozymes indicated that there were differences between mutant lines and their controls in enzyme types and enzyme activity. Different mustard varieties had different enzymographs, and so did the mutants induced by space mutation, which shows different sensitivity among different mustard varieties. The SSR analysis showed that large differences were found in the SSR loci between mutant lines and their original variety, the variation frequency was between 9.52% and 57.14% with an average frequency of 26.19% for all the mutant lines. Among the mutant SSR loci, about 56.36% showed changes in band number and 43.64% in molecular weight. These results indicated that the ten mutant lines had large genetic difference in phenotype, genomic sequence and gene expression, and the outer space mutation would be an effective method to develop new mustard germplasm and variety. (authors)

  11. Further progress in the utilization of yellow seeded Trombay mustard in breeding programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, V.; Bhatia, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: As reported previously the yellow seeded TM (Trombay Mustard) cultivars developed at this centre have been utilized in cross breeding programmes at several other mustard breeding centres in India. According to reports of AICORPO (All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Oilseeds) these cultivars have been used during 1977-87 in over 383 crosses. Derivatives of these crosses in advanced generations were tested in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and West Bengal. In Rajasthan, these derivatives have now reached multilocation trials and three selections RS.64, RS.84, and RS.104 were found promising. In a yield trial under late sown conditions at Phaltan in Maharashtra with 12 varieties, yellow seeded TM-17 was the best yielder with 689 kg/ha compared to 593 kg/ha for Varuna, the national check. One of the objectives of mustard breeding is to evolve early maturing varieties which can be harvested in 100 days. TM-18, a selection from TM-4 x Lethbridge (Canadian cultivar) isolated at our centre, can be harvested in 75 days. It gave 1170 kg/ha seed yield at Trombay. TM-18 is the earliest maturing mustard cultivar available in India. (author)

  12. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengl, Vaclav; Bludska, Jana; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. → 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. → New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn 4+ content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn 4+ content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn 3 7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn 5 with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  13. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Bludska, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. {yields} 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. {yields} New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn{sup 4+} content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn{sup 4+} content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn{sub 3}7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn{sub 5} with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  14. Correlations of sleep disorders with severity of obstructive airway disease in mustard gas-injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Ensieh; Taheri, Saeed; Alaedini, Farshid; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Ameli, Javad; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2012-06-01

    Mustard gas has serious adverse effects on several organs and functions in humans. In this study, we analyzed potential correlations between obstructive airway disease and sleep disorders in Iranian mustard gas-injured patients. We enrolled 30 male mustard gas-injured veterans and civilians from the Chemical Warfare Exposure Clinic at Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran. All the subjects underwent comprehensive polysomnographic and spirometric evaluations for diagnosis of sleep disorders. Patients were categorized into three groups according to the severity of their obstructive airway disease based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria: group 1 (GOLD I and II), group 2 (GOLD III), and group 3 (GOLD IV). Patients with less severe obstructive airway disease had significantly higher rate of hypopnea (p = 0.05) and AHI (p = 0.05). The number of REM events was significantly higher in patients with less severe airway disease (p = 0.028). Stage 1 sleep among patients with higher FEV1 significantly constituted a higher proportion of sleep, and stage 4 sleep was significantly longer in patients with higher DLCO (p = 0.043, both). We found that sleep parameters in SM-exposed patients have some relations with spirometric parameters. Future studies with large patient populations are needed for confirmation of our results, and therapeutic interventions are needed to evaluate endeavors we can do to enhance health and quality of life in our mustard gas-injured population.

  15. Cine computed tomography for diagnosis of superior vena cava obstruction following the mustard operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matherne, G.P.; Atkins, D.L.; Frey, E.E.; Smith, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    Superior vena caval obstruction is a well described complication following Mustard's repair for transposition of the great arteries. We report a case of a 6-year-old child with superior vena cava obstruction correctly diagnosed by Cine-CT. The advantages of imaging with Cine-CT for this complication are discussed. (orig.)

  16. pH-dependent toxicity of sulphur mustard in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, Thomas W.; Vair, Cory; Nelson, Peggy; Shei Yimin; Bjarnason, Stephen; Tenn, Catherine; McWilliams, Michael; Villanueva, Mercy; Burczyk, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of sulphur mustard (HD) toxicity on intracellular (pH i ) and extracellular pH was examined in CHO-K1 cells. HD produced an immediate and significant concentration-dependent decline in cytosolic pH, and also inhibited the mechanisms responsible for restoring pH i to physiological values. The concentration-response of HD-induced cytosolic acidification, closely paralleled the acidification of the extracellular buffer through HD hydrolysis. A viability study was carried out in order to assess the importance of HD-induced cytosolic acidification. Cultures were exposed to HD for 1 h in media that were adjusted through a pH range (pH 5.0-10), and the 24 h LC 50 values were assessed using the viability indicator dye alamarBlue TM . The toxicity of HD was found to be dependent on extracellular pH, with a greater than eight-fold increase in LD 50 obtained in cultures treated with HD at pH 9.5, compared to those treated at pH 5.0. Assays of apoptotic cell death, including morphology, soluble DNA, caspase-3 activity and TUNEL also showed that as pH was increased, much greater HD concentrations were required to cause cell death. The modest decline in HD half-life measured in buffers of increasing pH, did not account for the protective effects of basic pH. The early event(s) that HD initiates to eventually culminate in cell death are not known. However, based on the data obtained in this study, we propose that HD causes an extracellular acidification through chemical hydrolysis and that this, in both a concentration and temporally related fashion, results in cytosolic acidification. Furthermore, HD also acts to poison the antiporter systems responsible for maintaining physiological pH i , so that the cells are unable to recover from this insult. It is this irreversible decline in pH i that initiates the cascade of events that results in HD-induced cell death

  17. Performance, combustion and emission analysis of mustard oil biodiesel and octanol blends in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Yuvarajan; Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Nagappan, Beemkumar; Pandian, Amith Kishore

    2018-01-01

    Biodiesels from the mustard oil promise to be an alternative to the conventional diesel fuel due to their similarity in properties. Higher alcohols are added to neat Mustard oil biodiesel (M100) to vary the properties of biodiesel for improving its combustion, emission and performance characteristics. N-Octanol has the ability to act as an oxygen buffer during combustion which contributes to the catalytic effect and accelerates the combustion process. N-Octanol is dispersed to neat Mustard oil biodiesel in the form of emulsions at different dosage levels of 10, 20 and 30% by volume. Three emulsion fuels prepared for engine testing constitutes of 90% of biodiesel and 10% of n-Octanol (M90O10), 80% of biodiesel and 20% of n-Octanol (M80O20) and 70% of biodiesel and 30% of n-Octanol (M70O30) by volume respectively. AVL 5402 diesel engine is made to run on these fuels to study the effect of n-Octanol on combustion, emission and performance characteristics of the mustard oil biodiesel. Experimental results show that addition of n-octanol has a positive effect on performance, combustion and emission characteristics owing to its inbuilt oxygen content. N-octanol was found to be the better oxidizing catalyst as it was more effective in reducing HC and CO emissions. A significant reduction in NOx emission was found when fuelled with emulsion techniques. The blending of n-octanol to neat Mustard oil biodiesel reduces the energy and fuel consumption and a marginal increase in brake thermal efficiency. Further, n-octanol also reduces the ignition delay and aids the combustion.

  18. Effect of Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis Competition and Nitrogen Levels on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Soleymani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of wild mustard plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on morphological characters, yield and yield components of canola a split-plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications was carried out in Bu-Ali Sina university of Hamedan, in 2009. 4 levels of nitrogen fertilization (100, 150, 200 and 250 kgN h-1 were assigned to main-plots and plant density of wild mustard at 5 levels (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 plants m-2 to the sub-plots. Results showed that the effects of wild mustard competition on yield and components of canola was significant. 32 plants m-2 of wild mustard reduced grain and biologic yield, number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod and 1000seed weight about 28.7, 30, 40.9, 22.2 and 16 percent respectively. With more nitrogen application, number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, 1000seed weight and grain yield was increased. By increasing nitrogen from 100 to 250 kg ha-1, grain yield was increased more than 53 percent. Increasing density of wild mustard significantly reduced all above mentioned morphological and qualitative characters, except protein percentage. By increasing nitrogen fertilizer, plant height, number of branches per plant, pod length, oil yield and protein percentage of canola were increased significantly. Overall nevertheless negative effect of weed on canola yield, seems that the application 200 kgN/ha in addition to increasing grain yield and canola oil, had less decline in weed interference.

  19. Performance, combustion and emission analysis of mustard oil biodiesel and octanol blends in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Yuvarajan; Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Nagappan, Beemkumar; Pandian, Amith Kishore

    2018-06-01

    Biodiesels from the mustard oil promise to be an alternative to the conventional diesel fuel due to their similarity in properties. Higher alcohols are added to neat Mustard oil biodiesel (M100) to vary the properties of biodiesel for improving its combustion, emission and performance characteristics. N-Octanol has the ability to act as an oxygen buffer during combustion which contributes to the catalytic effect and accelerates the combustion process. N-Octanol is dispersed to neat Mustard oil biodiesel in the form of emulsions at different dosage levels of 10, 20 and 30% by volume. Three emulsion fuels prepared for engine testing constitutes of 90% of biodiesel and 10% of n-Octanol (M90O10), 80% of biodiesel and 20% of n-Octanol (M80O20) and 70% of biodiesel and 30% of n-Octanol (M70O30) by volume respectively. AVL 5402 diesel engine is made to run on these fuels to study the effect of n-Octanol on combustion, emission and performance characteristics of the mustard oil biodiesel. Experimental results show that addition of n-octanol has a positive effect on performance, combustion and emission characteristics owing to its inbuilt oxygen content. N-octanol was found to be the better oxidizing catalyst as it was more effective in reducing HC and CO emissions. A significant reduction in NOx emission was found when fuelled with emulsion techniques. The blending of n-octanol to neat Mustard oil biodiesel reduces the energy and fuel consumption and a marginal increase in brake thermal efficiency. Further, n-octanol also reduces the ignition delay and aids the combustion.

  20. Demand outlook for sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshkarov, V.Ya.; Danil' yan, P.G.; Feotov, V.E.; Gimaev, R.N.; Koshkarova, M.E.; Sadykova, S.R.; Vodovichenko, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke fines in pyrometallurgical processes and also in the chemical and coal-tar chemical industry is examined. Results of industrial tests on briquetting fines of petroleum coke with a petroleum binder are presented. The feasibility of using the obtained briquets in shaft furnace smelting of oxidized nickel ores, production of anode stock, and also in the chemical industry are demonstrated.

  1. Sulfur equilibrium desulfurization of sulfur containing products of combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodroffe, J.A.; Abichandani, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes the method for the combustion of a carbon- and sulfur-containing fuel for substantially reducing emission of gaseous sulfur compounds formed during combustion of the fuel in a combustion zone. The zone having one or more fuel inlets and one or more oxidizer inlets, and having a combustion products outlet spaced therefrom, and having one or more inorganic sorbent inlets downstream of the fuel inlet(s) and oxidizer inlet(s) and upstream of the combustion products outlet

  2. Phytotoxic effects of calotropis procera, tamarix aphylla and peganum harmala on plant growth of wheat and mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.M.; Khatoon, A.; Rehman, A.; Khan, P.; Shakir, S.U.K.; Irfan, S.; Rehman, S.U.; Jamil, M.; Mlaook, I.; Bashar, K.U.; Afridi, M.; Rahim, A.; Ullah, F.

    2016-01-01

    Phytotoxic effects of many plants are known on growth of different useful crops. This research study was designed to find out phytotoxic effects of Calotropis procera, Tamarix aphylla and Peganum harmala on seed germination and seedling length of wheat and mustard. Results showed that seed germination of wheat was significantly decreased by 5 percent, 10 percent, 15 percent, 20 percent and 25 percent while mustard seeds were resistant and were affected by higher dilutions (15 percent, 20 percent and 25 percent) of all plant extracts. Roots of both wheat and mustard were highly affected by plant aqueous extracts at all concentrations (5 percent, 10 percent, 15 percent, 20 percent and 25 percent) but shoots were inhibited by higher concentrations (20 percent and 25 percent). This study revealed that wheat is more sensitive to different plant extracts as compared to mustard. It is thus concluded that inhibitory effect increases with the increase of extracts concentration. (author)

  3. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2014-06-17

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  4. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Aachary, Ayyappan; Thiyam-Holländer, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous sinapic acid (SA), sinapine (SP), sinapoyl glucose (SG) and canolol (CAN) of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and...

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE AND BIOSOLIDS ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN WHITE MUSTARD SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2017-06-01

    The statistical analysis indicated that the concentrations of Cd in mustard seed was significantly correlated with the concentrations of Ni and Zn (respectively, r=-0.89 and r=-0.54. There were significant positive correlations between soil pH and metal concentrations in the seeds of mustard. The pH was significantly correlated with Ni (r = 0.60 and Zn (r = 0.55 at a p≤ 0.05.

  6. Sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter on the coordination compounds of sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium starts with an introduction to the bonding, valence and geometry of the elements. Complexes of the group VIB elements are discussed with particular reference to the halo and pseudohalide complexes, oxo acid complexes, oxygen and nitrogen donor complexes and sulfur and selenium donor complexes. There is a section on the biological properties of the complexes discussed. (UK)

  7. New uses of sulfur - update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, K.P.

    1995-07-01

    An update to an extensive bibliography on alternate uses of sulfur was presented. Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., previously compiled a bibliography in volume 24 of this quarterly bulletin. This update provides an additional 44 new publications. The information regarding current research focusses on topics regarding the use of sulfur in oil and gas applications, mining and metallurgy, concretes and other structural materials, waste management, rubber and textile products, asphalts and other paving and highway applications.

  8. For sale: Sulfur emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiderscheit, J.

    1992-01-01

    The allowance trading market has started a slow march to maturity. Competitive developers should understand the risks and opportunities now presented. The marketplace for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions allowances - the centerpiece of Title 4's acid rain reduction program - remains enigmatic 19 months after the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 were passed. Yet it is increasingly clear that the emission allowance market will likely confound the gloom and doom of its doubters. The recently-announced $10 million dollar Wisconsin Power and Light allowance sales to Duquesne Light and the Tennessee Valley Authority are among the latest indications of momentum toward a stabilizing market. This trend puts additional pressure on independent developers to finalize their allowance strategies. Developers who understand what the allowance trading program is and what it is not, know the key players, and grasp the unresolved regulatory issues will have a new competitive advantage. The topics addressed in this article include the allowance marketplace, marketplace characteristics, the regulatory front, forward-looking strategies, and increasing marketplace activity

  9. Seed rate and nitrogen fertilizer effects on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    karim moosavi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate wild mustard competitive effect on winter wheat, an additive series experiment was conducted in 2000-2001 at Agricultural Research Station of Mashhad University.The experiment had 3 factor: wheat seed rate (175 , 215 and 255 kg/ha, nitrogen rate (150 and 225 kg/ha, and a range of wild mustard densities. Hyperbolic functions was used to describe yield-weed density relationship. Increasing wild mustard density had a negative , asymptotic – type effect on wheat biomass and grain yield. By increasing wheat seed rate , in optimum nitrogen rate , maximum wheat biomas loss has reduced about 51 %. Maximum yield loss has increased from 42.1 % to 50.4 %, as nitrogen rate incrased from optimum to upper optimum rate of wheat. By increasing of wheat seed rate from 175 to 255 kg/ha, maximum tiller number reduction due to high densities of wild mustard, has decreased by 54 %. Reduction of fertile tiller number was mostly occurred at presence of high nitrogen level, thus, reduction of fertile tiller number compared to control in N1 was 18% , while in N2 has increased to 30%. Wild mustard competition has reduced wheat seed number per ear 30% in compare to weed free control. Results show that wheat 1000 seed weight was more affected by nitrogen rate than plant densities. Apparently, in competition with wheat, wild mustard was better able to utilize the added nitrogen and thus gained a competitive adventage over the wheat.

  10. Beneficial role of carbon nanotubes on mustard plant growth: an agricultural prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Anindita; Basu, Ruma; Das, Sukhen; Nandy, Papiya

    2011-10-01

    Nowadays an increasing application of nanotechnology in different fields has arisen an extensive debate about the effect of the engineered nanoparticles on environment . Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles has come into limelight in the last few years. However, very few studies have been done so far on the beneficial aspects of nanoparticles on plants. In this article, we report the beneficial effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having diameter of 30 nm on Brassica juncea (mustard) seeds. Measurements of germination rate, T 50 (time taken for 50% germination), shoot and root growth have shown encouraging results using low concentration of oxidized MWCNT (OMWCNT) treated seeds as compared to non-oxidized as well as high concentration OMWCNT treated seeds. For toxicity study we measured the germination index and relative root elongation, while conductivity test and infra-red spectra were also performed to study the overall effect of oxidized and non-oxidized nanotubes on mustard seeds and seedlings.

  11. A mediational model of PTSD in World War II veterans exposed to mustard gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, M Kay; Schnurr, Paula P; Adams, Gary A; Green, Bonnie L; Ford, Julian D; Friedman, Matthew J

    2004-08-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine associations among trauma-related contextual factors, initial psychological reactions, social support, and subsequent disclosure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of World War II (WWII) veterans exposed to mustard gas (N = 305). A structural model suggested that initial psychological reaction mediated the relationship between variables related to the context of mustard gas exposure and severity of PTSD symptoms 50 years later. Unexpectedly, social support appeared to be positively related to PTSD symptoms, and not related to the contextual variables or initial psychological reactions. These findings contribute to our understanding of PTSD in older veterans, and have relevance for early intervention services to prevent PTSD among those at risk for exposure to toxic agents.

  12. Diversity of Pollinator Insects in Relation to Seed Set of Mustard (Brassica rapa L.: Cruciferae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI ATMOWIDI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollinators provide key services to both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Agricultural productivity depends, in part, on pollinator populations from adjacent seminatural habitats. Here we analysed the diversity of pollinator insects and its effect to seed set of mustard (Brassica rapa planted in agricultural ecosystem near the Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java. At least 19 species of insects pollinated the mustard, and three species, i.e. Apis cerana, Ceratina sp., and Apis dorsata showed a high abundance. The higher abundance and species richness of pollinators occurred at 08.30-10.30 am and the diversity was related to the number of flowering plants. Insect pollinations increased the number of pods, seeds per pod, seed weights per plant, and seed germination.

  13. Beneficial role of carbon nanotubes on mustard plant growth: an agricultural prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Anindita; Basu, Ruma; Das, Sukhen; Nandy, Papiya

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays an increasing application of nanotechnology in different fields has arisen an extensive debate about the effect of the engineered nanoparticles on environment. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles has come into limelight in the last few years. However, very few studies have been done so far on the beneficial aspects of nanoparticles on plants. In this article, we report the beneficial effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having diameter of ∼30 nm on Brassica juncea (mustard) seeds. Measurements of germination rate, T 50 (time taken for 50% germination), shoot and root growth have shown encouraging results using low concentration of oxidized MWCNT (OMWCNT) treated seeds as compared to non-oxidized as well as high concentration OMWCNT treated seeds. For toxicity study we measured the germination index and relative root elongation, while conductivity test and infra-red spectra were also performed to study the overall effect of oxidized and non-oxidized nanotubes on mustard seeds and seedlings.

  14. Laser effects on the growth and photosynthesis process in mustard plants (Sinapis Alba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Sorin; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Giosanu, Dana; Flenacu, Monica; Iorga-Siman, Ion

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we present the results of our experiments concerning the influence of the low energy laser (LEL) radiation on the germination, growth and photosyntheses processes in mustard plants (sinapis alba). We used a He-Ne laser ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm, P equals 6 mW) to irradiate the mustard seeds with different exposure times. The seeds were sowed and some determinations (the germination and growth intensity, chlorophyll quantity, and respiration intensity) were made on the plant culture. We ascertained that the germination and growth of the plants are influenced by the irradiation. Also, the chlorophyll quantity is the same for both plants from irradiated and non-irradiated seeds but the respiration and photosynthesis processes are influenced by the irradiation.

  15. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    in Abyssinia and the Japanese in China . In the beginning of World War II (WWII), the specter of chemical warfare was again raised by reports of the use...Annales Medicinae Militaris Belgicae 3:S1-61. World Health Organization. 1970. Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons: Report of a WHO Group...Clinical management of mustard gas casualties. Annales Medicinae Militaris Belgicae 3:51-61. Winternitz MC. 1919. Anatomical changes in the

  16. A Literature Review on the Mechanism of Action of Sulphur and Nitrogen Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    for years is also poeqible (Aasted et al, 1987; Colardyn et al, 1986). Severely poisoned individuals exhibit bone marrow depression and may die from...MMS does not produce the enhanced depression of DNA synthesis in sensitive cells, compared to resistant cells, produced by sulphur mustard and...Compound MATD 1 Protection (mg/mouse) index 2 WR-3689 15 159 WR-2721 15 44 Aminoethylcysteine 80 27 N- acetylcysteine 8 26 Glutathione 60 22 Cysteine 8

  17. [Isolation and partial characterization of DNA topoisomerase I from the nucleoids of white mustard chloroplasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, G G; Pogul'skaia, E V; Iurina, N P

    2004-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase was isolated for the first time from nucleoids of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) chloroplasts. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 70 kDa; it was ATP-independent, required the presence of mono- (K+) and bivalent (Mg2+) cations, and was capable of relaxing both negatively and positively supercoiled DNA. These results suggest that the enzyme isolated belongs to type IB DNA topoisomerases.

  18. Effect of gamma rays on growth and survival of three mustard varieties in M1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamala, T.; Rao, R.N.B.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on germination, survival percentage, seedling height, leaf length and breadth, and growth rate in three mustard varieties were studied in M 1 generation. Seeds were exposed to 15, 30, 45, 60 and 80 Kr doses for the study. Germinations and survival percentages and seedling height showed dose-dependent decrease, while growth rate, leaf length and breadth increased at 60, 45 and 30 Kr and decreased at 80 Kr, though varietal differences were observed. (M.G.B.)

  19. Cytokinetic Analysis of Slowly Renewing Bone-Marrow Cells after Administration of Nitrogen Mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, R.; Fliedner, T. M.; Stehle, H. [Abteilung fuer Klinische Physiologie der Universitaet Ulm, Ulm/Donau, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1968-08-15

    The continuous or repeated administration of tritiated thymidine into pregnant rats during organogenesis provides a method for the complete labelling of newborn rats. If these are continuously injected with tritiated thymidine for the first four weeks after birth, the fraction of labelled cells of all organs and cell-renewal systems is still 100% If completely labelled animals are sacrificed at regular intervals after the discontinuance of thymidine administration, one can distinguish two groups of cells with distinct differences in their cell renewal. While the reticular cells A and B, the endothelial cells and the bone-marrow lymphocytes belong to a slowly proliferating group of cells, the differentiated myelopoietic and erythropoietic cells of the bone marrow proliferate rapidly. That labelled erythropoietic or myelopoietic cells are not found later than 6-10 days after discontinuance of tritated thymidine injection in these animals argues strongly against the hypothesis that under normal steady-state conditions a G{sub 0} fraction exists in the bone-marrow, from which stem cells are deviated into the differentiated cell pools by adequate stimuli. The administration of nitrogen mustard in a dose sufficient to cause bone-marrow aplasia neither destroys nor stimulates the reticular cells and endothelial cells of the bone-marrow matrix. These cells retain their label and remain present in normal numbers throughout the period of observation after nitrogen mustard treatment: The only cell type in the marrow that changes its labelling intensity after nitrogen mustard administration is the marrow lymphocyte. The decrease in the fraction and intensity of labelled bone-marrow lymphocytes precedes the rapid regeneration of nitrogen mustard aplastic bone-marrow. This cell type, in our opinion, would be the only cell to qualify as a stem cell, although positive evidence is still lacking. (author)

  20. Biogenic sulfur compounds and the global sulfur cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneja, V.P.; Aneja, A.P.; Adams, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Field measurements of biogenic sulfur compounds shows a great variation in concentrations and emission rates for H 2 S, DMS, CS 2 and COS. Measurements by the chamber method and estimates from micrometeorological sampling are employed to determine the earth-atmosphere flux of these gases. Much of the variation can be attributed to differences of climate and surface conditions, with marshes being a large source of biogenic sulfur (mean contribution 4 x 10 to the 6th ton/year maximum contribution 142 x 10 to the 6th ton/year). Considering that the estimated biogenic contribution needed to balance the global sulfur cycle ranges from 40- 230 x 10 to the 6th tons/year, the mean values are not sufficient to balance this cycle. Further experimental investigations are suggested in order to characterize the biogenic processes adequately

  1. Effect of white mustard essential oil on inoculated Salmonella sp. in a sauce with particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jairus R D; Ekanayake, Athula; Singh, Indarpal; Farina, Brian; Meyer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    White mustard essential oil (WMEO), from white mustard seed (Sinapis alba L.), is obtained by solvent extraction of defatted and wetted ground mustard; endogenous myrosinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glucosinolate sinalbin to yield 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate (4-HBITC), the antimicrobial component of WMEO. Sauce with particulates was made by mixing sauce, which served as the carrier for WMEO, with frozen vegetable and chicken particulates inoculated with Salmonella sp. WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts by 0.8 to 2.7 log (CFU/g) in a frozen sauce with particulates in a dose-dependent manner, starting from the point of formulating the sauce through the microwave cooking step. High-pressure liquid chromatography-based analytical data confirmed that 4-HBITC was present in all of the samples in the expected concentrations and was completely hydrolyzed after the recommended cooking time in microwave ovens. In another experiment simulating unintentional abuse conditions, where the WMEO containing sauce with particulates was kept at room temperature for 5 h, WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts from the point of first contact and up to 5 h by 0.7 to 2.4 log (CFU/g). Despite the known hydrolytic instability of the active component 4-HBITC, particularly at close to neutral pH values, WMEO was effective in controlling deliberately inoculated Salmonella sp. in a frozen sauce with particulates.

  2. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štengl, Václav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomáš Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Bludská, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslařská 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn{sub 7}5 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn{sub 3}7U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  3. Overexpressing both ATP sulfurylase and selenocysteine methyltransferase enhances selenium phytoremediation traits in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeDuc, Danika L.; AbdelSamie, Manal; Montes-Bayon, Maria; Wu, Carol P.; Reisinger, Sarah J.; Terry, Norman

    2006-01-01

    A major goal of our selenium (Se) phytoremediation research is to use genetic engineering to develop fast-growing plants with an increased ability to tolerate, accumulate, and volatilize Se. To this end we incorporated a gene (encoding selenocysteine methyltransferase, SMT) from the Se hyperaccumulator, Astragalus bisulcatus, into Indian mustard (LeDuc, D.L., Tarun, A.S., Montes-Bayon, M., Meija, J., Malit, M.F., Wu, C.P., AbdelSamie, M., Chiang, C.-Y., Tagmount, A., deSouza, M., Neuhierl, B., Boeck, A., Caruso, J., Terry, N., 2004. Overexpression of selenocysteine methyltransferase in Arabidopsis and Indian mustard increases selenium tolerance and accumulation Plant Physiol. 135, 377-383.). The resulting transgenic plants successfully enhanced Se phytoremediation in that the plants tolerated and accumulated Se from selenite significantly better than wild type. However, the advantage conferred by the SMT enzyme was much less when Se was supplied as selenate. In order to enhance the phytoremediation of selenate, we developed double transgenic plants that overexpressed the gene encoding ATP sulfurylase (APS) in addition to SMT, i.e., APS x SMT. The results showed that there was a substantial improvement in Se accumulation from selenate (4 to 9 times increase) in transgenic plants overexpressing both APS and SMT. - Simultaneous overexpression of APS and SMT genes in Indian mustard greatly increases ability to accumulate selenate

  4. Effect of mustard gas hydrolysis products on the development of water-bloom forming cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Tatyana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mustard gas and its hydrolysis products (MGHP belong to stable organochlorine compounds with high toxicity and broad spectrum of activity. Since the Second World War many aquatic ecosystems including the Baltic and the Adriatic Sea as well as the coastal waters of Japan, the USA, the UK, Australia have been contaminated with mustard gas due to the dumping of chemical weapon. Mustard gas and its hydrolysis products have a negative impact on aquatic life including microbiota. The aim of this work was to define the effect of MGHP on the growth, photosynthetic activity and synthesis of secondary metabolites by water-bloom forming cyanobacteria Trichormus variabilis, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Microcystis aeruginosa, Nodularia spumigena. Microbiological, chromatographic, spectrophotometric methods were used. The growth inhibition test with MGHP on cyanobacteria showed influence on the concentration EC50 within the range of 5.5 – 11.2 mg of organochlorine compounds (ОCC per liter. The synthesis of chlorophyll a was also decreased. It was shown that the chlorophyll synthesis was more sensitive to MGHP than the growth of cyanobacteria. NGHP induced enhanced excretion of exopolysaccharides. Low concentration of MGHP – 0.3 mg OCC/l - promoted the growth of toxigenic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and increased microcystin-LR concentration in the environment. enhanced excretion of such metabolites as polysaccharides and cyanotoxins has a serious negative impact on water pollution due to MGHP.

  5. Remediation Of Cadmium And Lead Contamination In Mustard-Maize Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Kumar Jha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers field trial was conducted at Patratu Ramgarh to study the effect of lime compost plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for remediation of high trace metal levels in mustard-maize cropping system. Results reveal that microbial inoculants with or without vermicompost increased the trace metal removal however vermicompost alone decreased the removal. Vermicompost lime and lime vermicompost significantly reduced the total Cd uptake by mustard and maize. Inoculation with Glomus mossae resulted in elevated level of Cd in mustard and maize plants. Total trace metal content in soil was significantly reduced by microbial inoculation alone or that in combination with vermicompost. However DTPA-extractable trace metals decreased with addition of amendments as well as inoculation of microbes. Glomus mossae was most effective in remediating the trace metals. under this study the total metal content reduced effectively by their inoculation alone while inoculation along with vermicompost resulted in reducing the DTPA-extractable fraction more effectively. The extent of reduction in total Cd and Pb after harvest of both crops was 6 to 26 and 5 to 12 per cent respectively over control. However the corresponding values observed for DTPA extractable Cd and Pb was 53 to 65 and 20 to 32 per cent over control in microbial inoculation and 46 to 47 and 14 to 17 per cent in case of amendments.

  6. In-situ degradation of sulphur mustard using (1R)-(-)-(camphorylsulphonyl) oxaziridine impregnated adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Abha, E-mail: abha_052002@yahoo.co.in [Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Mahatam Gandhi Marg, Lucknow, UP (India); Saxena, Amit; Singh, Beer [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, MP (India)

    2009-12-30

    Bis-2-chloroethyl sulphide (sulphur mustard or HD) is an extremely toxic and persistent chemical warfare agent. For in-situ degradation of HD and its analogues (simulants), i.e., dibutyl sulphide (DBS) and ethyl 2-hydroxyethyl sulphide (HEES), different adsorbents systems loaded with (1R)-(-)-(camphorylsulphonyl) oxaziridine were prepared. Solution of sulphur mustard and its simulants was prepared in carbon tetrachloride and taken for uniform adsorption on the impregnated systems using incipient volume. Degradation kinetics monitored by GC/FID were found to be first-order. The half-life of degradation reactions for simulants was obtained in less than 30 and for HD in 120 min. From the studied kinetics it was observed that reaction was very rapid with simulants and decreased rate was found for HD. The order of reactivity of MgO/Oxa system for HD and simulants was found to be DBS > HEES > HD. Reaction products of the oxidation reaction of simulants and HD on adsorbents were extracted in dichloromethane and analysed by GC-MS. The products were found to be non-toxic sulphoxide. The objective of the study is to develop a reactive adsorbent for in-situ degradation of sulphur mustard which could be used in nuclear biological and chemical (NBC) filtration systems.

  7. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Štengl, Václav; Grygar, Tomáš Matys; Bludská, Jana; Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn 7 5 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn 3 7U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  8. Sulfur isotope signatures in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cainey, J.

    2001-01-01

    The role of sulfur in cloud formation makes it a crucial ingredient in the global climate change debate. So it is important to be able to measure sulfur in the atmosphere and identify where it came from. (author)

  9. Model Prebiotic Iron-Sulfur Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfio, C.; Scintilla, S.; Shah, S.; Evans, D. J.; Jin, L.; Szostak, J. W.; Sasselov, D. D.; Sutherland, J. D.; Mansy, S. S.

    2017-07-01

    Iron-sulfur clusters form easily in aqueous solution in the presence of thiolates and iron ions. Polymerization of short, iron-sulfur binding tripeptide sequences leads to ferredoxin-like ligand spacing and activity.

  10. DNA-directed alkylating ligands as potential antitumor agents: sequence specificity of alkylation by intercalating aniline mustards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, A S; Denny, W A; Gourdie, T A; Valu, K K; Woodgate, P D; Wakelin, L P

    1990-10-23

    The sequence preferences for alkylation of a series of novel parasubstituted aniline mustards linked to the DNA-intercalating chromophore 9-aminoacridine by an alkyl chain of variable length were studied by using procedures analogous to Maxam-Gilbert reactions. The compounds alkylate DNA at both guanine and adenine sites. For mustards linked to the acridine by a short alkyl chain through a para O- or S-link group, 5'-GT sequences are the most preferred sites at which N7-guanine alkylation occurs. For analogues with longer chain lengths, the preference of 5'-GT sequences diminishes in favor of N7-adenine alkylation at the complementary 5'-AC sequence. Magnesium ions are shown to selectively inhibit alkylation at the N7 of adenine (in the major groove) by these compounds but not the alkylation at the N3 of adenine (in the minor groove) by the antitumor antibiotic CC-1065. Effects of chromophore variation were also studied by using aniline mustards linked to quinazoline and sterically hindered tert-butyl-9-aminoacridine chromophores. The results demonstrate that in this series of DNA-directed mustards the noncovalent interactions of the carrier chromophores with DNA significantly modify the sequence selectivity of alkylation by the mustard. Relationships between the DNA alkylation patterns of these compounds and their biological activities are discussed.

  11. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamchand Mayengbam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous sinapic acid (SA, sinapine (SP, sinapoyl glucose (SG and canolol (CAN of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and cotyledons extracts were SP, with small amounts of SG, and SA with a significant difference of phenolic contents between the two seed fractions. Cotyledons showed relatively high content of SP, SA, SG and total phenolics in comparison to hulls (p < 0.001. The concentration of SP in different fractions ranged from 1.15 ± 0.07 to 12.20 ± 1.16 mg/g and followed a decreasing trend- canola cotyledons > mustard cotyledons > mustard seeds > canola seeds > mustard hulls > canola hulls. UPLC-tandem Mass Spectrometry confirmed the presence of sinapates and its fragmentation in these extracts. Further, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.93 was noted between DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

  12. Evaluation of Growth Indices and Estimation Seed Yield Loss Threshold of Canola in Response to Various Densities of Crop and Wild Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Anafjeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to study the effect of various densities of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. on growth indices of Canola (Brassica napus L. in climate of Molathani, Ahvaz, an experiment was conducted in the experimental field of Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, in 2006-2007. The split-plot set of treatments was arranged within randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments included of wild mustard at five levels (0, 7, 14, 21 and 35 plants m2 and Canola at three densities (60, 80 and 100 plants m2. The results showed that the increase in mustard density rates lead to decreasing total dry matter, leaf area index, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and mean pod dry matter in three canola densities (60, 80 and 100 plants m2. Somewhat the lowest growth indices was obtained in 35 plants mustard (that is the highest mustard density. In addition damage rate of mustard decreased canola seed yield for 7, 14, 21 and 35 plants mustard up to 61, 71, 76 and 91%, respectively. Keywords: Plant density, Competition, Yield loss threshold, Growth indices, Canola, Mustard

  13. Clinical practice guidelines for prevention, diagnosis and management of early and delayed-onset ocular injuries due to mustard gas exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Considering the lack of CPGs for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of mustard gas-induced keratitis, these recommendations would be useful to prevent the serious ocular complications of mustard gas and standardize eye care services to the affected individuals.

  14. Air Quality Criteria for Sulfur Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a literature review which comprehensively discusses knowledge of the sulfur oxides commonly found in the atmosphere. The subject content is represented by the 10 chapter titles: Physical and Chemical Properties and the Atmospheric Reactions of the Oxides of Sulfur; Sources and Methods of Measurements of Sulfur Oxides in the Atmosphere;…

  15. Biologically removing sulfur from dilute gas flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, R.; Dijkman, H.; Buisman, C. J. N.

    1999-05-01

    A biological process has been developed to clean off-gases containing sulfur dioxide from industrial installations. The sulfur dioxide is converted into hydrogen sulfide, which can then be oxidized to elemental sulfur if not used on-site. The process produces no waste products that require disposal and has a low reagent consumption.

  16. Method of distillation of sulfurous bituminous shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallback, A J.S.; Bergh, S V

    1918-04-22

    A method of distillation of sulfur-containing bituminous shales is characterized by passing the hot sulfur-containing and oil-containing gases and vapors formed during the distillation through burned shale containing iron oxide, so that when these gases and vapors are thereafter cooled they will be, as far as possible, free from sulfur compounds. The patent contains six more claims.

  17. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. Radiation induced sulfur dioxide removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    The biggest source of air pollution is the combustion of fossil fuels, were pollutants such as particulate, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) are emitted. Among these pollutants, sulfur dioxide plays the main role in acidification of the environment. The mechanism of sulfur dioxide transformation in the environment is partly photochemical. This is not direct photooxidation, however, but oxidation through formed radicals. Heterogenic reactions play an important role in this transformation as well; therefore, observations from environmental chemistry can be used in air pollution control engineering. One of the most promising technologies for desulfurization of the flue gases (and simultaneous denitrification) is radiation technology with an electron accelerator application. Contrary to the nitrogen oxides (NO x ) removal processes, which is based on pure radiation induced reactions, sulfur dioxide removal depends on two pathways: a thermochemical reaction in the presence of ammonia/water vapor and a radiation set of radiochemical reactions. The mechanism of these reactions and the consequent technological parameters of the process are discussed in this paper. The industrial application of this radiation technology is being implemented in an industrial pilot plant operated by INCT at EPS Kaweczyn. A full-scale industrial plant is currently in operation in China, and two others are under development in Japan and Poland. (author)

  20. Improved method for minimizing sulfur loss in analysis of particulate organic sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Tae; Lee, Kitack; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, Kwang Young

    2014-02-04

    The global sulfur cycle depends primarily on the metabolism of marine microorganisms, which release sulfur gas into the atmosphere and thus affect the redistribution of sulfur globally as well as the earth's climate system. To better quantify sulfur release from the ocean, analysis of the production and distribution of organic sulfur in the ocean is necessary. This report describes a wet-based method for accurate analysis of particulate organic sulfur (POS) in the marine environment. The proposed method overcomes the considerable loss of sulfur (up to 80%) that occurs during analysis using conventional methods involving drying. Use of the wet-based POS extraction procedure in conjunction with a sensitive sulfur analyzer enabled accurate measurements of cellular POS. Data obtained using this method will enable accurate assessment of how rapidly sulfur can transfer among pools. Such information will improve understanding of the role of POS in the oceanic sulfur cycle.

  1. Long-Term Outcome of Mustard/Senning Correction for Transposition of the Great Arteries in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlstrup, Niels; Sørensen, Keld; Mattsson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    and leaves the right ventricle as the systemic ventricle. The Mustard and Senning cohort is now well into adulthood and we begin to see the long-term outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: All the 6 surgical centers that performed Mustard and Senning operations in Sweden and Denmark identified all operated TGA...... patients. Information about death was obtained in late 2007 and early 2008 from the Danish and Swedish Centralised Civil Register by using the patients' unique national Civil Registration Numbers. Four hundred sixty-eight patients undergoing the atrial switch operation were identified. Perioperative 30-day...... of long-term outcome (hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.46, P=0.04), once the TGA patient has survived the perioperative period. The risk of reoperation was correlated to the presence of associated defects and where the first Mustard/Senning operation was performed. CONCLUSIONS: The long...

  2. The stibian mustard gold from the Kriván¿ Au deposit,Tatry Mts., Slovak Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Martin, Chovan; František, Bakos

    2007-01-01

    The Kriván Au-Sb mineralization is hosted in several subhorizontal variscan mylonite zones located in granitoid rocks. Ore minerals occur in thin lens-shaped quartz veinlets. Albite, chlorite, calcite, muscovite and tourmaline are minor gangue minerals. Four mineral assemblages have been recognized...... - (1) pyrite-arsenopyrite-gold, (2) stibnite-sulfosalts-sphalerite, (3) tetrahedrite- chalcopyrite-electrum, (4) supergene minerals. Isometric and irregular grains of mustard gold are 0.X mm in size. In refl ected light it is isotropic with low refl ectivity and orange-red or brown-yellow color...... with pores more or less fi lled by oxidation products of Sb and Fe. Compositionally it does not conform with stibian mustard gold from Yakutia and Bolivia, approximately AuSb1.4O2.1, derived from decomposition of aurostibite, but it conforms with mustard gold from Krásná Hora, Czech Republic. For this type...

  3. Antibotulinal efficacy of sulfur dioxide in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkin, R B; Christiansen, L N; Shaparis, A B

    1980-01-01

    The addition of sodium metabisulfite as a source of sulfur dioxide delayed botulinal outgrowth in perishable canned comminuted pork when it was temperature abused at 27 degree C. The degree of inhibition was directly related to the level of sulfur dioxide. Levels greater than 100 microgram of sulfur dioxide per g were necessary to achieve significant inhibition when a target level of 100 botulinal spores per g was used. Sodium nitrite partially reduced the efficacy of the sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide offers a new option for the control of botulinal outgrowth in cured or noncured meat and poultry products. PMID:6996613

  4. Removal of sulfur from process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brignac, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    A process wherein water is added to a non-reactive gas stream, preferably a hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas stream, sufficient to raise the water level thereof to from about 0.2 percent to about 50 percent, based on the total volume of the process gas stream, and the said moist gas stream is contacted, at elevated temperature, with a particulate mass of a sulfur-bearing metal alumina spinel characterized by the formula MAl 2 O 4 , wherein M is chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, cadmium, mercury, or zinc to desorb sulfur thereon. In the sulfur sorption cycle, due to the simultaneous adsorption of water and sulfur, the useful life of the metal alumina spinel for sulfur adsorption can be extended, and the sorbent made more easily regenerable after contact with a sulfur-bearing gas stream, notably sulfur-bearing wet hydrogen or wet hydrogen-rich gas streams

  5. Study on remediation for uranium contaminated soils enhanced by chelator using brassica mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Qinfang; Pan Ning; Jin Yongdong; Xia Chuanqin

    2012-01-01

    Screening of perfect hyperaccumulators is the key to the application of this technology. Through the previous stage study, mustard was found to be good at absorption and accumulation of uranium among 51 species, the plant grows fast with wide adaptability and large biomass. Researches will focus on the following two aspects: 1. Simulating U- contaminated soils was prepared by two different ways to add uranium. (1). UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 . 6H 2 O solution was sprayed into soil when the plant was grown in the soil; (2). Above U-contaminated soils after planting and placed for a year. Study on whether the way of adding uranium can effect mustard accumulate uranium. Results found: in the first Phytoremediation, U-contaminated concentration at 100 mg/kg, U concentration in shoots reaches 1103.42 mg/kg, roots reach 1909.49 mg/kg, annual removal rate is 7.81%; in the second Phytoremediation, U-contaminated concentration at 100 mg/kg, U concentration in shoots reach 295.83 mg/kg, roots reach 268.42 mg/kg, annual removal rate is 2.52%. Led to the difference between the twice remediation is the speciation of uranium m soils has changed, respectively, Tessier-five step continuous extraction method for determination of uranium speciation in soils and found available uranium (exchangeable uranium, uranium carbonate) in the soil of the first phytoremediation was 52% higher than the second phytoremediation. 2. Study on chelators (Citric acids, Malic acids) and soil amendments (Organic fertilizer, microbe fertilizer. Humic acid organic fertilizer, Urea) whether effect mustard accumulate uranium, found organic fertilizer can reduce shoots accumulate uranium, Citric acid and microbe fertilizer increase shoots enrichment of uranium. (authors)

  6. Nitrogen mustard (Chlorambucil) has a negative influence on early vascular development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Annette; Boelck, Birgit; Jedig, Maria; Steinritz, Dirk; Balszuweit, Frank; Kehe, Kai; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    The sulphur and nitrogen mustards are strong alkylating agents, which induces inflammations of the skin including blistering right up to ulcerations. Depending on the severity, the wounds may need weeks to heal. In the past it was shown that sulphur mustard has a destructive effect on endothelial precursor cells, which have been shown to play a pivotal role in the wound healing reaction by inducing neovascularisation. However, for these alkylating agents as well as for sulphur mustard nothing is known about their effects on endothelial precursors. Therefore, we investigated and compared the influence of Chlorambucil on proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of endothelial cells in intact mouse embryoid bodies (EB). EBs were treated at different developmental stages and with different periods of Chlorambucil treatment. It was found that in each developmental stage and under each treatment period's Chlorambucil has an extremely negative effect on the vascularisation with a vessel reduction of around 99%. Of particular importance was the negative effect of treatment around day 3 of the development. On this day we found 377 vessels under control conditions but only 1.6 vessels under 24 h treatment of Chlorambucil. At this point in time many endothelial precursors can be found in the EB. Moreover, a negative effect on all stem cells was evident at this point in time, shown by an extreme reduction in EB size with 17.9 mm 2 for the control and only 1.55 mm 2 under Chlorambucil treatment. This negative effect on the vascularisation, on endothelial precursors but also on stem cells in general is of possible importance for impaired wound healing.

  7. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batal, Mohamed; Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien; Bérard, Izabel; Douki, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks

  8. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Douki, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.douki@cea.fr [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks.

  9. Tracer studies on P use efficiency by mustard (Brassica juncea L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Kamath, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    Mustard and chickpea derived a large fraction of their P requirement from applied phosphate compared to safflower crop at flowering. Consequently mean per cent P utilization was maximum in mustard (17.7) followed by chickpea (13.0) and safflower (9.5). However, P uptake at maturity was higher for oilseeds than for the pulse. Grain yield response per kg of applied P was higher at lower rate of P application regardless of the crop. (author). 11 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  10. New high yielding mutant varieties of mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. yellow sarson)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Das, M.L.; Pathan, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Mutation breeding work at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture has been successful with the development of a number of promising mutants and with the release of two mutant varieties of mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Yellow Sarson), Agrani and Safal, for commercial cultivation in Bangladesh. The mutant varieties have higher seed and oil yield with higher biomass production, tolerance to Alternaria blight and aphid under field conditions. The average seed yield of the varieties is 1726 and 1754 kg/ha as compared to 1447 kg/ha of the best check Sonali. These varieties have 42-43 per cent oil in the seed. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  11. The Effects of Mixed Source Fertilizer Application on Vertisol Fertility and Growth of Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhari Syamsiyah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is a crucial factor determining the growth and yield of plants. The increase of nutrient content and availability in soil can be achieved by fertilization. A field experiment was conducted using a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD with two factors and three replications in order to study the effects of Mixed Source of Fertilizer (MSF application on the nutrient contents in Vertisol and its relationship to the growth and yield of mustard. The first factor was the three MSF formulas (F1, F2, F3 and second factor was the doses of MSF (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10 Mg ha-1 applied to the soil. At the end of the experiment, the soil pH, CEC, organic-C, total-N, available-P and exchangeable-K contents were measured. The results show that there are no significant differences on the soil chemical characteristics, such as pH, organic-C content, available-P, exchangeable-K, -Ca and -Mg measured after application of different MSF formulas to the soil. Meanwhile, the increase of MSF doses applied to the soil significantly increases organic-C content, total-N, available-P and exchangeable-K in the soil. The significant increase of available-P (by 29.13% and total-N (by 24.1% occured after application of MSF at 5.0 Mg ha-1 and the increase of exchangeable-K (by 50% is achieved after application of 7.5 Mg ha-1, in comparison to that without MSF application. The height and fresh weight of mustard increase in accordance with the increase of MSF doses applied. The application of 10.0 Mg ha-1 MSF results in the highest height and fresh weight of the mustard up to 63.9% and 620%, respectively. The height and fresh weight of mustard are positively correlated to the total-N, available-P and exchangeable-K in the soil. The MSF is an alternative fertilizer that can be used to improve Vertisol fertility and plant growth.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of "golden mustard" for treating vitamin A deficiency in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Chow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is an important nutritional problem in India, resulting in an increased risk of severe morbidity and mortality. Periodic, high-dose vitamin A supplementation is the WHO-recommended method to prevent VAD, since a single dose can compensate for reduced dietary intake or increased need over a period of several months. However, in India only 34 percent of targeted children currently receive the two doses per year, and new strategies are urgently needed. METHODOLOGY: Recent advancements in biotechnology permit alternative strategies for increasing the vitamin A content of common foods. Mustard (Brassica juncea, which is consumed widely in the form of oil by VAD populations, can be genetically modified to express high levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. Using estimates for consumption, we compare predicted costs and benefits of genetically modified (GM fortification of mustard seed with high-dose vitamin A supplementation and industrial fortification of mustard oil during processing to alleviate VAD by calculating the avertable health burden in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALY. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that all three interventions potentially avert significant numbers of DALYs and deaths. Expanding vitamin A supplementation to all areas was the least costly intervention, at $23-$50 per DALY averted and $1,000-$6,100 per death averted, though cost-effectiveness varied with prevailing health subcenter coverage. GM fortification could avert 5 million-6 million more DALYs and 8,000-46,000 more deaths, mainly because it would benefit the entire population and not just children. However, the costs associated with GM fortification were nearly five times those of supplementation. Industrial fortification was dominated by both GM fortification and supplementation. The cost-effectiveness ratio of each intervention decreased with the prevalence of VAD and was sensitive to the efficacy rate of

  13. Effect of sulphur fertilisation on yield and quality of white mustard seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ryant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the effect of different forms of sulphur on yields and qualitative parameters of white mustard seeds. This topic was studied in 2004 in the form of a pot trial in a vegetation hall and linked up with an identical experiment with spring wheat conducted in 2003. Besides the control variant not fertilised with sulphur (1 we fertilised the soil with elemental sulphur (2, ammonium sulphate (3 and gypsum (4 and applied foliar dressing of elemental sulphur with bentonite (5. For all variants the nitrogen dose was 0.9 g per pot (0.15 g . kg−1 of soil and for va­riants 2 to 4 it was 1 g of sulphur per pot (0.17 g. kg−1 of soil. Foliar dressing of elemental sulphur (S0 was not applied until the stage of six true leaves in a dose of 10 kg per ha (0.032 g per pot.Significantly higher yields of white mustard seeds were achieved after foliar application of S0 which can be also due to its fungicide action. The variants where gypsum was applied showed the highest average number of branches and pods and also straw yields. After gypsum fertilisation or foliar application of S0 the oil content in the mustard seeds exceeded 25%; this is the minimal content required for the production of good quality mustard. The 1000-seed weight was significantly higher after foliar application of S0. The proportion of seeds greyish on the surface, a sign of mildew, significantly decreased after fertilisation with all forms of sulphur, but most of all after foliar application of S0.Fertilisation with ammonium sulphate reduced the exchangeable soil reaction after harvest. On the other hand gypsum alkalised the soil environment and increased the content of available calcium and water-soluble sulphur. The soil of the variant where foliar dressing of S0 was applied had a higher content of available calcium after harvest. The least amount of available sulphur and phosphorus in the soil was seen after foliar

  14. Thermal neutron activation analysis of different varieties of mustard and sunflower seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Bhamare, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique has been used for the estimation of Mn, Na and K in different varietes of oil seeds of mustard and sunflower in India. The samples were irradiated in a 252 Cf source with neutron flux of ∼10 9 n s -1 and the analysis was done using a multichannel analyzer (MCA) coupled to high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Different varieties of seeds are found to have different concentrations of tracer elements when compared among themselves. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  15. Preliminary report into the effects of nitrogen ion bombardment treatment on mustard seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.; Al-Hashmi, S.A.R.; Ahmed, N.A.G.; Pollard, M.

    1988-01-01

    Mustard seeds have been subjected to nitrogen ion bombardment. A range of conditions was found within which there was an enhancement in the growth of seedlings from the ion bombardment treated seeds relative to those grown from control seeds. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine seeds after treatment. It appeared that there had been an etching of the seed coating by the ion bombardment. This view was supported by experiments which showed that the rate of capillary water uptake by the treated seeds had been enhanced. (author)

  16. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays and ethyl methanesulhonate in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Basudeo

    1986-01-01

    Mutagenic effectiveness is a measure of the frequency of mutations induced by unit dose of a mutagen while mutagenic efficiency gives the proportion of mutations in relation to other associated undesirable biological effects such as gross chromosomal aberrations, lethality and sterility induced by the mutagen in question (Konzak, et al., 1965). The usefulness of any mutagen in plant breeding depends not only on its mutagenic effectiveness but also on its mutagenic efficiency. The efficiency and effectiveness of ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) in relation to gamma rays in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss] was studied. (author)

  17. Response ofMeteorus leviventris, (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to mustard oils in field trapping experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnick, K A

    1993-09-01

    Trapping experiments were carried out near Saskatoon, Canada, from May through August 1990 to assess the response of the braconid wasp,Meteorus leviventris, to four selected mustard oils or isothiocyanates (IC) at a release rate of 4 mg/day, and for allyl IC only, at 40 mg/day. Only allyl IC at 4 mg/day was significantly attractive when trap captures were compared to the captures in the control traps. The others (n-propyl IC, 2-phenylethyl IC., and ethyl IC) were not attractive, nor was allyl IC at the higher dose, although trap captures with the latter bait were the second highest.

  18. Characterization of desulfurization, denitrogenation and process sulfur transfer during hydropyrolysis of Chinese high sulfur coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Chenggong; Li Baoqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Conversion; Snape, C.E. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    The process desulphurization and denitrogenation of Chinese high sulfur coals and the characteristics of sulfur transformation during non-catalytic hydropyrolysis were investigated by a 10 g fixed-bed reactor and a small-scaled reactor with online spectrometry respectively. It was indicated that more than 70% of the total sulfur of the two high sulfur coals and almost all pyritic sulfur are removed as H{sub 2}S, leaving the char and tar products with much less sulfur distribution. The liability of sulfur transformation to tar products is closely related to the thiophenic structure forms rather than sulfidic forms. At the same time, the formation of trace amount of sulfur dioxide indicates the presence of inherent sulfur oxidation reactions inside coal frame structures even under H{sub 2} pressure. (orig.)

  19. Volatile earliest Triassic sulfur cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Algeo, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    model experiment. Exposure of evaporite deposits having a high δ 34S may account for the source change, with a possible role for the Siberian Traps volcanism by magmatic remobilization of Cambrian rock salt. A high sulfur cycle turnover rate would have left the ocean system vulnerable to development......Marine biodiversity decreases and ecosystem destruction during the end-Permian mass extinction (EPME) have been linked to widespread marine euxinic conditions. Changes in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR), and marine dissolved sulfate concentrations during...... fractionation and point to a more universal control, i.e., contemporaneous seawater sulfate concentration.The MSR-trend transfer function yielded estimates of seawater sulfate of 0.6-2.8mM for the latest Permian to earliest Triassic, suggesting a balanced oceanic S-cycle with equal S inputs and outputs...

  20. Effects of amount and timing of nitrogen application and weed density on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis seed production in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi rastgoo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of amount and timing of nitrogen application and weed density on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis seed production in winter wheat, an experiment was conducted in 2001 at Research station of college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. A Split plot design with three replications were used with factorial combination of weed density (0, 8, 16, and 32 plant/m2 and nitrogen (low=100, optimum= 150, and high= 225 Kg/ha as main plots.The sub plot factor included nitrogen splitting pattern (P1=1/3 at planting time+2/3 at tillering, P2= 1/3 at planting time + 1/3 at tillering + 1/3 at shooting. According to the results, wild mustard seed production increased with increasing wild mustard density and nitrogen rates, due to high wild mustard biomass production. Seed production of wild mustard was 161, 311, and 488 million/ha in low, optimum and high nitrogen rates, respectively. In the other hand, density and nitrogen rates had a significant effect on wild mustard fecundity. However, nitrogen splitting pattern showed no significant effect on wild mustard seed production.

  1. Effect of different sulfur levels from various sources on brassica napus growth and soil sulfur fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, R.; Khan, K.S.; Islam, M.; Yousaf, M.; Shabbir, G.

    2012-01-01

    A two year field study was conducted at two different locations in northern rain fed Punjab, Pakistan to assess the effect of different rates of sulfur application from various sources on soil sulfur fractions and growth of Brassica napus. The treatments included three sulfur sources i. e., single super phosphate, ammonium sulfate and gypsum each applied at five different rates (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg S ha/sup -1/ ). Sulfur application had a significant positive effect on the growth and yield parameters of Brassica napus. Among the sulfur sources ammonium sulfate resulted in maximum increase in plant growth and yield parameters, followed by single super phosphate. Sulfur content and uptake by crop plants was significantly higher with ammonium sulfate application as compared to other two sulfur sources. Sulfur application also exerted a significant positive effect on different S fractions in the soils. On an average, 18.0% of the applied sulfur got incorporated into CaCl/sub 2/ extractable sulfur fraction, while 15.6% and 35.5% entered into adsorbed and organic sulfur fractions in the soils, respectively. The value cost ratio increased significantly by sulfur application up to 30 kg ha/sup -1/. Among sulfur sources, ammonium sulfate performed best giving the highest net return. (author)

  2. Impact of Sowing Date Induced Temperature and Management Practices on Development Events and Yield of Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSA Khan, MA Aziz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the research field of the Agronomy Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI, Joydebpur, Gazipur, during rabi season of 2014-2015 to find out the relationship between different development events of mustard crop and sowing dates induced temperature as well as to minimize the yield reduction of the crop by adopting appropriate management practices. The mustard var. BARI Sarisha-15 was sown on 06, 25 November and 14 December 2014. Crop accumulated lower growing degree days (GDD i.e., 72.15, 521.10 and 1070 to 1154 °C were observed for the events of emergence, 50 % flowering and maturity on 14 December sowing. Late sown plants took minimum time from flowering to maturity (36 days due to increased temperature and high variability in both maximum and minimum temperature. The highest seed yield (1569 kg ha-1 was recorded from 06 November sowing with high management practices while the lowest seed yield (435 kg ha-1 from 14 December sowing with low management practices. At high management practices the crop yielded 1183 kg ha-1 at 14 December sowing. Yield reduction at late sowing condition was reduced to some extent with high management practices. The seed yield reductions at 14 December sowing as compared to high management practices at 06 November sowing were 72, 43 and 25% under low, medium and high management, respectively.

  3. Germination and seedling growth of Indian mustard exposed to cadmium and chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Marchiol

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To make phytoremediation a technically viable option for large-scale applications we need plants that are able to guarantee high biomass yield as well as high accumulation of heavy metals in their aerial parts. The aim of this investigation was to study the performance of aquacultured plants of Indian mustard in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium and chromium since seed germination. The effects on germination and growth of seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern cv. WNFP, Varuna and Barton, were investigated in/under hydroponic conditions during a 4-week experiment. Cadmium and chromium were provided since germination as cadmium nitrate Cd(NO32 and chromium bichromate K2Cr2O7 (0.5, 1 and 1.5 M. Plant biomass growth measured at the end of the experiments varied with the different metal concentrations in the nutrient solution and the accumulation of the elements in the plant fractions differed significantly among/between cultivars. Ability in the uptake of metals and their mobilization and storage in the aerial plant biomass, expressed by the bioconcentration factor (BCF and translocation factor (TF, respectively, are the most important traits of plants with phytoextraction potential. Brassica juncea was confirmed as being a highly tolerant species, but poor metal translocation values were registered, therefore the high amount of Cd and Cr concentrated in the root systems did not migrate to the aerial, harvestable, part of the plant.

  4. Relation between soil temperature and biophysical parameters in Indian mustard seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, T.; Chakravarty, N. V. K.

    2013-12-01

    Temporal changes in surface soil temperature were studied in winter crop. Significant changes in bare and cropped soil temperature were revealed. Air temperature showed a statistically positive and strong relationship (R2 = 0.79** to 0.92**) with the soil temperature both at morning and afternoon hours. Linear regression analysis indicated that each unit increase in ambient temperature would lead to increase in minimum and maximum soil temperatures by 1.04 and 1.02 degree, respectively. Statistically positive correlation was revealed among biophysical variables with the cumulative surface soil temperature. Linear and non-linear regression analysis indicated 62-69, 72-86 and 72-80% variation in Leaf area index, dry matter production and heat use efficiency in Indian mustard crop as a function of soil degree days. Below 60% variation in yield in Indian mustard was revealed as a function of soil temperature. In contrast, non-significant relationship between oil content and soil temperature was found, which suggests that oil accumulation in oilseed crops was not affected significantly by the soil temperature as an independent variable.

  5. Nitrogen availability regulates proline and ethylene production and alleviates salinity stress in mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Noushina; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-04-15

    Proline content and ethylene production have been shown to be involved in salt tolerance mechanisms in plants. To assess the role of nitrogen (N) in the protection of photosynthesis under salt stress, the effect of N (0, 5, 10, 20 mM) on proline and ethylene was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea). Sufficient N (10 mM) optimized proline production under non-saline conditions through an increase in proline-metabolizing enzymes, leading to osmotic balance and protection of photosynthesis through optimal ethylene production. Excess N (20 mM), in the absence of salt stress, inhibited photosynthesis and caused higher ethylene evolution but lower proline production compared to sufficient N. In contrast, under salt stress with an increased demand for N, excess N optimized ethylene production, which regulates the proline content resulting in recovered photosynthesis. The effect of excess N on photosynthesis under salt stress was further substantiated by the application of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, 1-aminoethoxy vinylglycine (AVG), which inhibited proline production and photosynthesis. Without salt stress, AVG promoted photosynthesis in plants receiving excess N by inhibiting stress ethylene production. The results suggest that a regulatory interaction exists between ethylene, proline and N for salt tolerance. Nitrogen differentially regulates proline production and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on photosynthesis in mustard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Phytoextraction of potentially toxic elements by Indian mustard, rapeseed, and sunflower from a contaminated riparian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the phytoextraction of the potentially toxic elements Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn by Indian mustard, rapeseed, and sunflower from a contaminated riparian soil. To achieve this goal, a greenhouse pot experiment was established using a highly contaminated grassland soil collected at the Wupper River (Germany). The impact of ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), humate (HK), and phosphate potassium (PK) on the mobility and uptake of the elements by rapeseed also was investigated. Indian mustard showed the highest efficiency for phytoextraction of Al, Cr, Mo, Se, and V; sunflower for Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and rapeseed for Cu. The bioconcentration ratios were higher than 1 for the elements (except As and Cu), indicating the suitability of the studied plants for phytoextraction. Application of EDTA to the soil increased significantly the solubility of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb and decreased the solubility of Al, As, Se, V, and Mo. Humate potassium decreased significantly the concentrations of Al and As in rapeseed but increased the concentrations of Cu, Se, and Zn. We may conclude that HK can be used for immobilization of Al and As, while it can be used for enhancing the phytoextraction of Cu, Se, and Zn by rapeseed. Phosphate potassium immobilized Al, Cd, Pb, and Zn, but enhanced phytoextraction of As, Cr, Mo, and Se by rapeseed.

  7. Effect of method and time of application on P use efficiency by mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Kamath, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    Radiophosphorus( 32 p) employed in a two years field study to evaluate some techniques of phosphate application in relation to P utilization by mustard as a test crop on I.A.R.I. Farm alluvial soil revealed that split application of phosphate proved superior to other methods of P fertilization as judged by significantly higher values for per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization. Band placement of plain single suprphosphate(SSP) as well as slurry blended SSP 3 to 4 cm below the seed were at par but both were superior to broadcast application of slurry blended SSP in terms of different P uptake parmeters. Fertilizer applied as a traditional practice, i.e, to broadcast it at seeding was least efficiently utilized. Moreover, alternate tagging technique conclusively indicated that mustard crop derived relatively more P from the basal dose than that of side dressed 25 days after seeding. The grain yield response per unit quantity of added P was much higher in favour of split application followed by comparable response of band placement of blended SSP and unblended fertilizer. (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Garlic mustard and its effects on soil microbial communities in a sandy pine forest in central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander B. Faulkner; Brittany E. Pham; Truc-Quynh D. Nguyen; Kenneth E. Kitchell; Daniel S. O' Keefe; Kelly D. McConnaughay; Sherri J. Morris

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the impacts of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), an invasive species, on soil microbial community dynamics in a pine plantation on sandy soils in central Illinois. In situ soil carbon dioxide efflux was significantly greater in invaded sites. Similarly, in vitro carbon mineralization was significantly greater for soils...

  9. Study of selective metals accumulation in green mustard (Brassica rapa var. parachinesis L.) from Cameron Highlands farmlands, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Marlinda Musa; Ahmad Saat; Ahmad Saat

    2011-01-01

    There are many essential and non-essential elements including metals and radionuclides present in vegetables. However, the accumulation of the several metals and radionuclides might cause the contamination to vegetables itself. Green mustard (Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L.) was selected to represent the vegetable in this study. Objectives of this study are to determine the concentration of metals and radionuclides in the samples and to calculate the enrichment factor (EF) and also to estimate the uptake, base on biological accumulation coefficient (BAC), for the various parts of selected vegetables. Three farmlands in the Cameron Highlands were studied namely Bharat, Kg Raja and Bertam area. The green mustard and soil samples were collected during the harvest season. Samples were dried, ground and sieved prior to analysis. Analyses for both samples were done by using X-rays Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) to measure the concentration of Fe, Zn, Hg, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in the soils is lower than their concentration in the control soil, except for Zn, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in Green Mustard is lower than their concentration in the soil where it was grown. The EF values in the Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L are lower than 2 except for U and Th, indicating some degree of contamination due to anthropogenic activities or naturally origin. The BAC values show that Zn and Hg were accumulated in the green mustard, depending on where the plant grows. (Author)

  10. Use of Se-enriched mustard and canola seed meals as potential bioherbicides and green fertilizers in strawberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    New plant-based products can be produced from seed harvested from Brassica species used for phytomanaging selenium (Se) in the westside of central California. We tested Se-enriched seed meals produced from canola (Brassica napus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) plants as potential bio-herbicides and as g...

  11. A comparison of decontamination effects of commercially available detergents in rats pre-exposed to topical sulphur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misik, Jan; Jost, Petr; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Vodakova, Eva; Cabal, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil

    2013-06-01

    The genotoxic vesicant sulphur mustard [bis-2-(chloroethyl)sulphide] is a chemical warfare agent which is easily available due to its relatively simple synthesis. Thus, sulphur mustard is a potential agent for mass contamination. In this study, we focused on sulphur mustard toxicity and decontamination in a rat model using commercially available detergent mixtures for dermal decontamination. Male Wistar rats were percutaneously treated with sulphur mustard and subjected to wet decontamination 2 min postexposure. Commercially produced detergents Neodekont™, Argos™, Dermogel™ and FloraFree™ were tested for their decontamination efficacy against an exposed group and their protective ratios determined. The results showed that all tested detergent solutions produced an increase in the median lethal dose [LD(50) = 9.83 (5.87-13.63) mg·kg(-1)] in comparison to controls, which led to increased survival of experimental animals. In general, all tested detergents provided modest decontamination efficacy (PR = 2.0-5.7). The highest protective ratio (5.7) was consistently achieved with Argos™. Accordingly, Argos™ should be considered in further investigation of mass casualty decontamination.

  12. The Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey: challenges and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for invasion biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colautti, R. I.; Franks, S. J.; Hufbauer, R. A.; Kotanen, P. M.; Torchin, M.; Byers, J. E.; Pyšek, Petr; Bossdorf, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 29-47 ISSN 1619-0033 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : garlic mustard * citizen science * model system Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. EFFECT OF REACTIVE MATERIALS ON THE CONTENT OF SELECTED ELEMENTS IN INDIAN MUSTARD GROWN IN CR(VI-CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Radziemska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive materials represent a promising agent for environmental co-remediation. The research was aimed to determine the influence of hexavalent chromium in doses of 0, 25, 50, and 150 mg Cr(VI.kg-1 of soil as well as zero valent-iron, and lignite additives on the content of macroelements in the Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.. The average accumulation of the analysed elements in Indian mustard grown in Cr(VI contaminated soil were found to follow the decreasing order Mg>Na>P>Ca>K. Soil contamination at 150 mg Cr(VI.kg-1 of soil led to the highest increase in magnesium, calcium, sodium, and potassium content in Indian mustard. The application of zero-valent iron had a positive influence on the average Na and K content of the tested plant. The application of lignite had a positive influence on the average magnesium, sodium and calcium content in the above-ground parts of the studied plant. In the non-amended treatments (without reactive materials, the increasing rates of chromium (VI had an explicitly positive effect on the content of phosphorous and sodium in Indian mustard.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9), also...

  15. Determination of sulfur content in fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daucik, P.; Zidek, Z.; Kalab, P.

    1998-01-01

    The sulfur content in fuels, Diesel fuels, and in the solutions of dibutylsulfide in a white oil was determined by various methods. The results obtained by elemental analysis have shown that the method is not advisable for the determination of sulfur in fuels. A good agreement was found by comparing the results in the determination of the sulfur by Grote-Krekeler's and Hermann-Moritz's methods and by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. The last method is the modern, comfortable, and timesaving method enabling the fast and precise determination of sulfur contents in the various types of samples. (authors)

  16. The significance of elemental sulfur dissolution in liquid electrolyte lithium sulfur batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harks, Peter Paul R.M.L.; Robledo, Carla B.; Verhallen, Tomas W.; Notten, Peter H.L.; Mulder, Fokko M.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that the dissolution of elemental sulfur into, and its diffusion through, the electrolyte allows cycling of lithium–sulfur batteries in which the sulfur is initially far removed and electrically insulated from the current collector. These findings help to understand why liquid

  17. Effect of Soil Salinity, Type and Amount of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Biochemical Properties of Mustard (Brassica rapa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tandisseh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil salinity is a major limiting factor in agricultural development within Iran. Nitrogen is the most important nutrient that its uptake is limited over other elements under saline conditions due to decrease in the permeability of plant roots, soil microbial activity and mineralization of organic compounds and nitrate uptake by high concentrations of chloride anions in the root zone of the plant. Mustard plant has a good compatibility to weather conditions and since there is an extreme need of vegetable oilseed in our country and also wide extent of saline soils in Iran, this study was conducted to determine the best type and amount of nitrogen fertilizers between calcium nitrate and ammonium sulfate under saline conditions. Materials and Methods A greenhouse experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design (factorial with three replications in February 2012 in the Research greenhouse of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The treatments were consisted of two types of nitrogen fertilizer (calcium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, each with three levels of N (40, 80 and 120 mg per kg of soil in three levels of soil salinity (C0= control, C1= 5 and C2= 10dS m-1. Experimental soil (control collected from agricultural experimental station was leached by salt solutions containing salts of calcium chloride, magnesium chloride and sodium sulfate with specified concentrations and ratios during 50 days to reach the similar salt concentrations of leached water consisting the desired levels of salinity. The seeds of mustard were planted at a depth of one centimeter in soil of each pot and were irrigated with tap water to field capacity (by weight. Plants were harvested after 5 months and plant fresh and dry weights and nitrogen concentration and uptake of plant were measured by the Kjeldahl method. Irrigation water and physical and chemical properties of soil before and after harvest were determined. Data obtained were analyzed using

  18. 28-homobrassinolide Protects Photosynthetic Machinery in Indian mustard Under High Temperature Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi Fariduddin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available High temperature is a serious threat to crop production. Brassinosteroids (BRs, a group of plant steroidal hormones, can reduce effects of abiotic stresses. The present study was aimed to study the potency of brassinosteroids on high temperature induced changes in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. for effects on growth, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, photosystem II, antioxidant system and proline. Surface sterilized seeds of Indian mustard were sown in pots, grown for 21 days and treated with double distilled water or 0.01 µM of 28-homobrassinolide. Treated plants, after 24 h, were exposed to 30°C or 40°C for 48 h. One set of plants were kept at ambient temperature, 25°C, as the control. Plants were harvested at 30 days stage of growth to assess the various parameters. Plants exposed to 40°C had a decline in growth, leaf water potential, chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate, and activities of carbonic anhydrase (E.C.4.2.1.1 and nitrate reductase (E.C.1.6.1.1. The 28-homobrassinolide alone improved growth and photosynthesis responses along with various enzymes activities. Treatment of plants with HBL prior to exposure to 40°C, partially reduced damage and completely controlled damage when exposure was to 30°C. Levels of the antioxidative enzymes catalase (E.C.1.11.1.6, peroxidase (E.C.1.11.1.7, and superoxide dismutase (E.C.1.15.1.1, and the level of proline increased in response to 30 or 40°C and were further enhanced in the presence of 28-homobrassinolide. Plants grown under high temperature had increased levels of H2O2; application of HBL before temperature treatment decreased H2O2 content compared to the control. Elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes and proline might be responsible for conferring tolerance to high temperature stress in Indian mustard and overcome the loss of productivity of the crop.

  19. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  20. Graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres with ultra-high sulfur loading for high energy density lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ya; Guo, Jinxin; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@zjnu.cn; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui, E-mail: gaohuidu@zjnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite with 91 wt% S is prepared. • It shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for Li–S cell. • The PVP coating and conductive graphene minimize polysulfides dissolution. • The flexible coatings with void space accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur. - Abstract: Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery with high theoretical energy density is one of the most promising energy storage systems for electric vehicles and intermittent renewable energy. However, due to the poor conductivity of the active material, considerable weight of the electrode is occupied by the conductive additives. Here we report a graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite (S-nanosphere@G) with sulfur content up to 91 wt% as the high energy density cathode material for Li–S battery. The sulfur nanospheres with diameter of 400–500 nm are synthesized through a solution-based approach with the existence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Then the sulfur nanospheres are uniformly wrapped by conductive graphene sheets through the electrostatic interaction between graphene oxide and PVP, followed by reducing of graphene oxide with hydrazine. The design of graphene wrapped sulfur nanoarchitecture provides flexible conductive graphene coating with void space to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur and to minimize polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the S-nanosphere@G nanocomposite with 91 wt% sulfur shows a reversible initial capacity of 970 mA h g{sup −1} and an average columbic efficiency > 96% over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. Taking the total mass of electrode into account, the S-nanosphere@G composite is a promising cathode material for high energy density Li–S batteries.

  1. Effects of air pollution on crops. I. Effects of gaseous sulfur dioxide and ozone on the occurrence of symptoms of injuries on vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masahara, O; Mega, K

    1974-06-01

    In order to obtain information on plant injuries due to air pollution to utilize susceptible plants as biological indicators of air pollution, potted plants such as chard, spinach, Chinese cabbage, and Japanese radish or cut plants such as Welsh onion were exposed in a glass house to sulfur dioxide at 0.4 ppM continuously for a week or to ozone for 6 hr at 0.13, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 ppM. The symptoms due to sulfur dioxide appeared first as peripheral and interveinal necrosis, followed by dehydration. The period of exposure required for the appearance of injuries depended mainly on the vegetable species and ranged from 1 day for potted herb mustard to more than a week for maize. A variety of cabbage did not show any injury after 1 week of continuous exposure to sulfur dioxide. The symptoms due to ozone appeared on the veinal or interveinal parts of leaves and were white to light brown in color on cruciferous vegetables and onions. Brown spots appeared on cucumber, and brown, reddish-purple, or dark purple lesions appeared on burdock, rice, and kidney bean. Damage was most severe on cucumbers occurring even at 0.13 ppM. The environmental conditions before and after the exposure to these gases affected the appearance of the symptoms.

  2. Method for Derivatization and Detection of Chemical Weapons Convention Related Sulfur Chlorides via Electrophilic Addition with 3-Hexyne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, D Raghavender; Pardasani, Deepak; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2015-07-07

    Sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2) and sulfur dichloride (SCl2) are important precursors of the extremely toxic chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard and classified, respectively, into schedule 3.B.12 and 3.B.13 of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Hence, their detection and identification is of vital importance for verification of CWC. These chemicals are difficult to detect directly using chromatographic techniques as they decompose and do not elute. Until now, the use of gas chromatographic approaches to follow the derivatized sulfur chlorides is not reported in the literature. The electrophilic addition reaction of sulfur monochloride and sulfur dichloride toward 3-hexyne was explored for the development of a novel derivatization protocol, and the products were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. Among various unsaturated reagents like alkenes and alkynes, symmetrical alkyne 3-hexyne was optimized to be the suitable derivatizing agent for these analytes. Acetonitrile was found to be the suitable solvent for the derivatization reaction. The sample preparation protocol for the identification of these analytes from hexane spiked with petrol matrix was also optimized. Liquid-liquid extraction followed by derivatization was employed for the identification of these analytes from petrol matrix. Under the established conditions, the detection and quantification limits are 2.6 μg/mL, 8.6 μg/mL for S2Cl2 and 2.3 μg/mL, 7.7 μg/mL for SCl2, respectively, in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The calibration curve had a linear relationship with y = 0.022x - 0.331 and r(2) = 0.992 for the working range of 10 to 500 μg/mL for S2Cl2 and y = 0.007x - 0.064 and r(2) = 0.991 for the working range of 10 to 100 μg/mL for SCl2, respectively. The intraday RSDs were between 4.80 to 6.41%, 2.73 to 6.44% and interday RSDs were between 2.20 to 7.25% and 2.34 to 5.95% for S2Cl2 and SCl2, respectively.

  3. Sulfur-carbon nanocomposites and their application as cathode materials in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J.; Howe, Jane Y.

    2017-08-01

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to a sulfur-carbon composite material comprising: (i) a bimodal porous carbon component containing therein a first mode of pores which are mesopores, and a second mode of pores which are micropores; and (ii) elemental sulfur contained in at least a portion of said micropores. The invention is also directed to the aforesaid sulfur-carbon composite as a layer on a current collector material; a lithium ion battery containing the sulfur-carbon composite in a cathode therein; as well as a method for preparing the sulfur-composite material.

  4. Response of Aspergillus niger Inoculated on Tomatoes Exposed to Vapor Phase Mustard Essential Oil for Short or Long Periods and Sensory Evaluation of Treated Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena Aguilar-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of mustard essential oil (EO in vapor phase against Aspergillus niger was evaluated in vitro and in vivo (in tomatoes. Mold response in tomatoes exposed for short or long periods to selected concentrations of mustard EO was also evaluated. Furthermore, a sensory evaluation was also performed among treated tomatoes and compared with nontreated ones. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for the studied EO was determined by the inverted Petri dish method. MIC for the in vitro and in vivo tests for mustard EO was of 3.08 μL/Lair. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrate the effectiveness of vapors of mustard EO against A. niger. The studied EO contains highly volatile organic compounds with strong inhibitory effects, even when applied for short periods, and can consequently be considered a good alternative to traditional synthetic antimicrobials without detriment of selected sensory attributes.

  5. Mutation induction, evaluation and utilization for development of high yielding varieties in Indian mustard and sunflower: an overview of BARC work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambhulkar, S.J.; Shitre, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Mutation breeding programme in Indian mustard and sunflower at BARC has resulted into the development of wide spectrum of mutations for seed coat colour, chlorophyll, plant height, maturity, flower morphology, seed weight and oil content. In Indian mustard, TM1 and TM50 are high yielding yellow seed coat mutants, which were exploited in hybridisation to develop bold, yellow seed coat and high yielding genotypes. Light green leaf and variegated leaf are novel mutation in mustard. Putative mutants for drought tolerance have been isolated. Variability for zero erucic acid and zero glucosinolates genotypes have been developed in B. napus and B. juncea. In sunflower, high yielding black seed coat mutant were isolated. Extreme dwarf measuring only 11 cm is novel. Three high yielding varieties namely TM2, TM4, and TPM1 in mustard and one i.e.TAS82 in sunflower have been released for cultivation in collaboration with state agricultural universities. (author)

  6. Peatland Acidobacteria with a dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bela; Pelikan, Claus; Herbold, Craig W; Köstlbacher, Stephan; Albertsen, Mads; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Huemer, Martin; Nielsen, Per H; Rattei, Thomas; Stingl, Ulrich; Tringe, Susannah G; Trojan, Daniela; Wentrup, Cecilia; Woebken, Dagmar; Pester, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2018-02-23

    Sulfur-cycling microorganisms impact organic matter decomposition in wetlands and consequently greenhouse gas emissions from these globally relevant environments. However, their identities and physiological properties are largely unknown. By applying a functional metagenomics approach to an acidic peatland, we recovered draft genomes of seven novel Acidobacteria species with the potential for dissimilatory sulfite (dsrAB, dsrC, dsrD, dsrN, dsrT, dsrMKJOP) or sulfate respiration (sat, aprBA, qmoABC plus dsr genes). Surprisingly, the genomes also encoded DsrL, which so far was only found in sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. Metatranscriptome analysis demonstrated expression of acidobacterial sulfur-metabolism genes in native peat soil and their upregulation in diverse anoxic microcosms. This indicated an active sulfate respiration pathway, which, however, might also operate in reverse for dissimilatory sulfur oxidation or disproportionation as proposed for the sulfur-oxidizing Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus. Acidobacteria that only harbored genes for sulfite reduction additionally encoded enzymes that liberate sulfite from organosulfonates, which suggested organic sulfur compounds as complementary energy sources. Further metabolic potentials included polysaccharide hydrolysis and sugar utilization, aerobic respiration, several fermentative capabilities, and hydrogen oxidation. Our findings extend both, the known physiological and genetic properties of Acidobacteria and the known taxonomic diversity of microorganisms with a DsrAB-based sulfur metabolism, and highlight new fundamental niches for facultative anaerobic Acidobacteria in wetlands based on exploitation of inorganic and organic sulfur molecules for energy conservation.

  7. Comparative Genomics of Green Sulfur Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Davenport, C; Tümmler, B

    2010-01-01

    Eleven completely sequenced Chlorobi genomes were compared in oligonucleotide usage, gene contents, and synteny. The green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are equipped with a core genome that sustains their anoxygenic phototrophic lifestyle by photosynthesis, sulfur oxidation, and CO(2) fixation. Whole...... weight of 10(6), and are probably instrumental for the bacteria to generate their own intimate (micro)environment....

  8. Halophilic and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.; Robertson, L.A.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muntyan, M.S.; Muyzer, G.; Rosenberg, E.; DeLong, F.; Delong, E.; Lory, S.; Stackebrandt, E.; Thompson, F.

    2013-01-01

    Chemotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) represent an important functional group of microorganisms responsible for the dark oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds generated by sulfidogens. Until recently, only a single genus of halophilic SOB (Halothiobacillus) has been described, and nothing was

  9. Stability of sulfur slopes on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, G. D.; Carr, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical properties of elemental sulfur are such that the upper crust of Io cannot be primarily sulfur. For heat flows in the range 100-1000 ergs/sq cm sec sulfur becomes ductile within several hundred meters of the surface and would prevent the formation of calderas with depths greater than this. However, the one caldera for which precise depth data are available is 2 km deep, and this value may be typical. A study of the mechanical equilibrium of simple slopes shows that the depth to the zone of rapid ductile flow strongly controls the maximum heights for sulfur slopes. Sulfur scarps with heights greater than 1 km will fail for all heat flows greater than 180 ergs/sq cm sec and slope angles greater than 22.5 deg. The observed relief on Io is inconsistent with that anticipated for a predominantly sulfur crust. However, a silicate crust with several percent sulfur included satisfies both the mechanical constraints and the observed presence of sulfur on Io.

  10. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide and su...

  11. Multiple-heteroatom-containing sulfur compounds in a high sulfur coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, R.E.; Neill, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis of a high sulfur coal has been combined with high resolution mass spectrometry yielding information on aromatic sulfur compounds containing an additional heteroatom. Sulfur emission from coal utilization is a critical problem and in order to devise efficient methods for removing organic sulfur, it is important to know what types of molecules contain sulfur. A high sulfur Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal (Argonne Premium Coal Sample No. 3) was pyrolyzed on a platinum grid using a quartz probe inserted into a modified all glass heated inlet system and the products characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). A significant number of products were observed which contained both sulfur and an additional heteroatom. In some cases two additional heteroatoms were observed. These results are compared to those found in coal extracts and liquefaction products

  12. Sulfur Removal by Adding Iron During the Digestion Process of High-sulfur Bauxite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanwei, Liu; Hengwei, Yan; Wenhui, Ma; Keqiang, Xie; Dunyong, Li; Licong, Zheng; Pengfei, Li

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to sulfur removal by adding iron during the digestion process. Iron can react with high-valence sulfur (S2O3 2-, SO3 2-, SO4 2-) to generate S2- at digestion temperature, and then S2- enter red mud in the form of Na3FeS3 to be removed. As iron dosage increases, high-valence sulfur concentration decreases, but the concentration of S2- increases; sulfur digestion rate decreases while sulfur content in red mud markedly increases; the alumina digestion rate, conversely, remains fairly stable. So sulfur can be removed completely by adding iron in digestion process, which provide a theoretical basis for the effective removal of sulfur in alumina production process.

  13. Effect of seed treatment with milk powder and mustard flour in control of common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in wheat and stem smut (Urocystis occulta) in rye

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders; Kristensen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    In field trials mustard flour was able to control seed borne infection by common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in wheat without decreasing the germination vigour of the treated seeds. Full control of common bunt by coating the seeds with milk powder could only be achieved at doses which reduced germination vigour of the seeds. Mustard flour can be recommended as a seed treatment in organic agriculture while a treatment based on milk powder should be developed in combination with biological control....

  14. Patterns of cross-sensitivity in the responses of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to selected nitrosoureas and nitrogen mustards.

    OpenAIRE

    Reeve, J. G.; Wright, K. A.; Workman, P.

    1984-01-01

    The response of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to melphalan treatment is independent of cell ploidy, whereas a clear relationship exists between ploidy and cell sensitivity to CCNU treatment. In the present study RIF-1 clones have been exposed to nitrogen mustard, aniline mustard and chlorambucil, and to nitrosoureas BCNU, MeCCNU and chlorozotocin, in order to evaluate whether or not the different physiochemical and biological activities of these agents would affe...

  15. Yellow mustard bran attenuates glycaemic response of a semi-solid food in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Aron M; Thondre, Pariyarath S; Rosenthal, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    In a randomized, repeated-measures design, the glycaemic response and satiety ratings of a potato and leek soup were compared with and without the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran. Ten healthy, non-smoking, moderately active male subjects (mean age of 21.1 years and mean body mass index 23.2 kg/m(2)) were recruited to the study. Capillary blood glucose and satiety were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, postprandial of each food. The incremental area under the blood glucose curve, blood glucose at each time point and satiety rating were calculated and compared via paired t-test. Mean blood glucose values at 15, 30 and 90 min (p soup.

  16. Induced mutagenesis for the development of high yielding varieties in mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.L.; Rahman, A.

    1988-01-01

    Variation for resistance to Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. was induced in the oleiferous Brassica campestris cultivar yellow sarson, 'YS 52' using gamma rays. Variations were identified and isolated from the M 2 population. Screening in the subsequent generations (M 3 -M 4 ) confirmed the varying degrees of field resistance of the mutants. A total of 8 mutants of mustard developed by gamma irradiation was compared with the parental line and a released variety 'Sampad' as a check. Maximum plant height, highest number of pods and primary branches/plant were recorded in mutant '17-5-83'. The mutants '17-5-83' and '70-7-82' gave 45 and 21 per cent more grain yield respectively than the parent cultivar 'YS 52'. The mutant '17-5-83' appeared resistant while the mutants '70-7-82' and '53-11-82' were found to be moderately resistant against the disease. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

  17. Mono- and Di-Alkylation Processes of DNA Bases by Nitrogen Mustard Mechlorethamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Olatz; de Cózar, Abel; Cossío, Fernando P

    2017-12-06

    The reactivity of nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine (mec) with purine bases towards formation of mono- (G-mec and A-mec) and dialkylated (AA-mec, GG-mec and AG-mec) adducts has been studied using density functional theory (DFT). To gain a complete overview of DNA-alkylation processes, direct chloride substitution and formation through activated aziridinium species were considered as possible reaction paths for adduct formation. Our results confirm that DNA alkylation by mec occurs via aziridine intermediates instead of direct substitution. Consideration of explicit water molecules in conjunction with polarizable continuum model (PCM) was shown as an adequate computational method for a proper representation of the system. Moreover, Runge-Kutta numerical kinetic simulations including the possible bisadducts have been performed. These simulations predicted a product ratio of 83:17 of GG-mec and AG-mec diadducts, respectively. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. evaluation of best planting time of mustard (brassica juncea) strains in southern punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Hussain, G.; Hussain, M.

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the proper planting time of newly evolved mustard (Brassica juncea) strains at Regional Agriculture Research Institute, Bahawalpur during the year 2000-2002. The study included 4 planting dates from 1st October to November 15th and three strains i.e. BRS-2 and BRS-10 and KH- 74 along with check RL-18. The 1st fortnight of October proved to be the best sowing time. KH-74 and BRS-2 gave significantly higher yield in wide range of sown period i.e. 1st October to 15th November. The highest grain yield of 2435 and 2341 Kgs, ha were obtained when crop was planted on 1st October and 15th October respectively. (author)

  19. Genotypic variation in phytoremediation potential of Indian mustard exposed to nickel stress: a hydroponic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohd Kafeel Ahmad; Ahmad, Altaf; Umar, Shahid; Zia, Munir Hussain; Iqbal, Muhammad; Owens, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Ten Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) genotypes were screened for their nickel (Ni) phytoremediation potential under controlled environmental conditions. All ten genotypes were grown hydroponically in aqueous solution containing Ni concentrations (as nickel chloride) ranging from 0 to 50 μM and changes in plant growth, biomass and total Ni uptake were evaluated. Of the ten genotypes (viz. Agrini, BTO, Kranti, Pusa Basant, Pusa Jai Kisan, Pusa Bahar, Pusa Bold, Vardhan, Varuna, and Vaibhav), Pusa Jai Kisan was the most Ni tolerant genotype accumulating up to 1.7 μg Ni g(-1) dry weight (DW) in its aerial parts. Thus Pusa Jai Kisan had the greatest potential to become a viable candidate in the development of practical phytoremediation technologies for Ni contaminated sites.

  20. The chemical toxicity of cesium in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Jin-long; Tao, Zong-ya; Fu, Qian; Han, Na; Wu, Guo; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Hong; Luo, Xue-gang

    2016-01-01

    To distinguish between the radiological and chemical effects of radiocesium, we study the chemical toxicity of cesium in the seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). In this study, the experiment was designed in two factors and five levels random block design to investigate the interaction effects of Cs and K. Results showed that excessive Cs was one of the main factors influence the growth of Brassica juncea seedlings. And the toxicity of Cs in Brassica juncea is likely to be caused by Cs interacts with K-binding sites in essential K-dependent protein, either competes with K for essential biochemical functions, causing intracellular metabolic disturbance. To test the hypothesis that the toxicity of Cs might cause intracellular metabolic disturbance, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based Illumina paired-end Solexa sequencing platform was employed to analysis the changes in gene expression, and understand the key genes in B. juncea seedlings responding to the toxicity of Cs. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 2032 DEGs that play significant roles in the response to the toxicity of Cs were identified. Further analysis showed that excessive Cs is disturbance the auxin signal transduction pathway, and inhibited the indoleacetic acid-induced protein (AUX/IAA) genes expression eventually lead the seedlings growth and development be inhibited. The results suggest that disturbances to tryptophan metabolism might be linked to changes in growth. - Highlights: • Analyze the chemical toxicity of cesium in seedlings of Indian mustard. • Distinguish between the radiological and chemical effects of radiocesium. • 2032 DEGs that play significant roles in the response to Cs toxicity were identified. • Excessive Cs is disturbance the auxin signal transduction pathway.

  1. Floral and Seed Variability Patterns among Ethiopian Mustard (B. carinata A. Braun of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniji, OT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In East Africa, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun is cultivated primarily for its leaves, but in Ethiopia preference is high for oil in the seed. Dual purpose importance of the seeds for planting and for oil suggests the need to improve seed production efficiency through understanding variation pattern for floral morphology and seed characters. We investigated genetic diversity and correlations for floral and seed characteristics among 14 accessions of Ethiopian mustard to improve seed set and yield. Field trials were conducted during 2008 and 2009; flowers were examined for short stamen height, long stamen height, pistil height, and silliqua for seed weight, seeds/silliqua and silliqua/plant. Results were largely consistent between years, indicating that the variation measured was mainly controlled by genetic factors. High genetic variation for seed characters and reproductive phenology among the accessions was noted. The number of days to appearance of flowers showed high discriminatory ability among the accessions. A wide continuous variation was observed among accessions for anther-stigma separation. Accessions 1, 3 and 14 were identified as early flowering. A significant and positive correlation coefficient between short stamen height and seed weight indicated a substantial complementation among these characters for seed yield improvement. The short stamen height is a good indicator for selection in favour of seed commercialization and indices for selection of pollen parent for seed yield improvement. Accessions 5, 7, 14, 16 and 22 are best for multiple characters and are recommended for seed production for any of the seasons in Arusha, Tanzania.

  2. Management of textile wastewater for improving growth and yield of field mustard (Brassica campestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Aziz, Muhammad Zahir; Komal, Aqleema; Naveed, Muhammad

    2017-09-02

    Disposal of industrial wastewater is a current issue of urbanization. However, this problem can be sorted out by using wastewater as an alternate source of irrigation after the addition of some amendment. In this way, the problem of disposal of wastewater not only will be resolved but also scarcity of irrigation water can be kept off in the future. The current research study was performed to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of wastewater along with canal water for enhancing growth and yield of field mustard. Plants were irrigated with different mixtures of canal water and wastewater (75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 00:100) in addition to canal water as control. The results revealed that application of 50:50% waste and canal water improved plant height, the number of pods plant -1 , pod length, root length, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, 100 grain weight, grain and biomass yield plant -1 , and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration in grain and straw up to 16%, 15%, 17%, 29%, 15%, 56%, 25%, 41%, 35%, 20%, 52%, 45%, 20%, 44%, and 42%, respectively, over positive control treatment. While, nutrient uptakes and agronomic efficiency of fertilizers also improved by the application of 50:50% canal and wastewater compared to positive control treatment. Furthermore, the concentration of heavy metals, predominantly Cr, Cu, Cd, and Pb, was reduced in grains by application of 50% canal water and 50% wastewater. The outcomes suggest that wastewater utilization along with canal water mixing might be an effective approach for enhancing growth and yield of field mustard.

  3. Impact of mixed low-molecular-weight organic acids on uranium accumulation and distribution in a variant of mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fangfang Qi; Dingna Wang; Lijian Ma; Yongdong Jin; Liang Du; Dong Zhang; Chuanqin Xia; Sichuan University, Chengdu

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a mixture of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) composed of CA/MA/OA/LA with a molar ratio of 2.5:2.31:1.15:0.044 on uranium (U) accumulation and distribution in mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida) was studied in this paper in order to understand the mechanism of rhizosphere-exudation assisted phytoremediation by hydroponic and pot culture experiments. The impact of the mixture of LWMOAs (Mix) on U accumulation showed that in hydroponic conditions Mix could enhance U translocation from root-to-shoot in mustard, but inhibit U uptake in root. In pot experiments, Mix enhanced both root and shoot U accumulation in mustard. The time-dependent kinetics of U uptake in mustard on Mix treatment showed that U content in plant shoots and roots increased with time increasing, and the steady state conditions were obtained at the 8th and 5th day with the U content of 1,528 and 2,300 mg/kg, respectively. Transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis for mustard roots showed that U was mainly observed on cell membrane of mustard roots on Mix treatment. This study would provide new insights for the mixture of LWMOAs-assisted phytoremediation of U-contaminated soil. (author)

  4. Sulfur isotope studies of biogenic sulfur emissions at Wallops Island, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchcock, D.R.; Black, M.S.; Herbst, R.P.

    1978-03-01

    This research attempted to determine whether it is possible to measure the stable sulfur isotope distributions of atmospheric particulate and gaseous sulphur, and to use this information together with measurements of the ambient levels of sulfur gases and particulate sulfate and sodium in testing certain hypotheses. Sulfur dioxide and particulate sulfur samples were collected at a coastal marine location and their delta (34)S values were determined. These data were used together with sodium concentrations to determine the presence of biogenic sulfur and the identity of the biological processes producing it. Excess (non-seasalt) sulfate levels ranged from 2 to 26 micrograms/cu m and SO2 from 1 to 9 ppb. Analyses of air mass origins and lead concentrations indicated that some anthropogenic contaminants were present on all days, but the isotope data revealed that most of the atmospheric sulfur originated locally from the metabolism of bacterial sulfate reducers on all days, and that the atmospheric reactions leading to the production of sulfate from this biogenic sulfur source are extremely rapid. Delta 34 S values of atmospheric sulfur dioxide correlated well with those of excess sulfate, and implied little or no sulfur isotope fractionation during the oxidation of sulfur gases to sulfate

  5. Sulfur nanocrystals anchored graphene composite with highly improved electrochemical performance for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Zimin; Wang, Xiuli; Zhao, Xuyang; Tu, Jiangping; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui

    2014-12-01

    Two kinds of graphene-sulfur composites with 50 wt% of sulfur are prepared using hydrothermal method and thermal mixing, respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectra mapping show that sulfur nanocrystals with size of ∼5 nm dispersed on graphene sheets homogeneously for the sample prepared by hydrothermal method (NanoS@G). While for the thermal mixed graphene-sulfur composite (S-G mixture), sulfur shows larger and uneven size (50-200 nm). X-ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS) reveals the strong chemical bonding between the sulfur nanocrystals and graphene. Comparing with the S-G mixture, the NanoS@G composite shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. The NanoS@G composite delivers an initial capacity of 1400 mAh g-1 with the sulfur utilization of 83.7% at a current density of 335 mA g-1. The capacity keeps above 720 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles. The strong adherence of the sulfur nanocrystals on graphene immobilizes sulfur and polysulfides species and suppressed the "shuttle effect", resulting higher coulombic efficiency and better capacity retention. Electrochemical impedance also suggests that the strong bonding enabled rapid electronic/ionic transport and improved electrochemical kinetics, therefore good rate capability is obtained. These results demonstrate that the NanoS@G composite is a very promising candidate for high-performance Li-S batteries.

  6. Sulfur removal from low-sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel by metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, G.; Haemmerle, M.; Moos, R. [Functional Materials, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany); Malkowsky, I.M.; Kiener, C. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Achmann, S.

    2010-02-15

    Several materials in the class of metal-organic frameworks (MOF) were investigated to determine their sorption characteristics for sulfur compounds from fuels. The materials were tested using different model oils and common fuels such as low-sulfur gasoline or diesel fuel at room temperature and ambient pressure. Thiophene and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) were chosen as model substances. Total-sulfur concentrations in the model oils ranged from 30 mg/kg (S from thiophene) to 9 mg/kg (S from tetrahydrothiophene) as determined by elementary analysis. Initial sulfur contents of 8 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg were identified for low-sulfur gasoline and for diesel fuel, respectively, by analysis of the common liquid fuels. Most of the MOF materials examined were not suitable for use as sulfur adsorbers. However, a high efficiency for sulfur removal from fuels and model oils was noticed for a special copper-containing MOF (copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate, Cu-BTC-MOF). By use of this material, 78 wt % of the sulfur content was removed from thiophene containing model oils and an even higher decrease of up to 86 wt % was obtained for THT-based model oils. Moreover, the sulfur content of low-sulfur gasoline was reduced to 6.5 mg/kg, which represented a decrease of more than 22 %. The sulfur level in diesel fuel was reduced by an extent of 13 wt %. Time-resolved measurements demonstrated that the sulfur-sorption mainly occurs in the first 60 min after contact with the adsorbent, so that the total time span of the desulfurization process can be limited to 1 h. Therefore, this material seems to be highly suitable for sulfur reduction in commercial fuels in order to meet regulatory requirements and demands for automotive exhaust catalysis-systems or exhaust gas sensors. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Influence of sulfurous oxide on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J

    1872-01-01

    It has been determined that of the trees living in an atmosphere containing sulfurous oxide, the conifers suffer more injuries than ordinary foliaged trees. Experiments were conducted to find the causes of injuries and their relation in these two kinds of plants. Pine and alder were chosen as test plants. It was found that 1000 square centimeters of pine leaves had absorbed 1.6 c.c. of sulfurous oxide and the same surface area of alder leaves had accumulated 7.9 c.c. of sulfurous oxide. Experiments were also conducted to determine the effects of sulfurous oxide on transpiration in plants. Two similar twigs of a sycamore were arranged so that the water transpired could be weighed. Results indicate that the ratio between the total amount of water transpired by the leaves not acted on by the sulfurous oxide and those under its influence was 3.8:1. The author concludes that the amount of sulfurous oxide absorbed by pine leaves is smaller than that absorbed by trees with ordinary foliage for equal surfaces. Since its effect on transpiration is less in the case of pine, the cause of the greater injury to pine trees in nature must be due to the accumulation of sulfur. In trees annual leaves the damage to one year's foliage would have only an indirect influence on that of the following year.

  8. Effects of sulfur dioxide on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, G S

    1939-11-11

    A discussion is presented on the effects of sulfur dioxide on vegetation as observed at Trail, British Columbia. The investigation was carried out over a period of eight years, 1929 to 1937. The concentration of sulfur dioxide at the United States border was carefully determined throughout the crop season at a point 16 miles from the source of sulfur dioxide. Maximum and average concentrations in part per million are given. The sulfur content of vegetation was determined and was found to diminish as the distance from the smelter increased. It was determined that the sulfur content may rise to four times the normal amount without injurious effect. This is particularly so with prolonged low concentration. The effect on the soil was determined by measuring soluble sulfate, pH and exchangeable bases. The soil near the plant was affected, but this fell off rapidly with increase in distance so that eight miles from the smelter the soil was substantially normal. No effect on water supplies was found. An appreciable retardation in growth, as determined by annular rings, was noted for trees exposed to the sulfur dioxide. This effect was lost following installation of sulfur dioxide control at Trail. Conifers were found more susceptible during periods of active growth than when dormant. Also, transplanted conifers were more severly affected than native trees. Seedlings were less resistant that older trees.

  9. Viscosity of liquid sulfur under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, Hidenori; Kato, T; Funakoshi, K; Suzuki, A; Urakawa, S

    2004-01-01

    The viscosity of liquid sulfur up to 9.7 GPa and 1067 K was measured using the in situ x-ray radiography falling sphere method. The viscosity coefficients were found to range from 0.11 to 0.69 Pa s, and decreased continuously with increasing pressure under approximately constant homologous temperature conditions. The observed viscosity variation suggests that a gradual structural change occurs in liquid sulfur with pressure up to 10 GPa. The L-L' transition in liquid sulfur proposed by Brazhkin et al (1991 Phys. Lett. A 154 413) from thermobaric measurements has not been confirmed by the present viscometry

  10. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Seyed Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry re-sults can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mus-tard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxy-gen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, thera-peutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respira-tory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ulti-mately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement. There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. Key words: Lung injury; Chemical warfare; Mustard gas

  11. Effect of Soil Salinity, Type and Amount of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Biochemical Properties of Mustard (Brassica rapa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S Tandisseh; A. R Astaraei; H Emami

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Soil salinity is a major limiting factor in agricultural development within Iran. Nitrogen is the most important nutrient that its uptake is limited over other elements under saline conditions due to decrease in the permeability of plant roots, soil microbial activity and mineralization of organic compounds and nitrate uptake by high concentrations of chloride anions in the root zone of the plant. Mustard plant has a good compatibility to weather conditions and since there is...

  12. Efficacy of scalp hair decontamination following exposure to vapours of sulphur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide and methyl salicylate

    OpenAIRE

    Spiandore , Marie; Piram , Anne; Lacoste , Alexandre; Prevost , P.; Maloni , Pascal; TORRE , Franck; Asia , L.; Josse , D.; Doumenq , Pierre

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Chemical warfare agents are an actual threat and victims' decontamination is a main concern when mass exposure occurs. Skin decontamination with current protocols has been widely documented, as well as surface decontamination. However, considering hair ability to trap chemicals in vapour phase, we investigated hair decontamination after exposure to sulphur mustard simulants methyl salicylate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide. Four decontamination protocols were tested o...

  13. Insight into the loading temperature of sulfur on sulfur/carbon cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Huan; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A cost-effective chemical activation method to prepare porous carbon nanospheres. • Carbon nanospheres with bimodal microporous structure show high specific area and large micropore volume. • The S/C composite cathodes with in-situformed S−C bond exhibit high sulfur activity with a reversible capacity of 1000 mA h g −1 . • S−C bond enables well confinement on sulfur and polysulfides. - Abstract: Lithium–sulfur batteries are highly desired because of their characteristics such as high energy density. However, the applications of Li-S batteries are limited because they exist dissolution of polysulfides into electrolytes. This study reports the preparation of sulfur cathodes by using bimodal microporous (0.5 nm and 0.8 nm to 2.0 nm) carbon spheres with high specific area (1992 m 2 g −1 ) and large micropore volume (1.2 g cm −1 ), as well as the encapsulation of polysulfides via formation of carbon–sulfur bonds in a sealed vacuum glass tube at high temperature. Given that sulfur and polysulfides are well confined by the S−C bond, the shuttle effect is effectively suppressed. The prepared S/C cathodes with a sulfur loading of up to 75% demonstrate high sulfur activity with reversible capacity of 1000 mA h g −1 at the current density of 0.1 A g −1 and good cycling stability (667 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles).

  14. Graphene oxide as a sulfur immobilizer in high performance lithium/sulfur cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuegang; Cairns, Elton J.; Ji, Liwen; Rao, Mumin

    2017-06-06

    The loss of sulfur cathode material as a result of polysulfide dissolution causes significant capacity fading in rechargeable lithium/sulfur cells. Embodiments of the invention use a chemical approach to immobilize sulfur and lithium polysulfides via the reactive functional groups on graphene oxide. This approach obtains a uniform and thin (.about.tens of nanometers) sulfur coating on graphene oxide sheets by a chemical reaction-deposition strategy and a subsequent low temperature thermal treatment process. Strong interaction between graphene oxide and sulfur or polysulfides demonstrate lithium/sulfur cells with a high reversible capacity of 950-1400 mAh g.sup.-1, and stable cycling for more than 50 deep cycles at 0.1 C.

  15. Sulfurized carbon: a class of cathode materials for high performance lithium/sulfur batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng S. Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries cannot come into practical applications because of many problems such as low energy efficiency, short cycle life, and fast self-discharge. All these problems are related to the dissolution of lithium polysulfide, a series of sulfur reduction intermediates, in the liquid electrolyte, and resulting parasitic reactions with the Li anode. Covalently binding sulfur onto carbon surface is a solution to completely eliminate the dissolution of lithium polysulfide and make the Li/S battery viable for practical applications. This can be achieved by replacing elemental sulfur with sulfurized carbon as the cathode material. This article reviews the current efforts on this subject and discusses the syntheses, electrochemical properties, and prospects of the sulfurized carbon as a cathode material in the rechargeable Li/S batteries.

  16. Graphene oxide as a sulfur immobilizer in high performance lithium/sulfur cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuegang; Cairns, Elton J.; Ji, Liwen; Rao, Mumin

    2017-12-26

    The loss of sulfur cathode material as a result of polysulfide dissolution causes significant capacity fading in rechargeable lithium/sulfur cells. Embodiments of the invention use a chemical approach to immobilize sulfur and lithium polysulfides via the reactive functional groups on graphene oxide. This approach obtains a uniform and thin (.about.tens of nanometers) sulfur coating on graphene oxide sheets by a chemical reaction-deposition strategy and a subsequent low temperature thermal treatment process. Strong interaction between graphene oxide and sulfur or polysulfides demonstrate lithium/sulfur cells with a high reversible capacity of 950-1400 mAh g.sup.-1, and stable cycling for more than 50 deep cycles at 0.1 C.

  17. Sulfur-Kβ /sub emission studies on sulfur-bearing heterocycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.R.; Andermann, G.G.; Fujiwara, F.

    1986-01-01

    Sulfur-K/β /sub x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFS) has been used to study the electronic structure and bonding in sulfur-bearing heterocycles. XFS not only has the capability of experimentally measuring valence electron energies in molecular species, but can also provide intensity data which can help define the nature of the molecular orbitals defined by the electrons. This report discusses the feasibility of using XFS as an analytical tool for the determination of total and specific sulfur heterocycle content in samples. A variety of compounds were studied. These include thiophene, thiophene derivatives, tetranydrothiophene, several more complex saturated and unsaturated sulfur heterocycles, and heterocycles containing both sulfur and nitrogen. The sulfur-K/β /sub spectra were obtained using a double crystal spectrometer which provided an instrumental resolution of about 0.7 eV

  18. Transport of Cd and Zn to seeds of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) during specific stages of plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Ebbs, Stephen D

    2008-01-01

    The accumulation of excess Cd in the seeds of cereal and other crops compromises their commercial value and presents a potential risk to human health. Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] is a moderate accumulator of heavy metals such as Cd and Zn, and the seeds are consumed throughout the world, particularly in the Indian subcontinent. The study here examined the transport of Cd into Indian mustard plants and to seeds as a function of external Cd and the stage of the life cycle (vegetative growth, flowering and seed set) to identify critical developmental windows where transport from roots to seeds was the greatest. Plants were also treated simultaneously with Zn to determine if Zn fertilization mitigated the transport of Cd to seeds. Plants treated with Cd during the seed set accumulated the highest concentrations of Cd, exceeding 8 mg kg(-1) dry weight in some instances. Cadmium accumulated during vegetative growth was not highly redistributed to seeds. No effects of Zn were observed with regard to Cd redistribution to seeds. This may be because of the relatively small Zn : Cd ratios tested. However, the results suggest that if Zn fertilization is to be used to reduce the Cd accumulation in seeds of this species, that plants should be treated during the seed set stage. As the seeds of Indian mustard consistently accumulated Cd to concentrations that exceed acceptable limits for food crops, additional study of Cd redistribution in this species is warranted.

  19. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquene, L. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vandenhove, H. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)], E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.be; Tack, F.; Meers, E. [Ghent University, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baeten, J. [Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen, Department of Health-Care and Chemistry, Kleinhoefstraat 4, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Wannijn, J. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH{sub 4}-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg{sup -1} dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years.

  20. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duquene, L.; Vandenhove, H.; Tack, F.; Meers, E.; Baeten, J.; Wannijn, J.

    2009-01-01

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH 4 -citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg -1 dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years

  1. Influence of indian mustard (Brassica juncea) on rhizosphere soil solution chemistry in long-term contaminated soils: a rhizobox study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Owens, Gary; Kwon, Soon-lk

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) root exudation on soil solution properties (pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), metal solubility) in the rhizosphere using a rhizobox. Measurement was conducted following the cultivation of Indian mustard in the rhizobox filled four different types of heavy metal contaminated soils (two alkaline soils and two acidic soils). The growth of Indian mustard resulted in a significant increase (by 0.6 pH units) in rhizosphere soil solution pH of acidic soils and only a slight increase (soil solution varied considerably amongst different soils, resulting in significant changes to soil solution metals in the rhizosphere. For example, the soil solution Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations increased in the rhizosphere of alkaline soils compared to bulk soil following plant cultivation. In contrast, the soluble concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in acidic soils decreased in rhizosphere soil when compared to bulk soils. Besides the influence of pH and DOC on metal solubility, the increase of heavy metal concentration having high stability constant such as Cu and Pb resulted in a release of Cd and Zn from solid phase to liquid phase.

  2. Potassium and calcium application ameliorates growth and oxidative homeostasis in salt-stressed indian mustard (brassica juncea) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, P. Y.; Ahmad, A.; Hemant, M.; Ganie, A. H.; Iqbal, M.; Aref, I. M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) on growth and antioxidant defence system of salt-stressed Indian mustard plants was studied. Twenty-day-old Indian mustard plants grown hydroponically in Hoagland growth medium were randomly divided into five groups. To served as control and did not receive any additional K or Ca (except that present in Hoagland solution), T1 received 150 mM NaCl, T2 was given an additional doze of 6 mM K, T3 was given 5.6 mM Ca as additional doze, while as T4 received a combination of 150 mM NaCl + 6 mM K + 5.6 mM Ca. The response of the plants was studied ten days after treatment. Salt stress inhibited growth parameters including biomass, chlorophyll content, protein content and NR activity. Membrane damage was induced by the salt treatment with a concurrent increase in antioxidant defence system and proline content. Individual application of K and Ca mitigated the negative influence of the stress with the maximum alleviating potential exhibited by the combined application of these nutrients. Results obtained on real time expression of genes encoding enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, APX, CAT and GR), NR and proline supported our findings with biochemical assays. We conclude from the study that maintaining high K and Ca levels may serve as an effective means for regulating the growth and productivity of Indian mustard plants under saline conditions. (author)

  3. Augmentation of potential phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB stimulate growth of green mustard (Brasica caventis Oed. in marginal soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULIASIH

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria/PSB (Bacillus megaterium, B. pantothenticus, Chromobacterium lividum and Klebsiella aerogenes were used as biofertilizer to increase the fresh leaf production of green mustard (Brasica caventis Oed.. An experiment was conducted at green house condition. The experiment were used 18 treatments such as single isolate of potential PSB (A,B,C,D, inoculants contain two isolates of potential PSB (E,F,G,H,I,J, inoculants contain three isolates of potential PSB (K, L, M, N, inoculants contain four isolate of potential PSB (O, chemistry fertilizer (P = control 1, organic fertilizer (Q = control 2, and without fertilizer (R = control 3. The treatments were arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 5 replications. The result showed that the inoculants of potential PSB increased the fresh plant production of green mustard. The mix of four isolates of potential PSB (inoculants O was the best to increase the fresh plant production of green mustard until 32.87% than other PSB inoculants, 207.84% than control 1,217.23% than control 2, and 930.60% than control 3.

  4. Varietals resistance and susceptibility in mustard (brassica campestris l.) genotypes against aphid myzus persicae (sulzer) (homoptera: aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, G.Z.; Tofique, M.

    2009-01-01

    The exploitation of resistant cultivars is an imperative, simple, practical and flexible way to cope with insect pests incidence. Thirty genotypes of mustard (Brassica campestris L.) were tested for their resistance and susceptibility to aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) exposed under natural field conditions. Data on pest tolerance of genotypes were judged by quantitative traits such as number of aphids on each infested plant and mean dry weight of seeds per genotype. Studies observed the discrepancy in overall rates of pest invasion and seed yield contained by trailed mustard genotypes. Agati sarson (P), S-9-S-97-100/45 and S-9-S-97-100/45 were the least damaged genotypes showing their moderate resistance. Amongst other genotypes, MM-I/01-5, MM-I285 and MM-I/01-6 were the most damaged showing oversensitive response. Although the majority of genotypes were found vulnerable to pest, Agati sarson (P) and S-9-S-97-100/45 due to their lowest hypersensitive response toward aphid contamination and increased pods yield could be used for the development of essential resistance in mustard plant. A marked mode of damage inflicted by aphid on the crop was noticed and the abiotic factors contributing variations in aphid infestation levels during both growing seasons were determined. Knowledge about the host plant resistance investigated can facilitate growers to choose the most appropriate cultivars as pest control strategy. (author)

  5. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquène, L; Vandenhove, H; Tack, F; Meers, E; Baeten, J; Wannijn, J

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH4-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg(-1) dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years.

  7. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination...

  8. Study on the Influence of Sulfur Fumigation on Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the influence of different sulfur fumigation time and ... after sulfur fumigation though sulfur fumigation time and dosage were at low levels – 2 h ... Conclusion: Sulfur fumigation is not a desirable method for field processing of ...

  9. 46 CFR 151.50-21 - Sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 151.50-21 Section 151.50-21 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-21 Sulfuric acid. (a) How sulfuric acid may be carried. (1) Sulfuric acid of concentration of 77.5 percent (1.7019 specific gravity) (59.8...

  10. Efficacy of Laser Debridement With Autologous Split-Thickness Skin Grafting in Promoting Improved Wound Healing of Deep Cutaneous Sulfur Mustard Burns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graham, John

    2002-01-01

    ...) full thickness CO2 laser debridement followed by skin grafting, (2) full thickness sharp surgical tangential excision followed by skin grafting, the 'Gold Standard' used in deep thermal burns management, (3...

  11. Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase is Involved in the Repair of DNA Damage Due to Sulfur Mustard by a Mechanism Other Than DNA Ligase I Activation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhat, K. Ramachandra; Benton, Betty J; Ray, Radharaman

    2004-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) modulates several cellular functional proteins by a mechanism in which the proteins are poly-ADP-ribosylated by transferring the ADP-ribose moieties from the enzyme substrate NAD+ to the proteins...

  12. New Approaches towards the Elucidation of Epidermal-Dermal Separation in Sulfur Mustard-Exposed Human Skin and Directions for Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mol, Marijke

    2005-01-01

    .... Results of experiments with a human skin ex vivo model show that apoptosis and metalloprotease activity are key elements in HD-induced skin pathogenesis, and that intervention in these two processes...

  13. The Protective and Therapeutic Roles of Hexamethylenetetramine and N-Acetyl-Cysteine on Sulfur Mustard-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jafari

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The study findings revealed that SM induces oxidative stress in rat serum. HMT and NAC can ameliorate SM-induced oxidative stress by altering antioxidant defense system in serum. The protective effect of HMT against the toxicity of SM is higher than NAC.

  14. Anti-Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Macrolide Antibiotic Roxithromycin in Sulfur Mustard-Exposed Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao1, Radharaman Ray2, Yan Xiao3, Peter E. Barker3 and Prab, Xiugong

    2006-01-01

    .... In this study, the anti-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of a representative macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin, were tested in vitro using SM-exposed normal human small airway epithelial (SAE...

  15. Use of sulfur concrete for radioecological problems solution in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takibaev, Zh.; Belyashov, D.; Vagin, S.

    2001-01-01

    At present during intensive development of oil and gas fields in Kazakhstan a lot amount of sulfur is extracting. The problem of sulfur utilization demands its immediate solution. One of the perspective trends of sulfur utilization is use it in production of sulfur polymer concrete. It is well known, that encapsulation of low level radioactive and toxic wastes in sulfur polymer concrete and design from it radiation protection facilities have good perspectives for solution of radioecological problems. Sulfur concrete has high corrosion and radiation stability, improved mechanical and chemical properties. Unique properties of sulfur concrete allow to use it in materials ensuring protection from external irradiation

  16. Electrochemical reduction of sulfur dioxide in sulfolane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorob' ev, A.S.; Gavrilova, A.A.; Kolosnitsyn, V.S.; Nikitin, Yu.E.

    1985-09-01

    Solutions of sulfur dioxide in aproptic media are promising electrolyte oxidizing agents for chemical current sources with anodes of active metals. This work describes the electrochemical reduction of sulfur dioxide in sulfolane in a lithium halide supporting electrolyte which was investigated by the methods of voltamperometry and chronopotentiometry. The dependence of the current of the cathodic peak on the concentration of the supporting electrolyte salts, sulfur dioxide and water, was studied. On the basis of the data obtained, a hypothesis was advanced on the nature of the limiting step. The investigation showed that at low polarizing current densities, a substantial influence on the reduction of sulfur dioxide in sulfolane in a lithium halide supporting electrolyte is exerted by blockage of the electrode surface by sparingly soluble reaction products.

  17. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan; Stephan, Arul Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  18. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  19. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Stephan, Arul Manuel, E-mail: arulmanuel@gmail.com [Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR-CECRI), Karaikudi (India)

    2015-05-21

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  20. Environmental behavior and analysis of agricultural sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Corey M; Woodrow, James E; Seiber, James N

    2015-11-01

    Sulfur has been widely used for centuries as a staple for pest and disease management in agriculture. Presently, it is the largest-volume pesticide in use worldwide. This review describes the sources and recovery methods for sulfur, its allotropic forms and properties and its agricultural uses, including development and potential advantages of nanosulfur as a fungicide. Chemical and microbial reactivity, interactions in soil and water and analytical methods for determination in environmental samples and foodstuffs, including inexpensive analytical methods for sulfur residues in wine, beer and other food/beverage substrates, will be reviewed. The toxicology of sulfur towards humans and agriculturally important fungi is included, with some restrictions on use to promote safety. The review concludes with areas for which more research is warranted. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Properties of sulfur-extended asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkikh Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, increased functional reliability of asphalt concrete coatings associated with various modifying additives that improve the durability of pavements. Promising builder is a technical sulfur. Asphalt concrete, made using a complex binder consisting of petroleum bitumen and technical sulfur, were calledsSulfur-Extended Asphalt Concrete. Such asphalt concrete, due to changes in the chemical composition of particulate and bitumen, changes the intensity of the interaction at the interface have increased rates of physical and mechanical properties. There was a lack of essential knowledge concerning mechanical properties of the sulfur-bituminous concrete with such an admixture; therefore, we had carried out the necessary examination. It is revealed that a new material satisfies local regulations in terms of compressive and tensile strength, shear resistance, and internal friction.

  2. Developing porous carbon with dihydrogen phosphate groups as sulfur host for high performance lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanhui; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Junwei; Liang, Xiao; Baker, Andrew P.; Qu, Deyang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Huayu; Zhang, Xinhe

    2018-02-01

    Carbon matrix (CM) derived from biomass is low cost and easily mass produced, showing great potential as sulfur host for lithium sulfur batteries. In this paper we report on a dihydrogen phosphate modified CM (PCM-650) prepared from luffa sponge (luffa acutangula) by phosphoric acid treatment. The phosphoric acid not only increases the surface area of the PCM-650, but also introduces dihydrogen phosphate onto PCM-650 (2.28 at% P). Sulfur impregnated (63.6 wt%) PCM-650/S, in comparison with samples with less dihydrogen phosphate LPCM-650/S, shows a significant performance improvement. XPS analysis is conducted for sulfur at different stages, including sulfur (undischarged), polysulfides (discharge to 2.1 V) and short chain sulfides (discharge to 1.7 V). The results consistently show chemical shifts for S2p in PCM-650, suggesting an enhanced adsorption effect. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) calculations is used to clarify the molecular binding: carbon/sulfur (0.86 eV), carbon/Li2S (0.3 eV), CH3-O-PO3H2/sulfur (1.24 eV), and CH3-O-PO3H2/Li2S (1.81 eV). It shows that dihydrogen phosphate group can significantly enhance the binding with sulfur and sulfide, consistent with XPS results. Consequently a CM functionalised with dihydrogen phosphate shows great potential as the sulfur host in a Li-S battery.

  3. Sulfur-centered reactive intermediates derived from the oxidation of sulfur compounds of biological interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinzadeh, Z. [Lab. de Chimie Physique, UMR, Univ. Rene Descartes, Paris (France)

    2001-02-01

    Sulphur compounds play a central role in the structure and activity of many vital systems. In the living cell, sulfur constitutes an essential part of the defense against oxidative damage and is transformed into a variety of sulfur free radical species. Many studies of the chemistry of sulfur-centered radicals using pulse radiolysis and photolysis techniques to detect and measure the kinetics of these radicals have been published and reviewed. This paper discusses the present state of research on the formation and reactivity of certain sulfur-centered radicals [RS{sup .}, RSS{sup .}, RS{sup .+}, (RSSR){sup .+}] and their implications for biological systems. (author)

  4. Sulfur-centered reactive intermediates derived from the oxidation of sulfur compounds of biological interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedinzadeh, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Sulphur compounds play a central role in the structure and activity of many vital systems. In the living cell, sulfur constitutes an essential part of the defense against oxidative damage and is transformed into a variety of sulfur free radical species. Many studies of the chemistry of sulfur-centered radicals using pulse radiolysis and photolysis techniques to detect and measure the kinetics of these radicals have been published and reviewed. This paper discusses the present state of research on the formation and reactivity of certain sulfur-centered radicals [RS . , RSS . , RS .+ , (RSSR) .+ ] and their implications for biological systems. (author)

  5. Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hayato; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji; Onuki, Kaoru

    2007-01-01

    Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water, which is a unit reaction in the IS process for thermochemical hydrogen production, was studied experimentally at 323 K under iodine saturation. Quasi-equilibrium state was observed in the presence of sulfur dioxide gas at constant pressure. The composition of the poly-hydriodic acid solution formed was discussed assuming an ideal desulfurization by the reverse reaction of the Bunsen reaction. The value of HI/(HI+H 2 O) of the desulfurized solution was large at high sulfur dioxide pressure and reached the maximum of 15.7 ± 0.3 mol%. (author)

  6. Sensing sulfur oxides and other sulfur bearing pollutants with solid electrolyte pellets. I. Gas concentration cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberland, A M; Gauthier, J M

    1977-01-01

    A new sensing technique using a solid electrolyte has been demonstrated for sulfur-bearing pollutants. Based on potentiometric measurements across a pellet of potassium sulfate, this sensor allows concentrations of sulfur dioxides, sulfur trioxide, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and carbonyl sulfide in air to be measured with accuracy. Its operational concentration range at the present time is 0.1 ppM up to at least 10,000 ppM. The presence of other common pollutants such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide does not interfere with the measurement of air samples containing sulfur-bearing pollutants.

  7. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-01-20

    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  9. Plutonium oxides analysis. Sulfur potentiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Total sulfur determination (sulfur, sulfates, sulfides ...) in plutonium oxides, suitable for sulfate ion content between 0.003 percent to 0.2 percent, by dissolution in nitric hydrofluoric acid, nitrates elimination, addition of hydrochloric acid and reduction in hydrogen sulfide which is carried by an inert gas and neutralized by sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulfide is titrated with mercuric acetate by constant intensity potentiometry [fr

  10. Effect of sulfur dioxide on proteins of the vegetable organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckendorfer, P; Beran, F

    1931-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of sulfur dioxide on red clover in a controlled environment. An increase in the concentration of sulfur dioxide caused a significant decrease in the digestible protein. However, after the sulfur dioxide was discontinued, there was a decrease in the indigestible protein. The leaves showed an increase in spotting with an increase in sulfur dioxide concentration. Chemical analysis of the soil revealed a higher sulfur content in these experiments.

  11. Sulfur sources in protein supplements for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio José da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the efficiency of different sulfur sources for ruminant nutrition. The fiber digestibility and the amino acid profile were analyzed in the duodenal digesta of crossbred steers fed Brachiaria dictyoneurahay. The sources utilized were elemental sulfur (ES70S, elemental sulfur (ES98S; calcium sulfate in hydrated (HCS, CaSO4.2H2O, and anhydrous (ACS, CaSO4, forms; and ammonium sulfate (AS, (NH42SO4, keeping a nitrogen:sulfur ratio of 11:1. The iso-protein supplements had 50% of protein in the total dry matter (DM. Five Holstein × Zebu steers, which were fistulated in the rumen and abomasum, were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The different sulfur sources in the supplement did not affect any of the evaluated nutritional factors, such as intake of hay dry matter and protein supplement, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, organic matter (OM, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC, ether extract (EE, total digestible nutrients (TDN, NDFap and CP digestibility coefficients, ruminal pH, and ruminal ammonia concentration. The concentrations of amino acids available in the abomasal digesta did not differ significantly in the tested diets. The sulfur sources evaluated in the present study are suitable as supplement for cattle, and their employment may be important to avoid environmental contaminations.

  12. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked cured chicken breasts by acidified coating containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ready-to-eat meats are considered foods at high risk to cause life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes infections. This study screened 5 L. monocytogenes strains for their ability to hydrolyze sinigrin (a glucosinolate in Oriental mustard), which formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and reduced L. monocytogenes viability on inoculated vacuum-packed, cooked, cured roast chicken slices at 4 °C. Tests involved incorporation of 25-50 μl/g AITC directly or 100-250 mg/g Oriental mustard extract in 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coatings prepared using 1.5% malic or acetic acid. L. monocytogenes strains hydrolyzed 33.6%-48.4% pure sinigrin in MH broth by 21 d at 25 °C. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 100-250 mg/g mustard reduced the viability of L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria on cooked, cured roast chicken slices by 4.1 to >7.0 log10 CFU/g compared to uncoated chicken stored at 4 °C for 70 d. Coatings containing malic acid were significantly more antimicrobial than those with acetic acid. During storage for 70 d, acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 250 mg/g mustard extract reduced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers 3.8 to 5.4 log10 CFU/g on chicken slices compared to uncoated samples. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing either AITC or Oriental mustard extract at the concentrations tested had the ability to control L. monocytogenes viability and delay growth of potential spoilage bacteria on refrigerated, vacuum-packed cured roast chicken. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Acute intensive care unit management of mustard gas victims: the Turkish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ertugrul; Ortatatli, Mesut; Sezigen, Sermet; Eyison, Rusen Koray; Kenar, Levent

    2018-05-07

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is an highly toxic and vesicant chemical weapon that was used in various military conflicts several times in the history. The severity of ocular, dermal, and pulmonary symptoms that may appear following a characteristic asymptomatic period are depending on the SM concentration and exposure duration. The aim of this study is to present the clinical features and share the intensive care unit (ICU) experiences for the medical management of mustard gas victims. Thirteen Free Syrian Army soldiers near Al-Bab region of North Syria were reportedly exposed to oily blackish smoke with garlic smell due to the explosion of a trapped bomb without causing any blast or thermal effect on 26th November 2016. None of them wore any chemical protective suits or gas masks during explosion. Since they observed skin lesions including bullous formation next day, they were admitted to the Turkish Field Hospital at the Turkish - Syrian border and then evacuated to the State Hospital of Gaziantep Province, Turkey for further management. Eight victims who were very close to point of explosion suffered burning eyes, sore throat, dry cough and dyspnoea after the chemical attack. On admission to hospital, all cases had conjunctivitis, hoarseness and bullae on various body areas. Blepharospasm and opacity were found in 8 patients and 5 of them had corneal erosions and periorbital oedema. Temporary loss of vision in 4 cases lasted for 24 h. Multiple fluid-filled blisters were observed especially on the scalp, neck, arms and hands, where direct skin exposure to the agent occurred. A definitive clinical care and infection prophylaxis measures along with the burn treatment and bronchodilators for respiratory effects were applied in ICU. Two patients received granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor due to the SM-mediated bone marrow suppression on the 16th day of exposure and one of them died because of necrotic bronchial pseudomembrane obstruction resulting in cardiopulmonary

  14. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sávio, André Luiz Ventura, E-mail: savio.alv@gmail.com [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Nicioli da Silva, Glenda [UFOP – Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Escola de Farmácia, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  15. Bipyridine (2,2′-dipyridyl) potentiates Escherichia coli lethality induced by nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Alencar, T.A.M.; Wilmart-Gonçalves, T.C.; Vidal, L.S.; Fortunato, R.S.; Leitão, A.C.; Lage, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduction of Fe 2+ ensues a respiratory burst to reduce the oxidized iron pool. • Through Harber–Weiss recycling, superoxide electrons can reduce oxidized iron. • Redox imbalance sensitized repair proficient Escherichia coli to mustard lethal crosslinks. • A stronger synergism impacted survival of a superoxide dismutase-deficient strain. • Anti-cancer cocktails added of an iron chelator may impact hypoxia and genotoxicity. - Abstract: Alkylating agents are used in anti-tumor chemotherapy because they bind covalently to DNA and generate adducts that may lead to cell death. Bifunctional (HN2) and monofunctional (HN1) nitrogen are two such agents, and HN2 was the first drug successfully employed in anti-leukemia chemotherapy. Currently, HN2 is used either alone or combined with other drugs to treat Hodgkin's disease. It is well known that several crosslinking agents require metabolic activation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) to exert their lethal effects. The objective of this work was therefore to determine whether the abovementioned mustards would also require metabolic activation to exert lethal action against Escherichia coli. For this purpose, we measured survival following exposure to HN2 in E. coli strains that were deficient in nucleotide excision repair (uvrA NER mutant), base excision repair (xthA nfo nth fpg BER mutant) or superoxide dismutase (sodAB mutant) activity. We also performed the same experiments in cells pretreated with an iron chelator (2,2′-dipyridyl, DIP). The NER and BER mutants were only sensitive to HN2 treatment (survival rates similar to those of the wild-type were achieved with 5-fold lower HN2 doses). However, wild-type and sodAB strains were not sensitive to treatment with HN2. In all tested strains, survival dropped by 2.5-fold following pretreatment with DIP compared to treatment with HN2 alone. Furthermore, DIP treatment increased ROS generation in both wild type and sodAB-deficient strains. Based

  16. Bipyridine (2,2′-dipyridyl) potentiates Escherichia coli lethality induced by nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alencar, T.A.M.; Wilmart-Gonçalves, T.C.; Vidal, L.S.; Fortunato, R.S.; Leitão, A.C. [Laboratório de Radiobiologia Molecular (Brazil); Lage, C., E-mail: claudia_lage_dna@yahoo.com.br [Laboratório de Radiações em Biologia (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Reduction of Fe{sup 2+} ensues a respiratory burst to reduce the oxidized iron pool. • Through Harber–Weiss recycling, superoxide electrons can reduce oxidized iron. • Redox imbalance sensitized repair proficient Escherichia coli to mustard lethal crosslinks. • A stronger synergism impacted survival of a superoxide dismutase-deficient strain. • Anti-cancer cocktails added of an iron chelator may impact hypoxia and genotoxicity. - Abstract: Alkylating agents are used in anti-tumor chemotherapy because they bind covalently to DNA and generate adducts that may lead to cell death. Bifunctional (HN2) and monofunctional (HN1) nitrogen are two such agents, and HN2 was the first drug successfully employed in anti-leukemia chemotherapy. Currently, HN2 is used either alone or combined with other drugs to treat Hodgkin's disease. It is well known that several crosslinking agents require metabolic activation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) to exert their lethal effects. The objective of this work was therefore to determine whether the abovementioned mustards would also require metabolic activation to exert lethal action against Escherichia coli. For this purpose, we measured survival following exposure to HN2 in E. coli strains that were deficient in nucleotide excision repair (uvrA NER mutant), base excision repair (xthA nfo nth fpg BER mutant) or superoxide dismutase (sodAB mutant) activity. We also performed the same experiments in cells pretreated with an iron chelator (2,2′-dipyridyl, DIP). The NER and BER mutants were only sensitive to HN2 treatment (survival rates similar to those of the wild-type were achieved with 5-fold lower HN2 doses). However, wild-type and sodAB strains were not sensitive to treatment with HN2. In all tested strains, survival dropped by 2.5-fold following pretreatment with DIP compared to treatment with HN2 alone. Furthermore, DIP treatment increased ROS generation in both wild type and sodAB-deficient strains

  17. Overlapping toxic effect of long term thallium exposure on white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) photosynthetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Radosław; Sadowska, Monika; Kowalewska, Łucja; Abratowska, Agnieszka; Kalaji, Hazem M; Mostowska, Agnieszka; Garstka, Maciej; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2016-09-02

    Heavy metal exposure affect plant productivity by interfering, directly and indirectly, with photosynthetic reactions. The toxic effect of heavy metals on photosynthetic reactions has been reported in wide-ranging studies, however there is paucity of data in the literature concerning thallium (Tl) toxicity. Thallium is ubiquitous natural trace element and is considered the most toxic of heavy metals; however, some plant species, such as white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) are able to accumulate thallium at very high concentrations. In this study we identified the main sites of the photosynthetic process inhibited either directly or indirectly by thallium, and elucidated possible detoxification mechanisms in S. alba. We studied the toxicity of thallium in white mustard (S. alba) growing plants and demonstrated that tolerance of plants to thallium (the root test) decreased with the increasing Tl(I) ions concentration in culture media. The root growth of plants exposed to Tl at 100 μg L(-1) for 4 weeks was similar to that in control plants, while in plants grown with Tl at 1,000 μg L(-1) root growth was strongly inhibited. In leaves, toxic effect became gradually visible in response to increasing concentration of Tl (100 - 1,000 μg L(-1)) with discoloration spreading around main vascular bundles of the leaf blade; whereas leaf margins remained green. Subsequent structural analyses using chlorophyll fluorescence, microscopy, and pigment and protein analysis have revealed different effects of varying Tl concentrations on leaf tissue. At lower concentration partial rearrangement of the photosynthetic complexes was observed without significant changes in the chloroplast structure and the pigment and protein levels. At higher concentrations, the decrease of PSI and PSII quantum yields and massive oxidation of pigments was observed in discolored leaf areas, which contained high amount of Tl. Substantial decline of the photosystem core proteins and disorder of the

  18. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sávio, André Luiz Ventura; Nicioli da Silva, Glenda; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  19. Survival and Transfer of Murine Norovirus within a Hydroponic System during Kale and Mustard Microgreen Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Hydroponically grown microgreens are gaining in popularity, but there is a lack of information pertaining to their microbiological safety. The potential risks associated with virus contamination of crops within a hydroponic system have not been studied to date. Here a human norovirus (huNoV) surrogate (murine norovirus [MNV]) was evaluated for its ability to become internalized from roots to edible tissues of microgreens. Subsequently, virus survival in recirculated water without adequate disinfection was assessed. Kale and mustard seeds were grown on hydroponic pads (for 7 days with harvest at days 8 to 12), edible tissues (10 g) were cut 1 cm above the pads, and corresponding pieces (4 cm by 4 cm) of pads containing only roots were collected separately. Samples were collected from a newly contaminated system (recirculated water inoculated with ∼3 log PFU/ml MNV on day 8) and from a previously contaminated system. (A contaminated system without adequate disinfection or further inoculation was used for production of another set of microgreens.) Viral titers and RNA copies were quantified by plaque assay and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The behaviors of MNV in kale and mustard microgreens were similar (P > 0.05). MNV was detected in edible tissues and roots after 2 h postinoculation, and the levels were generally stable during the first 12 h. Relatively low levels (∼2.5 to ∼1.5 log PFU/sample of both edible tissues and roots) of infectious viruses were found with a decreasing trend over time from harvest days 8 to 12. However, the levels of viral RNA present were higher and consistently stable (∼4.0 to ∼5.5 log copies/sample). Recirculated water maintained relatively high levels of infectious MNV over the period of harvest, from 3.54 to 2.73 log PFU/ml. Importantly, cross-contamination occurred easily; MNV remained infectious in previously contaminated hydroponic systems for up to 12 days (2.26 to 1.00 PFU/ml), and MNV was detected in both

  20. Survival and Transfer of Murine Norovirus within a Hydroponic System during Kale and Mustard Microgreen Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2016-01-15

    Hydroponically grown microgreens are gaining in popularity, but there is a lack of information pertaining to their microbiological safety. The potential risks associated with virus contamination of crops within a hydroponic system have not been studied to date. Here a human norovirus (huNoV) surrogate (murine norovirus [MNV]) was evaluated for its ability to become internalized from roots to edible tissues of microgreens. Subsequently, virus survival in recirculated water without adequate disinfection was assessed. Kale and mustard seeds were grown on hydroponic pads (for 7 days with harvest at days 8 to 12), edible tissues (10 g) were cut 1 cm above the pads, and corresponding pieces (4 cm by 4 cm) of pads containing only roots were collected separately. Samples were collected from a newly contaminated system (recirculated water inoculated with ∼3 log PFU/ml MNV on day 8) and from a previously contaminated system. (A contaminated system without adequate disinfection or further inoculation was used for production of another set of microgreens.) Viral titers and RNA copies were quantified by plaque assay and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The behaviors of MNV in kale and mustard microgreens were similar (P > 0.05). MNV was detected in edible tissues and roots after 2 h postinoculation, and the levels were generally stable during the first 12 h. Relatively low levels (∼2.5 to ∼1.5 log PFU/sample of both edible tissues and roots) of infectious viruses were found with a decreasing trend over time from harvest days 8 to 12. However, the levels of viral RNA present were higher and consistently stable (∼4.0 to ∼5.5 log copies/sample). Recirculated water maintained relatively high levels of infectious MNV over the period of harvest, from 3.54 to 2.73 log PFU/ml. Importantly, cross-contamination occurred easily; MNV remained infectious in previously contaminated hydroponic systems for up to 12 days (2.26 to 1.00 PFU/ml), and MNV was detected in both

  1. Phyto-toxicity and Phyto-remediation Potential of Mercury in Indian Mustard and Two Ferns with Mercury Contaminated Water and Oak Ridge Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.; Han, F.X.; Chen, J.; Shiyab, S.; Monts, D.L.; Monts, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Phyto-remediation is an emerging technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. Certain fern and Indian mustard species have been suggested as candidates for phyto-remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and water because of their high efficiency of accumulating metals in shoots and their high biomass production. Currently, no known hyper-accumulator plants for mercury have been found. Here we report the Hg uptake and phyto-toxicity by two varieties of fern and Indian mustard. Their potential for Hg phyto-remediation application was also investigated. Anatomical, histochemical and biochemical approaches were used to study mercury phyto-toxicity as well as anti-oxidative responses in ferns [Chinese brake fern (P. vittata) and Boston fern (N. exaltata)] and Indian mustard (Florida broadleaf and longstanding) (Brassica juncea L.) grown in a hydroponic system. Phyto-remediation potentials of these plant species were estimated based on their Hg uptake performance with contaminated soils from Oak Ridge (TN, USA). Our results show that mercury exposure led to severe phyto-toxicity accompanied by lipid peroxidation and rapid accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in P. vittata, but not in N. exaltata. The two cultivars of fern responded differently to mercury exposure in terms of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD; glutathione reductase, GR). Mercury exposure resulted in the accumulation of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) in the shoots of both cultivars of fern. On the other hand, Indian mustard effectively generated an enzymatic antioxidant defense system (especially CAT) to scavenge H 2 O 2 , resulting in lower H 2 O 2 in shoots with higher mercury concentrations. These two cultivars of Indian mustard demonstrated an efficient metabolic defense and adaptation system to mercury-induced oxidative stress. In both varieties of fern and Indian

  2. Acidithiobacillus caldus sulfur oxidation model based on transcriptome analysis between the wild type and sulfur oxygenase reductase defective mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxu Chen

    Full Text Available Acidithiobacillus caldus (A. caldus is widely used in bio-leaching. It gains energy and electrons from oxidation of elemental sulfur and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs for carbon dioxide fixation and growth. Genomic analyses suggest that its sulfur oxidation system involves a truncated sulfur oxidation (Sox system (omitting SoxCD, non-Sox sulfur oxidation system similar to the sulfur oxidation in A. ferrooxidans, and sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR. The complexity of the sulfur oxidation system of A. caldus generates a big obstacle on the research of its sulfur oxidation mechanism. However, the development of genetic manipulation method for A. caldus in recent years provides powerful tools for constructing genetic mutants to study the sulfur oxidation system.An A. caldus mutant lacking the sulfur oxygenase reductase gene (sor was created and its growth abilities were measured in media using elemental sulfur (S(0 and tetrathionate (K(2S(4O(6 as the substrates, respectively. Then, comparative transcriptome analysis (microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR of the wild type and the Δsor mutant in S(0 and K(2S(4O(6 media were employed to detect the differentially expressed genes involved in sulfur oxidation. SOR was concluded to oxidize the cytoplasmic elemental sulfur, but could not couple the sulfur oxidation with the electron transfer chain or substrate-level phosphorylation. Other elemental sulfur oxidation pathways including sulfur diooxygenase (SDO and heterodisulfide reductase (HDR, the truncated Sox pathway, and the S(4I pathway for hydrolysis of tetrathionate and oxidation of thiosulfate in A. caldus are proposed according to expression patterns of sulfur oxidation genes and growth abilities of the wild type and the mutant in different substrates media.An integrated sulfur oxidation model with various sulfur oxidation pathways of A. caldus is proposed and the features of this model are summarized.

  3. Effect of ionic strength and cationic DNA affinity binders on the DNA sequence selective alkylation of guanine N7-positions by nitrogen mustards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.A.; Forrow, S.M.; Souhami, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Large variations in alkylation intensities exist among guanines in a DNA sequence following treatment with chemotherapeutic alkylating agents such as nitrogen mustards, and the substituent attached to the reactive group can impose a distinct sequence preference for reaction. In order to understand further the structural and electrostatic factors which determine the sequence selectivity of alkylation reactions, the effect of increase ionic strength, the intercalator ethidium bromide, AT-specific minor groove binders distamycin A and netropsin, and the polyamine spermine on guanine N7-alkylation by L-phenylalanine mustard (L-Pam), uracil mustard (UM), and quinacrine mustard (QM) was investigated with a modification of the guanine-specific chemical cleavage technique for DNA sequencing. The result differed with both the nitrogen mustard and the cationic agent used. The effect, which resulted in both enhancement and suppression of alkylation sites, was most striking in the case of netropsin and distamycin A, which differed from each other. DNA footprinting indicated that selective binding to AT sequences in the minor groove of DNA can have long-range effects on the alkylation pattern of DNA in the major groove

  4. Investigation of growth indices and yield of canola (Brassica napus L. in competition with wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. as influenced by different amount of nitrogen application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Soleymani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on growth indices and competitive ability of canola (Brassica napus L. against wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L., a split plot trial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications, was carried out at Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, during 2008-2009. Experimental factors were amounts of nitrogen fertilizer of urea at four levels (100, 150, 200 and 250 kgN.ha-1 and five wild mustard plant densities (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 plants.m-2. The results showed that wild mustard interference led to reduction of leaf area index (LAI, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area index duration (LAID, dry matter duration (BMD and seed yield of canola, while these characteristics were increased with more nitrogen fertilizer application. The maximum indices were obtained at 250 kg N.ha-1 and weed-free condition, but generally, the least reduction in maximum LAI, CGR, LAID and BMD of canola affected by wild mustard competition occurred at 200 kg N.ha-1. In conclusion, the results showed that optimum level of fertilizer 200 kg N.ha-1, increased competitive ability of canola against wild mustard and improved yield and growth indices.

  5. Study of Canopy Structure and Growth Characters Role of Two Wheat Cultivars in Competition, on Economic Threshold and Yield of Rye and Wild Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saadatian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of effective factors on competition of two wheat cultivars against two species of narrow leaf and broad leaf weeds this study was conducted as two separated experiments based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2008-2009. In both Experiments, Alvand and Sayson cultivars were planted with densities of 450 plants m-2. In the 1st experiment, rye with densities of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 plants m-2 were planted in inter-rows of wheat. In the 2nd experiment, wild mustard densities were 0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 plants m-2. The results showed that characters such as vertical distribution of leaf area index and dry matter, height and its increase rate in interference, emergence rate, rate of canopy development and precocity led to increasing competitive ability of Alvand than Sayson in competition with two weed species. These factors were effective in reduction seed production of weeds and economic threshold in Alvand. Despite of lower height of wild mustard than rye, distribution of leaf area and canopy structure of wild mustard increased light competition ability and shadow on crop, so that harmful effects of individual plant of wild mustard in different densities was more than rye. Increasing rate of wild mustard seed bank was more than ray.

  6. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  7. The life sulfuric: microbial ecology of sulfur cycling in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmund, Kenneth; Mußmann, Marc; Loy, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Almost the entire seafloor is covered with sediments that can be more than 10 000 m thick and represent a vast microbial ecosystem that is a major component of Earth's element and energy cycles. Notably, a significant proportion of microbial life in marine sediments can exploit energy conserved during transformations of sulfur compounds among different redox states. Sulfur cycling, which is primarily driven by sulfate reduction, is tightly interwoven with other important element cycles (carbon, nitrogen, iron, manganese) and therefore has profound implications for both cellular- and ecosystem-level processes. Sulfur-transforming microorganisms have evolved diverse genetic, metabolic, and in some cases, peculiar phenotypic features to fill an array of ecological niches in marine sediments. Here, we review recent and selected findings on the microbial guilds that are involved in the transformation of different sulfur compounds in marine sediments and emphasise how these are interlinked and have a major influence on ecology and biogeochemistry in the seafloor. Extraordinary discoveries have increased our knowledge on microbial sulfur cycling, mainly in sulfate-rich surface sediments, yet many questions remain regarding how sulfur redox processes may sustain the deep-subsurface biosphere and the impact of organic sulfur compounds on the marine sulfur cycle. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Quantification of Discrete Oxide and Sulfur Layers on Sulfur-Passivated InAs by XPS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrovykh, D. Y; Sullivan, J. M; Whitman, L. J

    2005-01-01

    .... The S-passivated InAs(001) surface can be modeled as a sulfur-indium-arsenic layer-cake structure, such that characterization requires quantification of both arsenic oxide and sulfur layers that are at most a few monolayers thick...

  9. Sulfur Isotope Exchange between S-35 Labeled Inorganic Sulfur-Compounds in Anoxic Marine-Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FOSSING, H.; THODEANDERSEN, S.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    of isotope exchange, specific radioactivities of the reduced sulfur pools were poorly defined and could not be used to calculate their rates of formation. Such isotope exchange reactions between the reduced inorganic sulfur compounds will affect the stable isotope distribution and are expected to decrease...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....0 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million BTU actual heat input for the coal-fired boiler and 0.4... BTU actual heat input for coal-fired boiler C exiting through stack 5. (3) 2.24 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million BTU acutal heat input for coal-fired boiler D exiting through stack 6. (E) In lieu of...

  11. Sulfur and Oxygen Isotope Fractionation During Bacterial Sulfur Disproportionation Under Anaerobic Haloalkaline Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poser, Alexander; Vogt, Carsten; Knöller, Kay; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Finster, Kai W.; Richnow, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation of elemental sulfur disproportionation at anaerobic haloalkaline conditions was evaluated for the first time. Isotope enrichment factors of the strains Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus and Dethiobacter alkaliphilus growing at pH 9 or 10 were −0.9‰ to −1‰ for

  12. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin Jt

    2012-01-12

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes.

  13. Genetic variability and inter-character associations in the mutants of Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labana, K.S.; Chaurasia, B.D.; Singh, Balwant

    1980-01-01

    To study the genetic variability and the inter-character associations in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (Linn.)Czern. and Coss. subsp. juncea Linn.], 104 radiation-induced mutants (including 'RLM 198') and 'RL 18' were grown during winter season of 1976-77 at the experimental farm of the Punjab Agricultural University. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the mutant genotypes for all the characters under study except for the primary branch number and siliqua number of main shoot, which were non-significant. High estimates of phenotypic coefficients of variation (pcv) and genetic coefficients of variation (gcv) were observed for secondary branch number, seed yield/plant, main shoot length and seed number/siliqua. In general, pcv estimates were higher than gcv estimates. The high estimates of both heritability and genetic advance were recorded in similar order for the plant height, seed number/siliqua, main shoot length and seed yield, in which the genetic progress could be achieved through mass selection. Seed yield was positively correlated with the primary branch number, the secondary branch number and the siliqua number of main shoot and negatively with the plant height. Shorter plant height w;.th more number of primary and secondary branches and more siliquae on main shoot were found to be good selection criteria for isolating high-yielding strains. (auth.)

  14. Changes in Salicylic Acid and Antioxidants during Induced Thermotolerance in Mustard Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, James F.; Foyer, Christine H.; Scott, Ian M.

    1998-01-01

    Heat-acclimation or salicylic acid (SA) treatments were previously shown to induce thermotolerance in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings from 1.5 to 4 h after treatment. In the present study we investigated changes in endogenous SA and antioxidants in relation to induced thermotolerance. Thirty minutes into a 1-h heat-acclimation treatment glucosylated SA had increased 5.5-fold and then declined during the next 6 h. Increases in free SA were smaller (2-fold) but significant. Changes in antioxidants showed the following similarities after either heat-acclimation or SA treatment. The reduced-to-oxidized ascorbate ratio was 5-fold lower than the controls 1 h after treatment but recovered by 2 h. The glutathione pool became slightly more oxidized from 2 h after treatment. Glutathione reductase activity was more than 50% higher during the first 2 h. Activities of dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase decreased by at least 25% during the first 2 h but were 20% to 60% higher than the control levels after 3 to 6 h. One hour after heat acclimation ascorbate peroxidase activity was increased by 30%. Young leaves appeared to be better protected by antioxidant enzymes following heat acclimation than the cotyledons or stem. Changes in endogenous SA and antioxidants may be involved in heat acclimation. PMID:9847121

  15. Yield response of brassica varieties/strains in relation to mustard aphid lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.A.; Bukhari, S.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Nine brassica varieties/advanced lines were tested to find out the varietal comparison against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (kalt.) in relation to aphid population. average number of branches/plant, average number of grains per pod and grain yield (kg/ha) during 2004-2006. Minimum aphid population was observed on promising cultivar P-20 during both years 2004-2005-06 which were 2005-06 which were 31 and 23 aphid/30 cm of apical inflorescence from randomly selected five plants respectively. This promising strain also proved significantly the highest yielder and gave 1633 kg. grains/ha (2004,05) and 817.5 kg grains/ha (2005-06) followed by SP-36 which showed aphid population 36 and 32.5 aphid/30 cm inflorescence having yield 1373 and 780 kg grains/ha during the both periods respectively under report. The other parameters viz. Average number of branches per plant and average no. of grains/pod remained non significant as far as aphid effect is concerned. (author)

  16. Yield and quality of white mustard seed depending on the seeding dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sowing dates and harvest dates on yield and quality of white mustard seed been investigated in this study. During the experiment two sowing dates have been tested the first one based on the crops in March, and the other one when the direct sowing was carried out in late May, after the harvest of camomile crops. The harvest of the seed crops in the first seeding date was performed on 1st July, and the second on 15th September. Seed fractioning extracted the following fractions: large (3mm, medium (2 mm and small (1mm. I he objective of the laboratory' experiments was to observe the effect of the seed fraction size on the most important parameters of its quality (germination energy, total germination and absolute mass according to the stipulated terms. Based on the data obtained in the survey, it can be concluded that the seed yield is significantly affected by the varied seeding dates. Earlier seeding date produced significantly increased seed yield (1920 kg/ha than the later seeding date (1160 kg/ha. According to the seed quality parameters, the best characteristics are found in the seed fraction of 3 mm, in both seeding and harvest dates.

  17. Yield response of brassica varieties/strains in relation to mustard aphid lipaphis erysimi (kalt.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.A.; Bukhari, S.A.H.; Tariq, H.

    2010-01-01

    Nine brassica varieties/advanced lines were tested to find out the varietal comparison against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (kalt.) in relation to aphid population, average number of branches/plant, average number of grains per pod and grain yield (kg/ha) during 2004-2006. Minimum aphid population was observed on promising cultivar P-20 during both years 2004-2005 and 2005-06 which were 3.l and 23 aphid/30 cm of apical inflorescence from randomly selected five plants respectively. This promising strain also proved significantly the highest yielder and gave 1633 kg. grains/ha (2004-05) and 8 17.5 kg grains/ha (2005-06) followed by SP-36 which showed aphid population 36 and 32.5 aphid/30 cm inflorescence having yield 1373 and 780 kg grains/ha during the both periods respectively under report. The other parameters viz. Average number of branches per plant and average no. of grains/pod remained nonsignificant as far as aphid effect is concerned. (author)

  18. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navarro, Elena; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required.

  19. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required.

  20. Investigating Resistance of Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. ‎Populations to Tribenuron-Methyl Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ‎ Mehdi Afshari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tribenuron-methyl is commonly used for post emergence control of broad leaf weeds in wheat fields. In order to survey suspicious resistant weeds in wheat fields to this herbicide thirty-eight fields of Kermanshah province were investigated during 2012- 2013. Seeds of suspected resistance of wild mustard were gathered and tested in a randomized complete blocks design experiment with three replications. First, for early detection of herbicide resistance, the suspected population was screened using discriminating dose of tribenuron-methyl. Determining of the resistance degree was conducted by whole plant bioassay tests using dose-response curves. The resistance mechanisms were assayed by molecular methods, especially using the ALS gene cloning by PJET1.2/blunt Vector. For susceptible populations, the concentration required for complete control was 10.4 g ai ha-1 tribenuron-methyl. Also, in screening tests 50% of populations as resistant populations were identified. According to the Beckie and Tardif, it was found that 57.8% of these population did have a very high degree of resistance, 31.5% with high resistance and 10/5% with low resistance degree. GR50 of the resistant weeds was also increased as compared to sensitive weed, which indicates resistance in this province, Thus to control the resistant populations Z15, this amount increased to 1309 g ai ha-1.The results of DNA sequencing showed that mutation by replacing proline amino acid at position Ala122 causes resistance based on target-site mutation.

  1. Allelopathic effect of ryegrass (lolium persicum) and wild mustard (sinapis arvensis) on barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baziar, M.R.; Farahvash, F.; Mirshekari, B.; Rashidi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Most crop plants and weeds have allelopathic effects and analysis of these effects on plants in crop alteration and successive planting is very important. In this research the allelopathic ability of different parts and concentrations of two weeds, Lolium Persicum (Ryegrass) and Sinapis arvensis (wild mustered), on growth characteristics of two barley varieties was studied in the greenhouse using a completely randomized design with four replications. Test factors consisted of two barley varieties (Valfajr and Rehane), three weed organs (root, stalk, leaf) and four concentrations of extracts of weed organs (25, 50, 75 and control or distilled water). After the preparation of extracts of different weed organs with different concentrations, their effect on growth characteristics of barley plant was evaluated. Finally, seedling length, rootlet length caulicle length, wet weight of seedling, dry weight of seedling were measured. Also, the above two seeds had significant effects on the two strains of barley and could influence growth characteristics of barley. Based on the results of present study, one can argue that Ryegrass (Lolium Persicum) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) can strongly affect germination, growth and performance of barley through production of chemical materials with allelopathic properties, leading unfavorable growth and product yield. (author)

  2. Evaluation of phytoextracting cadmium and lead by sunflower, ricinus, alfalfa and mustard in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-xin, Niu; Sun, Li-na; Sun, Tie-heng; Li, Yu-shuang; Wang, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Soil contaminated with heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is hard to be remediated. Phytoremediation may be a feasible method to remove toxic metals from soil, but there are few suitable plants which can hyperaccumulate metals. In this study, Cd and Pb accumulation by four plants including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), ricinus (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponic cultures was compared. Results showed that these plants could phytoextract heavy metals, the ability of accumulation differed with species, concentrations and categories of heavy metals. Values of BCF (bioconcentration factor) and TF (translocation factor) indicated that four species had dissimilar abilities of phytoextraction and transportation of heavy metals. Changes on the biomass of plants, pH and Eh at different treatments revealed that these four plants had distinct responses to Cd and Pb in cultures. Measurements should be taken to improve the phytoremediation of sites contaminated with heavy metals, such as pH and Eh regulations, and so forth.

  3. Cleome viscosa (wild mustard): a review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Ravindra G

    2010-01-01

    Cleome viscosa Linn. (Capparidaceae), commonly known as "wild or dog mustard," is an annual, sticky herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and throughout the tropics of the world. The whole plant and its parts (leaves, seeds, and roots) are widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. In traditional systems of medicine the plant is reported to possess beneficial effects as an anthelmintic, antiseptic, carminative, antiscorbutic, sudorific, febrifuge, and cardiac stimulant. Following the various traditional claims for the use of C. viscosa (CV) as a cure of numerous diseases, considerable efforts have been made by researchers to verify its utility through scientific pharmacological screenings. The pharmacological studies have shown that CV possesses various notable biological activities such as anthelmintic, antimicrobial, analgesic, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, antipyretic, psychopharmacological, antidiarrheal, and hepatoprotective activities. A wide variety of phytoprinciples have been isolated from the plant. The present review is an effort to consolidate traditional, ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological information available on C. viscosa.

  4. Genomic Insights into the Sulfur Metabolism of Phototrophic Green Sulfur Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, ferrous iron, and hydrogen for anaerobic photoautotrophic growth. Genome sequence data is currently available for 12 strains of GSB. We present here a genome-based survey of the distribution...... and phylogenies of genes involved in oxidation of sulfur compounds in these strains. Sulfide:quinone reductase, encoded by sqr, is the only known sulfur-oxidizing enzyme found in all strains. All sulfide-utilizing strains contain the dissimilatory sulfite reductase dsrABCEFHLNMKJOPT genes, which appear...... to be involved in elemental sulfur utilization. All thiosulfate-utilizing strains have an identical sox gene cluster (soxJXYZAKBW). The soxCD genes found in certain other thiosulfate-utilizing organisms like Paracoccus pantotrophus are absent from GSB. Genes encoding flavocytochrome c (fccAB), adenosine-5...

  5. Effect of sulfur content in a sulfur-activated carbon composite on the electrochemical properties of a lithium/sulfur battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Changhyeon; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Kim, Ki-Won [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon [Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Guoxiu [School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ahn, Jae-Pyeung [Advanced Analysis Center, Research Planning & Coordination Division, KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyo-Jun, E-mail: ahj@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The content of sulfur in activated carbon was controlled by solution process. • The sulfur electrode with low sulfur content shows the best performance. • The Li/S battery has capacity of 1360 mAh/g at 1 C and 702 mAh/g at 10 C. - Abstract: The content of sulfur in sulfur/activated carbon composite is controlled from 32.37 wt.% to 55.33 wt.% by a one-step solution-based process. When the sulfur content is limited to 41.21 wt.%, it can be loaded into the pores of an activated carbon matrix in a highly dispersed state. On the contrary, when the sulfur content is 55.33 wt.%, crystalline sulfur can be detected on the surface of the activated carbon matrix. The best electrochemical performance can be obtained for a sulfur electrode with the lowest sulfur content. The sulfur/activated carbon composite with 32.37 wt.% sulfur afforded the highest first discharge capacity of 1360 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C rate and a large reversible capacity of 702 mAh g{sup −1} at 10 C (16.75 A/g)

  6. Dew point of gases with low sulfuric acid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieg, J.

    1981-07-01

    Discusses control of air pollution caused by sulfur compounds in solid fuels during combustion. Excessive amount of oxygen during combustion leads to formation of sulfur trioxide. Sulfur trioxide reacts with water vapor and forms sulfuric acid. Chemical reactions which lead to formation of sulfuric acid are described. Conditions for sulfuric acid condensation are analyzed. Several methods for determining dew point of flue gases with low sulfuric acid content are reviewed: methods based on determination of electric conductivity of condensed sulfuric acid (Francis, Cheney, Kiyoure), method based on determination of sulfuric acid concentration in the gaseous phase and in the liquid phase after cooling (Lee, Lisle and Sensenbaugh, Ross and Goksoyr). (26 refs.) (In Polish)

  7. The effective synthesis of Insoluble sulfur using electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daejin; Yu, Kookhyun [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Vulcanization is process that formed crosslinking by Insoluble sulfur between linear structure of rubber polymer. Recently, Synthesis of Insoluble sulfur is used Thermal polymerization using about 250 {approx} 300 .deg. C and extraction process is used carbon disulfide(CS2) for separation between soluble sulfur and insoluble sulfur. But this process isn't environmental, economical and safety. This research was focus on developing of insoluble sulfur synthesis process using electron beam. This new process is using under the 140 .deg. C. Because of that, explosion risk is decrease, environmental and economical factor is increased. The sulfur can be melt by increase temperature or made solution using carbon disulfide. And electron beam is irradiated melting sulfur or sulfur solution. After irradiation, The high purity insoluble sulfur can be obtained by separation with carbon disulfide.

  8. A primer on sulfur for the planetary geologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilig, E.

    1982-01-01

    Sulfur has been proposed as the dominant composition for the volcanic material on Io. Sulfur is a complex element which forms many intramolecular and intermolecular allotropes exhibiting a variety of physical properties. Cyclo-S8 sulfur is the most abundant and stable molecular form. The important molecular species within liquid sulfur change in concentration with temperature. Concentrations of the allotropes control the physical properties of the melt. Discontinuities in density, viscosity, and thermal properties reflect the polymerization process within liquid sulfur. Variations in the melting point are related to autodissociation of the liquid. Many solids forms of sulfur have been identified but only orthorhombic alpha and monoclinic beta sulfur, both composed of cyclo-S8 sulfur, are stable under terrestrial conditions. Physical properties of solid sulfur are dependent on the allotrope and, in some cases, the thermal history. Three natural terrestrial sulfur flows are described: (1) Siretoko-Iosan, Japan; (2) Volcan Azufre, Galapagos Islands; and (3) Mauna Loa, Hawaii. All of the flows are associated with fumarolic areas and are considered to have formed by the melting and mobilization of sulfur deposits. Surface textures of the flows indicate a behavior of molten sulfur similar to that of silicate lava. Channels, rivulets, and lobate edges were described for the flows. The solidification of man-made sulfur flows formed as part of the Frasch mining process by which sulfur is removed from the subsurface in a liquid state is described.

  9. Clues to early diagenetic sulfurization processes from mild chemical cleavage of labile sulfur-rich geomacromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, P.; Schneckenburger, P.; Schaeffer, P.; Albrecht, P.

    2000-10-01

    Macromolecular fractions, isolated from the solvent extract of sulfur-rich Recent (Siders Pond, USA; Lake Cadagno, Switzerland; Walvis Bay, Namibia) and immature sediments (Gibellina, Messinian of Sicily; Vena del Gesso, Messinian of Italy), were investigated by chemical degradation using sodium ethanethiolate/methyliodide. This mild reagent which cleaves polysulfide bonds to yield methylsulfides has the advantage over other methods of leaving intact other functionalities (like double bonds) and preserving sulfur atoms at their incorporation site. The method is, therefore, well-suited to the molecular level investigation of sulfur-rich macromolecules from Recent sediments containing highly functionalized polysulfide-bound subunits. In Recent anoxic sulfur-rich sediments, the release of various methylthioethers clearly demonstrates that intermolecular sulfurization of organic matter does occur at the earliest stages of diagenesis. Steroids and phytane derivatives are the major sulfurized lipids, a feature also observed in more mature sulfur-rich sediments. Several phytene derivatives, such as cis and trans 1-methylthiophyt-2-enes, as well as methylthiosteroids, including 5α- and 5β-3-(methylthio)-cholest-2-enes, were identified by comparison with synthesized standards. Steroid methylthioenolethers are released from polysulfide-bound steroid enethiols present in the macromolecular fractions. The latter, which correspond to thioketones, can be considered as intermediates in the reductive sulfurization pathway leading from steroid ketones to polysulfide-bound saturated steroid skeletons and are characterized for the first time in the present study. Thus, it could be shown that the major part of the polysulfide-bound lipids occurring in Recent sediments is apparently the result of sulfurization processes affecting carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones). The unsaturated methylthioethers obtained from Recent sediments were not present in more mature evaporitic samples, which

  10. Self-assembled peptides for coating of active sulfur nanoparticles in lithium–sulfur battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewel, Yead; Yoo, Kisoo; Liu, Jin; Dutta, Prashanta

    2016-01-01

    Development of lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery is hindered by poor cyclability due to the loss of sulfur, although Li–S battery can provide high energy density. Coating of sulfur nanoparticles can help maintain active sulfur in the cathode of Li–S battery, and hence increase the cyclability. Among myriad of coating materials, synthetic peptides are very attractive because of their spontaneous self-assembly as well as electrical conductive characteristics. In this study, we explored the use of various synthetic peptides as a coating material for sulfur nanoparticles. Atomistic simulations were carried out to identify optimal peptide structure and density for coating sulfur nanoparticles. Three different peptide models, poly-proline, poly(leucine–lysine) and poly-histidine, are selected for this study based on their peptide–peptide and peptide-sulfur interactions. Simulation results show that both poly-proline and poly(leucine–lysine) can form self-assembled coating on sulfur nanoparticles (2–20 nm) in pyrrolidinone, a commonly used solvent for cathode slurry. We also studied the structural integrity of these synthetic peptides in organic [dioxolane (DOL) and dimethoxyethane (DME)] electrolyte used in Li–S battery. Both peptides show stable structures in organic electrolyte (DOL/DME) used in Li–S battery. Furthermore, the dissolution of sulfur molecules in organic electrolyte is investigated in the absence and presence of these peptide coatings. It was found that only poly(leucine–lysine)-based peptide can most effectively suppress the sulfur loss in electrolyte, suggesting its potential applications in Li–S battery as a coating material.Graphical abstract

  11. Sulfur deactivation of fatty ester hydrogenolysis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brands, D.S.; U-A-Sai, G.; Poels, E.K.; Bliek, A. [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-08-15

    Trace organosulfur compounds present as natural impurities in oleochemical feedstocks may lead to activation of copper-containing catalysts applied for hydrogenolysis of esters toward fatty alcohols. In this paper, the sulfur deactivation of Cu/SiO{sub 2} and Cu/ZnO/SiO{sub 2} catalysts was studied in the liquid-phase hydrogenolysis of methyl palmitate. The rate of deactivation is fast and increases as a function of the sulfur-containing compound present: octadecanethiol {approx} dihexadecyl disulfide < benzyl isothiocyanate < methyl p-toluene sulfonate < dihexadecyl sulfide < dibenzothiophene. The rapid deactivation is caused by the fact that sulfur is quantitatively removed from the reaction mixture and because mainly surface sulfides are formed under hydrogenolysis conditions. The life time of a zinc-promoted catalyst is up to two times higher than that of the Cu/SiO{sub 2} catalyst, most likely due to zinc surface sulfide formation. The maximum sulfur coverage obtained after full catalyst deactivation with dibenzothiophene and dihexadecyl sulfide--the sulfur compounds that cause the fastest deactivation--may be as low as 0.07. This is due to the fact that decomposition of these compounds as well as the hydrogenolysis reaction itself proceeds on ensembles of copper atoms. Catalyst regeneration studies reveal that activity cannot be regained by reduction or combined oxidation/reduction treatments. XRD, TPR, and TPO results confirm that no distinct bulk copper or zinc sulfide or sulfate phases are present.

  12. Digestion of Bangka monazite with sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesna Prassanti

    2012-01-01

    Technology of Bangka monazite processing with alkaline method has been mastered by PPGN BATAN with the product in the form of RE (Rare Earth) which is contain U < 2 ppm and Th 12 - 16 ppm. Hence, as comparator, the research of Bangka monazite processing with acid method using sulfuric acid has been done. The aim of this research is to obtain the optimal condition of Bangka monazite's digestion using sulfuric acid so that all elements contained in the monazite that are U, Th, RE, PO 4 dissolved as much as possible. The research parameter's arc monazite particle's size, sulfuric acid consumption (weight ratio of monazite ore : sulfuric acid), digestion temperature, digestion time and consumption of wash water. The results showed that the optimal conditions of digestion are 250+ 325 mesh of monazite particle's size, 1 : 2.5 of weight ratio of monazite ore: sulfuric acid, 190°C of digestion temperature, 3 hours of digestion time and 8 times of weight monazite's feed of wash water with the recovery of digested U = 99.90 %, Th = 99.44 %, RE = 98.64 % and PO 4 = 99.88 %. (author)

  13. Comparison of the Lonidamine Potentiated Effect of Nitrogen Mustard Alkylating Agents on the Systemic Treatment of DB-1 Human Melanoma Xenografts in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S; Putt, Mary E; Leeper, Dennis B; Garman, Bradley; Nathanson, Katherine L; Glickson, Jerry D

    2016-01-01

    Previous NMR studies demonstrated that lonidamine (LND) selectively diminishes the intracellular pH (pHi) of DB-1 melanoma and mouse xenografts of a variety of other prevalent human cancers while decreasing their bioenergetic status (tumor βNTP/Pi ratio) and enhancing the activities of melphalan and doxorubicin in these cancer models. Since melphalan and doxorubicin are highly toxic agents, we have examined three other nitrogen (N)-mustards, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide and bendamustine, to determine if they exhibit similar potentiation by LND. As single agents LND, melphalan and these N-mustards exhibited the following activities in DB-1 melanoma xenografts; LND: 100% tumor surviving fraction (SF); chlorambucil: 100% SF; cyclophosphamide: 100% SF; bendamustine: 79% SF; melphalan: 41% SF. When combined with LND administered 40 min prior to administration of the N-mustard (to maximize intracellular acidification) the following responses were obtained; chlorambucil: 62% SF; cyclophosphamide: 42% SF; bendamustine: 36% SF; melphalan: 10% SF. The effect of LND on the activities of these N-mustards is generally attributed to acid stabilization of the aziridinium active intermediate, acid inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase, which acts as a scavenger of aziridinium, and acid inhibition of DNA repair by O6-alkyltransferase. Depletion of ATP by LND may also decrease multidrug resistance and increase tumor response. At similar maximum tolerated doses, our data indicate that melphalan is the most effective N-mustard in combination with LND when treating DB-1 melanoma in mice, but the choice of N-mustard for coadministration with LND will also depend on the relative toxicities of these agents, and remains to be determined.

  14. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850–2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5° grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  15. Sulfur isotope in nature. Determination of sulfur isotope ratios in coal and petroleum by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derda, M.

    1999-01-01

    Elementary sulfur or in chemical compounds is one of the elements widespread in the earth's crust and biosphere. Its participation in earth's crust amounts to 0.26 % by weight. Measurement of isotope composition of natural samples can deliver many information about origin, creation and transformation ranges of rocks and minerals. Sulfur isotope ratio contained in minerals is variable and for this reason investigation of isotope sulfur composition can deliver useful information about the geochemistry of each component. Therefore in the investigated sample it is necessary to determine not only the content of sulfur but also the isotope composition of each component. Differentiation of contents of sulfur-34 in natural sulfur compounds can reach up to 110 per mile. So large divergences can be explained by a kinetic effect or by bacterial reduction of sulphates. In this report a wide review of the results of investigations of isotope sulfur compositions in coal and petroleum are presented as well as the methods for the preparation of samples for mass spectrometry analysis are proposed. (author)

  16. Conductive framework of inverse opal structure for sulfur cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lu; Huang, Xiaopeng; Zeng, Guobo; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-09-07

    As a promising cathode inheritor for lithium-ion batteries, the sulfur cathode exhibits very high theoretical volumetric capacity and energy density. In its practical applications, one has to solve the insulating properties of sulfur and the shuttle effect that deteriorates cycling stability. The state-of-the-art approaches are to confine sulfur in a conductive matrix. In this work, we utilize monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles as sacrificial templates to build polypyrrole (PPy) framework of an inverse opal structure to accommodate (encapsulate) sulfur through a combined in situ polymerization and melting infiltration approach. In the design, the interconnected conductive PPy provides open channels for sulfur infiltration, improves electrical and ionic conductivity of the embedded sulfur, and reduces polysulfide dissolution in the electrolyte through physical and chemical adsorption. The flexibility of PPy and partial filling of the inverse opal structure endure possible expansion and deformation during long-term cycling. It is found that the long cycling stability of the cells using the prepared material as the cathode can be substantially improved. The result demonstrates the possibility of constructing a pure conductive polymer framework to accommodate insulate sulfur in ion battery applications.

  17. Sulfur contents and sulfur-isotope compositions of thiotrophic symbioses in bivalve molluscs and vestimentiferan worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, R.D.; Fry, B.

    1998-01-01

    Total sulfur (S(TOT)), elemental sulfur (S??) and sulfur-isotope compositions (??34S) of marine animals were analyzed to determine whether these chemical characteristics could help distinguish animals with a sulfur-based, thiotrophic nutrition from animals whose nutrition is based on methanotrophy or on more normal consumption of phytoplankton-derived organic matter. The presence of S??was almost entirely confined to the symbiont-containing tissues of thiotrophs, but was sometimes undetectable in thiotrophic species where sulfide availability was probably low. When S??contents were subtracted, the remaining tissue-sulfur concentrations were similar for all nutritional groups. ??34S values were typically lower for thiotrophs than for other groups, although there was overlap in methanotroph and thiotroph values at some sites. Field evidence supported the existence of small to moderate (1 to 10???)34S fractionations in the uptake of sulfides and metabolism of thiosulfate. In general, a total sulfur content of >3% dry weight, the presence of elemental sulfur, and ??34S values less than + 5??? can be used to infer a thiotrophic mode of nutrition.

  18. Confine sulfur in mesoporous metal–organic framework @ reduced graphene oxide for lithium sulfur battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Weizhai; Zhang, Zhian; Qu, Yaohui; Zhou, Chengkun; Wang, Xiwen; Li, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal organic framework @ reduced graphene oxide was applied for sulfur cathode. • MIL-101(Cr)@rGO/S composites are synthesized by a facile two-step liquid method. • Cycling stability of MIL-101(Cr)@rGO/S sulfur cathode was improved. -- Abstract: Mesoporous metal organic framework @ reduced graphene oxide (MIL-101(Cr)@rGO) materials have been used as a host material to prepare the multi-composite sulfur cathode through a facile and effective two-step liquid phase method successfully, which is different from the simple MIL-101(Cr)/S mixed preparation method. The successful reduced graphene oxide coating in the MIL-101(Cr)@rGO improve the electronic conductivity of meso-MOFs effectively. The discharge capacity and capacity retention rate of MIL-101(Cr)@rGO/S composite sulfur cathode are as high as 650 mAh g −1 and 66.6% at the 50th cycle at the current density of 335 mA g −1 . While the discharge capacity and capacity retention rate of MIL-101(Cr)/S mixed sulfur cathode is 458 mAh g −1 and 37.3%. Test results indicate that the MIL-101(Cr)@rGO is a promising host material for the sulfur cathode in the lithium–sulfur battery applications

  19. Enhanced accumulation of copper and lead in amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus), Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Motior M; Azirun, Sofian M; Boyce, Amru N

    2013-01-01

    Soil contamination by copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg⁻¹ soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF), translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1-15.5 mg kg⁻¹, for Cu 11.6-16.8 mg kg⁻¹) in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50-54%) and Cu (34-38%) followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils.

  20. Extraction of sulfuric acid with TOPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuyun, Xue; Yonghui, Yang; Yanzhao, Yang; Sixiu, Sun; Borong, Bao

    1998-01-01

    A study on solvent extraction of sulfuric acid by tri-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in n-heptane has been made. Extraction coefficients of H 2 SO 4 as a function of H 2 SO 4 concentration in aqueous phase, and extractant concentrations in organic phase have been studied. The composition of extracted species, equilibrium constants of extraction reaction have been evaluated. These results are important for interpreting extraction equilibrium data of uranium(VI) or other metal ions with TOPO in sulfuric acid media. (author)

  1. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Perry E.

    1981-01-01

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

  2. The Competitive Response Investigation of Eighteen Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars with Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh abdolahi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The crop competitive ability is an important and profitable factor for increment impact on the weeds, and decreasing their yield loss. Characteristics such as height, leaf area, growth rate and tillering ability could be effective on competitive ability of cultivar ability. Primary growth rate is important on competitiveness, and any other factors that provides fast establishment of crops growth can be effective too. Thus, utilization of cultivars with height competitiveness ability is one of the considerable strategies for integrated weed managements. Many studies had shown that there are high correlation between crop height and its competitiveness ability. Asef et al (2 reported that tall cultivars reduced weed biomass more than dwarf cultivars due to light intercept and shading. Safahani- langrodi et al (32 in competition condition tall cultivars had high weed tolerance and cause to decrease weed biomass and set seed. There are an important relationship between LAI and weed competition. Hiffle et al. (13 showed cultivars with higher leaf area index had a greater yield stability. Dianat et al. (10 reported that in weed competitive conditions, there are significant difference in the number of tillers among wheat cultivars, while competitor and non-competitor cultivars have most and lowest tiller numbers respectively. Nadery and Ghadiri (25 showed that increasing wild mustard density decreased tiller number and more yield loss in weed competition have caused by decreased number of tillers. Materials and Methods: Experiment was conducted in order to study morphological characteristics and yield of wheat (T. aestivum cultivars in wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. competition in greenhouse, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, during 2013-2014. Treatments were 18 wheat cultivars [Karkheh, Alborz, Azadi, Shahpasand, Sepahan, Flat, Ghods, Roshan, Sorkh¬tokhm, Moghan3, Alvand, MS-81-14, Yarvarus, Shahriyar, Golestn, Bam, Niknajad, Karaj3

  3. Genomic and Evolutionary Perspectives on Sulfur Metabolism in Green Sulfur Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are anaerobic photoautotrophs that oxidize sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, ferrous iron, and hydrogen for growth. We present here an analysis of the distribution and evolution of enzymes involved in oxidation of sulfur compounds in GSB based on genome sequence......, in combination with phylogenetic analyses, suggests that the Dsr system in GSB could be a recent acquisition, which was obtained by lateral gene transfer in part from sulfideoxidizing bacteria and in part from sulfate-reducing bacteria. All thiosulfate-utilizing GSB strains have an identical sox gene cluster...

  4. Involvement of a volatile metabolite during phosphoramide mustard-induced ovotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, Jill A. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Hoyer, Patricia B. [Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Devine, Patrick J. [INRS—Institut Armand-Frappier Research Centre, University of Quebec, Laval, QC H7V 1B7 (Canada); Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The finite ovarian follicle reserve can be negatively impacted by exposure to chemicals including the anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide (CPA). CPA requires bioactivation to phosphoramide mustard (PM) to elicit its therapeutic effects however; in addition to being the tumor-targeting metabolite, PM is also ovotoxic. In addition, PM can break down to a cytotoxic, volatile metabolite, chloroethylaziridine (CEZ). The aim of this study was initially to characterize PM-induced ovotoxicity in growing follicles. Using PND4 Fisher 344 rats, ovaries were cultured for 4 days before being exposed once to PM (10 or 30 μM). Following eight additional days in culture, relative to control (1% DMSO), PM had no impact on primordial, small primary or large primary follicle number, but both PM concentrations induced secondary follicle depletion (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a reduction in follicle number in the control-treated ovaries was observed. Thus, the involvement of a volatile, cytotoxic PM metabolite (VC) in PM-induced ovotoxicity was explored in cultured rat ovaries, with control ovaries physically separated from PM-treated ovaries during culture. Direct PM (60 μM) exposure destroyed all stage follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05). VC from nearby wells depleted primordial follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05), temporarily reduced secondary follicle number after 2 days, and did not impact other stage follicles at any other time point. VC was determined to spontaneously liberate from PM, which could contribute to degradation of PM during storage. Taken together, this study demonstrates that PM and VC are ovotoxicants, with different follicular targets, and that the VC may be a major player during PM-induced ovotoxicity observed in cancer survivors. - Highlights: • PM depletes all stage ovarian follicles in a temporal pattern. • A volatile ovotoxic compound is liberated from PM. • The volatile metabolite depletes primordial follicles.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of a petal anthocyanin polymorphism in the arctic mustard, Parrya nudicaulis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Butler

    Full Text Available Angiosperms are renown for their diversity of flower colors. Often considered adaptations to pollinators, the most common underlying pigments, anthocyanins, are also involved in plants' stress response. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is well characterized across many angiosperms and is composed of a few candidate genes, the consequences of blocking this pathway and producing white flowers has not been investigated at the transcriptome scale. We take a transcriptome-wide approach to compare expression differences between purple and white petal buds in the arctic mustard, Parrya nudicaulis, to determine which genes' expression are consistently correlated with flower color. Using mRNA-Seq and de novo transcriptome assembly, we assembled an average of 722 bp per gene (49.81% coding sequence based on the A. thaliana homolog for 12,795 genes from the petal buds of a pair of purple and white samples. Our results correlate strongly with qRT-PCR analysis of nine candidate genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway where chalcone synthase has the greatest difference in expression between color morphs (P/W = ∼7×. Among the most consistently differentially expressed genes between purple and white samples, we found 3× more genes with higher expression in white petals than in purple petals. These include four unknown genes, two drought-response genes (CDSP32, ERD5, a cold-response gene (GR-RBP2, and a pathogen defense gene (DND1. Gene ontology analysis of the top 2% of genes with greater expression in white relative to purple petals revealed enrichment in genes associated with stress responses including cold, drought and pathogen defense. Unlike the uniform downregulation of chalcone synthase that may be directly involved in the loss of petal anthocyanins, the variable expression of several genes with greater expression in white petals suggest that the physiological and ecological consequences of having white petals may be

  6. Characterization of high exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus strains isolated from mustard pickles for potential probiotic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Yao; Kao, Cheng-Yen; Liu, We-Sin; Fang, Tony J

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize high exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from mustard pickles in Taiwan for potential probiotic applications. Among 39 collected LAB strains, four most productive EPS-producing strains were selected for further analysis. Comparative analyses of 16S rDNA genes rpoA and pheS sequences demonstrated that these strains were members of Lactobacillus plantarum-group (LPG). NCD 2, NLD 4, SLC 13, and NLD 16 showed survival rates of 95.83% ± 0.49%, 95.07% ± 0.64%, 105.84% ± 0.82%, and 99.65% ± 0.31% under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, respectively. No cytotoxic effects on macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were observed when they were treated with a low dose (1 μg/ml) of stimulants extracted from the tested LAB strains. The production of nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells incubated with various LAB stimulants showed a dose-dependent increase. Among the four strains, SLC 13 showed higher inhibitory activity on growth of Enterococcus faecalis (BCRC 12302) and Yersinia enterocolitica (BCRC 10807). NLD 4 showed strong inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43894) as compared with the other three strains. In summary, our results suggest that Lactobacillus pentosus SLC 13 may be a good candidate for probiotic applications and for development of antibacterial compounds. [Int Microbiol 20(2):75-84 (2017)]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  7. Soil Physico-Bio-Chemical Properties under Poplar + Indian Mustard Inter Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Bahadur Ghimire

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during the winter seasons of 2008-10 at Agroforestry Research Centre, Pantnagar, India with aim to examine the effect of different levels of recommended Nitrogen (N: Phosphorus (P: Potassium (K (NPK on soil physico-bio-chemical properties under varying poplar tree densities with mustard introcropping. Lower soil bulk density was recorded under 1000 trees/ha density compared to sole crop in both the year. Soil bulk density (BD decreased underneath trees. However, soil pH, available N and K were not influenced by tree density in both the years. Electrical conductivity (EC and soil organic carbon (SOC increased underneath trees of either tree density compared to sole crop in both the years. Significantly (P<0.05 higher available P was recorded under 1000 trees/ha density compared to 250 and 500 trees/ha densities including sole crop in 2008-09. Similarly, soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC increased with increasing the tree density and significantly (P<0.01 higher value was recorded under 1000 trees/ha density compared to sole crop and sparse density both the years except 2009-10, where 500 and 1000 trees/ha densities remain statistically at par. On the other hand, dehydrogenase activity (DA was maximum under 500 trees/ha density compared to sole crop and 1000 trees/ha density in both the years. Among the fertility levels, the maximum SOC and available N were recorded with 75% compared to 50, 100 and 125% of recommended NPK in 2008-09, except available N with 100% of recommended NPK. But, available P was more with 100% of recommended NPK in 2008-09. Similarly, maximum SMBC were recorded with 75 % compared to higher doses of recommended NPK in both the years. Similarly, BD, EC, SOC, available N, P and K were recorded maximum and soil pH minimum in 0-15 cm soil layers compared deeper layers.

  8. Whole cell Deinococcus radiodurans ameliorates salt stress in Indian mustard through pyrroloquinoline quinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Jadhav, P.; Suprasanna, P.; Rajpurohit, Y.S.; Misra, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress is considered as one of the major abiotic stresses limiting crop productivity. A variety of symbiotic and non-symbiotic bacteria are currently being used worldwide with the aim to boost built-in defense system in plants. Deinococcus radiodurans is a highly desiccation and radiation tolerant bacterium which synthesizes PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone) that has been shown to have a versatile role in crop productivity and as a general stress response regulator in bacteria and mammals. PQQ also acts as scavenger of reactive oxygen species and hence, can module redox signaling, one of the major regulator of stress tolerance in plants. In view of this, present research was conducted to evaluate the potential of whole cell D. radiodurans for ameliorating salt stress in plants. The soil colonization with wild-type cells led to partial amelioration of salt stress. The PQQ mutant showed an intermediate phenotype between wild-type seedlings and those grown on non-colonized soils which confirmed that the effects are largely associated with PQQ. The differential phenotype was also correlated with ROS level and ABA accumulation. The flame photometry data showed that there was no significant reduction in water soluble Na + level in control plant and those treated with either wild-type or PQQ mutant. Further, the elevated levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced ascorbate in the plants treated with bacterial cells indicated its positive role in oxidative stress management. Although, the exact molecular basis to these effects is yet to be understood, present findings support the use of whole cell D. radiodurans for managing the growth and productivity of Indian mustard in salt affected fields. (author)

  9. Synthesis and radiolabelling of novel nitrogen mustards for the imaging of hypoxic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falzon, C.; Ackermann, U.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; O'Keefe, G.J.; White, J.; Spratt, N.; Howells, D.; Scott, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxic tissue is of great significance in stroke and oncology. Among the radiotracers currently used to detect hypoxia, derivatives based on the 2-nitro-imidazole ring such as FMISO or FAZA have received considerable attention in medical imaging. Unfortunately, due to slow clearance of these tracers from normoxic tissue a waiting period of two hours is required between tracer injection and the scanning of the patient. In addition the target to background ratio is low and the quality of the image is therefore poor. Nitrogen mustards are another class of compounds that have great affinity to hypoxic tissue. Derivatives of these compounds labelled with a positron emitting radionuclide, such as [ 18 F], may allow for the imaging of hypoxic regions in the ischemic penumbra. It therefore, may be a useful diagnostic tool in stroke. Radiolabeled N-(2-[ 18 F]-fluoroethyl)-N-(2-chloroethyl)-4-methylsulfinylaniline was successfully synthesised using a potassium fluoride kryptofix complex, giving the desired product in 40% radiochemical yield (10 min at 100 Degrees C). In vitro analysis to determine the stability of the radiotracer in plasma and saline indicated no defluorination. Biological evaluation studies of the radiotracer were undertaken using a rat stroke model (Middle cerebral Arterial Occlusion (MCAO)) to determine whether the ischemic penumbra can be imaged using PET. 150//Ci (5.5MBq) of the radiotracer was injected into the tail vein of the rat immediately after the MCAO. The rat was sacrificed 2 hours post injection and ex-vivo autoradiography was performed. Uptake of the radiotracer was observed in hypoxic regions of the brain (n=6). Dynamic PET images revealed that the ischemic penumbra can be imaged 15 minutes post injection of this tracer. With these promising results, we are now synthesizing other analogues to determine their relationship between selectivity for hypoxic tissue and brain uptake

  10. Sulfur-induced structural motifs on copper and gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walen, Holly [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of sulfur with copper and gold surfaces plays a fundamental role in important phenomena that include coarsening of surface nanostructures, and self-assembly of alkanethiols. Here, we identify and analyze unique sulfur-induced structural motifs observed on the low-index surfaces of these two metals. We seek out these structures in an effort to better understand the fundamental interactions between these metals and sulfur that lends to the stability and favorability of metal-sulfur complexes vs. chemisorbed atomic sulfur. The experimental observations presented here—made under identical conditions—together with extensive DFT analyses, allow comparisons and insights into factors that favor the existence of metal-sulfur complexes, vs. chemisorbed atomic sulfur, on metal terraces. We believe this data will be instrumental in better understanding the complex phenomena occurring between the surfaces of coinage metals and sulfur.

  11. Determination of sulfur dioxide by a radiorelease method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriman Narayanan, S.; Rao, V.R.S. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras. Dept. of Chemistry)

    1983-04-13

    A radiorelease technique for the determination of sulfur dioxide using radiochlor /sup 36/Cl-amine-T is described. Methods for the elimination of interference from coexisting gases are also reported. 1-40 ppm sulfur dioxide can be determined.

  12. Determination of sulfur dioxide by a radiorelease method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriman Narayanan, S.; Rao, V.R.S.

    1983-01-01

    A radiorelease technique for the determination of sulfur dioxide using radiochlor 36 Cl-amine-T is described. Methods for the elimination of interference from coexisting gases are also reported. 1-40 ppm sulfur dioxide can be determined. (author)

  13. Total Sulfur Deposition (wet+dry) from the Atmosphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is emitted primarily as a by-product of coal combustion from power plants. Sulfur Dioxide reacts in the atmosphere to form other chemical such...

  14. Oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds in acidophilic prokaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohwerder, T.; Sand, W. [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Biofilm Centre, Aquatic Biotechnology, Duisburg (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid is of great importance for biohydrometallurgical technologies as well as the formation of acidic (below pH 3) and often heavy metal-contaminated environments. The use of elemental sulfur as an electron donor is the predominant energy-yielding process in acidic natural sulfur-rich biotopes but also at mining sites containing sulfidic ores. Contrary to its significant role in the global sulfur cycle and its biotechnological importance, the microbial fundamentals of acidophilic sulfur oxidation are only incompletely understood. Besides giving an overview of sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles, this review describes the so far known enzymatic reactions related to elemental sulfur oxidation in acidophilic bacteria and archaea. Although generally similar reactions are employed in both prokaryotic groups, the stoichiometry of the key enzymes is different. Bacteria oxidize elemental sulfur by a sulfur dioxygenase to sulfite whereas in archaea, a sulfur oxygenase reductase is used forming equal amounts of sulfide and sulfite. In both cases, the activation mechanism of elemental sulfur is not known but highly reactive linear sulfur forms are assumed to be the actual substrate. Inhibition as well as promotion of these biochemical steps is highly relevant in bioleaching operations. An efficient oxidation can prevent the formation of passivating sulfur layers. In other cases, a specific inhibition of sulfur biooxidation may be beneficial for reducing cooling and neutralization costs. In conclusion, the demand for a better knowledge of the biochemistry of sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles is underlined. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Mercury chemisorption by sulfur adsorbed in porous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijns, M.; Peppelenbos, A.; Mars, P.

    1976-01-01

    The sorption of mercury vapor by adsorbed sulfur in the zeolites CaA (= 5A) and NaX (=13X) and two types of active carbon has been measured at a temperature of 50°C. With increasing degree of micropore filling by sulfur the fraction of sulfur accessible to mercury atoms decreased for CaA and NaX.

  16. Relationship between corrosion and the biological sulfur cycle: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, B.J.; Ray, R.I.; Pope, R.K.

    2000-04-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds can produce pitting, crevice corrosion, dealloying, stress corrosion cracking, and stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking of susceptible metals and alloys. Even though the metabolic by-products of the biological sulfur cycle are extremely corrosive, there are no correlations between numbers and types of sulfur-related organisms and the probability or rate of corrosion, Determination of specific mechanisms for corrosion caused by microbiologically mediated oxidation and reduction of sulfur and sulfur compounds is complicated by the variety of potential metabolic-energy sources and by-products; the coexistence of reduced and oxidized sulfur species; competing reactions with inorganic and organic compounds; and the versatility and adaptability of microorganisms in biofilms. The microbial ecology of sulfur-rich environments is poorly understood because of the association of aerobes and anaerobes and the mutualism or succession of heterotrophs to autotrophs. The physical scale over which the sulfur cycle influences corrosion varies with the environment. The complete sulfur cycle of oxidation and reduction reactions can take place in macroenvironments, including sewers and polluted harbors, or within the microenvironment of biofilms. In this review, reactions of sulfur and sulfur compounds resulting in corrosion were discussed in the context of environmental processes important to corrosion.

  17. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following raw agricultural... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for...

  18. Physiology of alkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banciu, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    The inorganic sulfur oxidation by obligate haloalkaliphilic chemolithoautotrophs was only recently discovered and investigated. These autotrophic sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB), capable of oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds at moderate to high salt concentration and at high pH, can be divided

  19. Biologically produced sulfur particles and polysulfide ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effects of particles of biologically produced sulfur (or 'biosulfur') on a biotechnological process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams. Particular emphasis is given to the role of polysulfide ions in such a process. These

  20. Hot-Gas Desulfurization with Sulfur Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portzer, Jeffrey W.; Damle, Ashok S.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a second generation HGD process that regenerates the sulfided sorbent directly to elemental sulfur using SO 2 , with minimal consumption of coal gas. The goal is to have better overall economics than DSRP when integrated with the overall IGCC system