Sample records for sulfur dioxide dustfall

  1. Radiation induced sulfur dioxide removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.


    The biggest source of air pollution is the combustion of fossil fuels, were pollutants such as particulate, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) are emitted. Among these pollutants, sulfur dioxide plays the main role in acidification of the environment. The mechanism of sulfur dioxide transformation in the environment is partly photochemical. This is not direct photooxidation, however, but oxidation through formed radicals. Heterogenic reactions play an important role in this transformation as well; therefore, observations from environmental chemistry can be used in air pollution control engineering. One of the most promising technologies for desulfurization of the flue gases (and simultaneous denitrification) is radiation technology with an electron accelerator application. Contrary to the nitrogen oxides (NO x ) removal processes, which is based on pure radiation induced reactions, sulfur dioxide removal depends on two pathways: a thermochemical reaction in the presence of ammonia/water vapor and a radiation set of radiochemical reactions. The mechanism of these reactions and the consequent technological parameters of the process are discussed in this paper. The industrial application of this radiation technology is being implemented in an industrial pilot plant operated by INCT at EPS Kaweczyn. A full-scale industrial plant is currently in operation in China, and two others are under development in Japan and Poland. (author)

  2. Antibotulinal efficacy of sulfur dioxide in meat. (United States)

    Tompkin, R B; Christiansen, L N; Shaparis, A B


    The addition of sodium metabisulfite as a source of sulfur dioxide delayed botulinal outgrowth in perishable canned comminuted pork when it was temperature abused at 27 degree C. The degree of inhibition was directly related to the level of sulfur dioxide. Levels greater than 100 microgram of sulfur dioxide per g were necessary to achieve significant inhibition when a target level of 100 botulinal spores per g was used. Sodium nitrite partially reduced the efficacy of the sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide offers a new option for the control of botulinal outgrowth in cured or noncured meat and poultry products. PMID:6996613

  3. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  4. Electrochemical reduction of sulfur dioxide in sulfolane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorob' ev, A.S.; Gavrilova, A.A.; Kolosnitsyn, V.S.; Nikitin, Yu.E.


    Solutions of sulfur dioxide in aproptic media are promising electrolyte oxidizing agents for chemical current sources with anodes of active metals. This work describes the electrochemical reduction of sulfur dioxide in sulfolane in a lithium halide supporting electrolyte which was investigated by the methods of voltamperometry and chronopotentiometry. The dependence of the current of the cathodic peak on the concentration of the supporting electrolyte salts, sulfur dioxide and water, was studied. On the basis of the data obtained, a hypothesis was advanced on the nature of the limiting step. The investigation showed that at low polarizing current densities, a substantial influence on the reduction of sulfur dioxide in sulfolane in a lithium halide supporting electrolyte is exerted by blockage of the electrode surface by sparingly soluble reaction products.

  5. Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hayato; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji; Onuki, Kaoru


    Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water, which is a unit reaction in the IS process for thermochemical hydrogen production, was studied experimentally at 323 K under iodine saturation. Quasi-equilibrium state was observed in the presence of sulfur dioxide gas at constant pressure. The composition of the poly-hydriodic acid solution formed was discussed assuming an ideal desulfurization by the reverse reaction of the Bunsen reaction. The value of HI/(HI+H 2 O) of the desulfurized solution was large at high sulfur dioxide pressure and reached the maximum of 15.7 ± 0.3 mol%. (author)

  6. Uncertainty of dustfall monitoring results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. van Nierop


    Full Text Available Fugitive dust has the ability to cause a nuisance and pollute the ambient environment, particularly from human activities including construction and industrial sites and mining operations. As such, dustfall monitoring has occurred for many decades in South Africa; little has been published on the repeatability, uncertainty, accuracy and precision of dustfall monitoring. Repeatability assesses the consistency associated with the results of a particular measurement under the same conditions; the consistency of the laboratory is assessed to determine the uncertainty associated with dustfall monitoring conducted by the laboratory. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of the uncertainty in dustfall monitoring; thereby improving the confidence in dustfall monitoring. Uncertainty of dustfall monitoring was assessed through a 12-month study of 12 sites that were located on the boundary of the study area. Each site contained a directional dustfall sampler, which was modified by removing the rotating lid, with four buckets (A, B, C and D installed. Having four buckets on one stand allows for each bucket to be exposed to the same conditions, for the same period of time; therefore, should have equal amounts of dust deposited in these buckets. The difference in the weight (mg of the dust recorded from each bucket at each respective site was determined using the American Society for Testing and Materials method D1739 (ASTM D1739. The variability of the dust would provide the confidence level of dustfall monitoring when reporting to clients.

  7. Effects of sulfur dioxide on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, G S


    A discussion is presented on the effects of sulfur dioxide on vegetation as observed at Trail, British Columbia. The investigation was carried out over a period of eight years, 1929 to 1937. The concentration of sulfur dioxide at the United States border was carefully determined throughout the crop season at a point 16 miles from the source of sulfur dioxide. Maximum and average concentrations in part per million are given. The sulfur content of vegetation was determined and was found to diminish as the distance from the smelter increased. It was determined that the sulfur content may rise to four times the normal amount without injurious effect. This is particularly so with prolonged low concentration. The effect on the soil was determined by measuring soluble sulfate, pH and exchangeable bases. The soil near the plant was affected, but this fell off rapidly with increase in distance so that eight miles from the smelter the soil was substantially normal. No effect on water supplies was found. An appreciable retardation in growth, as determined by annular rings, was noted for trees exposed to the sulfur dioxide. This effect was lost following installation of sulfur dioxide control at Trail. Conifers were found more susceptible during periods of active growth than when dormant. Also, transplanted conifers were more severly affected than native trees. Seedlings were less resistant that older trees.

  8. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.


    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  9. Effect of sulfur dioxide on proteins of the vegetable organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckendorfer, P; Beran, F


    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of sulfur dioxide on red clover in a controlled environment. An increase in the concentration of sulfur dioxide caused a significant decrease in the digestible protein. However, after the sulfur dioxide was discontinued, there was a decrease in the indigestible protein. The leaves showed an increase in spotting with an increase in sulfur dioxide concentration. Chemical analysis of the soil revealed a higher sulfur content in these experiments.

  10. Determination of sulfur dioxide by a radiorelease method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriman Narayanan, S.; Rao, V.R.S. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras. Dept. of Chemistry)


    A radiorelease technique for the determination of sulfur dioxide using radiochlor /sup 36/Cl-amine-T is described. Methods for the elimination of interference from coexisting gases are also reported. 1-40 ppm sulfur dioxide can be determined.

  11. Determination of sulfur dioxide by a radiorelease method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriman Narayanan, S.; Rao, V.R.S.


    A radiorelease technique for the determination of sulfur dioxide using radiochlor 36 Cl-amine-T is described. Methods for the elimination of interference from coexisting gases are also reported. 1-40 ppm sulfur dioxide can be determined. (author)

  12. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following raw agricultural... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for...

  13. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Smith


    Full Text Available Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850–2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5° grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  14. Biological effects data: Fluoride and sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Holton, R.L.; Ulbricht, R.J.; Morgan , J.B.


    The Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation has proposed construction of an aluminum reduction facility near Youngs Bay at Warrenton, Oregon. This report comprises one part of the final report to Alumax on a research project entitled, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies of Youngs Bay.'' It presents data pertaining to the potential biological effects of fluoride and sulfur dioxide, two potentially hazardous plant-stack emissions, on selected aquatic species of the area. Companion volumes provide a description of the physical characteristics the geochemistry, and the aquatic animals present in Youngs Bay and adjacent ecosystems. An introductory volume provides general information and maps of the area, and summarizes the conclusions of all four studies. The data from the two phases of the experimental program are included in this report: lethal studies on the effects of selected levels of fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the survival rate of eleven Youngs Bay faunal species from four phyla, and sublethal studies on the effects of fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the rate of primary production of phytoplankton. 44 refs., 18 figs., 38 tabs.

  15. Sulfur dioxide: foe or friend for life? (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Bao; Cui, Hong; Liu, Xiaohong; Du, Jun-Bao


    Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is a toxic gas and air pollutant. The toxic effects of SO₂ have been extensively studied. Oxidative damage due to SO₂ can occur in multiple organs. Inhaled SO₂ can also cause chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage and gene mutations in mammals. However, SO₂ can also be generated from the sulfur-containing amino acid, L-cysteine. Recent studies have shown that SO₂ has a vasorelaxant effect, and ameliorates pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. SO₂ can also reduce lung injury and myocardial injury in rats. In addition, SO₂ reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, SO₂ exerts both detrimental and protective effects in mammals. Is SO₂ a foe or friend for life?.

  16. Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Sulfur Dioxide Cell (United States)


    AD-A274 908IIIIlIIIE McDonald , P. Harris, F. Goebel, S. Hossi ierra, M. Guentert, C. Todino 7 ad r nse TECHNICAL PRODUCTS INCY DTIC ELECTE JAN26 1994...Pawcatuck, CT 06379 94-02298 1425 Best Available Copy I ADVANCED RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL I R.C. McDonald , P. Harris, F. Goebel, S. Hossain...20 minutes. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using a I Starbuck 20-station cycler system which is connected to a computer to monitor

  17. Combined effect of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide gases on mold fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochurova, A.I.; Karpova, T.N.


    Sulfur dioxide at 0.08% killed Penicillium expansum, Stemphylium macrosporium, and Botrytis cinerea within 24 hours. At 0.2%, it killed P. citrinum, Alternaria tenuis, and Fusarium moniliforme. Sulfur dioxide (at 0.04%) and Sulfur dioxide-carbon dioxide mixtures (at 0.02 and 5% respectively) completely suppressed the growth of P. citrinum, P. expansum, P. rubrum, A. tenuis, S. macrosporium, B. cinerea, and F. moniliforme in laboratory experiments. 1 table.

  18. Mechanism of the toxic action of sulfur dioxide on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaevskii, V S; Miroshnikova, A T; Firger, V V; Belokrylova, L M


    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of sulfur dioxide on U CO2 metabolism and photosynthesis in fescue and timothy grass and in maple and barberry branches. The free radical inhibitors, ascorbic acid and thiourea, were found to decrease the damaging effects of the sulfur dioxide. These results indicated that the processes involved are of the free-radical chain type. Even at low sulfur dioxide concentrations, photosphosphorylation and carbon dioxide assimilation were inhibited. In addition, starch and protein as well as the formation of polymeric substances were also inhibited.

  19. Degradation of sulfur dioxide using plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada M, N.; Garcia E, R.; Pacheco P, M.; Valdivia B, R.; Pacheco S, J.


    This paper presents the electro-chemical study performed for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) treatment using non thermal plasma coupled to a nano structured fluid bed enhancing the toxic gas removal and the adsorption of acids formed during plasma treatment, more of 80% of removal was obtained. Non thermal plasma was ignited by dielectric barrier discharge (Dbd). The research was developed through an analysis of the chemical kinetics of the process and experimental study of degradation; in each experiment the electrical parameters and the influence of carbon nano structures were monitored to establish the optimal conditions of degradation. We compared the theoretical and experimental results to conclude whether the proposed model is correct for degradation. (Author)

  20. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (United States)


    ....0 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million BTU actual heat input for the coal-fired boiler and 0.4... BTU actual heat input for coal-fired boiler C exiting through stack 5. (3) 2.24 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million BTU acutal heat input for coal-fired boiler D exiting through stack 6. (E) In lieu of...

  1. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide (United States)

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  2. Induction of ovoviviparity in Rhabditis by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J T; Tsui, R K


    While investigating the influence of atmospheric pollutants on soil and plant microbiotas, ovoviviparity was observed in the saprophagous nematode, Rhabditis sp., after exposure to various concentrations of sulfur dioxide.

  3. Preliminary study of varietal susceptibility to sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.E.; Xerikos, P.B.


    The injury response of plants to air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, is known to vary in severity and type for different varieties or cultivars of a species. Differences in the susceptibility of soybean varieties to sulfur dioxide have previously been noted, but sufficient information is not available concerning the sulfur dioxide resistance of varieties commonly grown in the Midwest. Results are reported from preliminary experiments concerning acute sulfur dioxide effects on 12 soybean varieties. The injury symptoms ranged from cream colored necrotic lesions (generally on younger leaves) to a reddish brown necrotic stipling (on older leaves). Differences in the severity of symptom development for the varieties was evident on both the younger and older leaves. No injury was apparent with three of the varieties

  4. Effects of sulfur dioxide on conifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govi, G.; Tagliani, F.; Cimino, A.


    Trials on the resistance of several conifer and oak species to the effects of sulfur dioxide at different concentrations and moisture levels were conducted. 72 combinations were experimented. The damages began to appear under the following conditions: Abies alba: 0.3 ppm, 25/sup 0/C, 70% ur after 24 hours; Picea excelsa: 0.3 ppm, 15/sup 0/C, 70-95% ur after 24 hours; Cedrus deodara: 0.3 ppm, 15/sup 0/C, 95% ur after 48 hours; Pinus pinea: 0.3 ppm, 15/sup 0/C, 70-95% after 72 hours; Pinus strobus 0.3 ppm, 25/sup 0/C, 70-95%, after 48 hours; Pinus pinaster: similar to the former; Pinus nigra: 2 ppm, 25/sup 0/C, 70-95%, ur after 5 days; Cupressus arizonica and C. semperivirens: 2 ppm, 25%/sup 0/C, 90% ur after 72 hours; Quercus robur: 5 ppm, 25/sup 0/C, 90% ur, after 10 days. 6 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  5. Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine (United States)

    Monro, Tanya M.; Moore, Rachel L.; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K.; Elsey, Gordon M.; Taylor, Dennis K.


    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO2 over time, resulting in wines with little SO2 protection. Furthermore, SO2 and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO2 in wine require the SO2 to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

  6. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... Energy Incorporated. This disapproval does not in and of itself result in the growth restrictions of...

  7. Health Endpoint Attributed to Sulfur Dioxide Air Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas, released from burning of coal, high-sulfur coal,s and diesel fuel. Sulfur dioxide harms human health by reacting with the moisture in the nose, nasal cavity and throat and this is the way by which it destroys the nerves in the respiratory system. Objectives The aim of this study was to focus on identifying the effects associated with sulfur dioxide on health in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods Data collections were performed by Ahvaz meteorological organization and the department of environment. Sampling was performed for 24 hours in four stations. Methods of sampling and analysis were according to US environmental protection agency (EPA guideline. Afterwards, we processed the raw data including instruction set correction of averaging, coding and filtering by Excel software and then, the impact of meteorological parameters were converted as the input file to the AirQ model. Finally, we calculated the health effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide. Results According to the findings, the concentration of sulfur dioxide in Ahvaz had an annual average of 51 μg/m3. Sum of the numbers of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases attributed to sulfur dioxide was 25 cases in 2012. Approximately, 5% of the total hospital admissions for respiratory disease and respiratory mortality happened when sulfur dioxide concentration was more than 10 mg/m3. Conclusions According to the results of this study, this increase could be due to higher fuel consumption, usage of gasoline in vehicles, oil industry, and steel and heavy industries in Ahwaz. The risk of mortality and morbidity were detected at the current concentrations of air pollutants.

  8. [Sulfur dioxide limit standard and residues in Chinese medicinal materials]. (United States)

    Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Yang, Wan-Zhen; Mo, Ge; Zhou, Li; Jiang, Jing-Yi; Lv, Chao-Geng; Wang, Sheng; Zhou, Tao; Yang, Ye; Guo, Lan-Ping


    The traditional sulfur fumigation processing method has been widely used in the initial processing and storage of traditional Chinese medicinal materials due to its economy, efficiency, convenience, high operability and effect on mold and insect prevention. However, excessive sulfur fumigation of traditional Chinese medicinal materials would lead to the changes in chemical compositions, and even endanger human health. This study showed that traditional Chinese medicinal materials were sulfur fumigated directly after being harvested for quick drying, or fumigated after being weted in the storage process for preventing mold and insects. We found that the sulfur dioxide limits for traditional Chinese medicinal materials were stricter than those for foods. Based on the existing limit standards, we obtained the data of sulfur dioxide residues for 35 types of traditional Chinese medicinal materials in a total of 862 batches. According to the limit standard in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (150, 400 mg·kg⁻¹), the average over-standard rate of sulfur dioxide was as high as 52.43%, but it was reduced to 29.47% if calculated based on the limit for vegetable additive standard (500 mg·kg⁻¹). Sulfur fumigation issue shall be considered correctly: sulfur dioxide is a type of low toxic substance and less dangerous than aflatoxin and other highly toxic substances, and a small amount of residue would not increase the toxicity of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. However, sulfur fumigation might change the content of chemical substances and affect the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Furthermore, the exposure hazards of toxic substances are comprehensively correlated with exposure cycle, exposure frequency, and application method. In conclusion, it is suggested to strengthen the studies on the limit standard of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, formulate practical and feasible limit standard for sulfur dioxide residues in traditional Chinese

  9. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of air pollution by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, G; Rose, F


    Epiphytic lichens show specific differential responses to sulfur dioxide in the air, and it has been possible to construct a scale of SO/sub 2/ pollution based upon lichen communities present upon trees. Maps of pollution zones have now been prepared for England, Wales and Northern France. It has proved possible to correlate these zones with mean winter levels of sulfur dioxide measured instrumentally. Laboratory studies indicate the essential validity of this approach. An interesting correlation between air pollution and topography can be demonstrated in much of south-east England.

  10. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide (United States)

    Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes [State College, PA; Zhang, Yinzhi [State College, PA; Kuchta, Matthew E [State College, PA; Andresen, John M [State College, PA; Fauth, Dan J [Pittsburgh, PA


    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  11. Sulfur dioxide leaching of spent zinc-carbon-battery scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avraamides, J.; Senanayake, G.; Clegg, R. [A.J. Parker Cooperative Research Centre for Hydrometallurgy, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150 (Australia)


    Zinc-carbon batteries, which contain around 20% zinc, 35% manganese oxides and 10% steel, are currently disposed after use as land fill or reprocessed to recover metals or oxides. Crushed material is subjected to magnetic separation followed by hydrometallurgical treatment of the non-magnetic material to recover zinc metal and manganese oxides. The leaching with 2M sulfuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide recovers 93% Zn and 82% Mn at 25{sup o}C. Alkaline leaching with 6M NaOH recovers 80% zinc. The present study shows that over 90% zinc and manganese can be leached in 20-30min at 30{sup o}C using 0.1-1.0M sulfuric acid in the presence of sulfur dioxide. The iron extraction is sensitive to both acid concentration and sulfur dioxide flow rate. The effect of reagent concentration and particle size on the extraction of zinc, manganese and iron are reported. It is shown that the iron and manganese leaching follow a shrinking core kinetic model due to the formation of insoluble metal salts/oxides on the solid surface. This is supported by (i) the decrease in iron and manganese extraction from synthetic Fe(III)-Mn(IV)-Zn(II) oxide mixtures with increase in acid concentration from 1M to 2M, and (ii) the low iron dissolution and re-precipitation of dissolved manganese and zinc during prolonged leaching of battery scrap with low sulfur dioxide. (author)

  12. Methane oxidation in presence of sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantashyan, A.A.; Avetisyan, A.M.; Makaryan, E.M.; Wang, H.


    The emission of sulfurous gases including SO 2 from stationary power generation remains to be a serious environmental and ecological problem. Sulfurous gases are almost entirely produced from the combustion of sulfur-containing fuels. While fuel desulfurization and flue gas scrubbing is a viable solution, in the developing countries it remains to be an economical challenge to implement these SO x reduction technologies. The oxidation of methane in presence of sulfurous gas (SO 2 ) addition was studied experimentally. Te experiments were conducted in a static reactor at temperature of 728-786 K, and for mixture of C 4 /O 2 ≡ 1/2 at a pressure of 117 Torr with varying amount of SO 2 addition. It was observed that SO 2 addition accelerated the oxidation process, reduced the induction period and increased the extent of methane consumption. At the relatively short resident time (less than 50 sec) SO 3 was detected, but at longer residence time SO 3 was reduced spontaneously to SO 2

  13. Dramatic reduction of sulfur dioxide emission in Northeastern China in the last decade (United States)

    Yuan, J.


    Analysis of spatial and temporal variations of sulfur dioxide concentration in planetary boundary layer were conducted. The data were generated by NASA satellite daily from October of 2004 and were obtained through NASA Giovanni. The global monthly mean spatial distribution of sulfur dioxide showed several hot spots including: several spots on some islands in the Pacific Ocean, several spots in central America, and central Africa. Most of these hot spots of sulfur dioxide are related to known active volcanos. The biggest hot spot of sulfur dioxide were observed in Northeastern China. While high concentration sulfur dioxide was still observed in Northeastern China in 2017. The area averaged concentration of sulfur dioxide declined dramatically since its peak in 2008. This temporal trend indicates that sulfur reduction effort has been effective in the last decade or post 2008 financial crisis recovery lead an industry less sulfur dioxide emission.

  14. Observations of foliar injury to plants by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A.K.; Chaphekar, S.B.


    Morphological and anatomical changes in mature leaves indicated that Raphanus sativus, Commelina benghalensis and Medicago sativa were injured and Pennisetum typhoideum, Alternanthere ficoidea and Mangifera indica (seedlings) were not injured by sulfur dioxide fumigation. The highly susceptible plants like Raphanus, Medicago, and Commelina can be used for monitoring air quality in a polluted atmosphere. Uninjured species like Pennisetum on the other hand, may be grown in polluted areas for maintaining agricultural production. 9 references, 1 table.

  15. Sorbic acid interaction with sulfur dioxide in model food systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namor, O G


    The first chapter deals with the chemistry of sorbic acid and sulfur dioxide. The second chapter describes a study of the degradation products of sorbic acid, in aqueous systems, in the presence of sulfur dioxide and a possible mechanism for the occurrence of these products is proposed. Chapter three deals with the preparation and degradation of 6-(/sup 13/C)sorbic acid in order to find evidence for, or against, the mechanism proposed in chapter two. It also gives details of syntheses attempted in order to obtain 6- (/sup 13/C)sorbic acid. The interaction of sorbic acid and sulfur dioxide in real food systems is the subject of the fourth chapter. The food systems studied were mayonnaise, tomato puree, orange juice and cottage cheese. The effect of packaging on the rate of degradation of sorbic acid was also investigated. The final chapter deals with a microbiological study of two homologues of sorbic acid, 2,4-heptadienoic acid, 2,4-octadienoic acid. The fungicidal activity of these two compounds, towards selected fungi, was analyzed. 4-Oxobut-2-enoic acid, a degradation product of sorbic acid in aqueous systems, was also analyzed as a possible fungistat.

  16. Regional sulfur dioxide emissions: shall we achieve the goal? (United States)

    Tan, X.; Shi, L.; Wang, M.; Wang, JY


    Although economic growth is slowing down in the new normal period, air pollution is still a very serious problem in China. The 15% binding goal of sulfur dioxide emission reduction from 2016 to 2020, as stipulated in the 13th Five-Year Plan, has been an ambitious target for the Chinese government. This paper studies the synthetic evaluation and forecasting analysis of sulfur dioxide in China by means of a “grey model” approach combined with the grey relational analysis methods, with the panel data of 31 provinces from 2005 to 2015. Grey analysis used to analyse a system with imperfect information, such that a variety of available solutions is reviewed, and the optimal solution is identified. Some encouraging results show that national emissions and a majority of provinces will achieve the target. Over time, the gap of regional differences is rapidly closing. According to the results of grey relational analysis, we find industrial structure and energy consumption have a more significant impact on sulfur dioxide emissions than GDP. Atmospheric treatment investment and environmental protection manpower play a more important role in emissions variation. Based on the findings, we should distinguish different factors and take different measures to protect the environment.

  17. Exposure experiments of trees to sulfur dioxide gas. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, A.


    The effects of gaseous sulfur dioxide on trees were studied. Twenty species of plant seedlings (70 cm in height) including Cedrus deodara, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Ginkgo biloba, Celmus parvifolia var. albo-marginata, Pinus thumbergii, P. densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Quercus myrsinaefolia, were exposed in a room to gaseous sulfur dioxide at 0.8 ppm for 7.5 hr/day (from 9 am to 4:30 pm) for 24 days at a temperature of 20-35 deg C and RH of 55-75%. Visible damage to plants was lighter in C.j. and Chamae cyparis obtusa, more severe in P.t., G.b., and C.d. The damage appeared earlier in G.b., Cinnamomum camphona, and Ilex rotunda, and the change of early symptoms was smaller in P.t., C.j., and C.o. The leaves of the 4-5th positions from the sprout were apt to be damaged. Although the sulfur content of exposed leaves increased markedly, that in other parts did not increase. Because of the high concentration of the gas and the short period of exposure, the absorption of sulfur into leaves should have differed from the situation in fields where longer exposure to lower concentrations of the gas would be expected. 6 references.

  18. Effects on the forest of sulfur dioxide from a sulfur fire near Edson, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocking, D


    Sulfur was burnt in a sanitary landfill during August 9 and 10, 1974. Resulting sulfur dioxide impinged on the surrounding mixed forest for 29 h. About 4 ha of forest displayed visible injury symptoms of varying intensity soon after. However, only .4 ha remained permanently injured the next season. Here, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and scattered individuals of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), alder (Alnus tenuifolia Nutt.), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) were killed. This report describes the extent of injury, relative sensitivities of affected plant species, and recovery in the spring in 1975.

  19. Sulfur dioxide emissions from la soufriere volcano, st. Vincent, west indies. (United States)

    Hoff, R M; Gallant, A J


    During the steady-state period of activity of La Soufriere Volcano in 1979, the mass emissions of sulfur dioxide into the troposphere amounted to a mean value of 339 +/- 126 metric tons per day. This value is similar to the sulfur dioxide emissions of other Central American volcanoes but less than those measured at Mount Etna, an exceptionally strong volcanic source of sulfur dioxide.

  20. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  1. Effects of sulfur dioxide pollution on bark epiphytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, P D


    The destructive effects of sulfur dioxide pollution on epiphytic bryophytes is seen to be due to chlorophyll degradation and the impairment of cell structure and function through plasmolysis. Morphological changes noted by Pearson and Skye (1965) in lichens were not seen, although stunting and infertility are evident in epiphyte remnants in polluted areas. The investigation of the ion exchange and buffer capacities of sycamore bark indicates a loss of both in approximate proportion to the degree of pollution. Smoke and aerosol particles are not considered to be of particular importance at the present time although they may well have been important in the past.

  2. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution (United States)

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.


    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  3. Stability of patulin to sulfur dioxide and to yeast fermentation. (United States)

    Burroughs, L F


    The affinity of patulin for sulfur dioxide (SO2) is much less than was previously reported and is of little significance at the SO2 concentrations (below 200 ppm) used in the processing of apple juice and cider. However, at concentrations of 2000 ppm SO2 and 15 ppm patulin, combination was 90% complete in 2 days. Removal of SO2 liberated only part of the patulin, which suggests that 2 mechanisms are involved: one reversible (opening the hemiacetal ring) and one irreversible (SO2 addition at the double bond). Test with 2 yeasts used in English commercial cider making confirmed that patulin is effectively removed during yeast fermentation.

  4. Method and aparatus for flue gas cleaning by separation and liquefaction of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalek, F.T.


    This patent describes a method for recovering sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and cleaning flue gases emitted from power plants. It comprises: electronically treating the flue gases to neutralize its electrostatic charges and to enhance the coagulation of its molecules and particles; exchanging sensible and latent heat of the neutralized flue gases to lower its temperature down to a temperature approaching the ambient temperature while recovering its separating the flue gas in a first stage; cooling the separated enriched carbon dioxide gas fraction, after each separation stage, while removing its vapor condensate, then compressing the enriched carbon dioxide gas fraction and simultaneously cooling the compressed gas to liquefy the sulfur dioxide gas then; allowing the sulfur dioxide gas to condense, and continuously removing the liquefied sulfur dioxide; compressing he desulfurized enriched carbon dioxide fraction to further increase its pressure, and simultaneously cooling he compressed gas to liquefy the carbon dioxide gas, then; allowing the carbon dioxide gas to condense and continuously removing the liquefied carbon dioxide; allowing the light components of the flue gas to be released in a cooling tower discharge plume

  5. Lagrangian measurements of sulfur dioxide to sulfate conversion rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zak, B D


    On the basis of Project MISTT data and proposed homogenous gas phase oxidation mechanisms for sulfur dioxide, it has been suggested that the degree of mixing with background air, the chemical composition of the background air, and the intensity of the sunlight available are key factors determining the rate of sulfur dioxide to sulfate conversion. These hypotheses are examined in light of Lagrangian measrements of conversion rates in power plant plumes made during the Tennessee Plume Study and Project Da Vinci. It is found that the Lagrangian conversion rate measurements are consistent with these hypotheses. It has also been suggested that the concentration of ozone may serve as a workable surrogate for the concentrations of the free radicals involved in the homogeneous gas phase mechanism. The night-time Lagrangian data remind one that the gross difference in mean lifetime of ozone and free radicals can lead to situations in which the ozone concentration is not a good surrogate for the free radical concentrations.

  6. Method for rendering harmless sulfur dioxide-carrying gases and sulfur-carrying waste water from pyrolysis of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspegren, O E.A.; Eklund, A J


    A method is described for rendering harmless sulfur dioxide-carrying gases, which are formed in processes for the manufacture of solid, liquid, or gaseous products by pyrolysis of oil shale, and thereby to extract valuable products, characterized in that the sulfur dioxide-carrying gases are washed with a solution or sludge obtained by leaching wholly or partly burned-out residues from the pyrolysis.

  7. Comparative sensitivity of photosynthesis and translocation to sulfur dioxide damage in Phaseolus vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, R.D.


    The inhibiting effect of sulfur dioxide on photosynthesis in a mature bean leaf and, simultaneously, on the rate of carbohydrate translocation from this same leaf has been examined. The results show a reduction of 0, 13, and 73% in net photosynthesis and 39, 44, and 69% in translocation, at concentrations of 0.1, 1, and 3 ppm sulfur dioxide, respectively. The inhibition of translocation at 0.1 ppm sulfur dioxide without any accompanying inhibition of net photosynthesis indicates that translocation is considerably more sensitive to sulfur dioxide damage. The mechanism of translocation inhibition at 1 ppm sulfur dioxide or less is shown to be independent of photosynthetic inhibition. Whereas, it is suggested that at higher concentrations significant inhibition of photosynthesis causes an additive reduction of translocation due to reduced levels of transport sugars. Autoradiograms of 14 C-labeled source leaves indicate that one possible mechanism of sulfur dioxide damage to translocation is the inhibition of sieve-tube loading. Inhibition of phloem translocation at common ambient levels (0.1 ppm) of sulfur dioxide is important to the overall growth and yield of major agricultural crops sensitive to sulfur dioxide

  8. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (United States)


    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... gases which contain SO2 in excess of 110 nanograms per Joule (ng/J) (0.90 pounds per megawatt-hour (lb...

  9. Sulfur dioxide initiates global climate change in four ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Peter L.


    Global climate change, prior to the 20th century, appears to have been initiated primarily by major changes in volcanic activity. Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is the most voluminous chemically active gas emitted by volcanoes and is readily oxidized to sulfuric acid normally within weeks. But trace amounts of SO 2 exert significant influence on climate. All major historic volcanic eruptions have formed sulfuric acid aerosols in the lower stratosphere that cooled the earth's surface ∼ 0.5 o C for typically three years. While such events are currently happening once every 80 years, there are times in geologic history when they occurred every few to a dozen years. These were times when the earth was cooled incrementally into major ice ages. There have also been two dozen times during the past 46,000 years when major volcanic eruptions occurred every year or two or even several times per year for decades. Each of these times was contemporaneous with very rapid global warming. Large volumes of SO 2 erupted frequently appear to overdrive the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere resulting in very rapid warming. Such warming and associated acid rain becomes extreme when millions of cubic kilometers of basalt are erupted in much less than one million years. These are the times of the greatest mass extinctions. When major volcanic eruptions do not occur for decades to hundreds of years, the atmosphere can oxidize all pollutants, leading to a very thin atmosphere, global cooling and decadal drought. Prior to the 20th century, increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) followed increases in temperature initiated by changes in SO 2 . By 1962, man burning fossil fuels was adding SO 2 to the atmosphere at a rate equivalent to one 'large' volcanic eruption each 1.7 years. Global temperatures increased slowly from 1890 to 1950 as anthropogenic sulfur increased slowly. Global temperatures increased more rapidly after 1950 as the rate of anthropogenic sulfur emissions increased. By

  10. Petunia cultivar sensitivity to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkiey, T.; Ormrod, D.P.


    Ozone and sulfur dioxide are widespread pollutants in many of the areas in which petunias are grown as bedding-plants. Controlled environment experiments were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of Capri, White Magic and White Cascade to separate or combined O3 and SO2 at 2 growth stages. Relative cultivar sensitivity was the same for O3, SO2 or O3 + SO2, with Capri leaves least injured and White Cascade leaves most injured. Visible injury symptoms were similar in all cultivars. Leaves of intermediate age were most sensitive, but early vegetative plants were more sensitive to O3 than plants in immediate prefloral stage. Severity of leaf injury was generally greater from the combined gases than from the single gases, and the combination treatment at the early vegetative stage significantly reduced plant growth and flower weight 4 weeks later. 29 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

  11. Measurement of sulfur dioxide oxidation rates in wintertime orographic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, J.R.


    SO2-reaction studies in the clouds are examined and summarized to experimentally confirm model predictions and previous field studies regarding dominant SO2-reaction pathways. Controlled amounts of SO2 were released into nonprecipitating orographic clouds, and sulfate yields are compared to oxidant depletions. The sulfate yields were taken from cloud-water samples and liquid-water-concentration measurements, and oxidant-depletion data were generated from continuous gas-phase measurements. Comparisons of Y sub SO4 and D sub H2O2 suggest that H2O2 is the dominant oxidant, and the in-cloud reaction between H2O2 and the bisulfite ion can be expressed by a simple rate that agrees with predictions and laboratory results. The rate measurements are found to be inconsistent with the rate law proposed by Hegg and Hobbs (1982) and with some observational data. The present conclusions are of interest to evaluating the effects of sulfur dioxide emissions on sulfuric acid deposition. 30 refs

  12. Indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide from burning solid fuels for cooking and heating in Yunnan Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Downward, George S; Wei, Hu; Rothman, Nathaniel; Reiss, Boris; Xu, Jun; Bassig, Bryan A; Li, Jihua; He, Jun; Hosgood, H Dean; Wu, Guoping; Chapman, Robert S; Tian, Linwei; Wei, Fusheng; Caporaso, Neil E; Vermeulen, Roel; Lan, Qing


    The Chinese national pollution census has indicated that the domestic burning of solid fuels is an important contributor to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) emissions in China. To characterize indoor NO2 and SO2 air concentrations in relation to solid fuel use and stove ventilation

  13. Extraordinary Difference in Reactivity of Ozone (OOO) and Sulfur Dioxide (OSO): A Theoretical Study. (United States)

    Lan, Yu; Wheeler, Steven E; Houk, K N


    Ozone and sulfur dioxide are valence isoelectronic yet show very different reactivity. While ozone is one of the most reactive 1,3-dipoles, SO2 does not react in this way at all. The activation energies of dipolar cycloadditions of sulfur dioxide with either ethylene or acetylene are predicted here by B3LYP, M06-2X, CBS-QB3, and CCSD(T) to be much higher than reactions of ozone. The dipolar cycloaddition of ozone is very exothermic, while that of than sulfur dioxide is endothermic. The prohibitive barriers in the case of SO2 arise from large distortion energies as well as unfavorable interaction energies in the transition states. This arises in part from the HOMO-LUMO gap of sulfur dioxide, which is larger than that of ozone. Valence bond calculations also show that while ozone has a high degree of diradical character, SO2 does not, and is better characterized as a dritterion.

  14. Esterase-sensitive sulfur dioxide prodrugs inspired by modified Julia olefination. (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Wang, Binghe


    Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is an endogenously produced gaseous molecule, and is emerging as a potential gasotransmitter. Herein, we describe the first series of esterase-sensitive prodrugs inspired by modified Julia olefination as SO 2 donors.

  15. The influence of water vapor and sulfur dioxide on the catalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalamas, C.; Heinisch, R.; Barz, M. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik; Cournil, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 42 - Saint-Etienne (France)


    For the nitrous oxide decomposition three groups of catalysts such as metals on support, hydrotalcites, and perovskites were studied relating to their activity in the presence of vapor or sulfur dioxide, in the temperature range from 200 to 500 C. It was found that the water vapor strongly inhibates the nitrous oxide decomposition at T=200-400 C. The sulfur dioxide poisons the catalysts, in particular the perovskites. (orig.)

  16. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test is completed...) of this section, any gases that contain SO2 in excess of: (1) 520 ng/J (1.20 lb/MMBtu) heat input and...

  17. 40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as provided under paragraph (d) of this section, on and after the date... affected facility any gases that contain SO2 in excess of: (1) 340 ng/J heat input (0.80 lb/MMBtu) derived...

  18. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties (United States)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.


    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  19. Determination of sulfur dioxide in wine using headspace gas chromatography and electron capture detection. (United States)

    Aberl, A; Coelhan, M


    Sulfites are routinely added as preservatives and antioxidants in wine production. By law, the total sulfur dioxide content in wine is restricted and therefore must be monitored. Currently, the method of choice for determining the total content of sulfur dioxide in wine is the optimised Monier-Williams method, which is time consuming and laborious. The headspace gas chromatographic method described in this study offers a fast and reliable alternative method for the detection and quantification of the sulfur dioxide content in wine. The analysis was performed using an automatic headspace injection sampler, coupled with a gas chromatograph and an electron capture detector. The method is based on the formation of gaseous sulfur dioxide subsequent to acidification and heating of the sample. In addition to free sulfur dioxide, reversibly bound sulfur dioxide in carbonyl compounds, such as acetaldehyde, was also measured with this method. A total of 20 wine samples produced using diverse grape varieties and vintages of varied provenance were analysed using the new method. For reference and comparison purposes, 10 of the results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those acquired by the optimised Monier-Williams method. Overall, the results from the headspace analysis showed good correlation (R = 0.9985) when compared with the conventional method. This new method requires minimal sample preparation and is simple to perform, and the analysis can also be completed within a short period of time.

  20. Sulfur dioxide content of the air and its influence on the plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeck, G; Reckendorfer, P; Beran, F


    Clover was exposed to concentrations of sulfur dioxide ranging from 5 to 50 ppm for periods of 1 to 4 hours. The higher concentrations caused an increase in sulfur content. Single exposures did not affect the digestible protein content of the plants. 10 tables, 3 figures.

  1. Absorption of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide by petunia plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkiey, T.; Ormrod, D.P.


    Petunia plants (Petunia hybrida Vilm.) of three varieties with differing air pollutant sensitivities were grown in controlled environments and the absorption rates of ozone (O/sub 3/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) determined during single gas and mixed gas exposures. Additional experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of duration of exposure, leaf age, and plant growth stage on absorption of O/sub 3/. Absorption of all pollutants from single gases or the mixture was generally greater for the more sensitive varieties. Absorption from single gases was generally greater than from the mixed gases. Absorption rates tended to decrease gradually throughout the day and from day to day with continuous exposure. Absorption of O/sub 3/ was proportional to exposure concentration and decreased with time at differing rates for each variety. More O/sub 3/ was absorbed by older than younger leaves and by plants at the early vegetative stage compared with those in the prefloral stage.

  2. Seasonal trends of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide over North Santa Clara, Cuba. (United States)

    Alejo, Daniellys; Morales, Mayra C; de la Torre, Jorge B; Grau, Ricardo; Bencs, László; Van Grieken, René; Van Espen, Piet; Sosa, Dismey; Nuñez, Vladimir


    Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels were monitored simultaneously by means of Radiello passive samplers at six sites of Santa Clara city, Cuba, in the cold and the warm seasons in 2010. The dissolved ionic forms of NO2 and SO2 as nitrate and sulfite plus sulfate, respectively, were determined by means of ion chromatography. Analysis of NO2 as nitrite was also performed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. For NO2, significant t tests show good agreement between the results of IC and UV-Vis methods. The NO2 and SO2 concentrations peaked in the cold season, while their minimum levels were experienced in the warm season. The pollutant levels do not exceed the maximum allowable limit of the Cuban Standard 39:1999, i.e., 40 μg/m(3) and 50 μg/m(3) for NO2 and SO2, respectively. The lowest pollutant concentrations obtained in the warm season can be attributed to an increase in their removal via precipitation (scavenging) while to the decreased traffic density and industrial emission during the summer holidays (e.g., July and August).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper


    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. The PFS product was used in pilot-scale tests at a municipal water treatment facility and gave good results in removal of turbidity and superior results in removal of disinfection byproduct precursors (TOC, DOC, UV-254) when compared with equal doses of ferric chloride.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper


    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results

  5. Sulfur dioxide concentration measurements in the vicinity of the Albert Funk mining and metallurgical plant complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M


    This article discusses the ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide in the area of Freiberg, GDR. The emission of sulfur dioxide results for the most part from brown coal combustion in heat and power plants and in metallurgical plants. Sulfur dioxide emission from neighboring industrial centers such as Dresden and North Bohemian towns affects the Freiburg area to some extent. The use of brown coal in household heating contributes an average of 50 kg of sulfur dioxide emission per coal burning household annually. A total of 1260 measurements at 28 points in the vicinity of Freiberg were made in the year 1972 in evaluating the concentration of sulfur dioxide present in the air. In 75% of the measurements the concentrations were below 0.15 mg/mat3, in 12% between 0.15 and 0.2 mg/mat3, in 7% between 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mat3 and in 6% between 0.3 and 0.5 mg/mat3. The results are described as average industrial pollution. The influence of air temperature, wind velocity, fog, season and time of day are also discussed. (4 refs.) (In German)

  6. Sulfur cathodes with hydrogen reduced titanium dioxide inverse opal structure. (United States)

    Liang, Zheng; Zheng, Guangyuan; Li, Weiyang; Seh, Zhi Wei; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi


    Sulfur is a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries with a high specific capacity of 1675 mAh/g. The rapid capacity fading, however, presents a significant challenge for the practical application of sulfur cathodes. Two major approaches that have been developed to improve the sulfur cathode performance include (a) fabricating nanostructured conductive matrix to physically encapsulate sulfur and (b) engineering chemical modification to enhance binding with polysulfides and, thus, to reduce their dissolution. Here, we report a three-dimensional (3D) electrode structure to achieve both sulfur physical encapsulation and polysulfides binding simultaneously. The electrode is based on hydrogen reduced TiO2 with an inverse opal structure that is highly conductive and robust toward electrochemical cycling. The relatively enclosed 3D structure provides an ideal architecture for sulfur and polysulfides confinement. The openings at the top surface allow sulfur infusion into the inverse opal structure. In addition, chemical tuning of the TiO2 composition through hydrogen reduction was shown to enhance the specific capacity and cyclability of the cathode. With such TiO2 encapsulated sulfur structure, the sulfur cathode could deliver a high specific capacity of ∼1100 mAh/g in the beginning, with a reversible capacity of ∼890 mAh/g after 200 cycles of charge/discharge at a C/5 rate. The Coulombic efficiency was also maintained at around 99.5% during cycling. The results showed that inverse opal structure of hydrogen reduced TiO2 represents an effective strategy in improving lithium sulfur batteries performance.

  7. Review of the health risks associated with nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, M.; Henderson, S.; Kirkham, T.; Lee, K.S.; Rich, R.; Teschke, K.


    The scientific literature on the health effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) were reviewed with particular focus on the chemical and physical properties of the 2 gases and the toxicological characteristics identified in animal studies at exposure concentrations near the rate of ambient human exposures. The study also examined the expected levels of non-industrial indoor exposure of Canadians compared to other regions with similar climates. The sources of indoor pollution were also reviewed, along with the contribution of outdoor pollution to indoor levels. Results from epidemiological studies of indoor exposures in homes, offices and schools were also presented. For each pollutant, the study identified anthropogenic sources, indoor sources, toxicological characteristics, biochemistry, pulmonary effects, immune response, and other effects. Indoor sources of NO 2 include gas-fired appliances, pilot lights, hot water heaters, kerosene heaters, and tobacco smoke. The impact of ventilation on both NO 2 and SO 2 levels was also examined. Outdoor sources such as traffic can also contribute to indoor levels, particularly in urban areas. In the case of SO 2 , coal heating and cooling appear to be associated in increased indoor levels. The epidemiological studies that were reviewed failed in general to indicate an association between NO 2 exposure and a wide range of health impacts. The studies, however, indicate that asthmatics are more susceptible to the effects of NO 2 exposure. In the case of SO 2 , evidence suggests that it has a chronic effect on lung function and respiratory symptoms and disease. 243 refs., 13 tabs

  8. Effects of low sulfur dioxide concentrations on bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of Aglianico red wine. (United States)

    Gabriele, Morena; Gerardi, Chiara; Lucejko, Jeannette J; Longo, Vincenzo; Pucci, Laura; Domenici, Valentina


    This study analyzed the effect of low sulfur dioxide concentrations on the chromatic properties, phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Aglianico red wines with respect to wines produced from conventional winemaking. We determined the phytochemical composition by spectrophotometric methods and HPLC-DAD analysis and the in vitro antioxidant activity of different wine samples by the ORAC assay. The main important classes of fluorophore molecules in red wine were identified by Front-Face fluorescence spectroscopy, and the emission intensity trend was investigated at various sulfur dioxide concentrations. Lastly, we tested the effects of both conventional and low sulfite wines on ex vivo human erythrocytes under oxidative stimulus by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay and the hemolysis test. The addition of sulfur dioxide, which has well-known side effects, increased the content of certain bioactive components but did not raise the erythrocyte antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Foliar injury responses of eleven plant species to ozone/sulfur dioxide mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, D T; Reinert, R A; Dunning, J A; Heck, W W


    Eleven plant species were exposed to ozone and/or sulfur dioxide to determine if a mixture of the two gases enhanced foliar injury. Tobacco, radish, and alfalfa developed more injury that the additive injury of the single gases. In other species, such as cabbage, broccoli, and tomato, the foliar injury from mixed-gas exposures was additive or less than additive. Leaf injury from the ozone/sulfur dioxide mixture appeared as upper surface flecking, stipple, bifacial necrosis, and lower surface glazing and, in general, appeared similar to injury from oxidant or ozone. The concentrations of ozone and sulfur dioxide that caused plant injury were similar to those found in urban areas. These concentrations may result in yield losses to plants grown under field conditions.

  10. Simple spectrophotometry method for the determination of sulfur dioxide in an alcohol-thionyl chloride reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jinjian, E-mail:; Tan, Feng; Hartman, Robert


    Thionyl chloride is often used to convert alcohols into more reactive alkyl chloride, which can be easily converted to many compounds that are not possible from alcohols directly. One important reaction of alkyl chloride is nucleophilic substitution, which is typically conducted under basic conditions. Sulfur dioxide, the by-product from alcohol-thionyl chloride reactions, often reacts with alkyl chloride to form a sulfonyl acid impurity, resulting in yield loss. Therefore, the alkyl chloride is typically isolated to remove the by-products including sulfur dioxide. However, in our laboratory, the alkyl chloride formed from alcohol and thionyl chloride was found to be a potential mutagenic impurity, and isolation of this compound would require extensive safety measures. As a result, a flow-through process was developed, and the sulfur dioxide was purged using a combination of vacuum degassing and nitrogen gas sweeping. An analytical method that can quickly and accurately quantitate residual levels of sulfur dioxide in the reaction mixture is desired for in-process monitoring. We report here a simple ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry method for this measurement. This method takes advantage of the dramatic change in the UV absorbance of sulfur dioxide with respect to pH, which allows for accurate quantitation of sulfur dioxide in the presence of the strong UV-absorbing matrix. Each sample solution was prepared using 2 different diluents: 1) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% v/v hydrochloric acid, pH 1.3, and 2) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% glacial acetic acid, pH 4.0. The buffer solutions were carefully selected so that the UV absorbance of the sample matrix (excluding sulfur dioxide) at 276 nm remains constant. In the pH 1.3 buffer system, sulfur dioxide shows strong UV absorbance at 276 nm. Therefore, the UV absorbance of sample solution is the sum of sulfur dioxide and sample matrix. While in the pH 4.0 buffer system, sulfur dioxide has

  11. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naddafi, R. Nabizadeh, Z. Soltanianzadeh, M. H. Ehrampoosh


    Full Text Available Air pollution phenomenon in urban areas is a consequence of industrial revolution. Since air pollution destroys the environment, destruction, many countries have devoted research work to this issue and have developed considerable amount of programs to control air pollution. There are a lot of industrial activities in addition to sandstorms that lead to the spread of dust and particles in the air in Yazd city. In this work, dustfall and its relation with climate conditions in Yazd were determined. The study method was descriptive and cross-sectional. The sampling was done from 25/8/2005 to 19/3/2006 in 4 month long periods. (end of August-end of September , (end of September –end of October, (end of October-end of November, (19 February-19 March. The sampling was done in Jomhuri bulevard, Homafar Square, Shahid Beheshti Square , Seyd Gole Sorkh Ave. and Kashani Street by dust fall jar method. Results of this research shows that maximum concentration of dust fall was in the first period equal to 9.74 g/m².mo and minimum concentration was in the third period (October-November and was equal to 3.13 g/m².mo. the maximum concentration was related to Homafar Square (8.91 g/m².mo and the minimum concentration was related to Kashani Street was equal to 3.68 g/m².mo. Concentration average of dustfall in 4 the periods was 6.49 g/m².mo. The volatile part of dustfall was 50.6% and the fixed part was 49.4%. Correlations between concentration of dustfall, humidity, temperature, wind speed, and precipitation and the corresponding Pvalue were calculated and the results show that there is a direct relationship between the amount of dustfall and wind speed while humidity and precipitation are inversely proportional to the amount of dustfall. No relationship was found between temperature and dustfall concentration.

  13. Damage to greenhouse plants caused by town fogs with special reference to sulfur dioxide and light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, C R


    This paper describes a series of experiments carried out on greenhouse plants to assess the effects of urban air pollution. The approach was to place fuming sulfuric acid in a greenhouse, then circulate the fumes throughout the greehouse with fans. Symptoms produced were then compared with those found on plants in urban areas. The symptoms matched well and sulfur dioxide was declared the culprit. 14 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control (United States)

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA


    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  15. Saskatoon serviceberry and ambient sulfur dioxide exposures: study sites re-visited, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupa, S.V.; Legge, A.H.


    Field surveys for symptoms of foliar injury in a regional airshed that is influenced by a number of point sources of SO x , NO x and hydrocarbons, combined with foliar and soil sulfur analyses, confirmed earlier results that Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) cv. Smokey can be used as a biological indicator of chronic sulfur dioxide exposures, in the presence of other phytotoxic air pollutants such as ozone. (Author)

  16. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality... (United States)


    ... Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO[bdi2]) Primary National Ambient Air Quality... air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for the 2010 primary Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The EPA is issuing this rule to identify areas...

  17. Dose-response relationships of acute exposure to sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englehardt, F.R.; Holliday, M.G.


    Acute toxicity effects of sulphur dioxide are reviewed, and the derivation of a dose-lethality curve (presented as LC 50 vs. time) for human exposure to sulphur dioxide is attempted for periods ranging from ten seconds to two hours. As an aid to assessment of the hazards involved in operating heavy water manufacturing facilities, the fact that sulphur dioxide would be produced by the combustion of hydrogen sulphide was briefly considered in an appendix. It is suggested that sulphuric acid, a much more toxic substance than sulphur dioxide, may also be formed in such an event. It is concluded, therefore, that an overall hazard evaluation may have to address the contributory effects of sulphuric acid. (author)

  18. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lu


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2 emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000–2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in

  19. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Peruvian copper smelters detected by the ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carn, S.A.; Krueger, A.J.; Krotkov, N.A.; Yang, Kai; Levelt, P.F.


    We report the first daily observations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from copper smelters by a satellite-borne sensor - the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's EOS/Aura spacecraft. Emissions from two Peruvian smelters (La Oroya and Ilo) were detected in up to 80% of OMI overpasses

  20. Experimental studies on the injurious effect of sulfur dioxide upon the rice cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, T; Takahashi, T


    From experimental studies on the injurious effect of sulfur dioxide upon the cultivation of rice it was ascertained that SO2 strongly affects the pollen and the ovary. The pollen and the matured grain showed a decrease in fertility when the plant is fumigated at the flowering and boot stage.

  1. The sampling of sulfur dioxide in air with impregnated filter paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huygen, C.


    A method is suggested for the sampling of sulfur dioxide in air with impregnated filter paper instead of bubblers. The best aqueous impregnating solution contained potassium hydroxide with glycerol or triethanolamine. The possibilities and limitations of the method are discussed. High collection

  2. Gas chromatographic studies of the relative retention of the sulfur isotopes in carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetzer, J.C.; Rogers, L.B.


    A precision gas chromatograph, coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an on-line computer, was used to study the fractionation on Porasil A of the 32 S/ 34 S isotopic pair in a variety of sulfur-containing molecules. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) yielded an average α value of 1.00074 +- 0.00017 (standard deviation) for the temperature range 25 0 C to 75 0 C. The carbon disulfide (CS 2 ) value was 1.00069 +- 0.00023 for the range 53 0 C to 103 0 C, and that for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) was 1.00090 +- 0.00018 for the range 62 0 C to 112 0 C. Differential thermodynamic data have been reported. A Porapak Q column showed no fractionation of this isotopic pair in these three molecules

  3. Hysteresis Phenomena in Sulfur Dioxide Oxidation over Supported Vanadium Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen G.; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus


    Catalyst deactivation and hysteresis behavior in industrial SO2-oxidation catalysts have been studied in the temperature region 350-480 C by combined in situ EPR spectroscopy and catalytic activity measurements. The feed gas composition simulated sulfuric acid synthesis gas and wet/dry de......NOx'ed flue gas. The vanadium (IV) compound K4(VO)3(SO4)5 precipitated during all the investigated conditions hence causing catalyst deactivation. Hysteresis behavior of both the catalytic activity and the V(IV) content was observed during reheating....

  4. Injury to fruit and forest trees from sulfur dioxide emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, H


    Observations and the results of examinations on the control of emissions in the northeastern part of the industrial area of Nordrhein-Westfalen led to the conclusions that under certain conditions plant analysis is an important tool in diagnosing smoke injuries. Schedules for the sensitivity of plants are only of local and temporary value. The applicability of comparative plant analyses to smoke injuries is demonstrated by examples. A number of examples show that parasitic attack or illness magnify the effects of SO/sub 2/. For several tree species the seasonal total content of sulfur (given as SO/sub 2/) in the foliage is shown by curves, which are similar to those obtained in Leicester. 17 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  5. A Sulfur Dioxide Climate Feedback on Early Mars (United States)

    Halevy, I.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.; Schrag, D. P.


    Reconciling evidence for persistent liquid water during the late Noachian with our understanding of the evolution of the Martian atmosphere and of solar luminosity remains a challenge, despite several decades of research. An optically-thicker atmosphere to supply the necessary radiative forcing would result in the existence of a carbon cycle similar to Earth's, where the release of CO2 from volcanoes is balanced by burial of calcium carbonate through silicate weathering reactions that remove protons and release alkalinity to surface waters. Existence of such a carbon cycle on Mars, even for tens of millions of years, would yield carbonate sediments in far greater abundance than has been observed, as well as residual clay minerals. The high concentration of sulfur in Martian soils and rocks indicates that Martian volcanic emissions contained abundant sulfur volatiles in addition to CO2. However, the atmospheric and aquatic chemistry of SO2 under the reducing conditions of early Mars, in contrast with the presently oxidizing and biologically-catalyzed Earth, has not been thoroughly examined. We argue that these conditions may have allowed atmospheric concentrations of SO2 high enough to augment a thick CO2-H2O greenhouse. Furthermore, early Martian climate may have been stabilized by a feedback mechanism involving SO2 and the solubility of sulfite minerals instead of CO2 and the solubility of carbonates. We present the results of a one-dimensional radiative-convective model, demonstrating the radiative importance of SO2 to the planetary energy budget. We also use a simple geochemical model to show that the presence of SO2 in the early Martian atmosphere would have dominated the aquatic chemistry on the planet's surface, and may provide an explanation for how water could have persisted for millions of years without forming massive carbonate sediments, yet allowing the formation of clay minerals.

  6. Using Demonstrations Involving Combustion and Acid-Base Chemistry to Show Hydration of Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, and Magnesium Oxide and Their Relevance for Environmental Climate Science (United States)

    Shaw, C. Frank, III; Webb, James W.; Rothenberger, Otis


    The nature of acidic and basic (alkaline) oxides can be easily illustrated via a series of three straightforward classroom demonstrations for high school and general chemistry courses. Properties of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and magnesium oxide are revealed inexpensively and safely. Additionally, the very different kinetics of hydration of…

  7. Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, 1850-2005: National and Regional Data Set by Source Category, Version 2.86 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, 1850-2005: National and Regional Data Set by Source Category, Version 2.86 provides annual estimates of anthropogenic...

  8. Sulfur dioxide concentrations near thermoelectric power plant of Rossano Calabro (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florio, G.


    This article presents the results of a one-year atmospheric sulfur dioxide concentration monitoring campaign conducted with the use of five detection stations situated near the 320 MW thermoelectric power plant serving the coastal town of Rossano Calabro (population 50,000). Apart from the analysis of sulfur dioxide concentrations, a meteorological study was carried out based on anemological data. Comparisons were made with reference to the relevant legal standards. It was thus possible to ascertain that air quality near the power station is quite high. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that, due to the particular local meteorological situation strongly turbulent sea breezes, new detection stations should be opened in this area which may undergo significant industrial development

  9. Sulfur dioxide concentrations near thermoelectric power plant of Rossano Calabro (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G. (Calabria Univ., Arcavacata di Rende (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica)

    This article presents the results of a one-year atmospheric sulfur dioxide concentration monitoring campaign conducted with the use of five detection stations situated near the 320 MW thermoelectric power plant serving the coastal town of Rossano Calabro (population 50,000). Apart from the analysis of sulfur dioxide concentrations, a meteorological study was carried out based on anemological data. Comparisons were made with reference to the relevant legal standards. It was thus possible to ascertain that air quality near the power station is quite high. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that, due to the particular local meteorological situation strongly turbulent sea breezes, new detection stations should be opened in this area which may undergo significant industrial development.

  10. Formation and scavenging of superoxide in chloroplasts, with relation to injury by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, K


    Injury of plant leaf cells by sulfur dioxide-exposure is greater in day time than in night. A hypothesis is proposed that the free radical chain oxidation of sulfite is initiated by the superoxide radicals (O/sub 2//sup -/) produced in illuminated chloroplasts, and that the resulting amplified production of O/sub 2//sup -/, the hydroxyl radicals and the bisulfite radicals causes the injury of leaf tissues. In this review, the production of O/sub 2//sup -/ in illuminated chloroplasts and scavenging of O/sub 2//sup -/ by superoxide dismutase and their relation to oxidation of sulfite in chloroplasts are discussed. Superoxide dismutase in chloroplasts plays an important role in protecting leaf cells from injury by sulfur dioxide.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation and sulfur dioxide treatment on storability of some grape varieties (Vitis Vinifera L.) in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.


    The feasibility of using gamma irradiation and sulfur dioxide to control post-harvest diseases and to extend shelf life of table grapes in cold storage (1-2 C deg) was studied using two local varieties of grapes (Baladi and Helwani). The experiment was conducted for two years (1995 and 1996). In the first year, the clusters of both varieties were subjected to one of the following treatments: Irradiation with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy of gamma rays, sulfur dioxide (3 g Na 2 S 2 O 5 / 5 Kg clusters) or combination of both 1.0 KGy of gamma irradiation and sulfur dioxide. In the second year, two additional doses were applied: 0.1 and 0.25 KGy for Helwani and 2.0 and 2.5 KGy for Baladi. Clusters of both var. were treated with combined treatments (1.5 KGy and sulfur dioxide for Baladi) and (0.5 KGy and sulfur dioxide for Helwani). Treated and untreated clusters were kept in cold storage (temperature, 1 to 2 C deg). Weight loss, spoilage and total loss were evaluated every two and four weeks of storage for Baladi and Helwani, respectively. With the exception of Helwani var. produced in the first year and treated with sulfur dioxide, the results indicated that separate application of sulfur dioxide and gamma radiation reduced the rotting induced by (B. cinerea) and improved the storability of both varieties. Gamma irradiation in combination with sulfur dioxide preserved the two varieties of table grapes. (author)

  12. Observed regional distribution of sulfur dioxide in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, G.R.; Ferm, M.; Adikary, S.; Ahmad, J.; Mohan, M.; Hong, M.S.; Chen, L.; Fook, L.; Liu, C.M.; Soedomo, M.; Tran, G.; Suksomsank, K.; Zhao, D.; Arndt, R.; Chen, L.L.


    Increased use of coal for energy in Asia has led to increased SO 2 emissions. SO 2 concentrations have been measured for one year at forty-five locations throughout Asia using passive samplers. Duplicate samples were exposed at each site for one month intervals. The sites were selected to provide background information on the distribution of SO 2 over wide geographical regions, with emphasis on the regional characteristics around areas estimated to be sensitive to sulfur deposition. The annual mean values ranged from less than 0.3 μg/m 3 at Tana Rata, located at 1545 m on the Malaysia Peninsula, Lawa Mandau (Borneo), Malaysia, and Dhankuta, Nepal, to values greater than 20 μg/m 3 at Luchongguan (Guiyang) China, Babar Mahal, Nepal, and Hanoi, Vietnam. In general high concentrations were measured throughout China, with the highest concentrations in the heavy industrial areas in Guiyang. The concentrations in east Asia around the Korea peninsula were ∼ 5 μg/m 3 . The concentrations in the southeast Asia tropics were low, with no station in Malaysia and Indonesia having average concentrations exceeding 1.7 μg/m 3 . The observed SO 2 concentrations were found to display a distinct seasonal cycle which is strongly influenced by the seasonality of winds and precipitation patterns. 3 refs., 3 figs

  13. Non-mass-dependent fractionation of sulfur and oxygen isotopes during UV photolysis of sulfur dioxide (United States)

    Pen, Aranh

    Since the discovery of anomalous sulfur isotope abundance in the geological record in sulfate and sulfide minerals (Farquhar et al., 2000), much effort has been put into understanding their origin to provide new insights into the environmental conditions on the early Earth (Farquhar et al., 2001; Pavlov and Kasting, 2002; Ono et al., 2003; Zahnle et al., 2006; Farquhar et al., 2007; Lyons, 2007; Lyons, 2008). This discovery gained immense interest because of its implications for both the lack of oxygen in the atmosphere during the Archean era 2.5-3.8 Gya (billion years ago), and for rise of oxygen, or the "Great Oxidation Event", that occurred 2.2-2.4 Gya (Holland, 2002). These signatures are believed to be produced in an anticorrelation to oxygen abundance in the early atmosphere, which will aid in quantifying the rate of oxygenation during the "Great Oxidation Event". According to Farquhar et al. (2000), the non-mass-dependent (NMD), or anomalous, fractionation signatures were produced by photochemical reactions of volcanic sulfur species in Earth's early atmosphere (> 2.3 Gya) due to the lack of an oxygen and ozone shield, resulting in an atmosphere transparent to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Farquhar et al., 2001). Interpretation of the anomalous rock records, though, depends on the identification of (1) chemical reactions that can produce the NMD signature (Farquhar and Wing, 2003); and (2) conditions necessary for conversion of the gas-phase products into solid minerals (Pavlov and Kasting, 2002). The focus of my research addresses the first step, which is to determine whether the chemical reactions that occurred in Earth's early atmosphere, resulting in NMD fractionation of sulfur isotopes, were due to broadband UV photochemistry, and to test isotopic self-shielding as the possible underlying mechanism. In this project, our goals were to test isotopic self-shielding during UV photolysis as a possible underlying mechanism for anomalous sulfur isotopic

  14. Inhibition of phosphorylation and incorporation of thymidine in Duckweed (Lemna minor L. ) by sulfur dioxide and sulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braendle, R; Stoeckli, B; Erismann, K H


    As there appears to be no thymidine kinase in duckweed (Lemna minor L.), thymidine seems to be phosphorylated by a nucleoside phosphotransferase. Phosphorylation and incorporation are inhibited by sulfur compounds such as sulfur dioxide and sulfite. The data are discussed in relation to the physiological effect of the air pollutant (SO2) on plant life. 12 references, 2 tables.

  15. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.


    This project has investigated new metal oxide catalysts for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as CO. Significant progress in catalyst development has been made during the course of the project. We have found that fluorite oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, and rare earth zirconates such as Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are active and stable catalysts for reduction Of SO{sub 2} by CO. More than 95% sulfur yield was achieved at reaction temperatures about 450{degrees}C or higher with the feed gas of stoichiometric composition. Reaction of SO{sub 2} and CO over these catalysts demonstrated a strong correlation of catalytic activity with the catalyst oxygen mobility. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and resistance to H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} poisoning of these catalysts were significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Co, etc. The resulting transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalyst has superior activity and stability, and shows promise in long use for the development of a greatly simplified single-step sulfur recovery process to treat variable and dilute SO{sub 2} concentration gas streams. Among various active composite catalyst systems the Cu-CeO{sub 2} system has been extensively studied. XRD, XPS, and STEM analyses of the used Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst found that the fluorite crystal structure of ceria was stable at the present reaction conditions, small amounts of copper was dispersed and stabilized on the ceria matrix, and excess copper oxide particles formed copper sulfide crystals of little contribution to catalytic activity. A working catalyst consisted of partially sulfated cerium oxide surface and partially sulfided copper clusters. The overall reaction kinetics were approximately represented by a first order equation.

  16. Sulfur dioxide emissions and sectorial contributions to sulfur deposition in Asia (United States)

    Arndt, Richard L.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Streets, David G.; Bhatti, Neeloo

    Anthropogenic and volcanic emissions of SO 2 in Asia for 1987-1988 are estimated on a 1° × 1° grid. Anthropogenic sources are estimated to be 31.6 Tg of SO 2 with the regions' volcanoes emitting an additional 3.8 Tg. For Southeast Asia and the Indian sub-continent, the emissions are further partitioned into biomass, industrial, utilities, and non-specific sources. In these regions emissions from biomass, utilities and industrial sources account for 16.7, 21.7, and 12.2%, respectively. In Bangladesh, ˜ 90% of the SO 2 emissions result from biomass burning and nearly 20% of India's 5 Tg of SO 2 emissions are due to biomass burning. Malaysia and Singapore's emissions are dominated by the utilities with 42 and 62% of their respective emissions coming from that sector. The spatial distribution of sulfur deposition resulting from these emissions is calculated using an atmospheric transport and deposition model. Sulfur deposition in excess of 2 g m -2 yr -1 is predicted in vast regions of east Asia, India, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Indonesia with deposition in excess of 5 g m -2 yr -1 predicted in southern China. For the Indian sub-continent and Southeast Asia the contribution of biomass burning, industrial activities, and utilities to total sulfur emissions and deposition patterns are evaluated. Biomass burning is found to be a major source of sulfur deposition throughout southeast Asia. Deposition in Bangladesh and northern India is dominated by this emissions sector. Deposition in Thailand, the Malay Peninsula and the island of Sumatra is heavily influenced by emissions from utilities. The ecological impact of the deposition, in 1988 and in the year 2020, is also estimated using critical loads data developed in the RAINS-ASIA projects. Much of eastern China, the Korean Peninsula, Japan, Thailand, and large regions of India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, and sections of Vietnam are at risk due to deposition in excess of their

  17. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries. (United States)

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H


    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months.

  18. Influence of sulfur dioxide and ozone on vegetation of bean and barley plants under different soil moisture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowski, A; Grzesiak, S


    The effects of toxic gases on extent of injuries to assimilating surface, dry weight yields, and generative development in bean and barley were studied in three successive phases of vegetation under conditions of optimum soil moisture and of drought just above the wilting point. Experiments with ozone and sulfur dioxide on bean and SO/sub 2/ on barley demonstrate that the susceptibility of plants to toxic gases decrease under drought conditions that cause a temporary dehydration of tissues. Determinations of sulfate sulfur contents in different plant organs show that a lower hydration of tissues is accompanied by lower adsorption of sulfur dioxide.

  19. Attribution of atmospheric sulfur dioxide over the English Channel to dimethyl sulfide and changing ship emissions (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Smyth, Timothy J.


    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) was measured continuously from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) near Plymouth, United Kingdom, between May 2014 and November 2015. This coastal site is exposed to marine air across a wide wind sector. The predominant southwesterly winds carry relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, air from the southeast is heavily influenced by exhaust plumes from ships in the English Channel as well as near Plymouth Sound. A new International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulation came into force in January 2015 to reduce the maximum allowed sulfur content in ships' fuel 10-fold in sulfur emission control areas such as the English Channel. Our observations suggest a 3-fold reduction in ship-emitted SO2 from 2014 to 2015. Apparent fuel sulfur content calculated from coincidental SO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2) peaks from local ship plumes show a high level of compliance to the IMO regulation (> 95 %) in both years (˜ 70 % of ships in 2014 were already emitting at levels below the 2015 cap). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important source of atmospheric SO2 even in this semi-polluted region. The relative contribution of DMS oxidation to the SO2 burden over the English Channel increased from about one-third in 2014 to about one-half in 2015 due to the reduction in ship sulfur emissions. Our diel analysis suggests that SO2 is removed from the marine atmospheric boundary layer in about half a day, with dry deposition to the ocean accounting for a quarter of the total loss.

  20. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions. (United States)

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R; Martinez, Andrew S; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L; Wingen, Lisa M; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R; Gerber, R Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J


    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine-California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs.

  1. Space-Based Detection of Missing Sulfur Dioxide Sources of Global Air Pollution (United States)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna


    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world-over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf-and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr(exp -1), or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  2. Adsorption of sulfur dioxide on ammonia-treated activated carbon fibers (United States)

    Mangun, C.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Economy, J.


    A series of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and ammonia-treated ACFs prepared from phenolic fiber precursors have been studied to elucidate the role of pore size, pore volume, and pore surface chemistry on adsorption of sulfur dioxide and its catalytic conversion to sulfuric acid. As expected, the incorporation of basic functional groups into the ACFs was shown as an effective method for increasing adsorption of sulfur dioxide. The adsorption capacity for dry SO2 did not follow specific trends; however the adsorption energies calculated from the DR equation were found to increase linearly with nitrogen content for each series of ACFs. Much higher adsorption capacities were achieved for SO2 in the presence of oxygen and water due to its catalytic conversion to H2SO4. The dominant factor for increasing adsorption of SO2 from simulated flue gas for each series of fibers studied was the weight percent of basic nitrogen groups present. In addition, the adsorption energies calculated for dry SO2 were shown to be linearly related to the adsorption capacity of H2SO4 from this flue gas for all fibers. It was shown that optimization of this parameter along with the pore volume results in higher adsorption capacities for removal of SO2 from flue gases. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.: photosynthetic tissues and berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Considine


    Full Text Available Research on sulfite metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils and questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/ sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the ‘ambient’ environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO¬2 fumigation may extend for several months.

  4. Use of liquid chromatography for measuring atmospheric sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benova, E


    A literature search to ascertain the applicability of liquid chromatography to the analysis of atmospheric sulfur dioxide and various oxides of nitrogen is reported. Simple or enriched samples can be analyzed. Plastic bags are recommended for preparation of simple samples; and a table of 18 plastic materials, their manufacturers, and pollutants to which they are inert is provided. Enriched samples can be prepared in chromatographic columns by adsorption methods. Tables are provided listing carriers, stationary phase materials, temperatures, carrier liquids (helium or nitrogen), column dimensions, and other data recommended for chromatographic tests of SO/sub 2/ and NOx. Because of its reactivity and tendency to polymerize, sulfur trioxide should be reduced to SO/sub 2/ prior to analysis.

  5. Assessing hazards to aviation from sulfur dioxide emitted by explosive Icelandic eruptions


    Schmidt, A; Witham, CS; Theys, N; Richards, NAD; Thordarson, T; Szpek, K; Feng, W; Hort, MC; Woolley, AM; Jones, AR; Redington, AL; Johnson, BT; Hayward, CL; Carslaw, KS


    Volcanic eruptions take place in Iceland about once every 3 to 5 years. Ash emissions from these eruptions can cause significant disruption to air traffic over Europe and the North Atlantic as is evident from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is also emitted by volcanoes, but there are no criteria to define when airspace is considered hazardous or nonhazardous. However, SO2 is a well-known ground-level pollutant that can have detrimental effects on human health. We h...

  6. Banking behavior under uncertainty: Evidence from the US Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Allowance trading program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousse, Olivier; Sevi, Benoit


    The aim of this paper is to examine portfolio management of emission allowances in the US Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Allowance Trading Program, to determine whether utilities have a real motive to bank when risk increases. We test a theoretical model linking the motivation of the firm to accumulate permits in order to prepare itself to face a risky situation in the future. Empirical estimation using data for years 2001 to 2004 provides evidence of a relationship between banking behavior and uncertainty the utility is facing with. (authors)

  7. Monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission resulting from biogas utilization on commercial pig farms in Taiwan. (United States)

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Chen, Yen-Jung


    The objective of this work tends to promote methane content in biogas and evaluate sulfur dioxide emission from direct biogas combustion without desulfurization. Analytical results of biogas combustion showed that combustion of un-desulfurized biogas exhausted more than 92% of SO₂ (P hydrogen sulfide was removed during the combustion process using un-desulfurized biogas (P hydrogen sulfide may deposit on the surfaces of power generator's engines or burner heads of boilers. Some of them (4.6-9.1% of H₂S) were converted to SO₂ in exhaust gas. Considering the impacts to human health and living environment, it is better to desulfurize biogas before any applications.

  8. Health Risk Assessment of Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Exposure from a New Developing Coal Power Plant in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Thongthammachart


    Full Text Available Krabi coal-fired power plant is the new power plant development project of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT. This 800 megawatts power plant is in developing process. The pollutants from coal-fired burning emissions were estimated and included in an environmental impact assessment report. This study aims to apply air quality modeling to predict nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and sulfur dioxide (SO2 concentration which could have health impact to local people. The health risk assessment was studied following U.S. EPA regulatory method. The hazard maps were created by ArcGIS program. The results indicated the influence of the northeast and southwest monsoons and season variation to the pollutants dispersion. The daily average and annual average concentrations of NO2 and SO2 were lower than the NAAQS standard. The hazard quotient (HQ of SO2 and NO2 both short-term and long-term exposure were less than 1. However, there were some possibly potential risk areas indicating in GIS based map. The distribution of pollutions and high HI values were near this power plant site. Although the power plant does not construct yet but the environment health risk assessment was evaluated to compare with future fully developed coal fire plant.

  9. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxide/nitrogen dioxide/sulfur dioxide from gas streams by combined plasma scrubbing technology. (United States)

    Chang, Moo Been; Lee, How Ming; Wu, Feeling; Lai, Chi Ren


    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [nitrogen oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are removed individually in traditional air pollution control technologies. This study proposes a combined plasma scrubbing (CPS) system for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx. CPS consists of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and wet scrubbing in series. DBD is used to generate nonthermal plasmas for converting NO to NO2. The water-soluble NO2 then can be removed by wet scrubbing accompanied with SO2 removal. In this work, CPS was tested with simulated exhausts in the laboratory and with diesel-generator exhausts in the field. Experimental results indicate that DBD is very efficient in converting NO to NO2. More than 90% removal of NO, NOx, and SO2 can be simultaneously achieved with CPS. Both sodium sulfide (Na2S) and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) scrubbing solutions are good for NO2 and SO2 absorption. Energy efficiencies for NOx and SO2 removal are 17 and 18 g/kWh, respectively. The technical feasibility of CPS for simultaneous removal of NO, NO2, and SO2 from gas streams is successfully demonstrated in this study. However, production of carbon monoxide as a side-product (approximately 100 ppm) is found and should be considered.

  10. Effects of growth retardants and fumigations with ozone and sulfur dioxide on growth and flowering of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathey, H.M.; Heggestad, H.E.


    Eight cultivars of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., were evaluated for sensitivity to ..cap alpha..-cyclopropyl-..cap alpha.. (4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidine methanol (ancymidol) and protection from ozone and sulfur dioxide injury afforded by applications of ancymidol and (2-chloroethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (chlormequat). Foliar sprays of ancymidol were at least 80 to 500 times and the soil drench 1000 times more active than chlormequat in retarding stem elongation. The diam of the bracts was reduced, but branching increased more on plants treated with ancymidol than on untreated plants. The cv. Annette Hegg (AH) was more sensitive to ozone fumigations than was Eckespoint C-1' (C-1). Sulfur dioxide also caused more injury to AH than to C-1. Ancymidol and chlormequat reduced visible injury induced by ozone and sulfur dioxide.

  11. Environmental politics in the US: a study of state sulfur dioxide standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.


    What determines the environmental regulatory regime of a country or region? This paper addresses the question in detail, using the US and its widely varying environmental policies as the case study. What factors lead some US states to pass strict environmental regulations, while others are content with the baseline standards required at the national level? This work outlines the state environmental choice as a trade-off between the desires of consumers (who want better environmental quality) and of producers (who want less restrictive environmental standards). A rational state legislator maximises her chances of being re-elected by balancing these two competing forces when setting environmental policy. I test this model by directly analysing the state decision to adopt more restrictive sulfur dioxide regulations than those required by the federal government under the Environmental Protection Agency's ''National Ambient Air Quality Standards'' program. The statistical results suggest that legislators weigh the relative influence of consumer and producer groups when setting sulfur dioxide standards, in addition to accounting for meteorological influences that affect the cost of compliance with stricter environmental regulations. Limited evidence is also provided to support an inverted-U shaped relationship between income levels and environmental regulations. (author)

  12. Model for estimating air pollutant uptake by forests: calculation of forest absorption of sulfur dioxide from dispersed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Sinclair, T.R.; Knoerr, K.R.


    The computer model presented in this paper is designed to estimate the uptake of air pollutants by forests. The model utilizes submodels to describe atmospheric diffusion immediately above and within the canopy, and into the sink areas within or on the trees. The program implementing the model is general and can be used with only minor changes for any gaseous pollutant. To illustrate the utility of the model, estimates are made of the sink strength of forests for sulfur dioxide. The results agree with experimentally derived estimates of sulfur dioxide uptake in crops and forest trees. (auth)

  13. Sulfur dioxide emissions and market effects under the Clean Air Act Acid Rain Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipper, C.E.; Gilroy, L.


    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) established a national program to control sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions from electricity generation. CAAA90's market-based approach includes trading and banking of SO 2 -emissions allowances. The paper presents an analysis of data describing electric utility SO 2 emissions in 1995, the first year of the program's Phase I, and market effects over the 1990-95 period. Fuel switching and flue-gas desulfurization were the dominant means used in 1995 by targeted generators to reduce emissions to 51% of 1990 levels. Flue-gas desulfurization costs, emissions allowance prices, low-sulfur coal prices, and average sulfur contents of coals shipped to electric utilities declined over the 1990-95 period. Projections indicate that 13-15 million allowances will have been banked during the programs' Phase I, which ends in 1999, a quantity expected to last through the first decade of the program's stricter Phase II controls. In 1995, both allowance prices and SO 2 emissions were below pre-CAAA90 expectations. The reduction of SO 2 emissions beyond pre-CAAA90 expectations, combined with lower-than-expected allowance prices and declining compliance costs, can be viewed as a success for market-based environmental controls. 21 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Removal of sulfur dioxide and formation of sulfate aerosol in Tokyo (United States)

    Miyakawa, T.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.


    Ground-based in situ measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and submicron sulfate aerosol (SO42-) together with carbon monoxide (CO) were conducted at an urban site in Tokyo, Japan from spring 2003 to winter 2004. The observed concentrations of SO2 were affected dominantly by anthropogenic emissions (for example, manufacturing industries) in source areas, while small fraction of the data (sulfur compounds (SOx = SO2 + SO42-) and the remaining fraction of SOx, which is derived as the ratio of the linear regression slope of the SOx-CO correlation, is used as measures for the formation of SO42- and removal of SOx, respectively. Using these parameters, the average formation efficiency of SO42- (i.e., amount of SO42- produced per SO2 emitted from emission sources) are estimated to be 0.18 and 0.03 in the summer and winter periods, respectively. A simple box model was developed to estimate the lifetime of SOx. The lifetime of SOx for the summer period (26 h) is estimated to be about two times longer than that for the winter period (14 h). The seasonal variations of the remaining fraction of SOx, estimated formation efficiency of SO42-, and lifetime of SOx are likely due to those of the boundary layer height and photochemical activity (i.e., hydroxyl radical). These results provide useful insights into the formation and removal processes of sulfur compounds exported from an urban area.

  15. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide-generating pads and modified atmosphere packaging for control of postharvest diseases in blueberries (United States)

    Postharvest diseases are a limiting factor of storage and shelf life of blueberries. Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important postharvest diseases in blueberries grown in California. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2)-generating pads (designated ...

  16. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States (United States)

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.


    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  17. Study of the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur by carbon monoxide on a La/sub 0/ /sub 5/ Sr/sub 0/ /sub 5/ CoO/sub 3/ catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbert, D B; Tseung, A C.C.


    A study of the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur by carbon monoxide on a La/sub 0/ /sub 5/ Sr/sub 0/ /sub 5/ CoO/sub 3/ catalyst a perovskite oxide, to determine the effects of oxygen and water on SO2 reduction showed that in the presence of 5 to 16% oxygen, the reaction between sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide still occurred if there was sufficient carbon monoxide in the gas to react with all the oxygen. At 600C, all the sulfur dioxide was removed at 5 to 16% oxygen levels. Water vapor at 2% did not adversely affect the reaction. The unwanted by-products, hydrogen disulfide and carbonyl sulfide, were reduced at contact times below 0.25 sec. During the reaction, the catalyst itself reacted with sulfur to give metal sulfides. When reagent grade CO/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was substituted for perovskite oxide, the maximum conversion of 98% of sulfur dioxide was attained at 550C, but an unacceptably high concentration of carbonyl sulfide was formed; within 1 hr, the sulfur dioxide conversion fell to 60%. The perovskite oxide reaction may be useful in removing sulfur dioxide from fosill fuel stack gases.

  18. Sulfur dioxide retrievals from OMI and GOME-2 in preparation of TROPOMI (United States)

    Theys, Nicolas; De Smedt, Isabelle; Danckaert, Thomas; Yu, Huan; van Gent, Jeroen; Van Roozendael, Michel


    The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) will be launched in 2016 onboard the ESA Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) platform and will provide global observations of atmospheric trace gases, with unprecedented spatial resolution. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from S5P will significantly improve the current capabilities for anthropogenic and volcanic emissions monitoring, and will extend the long-term datasets from past and existing UV sensors (TOMS, GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, GOME-2, OMPS). This work presents the SO2 retrieval schemes performed at BIRA-IASB as part of level-2 algorithm prototyping activities for S5P and tested on OMI and GOME-2. With a focus on anthropogenic sources, we show comparisons between OMI and GOME-2 as well as ground-based measurements, and discuss the possible reasons for the differences.

  19. Simple in situ visual and tristimulus colorimetric determination of sulfur dioxide in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitschmann, V.; Tusarova, I.; Halamek, E.; Kobliha, Z.


    A simple in situ visual and tristimulus colorimetric method of determination of the trace amount of sulfur dioxide in air has been developed. Tristimulus colorimetry is based on application of three-dimensional colour space L*a*b according to CIE (Commission Internationale de Eclairage). L* represents lightness and a* and b* represent chromaticity. The analytical method is based on drawing the harmful pollutants through a filter made of modified cotton fabric, which is planted on a special extension piece. The filter is saturated with chromogenic reagent based on 5,5-dithio-bis( 2-nitrobenzoic acid) in the mixture of N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl sulfoxide (1 : 1). On the filter the orange colour appears; the intensity of the colour is assessed visually and/or by a tristimulus colorimeter (LMG 173, Lange, Germany). The detection limit is 0.01 mg.m -3 .Interferences of reduction (especially hydrogen sulfide), oxidation, alkaline and acid agents have been describes. (author)

  20. Combined method for reducing emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Grachev, S.P.


    Discusses the method developed by the Fossil Energy Research Corp. in the USA for combined desulfurization and denitrification of flue gases from coal-fired power plants. The method combines two methods tested on a commercial scale: the dry additive method for suppression of sulfur dioxide and the selective noncatalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides using urea (the NOXOUT process). The following aspects of joint flue gas desulfurization and denitrification are analyzed: flowsheets of the system, chemical reactions and reaction products, laboratory tests of the method and its efficiency, temperature effects on desulfurization and denitrification of flue gases, effects of reagent consumption rates, operating cost, efficiency of the combined method compared to other conventional methods of separate flue gas desulfurization and denitrification, economic aspects of flue gas denitrification and desulfurization. 4 refs.

  1. Degradation of sulfur dioxide using plasma technology; Degradacion de dioxido de azufre empleando tecnologia de plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada M, N.; Garcia E, R. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Pacheco P, M.; Valdivia B, R.; Pacheco S, J., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    This paper presents the electro-chemical study performed for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) treatment using non thermal plasma coupled to a nano structured fluid bed enhancing the toxic gas removal and the adsorption of acids formed during plasma treatment, more of 80% of removal was obtained. Non thermal plasma was ignited by dielectric barrier discharge (Dbd). The research was developed through an analysis of the chemical kinetics of the process and experimental study of degradation; in each experiment the electrical parameters and the influence of carbon nano structures were monitored to establish the optimal conditions of degradation. We compared the theoretical and experimental results to conclude whether the proposed model is correct for degradation. (Author)

  2. Ozone and/or sulfur dioxide effects on tissue permeability of petunia leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkiey, T.; Ormrod, D.P.


    Measurements were made of potassium (K ) and total electrolyte leakage from leaf discs of 42-day old petunia plants exposed to 40 pphm ozone (O3) and/or 80 pphm sulfur dioxide (SO2). In an O3-sensitive cultivar White Cascade, K leakage was not affected by O3 or O3 and SO2 after 4 h exposure, but greatly increased by 4 h day exposure for 4 days to O3, SO2, or O3 and SO2. There was an indication of decreased K leakage from plants exposed for 4 h to SO2. Total electrolyte leakage was greater from leaf discs of White Cascade and White Magic, an intermediate sensitivity cultivar, than for Capri, the least O3-sensitive cultivar, when exposed to O3 for 4 h, while SO2 had little effect on total electrolyte leakage. There was also little effect on total K content of the leaves. 21 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  3. Sulfur dioxide adsorption by activated carbons having different textural and chemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilgun Karatepe; Ilkun Orbak; Reha Yavuz; Ayse Ozyuguran [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Institute of Energy


    Activated carbons from Turkish lignite were prepared with different methods to investigate the influence of physico-chemical characteristics of the carbon materials on the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) adsorption. The effects of SO{sub 2} concentration, adsorption temperature, and sample particle size on adsorption were investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis system. An intraparticle diffusion model based on Knudsen diffusion and Freundlich isotherm (or Henry isotherm) was applied for predicting the amount of SO{sub 2} adsorbed. The textural and chemical properties of the activated carbon samples, resulted from the effects of activation conditions and demineralization of the carbon precursor, on the SO{sub 2} adsorption were also analyzed. 30 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Molecular Diagnosis of Brettanomyces bruxellensis’ Sulfur Dioxide Sensitivity Through Genotype Specific Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Avramova


    Full Text Available The yeast species Brettanomyces bruxellensis is associated with important economic losses due to red wine spoilage. The most common method to prevent and/or control B. bruxellensis spoilage in winemaking is the addition of sulfur dioxide into must and wine. However, recently, it was reported that some B. bruxellensis strains could be tolerant to commonly used doses of SO2. In this work, B. bruxellensis response to SO2 was assessed in order to explore the relationship between SO2 tolerance and genotype. We selected 145 isolates representative of the genetic diversity of the species, and from different fermentation niches (roughly 70% from grape wine fermentation environment, and 30% from beer, ethanol, tequila, kombucha, etc.. These isolates were grown in media harboring increasing sulfite concentrations, from 0 to 0.6 mg.L-1 of molecular SO2. Three behaviors were defined: sensitive strains showed longer lag phase and slower growth rate and/or lower maximum population size in presence of increasing concentrations of SO2. Tolerant strains displayed increased lag phase, but maximal growth rate and maximal population size remained unchanged. Finally, resistant strains showed no growth variation whatever the SO2 concentrations. 36% (52/145 of B. bruxellensis isolates were resistant or tolerant to sulfite, and up to 43% (46/107 when considering only wine isolates. Moreover, most of the resistant/tolerant strains belonged to two specific genetic groups, allowing the use of microsatellite genotyping to predict the risk of sulfur dioxide resistance/tolerance with high reliability (>90%. Such molecular diagnosis could help the winemakers to adjust antimicrobial techniques and efficient spoilage prevention with minimal intervention.

  5. Comparative analyses of physiological responses of Cynodon dactylon accessions from Southwest China to sulfur dioxide toxicity. (United States)

    Li, Xi; Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Sun, Lingxia; Cai, Shizhen; Huang, Zhuo


    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity.

  6. Dustfall Effect on Hyperspectral Inversion of Chlorophyll Content - a Laboratory Experiment (United States)

    Chen, Yuteng; Ma, Baodong; Li, Xuexin; Zhang, Song; Wu, Lixin


    Dust pollution is serious in many areas of China. It is of great significance to estimate chlorophyll content of vegetation accurately by hyperspectral remote sensing for assessing the vegetation growth status and monitoring the ecological environment in dusty areas. By using selected vegetation indices including Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI) Double Difference Index (DD) and Red Edge Position Index (REP), chlorophyll inversion models were built to study the accuracy of hyperspectral inversion of chlorophyll content based on a laboratory experiment. The results show that: (1) REP exponential model has the most stable accuracy for inversion of chlorophyll content in dusty environment. When dustfall amount is less than 80 g/m2, the inversion accuracy based on REP is stable with the variation of dustfall amount. When dustfall amount is greater than 80 g/m2, the inversion accuracy is slightly fluctuation. (2) Inversion accuracy of DD is worst among three models. (3) MTCI logarithm model has high inversion accuracy when dustfall amount is less than 80 g/m2; When dustfall amount is greater than 80 g/m2, inversion accuracy decreases regularly and inversion accuracy of modified MTCI (mMTCI) increases significantly. The results provide experimental basis and theoretical reference for hyperspectral remote sensing inversion of chlorophyll content.

  7. Multi-Satellite Air Quality Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Database Long-Term L4 Global V1 (MSAQSO2L4) at GES DISC (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are a part of Multi-Decadal Sulfur Dioxide Climatology from Satellite Instrument (MEaSUREs-12-0022 project). The catalogue MSAQSO2L4 file contains the...

  8. Catalytic removal of sulfur dioxide from dibenzothiophene sulfone over Mg-Al mixed oxides supported on mesoporous silica. (United States)

    You, Nansuk; Kim, Min Ji; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Park, Young-Kwon; Jeon, Jong-Ki


    Dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTS), one of the products of the oxidative desulfurization of heavy oil, can be removed through extraction as well as by an adsorption process. It is necessary to utilize DBTS in conjunction with catalytic cracking. An object of the present study is to provide an Mg-Al-mesoporous silica catalyst for the removal of sulfur dioxide from DBTS. The characteristics of the Mg-Al-mesoporous silica catalyst were investigated through N2 adsorption, XRD, ICP, and XRF. An Mg-Al-mesoporous silica catalyst formulated in a direct incorporation method showed higher catalytic performance compared to pure MgO during the catalytic removal of sulfur dioxide from DBTS. The higher dispersion of Mg as well as the large surface area of the Mg-Al-mesoporous silica catalyst strongly influenced the catalyst basicity in DBTS cracking.

  9. Acute effects of total suspended particles and sulfur dioxides on preterm delivery: a community-based cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X.P.; Ding, H.; Wang, X.B. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health


    The acute effects of air pollution on preterm delivery were examined in a prospective cohort in Beijing, China. From early pregnancy until delivery in 1988, we followed all registered pregnant women who lived in four residential areas of Beijing. Information for both mothers and infants was collected. Daily air pollution and meteorological data were obtained independently. The sample for analysis included 25 370 resident women who gave first live births in 1988. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to estimate the effects of air pollution on gestational age and preterm delivery (i.e. {lt} 37 wk), with adjustment for outdoor temperature and humidity, day of the week, season, maternal age, gender of child, and residential area. Very high concentrations of ambient sulfur dioxide (mean = 102 {mu}g/m{sup 3}), (maximum = 630 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and total suspended particulates (mean = 375 {mu}g/m{sup 3}), (maximum =1 003 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) were observed in these areas. There was a significant dose-dependent association between gestational age and sulfur dioxide and total suspended particulate concentrations. The estimated reduced duration of gestation was 0.075 wk (12.6 h) and 0.042 wk (7.1 h) for each 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} increase in sulfur dioxide and total suspended particulates 7-d lagged moving average, respectively. We concluded that high levels of total suspended particulates and sulfur dioxide, or of a more complex pollution mixture associated with these pollutants, appear to contribute to excess risk of preterm delivery in this population. Further work needs to be carried out, with more detailed information on personal exposure and effect modifiers.

  10. Ru-OSO coordination photogenerated at 100 K in tetraammineaqua(sulfur dioxide)ruthenium(II) (±)-camphorsulfonate. (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony E; Cole, Jacqueline M; d'Almeida, Thierry; Low, Kian Sing


    The photoinduced O-bound coordination mode in RuSO(2) complexes, previously observed only at 13 K, has been generated at 100 K in tetraammineaqua(sulfur dioxide)ruthenium(II) (±)-camphorsulfonate. This coordination state, often denoted MS1, decays to the η(2)-bound MS2 state, with an estimated half-life of 3.4(8) h and a long-lived population of 2.9(4)% at 120 K.

  11. Monitoring, exposure and risk assessment of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh or dried fruits and vegetables in China. (United States)

    Lou, Tiantian; Huang, Weisu; Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Liying; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei; Hu, Yinzhou


    Sulfur dioxide residues in 20 kinds of products collected from 23 provinces of China (Jilin, Beijing, Shanxi, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Sichuan, Gansu, Neimenggu, Xinjiang and Hainan) were analysed, and a health risk assessment was performed. The detection rates of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, dried vegetables and dried fruits were 11.1-95.9%, 12.6-92.3%, 70.3-80.0% and 26.0-100.0%, respectively; the mean concentrations of residues were 2.7-120.8, 3.8-35.7, 26.9-99.1 and 12.0-1120.4 mg kg -1 , respectively. The results indicated that fresh vegetables and dried products are critical products; the daily intakes (EDIs) for children were higher than others; the hazard indexes (HI) for four groups were 0.019-0.033, 0.001-0.005, 0.007-0.016 and 0.002-0.005 at P50, respectively. But the HI was more than 1 at P99 by intake dried fruits and vegetables. Although the risk for consumers was acceptable on the whole, children were the most vulnerable group. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicated that the level of sulfur dioxide residues was the most influential variable in this model. Thus, continuous monitoring and stricter regulation of sulfites using are recommended in China.

  12. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, 1979-1997 (United States)

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A.J.; Stokes, J.B.; Casadevall, T.J.


    INTRODUCTION Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Casadevall and others, 1987; Greenland and others, 1985; Elias and others, 1993; Elias and Sutton, 1996). The purpose of this report is to present a compilation of Kilauea SO2 emission rate data from 1979 through 1997 with ancillary meteorological data (wind speed and wind direction). We have included measurements previously reported by Casadevall and others (1987) for completeness and to improve the usefulness of this current database compilation. Kilauea releases SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and rift zones (fig. 1). From 1979 through 1982, vehicle-based COSPEC measurements made within the summit caldera were adequate to quantify most of the SO2 emitted from the volcano. Beginning in 1983. the focus of SO2 release shifted from the summit to the east rift zone (ERZ) eruption site at Pu'u 'O'o and, later, Kupaianaha. Since 1984, the Kilauea gas measurement effort has been augmented with intermittent airborne and tripod-based surveys made near the ERZ eruption site. In addition, beginning in 1992 vehicle-based measurements have been made along a section of Chain of Craters Road approximately 9 km downwind of the eruption site. These several types of COSPEC measurements continue to the present.

  13. Sulfur dioxide alleviates programmed cell death in barley aleurone by acting as an antioxidant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha-Sha Wang

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2, a gaseous signaling molecule in animal cells, has recently been found to play a physiological role in plants. Here we studied the role of SO2 in gibberellic acid (GA3-induced programmed cell death (PCD in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. aleurone layers. The application of the SO2 donor (NaHSO3/Na2SO3, 1:3 M/M effectively alleviated PCD in barley aleurone layers in a dose-dependent manner with an optimal concentration of 50 μM. Further investigations showed that SO2 reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide anion (⋅O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA in aleurone layers. Moreover, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, glutathione reductase (GR and guaiacol peroxidase (POD were enhanced by SO2 donor treatment. Meanwhile, lipoxygenase (LOX activity was attenuated by SO2 donor treatment. Furthermore, an induction of endogenous H2S and NO were also observed in SO2-treated aleurone layers, suggesting interactions of SO2 with other well-known signaling molecules. Taken together, we show that SO2 negatively regulated PCD by acting as an antioxidant to scavenge excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS generated during PCD.

  14. Removal of Sulfur Dioxide from Flue Gas Using the Sludge Sodium Humate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao


    Full Text Available This study shows the ability of sodium humate from alkaline treatment sludge on removing sulfur dioxide (SO2 in the simulated flue gas. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various operating parameters, like the inlet SO2 concentration or temperature or O2, on the SO2 absorption efficiency and desulfurization time in a lab-scale bubbling reactor. The sludge sodium humate in the supernatant after alkaline sludge treatment shows great performance in SO2 absorption, and such efficiency can be maintained above 98% with 100 mL of this absorption solution at 298 K (flue gas rate of 0.12 m3/h. The highest SO2 absorption by 1.63 g SHA-Na is 0.946 mmol in the process, which is translated to 0.037 g SO2 g−1 SHA-Na. The experimental results indicate that the inlet SO2 concentration slightly influences the SO2 absorption efficiency and significantly influences the desulfurization time. The pH of the absorption solution should be above 3.5 in this process in order to make an effective desulfurization. The products of this process were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It can be seen that the desulfurization products mainly contain sludge humic acid sediment, which can be used as fertilizer components.

  15. Management of industrial sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions in Alberta - description of the existing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, W.S.; Bietz, B.F.


    In addition to being key primary air contaminants, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are also major contributors to acidic deposition. The current management system for controlling industrial sources of SO(2) and NO(x) emissions in Alberta was developed in the late 1960s/early 1970s. The focus is on control of point source emissions through the use of appropriate technology. The approach taken for managing SO(2) and NO(x) emissions is similar to the approach taken to other industrial air and wastewater pollutants in Alberta. It is a command and control regulatory system. There are three main industry categories in Alberta which emit SO(2): sour gas processing, oil sand plants and thermal power plants. For NO(x) emissions, the two main categories with emissions: are natural gas production and thermal power plants. The two main goals of the existing industrial air quality management systems are to ensire that: (1) emissions from industrial facilities are minimized through the use of best available demonstrated technology, and (2) ambient levels of air contaminants in the vicinity of industrial facilities do not exceed Alberta guidelines. The four main policies which support these two goals of the existing management system are described. There are a number of key components of the existing management system including: ambient guideline levels, source emission standards, plume dispersion modelling, ambient air and source emission monitoring, environmental reporting, emission inventories, and approvals. 32 refs., 13 figs

  16. Interspecific differences in the effects of sulfur dioxide on angiosperm sexual reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBay, D.T.


    The major objective of this study was to test the potential direct effects of SO 2 on sexual reproduction in several plant species with different reproductive structures and processes. In marked contrast to the sensitivity to SO 2 reported by other investigators for pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro, and recorded for Lepidium virginicum in this study, 4 of 5 species tested were tolerant with respect to fruit and seed set after exposure to 0.6 ppm SO 2 for 8 hours during flowering. Seed set in the one sensitive species, Geranium carolinianum, was reduced 40% from the control after exposure to SO 2 , but only when relative humidity (RH) was at or above 90%. The effect of SO 2 on Lepidium pollen germination in vitro was greater than the effect of SO 2 on sexual reproduction in vivo. Sulfur dioxide reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control. The same concentration of SO 2 , at 90% Rh, reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but had no effect on seed set. Predictions of effects of SO 2 on reproduction in vivo based on effects of SO 2 on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro are not valid

  17. [Relationship between sulfur dioxide pollution and upper respiratory outpatients in Jiangbei, Ningbo]. (United States)

    Wu, Yifeng; Zhao, Fengmin; Qian, Xujun; Xu, Guozhang; He, Tianfeng; Shen, Yueping; Cai, Yibiao


    To describe the daily average concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Ningbo, and to analysis the health impacts it caused in upper respiratory disease. With outpatients log and air pollutants monitoring data matched in 2011-2013, the distributed lag non-linear models were used to analysis the relative risk of the number of upper respiratory patients associated with SO2, and also excessive risk, and the inferred number of patients due to SO2 pollution. The daily average concentration of SO2 didn't exceed the limit value of second class area. The coefficient of upper respiratory outpatient number and daily average concentration of SO2 matched was 0.44,with the excessive risk was 10% to 18%, the lag of most SO2 concentrations was 4 to 6 days. It could be estimated that about 30% of total upper respiratory outpatients were caused by SO2 pollution. Although the daily average concentration of SO2 didn't exceed the standard in 3 years, the health impacts still be caused with lag effect.

  18. Removal of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide by carbons impregnated with triethylenediamine. (United States)

    Wu, Li-Chun; Chang, Tsu-Hua; Chung, Ying-Chien


    Activated carbon (AC) adsorption has long been considered to be a readily available technology for providing protection against exposure to acutely toxic gases. However, ACs without chemical impregnation have proven to be much less efficient than impregnated ACs in terms of gas removal. The impregnated ACs in current use are usually modified with metalloid impregnation agents (ASC-carbons; copper, chromium, or silver) to simultaneously enhance the chemical and physical properties of the ACs in removing specific poisonous gases. These metalloid agents, however, can cause acute poisoning to both humans and the environment, thereby necessitating the search for organic impregnation agents that present a much lower risk. The aim of the study reported here was to assess AC or ASC-carbon impregnated with triethylenediamine (TEDA) in terms of its adsorption capability for simulated hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gases. The investigation was undergone in a properly designed laboratory-scale and industrial fume hood evaluation. Using the system reported here, we obtained a significant adsorption: the removal capability for H2S and SO2 was 375 and 229 mg/g-C, respectively. BET measurements, element analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry identified the removal mechanism for TEDA-impregnated AC to be both chemical and physical adsorption. Chemical adsorption and oxidation were the primary means by which TEDA-impregnated ASC-carbons removed the simulated gases.

  19. Removals of aqueous sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide using CeO2-NiAl-LDHs coating activated carbon and its mix with carbon nano-tubes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Chen, Fangping; Jin, Guanping; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Li, Xiaoxuan


    Ce-doped NiAl/layered double hydroxide was coated at activated carbon by urea hydrolysis method (CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC) in one pot, which was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra, field emission scanning electron microscope and electrochemical techniques. CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC shows good uptake for aqueous sulfur dioxide (483.09mg/g) and hydrogen sulfide (181.15mg/g), respectively at 25°C. Meanwhile, the electrochemical removals of aqueous sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were respectively investigated at the mix of CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC and carbon nano-tubes modified homed paraffin-impregnated electrode. Both sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide could be effectively oxidized to sulfuric acid at 1.0V in alkaline aqueous solution. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  20. The application of an isotopic ratio technique to a study of the atmospheric oxidation of sulfur dioxide in the plume from a coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, L.; Forrest, J.; Manowitz, B.


    The extent of oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfate in the plume of a coal fired plant has been studied by using sampling with a single engine aircraft. A technique employing isotopic ratio measurements was utilized in conjunction with simultaneous concentration measurements of sulfur dioxide and sulfate. The use of sulfur hexafluroide as a conservative tracer was explored. The heterogeneous mechanism postulated in an oil fired plume study appears to pertain to the coal fired plume. However, the extent of oxidation seldom exceeded 5% and is limited by the relatively low particulate content of the coal fired plume. Evidence is presented for the apparent dropping out of sulfate from the plume. Implications pertaining to the ambient oxidation of sulfur dioxide are presented. (author)

  1. Removals of aqueous sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide using CeO2-NiAl-LDHs coating activated carbon and its mix with carbon nano-tubes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing


    Ce-doped NiAl/layered double hydroxide was coated at activated carbon by urea hydrolysis method (CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC) in one pot, which was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra, field emission scanning electron microscope and electrochemical techniques. CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC shows good uptake for aqueous sulfur dioxide (483.09mg/g) and hydrogen sulfide (181.15mg/g), respectively at 25°C. Meanwhile, the electrochemical removals of aqueous sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were respectively investigated at the mix of CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC and carbon nano-tubes modified homed paraffin-impregnated electrode. Both sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide could be effectively oxidized to sulfuric acid at 1.0V in alkaline aqueous solution. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Enhanced Arabidopsis disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea induced by sulfur dioxide. (United States)

    Xue, Meizhao; Yi, Huilan


    Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is a common air pollutant that has complex impacts on plants. The effect of prior exposure to 30mgm -3 SO 2 on defence against Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) in Arabidopsis thaliana and the possible mechanisms of action were investigated. The results indicated that pre-exposure to 30mgm -3 SO 2 resulted in significantly enhanced resistance to B. cinerea infection. SO 2 pre-treatment significantly enhanced the activities of defence-related enzymes including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), β-1,3-glucanase (BGL) and chitinase (CHI). Transcripts of the defence-related genes PAL, PPO, PR2, and PR3, encoding PAL, PPO, BGL and CHI, respectively, were markedly elevated in Arabidopsis plants pre-exposed to SO 2 and subsequently inoculated with B. cinerea (SO 2 + treatment group) compared with those that were only treated with SO 2 (SO 2 ) or inoculated with B. cinerea (CK+). Moreover, SO 2 pre-exposure also led to significant increases in the expression levels of MIR393, MIR160 and MIR167 in Arabidopsis. Meanwhile, the expression of known targets involved in the auxin signalling pathway, was negatively correlated with their corresponding miRNAs. Additionally, the transcript levels of the primary auxin-response genes GH3-like, BDL/IAA12, and AXR3/IAA17 were markedly repressed. Our findings indicate that 30mgm -3 SO 2 pre-exposure enhances disease resistance against B. cinerea in Arabidopsis by priming defence responses through enhancement of defence-related gene expression and enzyme activity, and miRNA-mediated suppression of the auxin signalling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reactive Uptake of Sulfur Dioxide and Ozone on Volcanic Glass and Ash at Ambient Temperature (United States)

    Maters, Elena C.; Delmelle, Pierre; Rossi, Michel J.; Ayris, Paul M.


    The atmospheric impacts of volcanic ash from explosive eruptions are rarely considered alongside those of volcanogenic gases/aerosols. While airborne particles provide solid surfaces for chemical reactions with trace gases in the atmosphere, the reactivity of airborne ash has seldom been investigated. Here we determine the total uptake capacity (NiM) and initial uptake coefficient (γM) for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) on a compositional array of volcanic ash and glass powders at 25°C in a Knudsen flow reactor. The measured ranges of NiSO2 and γSO2 (1011-1013 molecules cm-2 and 10-3-10-2) and NiO3 and γO3 (1012-1013 molecules cm-2 and 10-3-10-2) are comparable to values reported for mineral dust. Differences in ash and glass reactivity toward SO2 and O3 may relate to varying abundances of, respectively, basic and reducing sites on these materials. The typically lower SO2 and O3 uptake on ash compared to glass likely results from prior exposure of ash surfaces to acidic and oxidizing conditions within the volcanic eruption plume/cloud. While sequential uptake experiments overall suggest that these gases do not compete for reactive surface sites, SO2 uptake forming adsorbed S(IV) species may enhance the capacity for subsequent O3 uptake via redox reaction forming adsorbed S(VI) species. Our findings imply that ash emissions may represent a hitherto neglected sink for atmospheric SO2 and O3.

  4. Advances in the Validation of Satellite-Based Maps of Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide Plumes (United States)

    Realmuto, V. J.; Berk, A.; Acharya, P. K.; Kennett, R.


    The monitoring of volcanic gas emissions with gas cameras, spectrometer arrays, tethersondes, and UAVs presents new opportunities for the validation of satellite-based retrievals of gas concentrations. Gas cameras and spectrometer arrays provide instantaneous observations of the gas burden, or concentration along an optical path, over broad sections of a plume, similar to the observations acquired by nadir-viewing satellites. Tethersondes and UAVs provide us with direct measurements of the vertical profiles of gas concentrations within plumes. This presentation will focus on our current efforts to validate ASTER-based maps of sulfur dioxide plumes at Turrialba and Kilauea Volcanoes (located in Costa Rica and Hawaii, respectively). These volcanoes, which are the subjects of comprehensive monitoring programs, are challenging targets for thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing due the warm and humid atmospheric conditions. The high spatial resolution of ASTER in the TIR (90 meters) allows us to map the plumes back to their source vents, but also requires us to pay close attention to the temperature and emissivity of the surfaces beneath the plumes. Our knowledge of the surface and atmospheric conditions is never perfect, and we employ interactive mapping techniques that allow us to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on our estimates of plume composition. To accomplish this interactive mapping we have developed the Plume Tracker tool kit, which integrates retrieval procedures, visualization tools, and a customized version of the MODTRAN radiative transfer (RT) model under a single graphics user interface (GUI). We are in the process of porting the RT calculations to graphics processing units (GPUs) with the goal of achieving a 100-fold increase in the speed of computation relative to conventional CPU-based processing. We will report on our progress with this evolution of Plume Tracker. Portions of this research were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  5. Plume Tracker: Interactive mapping of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions with high-performance radiative transfer modeling (United States)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Berk, Alexander


    We describe the development of Plume Tracker, an interactive toolkit for the analysis of multispectral thermal infrared observations of volcanic plumes and clouds. Plume Tracker is the successor to MAP_SO2, and together these flexible and comprehensive tools have enabled investigators to map sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from a number of volcanoes with TIR data from a variety of airborne and satellite instruments. Our objective for the development of Plume Tracker was to improve the computational performance of the retrieval procedures while retaining the accuracy of the retrievals. We have achieved a 300 × improvement in the benchmark performance of the retrieval procedures through the introduction of innovative data binning and signal reconstruction strategies, and improved the accuracy of the retrievals with a new method for evaluating the misfit between model and observed radiance spectra. We evaluated the accuracy of Plume Tracker retrievals with case studies based on MODIS and AIRS data acquired over Sarychev Peak Volcano, and ASTER data acquired over Kilauea and Turrialba Volcanoes. In the Sarychev Peak study, the AIRS-based estimate of total SO2 mass was 40% lower than the MODIS-based estimate. This result was consistent with a 45% reduction in the AIRS-based estimate of plume area relative to the corresponding MODIS-based estimate. In addition, we found that our AIRS-based estimate agreed with an independent estimate, based on a competing retrieval technique, within a margin of ± 20%. In the Kilauea study, the ASTER-based concentration estimates from 21 May 2012 were within ± 50% of concurrent ground-level concentration measurements. In the Turrialba study, the ASTER-based concentration estimates on 21 January 2012 were in exact agreement with SO2 concentrations measured at plume altitude on 1 February 2012.

  6. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buchard


    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2 is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study, the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5 model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  7. Effects of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide on mercury oxidation and reduction under homogeneous conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongxin Zhao; Michael D. Mann; Edwin S. Olson; John H. Pavlish; Grant E. Dunham [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering


    This paper is particularly related to elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation and divalent mercury (Hg{sup 2+} reduction under simulated flue gas conditions in the presence of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). As a powerful oxidant and chlorinating reagent, Cl{sub 2} has the potential for Hg oxidation. However, the detailed mechanism for the interactions, especially among chlorine (Cl)-containing species, SO{sub 2}, NO, as well as H{sub 2}O, remains ambiguous. Research described in this paper therefore focused on the impacts of SO{sub 2} and NO on Hg{sup 0} oxidation and Hg{sup 2+} reduction with the intent of unraveling unrecognized interactions among Cl species, SO{sub 2}, and NO most importantly in the presence of H{sub 2}O. The experimental results demonstrated that SO{sub 2} and NO had pronounced inhibitory effects on Hg{sup 0} oxidation at high temperatures when H{sub 2}O was also present in the gas blend. Such a demonstration was further confirmed by the reduction of Hg{sup 2+} back into its elemental form. Data revealed that SO{sub 2} and NO were capable of promoting homogeneous reduction of Hg{sup 2+} to Hg{sup 0} with H{sub 2}O being present. However, the above inhibition or promotion disappeared under homogeneous conditions when H{sub 2}O was removed from the gas blend. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Effects of temperature on the heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide by ozone on calcium carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Wu


    Full Text Available The heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide by ozone on CaCO3 was studied as a function of temperature (230 to 298 K at ambient pressure. Oxidation reactions were followed in real time using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry (DRIFTS to obtain kinetic and mechanistic data. From the analysis of the spectral features, the formation of sulfate was identified on the surface in the presence of O3 and SO2 at different temperatures from 230 to 298 K. The results showed that the heterogeneous oxidation and the rate of sulfate formation were sensitive to temperature. An interesting stage-transition region was observed at temperatures ranging from 230 to 257 K, but it became ambiguous gradually above 257 K. The reactive uptake coefficients at different temperatures from 230 to 298 K were acquired for the first time, which can be used directly in atmospheric chemistry modeling studies to predict the formation of secondary sulfate aerosol in the troposphere. Furthermore, the rate of sulfate formation had a turning point at about 250 K. The sulfate concentration at 250 K was about twice as large as that at 298 K. The rate of sulfate formation increased with decreasing temperature at temperatures above 250 K, while there is a contrary temperature effect at temperatures below 250 K. The activation energy for heterogeneous oxidation at temperatures from 245 K to 230 K was determined to be 14.63 ± 0.20 kJ mol−1. A mechanism for the temperature dependence was proposed and the atmospheric implications were discussed.

  9. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lu


    Full Text Available China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2 and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC emissions from these two countries for the period 1996–2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly temporal distributions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1°×0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %–17 % due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be −16 %–17 %, −43 %–93 %, and −43 %–80 % for China, and −15 %–16 %, −41 %–87 %, and −44 %–92

  10. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010 (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.


    China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly temporal distributions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1°×0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and

  11. A study of reactions of sulfur dioxide in the gaseous phase. Production and evolution of aerosols resulting from these reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulaud, Denis


    The reactions of sulfur dioxide in the gaseous phase with atmospheric pollutants (NO x ; hydrocarbons) were studied. Experiments showed that NO 2 contribution was significant and suggested that SO 2 transformation into sulfuric acid and sulfates might occur through oxidising agents mainly hydroxyl (OH) and hydro-peroxyl (HO 2 ) radicals. The production and evolution of the resulting aerosols was also studied. It was demonstrated that the effect of water vapour on particle production was significant and that primary embryos were formed from the hetero-molecular homogeneous nucleation acting on water vapour and very likely on sulfuric acid. There was a semi-quantitative agreement between our experimental results and some theoretical investigations on nucleation rate of the system (H 2 O - H 2 SO 4 ). The subsequent growth of particles was studied in a simulation chamber. Finally a model of sulfuric acid vapour evolution in presence of atmospheric aerosols made it possible to extend the previous results as far as possible to the case of atmosphere and then to compare the importance of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of the vapours according to atmospheric conditions. (author) [fr

  12. The impact of particle size, relative humidity, and sulfur dioxide on iron solubility in simulated atmospheric marine aerosols. (United States)

    Cartledge, Benton T; Marcotte, Aurelie R; Herckes, Pierre; Anbar, Ariel D; Majestic, Brian J


    Iron is a limiting nutrient in about half of the world's oceans, and its most significant source is atmospheric deposition. To understand the pathways of iron solubilization during atmospheric transport, we exposed size segregated simulated marine aerosols to 5 ppm sulfur dioxide at arid (23 ± 1% relative humidity, RH) and marine (98 ± 1% RH) conditions. Relative iron solubility increased as the particle size decreased for goethite and hematite, while for magnetite, the relative solubility was similar for all of the fine size fractions (2.5-0.25 μm) investigated but higher than the coarse size fraction (10-2.5 μm). Goethite and hematite showed increased solubility at arid RH, but no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between the two humidity levels for magnetite. There was no correlation between iron solubility and exposure to SO2 in any mineral for any size fraction. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements showed no change in iron speciation [Fe(II) and Fe(III)] in any minerals following SO2 exposure. SEM-EDS measurements of SO2-exposed goethite revealed small amounts of sulfur uptake on the samples; however, the incorporated sulfur did not affect iron solubility. Our results show that although sulfur is incorporated into particles via gas-phase processes, changes in iron solubility also depend on other species in the aerosol.

  13. Insights into the Electronic Structure of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide from Generalized Valence Bond Theory: Addition of Hydrogen Atoms. (United States)

    Lindquist, Beth A; Takeshita, Tyler Y; Dunning, Thom H


    Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are valence isoelectronic species, yet their properties and reactivities differ dramatically. In particular, O3 is highly reactive, whereas SO2 is chemically relatively stable. In this paper, we investigate serial addition of hydrogen atoms to both the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2 and to the central atom of these species. It is well-known that the terminal atoms of O3 are much more amenable to bond formation than those of SO2. We show that the differences in the electronic structure of the π systems in the parent triatomic species account for the differences in the addition of hydrogen atoms to the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2. Further, we find that the π system in SO2, which is a recoupled pair bond dyad, facilitates the addition of hydrogen atoms to the sulfur atom, resulting in stable HSO2 and H2SO2 species.

  14. Effect of sulfur dioxide on the development of an anaphylactic reaction in guinea pigs sensitized by an immunosorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, L; Orlov, G


    The effect of sulfur dioxide on the development of experimentally- induced anaphylaxis in guinea pigs inhaling antigenic aerosol (egg albumin) was studied. The animals were sensitized in advance with a complex of protein and sefadex (immunosorbent). Animals exposed for 60 min to SO/sub 2/ showed more severe anaphylactic seizures immediately after aerosol provocation than did animals not exposed to SO/sub 2/. The use of the immunosorbent resulted in the formation of large amounts of antibodies and prolonged antibody response, indicating the suitability of this method for sensitization.

  15. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.


    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment

  16. Sulfur dioxide (SO2 from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Höpfner


    Full Text Available Vertically resolved distributions of sulfur dioxide (SO2 with global coverage in the height region from the upper troposphere to ~20 km altitude have been derived from observations by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat for the period July 2002 to April 2012. Retrieved volume mixing ratio profiles representing single measurements are characterized by typical errors in the range of 70–100 pptv and by a vertical resolution ranging from 3 to 5 km. Comparison with observations by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS revealed a slightly varying bias with altitude of −20 to 50 pptv for the MIPAS data set in case of volcanically enhanced concentrations. For background concentrations the comparison showed a systematic difference between the two major MIPAS observation periods. After debiasing, the difference could be reduced to biases within −10 to 20 pptv in the altitude range of 10–20 km with respect to ACE-FTS. Further comparisons of the debiased MIPAS data set with in situ measurements from various aircraft campaigns showed no obvious inconsistencies within a range of around ±50 pptv. The SO2 emissions of more than 30 volcanic eruptions could be identified in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. Emitted SO2 masses and lifetimes within different altitude ranges in the UTLS have been derived for a large part of these eruptions. Masses are in most cases within estimations derived from other instruments. From three of the major eruptions within the MIPAS measurement period – Kasatochi in August 2008, Sarychev in June 2009 and Nabro in June 2011 – derived lifetimes of SO2 for the altitude ranges 10–14, 14–18 and 18–22 km are 13.3 ± 2.1, 23.6 ± 1.2 and 32.3 ± 5.5 days respectively. By omitting periods with obvious volcanic influence we have derived background mixing ratio distributions of SO2. At 10 km altitude these indicate an annual

  17. Study and make sulfur dioxide treatment equipment for degradation process of fine silicate zircon ore by sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Dinh Thanh; Le Xuan Thu; Tran Van Hoa; Pham Kim Thoa


    The against absorbent method was researched by research group to solve the above issue. This method was carried out by adsorbent lime-milk agent on the buffer of porous material with diameter D=9 cm and height H=1.2 m. The main parameters were gained: absorbent effect reached 98% with lime-milk concentration of 14% in water, against air flow speed of 0.7 m/s and lime-milk output of 0.45 liter/minute. Base on the above main researched parameter, the SO 2 treatment equipment system by sulfuric acid was worked out with the scale of 0.5 ton/batch/day; absorbent tower diameter D=0.47 m, buffer height H=3.5 m and expenditure of 33.2 kg CaO/ton of zircon silicate. (author)

  18. Knudsen cell and smog chamber study of the heterogeneous uptake of sulfur dioxide on Chinese mineral dust. (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Weigang; Gai, Yanbo; Ge, Maofa


    The heterogeneous uptake processes of sulfur dioxide on two types of Chinese mineral dust (Inner Mongolia desert dust and Xinjiang sierozem) were investigated using both Knudsen cell and smog chamber system. The temperature dependence of the uptake coefficients was studied over a range from 253 to 313 K using the Knudsen cell reactor, the initial uptake coefficients decreased with the increasing of temperature for these two mineral dust samples, whereas the steady state uptake coefficients of the Xinjiang sierozem increased with the temperature increasing, and these temperature dependence functions were obtained for the first time. In the smog chamber experiments at room temperature, the steady state uptake coefficients of SO2 decreased evidently with the increasing of sulfur dioxide initial concentration from 1.72 × 10¹² to 6.15 × 10¹² mol/cm³. Humid air had effect on the steady state uptake coefficients of SO₂onto Inner Mongolia desert dust. Consequences about the understanding of the uptake processes onto mineral dust samples and the environmental implication were also discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Determination of sulfur dioxide in ambient air and in industrial stack using X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumitra, T.; Chankow, N.; Punnachaiya, S.; Laopaibul, R.


    Sulfur dioxide is a major air pollutant of concern. The gas has to be monitored both in ambient air and in industrial stacks. There are several methods of measuring sulfur dioxide. Standard methods adopted for Thailand are based on chemical methods. These are normally sensitive to light and temperature changes. Therefore a method of collecting air sample and determination of SO 2 by X-ray fluorescence technique was developed. Air sampling was done by an in-house low cost air sampler using automobile battery, dependency on a.c. source was thus avoided. The air pump has a flow rate between 0.2-1.5 liters/minute and draw about 0.6 A from a 12 V battery. SO 2 was collected on 37 mm filters impregnated with 5% sodium carbonate. This method could detect SO 2 from 10 μg up. The method has been checked by interlaboratory comparison. Field test has also been performed at some tobacco curing plants in Amphoe Sansai, Changwat Chiengmai, both in ambient air and in stacks. The results were found to be satisfactory and comparable with the standard methods

  20. Constraints on water vapor and sulfur dioxide at Ceres: Exploiting the sensitivity of the Hubble Space Telescope (United States)

    Roth, Lorenz


    Far-ultraviolet observations of dwarf-planet (1) Ceres were obtained on several occasions in 2015 and 2016 by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), both on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We report a search for neutral gas emissions at hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur lines around Ceres from a potential teneous exosphere. No detectable exosphere emissions are present in any of the analyzed HST observations. We apply analytical models to relate the derived upper limits for the atomic species to a water exosphere (for H and O) and a sulfur dioxide exosphere (for S and O), respectively. The H and O upper limits constrain the H2O production rate at the surface to (2 - 4) ×1026 molecules s-1 or lower, similar to or slightly larger than previous detections and upper limits. With low fluxes of energetic protons measured in the solar wind prior to the HST observations and the obtained non-detections, an assessment of the recently suggested sputter-generated water exosphere during solar energetic particle events is not possible. Investigating a sulfur dioxide-based exosphere, we find that the O and S upper limits constrain the SO2 density at the surface to values ∼ 1010 times lower than the equilibrium vapor pressure density. This result implies that SO2 is not present on Ceres' sunlit surface, contrary to previous findings in HST ultraviolet reflectance spectra but in agreement with the absence of SO2 infrared spectral features as observed by the Dawn spacecraft.

  1. Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Crowley


    Full Text Available The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to investigate sources and chemical processes of sulfur dioxide and sulfate in the atmosphere, however interpretation of measured sulfur isotope ratios is challenging due to a lack of reliable information on the isotopic fractionation involved in major transformation pathways. This paper presents laboratory measurements of the fractionation factors for the major atmospheric oxidation reactions for SO2: Gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals, and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and a radical chain reaction initiated by iron. The measured fractionation factor for 34S/32S during the gas-phase reaction is αOH = (1.0089±0.0007−((4±5×10−5 T(°C. The measured fractionation factor for 34S/32S during aqueous oxidation by H2O2 or O3 is αaq = (1.0167±0.0019−((8.7±3.5 ×10−5T(°C. The observed fractionation during oxidation by H2O2 and O3 appeared to be controlled primarily by protonation and acid-base equilibria of S(IV in solution, which is the reason that there is no significant difference between the fractionation produced by the two oxidants within the experimental error. The isotopic fractionation factor from a radical chain reaction in solution catalysed by iron is αFe = (0.9894±0.0043 at 19 °C for 34S/32S. Fractionation was mass-dependent with regards to 33S/32S for all the reactions investigated. The radical chain reaction mechanism was the only measured reaction that had a faster rate for the light isotopes. The results presented in this study will be particularly useful to determine the importance of the transition metal-catalysed oxidation pathway compared to other oxidation pathways, but other main oxidation pathways can not be distinguished based on stable sulfur isotope measurements alone.

  2. [Significance of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the regulation of cardiovascular system]. (United States)

    Jin, Hong Fang; DU, Shu Xu; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Su Qing; Tian, Yue; Bu, Ding Fang; Tang, Chao Shu; DU, Jun Bao


    Since the 1980's nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), the endogenous gas molecules produced from metabolic pathway, have been realized as signal molecules to be involved in the regulation of body homeostasis and to play important roles under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The researches on these endogenous gas signal molecules opened a new avenue in life science. To explore the new member of gasotransmitter family, other endogenous gas molecules which have been regarded as metabolic waste up to date, and their biological regulatory effects have been paid close attention to in the current fields of life science and medicine. Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) can be produced endogenously from normal metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. L-cysteine is oxidized via cysteine dioxygenase to L-cysteinesulfinate, and the latter can proceed through transamination by glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to beta-sulfinyl pyruvate which decomposes spontaneously to pyruvate and SO(2). In mammals, activated neutrophils by oxidative stress can convert H(2)S to sulfite through a reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-dependent process. The authors detected endogenous production of SO(2) in all cardiovascular tissues, including in heart, aorta, pulmonary artery, mesenteric artery, renal artery, tail artery and the plasma SO(2) content. As the key enzyme producing SO(2), GOT mRNA in cardiovascular system was detected and found to be located enriched in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells near the endothelial layer. When the normal rats were treated with hydroxamate(HDX), a GOT inhibitor, at a dose of 3.7 mg/kg body weight, the blood pressure (BP) went high markedly, the ratio of wall thickness to lumen radius was increased by 18.34%, and smooth muscle cell proliferation was enhanced. The plasma SO(2) level in the rats injected with 125 micromol/kg body weight SO(2) donor was

  3. The association of daily sulfur dioxide air pollution levels with hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Europe (The Aphea-II study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunyer, J; Ballester, F; Le Tertre, A; Atkinson, R; Ayres, JG; Forastiere, F; Forsberg, B; Vonk, JM; Bisanti, L; Tenias, JM; Medina, S; Schwartz, J; Katsouyvanni, K

    The objective of this study is to assess the short-term effect of sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollution levels on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases. Daily mean hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases (IHDs), and stroke in seven European areas (the cities

  4. Sulfur dioxide in the Venus atmosphere: I. Vertical distribution and variability (United States)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Korablev, O.; Belyaev, D.; Chamberlain, S.; Evdokimova, D.; Encrenaz, Th.; Esposito, L.; Jessup, K. L.; Lefèvre, F.; Limaye, S.; Mahieux, A.; Marcq, E.; Mills, F. P.; Montmessin, F.; Parkinson, C. D.; Robert, S.; Roman, T.; Sandor, B.; Stolzenbach, A.; Wilson, C.; Wilquet, V.


    Recent observations of sulfur containing species (SO2, SO, OCS, and H2SO4) in Venus' mesosphere have generated controversy and great interest in the scientific community. These observations revealed unexpected spatial patterns and spatial/temporal variability that have not been satisfactorily explained by models. Sulfur oxide chemistry on Venus is closely linked to the global-scale cloud and haze layers, which are composed primarily of concentrated sulfuric acid. Sulfur oxide observations provide therefore important insight into the on-going chemical evolution of Venus' atmosphere, atmospheric dynamics, and possible volcanism. This paper is the first of a series of two investigating the SO2 and SO variability in the Venus atmosphere. This first part of the study will focus on the vertical distribution of SO2, considering mostly observations performed by instruments and techniques providing accurate vertical information. This comprises instruments in space (SPICAV/SOIR suite on board Venus Express) and Earth-based instruments (JCMT). The most noticeable feature of the vertical profile of the SO2 abundance in the Venus atmosphere is the presence of an inversion layer located at about 70-75 km, with VMRs increasing above. The observations presented in this compilation indicate that at least one other significant sulfur reservoir (in addition to SO2 and SO) must be present throughout the 70-100 km altitude region to explain the inversion in the SO2 vertical profile. No photochemical model has an explanation for this behaviour. GCM modelling indicates that dynamics may play an important role in generating an inflection point at 75 km altitude but does not provide a definitive explanation of the source of the inflection at all local times or latitudes The current study has been carried out within the frame of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) International Team entitled 'SO2 variability in the Venus atmosphere'.

  5. Short-term association between sulfur dioxide and daily mortality: the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) study. (United States)

    Kan, Haidong; Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Qian, Zhengmin


    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity, but only few studies were conducted in Asian countries. Previous studies suggest that SO(2) may have adverse health effects independent of other pollutants. In the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project, the short-term associations between ambient sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and daily mortality were examined in Bangkok, Thailand, and three Chinese cities: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for seasonality and other time-varying covariates. Effect estimates were obtained for each city and then for the cities combined. The impact of alternative model specifications, such as lag structure of pollutants and degree of freedom (df) for time trend, on the estimated effects of SO(2) were also examined. In both individual-city and combined analysis, significant effects of SO(2) on total non-accidental and cardiopulmonary mortality were observed. An increase of 10 microg/m(3) of 2-day moving average concentrations of SO(2) corresponded to 1.00% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-1.24], 1.09% (95% CI, 0.71-1.47), and 1.47% (95% CI, 0.85-2.08) increase of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively, in the combined analysis. Sensitivity analyzes suggested that these findings were generally insensitive to alternative model specifications. After adjustment for PM(10) or O(3), the effect of SO(2) remained significant in three Chinese cities. However, adjustment for NO(2) diminished the associations and rendered them statistically insignificant in all four cities. In conclusion, ambient SO(2) concentration was associated with daily mortality in these four Asian cities. These associations may be attributable to SO(2) serving as a surrogate of other substances. Our findings suggest that the role of outdoor exposure to SO(2) should be investigated further in this region. (c) 2010

  6. Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers. (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui


    Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs.

  7. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.V. [Global Environmental Solutions, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States)


    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  8. A Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument for Aircraft Measurements of Sulfur Dioxide in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (United States)

    Rollins, Andrew W.; Thornberry, Troy D.; Ciciora, Steven J.; McLaughlin, Richard J.; Watts, Laurel A.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Baumann, Esther; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Bui, Thaopaul V.; Fahey, David W.


    This work describes the development and testing of a new instrument for in situ measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on airborne platforms in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The instrument is based on the laser-induced fluorescence technique and uses the fifth harmonic of a tunable fiber-amplified semiconductor diode laser system at 1084.5 nm to excite SO2 at 216.9 nm. Sensitivity and background checks are achieved in flight by additions of SO2 calibration gas and zero air, respectively. Aircraft demonstration was performed during the NASA Volcano Plume Investigation Readiness and Gas-Phase and Aerosol Sulfur (VIRGAS) experiment, which was a series of flights using the NASA WB-57F during October 2015 based at Ellington Field and Harlingen, Texas. During these flights, the instrument successfully measured SO2 in the UTLS at background (non-volcanic) conditions with a precision of 2 ppt at 10 s and an overall uncertainty determined primarily by instrument drifts of +/- (16% + 0.9 ppt).

  9. The Impacts of Technical Progress on Sulfur Dioxide Kuznets Curve in China: A Spatial Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Zhou


    Full Text Available This paper aims to reveal the nexus for sulfur dioxide (SO2 emission and income, as well as the effects of technical progress on SO2 emission in China based on environment Kuznets curve (EKC hypothesis. The spatial panel technique is used in case the coefficient estimates are biased due to the negligence of spatial dependence. With the provincial panel data of China from 2004 to 2014, this is the first research that finds an inverse N-trajectory of the relationship between SO2 emission and economic growth and confirms the beneficial impacts of technical advancement on SO2 emission abatement. The empirical results also suggest that the industrial structure change is an important driving force of the SO2 EKC. In addition, the direct and spillover effects of determinants on sulfur emission are clarified and estimated by a correct approach. Finally, we check the stability of our conclusions on the EKC shape for SO2 and technical progress effects when controlling for different variables and specifications, through which we find the turning points are sensitive to variables selections.

  10. Influence of sulfur dioxide on the mineral composition of needles from spruces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Materna, J


    Until recently all the authors knew about changes in the mineral composition of plants exposed to air pollution was that the sulfur content increases considerably. The question arises whether other mineral substances, too, accumulate in the assimilating organs of smoke injured plants, particularly cations such as calcium, potassium and magnesium. Results of analyses of spruce needles from an air polluted forest in the Erzebirge in Czechoslovakia yielded no relationship between the accumulation of sulfates and the mentioned cations.

  11. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu


    Full Text Available We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2. We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80%–20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. Surface sulfate concentrations are dominated by local anthropogenic sources. Of the sulfate produced from sources other than local anthropogenic emissions (defined here as "background" sulfate, EA sources account for approximately 30%–50% (over the Western US and 10%–20% (over the Eastern US. The surface concentrations of sulfate from EA sources over the Western US are highest in MAM (up to 0.15 μg/m3, and lowest in DJF (less than 0.06 μg/m3. Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence (represented by the areas where at least 0.1 μg m−3 of sulfate originates from EA over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 hPa in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (in particular of H2O2, which oxidizes SO2 to sulfate in the aqueous phase. We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be

  12. Distribution characteristics of aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in dustfall samples from a coal-mining area, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ce; Zhong Ning-ning; Chen Dang-yi; Li yan; Liu Shuang [China University of Petroleum, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Hydrocarbon Accumulation


    Dustfall samples from the Shilong coal-mining area, Pingdingshan, Henan, China, were tested containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by means of GC-MS technology, which damage the health of human. One hundred and sixty-nine PAHs have been identified in the samples, including 13 US EPA PAHs. The concentrations of PAHs are different in different dustfall samples from various site, which change from 0.017 to 0.188 mg/g, and the mean value is 0.079 mg/g. Of all the PAHs with 2-7 rings, PAHs with 3 rings are the most abundant. Considering organic geochemical parameters such as MP/P, MPI1, FL/PY and biomarkers, we conclude that lots of coalmines and coal industry plants, which locate in the small area, could have direct effect on the ambient atmosphere. Coal dust and coal combustion products influence the component of PAHs in the atmosphere. In addition, straw and wood combustion are small sources for PAHs. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Associations between short-term exposure to ambient sulfur dioxide and increased cause-specific mortality in 272 Chinese cities. (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Liu, Cong; Meng, Xia; Niu, Yue; Lin, Zhijing; Liu, Yunning; Liu, Jiangmei; Qi, Jinlei; You, Jinling; Tse, Lap Ah; Chen, Jianmin; Zhou, Maigeng; Chen, Renjie; Yin, Peng; Kan, Haidong


    Ambient sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) remains a major air pollutant in developing countries, but epidemiological evidence about its health effects was not abundant and inconsistent. To evaluate the associations between short-term exposure to SO 2 and cause-specific mortality in China. We conducted a nationwide time-series analysis in 272 major Chinese cities (2013-2015). We used the over-dispersed generalized linear model together with the Bayesian hierarchical model to analyze the data. Two-pollutant models were fitted to test the robustness of the associations. We conducted stratification analyses to examine potential effect modifications by age, sex and educational level. On average, the annual-mean SO 2 concentrations was 29.8 μg/m 3 in 272 cities. We observed positive and associations of SO 2 with total and cardiorespiratory mortality. A 10 μg/m 3 increase in two-day average concentrations of SO 2 was associated with increments of 0.59% in mortality from total non-accidental causes, 0.70% from total cardiovascular diseases, 0.55% from total respiratory diseases, 0.64% from hypertension disease, 0.65% from coronary heart disease, 0.58% from stroke, and 0.69% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In two-pollutant models, there were no significant differences between single-pollutant model and two-pollutant model estimates with fine particulate matter, carbon monoxide and ozone, but the estimates decreased substantially after adjusting for nitrogen dioxide, especially in South China. The associations were stronger in warmer cities, in older people and in less-educated subgroups. This nationwide study demonstrated associations of daily SO 2 concentrations with increased total and cardiorespiratory mortality, but the associations might not be independent from NO 2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping critical levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide for crops, forests and natural vegetation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, B.J.; Strickland, T.C.; McDowell, M.K.


    Air pollution abatement strategies for controlling nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone emissions in the United States focus on a 'standards-based' approach. This approach places limits on air pollution by maintaining a baseline value for air quality, no matter what the ecosystem can or cannot withstand. This paper, presents example critical levels maps for the conterminous U.S. developed using the 'effects-based' mapping approach as defined by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, Task Force on Mapping. This approach emphasizes the pollution level or load capacity an ecosystem can accommodate before degradation occurs, and allows for analysis of cumulative effects. Presents the first stage of an analysis that reports the distribution of exceedances of critical levels for NO 2 , SO 2 , and O 3 in sensitive forest, crop, and natural vegetation ecosystems in the contiguous United States. It is concluded that extrapolation to surrounding geographic areas requires the analysis of diverse and compounding factors that preclude simple extrapolation methods. Pollutant data depicted in this analysis are limited to locationally specific data, and would be enhanced by utilizing spatial statistics, along with converging associated anthropogenic and climatological factors. Values used for critical levels were derived from current scientific knowledge. While not intended to be a definitive value, adjustments will occur as the scientific community gains new insight to pollutant/receptor relationships. We recommend future analysis to include a refinement of sensitive receptor data coverages and to report relative proportions of exceedances at varying grid scales. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400 1400 cm 1 (United States)


    Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400...1400 cm‐1 R. L. Aggarwal, L. W. Farrar, S. Di Cecca, and T. H. Jeys MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02420‐9108 Raman spectra of...region 400‐1400 cm‐1. A relatively compact (< 2’x2’x2’), sensitive, 532 nm 10 W CW Raman system with double‐pass

  16. Raman Spectra and Cross Sections of Ammonia, Chlorine, Hydrogen Sulfide, Phosgene, and Sulfur Dioxide Toxic Gases in the Fingerprint Region 400-1400 cm-1 (United States)


    Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400...1400 cm‐1 R. L. Aggarwal, L. W. Farrar, S. Di Cecca, and T. H. Jeys MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02420‐9108 Raman spectra of...region 400‐1400 cm‐1. A relatively compact (< 2’x2’x2’), sensitive, 532 nm 10 W CW Raman system with double‐pass

  17. Means of absorption for dry removal of sulfur dioxide from slack gases. Absorptionsmittel fuer die trockene Entfernung von Schwefedioxid aus Rauchgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhard, G; Glaser, W; Hein, K


    This is a means of absorption for the dry removal of sulfur dioxide and other harmful substances from the stack gases from boilers. The means of absorption consists mainly of a fine-grained inorganic alkaline earth compound, particularly a calcium and/or a magnesium compound and an additive in the form of one or more carbonic acids and/or of their alkali salts, ammonium salts or alkaline earth salts.

  18. Effects of air pollution on crops. I. Effects of gaseous sulfur dioxide and ozone on the occurrence of symptoms of injuries on vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masahara, O; Mega, K


    In order to obtain information on plant injuries due to air pollution to utilize susceptible plants as biological indicators of air pollution, potted plants such as chard, spinach, Chinese cabbage, and Japanese radish or cut plants such as Welsh onion were exposed in a glass house to sulfur dioxide at 0.4 ppM continuously for a week or to ozone for 6 hr at 0.13, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 ppM. The symptoms due to sulfur dioxide appeared first as peripheral and interveinal necrosis, followed by dehydration. The period of exposure required for the appearance of injuries depended mainly on the vegetable species and ranged from 1 day for potted herb mustard to more than a week for maize. A variety of cabbage did not show any injury after 1 week of continuous exposure to sulfur dioxide. The symptoms due to ozone appeared on the veinal or interveinal parts of leaves and were white to light brown in color on cruciferous vegetables and onions. Brown spots appeared on cucumber, and brown, reddish-purple, or dark purple lesions appeared on burdock, rice, and kidney bean. Damage was most severe on cucumbers occurring even at 0.13 ppM. The environmental conditions before and after the exposure to these gases affected the appearance of the symptoms.

  19. Ultrafast Photodissociation Dynamics of the F State of Sulfur Dioxide by Femtosecond Time-Resolved Pump-Probe Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dong-Dong; Ni Qiang; Luo Si-Zuo; Zhang Jing; Liu Hang; Xu Hai-Feng; Jin Ming-Xing; Ding Da-Jun


    A femtosecond pump-probe method is employed to study the dissociation dynamics of sulfur dioxide. SO 2 molecules are excited to the F state by absorbing two photons of 267 nm femtosecond laser pulses, and ionized by 400 nm laser pulses at different delay times between the two lasers. Transients of both parent ions (SO + 2 ) and the fragment ions (SO + , S + and O + ) are observed. The SO + 2 transient can be well fitted to a biexponential decay comprising a fast and a slow component of 280 fs and 2.97 ps lifetimes, respectively. The SO + transient consists of two growth components of 270 fs and 2.50 ps. The results clearly show that the F state of SO 2 dissociates along an S-O bond. The transients of S + and O + , however, have different behavior, which consist of a fast growth and a long decay component. A possible mechanism of the fragment formation is discussed to understand the dissociation dynamics of the F state of SO 2 . (atomic and molecular physics)

  20. Growth response of four species of Eastern hardwood tree seedlings exposed to ozone, acidic precipitation, and sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.D. Skelly, J.M.


    In 1987 a study was conducted in controlled environment chambers to determine the foliar sensitivity of tree seedlings of eight species to ozone and acidic precipitation, and to determine the influence of leaf position on symptom severity. Jensen and Dochinger conducted concurrent similar studies in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) chambers with ten species of forest trees. Based on the results of these initial studies, four species representing a range in foliar sensitivity to ozone were chosen: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). These species were also chosen because of their ecological and/or commercial importance in Pennsylvania. Seedlings were exposed in growth chambers simulated acid rain. In addition acute exposures to sulfur dioxide were conducted in a regime based on unpublished monitoring data collected near coal-fired power plants. The objective of this study was to determine if the pollutant treatments influenced the growth and productivity of seedlings of these four species. This information will help researchers and foresters understand the role of air pollution in productivity of eastern forests

  1. In vivo antitussive activity of Coccinia grandis against irritant aerosol and sulfur dioxide-induced cough model in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakti Prasad Pattanayak and Priyashree Sunita


    Full Text Available Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae has extensively used to get relief from asthma and cough by the indigenous people of India. The antitussive effect of aerosols of two different concentrations (2.5%, 5% w/v of methanol extract of C. grandis fruits were tested by counting the numbers of coughs produced due to aerosols of citric acid, 10 min after exposing the male guinea pigs to aerosols of test solutions for 7 min. In another set of experiment methanol extract was investigated for its therapeutic efficacy on a cough model induced by sulfur dioxide gas in mice. The results showed significant reduction of cough number obtained in the presence of both concentrations of methanol extract as that of the prototype antitussive agent codeine phosphate. Also, methanol extract exhibited significant antitussive effect at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, per orally by inhibiting the cough by 20.57, 33.73 and 56.71% within 90 min of performing the experiment respectively.

  2. Using CATS Near-Real-time Lidar Observations to Monitor and Constrain Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Forecasts (United States)

    Hughes, E. J.; Yorks, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; da Silva, A. M.; Mcgill, M.


    An eruption of Italian volcano Mount Etna on 3 December 2015 produced fast-moving sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfate aerosol clouds that traveled across Asia and the Pacific Ocean, reaching North America in just 5 days. The Ozone Profiler and Mapping Suite's Nadir Mapping UV spectrometer aboard the U.S. National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite observed the horizontal transport of the SO2 cloud. Vertical profiles of the colocated volcanic sulfate aerosols were observed between 11.5 and 13.5 km by the new Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) space-based lidar aboard the International Space Station. Backward trajectory analysis estimates the SO2 cloud altitude at 7-12 km. Eulerian model simulations of the SO2 cloud constrained by CATS measurements produced more accurate dispersion patterns compared to those initialized with the back trajectory height estimate. The near-real-time data processing capabilities of CATS are unique, and this work demonstrates the use of these observations to monitor and model volcanic clouds.

  3. Reducing information asymmetry in the power industry: Mandatory and voluntary information disclosure regulations of sulfur dioxide emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xufeng; Zhang Chao


    This paper focuses on the institutional framework for sulfur dioxide emission information disclosure (SDEID) in power industries. The authors argue that mandatory and voluntary SDEID are two complementary regulatory instruments for emission reduction in the power industry. An analytical framework of SDEID with six facets is suggested in this paper to demonstrate relevant legal provisions and regulatory policies of mandatory and voluntary SDEID of power industries in the US. Empirical research shows that mandatory and voluntary SDEID of the power industry have been regulated simultaneously in the US. The foundation of power companies' willingness to disclose emission information voluntarily is the combination of mandatory scientific monitoring with market regulation in the current SDEID system in the US. In comparison, the SDEID of power industries has yet to be widely implemented in developing countries. Finally, the paper provides some implications to developing countries that plan to learn institutional arrangements from developed countries. - Highlights: ► Mandatory and voluntary SDEID are two complementary regulatory instruments. ► An analytical framework is suggested to demonstrate SDEID of power industry in the US. ► Voluntary disclosure can be attributed to scientific monitoring and market regulation. ► We provide implications to developing countries learning from developed countries.

  4. Spatiotemporal analysis of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations over the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (United States)

    Zeri, Marcelo; Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; Lyra, Gustavo Bastos


    Time series of pollutants and weather variables measured at four sites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2002 and 2004, were used to characterize temporal and spatial relationships of air pollution. Concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were compared to national and international standards. The annual median concentration of PM10 was higher than the standard set by the World Health Organization (WHO) on all sites and the 24 h means exceeded the standards on several occasions on two sites. SO2 and CO did not exceed the limits, but the daily maximum of CO in one of the stations was 27% higher on weekends compared to weekdays, due to increased activity in a nearby Convention Center. Air temperature and vapor pressure deficit have both presented the highest correlations with pollutant's concentrations. The concentrations of SO2 and CO were not correlated between sites, suggesting that local sources are more important to those pollutants compared to PM10. The time series of pollutants and air temperature were decomposed in time and frequency by wavelet analysis. The results revealed that the common variability of air temperature and PM10 is dominated by temporal scales of 1-8 days, time scales that are associated with the passage of weather events, such as cold fronts.

  5. Toluene destruction in the Claus process by sulfur dioxide: A reaction kinetics study

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Sourab; Raj, Abhijeet Dhayal; Alshoaibi, Ahmed S.; Alhassan, Saeed M.; Chung, Suk-Ho


    The presence of aromatics such as benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) as contaminants in the H2S gas stream entering Claus sulfur recovery units has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX forms soot particles and clogs and deactivates the catalysts. BTX oxidation, before they enter catalyst beds, can solve this problem. A theoretical investigation is presented on toluene oxidation by SO2. Density functional theory is used to study toluene radical (benzyl, o-methylphenyl, m-methylphenyl, and p-methylphenyl)-SO2 interactions. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radical through one of the O atoms rather than the S atom. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers of 4.8-6.1 kJ/mol for different toluene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO. The reaction rate constants are evaluated to facilitate process simulations. Among four toluene radicals, the resonantly stabilized benzyl radical exhibited lowest SO2 addition rate. A remarkable similarity between toluene oxidation by O2 and by SO2 is observed.

  6. Approach to air pollution abatement in Czechoslovakia (especially of sulfur dioxide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilik, O.


    The development of particulate and SO 2 emissions in Czechoslovakia in 1970-1989 and the contributions of the individual industry branches are given. The Air Protection Act was adopted in July 1991; it introduces the concept of emission limits, to be laid down in a differentiated way for new and existing facilities. An overview of the limits for newly built facilities is given. Coal desulfurization, which is a crucial point in the minimization of air pollution, is a difficult task because in Czechoslovakia, sulfur is present in coal in various forms. The coal gasification and pressure fluidized combustion techniques hold great promise in this respect. Desulfurization shall be implemented so that for each source exceeding 100 MWe, the SO 2 level shall be lower than approximately 500 mg/Nm 3 ; this requires a desulfurization efficiency of about 95%. For smaller sources the situation will be less severe because their limiting SO 2 concentration will be about 1700 mg/Nm 3 , requiring a desulfurization efficiency of about 55%. For NO x emissions, the reaching of the emission limit of 650 mg/Nm 3 seems practicable for the majority of brown coal powder furnaces. As to particulate emissions, none of the existing energy sources complies with the proposed limit of 100 mg/Nm 3 for new sources. This will call for reconstruction or complete upgrading of separator facilities at all the operated sources. (Z.S.). 2 tabs

  7. Toluene destruction in the Claus process by sulfur dioxide: A reaction kinetics study

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Sourab


    The presence of aromatics such as benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) as contaminants in the H2S gas stream entering Claus sulfur recovery units has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX forms soot particles and clogs and deactivates the catalysts. BTX oxidation, before they enter catalyst beds, can solve this problem. A theoretical investigation is presented on toluene oxidation by SO2. Density functional theory is used to study toluene radical (benzyl, o-methylphenyl, m-methylphenyl, and p-methylphenyl)-SO2 interactions. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radical through one of the O atoms rather than the S atom. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers of 4.8-6.1 kJ/mol for different toluene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO. The reaction rate constants are evaluated to facilitate process simulations. Among four toluene radicals, the resonantly stabilized benzyl radical exhibited lowest SO2 addition rate. A remarkable similarity between toluene oxidation by O2 and by SO2 is observed.

  8. Sulfur dioxide emissions in Asia in the period 1985-1997 (United States)

    Streets, David G.; Tsai, Nancy Y.; Akimoto, Hajime; Oka, Kaoru

    A consistent set of SO 2 emission trends has been developed for Asian countries for the time period 1985-1997. The trend is based on extrapolation of a detailed 1990 inventory, which was constructed as part of the World Bank's RAINS-ASIA project, using IEA energy-use data. The trend shows Asian SO 2 emissions growing from 33.7 Tg in 1990 to 39.2 Tg in 1997. Estimates interpolated from the RAINS-ASIA computer model suggest a value for 1997 of 46.4 Tg, assuming no major changes in emission abatement policies after 1990. The reduction in the 1997 value, by some 16%, is primarily due to regulatory requirements and other trends toward lower sulfur content of oil products and coal. A slowdown in the growth of emissions in China - due to a reduction in economic growth, the mining of higher-quality coals, enhanced environmental awareness, and a reduction in industrial coal use - has been instrumental in arresting the growth of Asian emissions. Most of the positive developments have occurred in East Asia, and high-emission growth rates persist in Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The outlook for the future is that Asian SO 2 emissions may well peak in the region of 40-45 Tg by the year 2020 or earlier, in contrast to previous predictions of 2020 emissions as high as 80-110 Tg. The trends developed in this paper are good news for the local and regional environment, particularly in East Asia. However, they also signify lower-than-anticipated concentrations of sulfate aerosol over the Asian continent, with the resulting possibility of greater-than-anticipated regional and global warming.

  9. Endogenous sulfur dioxide regulates hippocampal neuron apoptosis in developing epileptic rats and is associated with the PERK signaling pathway. (United States)

    Niu, Manman; Han, Ying; Li, Qinrui; Zhang, Jing


    Epilepsy is among the most common neurological diseases in children. Recurrent seizures can result in hippocampal damage and seriously impair learning and memory functions in children. However, the mechanisms underlying epilepsy-related brain injury are unclear. Neuronal apoptosis is among the most common neuropathological manifestations of brain injury. Endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) has been shown to be involved in seizures and related neuron apoptosis. However, the role of endogenous SO 2 in epilepsy remains unclear. This study assessed whether endogenous SO 2 is involved in epilepsy and its underlying mechanisms. Using a rat epilepsy model induced by an intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (KA), we found that hippocampal neuron apoptosis was induced in epileptic rats, and the SO 2 content and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) activity in the plasma were increased compared to those in the control group. However, the inhibition of SO 2 production by l-aspartate-β-hydroxamate (HDX) can subvert this response 72h after an epileptic seizure. No difference in apoptosis was observed 7 d after the epileptic seizure in the KA and KA+HDX groups. The protein expression levels of AAT2, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), pancreatic eIF2 kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) and phospho-PERK (p-PERK) were remarkably elevated in the hippocampi of the epileptic rats, while the HDX treatment was capable of reversing this process 7 d after the epileptic seizure. These results indicate that the inhibition of endogenous SO 2 production can alleviate neuronal apoptosis and is associated with the PERK signaling pathway during the initial stages after epileptic seizure, but inhibiting SO 2 production only delayed the occurrence of apoptosis and did not prevent neuronal apoptosis in the epileptic rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of sulfur dioxide on net CO/sub 2/ assimilation in the lichen Evernia mesomorpha Nyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebert, D B; L' Hirondelle, S J; Addison, P A


    Physiologically active thalli of the lichen Evernia mesomorpha Nyl. were very sensitive to short-term fumigations with low concentrations of gaseous sulfur dioxide. Net CO/sub 2/ assimilation rate (NAR) was significantly reduced after exposure to 0.085 l/sup -1/ (250 m/sup -3/) SO/sub 2/ for 1 h or more, and the reduction increased with increasing concentration. Duration of exposure had no significant effect on NAR, indicating the importance of rate of SO/sub 2/ uptake rather than the total amount absorbed. Respiration was significantly reduced after 4 h or more of exposure to 0.265 l/sup -1/ (639 m/sup -3/) SO/sub 2/ or higher. Recovery of NAR after fumigation was dependent on both SO/sub 2/ concentration and duration of fumigation, and on the time allowed for recovery. Virtually complete recovery occurred within 24 h after episodes with up to 0.355 l/sup -1/ (856 m/sup -3/) SO/sub 2/ for 1 h and 0.085 l/sup -1/ SO/sub 2/ for 4 h. Above these levels, recovery was incomplete or nonexistent after 24 h in clean air. The level of sensitivity found can be attributed to the environmental conditions during fumigation, which prevented thallus desiccation and inactivity. Based on this study, neither the concept of dose (concentration x time) nor that of threshold levels of SO/sub 2/ fumigations are supported. Peak exposures to SO/sub 2/ for short periods may be of primary importance in determining the survival of lichens in industrial areas.

  11. Changes in Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) over the English Channel - 1.5 Years of Measurements from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas; Hopkins, Frances; Smyth, Timothy


    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) was measured continuously from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory near Plymouth, United Kingdom between May 2014 and November 2015. This coastal site is exposed to marine air across a wide wind sector. The predominant southwesterly winds carry relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, air from the southeast is heavily influenced by exhaust plumes from ships in the English Channel as well as near near the Plymouth Sound. International Maritime Organization regulation came into force in January 2015 to reduce sulfur emissions tenfold in Sulfur Emission Control Areas such as the English Channel. We observed a three-fold reduction from 2014 to 2015 in the estimated ship-emitted SO2 during southeasterly winds. Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is an important source of atmospheric SO2 even in this semi-polluted region. The relative contribution of DMS oxidation to the SO2 burden over the English Channel increased from ~1/3 in 2014 to ~1/2 in 2015 due to the reduction in ship sulfur emissions. Our diel analysis suggests that SO2 is removed from the marine atmospheric boundary layer in about half a day, with dry deposition to the ocean accounting for a quarter of the total loss.

  12. Results of determinations of the sulfur-dioxide content of the atmospheric air with a portable measurement kit based on the pararosaniline method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampadius, F


    Among the toxides emitted by industry, home heating, and transportation and which are polluting the atmospheric air, sulfur dioxide occupies the forefront of our interest in any examination of smoke damage to agricultural and forest growth. This primary position is based on the high degree of the sensitivity of plants to sulfur dioxide. The SO/sub 2/ toxicity threshold, for example, for spruce trees is between 0.4 and 0.5 mg/m/sup 3/. In contrast, an irritant concentration threshold for the nervous system of man has been set at 0.6 mg SO/sub 2//m/sup 3/. Studies have demonstrated that the SO/sub 2/ damage to plants - aside from the plant's stage of development - can be attributed to the product of the concentration and the duration of the toxide's action. The air-analytical proof of the sulfur dioxide as the cause for plant smoke damage must extend then to the selective recording of the SO/sub 2/ admixture in the atmospheric air, to the determination of the SO/sub 2/ level of the air in mg/m/sup 3/ within a longer period of time, and finally through short-term measurements to the discovery of when and how long peak concentrations of phytoxic SO/sub 2/ occur. In keeping with this goal, an SO/sub 2/ device was developed and used to conduct, on several occasions in the course of 1962, air examinations in individual smoke-damaged areas of the German Democratic Republic. The results of these air measurements are treated in this paper. 7 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona (United States)

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.


    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  14. Study and modeling of the reduction of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrogen chloride by dry injection technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wuyin


    The potential and mechanism to reduce acid gases, such as sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), by dry Ca-based sorbents have been studied to improve the efficiency of the process and sorbent utilization. Several natural limestones were tested for SO{sub 2} removal. Calcium conversion as high as 45 % was achieved in the first 0.3 s at 1000 deg C, 1000 ppm SO{sub 2} and Ca/S=1. A SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of 95 % was reached at Ca/S=2. Two models for estimating the sulfation of CaO at high temperature are presented. Short-residence-time sulfation is described by a pore size distribution model and long-residence-time sulfation by a particle expansion model. The pore size distribution model explains the effects of particle size, pore size distribution and partial pressure of SO{sub 2}, suggesting these three factors be the most important for CaO conversion. For particles larger than 1-2 {mu}m in furnace sorbent injection, pore diameters of 50-300 Aa are desirable. When large particles or long residence times are used, as in fluidized bed combustion, the particle expansion model shows the particle size and the sorbent type to be the main factors affecting the reaction. By using the selected limestone and additives the simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal was also measured. Several ammonium salts as well as urea were tested. Urea was found to give the highest NO{sub x} removal efficiency. To fully utilize the unreacted Ca-based sorbents, the spent sorbents from SO{sub 2} reduction processes were tested in a fixed-bed reactor to measure the capacity for HCl removal at 150-600 deg C. The results showed that all spent materials could react with HCl to some extent. After being calcined and slaked, they even showed the same reactivity as pure Ca(OH){sub 2}. A shrinking core model was derived for fixed-bed reactor. For the best sorbent tested, the multiple sorbent utilization reached about 80 %. 100 refs, 42 figs, 12 tabs

  15. Trading sulfur dioxide allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldburg, C.B.; Lave, L.B.


    The 1990 Clean Air Act is aimed at generators larger than 25 MW, as these are the largest polluters. Market incentives give each source an emissions allocation but also flexibility. If a plant has lower emissions than the target, it can sell the 'surplus' emissions as allowances to plants that fail to meet the target. Only a few trades have occurred to date. Market-based incentives should lower the costs of improving environmental quality significantly. However, currently institutional dificulties hamper implementation

  16. An Improved Metabolism Grey Model for Predicting Small Samples with a Singular Datum and Its Application to Sulfur Dioxide Emissions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou


    Full Text Available This study proposes an improved metabolism grey model [IMGM(1,1] to predict small samples with a singular datum, which is a common phenomenon in daily economic data. This new model combines the fitting advantage of the conventional GM(1,1 in small samples and the additional advantages of the MGM(1,1 in new real-time data, while overcoming the limitations of both the conventional GM(1,1 and MGM(1,1 when the predicted results are vulnerable at any singular datum. Thus, this model can be classified as an improved grey prediction model. Its improvements are illustrated through a case study of sulfur dioxide emissions in China from 2007 to 2013 with a singular datum in 2011. Some features of this model are presented based on the error analysis in the case study. Results suggest that if action is not taken immediately, sulfur dioxide emissions in 2016 will surpass the standard level required by the Twelfth Five-Year Plan proposed by the China State Council.

  17. Insights into the Electronic Structure of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide from Generalized Valence Bond Theory: Bonding in O3 and SO2. (United States)

    Takeshita, Tyler Y; Lindquist, Beth A; Dunning, Thom H


    There are many well-known differences in the physical and chemical properties of ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). O3 has longer and weaker bonds than O2, whereas SO2 has shorter and stronger bonds than SO. The O-O2 bond is dramatically weaker than the O-SO bond, and the singlet-triplet gap in SO2 is more than double that in O3. In addition, O3 is a very reactive species, while SO2 is far less so. These disparities have been attributed to variations in the amount of diradical character in the two molecules. In this work, we use generalized valence bond (GVB) theory to characterize the electronic structure of ozone and sulfur dioxide, showing O3 does indeed possess significant diradical character, whereas SO2 is effectively a closed shell molecule. The GVB results provide critical insights into the genesis of the observed difference in these two isoelectronic species. SO2 possesses a recoupled pair bond dyad in the a"(π) system, resulting in SO double bonds. The π system of O3, on the other hand, has a lone pair on the central oxygen atom plus a pair of electrons in orbitals on the terminal oxygen atoms that give rise to a relatively weak π interaction.

  18. Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Dahl, Christiane


    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria are characterized by oxidizing various inorganic sulfur compounds for use as electron donors in carbon dioxide fixation during anoxygenic photosynthetic growth. These bacteria are divided into the purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and the green sulfur bacteria (GSB......). They utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate and sometimes also ferrous iron and hydrogen as electron donors. This review focuses on the dissimilatory and assimilatory metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds in these bacteria and also briefly discusses these metabolisms...... in other types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. The biochemistry and genetics of sulfur compound oxidation in PSB and GSB are described in detail. A variety of enzymes catalyzing sulfur oxidation reactions have been isolated from GSB and PSB (especially Allochromatium vinosum, a representative...

  19. Mathematical modelling of the kinetics of aerosol oxidation of sulfur dioxide upon electron-beam purification of power-plant flue gases from nitrogen and sulfur oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, G.Ya.; Gerasimova, T.S.; Fadeev, S.A.


    A kinetic model of SO 2 oxidation in flue gases, irradiated with accelerated electron flux is proposed. The model comprises an optimized mechanism of gas phase radiation chemical oxidation of NO and SO 2 , kinetics circuit of SO 2 and NH 3 thermal interaction, kinetic models of volumetric condensation of water and sulfuric acid vapors and liquid-phase oxidation of SO 2 in aerosol drops, produced in the course of volumetric condensation. Calculation results are in a satisfactory agreement with experimental data. (author)

  20. Dustfall design of open coal yard in the power plant-a case study on the closed reconstruction project of coal storage yard in shengli power plant (United States)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Ji, Weidong; Zhang, Feifei; Yu, Wei; Zheng, Runqing


    This thesis, based on the closed reconstruction project of the coal storage yard of Shengli Power Plant which is affiliated to Sinopec Shengli Petroleum Administration, first makes an analysis on the significance of current dustfall reconstruction of open coal yard, then summarizes the methods widely adopted in the dustfall of large-scale open coal storage yard of current thermal power plant as well as their advantages and disadvantages, and finally focuses on this project, aiming at providing some reference and assistance to the future closed reconstruction project of open coal storage yard in thermal power plant.

  1. Development of alternative sulfur dioxide control strategies for a metropolitan area and its environs, utilizing a modified climatological dispersion model (United States)

    K. J. Skipka; D. B. Smith


    Alternative control strategies were developed for achieving compliance with ambient air quality standards in Portland, Maine, and its environs, using a modified climatological dispersion model (CDM) and manipulating the sulfur content of the fuel oil consumed in four concentric zones. Strategies were evaluated for their impact on ambient air quality, economics, and...

  2. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne


    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  3. Effects of combined action of γ-irradiation and sulfur dioxide or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidin on bacteria and higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal'chenko, V.A.; Lotareva, O.V.; Spirin, D.A.; Karaban', R.T.; Mal'tseva, L.N.; Ignat'ev, A.A.


    Effect of combined action of of gamma-irradiation and sulfur dioxide or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidin on baceria (Bacillus subtilis) and higher plants (Hordeum vulgare L., Pinus sylvestris L.) have been studied. The number of barley germ root cells with chromosomal aberrations depends on the order of treatment with the studied agents. The coefficients of SO 2 and gamma-irradiation correlation fluctuate from 1,3 to 2,6 in the above experiments. In experiments with pine seedlings, these correlation coefficients were similar to additive ones. The data obtained suggest that the pattern of action of the agents is determined by the radiation sensitivity of objects and the order of action of the agents

  4. Acute effects of sulfur dioxide on the circulation of animals as well as on the contractility of isolated blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laszt, L; Schaad, R


    In support of earlier work on exhaust gases experiments were carried out to determine the acute effects of sulphur dioxide on the circulation of the cat and dog. Inhalation of SO/sub 2/ during 30 min at concentrations of up to 1000 ppm caused no circulatory reaction. Such a reaction first appeared after infusion of larger quantities of SO/sub 2/. The action of sulphur dioxide on systemic and pulmonar circulation is different. A difference was also observed for the contractility of the corresponding isolated vessels.

  5. Biologically removing sulfur from dilute gas flows (United States)

    Ruitenberg, R.; Dijkman, H.; Buisman, C. J. N.


    A biological process has been developed to clean off-gases containing sulfur dioxide from industrial installations. The sulfur dioxide is converted into hydrogen sulfide, which can then be oxidized to elemental sulfur if not used on-site. The process produces no waste products that require disposal and has a low reagent consumption.

  6. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides (United States)

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih


    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  7. Total Sulfur Deposition (wet+dry) from the Atmosphere (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is emitted primarily as a by-product of coal combustion from power plants. Sulfur Dioxide reacts in the atmosphere to form other chemical such...

  8. Synergism between sulfur dioxide and carbon particles. Studies on adsorption and on ciliary movements in the rabbit trachea in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalhamn, T; Strandberg, L


    Various types of carbon were shown to absorb gaseous SO/sub 2/ (about 75% at equilibrium in one case), which was rapidly converted to sulfuric acid (30% of that adsorbed in one case). However, carbon did not act synergistically with SO/sub 2/ in reducing rabbit trachea ciliary beat; carbon had no effect by itself and had no additional effect when administered with SO/sub 2/. 74 to 134 ppM SO/sub 2/ reduced ciliary beat from 1265 to 1091 beats/min after 45 min, and 175 to 239 ppM SO/sub 2/ reduced it from 1200 to 891 beats/min after 45 min.

  9. Structural and Redox Properties of Vanadium Complexes in Molten Salts of Interest for the Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boghosian, S.; Chrissanthopoulos, A.; Fehrmann, Rasmus


    Electronic absorption (UV/VIS) spectra have been obtained at 450 degrees C from V2O5-K2S2O7 molten mixtures in SO2 ( P-SO2 = 0 - 1.2 atm) gas atmospheres. The data are in agreement with the V-V reversible arrow V-IV equilibrium: (VO)(2)O(SO4)(4)(4-)(l) + SO2(g) - 2VO(SO4)(2)(2-)(l) + SO3(g). Sulfur...... and vibrational properties of the vanadium complexes formed in the molten salt-gas system V2O5-M2S2O7-M2SO4/SO2-O-2 (M = K or Cs). The spectral features and the exploitation of the relative Raman intensities indicate that the (VO)(2)O(SO4)(4)(+) dimeric complex unit which possesses a V-O-V bridge is formed...

  10. Sulfur dioxide control in China: policy evolution during the 10th and 11th Five-year Plans and lessons for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreifels, Jeremy J.; Fu, Yale; Wilson, Elizabeth J.


    China's Central government established national goals to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by 10% in both the 10th and 11th Five-year Plan periods, 2001–2005 and 2006–2010, respectively. But the early policies were unsuccessful at reducing emissions—emissions increased 28% during the 10th Five-year Plan. After adapting a number of policies and introducing new instruments during the 11th Five-year Plan, SO 2 emissions declined by 14%. We examine the evolution of these policies, their interplay with technical and institutional factors, and capture lessons from the 11th Five-year Plan to guide future pollution control programs. We find that several factors contributed to achievement of the 11th Five-year Plan SO 2 reduction goal: (1) instrument choice, (2) political accountability, (3) emission verification, (4) political support, (5) streamlined targets, and (6) political and financial incentives. The approach integrated multiple policy instruments—market-based, command-and-control, and administrative instruments specific to the Chinese context. The evolution of SO 2 reduction policies and programs has implications for further SO 2 reductions from power plants and other sources, as well as control of other atmospheric pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in China. - Highlights: ► This paper assesses China's SO 2 reduction policies between 2000 and 2010. ► Government used a variety of policy instruments to achieve emission targets. ► Experience shows that accountability, incentives, and political support were key. ► The policy lessons can aid future policies for SO 2 , NO x , and CO 2 reductions.

  11. A Liquid Inorganic Electrolyte Showing an Unusually High Lithium Ion Transference Number: A Concentrated Solution of LiAlCl4 in Sulfur Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Winter


    Full Text Available We report on studies of an inorganic electrolyte: LiAlCl4 in liquid sulfur dioxide. Concentrated solutions show a very high conductivity when compared with typical electrolytes for lithium ion batteries that are based on organic solvents. Our investigations include conductivity measurements and measurements of transference numbers via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and by a classical direct method, Hittorf’s method. For the use of Hittorf’s method, it is necessary to measure the concentration of the electrolyte in a selected cell compartment before and after electrochemical polarization very precisely. This task was finally performed by potentiometric titration after hydrolysis of the salt. The Haven ratio was determined to estimate the association behavior of this very concentrated electrolyte solution. The measured unusually high transference number of the lithium cation of the studied most concentrated solution, a molten solvate LiAlCl4 × 1.6SO2, makes this electrolyte a promising alternative for lithium ion cells with high power ability.

  12. Statistical interpretation of chromatic indicators in correlation to phytochemical profile of a sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes. (United States)

    Tchabo, William; Ma, Yongkun; Kwaw, Emmanuel; Zhang, Haining; Xiao, Lulu; Apaliya, Maurice T


    The four different methods of color measurement of wine proposed by Boulton, Giusti, Glories and Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) were applied to assess the statistical relationship between the phytochemical profile and chromatic characteristics of sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes. The alteration in chromatic properties and phenolic composition of non-thermal aged mulberry wine were examined, aided by the used of Pearson correlation, cluster and principal component analysis. The results revealed a positive effect of non-thermal processes on phytochemical families of wines. From Pearson correlation analysis relationships between chromatic indexes and flavonols as well as anthocyanins were established. Cluster analysis highlighted similarities between Boulton and Giusti parameters, as well as Glories and CIE parameters in the assessment of chromatic properties of wines. Finally, principal component analysis was able to discriminate wines subjected to different maturation techniques on the basis of their chromatic and phenolics characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The Role of Sulfur Dioxide in the Regulation of Mitochondrion-Related Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis in Rats with Isopropylarterenol-Induced Myocardial Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbao Du


    Full Text Available The authors investigated the regulatory effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2 on myocardial injury induced by isopropylarterenol (ISO hydrochloride and its mechanisms. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group, ISO group, ISO plus SO2 group, and SO2 only group. Cardiac function was measured and cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected. Bcl-2, bax and cytochrome c (cytc expressions, and caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities in the left ventricular tissues were examined in the rats. The opening status of myocardial mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP and membrane potential were analyzed. The results showed that ISO-treated rats developed heart dysfunction and cardiac injury. Furthermore, cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the left ventricular tissues was augmented, left ventricular tissue bcl-2 expression was down-regulated, bax expression was up-regulated, mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly reduced, MPTP opened, cytc release from mitochondrion into cytoplasm was significantly increased, and both caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities were increased. Administration of an SO2 donor, however, markedly improved heart function and relieved myocardial injury of the ISO-treated rats; it lessened cardiomyocyte apoptosis, up-regulated myocardial bcl-2, down-regulated bax expression, stimulated mitochondrial membrane potential, closed MPTP, and reduced cytc release as well as caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities in the left ventricular tissue. Hence, SO2 attenuated myocardial injury in association with the inhibition of apoptosis in myocardial tissues, and the bcl-2/cytc/caspase-9/caspase-3 pathway was possibly involved in this process.

  14. A case study of the relative effects of power plant nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emission reductions on atmospheric nitrogen deposition. (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Seigneur, Christian; Bronson, Rochelle; Chen, Shu-Yun; Karamchandani, Prakash; Walters, Justin T; Jansen, John J; Brandmeyer, Jo Ellen; Knipping, Eladio M


    The contrasting effects of point source nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) air emission reductions on regional atmospheric nitrogen deposition are analyzed for the case study of a coal-fired power plant in the southeastern United States. The effect of potential emission reductions at the plant on nitrogen deposition to Escambia Bay and its watershed on the Florida-Alabama border is simulated using the three-dimensional Eulerian Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. A method to quantify the relative and individual effects of NOx versus SO2 controls on nitrogen deposition using air quality modeling results obtained from the simultaneous application of NOx and SO2 emission controls is presented and discussed using the results from CMAQ simulations conducted with NOx-only and SO2-only emission reductions; the method applies only to cases in which ambient inorganic nitrate is present mostly in the gas phase; that is, in the form of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3). In such instances, the individual effects of NOx and SO2 controls on nitrogen deposition can be approximated by the effects of combined NOx + SO2 controls on the deposition of NOy, (the sum of oxidized nitrogen species) and reduced nitrogen species (NHx), respectively. The benefit of controls at the plant in terms of the decrease in nitrogen deposition to Escambia Bay and watershed is less than 6% of the overall benefit due to regional Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) controls.

  15. Homogeneous graft copolymerization of styrene onto cellulose in a sulfur dioxide-diethylamine-dimethyl sulfoxide cellulose solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, M.; Hagiwara, I.; Shiraishi, N.; Yokota, T.


    Graft copolymerization of styrene onto cellulose was studied in a homogeneous system [SO 2 (liquid)- diethylamine (DEA)-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) medium)] by γ-ray mutual irradiation technique. At the same time, homopolymerization of styrene was also examined separately in DMSO, SO 2 -DMSO, DEA-DMSO, and SO 2 -DEA-DMSO media by the same technique. Polymerization of styrene hardly occurs on concentrations above 10 mole SO 2 -DEA complex per mole glucose unit. Maximum percent grafting was obtained in concentrations of 4 mole, after which it decreased rapidly. Total conversion and percent grafting increased with the irradiation time. The value (=0.55) of the slope of the total conversion rate plotted against the dose was only a little higher than the 1/2 which was expected from normal kinetics. No retardation in homopolymerization of styrene in DMSO, SO 2 -DMSO, and DEA-DMSO was evident, while the retardation of homopolymerization in the SO 2 -DEA-DMSO medium was measurable. Sulfur atoms were detected in the polymers obtained in both of SO 2 -DMSO and SO 2 -DEA-DMSO solutions. All of the molecular weights of polymers obtained in the present experiment were very low

  16. Experimental Study of Closed System in the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodide-Sulfuric Acid Reaction by UV-Vis Spectrophotometric Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li


    Full Text Available The mole ratio r(r=[I−]0/[ClO2]0 has great influence on ClO2-I−-H2SO4 closed reaction system. By changing the initiate concentration of potassium iodide, the curve of absorbance along with the reaction time was obtained at 350 nm and 297 nm for triiodide ion, and 460 nm for iodine. The changing point of the absorbance curve's shape locates at r=6.00. For the reaction of ClO2-I− in the absence of H2SO4, the curve of absorbance along with the reaction time can be obtained at 350 nm for triiodide ion, 460 nm for iodine. The mole ratio r is equal to 1.00 is the changing point of the curve's shape no matter at which wavelength to determine the reaction. For the reaction of ClO2-I−-H+ in different pH buffer solution, the curve of absorbance along with the reaction time was recorded at 460 nm for iodine. When r is greater than 1.00, the transition point of the curve's shape locates at pH 2.0, which is also the point of producing chlorite or chloride for chlorine dioxide at different pH. When r is less than 1.00, the transition point locates at pH 7.0.

  17. High Purity Hydrogen Production with In-Situ Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Capture in a Single Stage Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihar Phalak; Shwetha Ramkumar; Daniel Connell; Zhenchao Sun; Fu-Chen Yu; Niranjani Deshpande; Robert Statnick; Liang-Shih Fan


    Enhancement in the production of high purity hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from fuel gas, obtained from coal gasification, is limited by thermodynamics of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. However, this constraint can be overcome by conducting the WGS in the presence of a CO{sub 2}-acceptor. The continuous removal of CO{sub 2} from the reaction mixture helps to drive the equilibrium-limited WGS reaction forward. Since calcium oxide (CaO) exhibits high CO{sub 2} capture capacity as compared to other sorbents, it is an ideal candidate for such a technique. The Calcium Looping Process (CLP) developed at The Ohio State University (OSU) utilizes the above concept to enable high purity H{sub 2} production from synthesis gas (syngas) derived from coal gasification. The CLP integrates the WGS reaction with insitu CO{sub 2}, sulfur and halide removal at high temperatures while eliminating the need for a WGS catalyst, thus reducing the overall footprint of the hydrogen production process. The CLP comprises three reactors - the carbonator, where the thermodynamic constraint of the WGS reaction is overcome by the constant removal of CO{sub 2} product and high purity H{sub 2} is produced with contaminant removal; the calciner, where the calcium sorbent is regenerated and a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is produced; and the hydrator, where the calcined sorbent is reactivated to improve its recyclability. As a part of this project, the CLP was extensively investigated by performing experiments at lab-, bench- and subpilot-scale setups. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was also conducted to determine the feasibility of the CLP at commercial scale. This report provides a detailed account of all the results obtained during the project period.

  18. Influence of sublethal concentrations of sulfur dioxide on morphology, growth, and product yield of the duckweed Lemna minor L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, H; Brunold, C; Erismann, K H


    There was no disturbance in the growth of Lemna minor L. with a SO/sub 2/ concentration of up to 0.3 ppM in air. A SO/sub 2/ concentration of 0.6 ppM caused an initial depression of the growth rate of about 25 percent, but in the course of adaptation, the rate rose to the values of the control. The average dry weight per frond was not influenced by the SO/sub 2/ fumigation. The initial sporadic appearance of chloroses by fumigation with 0.6 ppM SO/sub 2/ was considered a sign of the proximate toxicity limit for Lemna minor L. With 0.15 ppM SO/sub 2/ in air, the size of the fronds was reduced. The average surface of the fronds was diminished by 0.3 ppM SO/sub 2/ for about 16 percent as compared with the control plants. The protein remained quantitatively unafffected up to a SO/sub 2/ concentration of 0.6 ppM. As a qualitative influence of SO/sub 2/, the nitrogen content of the proteins remained constant, but the sulfur content of the proteins increased. Under 0.3 and 0.6 ppM SO/sub 2/, the starch content decreased immediately by 20 to 30 percent, under 0.15 ppM SO/sub 2/ the decrease reached the same level after a longer time than in the case of the higher concentrations. The SO/sub 2/ concentrations up to 0.6 ppM had no effect on chlorophyll concentration. The contents of C, N, H, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Fe were not affected by SO/sub 2/ fumigation. It is concluded that SO/sub 2/ may have some effect on product yield, even under low concentrations, without provoking acute damage; the plant is able to adapt by regulation of its metabolism, and enters a new steady state.

  19. Estimating Sulfur Dioxide in Volcanic Plumes Using an Ultraviolet Camera. First Results from Lascar, Ollagüe and Irruputuncu Volcanoes (United States)

    Geoffroy, C. A.; Amigo, A.


    Volcanic gas fluxes give important information on both the amount of degassing and magma reservoirs. In most of magmas, water vapor (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are major components of volcanic gas. However, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is one of the targets of remote sensing due to their low concentration in the environment and easy detection by ultraviolet spectroscopy. Accordingly, plume imaging using passive ultraviolet cameras is a relatively simple method to study volcanic degassing, expeditious manner and can be used up from distances of about 10 km from source of emissions. We estimated SO2 concentrations and fluxes in volcanic plumes with the ultraviolet camera Envicam-2, developed by Nicarnica Aviation, acquired by the Geological Survey of Chile (SERNAGEOMIN). The camera has filters that allow passage of ultraviolet radiation at wavelengths of interest. For determining whether there is absorption of radiation associated with the presence of SO2 the Beer-Lambert law was used for quantifying concentrations using appropriate calibration cells. SO2 emissions to the atmosphere were estimated using wind speed as an approximation to the plume transport. In this study we reported the implementation of a new methodology for using Envicam-2 and subsequent collection of SO2 concentrations and fluxes in passive degassing volcanoes. Measurements were done at Lascar, Ollagüe and Irruputuncu volcanoes, located in northern Chile. The volcanoes were chosen because of optimal atmospheric conditions for ultraviolet imaging. Results indicate concentrations within the expected ranges for three volcanoes generally between 400-1700 ppm•m. In the case of Láscar volcano, the emission rates of SO2 range from 250 to 500 tonnes/day for a same image of the plume. In particular, wind speed was determined from scaling images and are consistent with data from regional numerical models, as well as records of the meteorological stations installed at the ALMA astronomical center, located

  20. Effect of sulfur dioxide inhalation on CYP2B1/2 and CYP2E1 in rat liver and lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guohua Qin; Ziqiang Meng [Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Environmental Medicine and Toxicology


    Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is a ubiquitous air pollutant, present in low concentrations in the urban air and in higher concentrations in the working environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhaled SO{sub 2} on the O-dealkylase of pentoxyresorufin (PROD) and p-nitrophenol hydroxylases (p-NP) activities and mRNA levels of CYP2B1/2 and CYP2E1 in the lung and liver of Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were housed in exposure chambers and treated with 14.11 {+-}1.53, 28.36 {+-} 2.12, and 56.25 {+-} 4.28 mg /m{sup 3}SO{sub 2} for 6 h/day for 7 days, while control rats were exposed to filtered air in the same condition. The mRNAs of CYP2B1/2 and -2E1 were analyzed in livers and lungs by using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that the PROD activities and mRNA of CYP2B1/2 were decreased in livers and lungs of rats exposed to SO{sub 2}. The p-NP activities and mRNA of CYP2E1 were decreased in lungs but not in livers of rats exposed to SO{sub 2}. Total liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (CYP) contents were diminished in SO{sub 2} -exposed rats. These results lead to two conclusions: (1) SO{sub 2} exposure can suppress CYP2B1/2 and CYP2E1 in lungs and CYP2B1/2 in livers of rats, thus modifying the liver and lung toxication/detoxication potential, and (2) the total liver microsomal CYP contents were diminished, although the activity and mRNA expression of CYP2E1 in rat livers were not affected by SO{sub 2} exposure.

  1. Replacement of hazardous chromium impregnating agent from silver/copper/chromium-impregnated active carbon using triethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide, trichloromethane, ammonia, and sulfur dioxide. (United States)

    Wu, Li-Chun; Chung, Ying-Chien


    Activated carbon (AC) is widely used as an effective adsorbent in many applications, including industrial-scale air purification systems and air filter systems in gas masks. In general, ACs without chemical impregnation are good adsorbents of organic vapors but poor adsorbents of low-molecular-weight or polar gases such as chlorine, sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde, and ammonia (NH3). Impregnated ACs modified with metallic impregnating agents (ASC-carbons; e.g., copper, chromium, and silver) enhance the adsorbing properties of the ACs for simultaneously removing specific poisonous gases, but disposal of the chromium metal salt used to impregnate the ACs has the potential to result in situations that are toxic to both humans and the environment, thereby necessitating the search for replaceable organic impregnating agents that represent a much lower risk. The aim of this study was to assess the gas removal efficiency of an AC in which the organic impregnating agent triethylenediamine (TEDA) largely replaced the metallic impregnating agent chromium. We assessed batch and continuous adsorption capacities in situ for removing simulated hydrogen sulfide (H2S), trichloromethane (CHCl3), NH3, and SO2 gases. Brunauer-Emmet-Teller measurements and scanning electron microscopy analyses identified the removal mechanism by which TEDA-impregnated AS-carbon (dechromium ASC-carbon) adsorbs gases and determined the removal capacity for H2S, CHCl3, NH3, and SO2 to be 311, 258, 272, and 223 mg/g-C, respectively. These results demonstrate that TEDA-impregnated AS-carbon is significantly more efficient than ASC-carbon in adsorbing these four gases. Organic TEDA-impregnating agents have also been proven to be a reliable and environmental friendly agent and therefore a safe replacement of the hazardous chromium found in conventional ASC-carbon used in removing toxic gases from the airstream.

  2. Headspace-Sampling Paper-Based Analytical Device for Colorimetric/Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Dual Sensing of Sulfur Dioxide in Wine. (United States)

    Li, Dan; Duan, Huazhen; Ma, Yadan; Deng, Wei


    This study demonstrates a novel strategy for colorimetric/surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode sensing of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) by coupling headspace sampling (HS) with paper-based analytical device (PAD). The smart and multifunctional PAD is fabricated with a vacuum filtration method in which 4-mercaptopyridine (Mpy)-modified gold nanorods (GNRs)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrids (rGO/MPy-GNRs), anhydrous methanol, and starch-iodine complex are immobilized into cellulose-based filter papers. The resultant PAD exhibits a deep-blue color with a strong absorption peak at 600 nm due to the formation of an intermolecular charge-transfer complex between starch and iodine. However, the addition of SO 2 induces the Karl Fischer reaction, resulting in the decrease of color and increase of SERS signals. Therefore, the PAD can be used not only as a naked-eye indicator of SO 2 changed from blue to colorless but also as a highly sensitive SERS substrates because of the SO 2 -triggered conversion of Mpy to pyridine methyl sulfate on the GNRs. A distinguishable change in the color was observed at a SO 2 concentration of 5 μM by the naked eye, and a detection limit as low as 1.45 μM was obtained by virtue of UV-vis spectroscopy. The PAD-based SERS method is effective over a wide range of concentrations (1 μM to 2000 μM) for SO 2 , and the detection limit for SO 2 is found to be 1 μM. The HS-PAD based colorimetric/SERS method is applied for the determination of SO 2 in wine, and the detection results match well with those obtained from the traditional Monier-Williams method. This study not only offers a new method for on-site monitoring of SO 2 but also provides a new strategy for designing of paper-based sensing platform for a wide range of field-test applications.

  3. Sulfur dioxide (SO2 as observed by MIPAS/Envisat: temporal development and spatial distribution at 15–45 km altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Höpfner


    Full Text Available We present a climatology of monthly and 10° zonal mean profiles of sulfur dioxide (SO2 volume mixing ratios (vmr derived from MIPAS/Envisat measurements in the altitude range 15–45 km from July 2002 until April 2012. The vertical resolution varies from 3.5–4 km in the lower stratosphere up to 6–10 km at the upper end of the profiles, with estimated total errors of 5–20 pptv for single profiles of SO2. Comparisons with the few available observations of SO2 up to high altitudes from ATMOS for a volcanically perturbed situation from ACE-FTS and, at the lowest altitudes, with stratospheric in situ observations reveal general consistency of the datasets. The observations are the first empirical confirmation of features of the stratospheric SO2 distribution, which have only been shown by models up to now: (1 the local maximum of SO2 at around 25–30 km altitude, which is explained by the conversion of carbonyl sulfide (COS as the precursor of the Junge layer; and (2 the downwelling of SO2-rich air to altitudes of 25–30 km at high latitudes during winter and its subsequent depletion on availability of sunlight. This has been proposed as the reason for the sudden appearance of enhanced concentrations of condensation nuclei during Arctic and Antarctic spring. Further, the strong increase of SO2 to values of 80–100 unit{pptv} in the upper stratosphere through photolysis of H2SO4 has been confirmed. Lower stratospheric variability of SO2 could mainly be explained by volcanic activity, and no hints of a strong anthropogenic influence have been found. Regression analysis revealed a QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation signal of the SO2 time series in the tropics at about 30–35 km, an SAO (semi-annual oscillation signal at tropical and subtropical latitudes above 32 km and annual periodics predominantly at high latitudes. Further, the analysis indicates a correlation with the solar cycle in the tropics and southern subtropics above 30 km

  4. Determination of free sulfites (SO3-2) in dried fruits processed with sulfur dioxide by ion chromatography through anion exchange column and conductivity detection. (United States)

    Liao, Benjamin S; Sram, Jacqueline C; Files, Darin J


    A simple and effective anion ion chromatography (IC) method with anion exchange column and conductivity detector has been developed to determine free sulfites (SO3-2) in dried fruits processed with sulfur dioxide. No oxidation agent, such as hydrogen peroxide, is used to convert sulfites to sulfates for IC analysis. In addition, no stabilizing agent, such as formaldehyde, fructose or EDTA, is required during the sample extraction. This method uses aqueous 0.2 N NaOH as the solvent for standard preparation and sample extraction. The sulfites, either prepared from standard sodium sulfite powder or extracted from food samples, are presumed to be unbound SO3-2 in aqueous 0.2 N NaOH (pH > 13), because the bound sulfites in the sample matrix are released at pH > 10. In this study, sulfites in the standard solutions were stable at room temperature (i.e., 15-25 degrees C) for up to 12 days. The lowest standard of the linear calibration curve is set at 1.59 microg/mL SO3-2 (equivalent to 6.36 microg/g sample with no dilution) for analysis of processed dried fruits that would contain high levels (>1000 microg/g) of sulfites. As a consequence, this method typically requires significant dilution of the sample extract. Samples are prepared with a simple procedure of sample compositing, extraction with aqueous 0.2 N NaOH, centrifugation, dilution as needed, and filtration prior to IC. The sulfites in these sample extracts are stable at room temperature for up to 20 h. Using anion IC, the sulfites are eluted under isocratic conditions with 10 mM aqueous sodium carbonate solution as the mobile phase passing through an anion exchange column. The sulfites are easily separated, with an analysis run time of 18 min, regardless of the dried fruit matrix. Recoveries from samples spiked with sodium sulfites were demonstrated to be between 81 and 105% for five different fruit matrixes (apricot, golden grape, white peach, fig, and mango). Overall, this method is simple to perform and

  5. Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400-1400 cm−1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Aggarwal


    Full Text Available Raman spectra of ammonia (NH3, chlorine (Cl2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, phosgene (COCl2, and sulfur dioxide (SO2 toxic gases have been measured in the fingerprint region 400-1400 cm−1. A relatively compact (<2′x2′x2′, sensitive, 532 nm 10 W CW Raman system with double-pass laser and double-sided collection was used for these measurements. Two Raman modes are observed at 934 and 967 cm−1 in NH3. Three Raman modes are observed in Cl2 at 554, 547, and 539 cm−1, which are due to the 35/35 35/37, and 37/37 Cl isotopes, respectively. Raman modes are observed at 870, 570, and 1151 cm−1 in H2S, COCl2, and SO2, respectively. Values of 3.68 ± 0.26x10−32 cm2/sr (3.68 ± 0.26x10−36 m2/sr, 1.37 ± 0.10x10−30 cm2/sr (1.37 ± 0.10x10−34 m2/sr, 3.25 ± 0.23x10−31 cm2/sr (3.25 ± 0.23x10−35 m2/sr, 1.63 ± 0.14x10−30 cm2/sr (1.63 ± 0.14x10−34 m2/sr, and 3.08 ± 0.22x10−30 cm2/sr (and 3.08 ± 0.22x10−34 m2/sr were determined for the differential Raman cross section of the 967 cm−1 mode of NH3, sum of the 554, 547, and 539 cm−1 modes of Cl2, 870 cm−1 mode of H2S, 570 cm−1 mode of COCl2, and 1151 cm-1 mode of SO2, respectively, using the differential Raman cross section of 3.56 ± 0.14x10−31 cm2/sr (3.56 ± 0.14x10−35 m2/sr for the 1285 cm−1 mode of CO2 as the reference.

  6. Volcanic sulfur dioxide index and volcanic explosivity index inferred from eruptive volume of volcanoes in Jeju Island, Korea: application to volcanic hazard mitigation (United States)

    Ko, Bokyun; Yun, Sung-Hyo


    Jeju Island located in the southwestern part of Korea Peninsula is a volcanic island composed of lavaflows, pyroclasts, and around 450 monogenetic volcanoes. The volcanic activity of the island commenced with phreatomagmatic eruptions under subaqueous condition ca. 1.8-2.0 Ma and lasted until ca. 1,000 year BP. For evaluating volcanic activity of the most recently erupted volcanoes with reported age, volcanic explosivity index (VEI) and volcanic sulfur dioxide index (VSI) of three volcanoes (Ilchulbong tuff cone, Songaksan tuff ring, and Biyangdo scoria cone) are inferred from their eruptive volumes. The quantity of eruptive materials such as tuff, lavaflow, scoria, and so on, is calculated using a model developed in Auckland Volcanic Field which has similar volcanic setting to the island. The eruptive volumes of them are 11,911,534 m3, 24,987,557 m3, and 9,652,025 m3, which correspond to VEI of 3, 3, and 2, respectively. According to the correlation between VEI and VSI, the average quantity of SO2 emission during an eruption with VEI of 3 is 2-8 × 103 kiloton considering that the island was formed under intraplate tectonic setting. Jeju Island was regarded as an extinct volcano, however, several studies have recently reported some volcanic eruption ages within 10,000 year BP owing to the development in age dating technique. Thus, the island is a dormant volcano potentially implying high probability to erupt again in the future. The volcanoes might have explosive eruptions (vulcanian to plinian) with the possibility that SO2 emitted by the eruption reaches stratosphere causing climate change due to backscattering incoming solar radiation, increase in cloud reflectivity, etc. Consequently, recommencement of volcanic eruption in the island is able to result in serious volcanic hazard and this study provides fundamental and important data for volcanic hazard mitigation of East Asia as well as the island. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This research was supported by a grant [MPSS


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer


    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  8. Reduction of sulphur dioxide emissions by pyrolysis reduction of the burning sulfur of coal, applied in the power station 'Maritsa-East 3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutskanov, L.; Dushanov, D.


    A study for applying of the new method for reduction of the sulfur content in solid fuel reported at the Energy Forum '98 has been carried out. The calculations for using this method at the power station 'Maritsa-East 3' were made. The advantages compared to the conventional methods for removing of SO 2 from flue gases are reported. The application of this method reduces the emissions of SO 2 with 83-85%. The heat saved is equal to the heat from 13.8% of the coal. The tar obtained after removing of sulfur can be used as fuel. The expenses for transport and treatment of limestone and of obtained gypsum (needed at the conventional methods for removing the sulfur) are eliminated. The capital investments needed are smaller because of the 25-30 times smaller volume of the equipment for sulfur reduction

  9. Sensing sulfur oxides and other sulfur bearing pollutants with solid electrolyte pellets. I. Gas concentration cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberland, A M; Gauthier, J M


    A new sensing technique using a solid electrolyte has been demonstrated for sulfur-bearing pollutants. Based on potentiometric measurements across a pellet of potassium sulfate, this sensor allows concentrations of sulfur dioxides, sulfur trioxide, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and carbonyl sulfide in air to be measured with accuracy. Its operational concentration range at the present time is 0.1 ppM up to at least 10,000 ppM. The presence of other common pollutants such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide does not interfere with the measurement of air samples containing sulfur-bearing pollutants.

  10. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide... (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl... identified as amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur...

  11. Technologies for the treatment of the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides generated by the combustion in open chamber; Tecnologias para el tratamiento de dioxido de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno generados por la combustion en camara abierta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar Villalpando, Maria Dolores [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)


    In general terms, there are only three ways of avoiding the sulfur dioxide and the nitrogen oxides, generated by the combustion in open chamber, from contaminating the air; the first one is utilizing low sulfur and nitrogen content fuels, the second one is by controlling the parameters that affect the combustion and the third one to treat and/or clean the gases before exhausting them to the air. In this document, some of the treatments for diminishing the pollutant emissions generated by the combustion in open chamber, are presented. [Espanol] En terminos generales, solo existen 3 maneras de evitar que el dioxido de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno generados por la combustion en camara abierta sigan contaminando el aire, la primera es utilizar un combustible de bajo contenido de azufre y nitrogeno, la segunda es controlar los parametros que afectan la combustion, y la tercera es tratar y/o limpiar los gases antes de emitirlos a la atmosfera. En este documento se presentan algunos tratamientos para disminuir las emisiones de contaminantes generados por la combustion en camara abierta.

  12. Technologies for the treatment of the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides generated by the combustion in open chamber; Tecnologias para el tratamiento de dioxido de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno generados por la combustion en camara abierta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar Villalpando, Maria Dolores [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)


    In general terms, there are only three ways of avoiding the sulfur dioxide and the nitrogen oxides, generated by the combustion in open chamber, from contaminating the air; the first one is utilizing low sulfur and nitrogen content fuels, the second one is by controlling the parameters that affect the combustion and the third one to treat and/or clean the gases before exhausting them to the air. In this document, some of the treatments for diminishing the pollutant emissions generated by the combustion in open chamber, are presented. [Espanol] En terminos generales, solo existen 3 maneras de evitar que el dioxido de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno generados por la combustion en camara abierta sigan contaminando el aire, la primera es utilizar un combustible de bajo contenido de azufre y nitrogeno, la segunda es controlar los parametros que afectan la combustion, y la tercera es tratar y/o limpiar los gases antes de emitirlos a la atmosfera. En este documento se presentan algunos tratamientos para disminuir las emisiones de contaminantes generados por la combustion en camara abierta.

  13. Characterization of desulfurization, denitrogenation and process sulfur transfer during hydropyrolysis of Chinese high sulfur coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Chenggong; Li Baoqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Conversion; Snape, C.E. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry


    The process desulphurization and denitrogenation of Chinese high sulfur coals and the characteristics of sulfur transformation during non-catalytic hydropyrolysis were investigated by a 10 g fixed-bed reactor and a small-scaled reactor with online spectrometry respectively. It was indicated that more than 70% of the total sulfur of the two high sulfur coals and almost all pyritic sulfur are removed as H{sub 2}S, leaving the char and tar products with much less sulfur distribution. The liability of sulfur transformation to tar products is closely related to the thiophenic structure forms rather than sulfidic forms. At the same time, the formation of trace amount of sulfur dioxide indicates the presence of inherent sulfur oxidation reactions inside coal frame structures even under H{sub 2} pressure. (orig.)

  14. Molybdenum dioxide-molybdenite roasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabacky, B.J.; Hepworth, M.T.


    A process is disclosed for roasting molybdenite concentrates directly to molybdenum dioxide. The process comprises establishing a roasting zone having a temperature of about 700 0 C. to about 800 0 C., introducing into the roasting zone particulate molybdenum dioxide and molybdenite in a weight ratio of at least about 2:1 along with an oxygen-containing gas in amount sufficient to oxidize the sulfur content of the molybdenite to molybdenum dioxide

  15. Microbial conversion of sulfur dioxide in flue gas to sulfide using bulk drug industry wastewater as an organic source by mixed cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, A. Gangagni; Ravichandra, P.; Joseph, Johny; Jetty, Annapurna; Sarma, P.N.


    Mixed cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were isolated from anaerobic cultures and enriched with SRB media. Studies on batch and continuous reactors for the removal of SO 2 with bulk drug industry wastewater as an organic source using isolated mixed cultures of SRB revealed that isolation and enrichment methodology adopted in the present study were apt to suppress the undesirable growth of anaerobic bacteria other than SRB. Studies on anaerobic reactors showed that process was sustainable at COD/S ratio of 2.2 and above with optimum sulfur loading rate (SLR) of 5.46 kg S/(m 3 day), organic loading rate (OLR) of 12.63 kg COD/(m 3 day) and at hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 8 h. Free sulfide (FS) concentration in the range of 300-390 mg FS/l was found to be inhibitory to mixed cultures of SRB used in the present studies

  16. Inactivation of different strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in various apple ciders treated with dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) as an alternative method. (United States)

    Basaran-Akgul, N; Churey, J J; Basaran, P; Worobo, R W


    Escherichia coli has been identified as the causative agent in numerous foodborne illness outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh apple cider. Apple cider has a pH which is normally below 4.0 and would not be considered a medium capable of supporting the growth of foodborne pathogens. The association of unpasteurized apple cider with foodborne illness due to E. coli O157:H7 has however, led to increased interest in potential alternative methods to produce pathogen free cider. Apple cider was prepared from eight different apple cultivars, inoculated with approximately 10(6)-10(7) CFU of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 per ml (933, ATCC 43889, and ATCC 43895) and tested to determine the effectiveness of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC). Bacterial populations for treated and untreated samples were then enumerated by using non-selective media. Eight different ciders were treated with DMDC (125 and 250 ppm) and SO(2) (25, 50, 75, 100 ppm). Greater than a 5-log reduction was achieved at room temperature with 250 ppm of DMDC and 50 ppm of SO(2) after the incubation time of 6h and 24h, respectively. Addition of DMDC and/or SO(2) may offer an inexpensive alternative to thermal pasteurization for the production of safe apple cider for small apple cider producers.

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptom effects of long-term cumulative exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates and sulfur dioxide in California Seventh-Day Adventist residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euler, G.L.; Abbey, D.E.; Magie, A.R.; Hodgkin, J.E.


    Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms due to long-term exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) symptoms was ascertained using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) respiratory symptoms questionnaire on 7445 Seventh-Day Adventists. They were non-smokers, at least 25 yr of age, and had lived 11 yr or more in areas ranging from high to low photochemical air pollution in California. Participant cumulative exposures to each pollutant in excess of four thresholds were estimated using monthly residence zip code histories and interpolated dosages from state air monitoring stations. These pollutant thresholds were entered individually and in combination in multiple logistic regression analyses with eight covariables including passive smoking. Statistically significant associations with chronic symptoms were seen for: SO/sub 2/ exposure above 4 pphm (104 mcg/m3), (p = .03), relative risk 1.18 for 500 hr/yr of exposure; and for total suspended particulates (TSP) above 200 mcg/m3, (p less than .00001), relative risk of 1.22 for 750 hr/yr.

  18. Inhibitory effect of self-generated extracellular dissolved organic carbon on carbon dioxide fixation in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria during a chemoautotrophic cultivation process and its elimination. (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Nan; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Wang, Lei; Fu, Xiaohua; Hu, Jiajun; Li, Huan; Le, Yiquan


    The features of extracellular dissolved organic carbon (EDOC) generation in two typical aerobic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus thioparus DSM 505 and Halothiobacillus neapolitanus DSM 15147) and its impact on CO 2 fixation during chemoautotrophic cultivation process were investigated. The results showed that EDOC accumulated in both strains during CO 2 fixation process. Large molecular weight (MW) EDOC derived from cell lysis and decay was dominant during the entire process in DSM 505, whereas small MW EDOC accounted for a large proportion during initial and middle stages of DSM 15147 as its cytoskeleton synthesis rate did not keep up with CO 2 assimilation rate. The self-generated EDOC feedback repressed cbb gene transcription and thus decreased total bacterial cell number and CO 2 fixation yield in both strains, but DSM 505 was more sensitive to this inhibition effect. Moreover, the membrane bioreactor effectively decreased the EDOC/TOC ratio and improved carbon fixation yield of DSM 505. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sulfur cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Microbes, especially bacteria, play an important role in oxidative and reductive cycle of sulfur. The oxidative part of the cycle is mediated by photosynthetic bacteria in the presence of light energy and chemosynthetic forms in the absence of light...

  20. Sulfur Mustard (United States)

    ... in of the vapors can cause chronic respiratory disease, repeated respiratory infections, or death. Extensive eye exposure can cause permanent blindness. Exposure to sulfur mustard may increase a person’s risk for lung and respiratory cancer. ...

  1. Sulfur isotope studies of biogenic sulfur emissions at Wallops Island, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchcock, D.R.; Black, M.S.; Herbst, R.P.


    This research attempted to determine whether it is possible to measure the stable sulfur isotope distributions of atmospheric particulate and gaseous sulphur, and to use this information together with measurements of the ambient levels of sulfur gases and particulate sulfate and sodium in testing certain hypotheses. Sulfur dioxide and particulate sulfur samples were collected at a coastal marine location and their delta (34)S values were determined. These data were used together with sodium concentrations to determine the presence of biogenic sulfur and the identity of the biological processes producing it. Excess (non-seasalt) sulfate levels ranged from 2 to 26 micrograms/cu m and SO2 from 1 to 9 ppb. Analyses of air mass origins and lead concentrations indicated that some anthropogenic contaminants were present on all days, but the isotope data revealed that most of the atmospheric sulfur originated locally from the metabolism of bacterial sulfate reducers on all days, and that the atmospheric reactions leading to the production of sulfate from this biogenic sulfur source are extremely rapid. Delta 34 S values of atmospheric sulfur dioxide correlated well with those of excess sulfate, and implied little or no sulfur isotope fractionation during the oxidation of sulfur gases to sulfate

  2. Sulfur Earth (United States)

    de Jong, B. H.


    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  3. Acidithiobacillus caldus sulfur oxidation model based on transcriptome analysis between the wild type and sulfur oxygenase reductase defective mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxu Chen

    Full Text Available Acidithiobacillus caldus (A. caldus is widely used in bio-leaching. It gains energy and electrons from oxidation of elemental sulfur and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs for carbon dioxide fixation and growth. Genomic analyses suggest that its sulfur oxidation system involves a truncated sulfur oxidation (Sox system (omitting SoxCD, non-Sox sulfur oxidation system similar to the sulfur oxidation in A. ferrooxidans, and sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR. The complexity of the sulfur oxidation system of A. caldus generates a big obstacle on the research of its sulfur oxidation mechanism. However, the development of genetic manipulation method for A. caldus in recent years provides powerful tools for constructing genetic mutants to study the sulfur oxidation system.An A. caldus mutant lacking the sulfur oxygenase reductase gene (sor was created and its growth abilities were measured in media using elemental sulfur (S(0 and tetrathionate (K(2S(4O(6 as the substrates, respectively. Then, comparative transcriptome analysis (microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR of the wild type and the Δsor mutant in S(0 and K(2S(4O(6 media were employed to detect the differentially expressed genes involved in sulfur oxidation. SOR was concluded to oxidize the cytoplasmic elemental sulfur, but could not couple the sulfur oxidation with the electron transfer chain or substrate-level phosphorylation. Other elemental sulfur oxidation pathways including sulfur diooxygenase (SDO and heterodisulfide reductase (HDR, the truncated Sox pathway, and the S(4I pathway for hydrolysis of tetrathionate and oxidation of thiosulfate in A. caldus are proposed according to expression patterns of sulfur oxidation genes and growth abilities of the wild type and the mutant in different substrates media.An integrated sulfur oxidation model with various sulfur oxidation pathways of A. caldus is proposed and the features of this model are summarized.

  4. Nonattainment Area - Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 - 1971) (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  5. Nonattainment Area - Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 - 2010) (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  6. Nonattainment Area - Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 - 1978) (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  7. Electrochemical promotion of sulfur dioxide catalytic oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrushina, Irina; Bandur, Viktor; Cappeln, Frederik Vilhelm


    investigation was to study a possible non-Faradaic electrochemical promotion of the liquid-phase catalytic reaction. It has been shown that there are two negative potential promotion areas with maximum effects at approximately -0.1 and -0.2 V, and one positive potential promotion area with the maximum effect...... between 0.1 and 0.3 V. There were no Faradaic reactions in the negative polarization region, and there was an anodic current which was less than 16% of the theoretical value for an exclusively Faradaic SO2 oxidation. Therefore the promotion effects at negative polarization are completely non-Faradaic. All...... the promotion effects have been explained as mainly due to charging of the electric double layer at the gold electrode. The effect at -0.2 V also depends on the V2O5 concentration and is more pronounced at higher V2O5 concentrations. This has been ascribed to a destruction of the vanadium polymeric chains...

  8. Sensitivity of tomato cultivars to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, T.K.; Woltz, S.S.


    The sensitivity of 26 cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were compared at 2 concentrations of SO/sub 2/in specially designed exposure greenhouses. Cultivars studied included fresh market, processing, and specialty types. Insensitive and sensitive cultivars were identified by assessment of acute SO/sub 2/-induced foliar necrosis. Cultivars found to be insensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Ace', 'Bonanza', 'Heinz 1350', 'Tarquinia Tondino', and 'VF 145-B 7879'. Cultivars found to be sensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Bellarina', 'Chico III', 'Flora-Dade', 'Red Cherry Large' 'Sub-Arctic Delight', and 'Vetomold. 10 figures, 1 table.

  9. Inhibition of lignifying processes by sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfanz, H.; Oppmann, B.


    Intercellular washing fluids (IWF) from spruce needles (Picea abies L. Karst.) contain peroxidases 1-2% of total IWF protein. These apoplastic enzymes show the ability to polymerize monophenols or phenylpropanes to form lignin precursors in vitro. In the presence of potentially acidic air pollutants like NO 2 , HF(20 mM of salts in solution), and in the presence of Pb-, Cd- (0.5 mM) or Al-salts (8 mM) no inhibitory effect on the polymerization reactions examined was detectable. In contrast, the anions of SO 2 (sulfite and bisulfite) revealed a strong inhibition on the dimerization of ferulic and caffeic acid (Ki ca. 1 mM), and on the dehydration of syringaldazine (Ki ca. 8 μM). Polymerization of coniferyl alcohol, on the other hand, seemed to be enhanced. Maier-Maercker and Koch (1986) demonstrated that the cell walls of guard cells from undamaged spruce needles are properly lignified, whereas those of damaged needles seem to be affected. It is therefore assumed that cell wall lignification, and concomitantly stomatal regulation of coniferous needles are disturbed in regions with high atmospheric SO 2 pollution (e.g. Ore Mountains in CSFR)

  10. Sulfur dioxide allowances. Trading and technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Surender; Managi, Shunsuke


    The US Clean Air Act Amendments introduce an emissions trading system to regulate SO 2 emissions. This study finds that changes in SO 2 emissions prices are related to innovations induced by these amendments. We find that electricity-generating plants are able to increase electricity output and reduce emissions of SO 2 and NO x from 1995 to 2007 due to the introduction of the allowance trading system. However, compared to the approximate 8% per year of exogenous technological progress, the induced effect is relatively small, and the contribution of the induced effect to overall technological progress is about 1-2%. (author)

  11. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition (United States)

    Moore, Robert [Edgewood, NM; Pickard, Paul S [Albuquerque, NM; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E [Albuquerque, NM; Gelbard, Fred [Albuquerque, NM; Lenard, Roger X [Edgewood, NM


    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  12. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.


    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  13. Some information needs for air quality modeling. [Environmental effects of sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, F B


    The following topics were considered at the workshop: perturbation of the natural sulfur cycle by human activity; ecosystem responses to a given environmental dose of sulfur compounds; movement of sulfur compounds within the atmosphere; air quality models; contribution of biogenic sulfur compounds to atmospheric burden of sulfur; production of acid rain from sulfur dioxide; meteorological processes; and rates of oxidation of SO/sub 2/ via direct photo-oxidation, oxidation resulting from photo-induced free radical chemistry, and catalytic oxidation in cloud droplets and on dry particles. (HLW)

  14. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高青雨; 杜福胜; 李润明; 杨更须; 俞贤达


    本文研究了哌嗪(PPZ)与二氧化硫(SO2)电荷转移复合物(CTC)的制备及其作为光引发剂引发甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)的聚合,发现PPZ/SO2摩尔比对聚合速率影响甚大.当PPZ/SO2为1∶2时,形成了具有潜在引发能力的复合物(Ⅰ).Ⅰ引发MMA光聚合的动力学关系式为Rp=Kp[Ⅰ]0.34[MMA]1.06,表观活化能为23.7 kJ/mol.并对引发机理进行了探讨.%Photopolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was kinetically studied by using piperazine (PPZ)-sulfur dioxide (SO2) charge-transfer complex as a photoinitiator. It was found that the polymerization rate (Rp) was dependent on the molar ratio of piperazine to sulfur dioxide, and the complex(Ⅰ) with a composition of PPZ/SO2=1/2 in molar ratio was the most effective. By using Ⅰ as the photoinitiator, the polymerization kinetics can be expressed as Rp=Kp [Ⅰ]0.34[MMA]1.06, and the apparent activation energy (Ea) value was obtained to be 23.7 kJ/mol. A possible polymerization mechanism was also proposed.

  16. Safety measures for integrity test apparatus for IS process. Sulfuric acid decomposition section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroki; Kubo, Shinji; Iwatsuki, Jin; Onuki, Kaoru


    Hazardous substances such as sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen iodide acid are employed in thermochemical Iodine-Sulfur (IS) process. It is necessary to take safety measure against workers and external environments to study experimentally on IS process. Presently we have been conducting to verify the soundness of main components made of engineering material in actual corrosive condition. An integrity test apparatus for the components of sulfuric acid decomposition was set up. We will use the hazardous substances such as sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide and perform the experiment in pressurized condition in this integrity test. Safety measures for the test apparatus, operation and abnormal situation were considered prior to starting the test. This report summarized the consideration results for the safety measures on the integrity test apparatus for the components of sulfuric acid decomposition. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Mark Elvington, M


    Fiscal year 2008 studies in electrolyzer component development have focused on the characterization of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) after performance tests in the single cell electrolyzer, evaluation of electrocatalysts and membranes using a small scale electrolyzer and evaluating the contribution of individual cell components to the overall electrochemical performance. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies of samples taken from MEAs testing in the SRNL single cell electrolyzer test station indicates a sulfur-rich layer forms between the cathode catalyst layer and the membrane. Based on a review of operating conditions for each of the MEAs evaluated, we conclude that the formation of the layer results from the reduction of sulfur dioxide as it passes through the MEA and reaches the catalyst layer at the cathode-membrane interface. Formation of the sulfur rich layer results in partial delamination of the cathode catalyst layer leading to diminished performance. Furthermore we believe that operating the electrolyzer at elevated pressure significantly increases the rate of formation due to increased adsorption of hydrogen on the internal catalyst surface. Thus, identification of a membrane that exhibits much lower transport of sulfur dioxide is needed to reduce the quantity of sulfur dioxide that reaches the cathode catalyst and is reduced to produce the sulfur-rich layer. Three candidate membranes are currently being evaluated that have shown promise from preliminary studies, (1) modified Nafion{reg_sign}, (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI), and (3) sulfonated Diels Alder polyphenylene (SDAPP). Testing examined the activity for the sulfur dioxide oxidation of platinum (Pt) and platinum-alloy catalysts in 30 wt% sulfuric acid solution. Linear sweep voltammetry showed an increase in activity when catalysts in which Pt is alloyed with non-noble transition metals such as cobalt and chromium. However when Pt is alloyed with noble metals, such as iridium or ruthenium

  18. For sale: Sulfur emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiderscheit, J.


    The allowance trading market has started a slow march to maturity. Competitive developers should understand the risks and opportunities now presented. The marketplace for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions allowances - the centerpiece of Title 4's acid rain reduction program - remains enigmatic 19 months after the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 were passed. Yet it is increasingly clear that the emission allowance market will likely confound the gloom and doom of its doubters. The recently-announced $10 million dollar Wisconsin Power and Light allowance sales to Duquesne Light and the Tennessee Valley Authority are among the latest indications of momentum toward a stabilizing market. This trend puts additional pressure on independent developers to finalize their allowance strategies. Developers who understand what the allowance trading program is and what it is not, know the key players, and grasp the unresolved regulatory issues will have a new competitive advantage. The topics addressed in this article include the allowance marketplace, marketplace characteristics, the regulatory front, forward-looking strategies, and increasing marketplace activity

  19. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Bunsen [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)


    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  20. Microbial Desulfurization of a Crude Oil Middle-Distillate Fraction: Analysis of the Extent of Sulfur Removal and the Effect of Removal on Remaining Sulfur (United States)

    Grossman, M. J.; Lee, M. K.; Prince, R. C.; Garrett, K. K.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.


    Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 was evaluated for its ability to desulfurize a 232 to 343°C middle-distillate (diesel range) fraction of Oregon basin (OB) crude oil. OB oil was provided as the sole source of sulfur in batch cultures, and the extent of desulfurization and the chemical fate of the residual sulfur in the oil after treatment were determined. Gas chromatography (GC), flame ionization detection, and GC sulfur chemiluminesce detection analysis were used to qualitatively evaluate the effect of Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 treatment on the hydrocarbon and sulfur content of the oil, respectively. Total sulfur was determined by combustion of samples and measurement of released sulfur dioxide by infrared absorption. Up to 30% of the total sulfur in the middle distillate cut was removed, and compounds across the entire boiling range of the oil were affected. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption-edge spectroscopy was used to examine the chemical state of the sulfur remaining in the treated OB oil. Approximately equal amounts of thiophenic and sulfidic sulfur compounds were removed by ECRD-1 treatment, and over 50% of the sulfur remaining after treatment was in an oxidized form. The presence of partially oxidized sulfur compounds indicates that these compounds were en route to desulfurization. Overall, more than two-thirds of the sulfur had been removed or oxidized by the microbial treatment. PMID:9872778

  1. Sulfur poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julian, R J; Harrison, K B


    A case of sulfur poisoning is described in which 12 of 20 cattle died following the feeding of sulfur. Respiratory distress and abdominal pain were the prominent signs. Examination of one animal revealed vasculitis and necrosis of the rumen and abomasal wall. The possible toxic effects of sulfur are discussed.

  2. Method of simultaneous recovery of oil and sulfur from bituminous shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The method consists of means for dry distillation of bituminous shales in furnaces heated from inside to recover simultaneously oil and sulfur, and is characterized by obtaining the sulfur partly in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen as a direct distillation product produced in the upper part of the furnace and partly in the form of free sulfur formed in the reduction zone of the furnace by the reduction of the sulfur dioxide formed in the burning zone. It is also characterized by the recovery of sulfur--in so far as the reduction and formation of sulfur dioxide are concerned--being regulated by means of the corresponding regulation of the proportion of the speed of discharging to the amount of air introduced into the process.

  3. Anthropogenic emissions of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen into the atmosphere of the former Soviet Union in 1985 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryaboshapko, A.G.; Brukhanov, P.A.; Gromov, S.A.; Proshina, Yu.V; Afinogenova, O.G. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Anthropogenic emissions of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen over the former Soviet Union for 1985 and 1990 were calculated on the basis of a combination of `bottom-up` and `top-down` approaches. Sulfur dioxide emissions from combustion of hard coal, brown coal, oil products, natural gas, shale oil, peat, wood as well as from metallurgy, sulfuric acid production, and cement production were estimated. Nitrogen oxides emissions were considered separately for large power plants, small power plants, industrial boilers, residential combustion units, and for transport. The sulfur and nitrogen emissions were spatially distributed over the former Soviet Union with 1 x 1 degree resolution. Data on 721 point sources of sulfur dioxide emissions and on the 242 largest power stations as nitrogen oxides sources were used. The area sources of both sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were distributed according to the population density separately for about 150 administrative units of the former Soviet Union. 63 refs., 19 tabs.

  4. Simulated effects of sulfur deposition on nutrient cycling in class I wilderness areas (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Dale W. Johnson; William T. Swank; William Jackson


    As a consequence of human land use, population growth, and industrialization, wilderness and other natural areas can be threatened by air pollution, climate change, and exotic diseases or pests. Air pollution in the form of acidic deposition is comprised of sulfuric and nitric acids and ammonium derived from emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia....

  5. Coordinated programme on isotopic tracer-aided studies of the biological side effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture. Study of sulfur dioxide effects on phosphorus metabolism in plants using 32-P as indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plesnicar, M.


    Exposure of bean plants to low sulphur dioxide concentrations (0.02-0.32 ppm, up to 72 hours) stimulated the incorporation of 32 P into RNA, DNA, phospholipids and the acid soluble fraction, without altering the total phosphorus content. Statistically significant 32 P increases were only observed with RNA. Uptake of 35 SO 2 (14 ppm) by bean leaves was shown to be fairly rapid and the radioactivity was translocated in the roots within 1 to 6 hours following exposure. Subcellular leaf fractions showed that the supernatant contained 60-90% of the absorbed radioactivity. The chloroplasts and microsomes showed higher 35 S content than the mitochondrial fraction. In vitro studies on pea-derived chloroplasts included photosynthetic phosphorylation and electron transport. Phosphorylation was found to be inhibited in presence of SO 2 (I 50 =3.7 mM). The nature of inhibition seems to be of the reversible-competitive type with an apparent inhibitor constant (Ki) of 1.5 mM. The electron transport system remained unaffected. It is maintained that the identification of some lesions in this study would contribute to a better understanding of the nature of the complex interactions between cultivated plants and sulphur dioxide

  6. Determination of sulfur in solids by constant current coulometric titration following combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, R.P.G.


    A method for determination of sulfur in solid materials by combustion in induction furnace, followed by constant current coulometric titration of the sulfur dioxide produced, is described. The method is applicable to samples with sulfur contents of 80 ppm to 20,000 ppm. Its feasibility was checked on the NBS and Leco steel samples. The results are in good agreement with the specified values. (author) [pt

  7. Process and device for liquid organic waste processing by sulfuric mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspart, A.; Gillet, B.; Lours, S.; Guillaume, B.


    In a chemical reactor containing sulfuric acid are introduced the liquid waste and nitric acid at a controlled flow rate for carbonization of the waste and oxidation of carbon on sulfur dioxide, formed during carbonization, regenerating simultaneously sulfuric acid. Optical density of the liquid is monitored to stop liquid waste feeding above a set-point. The liquid waste can be an organic solvent such as TBP [fr

  8. Analysis of sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle for solar hydrogen production. Part 1: decomposition of sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [Central Florida Univ., Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)


    The sulfur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical water splitting cycle is one of the most studied cycles for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production. S-I cycle consists of four sections: (I) acid production and separation and oxygen purification, (II) sulfuric acid concentration and decomposition, (III) hydroiodic acid (HI) concentration, and (IV) HI decomposition and H{sub 2} purification. Section II of the cycle is an endothermic reaction driven by the heat input from a high temperature source. Analysis of the S-I cycle in the past thirty years have been focused mostly on the utilization of nuclear power as the high temperature heat source for the sulfuric acid decomposition step. Thermodynamic as well as kinetic considerations indicate that both the extent and rate of sulfuric acid decomposition can be improved at very high temperatures (in excess of 1000 deg C) available only from solar concentrators. The beneficial effect of high temperature solar heat for decomposition of sulfuric acid in the S-I cycle is described in this paper. We used Aspen Technologies' HYSYS chemical process simulator (CPS) to develop flowsheets for sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) decomposition that include all mass and heat balances. Based on the HYSYS analyses, two new process flowsheets were developed. These new sulfuric acid decomposition processes are simpler and more stable than previous processes and yield higher conversion efficiencies for the sulfuric acid decomposition and sulfur dioxide and oxygen formation. (Author)

  9. Sulfur-Containing Agrochemicals. (United States)

    Devendar, Ponnam; Yang, Guang-Fu


    Modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers by providing innovative agrochemicals. In this context, the introduction of sulfur atoms into an active ingredient is still an important tool in modulating the properties of new crop-protection compounds. More than 30% of today's agrochemicals contain at least one sulfur atom, mainly in fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. A number of recently developed sulfur-containing agrochemical candidates represent a novel class of chemical compounds with new modes of action, so we intend to highlight the emerging interest in commercially active sulfur-containing compounds. This chapter gives a comprehensive overview of selected leading sulfur-containing pesticidal chemical families namely: sulfonylureas, sulfonamides, sulfur-containing heterocyclics, thioureas, sulfides, sulfones, sulfoxides and sulfoximines. Also, the most suitable large-scale synthetic methods of the recently launched or provisionally approved sulfur-containing agrochemicals from respective chemical families have been highlighted.

  10. Once-through hybrid sulfur process for nuclear hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y. H.


    Increasing concern about the global climate change spurs the development of low- or zero-carbon energy system. Nuclear hydrogen production by water electrolysis would be the one of the short-term solutions, but low efficiency and high production cost (high energy consumption) is the technical hurdle to be removed. In this paper the once-through sulfur process composed of the desulfurization and the water electrolysis systems is proposed. Electrode potential for the conventional water electrolysis (∼2.0 V) can be reduced significantly by the anode depolarization using sulfur dioxide: down to 0.6 V depending on the current density This depolarized electrolysis is the electrolysis step of the hybrid sulfur process originally proposed by the Westinghouse. However; recycling of sulfur dioxide requires a high temperature heat source and thus put another technical hurdle on the way to nuclear hydrogen production: the development of high temperature nuclear reactors and corresponding sulfuric acid decomposition system. By the once-through use of sulfur dioxide rather than the closed recycle, the hurdle can be removed. For the sulfur feed, the desulfurization system is integrated into the water electrolysis system. Fossil fuels include a few percent of sulfur by weight. During the refinement or energy conversion, most of the sulfur should be separated The separated sulfur can be fed to the water electrolysis system and the final product would be hydrogen and sulfuric acid, which is number one chemical in the world by volume. Lowered electrode potential and additional byproduct, the sulfuric acid, can provide economically affordable hydrogen. In this study, the once-through hybrid sulfur process for hydrogen production was proposed and the process was optimized considering energy consumption in electrolysis and sulfuric acid concentration. Economic feasibility of the proposed process was also discussed. Based on currently available experimental data for the electrode

  11. Sulfur polymer cement concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.H.; McBee, W.C.


    Sulfur-based composite materials formulated using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and mineral aggregates are described and compared with conventional portland cement based materials. Materials characteristics presented include mechanical strength, chemical resistance, impact resistance, moisture permeation, and linear shrinkage during placement and curing. Examples of preparation and placement of sulfur polymer cement concrete (SC) are described using commercial scale equipment. SC applications presented are focused into hostile chemical environments where severe portland cement concrete (PCC) failure has occurred

  12. Well materials durability in case of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide geological sequestration; Durabilite des materiaux de puits petroliers dans le cadre d'une sequestration geologique de dioxyde de carbone et d'hydrogene sulfure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquemet, N


    The geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) is a promising solution for the long-term storage of these undesirable gases. It consists in injecting them via wells into deep geological reservoirs. The steel and cement employed in the well casing can be altered and provide pathways for leakage with subsequent human and environmental consequences. The materials ageing was investigated by laboratory experiments in geologically relevant P-T conditions. A new experimental and analysis procedure was designed for this purpose. A numerical approach was also done. The cement and steel were altered in various fluid phases at 500 bar-120 C and 500 bar-200 C: a brine, a brine saturated with H{sub 2}S-CO{sub 2}, a mixture of brine saturated with H{sub 2}S-CO{sub 2} and of supercritical H{sub 2}S-CO{sub 2} phase, a dry supercritical H{sub 2}S-CO{sub 2} phase without liquid water. In all cases, two distinct reactions are observed: the cement carbonation by the CO{sub 2} and the steel sulfidation by the H{sub 2}S. The carbonation and sulfidation are respectively maximal and minimal when they occur within the dry supercritical phase without liquid water. The textural and porosity properties of the cement are weakly affected by all the treatments at 120 C. The porosity even decreases in presence of H{sub 2}S-CO{sub 2}. But these properties are affected at 200 C when liquid water is present in the system. At this temperature, the initial properties are only preserved or improved by the treatments within the dry supercritical phase. The steel is corroded in all cases and thus is the vulnerable material of the wells. (author)

  13. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides ... (United States)

    This draft document provides EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science related to the health effects of sulfur oxides. When final, it will provide a critical part of the scientific foundation for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current primary (health-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for sulfur dioxide. The references considered for inclusion in or cited in the external review draft ISA are available at The intent of the ISA, according to the CAA, is to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air” (U.S. Code, 1970a, 1970b). It includes an assessment of scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure sciences, dosimetry, mode of action, animal and human toxicology, and epidemiology. Key information and judgments formerly found in the Air Quality Criteria Documents (AQCDs) for sulfur oxides (SOx) are included; Annexes provide additional details supporting the ISA. Together, the ISA and Annexes serve to update and revise the last SOx ISA which was published in 2008.

  14. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan


    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


    Thunaes, A.; Rabbits, F.T.; Hester, K.D.; Smith, H.W.


    A process is described for extracting uranlum from uranium containing material, such as a low grade pitchblende ore, or mill taillngs, where at least part of the uraniunn is in the +4 oxidation state. After comminuting and magnetically removing any entrained lron particles the general material is made up as an aqueous slurry containing added ferric and manganese salts and treated with sulfur dioxide and aeration to an extent sufficient to form a proportion of oxysulfur acids to give a pH of about 1 to 2 but insufficient to cause excessive removal of the sulfur dioxide gas. After separating from the solids, the leach solution is adjusted to a pH of about 1.25, then treated with metallic iron in the presence of a precipitant such as a soluble phosphate, arsonate, or fluoride.

  16. Dissimilatory oxidation and reduction of elemental sulfur in thermophilic archaea. (United States)

    Kletzin, Arnulf; Urich, Tim; Müller, Fabian; Bandeiras, Tiago M; Gomes, Cláudio M


    The oxidation and reduction of elemental sulfur and reduced inorganic sulfur species are some of the most important energy-yielding reactions for microorganisms living in volcanic hot springs, solfataras, and submarine hydrothermal vents, including both heterotrophic, mixotrophic, and chemolithoautotrophic, carbon dioxide-fixing species. Elemental sulfur is the electron donor in aerobic archaea like Acidianus and Sulfolobus. It is oxidized via sulfite and thiosulfate in a pathway involving both soluble and membrane-bound enzymes. This pathway was recently found to be coupled to the aerobic respiratory chain, eliciting a link between sulfur oxidation and oxygen reduction at the level of the respiratory heme copper oxidase. In contrast, elemental sulfur is the electron acceptor in a short electron transport chain consisting of a membrane-bound hydrogenase and a sulfur reductase in (facultatively) anaerobic chemolithotrophic archaea Acidianus and Pyrodictium species. It is also the electron acceptor in organoheterotrophic anaerobic species like Pyrococcus and Thermococcus, however, an electron transport chain has not been described as yet. The current knowledge on the composition and properties of the aerobic and anaerobic pathways of dissimilatory elemental sulfur metabolism in thermophilic archaea is summarized in this contribution.

  17. Influência do dióxido de enxofre e cultivares de videira na formação de alguns compostos voláteis e na qualidade sensorial do destilado de vinho Influence of sulfur dioxide and grape varieties at the formation of some volatile compounds and at the sensory quality of the wine distillate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio SALTON


    distillates was accomplished by the sensory group of EMBRAPA Uva e Vinho. The results showed that the sulfur dioxide helped the formation of ethanal in the grape varieties studied. It was also observed an increase in the fusel oil fraction due to the sulfur dioxide, except for the distillate of the Isabel grape variety. It was showed also that the Isabel’s distillated had a higher fraction of methanol and lower of 1-propanol, possibly due to the vinification process. The Isabel distillate together with the Couderc 13 distillate, showed a lower fraction of 2-methyl-1-propanol and a lower fraction of 3-methyl-1-butanol and the fusel oil fraction as compared with the other distillates. The distillate of Trebbiano presented a higher fraction of 2-methyl-1-propanol and together with the Herbemont distillate a higher fraction of 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and fusel oil. The sensory evaluation showed that the SO2 had an influence in the aroma, taste and in the general quality of the Herbemont and Trebbiano distillates. The Herbemont distillate was characterized by presenting a lower aroma, taste and general quality. It presented, also, negativelly the highest score for undesirable aroma and taste.

  18. Preliminary results of measurements of air pollution caused by sulfur compounds near the Polaniec power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziewanski, J; Kasina, S; Lewinska, J; Piorek, S


    In the past investigations of the negative impact of power stations on the natural environment have been restricted to measuring sulfur dioxide content in the air. A method of determining complex influence of sulfur compounds on the natural environment is proposed. The following indexes are used: content of sulfur dioxide in the air, dust content (determined by means of the West-Gaeke method), content of sulphate ions in precipitation and pH value of precipitation. Methods used to determine each of the indexes are described. Location of measuring stations in the area where the power station is being constructed is evaluated, taking into account prevailing wind direction and atmospheric conditions (15 measuring points out of which 10 stations measure sulfur content in precipitation and pH value of precipitation, and 5 stations measure the mean daily concentration of sulfur dioxide and dust content). Results are presented in 3 maps, 1 table and 2 pictures. Variations in sulfur dioxide content, dust content, and pH value of precipitation depending on direction of wind, atmospheric conditions and season are analyzed. The results of the investigation will be compared with results of investigations carried out when the power station is in operation. (15 refs.)

  19. Sulfur Fixation by Chemically Modified Red Mud Samples Containing Inorganic Additives: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu


    Full Text Available Sulfur retention ability of Bayer red mud from alumina plant was investigated. Bayer red mud modified by fusel salt and waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide as the main sulfur fixation agent and the calcium based natural mineral materials as servicing additives; the experimental results showed the following: (1 Through 10 wt% waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide modifying Bayer red mud, sulfur fixation rate can increase by 13 wt%. (2 Magnesium oxide can obviously improve the sulfur fixation performance of Bayer red mud and up to a maximum sulfur fixation rate of 47 wt% at adding 1 wt% magnesium oxide. (3 Dolomite enhanced the sulfur fixation performances with the sulfur fixation rate of 68 wt% in optimized condition. (4 Vermiculite dust reduced sulfur dioxide during the fixed-sulfur process of modified Bayer red mud, and the desulphurization ration could reach up to a maximum 76 wt% at 950°C. (5 An advanced three-component sulfur fixation agent was investigated, in which the optimized mass ratio of modified Bayer red mud, dolomite, and vermiculite dust was 70 : 28 : 2 in order, and its sulfur fixation efficiency has reached to a maximum 87 wt% under its 20 wt% dosage in the coal.

  20. Sulfur degassing due to contact metamorphism during flood basalt eruptions (United States)

    Yallup, Christine; Edmonds, Marie; Turchyn, Alexandra V.


    We present a study aimed at quantifying the potential for generating sulfur-rich gas emissions from the devolatilization of sediments accompanying sill emplacement during flood basalt eruptions. The potential contribution of sulfur-rich gases from sediments might augment substantially the magma-derived sulfur gases and hence impact regional and global climate. We demonstrate, from a detailed outcrop-scale study, that sulfur and total organic carbon have been devolatilized from shales immediately surrounding a 3-m thick dolerite sill on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. Localized partial melting occurred within a few centimetres of the contact in the shale, generating melt-filled cracks. Pyrite decomposed on heating within 80 cm of the contact, generating sulfur-rich gases (a mixture of H2S and SO2) and pyrrhotite. The pyrrhotite shows 32S enrichment, due to loss of 34S-enriched SO2. Further decomposition and oxidation of pyrrhotite resulted in hematite and/or magnetite within a few cm of the contact. Iron sulfates were produced during retrogressive cooling and oxidation within 20 cm of the contact. Decarbonation of the sediments due to heating is also observed, particularly along the upper contact of the sill, where increasing δ13C is consistent with loss of methane gas. The geochemical and mineralogical features observed in the shales are consistent with a short-lived intrusion, emplaced in desulfurization, as well as decarbonation, of shales adjacent to an igneous intrusion. The liberated fluids, rich in sulfur and carbon, are likely to be focused along regions of low pore fluid pressure along the margins of the sill. The sulfur gases liberated from the sediments would have augmented the sulfur dioxide (and hydrogen sulfide) yield of the eruption substantially, had they reached the surface. This enhancement of the magmatic sulfur budget has important implications for the climate impact of large flood basalt eruptions that erupt through thick, volatile-rich sedimentary

  1. Method and apparatus for producing food grade carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobles, J.E.; Swenson, L.K.


    A method is disclosed of producing food grade carbon dioxide from an impure carbon dioxide source stream containing contaminants which may include light and heavy hydrocarbons (at least C 1 to C 3 ) and light sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well as heavier sulfur constituents in the nature of mercaptans (RSH) and/or organic mono and disulfides (RSR and RSSR). Nitrogen, water and/or oxygen may also be present in varying amounts in the impure feed stream. The feed gas is first rectified with liquid carbon dioxide condensed from a part of the feed stream to remove heavy hydrocarbons and heavy sulfur compounds, then passed through an absorber to effect removal of the light sulfur compounds, next subjected to an oxidizing atmosphere capable of converting all of the C 2 hydrocarbons and optionally a part of the methane to carbon oxides and water, chilled to condense the water in the remaining gas stream without formation of hydrates, liquefied for ease of handling and storage and finally stripped to remove residual contaminants such as methane, carbon monoxide and nitrogen to produce the final food grade carbon dioxide product

  2. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R C; Anderson, M R; Miake-Lye, R C; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A A; Buriko, Y I [Scientific Research Center ` Ecolen` , Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  3. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  4. Optimization of low sulfur jerusalem artichoke juice for fossil fuels biodesulfurization process


    Silva, Tiago P.; Paixão, Susana M.; Roseiro, J. Carlos; Alves, Luís Manuel


    Most of the world’s energy is generated from the burning of fossil fuels such as oil and its derivatives. When burnt, these fuels release into the atmosphere volatile organic compounds, sulfur as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and the fine particulate matter of metal sulfates. These are pollutants which can be responsible for bronchial irritation, asthma attacks, cardio-pulmonary diseases and lung cancer mortality, and they also contribute for the occurrence of acid rains and the increase of the hole i...

  5. Analysis of sulfur in dried fruits using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. de


    In this study the amount of elemental sulfur in some dried fruits, available commercially, was analyzed using INAA. Apple, apricot and raisin (dried fruits) were investigated due the application of sulfur dioxide for keeping the color and to protect the flavor from oxidation. The samples of dried fruits (apple, apricot and raisin) that are consumed by local population were obtained from the supermarket of Sao Paulo city (SP, Brazil). The sulfur concentration values for apple (0.32 ± 0.04 gkg -1 ) and raisin (0.30 ± 0.08 gkg -1 ) are similar but they are significantly lower when compared with the apricot (1.55 ± 0.12 gkg -1 ). This analysis is important due to an increase in the consumption of dried fruit by Brazilian population and also for its nutritional relevancy. (author)

  6. Analysis of sulfur in dried fruits using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Jose A.G. de [Universidade Cidade de Sao Paulo, UNICID, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    In this study the amount of elemental sulfur in some dried fruits, available commercially, was analyzed using INAA. Apple, apricot and raisin (dried fruits) were investigated due the application of sulfur dioxide for keeping the color and to protect the flavor from oxidation. The samples of dried fruits (apple, apricot and raisin) that are consumed by local population were obtained from the supermarket of Sao Paulo city (SP, Brazil). The sulfur concentration values for apple (0.32 {+-} 0.04 gkg{sup -1}) and raisin (0.30 {+-} 0.08 gkg{sup -1}) are similar but they are significantly lower when compared with the apricot (1.55 {+-} 0.12 gkg{sup -1}). This analysis is important due to an increase in the consumption of dried fruit by Brazilian population and also for its nutritional relevancy. (author)

  7. Reduction of produced elementary sulfur in denitrifying sulfide removal process. (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Liu, Lihong; Chen, Chuan; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Lee, Duu-Jong


    Denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) processes simultaneously convert sulfide, nitrate, and chemical oxygen demand from industrial wastewater into elemental sulfur, dinitrogen gas, and carbon dioxide, respectively. The failure of a DSR process is signaled by high concentrations of sulfide in reactor effluent. Conventionally, DSR reactor failure is blamed for overcompetition for heterotroph to autotroph communities. This study indicates that the elementary sulfur produced by oxidizing sulfide that is a recoverable resource from sulfide-laden wastewaters can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfur-reducing Methanobacterium sp. The Methanobacterium sp. was stimulated with excess organic carbon (acetate) when nitrite was completely consumed by heterotrophic denitrifiers. Adjusting hydraulic retention time of a DSR reactor when nitrite is completely consumed provides an additional control variable for maximizing DSR performance.

  8. Sulfur activation in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Pace, J.V. III.


    In 1979, we attempted to establish the validity of source terms for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs using experimental data on sulfur activation. Close agreement was observed between measured and calculated values for test firings of Nagasaki-type bombs. The calculated values were based on source terms developed by W.E. Preeg at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A discrepancy was found, however, when we compared calculated values for the two bombs because a 1956 report by R.R. Wilson stated that sulfur acitvation by fast neutrons in Hiroshima was approximately three times greater than in Nagasaki. Our calculations based on Preeg's source-term data predicted about equal sulfur activation in the two cities

  9. Electrochemistry of Sulfur Dioxide in Nonaqueous Solutions. Part I. (United States)


    1419-1426. 7Fouchard, D. T., Gardner, C. L., Adams, W. A. and Laman , F. C., "Roman and ISR Spectroscopic Studies of the Ulectroreduction of Sulphur...Untersuchungen an elektrolytisch erzeugtem SO2-," Zeitschrift fur Naturforsch A, Vol. 23, 1968. j Fouchard, D. T., Gardner, C. L., Adams, W. A. and Laman , F. C

  10. Biological scale for the estimation of sulfur dioxide pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, O L


    By observing the distribution of lichens and bryophytes in an area where levels of SO/sub 2/ are well known it has been possible to produce a scale from which annual average levels of this pollutant can be estimated. Instructions on how to use the scale are given and its accuracy and possible usefulness are discussed.

  11. Sulfur dioxide poisoning as a cause of asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanoff, A.


    This report discusses 3 cases of asthmatic attack following exposure to SO/sub 2/ from leaking refrigerators. This report speculates that primary effects are inflammatory destructive lesions in upper tract which predispose bronchi to bacterial attack followed by hypersensitivity to bacterial products (complex of bronchial asthma) in certain susceptible individuals. SO/sub 2/, like cold, exercise, or overeating, may be included in the same category of nonspecific precipitating causes. No immunologic case for specificity of SO/sub 2/ was observed.

  12. Conversion of Sulfur-Dioxide in the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyger, H.; Fenger, J.


    Pertinent, previous studies of the oxidation of SO2 in the atmosphere are briefly reviewed. A project dealing with the conversion in the plume from an oil-fired power station is described in greater detail. Measurements were performed from an aircraft and included continuous registration of NOx, ...

  13. Inhibition of spore germination of Alternaria tenuis by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couey, H.M.


    As a part of a continuing study of SO/sub 2/ fumigation of table grapes, the effect of SO/sub 2/ on spores of an isolate of A. tenuis Auct. causing decay of table grapes was determined. The amount of SO/sub 2/ required to inhibit completely spore germination depended on availability of moisture and the temperature. At 20/sup 0/C, wet spores required 20-min exposure to 100 ppm SO/sub 2/ to prevent germination, but spores equilibrated at 90% relative humidity (RH) required 10-min exposure to 1000 ppm SO/sub 2/. Dry spores at 60% RH were unaffected by a 20-min exposure to 4000 ppm SO/sub 2/. Increasing the temperature in the range 5-20/sup 0/C increased effectiveness of the SO/sub 2/ treatment. A comparison of Alternaria with Botrytis cinerea Fr. (studied earlier) showed that wet spores of these organisms were about equally sensitive to SO/sub 2/, but that dry Alternaria spores were more resistant to SO/sub 2/ than dry Botrytis spores under comparable conditions.

  14. The reaction kinetics of amino radicals with sulfur dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yide; Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul


    Application of the laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence method to the reaction NH2+SO2 in argon bath gas yields pressure-dependent, third-order kinetics which may be summarized as k = (1.49 ± 0.15) × 10-31 (T/298 K)-0.83cm6 molecule-2 s-1 over 292-555K, where the uncertainty is the 95......% confidence interval and includes possible systematic errors. The quenching of vibrationally excited NH2 is consistent with a high-pressure limit for NH2+SO2 of (1.62 ± 0.25) × 10-11cm3 molecule-1 s-1 over the temperature range 295-505K, where again the 95% confidence interval is shown. Ab initio analysis...... yields a H2N-SO2 dissociation enthalpy of 73.5 kJ mol-1, and comparison with RRKM theory and the exponential down model for energy transfer yields down = 350 cm-1 for Ar at room temperature....

  15. Fecundability and parental Exposure to Ambient sulfur Dioxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dejmek, Jan; Jelínek, R.; Solanský, I.; Beneš, I.; Šrám, Radim


    Roč. 108, č. 7 (2000), s. 647-654 ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.033, year: 2000

  16. Absorption effects in electron-sulfur-dioxide collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, L. E.; Sugohara, R. T.; Santos, A. S. dos [Departamento de Fisica, UFSCar, 13565-905 Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil); Lee, M.-T.; Iga, I.; Souza, G. L. C. de [Departamento de Quimica, UFSCar, 13565-905 Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil); Homem, M. G. P.; Michelin, S. E. [Departamento de Fisica, UFSC, 88040-970 Florianopolis-SC (Brazil); Brescansin, L. M. [Instituto de Fisica ' ' Gleb Wataghin' ' , UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil)


    A joint experimental-theoretical study on electron-SO{sub 2} collisions in the low and intermediate energy range is reported. More specifically, experimental elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections in absolute scale are measured in the 100-1000 eV energy range using the relative-flow technique. Calculated elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections as well as grand-total and total absorption cross sections are also presented in the 1-1000 eV energy range. A complex optical potential is used to represent the electron-molecule interaction dynamics, whereas the Schwinger variational iterative method combined with the distorted-wave approximation is used to solve the scattering equations. Comparison of the present results is made with the theoretical and experimental results available in the literature.

  17. Higher energy dissociative electron attachment cross sections in sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurepa, M.; Pejcev, V.; Cadez, I.


    Experimental results of total electron attachment cross sections are presented with, for comparison, two additional sets of data, those of Orient and Srivastava and of Spyrou et al.. Both were normalized to present values of the first attachment peak at 4,6 eV, in order to show more clearly differences in cross section curve shapes. In fact, data of Orient and Srivastava are larger that the present ones for a factor of 2,82; while those of Spyrou et al. are higher only for 3,70 %. Both these sets of data, as well as those by Cadez et al., cover an incident electron energy range 3,40 - 9,40 eV. Electron attachment processes at energies higher that 9,40 eV have been in fact detected and measured in the same set of experiments that led to former publication of lower energy attachment processes by Cadez et al.. At that time in none of experiments, that could distinguished ionic species formed in dissociation attachment processes, was a sign of ions at incident electron energies exceeding 9,40 eV. That caused our ignorance toward processes detected and measured at higher incident electron energies, mainly since they were at least one order of magnitude lower that the two peaks at 4,6 eV and 7,3 eV, respectively. Without additional experiments, that include mass analysis of ionic species formed in dissociative electron attachment processes, it is not possible to give any sound explanation to causes of peaks at energies higher that 8,0 eV

  18. 76 FR 56644 - Sulfur Dioxide; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions (United States)


    ... cause any relevant toxic effects, no quantitative dietary risk assessment is needed. Short-term studies... ingestion of sulfiting agents used as preservatives in food products, beverages, and fresh fruits and... phase of a study now being conducted on figs was submitted with this exemption request. The design of...

  19. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.


    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  20. Structure of amorphous sulfur

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Eichinger, BE


    Full Text Available The lambda-transition of elemental sulfur occurring at about 159°C has long been associated with the conversion of cyclic S8 rings (c-S8) to amorphous polymer (a-S) via a ring opening polymerization. It is demonstrated, with the use of both density...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KALB, P.


    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ((approx)$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not

  2. Influence of Sulfur Fumigation on the Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Buds of Lonicera japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Li Guo


    Full Text Available Lonicera japonica flos is widely used as a pharmaceutical resource and a commonly-employed ingredient in healthy food, soft beverages and cosmetics in China. Sometimes, sulfur fumigation is used during post-harvest handling. In this study, a comprehensive comparison of the chemical profile between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated samples was conducted by HPLC fingerprints and simultaneous quantification of nine constituents, including secologanic acid, along with another eight usually-analyzed markers. Secologanic acid was destroyed, and its sulfonates were generated, whereas caffeoylquinic acids were protected from being oxidized. The residual sulfur dioxide in sulfur-fumigated samples was significantly higher than that in sun-dried samples, which might increase the potential incidence of toxicity to humans. Meanwhile, compared with sun-dried samples, sulfur-fumigated samples have significantly stronger antioxidant activity, which could be attributed to the joint effect of protected phenolic acids and flavonoids, as well as newly-generated iridoid sulfonates.

  3. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases (United States)

    Clay, David T.; Lynn, Scott


    A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

  4. Determination of sulfur in steels by isotope dilution mass spectrometry after dissolution with sealed tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo


    The scaled tube dissolution technique was studied for the complete conversion of sulfur in steels to sulfate. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used for the determination of sulfur in the sulfate. Sample (0.5 g) was dissolved in nitric acid (7 ml) and hydrochloric acid (3 ml) in a scaled borosilicate glass tube on being heated above 180 0 C overnight. Nitrate ions were removed by repeated evaporation with hydrochloric acid. The residue was dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Sulfate was reduced with a mixture of hydrochloric, hydroiodic and hypophosphorous acids; hydrogen sulfide evolved was absorbed in cadmium acetate solution, then converted to silver sulfide, which was burned to sulfur dioxide in pure oxygen at low pressure, for isotopic analysis. Analytical blank in whole procedure was 0.8 μg of sulfur. This technique was applied to the determination of sulfur in NBS low alloy steels. The principal cause of low values obtained by the open beaker dissolution technique was evaporation losses of sulfur as sulfur dioxide during the dissolution. (author)

  5. Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases (United States)

    Moore, Raymond H.; Stegen, Gary E.


    Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

  6. Getting sulfur on target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbert, T.R.; Brignac, G.B. [ExxonMobil Process Research Labs. (United States); Greeley, J.P.; Demmin, R.A.; Roundtree, E.M. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. (United States)


    The paper focuses on how the required reductions in sulfur levels in motor vehicle fuel may be achieved over about the next five years. It is said that broadly there are two possible approaches, they are: (a) to hydrotreat the feed to the FCC unit and (b) to treat the naphtha produced by the FCC unit. The difficulties associated with these processes are mentioned. The article is presented under the sub-headings of (i) technology options for cat naphtha desulfurisation; (ii) optimising fractionator design via improved VLE models; (iii) commercial experience with ICN SCANfining; (iv) mercaptan predictive models and (v) process improvements. It was concluded that the individual needs of the refiner can be addressed by ExxonMobil Research and Engineering (EMRE) and the necessary reductions in sulfur levels can be achieved.

  7. Accidents with sulfuric acid


    Rajković Miloš B.


    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  8. Acidophilic sulfur disproportionation (United States)

    Hardisty, Dalton S.; Olyphant, Greg A.; Bell, Jonathan B.; Johnson, Adam P.; Pratt, Lisa M.


    Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur (S0) is a well-studied metabolism and is not previously reported to occur at pH values less than 4.5. In this study, a sediment core from an abandoned-coal-mine-waste deposit in Southwest Indiana revealed sulfur isotope fractionations between S0 and pyrite (Δ34Ses-py) of up to -35‰, inferred to indicate intense recycling of S0 via bacterial disproportionation and sulfide oxidation. Additionally, the chemistry of seasonally collected pore-water profiles were found to vary, with pore-water pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.8 and observed seasonal redox shifts expressed as abrupt transitions from Fe(III) to Fe(II) dominated conditions, often controlled by fluctuating water table depths. S0 is a common product during the oxidation of pyrite, a process known to generate acidic waters during weathering and production of acid mine drainage. The H2S product of S0 disproportionation, fractionated by up to -8.6‰, is rapidly oxidized to S0 near redox gradients via reaction with Fe(III) allowing for the accumulation of isotopically light S0 that can then become subject to further sulfur disproportionation. A mass-balance model for S0 incorporating pyrite oxidation, S0 disproportionation, and S0 oxidation readily explains the range of observed Δ34Ses-py and emphasizes the necessity of seasonally varying pyrite weathering and metabolic rates, as indicated by the pore water chemistry. The findings of this research suggest that S0 disproportionation is potentially a common microbial process at a pH < 4.5 and can create large sulfur isotope fractionations, even in the absence of sulfate reduction.

  9. Responses of plants to sulfur containing air pollutants (H2S and SO2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Franciscus Marie


    Effects of air pollution by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were already reported more than half a century ago. The wider range of pollution by SO2 is reflected in the number of publications concerning effects of SO2 on plants. The major part of the reported studies effects of SO2

  10. Removal and recovery of nitrogen and sulfur oxides from gaseous mixtures containing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, H.B.H.


    A cyclic process for removing lower valence nitrogen oxides from gaseous mixtures includes treating the mixtures with an aqueous media including alkali metal carbonate and alkali metal bicarbonate and a preoxygen oxidant to form higher valence nitrogen oxides and to capture these oxides as alkali metal salts, expecially nitrites and nitrates, in a carbonate/bicarbonate-containing product aqueous media. Highly selective recovery of nitrates in high purity and yield may then follow, as by crystallization, with the carbonate and bicarbonate alkali metal salts strongly increasing the selectivity and yield of nitrates. The product nitrites are converted to nitrates by oxidation after lowering the product aqueous media pH to below about 9. A cyclic process for removing sulfur oxides from gas mixtures includes treating these mixtures includes treating these mixtures with aqueous media including alkali metal carbonate and alkali metal bicarbonate where the ratio of alkali metal to sulfur dioxide is not less than 2. The sulfur values may be recovered from the resulting carbonate/bicarbonate/-sulfite containing product aqueous media as alkali metal sulfate or sulfite salts which are removed by crystallization from the carbonate-containing product aqueous media. As with the nitrates, the carbonate/bicarbonate system strongly increases yield of sulfate or sulfite during crystallization. Where the gas mixtures include both sulfur dioxide and lower valence nitrogen oxides, the processes for removing lower valence nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide may be combined into a single removal/recovery system, or may be effected in sequence

  11. Development of once-through hybrid sulfur process for nuclear hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yong Hun


    Humanity has been facing major energy challenges such as the severe climate change, threat of energy security and global energy shortage especially for the developing world. Particularly, growing awareness of the global warming has led to efforts to develop the sustainable energy technologies for the harmony of the economy, social welfare and environment. Water-splitting nuclear hydrogen production is expected to help to resolve those challenges, when high energy efficiency and low cost for hydrogen production become possible. Once-through Hybrid Sulfur process (Ot-HyS), proposed in this work, produces hydrogen using the same SO 2 Depolarized water Electrolysis (SDE) process found in the original Hybrid Sulfur cycle (HyS) proposed by Westinghouse, which has the sulfuric acid decomposition (SAD) process using high temperature heat source in order to recover sulfur dioxide for the SDE process. But Ot-HyS eliminated this technical hurdle by replacing it with well-established sulfur combustion process to feed sulfur dioxide to the SDE process. Because Ot-HyS has less technical challenges, Ot-HyS is expected to advance the realization of the large-scale nuclear hydrogen production by feeding an initial nuclear hydrogen stock. Most of the elemental sulfur, at present, is supplied by desulfurization process for environmental reasons during the processing of natural gas and petroleum refining and expected to increase significantly. This recovered sulfur will be burned with oxygen in the sulfur combustion process so that produced sulfur dioxide could be supplied to the SDE process to produce hydrogen. Because the sulfur combustion is a highly exothermic reaction releasing 297 kJ/mol of combustion heat resulting in a large temperature rise, efficiency of the Ot-HyS is expected to be high by recovering this great amount of high grade excess heat with nuclear energy. Sulfuric acid, which is a byproduct of the SDE process, could be sent to the neighboring consumers with or even

  12. Increasing the efficiency of sulphur dioxide in wine by using of saturated higher fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Bábíková


    Full Text Available This work is aimed on stopping of alcoholic fermentation to leave residual sugar and the possibility of sulfur dioxide reduction in wine technology and storage. As a very good opportunity showed mixture of higher saturated fatty acids with a reduced dose of sulfur dioxide. Experiments have confirmed that the concentration of viable yeasts in 1 ml of wine for variants treated with a mixture of fatty acids is significantly lower than in variants treated with sulfur dioxide alone. Then was monitored the influence of fatty acids on stored wine with residual sugar. At this point a dramatically prolongation of interval to secondary fermentation (depreciation of wine in the bottle was confirmed. Finally, attention was paid to influence on the organoleptic characteristics of wine treated this way. In this case, it is possible to consider the recommended concentration of fatty acid below the threshold of susceptibility.

  13. A highly efficient polysulfide mediator for lithium-sulfur batteries (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Hart, Connor; Pang, Quan; Garsuch, Arnd; Weiss, Thomas; Nazar, Linda F.


    The lithium-sulfur battery is receiving intense interest because its theoretical energy density exceeds that of lithium-ion batteries at much lower cost, but practical applications are still hindered by capacity decay caused by the polysulfide shuttle. Here we report a strategy to entrap polysulfides in the cathode that relies on a chemical process, whereby a host—manganese dioxide nanosheets serve as the prototype—reacts with initially formed lithium polysulfides to form surface-bound intermediates. These function as a redox shuttle to catenate and bind ‘higher’ polysulfides, and convert them on reduction to insoluble lithium sulfide via disproportionation. The sulfur/manganese dioxide nanosheet composite with 75 wt% sulfur exhibits a reversible capacity of 1,300 mA h g-1 at moderate rates and a fade rate over 2,000 cycles of 0.036%/cycle, among the best reported to date. We furthermore show that this mechanism extends to graphene oxide and suggest it can be employed more widely.

  14. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    KAUST Repository

    Kravitz, Ben


    We used a general circulation model of Earth\\'s climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  15. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    KAUST Repository

    Kravitz, Ben; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Marquardt, Allison B.


    We used a general circulation model of Earth's climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  16. Assessing historical global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefohn, A.S. [A.S.L. and Associates, Helena, MT (United States); Husar, J.D.; Husar, R.B. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Center for Air Pollution Impact and Trend Analysis; Brimblecombe, P. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)


    Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from energy-producing and metal production activities have become an important factor in better understanding the relationship between humans and the environment. Concerns about (1) acid rain effects on the environment and (2) anthropogenic aerosols affecting possible global change have prompted interest in the transformation and fate of sulfur in the environment. One step in assessing the importance of sulfur emissions is the development of a reliable regional emission inventory of sulfur as a function of time. The objective of this research effort was to create a homogeneous database for historical sulfur emission estimates for the world. The time from 1850--1990 was selected to include the period of industrialization form the time the main production of fuels and minerals began until the most recent year for which complete production data exist. This research effort attempts to correct some of the deficiencies associated with previous global sulfur emission estimates by (1) identifying those production activities that resulted in sulfur emissions by country and (2) calculating historical emission trends by country across years. An important component of this study was the comparison of the sulfur emission results with those of previous studies.

  17. Phosphorus, sulfur and pyridine


    Schönberger, Stefanie


    The synthesis of distinct neutral or anionic P,S compounds in solution provides a great challenge for chemists. Due to the similarity in the energies of the P–P, P–S and S–S bonds nearly solely a mixture of compounds with different composition and charge is obtained. Our interest focuses on the system consisting of phosphorus, sulfur and pyridine, with the aim of a greater selectivity of P,S compounds in solution. The combination of these three components offers the opportunity...

  18. Method and system for capturing carbon dioxide and/or sulfur dioxide from gas stream (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xinglei


    The present invention provides a system for capturing CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 absorber comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt capable of absorbing the CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 to produce a CO.sub.2- and/or SO.sub.2-containing solution; (b) an amine regenerator to regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and, when the system captures CO.sub.2, (c) an alkali metal carbonate regenerator comprising an ammonium catalyst capable catalyzing the aqueous alkali metal bicarbonate into the alkali metal carbonate and CO.sub.2 gas. The present invention also provides for a system for capturing SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a SO.sub.2 absorber comprising aqueous alkali metal carbonate, wherein the alkali metal carbonate is capable of absorbing the SO.sub.2 to produce an alkali metal sulfite/sulfate precipitate and CO.sub.2.

  19. Selectivity and direct visualization of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide in a decorated porous host (United States)

    Yang, Sihai; Sun, Junliang; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J.; Callear, Samantha K.; David, William I. F.; Anderson, Daniel P.; Newby, Ruth; Blake, Alexander J.; Parker, Julia E.; Tang, Chiu C.; Schröder, Martin


    Understanding the mechanism by which porous solids trap harmful gases such as CO2 and SO2 is essential for the design of new materials for their selective removal. Materials functionalized with amine groups dominate this field, largely because of their potential to form carbamates through H2N(δ-)···C(δ+)O2 interactions, thereby trapping CO2 covalently. However, the use of these materials is energy-intensive, with significant environmental impact. Here, we report a non-amine-containing porous solid (NOTT-300) in which hydroxyl groups within pores bind CO2 and SO2 selectively. In situ powder X-ray diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering studies, combined with modelling, reveal that hydroxyl groups bind CO2 and SO2 through the formation of O=C(S)=O(δ-)···H(δ+)-O hydrogen bonds, which are reinforced by weak supramolecular interactions with C-H atoms on the aromatic rings of the framework. This offers the potential for the application of new ‘easy-on/easy-off’ capture systems for CO2 and SO2 that carry fewer economic and environmental penalties.

  20. Determination of hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide in a mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, S.S.; Rao, V.R.S.


    A method is proposed for the determination of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide in a mixture. The method is based on the quantitative oxidation of sulfide and sulfite with an excess of radiochloramine-T in alkaline medium (0.1N NaOH). The released chloride activity is proportional to the total amount of sulfide and sulfite present. Addition of 1% CdSO 4 solution to the mixture of sulfide and sulfite precipitates sulfide and sulfite in the filtrate determined by the reagent. From the difference in activities, the amount of sulfide can be calculated. This method can be employed for the determination of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide in air samples. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  1. Sulfur problems in Swedish agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, O


    The present paper deals with some aspects of the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture with special emphasis on the importance of and relationships among various sources of sulfur supply. An inventory of the sulfur content of Swedish soils and hay crops includes 649 soil samples and a corresponding number of hay samples from 59 locations. In a special investigation the samples were found to be representative of normal Swedish farm land. It is concluded that the amount of sulfur compounds in the air is the primary factor which determines the amount of sulfur added to the soil from the atmosphere. Compared with values obtained in other countries, the amount of sulfur added by the precipitation in Sweden is very low. The distribution in air and precipitation of sulfur from an industrial source was studied in a special investigation. An initial reason for the present study was the damage to vegetation caused by smoke from an industrial source. It was concluded that the average conditions in the vicinity of the industrial source with respect to smoke constituents in the air and precipitation were unfavorable only to the plants directly within a very narrow region. Relationships among the sulfur contents of air, of precipitation, of soils and of plants have been subject to special investigations. In the final general discussion and conclusions it is pointed out that the results from these investigations indicate evident differences in the sulfur status of Swedish soils. The present trend toward the use of more highly concentrated fertilizers poor in sulfur may be expected to cause a considerable change in the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture. 167 references, 40 figures, 44 tables.

  2. Lithium sulfur batteries and electrolytes and sulfur cathodes thereof (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Goncharenko, Nikolay; Nimon, Vitaliy; Petrov, Alexei; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Katz, Bruce D.; Loginova, Valentina


    Lithium sulfur battery cells that use water as an electrolyte solvent provide significant cost reductions. Electrolytes for the battery cells may include water solvent for maintaining electroactive sulfur species in solution during cell discharge and a sufficient amount of a cycle life-enhancing compound that facilitates charging at the cathode. The combination of these two components enhances one or more of the following cell attributes: energy density, power density and cycle life. For instance, in applications where cost per Watt-Hour (Wh) is paramount, such as grid storage and traction applications, the use of an aqueous electrolyte in combination with inexpensive sulfur as the cathode active material can be a key enabler for the utility and automotive industries, for example, providing a cost effective and compact solution for load leveling, electric vehicles and renewable energy storage. Sulfur cathodes, and methods of fabricating lithium sulfur cells, in particular for loading lithium sulfide into the cathode structures, provide further advantages.

  3. Iodide-photocatalyzed reduction of carbon dioxide to formic acid with thiols and hydrogen sulfide


    Berton, Mateo Otao; Mello, Rossella C. C.; González Núñez, María Elena


    The photolysis of iodide anions promotes the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen sulfide or thiols to quantitatively yield formic acid and sulfur or disulfides. The reaction proceeds in acetonitrile and aqueous solutions, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature by irradiation using a low-pressure mercury lamp. This transition-metal-free photocatalytic process for CO2 capture coupled with H2S removal may have been relevant as a prebiotic carbon dioxide fixation.

  4. Carbon dioxide as chemical feedstock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aresta, M


    ... Dioxide as an Inert Solvent for Chemical Syntheses 15 Alessandro Galia and Giuseppe Filardo Introduction 15 Dense Carbon Dioxide as Solvent Medium for Chemical Processes 15 Enzymatic Catalysis in Dense Carbon Dioxide 18 Other Reactions in Dense Carbon Dioxide 19 Polymer Synthesis in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide 20 Chain Polymerizations: Synt...

  5. Danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.


    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by sulfuric acid. The process of decomposition of danburite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied. The chemical nature of decomposition process of boron containing ore was determined. The influence of temperature on the rate of extraction of boron and iron oxides was defined. The dependence of decomposition of boron and iron oxides on process duration, dosage of H 2 SO 4 , acid concentration and size of danburite particles was determined. The kinetics of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was studied as well. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was calculated. The flowsheet of danburite processing by sulfuric acid was elaborated.

  6. Sulfur-doped graphene via thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide in H2S, SO2, or CS2 gas. (United States)

    Poh, Hwee Ling; Šimek, Petr; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin


    Doping of graphene with heteroatoms is an effective way to tailor its properties. Here we describe a simple and scalable method of doping graphene lattice with sulfur atoms during the thermal exfoliation process of graphite oxides. The graphite oxides were first prepared by Staudenmaier, Hofmann, and Hummers methods followed by treatments in hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, or carbon disulfide. The doped materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, combustible elemental analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. The ζ-potential and conductivity of sulfur-doped graphenes were also investigated in this paper. It was found that the level of doping is more dramatically influenced by the type of graphite oxide used rather than the type of sulfur-containing gas used during exfoliation. Resulting sulfur-doped graphenes act as metal-free electrocatalysts for an oxygen reduction reaction.

  7. Test fabrication of sulfuric acid decomposer applied for thermochemical hydrogen production IS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Kubo, Shinji; Onuki, Kaoru; Hino, Ryutaro; Ota, Hiroyuki


    Thermo-chemical Iodine-Sulfur (IS) process produces large amount of hydrogen effectively without carbon dioxide emission. Since the IS process uses strong acids such as sulfuric acid and hydriodic acid, it is necessary to develop large-scale chemical reactors featuring materials that exhibit excellent heat and corrosion resistance. A sulfuric acid decomposer is one of the key components of the IS process plant, in which sulfuric acid is evaporated and decomposed into water and sulfur trioxide under temperature range from 300degC to 500degC using the heat supplied by high temperature helium gas. The decomposer is exposed to severe corrosion condition of sulfuric acid boiling flow, where only the SiC ceramics shows good corrosion resistance. However, at the current status, it is very difficult to manufacture the large-scale SiC ceramics structure required in the commercial plant. Therefore, we devised a new concept of the decomposer, which featured a counter flow type heat exchanger consisting of cylindrical blocks made of SiC ceramics. Scale up can be realized by connecting the blocks in parallel and/or in series. This paper describes results of the design work and the test-fabrication study of the sulfuric acid decomposer, which was carried out in order to confirm its feasibility. (author)

  8. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions. (United States)

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar


    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems.

  9. Uranium dioxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawidzki, T.W.


    Sintered uranium dioxide pellets composed of particles of size > 50 microns suitable for power reactor use are made by incorporating a small amount of sulphur into the uranium dioxide before sintering. The increase in grain size achieved results in an improvement in overall efficiency when such pellets are used in a power reactor. (author)

  10. Classification of titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.; Garcia C, R.M.; Maya M, M.E.; Ita T, A. De; Palacios G, J.


    In this work the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) and the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy techniques are used with the purpose to achieve a complete identification of phases and mixture of phases of a crystalline material as titanium dioxide. The problem for solving consists of being able to distinguish a sample of titanium dioxide being different than a titanium dioxide pigment. A standard sample of titanium dioxide with NIST certificate is used, which indicates a purity of 99.74% for the TiO 2 . The following way is recommended to proceed: a)To make an analysis by means of X-ray diffraction technique to the sample of titanium dioxide pigment and on the standard of titanium dioxide waiting not find differences. b) To make a chemical analysis by the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy via in a microscope, taking advantage of the high vacuum since it is oxygen which is analysed and if it is concluded that the aluminium oxide appears in a greater proportion to 1% it is established that is a titanium dioxide pigment, but if it is lesser then it will be only titanium dioxide. This type of analysis is an application of the nuclear techniques useful for the tariff classification of merchandise which is considered as of difficult recognition. (Author)

  11. Demand outlook for sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshkarov, V.Ya.; Danil' yan, P.G.; Feotov, V.E.; Gimaev, R.N.; Koshkarova, M.E.; Sadykova, S.R.; Vodovichenko, N.S.


    The feasibility of using sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke fines in pyrometallurgical processes and also in the chemical and coal-tar chemical industry is examined. Results of industrial tests on briquetting fines of petroleum coke with a petroleum binder are presented. The feasibility of using the obtained briquets in shaft furnace smelting of oxidized nickel ores, production of anode stock, and also in the chemical industry are demonstrated.

  12. Sulfur equilibrium desulfurization of sulfur containing products of combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodroffe, J.A.; Abichandani, J.S.


    This patent describes the method for the combustion of a carbon- and sulfur-containing fuel for substantially reducing emission of gaseous sulfur compounds formed during combustion of the fuel in a combustion zone. The zone having one or more fuel inlets and one or more oxidizer inlets, and having a combustion products outlet spaced therefrom, and having one or more inorganic sorbent inlets downstream of the fuel inlet(s) and oxidizer inlet(s) and upstream of the combustion products outlet

  13. Desulfurisation and sulfur recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.; Finn, A.; Scott, L. [Costain Oil, Gas and Process Ltd (United Kingdom)


    This article highlights technical issues associated with different sulphur recovery processes in the hydrocarbon processing industry. Details are given of the Stretford process developed by British Gas for the removal of low concentrations of hydrogen sulphide from natural gas and other hydrocarbon gases; the SulFerox process developed by Shell and Dow for removing moderate amounts of sulphur from contaminated gases using a proprietary iron salt for extracting the sulphur; solvent systems for removing moderately high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide in sour gas or liquid petroleum gases (LPG); the simple Claus process involving the partial combustion of hydrogen sulphide forming sulphur dioxide which reacts with hydrogen sulphide to form sulphur; and enhanced Claus processes. Sour water stripping processes for hydrogen sulphide contaminated water from hydrocarbon processing, tail gas treatment of Claus plant offgases, and hydrotreating are also discussed.

  14. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin


    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  15. Improving retrieval of volcanic sulphur dioxide from backscattered UV satellite observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Kai; Krotkov, N.A.; Krueger, A.J.; Carn, S.A.; Bhartia, P.K.; Levelt, P.F.


    Existing algorithms that use satellite measurements of solar backscattered ultraviolet (BUV) radiances to retrieve sulfur dioxide (SO2) vertical columns underestimate the large SO2 amounts encountered in fresh volcanic eruption clouds. To eliminate this underestimation we have developed a new

  16. Sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, F.J.


    This chapter on the coordination compounds of sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium starts with an introduction to the bonding, valence and geometry of the elements. Complexes of the group VIB elements are discussed with particular reference to the halo and pseudohalide complexes, oxo acid complexes, oxygen and nitrogen donor complexes and sulfur and selenium donor complexes. There is a section on the biological properties of the complexes discussed. (UK)

  17. New uses of sulfur - update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, K.P.


    An update to an extensive bibliography on alternate uses of sulfur was presented. Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., previously compiled a bibliography in volume 24 of this quarterly bulletin. This update provides an additional 44 new publications. The information regarding current research focusses on topics regarding the use of sulfur in oil and gas applications, mining and metallurgy, concretes and other structural materials, waste management, rubber and textile products, asphalts and other paving and highway applications.

  18. Uranium dioxide. Sintering test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Description of a sintering method and of the equipment devoted to uranium dioxide powder caracterization and comparison between different samples. Determination of the curve giving specific volume versus pressure and micrographic examination of a pellet at medium pressure [fr

  19. Process for the removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshout, R.V.


    This patent describes a continuous process for removing sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide contaminants from the flue gas generated by industrial power plants and boiler systems burning sulfur containing fossil fuels and for converting these contaminants, respectively, into recovered elemental liquid sulfur and nitrogen ammonia and mixtures thereof. It comprises removing at least a portion of the flue gas generated by a power plant or boiler system upstream of the stack thereof; passing the cooled and scrubbed flue gas through an adsorption system; combining a first portion of the reducing gas stream leaving the adsorbers of the adsorption system during regeneration thereof and containing sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide contaminants with a hydrogen sulfide rich gas stream at a temperature of about 400 degrees F to about 600 degrees F and passing the combined gas streams through a Claus reactor-condenser system over a catalyst in the reactor section thereof which is suitable for promoting the equilibrium reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and the sulfur dioxide of the combined streams to form elemental sulfur

  20. Biogenic sulfur compounds and the global sulfur cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneja, V.P.; Aneja, A.P.; Adams, D.F.


    Field measurements of biogenic sulfur compounds shows a great variation in concentrations and emission rates for H 2 S, DMS, CS 2 and COS. Measurements by the chamber method and estimates from micrometeorological sampling are employed to determine the earth-atmosphere flux of these gases. Much of the variation can be attributed to differences of climate and surface conditions, with marshes being a large source of biogenic sulfur (mean contribution 4 x 10 to the 6th ton/year maximum contribution 142 x 10 to the 6th ton/year). Considering that the estimated biogenic contribution needed to balance the global sulfur cycle ranges from 40- 230 x 10 to the 6th tons/year, the mean values are not sufficient to balance this cycle. Further experimental investigations are suggested in order to characterize the biogenic processes adequately

  1. Sulfur Emissions, Abatement Technologies and Related Costs for Europe in the RAINS Model Database


    Cofala, J.; Syri, S.


    This paper describes the part of the Regional Pollution Information and Simulation (RAINS) model dealing with the potential and costs controlling emissions of sulfur dioxide. The paper describes the selected aggregation level of the emission generating activities and reviews the major options for controlling SO2 emissions. An algorithm for estimating emission control costs is presented. The cost calculation distinguishes 'general'(i.e., valid for all countries) and 'country-specific' paramete...

  2. Biochemical and cytological effects of sulphur dioxide on plant metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, S S; Hocking, D


    Biochemical effects of sulfur dioxide arise from its unique ability to act as an oxidizing or a reducing agent. Among some of the important metabolic effects are direct interference with photosynthetic CO/sub 2/ fixation (competitive inhibiton of ribulose diphosphate carbosylase by SO/sub 3/) and with energy metabolism (inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production by SO/sub 3//sup =/). Many indirect effects result from formation of sulfites and organic sulfonates with other cell constituents. These compounds can cause inhibition of a variety of metabolic enzyme systems. All these factors are probably instrumental in the gross disruption of chloroplast and mitochondrial ultrastructure. Injurious effects result when sulfur dioxide is taken up in excess of the capacity of the tissue to incorporate sulfur into the normal metabolic activities. The ubiquitous presence of small amounts of SO/sub 2/ and the subtle and varied nature of its biochemical effects suggest that crop losses to SO/sub 2/ pollution may be more widespread and serious than is generally suspected.

  3. Sulfur Rich Coal Gasification and Low Impact Methanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bassani


    Full Text Available In recent times, the methanol was employed in numerous innovative applications and is a key compound widely used as a building block or intermediate for producing synthetic hydrocarbons, solvents, energy storage medium and fuel. It is a source of clean, sustainable energy that can be produced from traditional and renewable sources: natural gas, coal, biomass, landfill gas and power plant or industrial emissions. An innovative methanol production process from coal gasification is proposed in this work. A suitable comparison between the traditional coal to methanol process and the novel one is provided and deeply discussed. The most important features, with respect to the traditional ones, are the lower carbon dioxide emissions (about 0.3% and the higher methanol production (about 0.5% without any addition of primary sources. Moreover, it is demonstrated that a coal feed/fuel with a high sulfur content allows higher reductions of carbon dioxide emissions. The key idea is to convert hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide into syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide by means of a regenerative thermal reactor. This is the Acid Gas to Syngas technology, a completely new and effective route of processing acid gases. The main concept is to feed an optimal ratio of hydrogen sulphide and carbon monoxide and to preheat the inlet acid gas before the combustion. The reactor is simulated using a detailed kinetic scheme.

  4. A MnO2/Graphene Oxide/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes-Sulfur Composite with Dual-Efficient Polysulfide Adsorption for Improving Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. (United States)

    Li, Yong; Ye, Daixin; Liu, Wen; Shi, Bin; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Hongbin; Pei, Haijuan; Xu, Jiaqiang; Xie, Jingying


    Lithium-sulfur batteries can potentially be used as a chemical power source because of their high energy density. However, the sulfur cathode has several shortcomings, including fast capacity attenuation, poor electrochemical activity, and low Coulombic efficiency. Herein, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and manganese dioxide are introduced to the sulfur cathode. A MnO 2 /GO/CNTs-S composite with a unique three-dimensional (3D) architecture was synthesized by a one-pot chemical method and heat treatment approach. In this structure, the innermost CNTs work as a conducting additive and backbone to form a conducting network. The MnO 2 /GO nanosheets anchored on the sidewalls of CNTs have a dual-efficient absorption capability for polysulfide intermediates as well as afford adequate space for sulfur loading. The outmost nanosized sulfur particles are well-distributed on the surface of the MnO 2 /GO nanosheets and provide a short transmission path for Li + and the electrons. The sulfur content in the MnO 2 /GO/CNTs-S composite is as high as 80 wt %, and the as-designed MnO 2 /GO/CNTs-S cathode displays excellent comprehensive performance. The initial specific capacities are up to 1500, 1300, 1150, 1048, and 960 mAh g -1 at discharging rates of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 C, respectively. Moreover, the composite cathode shows a good cycle performance: the specific capacity remains at 963.5 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C after 100 cycles when the area density of sulfur is 2.8 mg cm -2 .

  5. Sulfate- and Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria as Terrestrial Analogs for Microbial Life on Jupiter's Satellite Io (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)


    Observations from the Voyager and Galileo spacecraft have revealed Jupiter's moon Io to be the most volcanically active body of our Solar System. The Galileo Near Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (NIMS) detected extensive deposits of sulfur compounds, elemental sulfur and SO2 frost on the surface of Io. There are extreme temperature variations on Io's surface, ranging from -130 C to over 2000 C at the Pillan Patera volcanic vent. The active volcanoes, fumaroles, calderas, and lava lakes and vast sulfur deposits on this frozen moon indicate that analogs of sulfur- and sulfate-reducing bacteria might inhabit Io. Hence Io may have great significance to Astrobiology. Earth's life forms that depend on sulfur respiration are members of two domains: Bacteria and Archaea. Two basic links of the biogeochemical sulfur cycle of Earth have been studied: 1) the sulfur oxidizing process (occurring at aerobic conditions) and 2) the process of sulfur-reduction to hydrogen sulfide (anaerobic conditions). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (StRB) and sulfur-reducing bacteria (SrRB) are responsible for anaerobic reducing processes. At the present time the systematics of StRB include over 112 species distributed into 35 genera of Bacteria and Archaea. Moderately thermophilic and mesophilic SrRB belong to the Bacteria. The hyperthermophilic SrRB predominately belong to the domain Archaea and are included in the genera: Pyrodictium, Thermoproteus, Pyrobaculum, Thermophilum, Desulfurococcus, and Thermodiscus. The StRB and SrRB use a wide spectrum of substrates as electron donors for lithotrophic and heterotrophic type nutrition. The electron acceptors for the StRB include: sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, sulfur, arsenate, dithionite, tetrathionate, sulfur monoxide, iron, nitrite, selenite, fumarate, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and chlorine-containing phenol compounds. The Sulfate- and Sulfur-reducing bacteria are widely distributed in anaerobic ecosystems, including extreme environments like hot springs

  6. Sulfur isotope signatures in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cainey, J.


    The role of sulfur in cloud formation makes it a crucial ingredient in the global climate change debate. So it is important to be able to measure sulfur in the atmosphere and identify where it came from. (author)

  7. Model Prebiotic Iron-Sulfur Peptides (United States)

    Bonfio, C.; Scintilla, S.; Shah, S.; Evans, D. J.; Jin, L.; Szostak, J. W.; Sasselov, D. D.; Sutherland, J. D.; Mansy, S. S.


    Iron-sulfur clusters form easily in aqueous solution in the presence of thiolates and iron ions. Polymerization of short, iron-sulfur binding tripeptide sequences leads to ferredoxin-like ligand spacing and activity.

  8. Carbon dioxide and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed ''An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO 2 Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO 2 concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration

  9. Sulfur Speciation in Peat: a Time-zero Signature for the " Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climate and Environmental Change" Experiment (United States)

    Furman, O.; Toner, B. M.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Kolka, R. K.; Nater, E. A.


    As part of the "Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climate and Environmental Change" (SPRUCE) experiment, we made initial measurements of sulfur speciation in peat. These observations represent a "time-zero" relative to the intended soil warming experiment which begins in 2015. Total sulfur and sulfur speciation were measured in peat cores (solid phase) from nine plots (hollows and hummocks) to a depth of 2 m. Peat samples were packed under nitrogen and frozen in the field immediately after collection. All subsequent sample storage, handling, and processing were conducted under inert gas. Sulfur speciation was measured using bulk sulfur 1s X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the SXRMB instrument at the Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK, Canada and at the 9-BM instrument, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, IL, USA. Total sulfur concentrations ranged from 968 to 4077 mg sulfur / kg dry peat. Sulfur content increased with depth from 2 g sulfur / m2 in the 0-10 cm increment to a maximum value of 38 g sulfur / m2 in the 50-60 cm increment. These sulfur loadings produced high quality XANES spectra. The nine cores exhibited reproducible trends with depth in both total sulfur and specific sulfur species; however, variability in sulfur speciation was greatest in the top 40 cm. All sulfur detected within the peat solids was in an organic form. The most abundant sulfur species group was composed of organic mono-sulfide and thiol forms, representing approximately half of the total sulfur at all depths. Sulfonate and ester-sulfate species were 10-15 mol% of sulfur and exhibited low variability with depth. A subsurface maximum in organic di-sulfide was observed in the 20-30 cm depth increment, which is the transition zone between transiently oxidized acrotelm and permanently saturated anaerobic catotelm. Quantification of major sulfur pools is important for the SPRUCE experiment as they are likely to be indicators of changes in the

  10. Catalase as a sulfide-sulfur oxido-reductase: An ancient (and modern?) regulator of reactive sulfur species (RSS). (United States)

    Olson, Kenneth R; Gao, Yan; DeLeon, Eric R; Arif, Maaz; Arif, Faihaan; Arora, Nitin; Straub, Karl D


    Catalase is well-known as an antioxidant dismutating H 2 O 2 to O 2 and H 2 O. However, catalases evolved when metabolism was largely sulfur-based, long before O 2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) became abundant, suggesting catalase metabolizes reactive sulfide species (RSS). Here we examine catalase metabolism of H 2 S n , the sulfur analog of H 2 O 2 , hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and other sulfur-bearing molecules using H 2 S-specific amperometric electrodes and fluorophores to measure polysulfides (H 2 S n ; SSP4) and ROS (dichlorofluorescein, DCF). Catalase eliminated H 2 S n , but did not anaerobically generate H 2 S, the expected product of dismutation. Instead, catalase concentration- and oxygen-dependently metabolized H 2 S and in so doing acted as a sulfide oxidase with a P 50 of 20mmHg. H 2 O 2 had little effect on catalase-mediated H 2 S metabolism but in the presence of the catalase inhibitor, sodium azide (Az), H 2 O 2 rapidly and efficiently expedited H 2 S metabolism in both normoxia and hypoxia suggesting H 2 O 2 is an effective electron acceptor in this reaction. Unexpectedly, catalase concentration-dependently generated H 2 S from dithiothreitol (DTT) in both normoxia and hypoxia, concomitantly oxidizing H 2 S in the presence of O 2 . H 2 S production from DTT was inhibited by carbon monoxide and augmented by NADPH suggesting that catalase heme-iron is the catalytic site and that NADPH provides reducing equivalents. Catalase also generated H 2 S from garlic oil, diallyltrisulfide, thioredoxin and sulfur dioxide, but not from sulfite, metabisulfite, carbonyl sulfide, cysteine, cystine, glutathione or oxidized glutathione. Oxidase activity was also present in catalase from Aspergillus niger. These results show that catalase can act as either a sulfide oxidase or sulfur reductase and they suggest that these activities likely played a prominent role in sulfur metabolism during evolution and may continue do so in modern cells as well. This also appears

  11. Deposition of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In Norway, there is currently a debate about whether or not to build gas power stations. To meet the possibility of reduced emission quotas for carbon dioxide in the future, current interest focuses on the incorporation of large-scale separation and deposition of carbon dioxide when such plants are planned. A group of experts concludes that this technology will become self-financing by means of environmental taxes. From the environmental point of view, taxes upon production are to be preferred over taxes on consumption

  12. Air Quality Criteria for Sulfur Oxides. (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a literature review which comprehensively discusses knowledge of the sulfur oxides commonly found in the atmosphere. The subject content is represented by the 10 chapter titles: Physical and Chemical Properties and the Atmospheric Reactions of the Oxides of Sulfur; Sources and Methods of Measurements of Sulfur Oxides in the Atmosphere;…

  13. Method of distillation of sulfurous bituminous shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallback, A J.S.; Bergh, S V


    A method of distillation of sulfur-containing bituminous shales is characterized by passing the hot sulfur-containing and oil-containing gases and vapors formed during the distillation through burned shale containing iron oxide, so that when these gases and vapors are thereafter cooled they will be, as far as possible, free from sulfur compounds. The patent contains six more claims.

  14. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. Improved method for minimizing sulfur loss in analysis of particulate organic sulfur. (United States)

    Park, Ki-Tae; Lee, Kitack; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, Kwang Young


    The global sulfur cycle depends primarily on the metabolism of marine microorganisms, which release sulfur gas into the atmosphere and thus affect the redistribution of sulfur globally as well as the earth's climate system. To better quantify sulfur release from the ocean, analysis of the production and distribution of organic sulfur in the ocean is necessary. This report describes a wet-based method for accurate analysis of particulate organic sulfur (POS) in the marine environment. The proposed method overcomes the considerable loss of sulfur (up to 80%) that occurs during analysis using conventional methods involving drying. Use of the wet-based POS extraction procedure in conjunction with a sensitive sulfur analyzer enabled accurate measurements of cellular POS. Data obtained using this method will enable accurate assessment of how rapidly sulfur can transfer among pools. Such information will improve understanding of the role of POS in the oceanic sulfur cycle.

  17. Kinetics of AOX Formation in Chlorine Dioxide Bleaching of Bagasse Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Nie


    Full Text Available In this paper, a kinetic model of the first chlorine dioxide bleaching stage (D0 in an elemental chlorine-free (ECF bleaching sequence is presented for bagasse pulps. The model is based on the rate of adsorbable organic halogen (AOX formation. The effects of the chlorine dioxide dosage, the sulfuric acid dosage, and the reaction temperature on the AOX content of wastewater are examined. The reaction of AOX formation could be divided into two periods. A large amount of AOX was formed rapidly within the first 10 min. Ten minutes later, the AOX formation rate significantly decreased. The kinetics could be expressed as: dW⁄dt=660.8•e^(-997.98/T 〖•[ClO〗_2 ]^0.877•[H2SO4 ]^0.355•W^(-1.065, where W is the AOX content, t is the bleaching time (min, T is the temperature (K, [ClO2] is the dosage of chlorine dioxide (kg/odt, and [H2SO4] is the dosage of sulfuric acid (kg/odt. The fit of the experiment results obtained for different temperatures, initial chlorine dioxide dosages, initial sulfuric acid dosages, and AOX content were very good, revealing the ability of the model to predict typical mill operating conditions.

  18. Sulfur gained from flue gas, a demonstration unit of the Wellman-Lord process annexed to a black coal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, H


    Details of reducing air pollution by desulfurization of flue gases are presented. The demonstration unit is annexed to a 115 MW block at the Gary power plant in Indiana, USA. A second unit is being installed at the larger coal power plant in San Juan, New Mexico. The Wellman-Lord technology achieves a higher than 90% desulfurization of industrial waste gases. The technology is based on washing the gases with sodium sulfide. The resulting concentrated sulfur dioxide gas is used for pure sulfur and sulfuric acid production. Sodium sulfate is another commercial by-product obtained from the sodium sulfide regeneration cycle. Chemical details and the technological flow sheet are discussed. Electricity production costs in the power plants due to desulfurization of waste gases will increase by an estimated 15%. Advantages, in addition to reducing air pollution and marketing sulfur products, are also seen in the absence of sulfur containing wastes for disposal. (In German)

  19. Does Carbon Dioxide Predict Temperature?


    Mytty, Tuukka


    Does carbon dioxide predict temperature? No it does not, in the time period of 1880-2004 with the carbon dioxide and temperature data used in this thesis. According to the Inter Governmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) carbon dioxide is the most important factor in raising the global temperature. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that carbon dioxide truly predicts temperature. Because this paper uses observational data it has to be kept in mind that no causality interpretation can be ma...

  20. Carbon Dioxide Sensor Technology. (United States)


    second gas permeable membrane separates a compartment containing the non-aqueous " solvent dimethylsulfoxide , ( DMSO ), from the aqueous solution...compartment. In DMSO carbon dioxide can be irreversibly reduced electrochemically to * non-interfering products...current due to its reduction in the DMSO solution is proportional to the partial pressure of CO2 in the gas phase. Overall, the linear response and

  1. Carbon dioxide sensor (United States)

    Dutta, Prabir K [Worthington, OH; Lee, Inhee [Columbus, OH; Akbar, Sheikh A [Hilliard, OH


    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  2. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T.J. (Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM))


    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  3. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T J [Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM)


    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  4. Study of volumetric properties (PVT) of mixtures made of light hydrocarbons (C1-C4), carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide - Experimental measurements through a vibrating tube densimeter and modelling; Etude des proprietes volumetriques (PVT) d'hydrocarbures legers (C1-C4), du dioxyde de carbone et de l'hydrogene sulfure. Mesures par densimetrie a tube vibrant et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivollet, F.


    Various pollutant contents (i.e. carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide or other sulphur products) are found in produced oils. These latter must undergo a number of transformations and purifications. The design and dimensioning of the corresponding units can well be optimized only if one has reliable and accurate data about phase equilibria and volumetric properties and of course reliable and accurate modeling. This work was devoted partly to measurements of volumetric properties on three binary mixtures (ethane - hydrogen sulphide, ethane - propane and carbon dioxide - hydrogen sulphide). These measurements were carried out using equipment, comprising a vibrating tube densimeter (Paar, model DMA 512 P), which was especially designed and built for this work. The binary mixtures were studied in the 253 to 363 K temperature range from at pressures up to either 20 or 40 MPa. Two calibration methods of the vibrating tube were used: the FPMC method (Forced Path Mechanical Calibration) described in the literature and an original method containing neural network, developed herein. The study undertaken about the modeling of volumetric properties made it possible to highlight the inadequacy of the traditional use of cubic equations of state to represent simultaneously volumetric properties and phase equilibria. Among the equations of state investigated, a close attention however was paid to cubic equations of state because of their very great use in the oil field. A new tool was found to adapt cubic equations of state to the simultaneous and satisfactory representation of volumetric properties and phase equilibria. It concerns the coupling of the cubic Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state with volume correction through a neural network. This new model was tested successfully, it makes it possible to benefit from the existing work of representation of phase equilibria (mixing rules and interaction coefficients) while improving calculation of the volumetric data.

  5. Corrosion by concentrated sulfuric acid in carbon steel pipes and tanks: state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panossian, Zehbour; Almeida, Neusvaldo Lira de; Sousa, Raquel Maria Ferreira de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pimenta, Gutemberg de Souza [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento (CENPES); Marques, Leandro Bordalo Schmidt [PETROBRAS Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    PETROBRAS, allied to the policy of reduction of emission of pollutants, has been adjusting the processes of the new refineries to obtain products with lower sulfur content. Thus, the sulfur dioxide, extracted from the process gases of a new refinery to be built in the Northeast, will be used to produce sulfuric acid with concentration between (94-96) %. This acid will be stored in carbon steel tanks and transported through a buried 8-km carbon steel pipe from the refinery to a pier, where it will be loaded onto ships and sent to the consumer markets. Therefore, the corrosion resistance of carbon steel by concentrated acid will become a great concern for the mentioned storage and transportation. When the carbon steel comes into contact with concentrated sulfuric acid, there is an immediate acid attack with the formation of hydrogen gas and ferrous ions which, in turn, forms a protective layer of FeSO{sub 4} on the metallic surface. The durability of the tanks and pipes made of carbon steel will depend on the preservation of this protective layer. This work presents a review of the carbon steel corrosion in concentrated sulfuric acid and discusses the preventive methods against this corrosion, including anodic protection. (author)


    Real-time measurment of airway responses to Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) in an intact, awake guinea pig model. J Stanek1,2, Q Krantz2, J Nolan2, D Winsett2, W Watkinson2, and D Costa2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NCSU, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, ETD, NHEERL, US...

  7. Removal of sulfur from process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brignac, D.G.


    A process wherein water is added to a non-reactive gas stream, preferably a hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas stream, sufficient to raise the water level thereof to from about 0.2 percent to about 50 percent, based on the total volume of the process gas stream, and the said moist gas stream is contacted, at elevated temperature, with a particulate mass of a sulfur-bearing metal alumina spinel characterized by the formula MAl 2 O 4 , wherein M is chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, cadmium, mercury, or zinc to desorb sulfur thereon. In the sulfur sorption cycle, due to the simultaneous adsorption of water and sulfur, the useful life of the metal alumina spinel for sulfur adsorption can be extended, and the sorbent made more easily regenerable after contact with a sulfur-bearing gas stream, notably sulfur-bearing wet hydrogen or wet hydrogen-rich gas streams

  8. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model (United States)

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen


    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  9. Manganese-Loaded Activated Carbon for the Removal of Organosulfur Compounds from High-Sulfur Diesel Fuels


    Al-Ghouti, M.A.; Al-Degs, Y.S.


    The adsorptive capacity of activated carbon (AC) is significantly enhanced toward weakly interacting organosulfur compounds (OSC) from sulfur-rich diesel fuel. Sulfur compounds are selectively removed from diesel after surface modification by manganese dioxide (MnO2). A selective surface for OSC removal was created by loading MnO2 on the surface; π-complexation between the partially filled d-orbitals of Mn4+ and the S atom is the controlling mechanism for OSC removal. Principal component anal...

  10. Volatile earliest Triassic sulfur cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Algeo, Thomas J.


    model experiment. Exposure of evaporite deposits having a high δ 34S may account for the source change, with a possible role for the Siberian Traps volcanism by magmatic remobilization of Cambrian rock salt. A high sulfur cycle turnover rate would have left the ocean system vulnerable to development......Marine biodiversity decreases and ecosystem destruction during the end-Permian mass extinction (EPME) have been linked to widespread marine euxinic conditions. Changes in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR), and marine dissolved sulfate concentrations during...... fractionation and point to a more universal control, i.e., contemporaneous seawater sulfate concentration.The MSR-trend transfer function yielded estimates of seawater sulfate of 0.6-2.8mM for the latest Permian to earliest Triassic, suggesting a balanced oceanic S-cycle with equal S inputs and outputs...

  11. Iodide-Photocatalyzed Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Formic Acid with Thiols and Hydrogen Sulfide. (United States)

    Berton, Mateo; Mello, Rossella; González-Núñez, María Elena


    The photolysis of iodide anions promotes the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen sulfide or thiols to quantitatively yield formic acid and sulfur or disulfides. The reaction proceeds in acetonitrile and aqueous solutions, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature by irradiation using a low-pressure mercury lamp. This transition-metal-free photocatalytic process for CO 2 capture coupled with H 2 S removal may have been relevant as a prebiotic carbon dioxide fixation. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Sulfur cycling in contaminated aquifers: What can we learn from oxygen isotopes in sulfate? (Invited) (United States)

    Knoeller, K.; Vogt, C.; Hoth, N.


    Bacterial reduction of dissolved sulfate (BSR) is a key process determining the natural attenuation in many contaminated aquifers. For example, in groundwater bodies affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) BSR reduces the contaminant load by producing alkalinity and facilitating a sustainable fixation of sulfur in the sediment. In aquifers contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons sulfate may act as a terminal electron acceptor for the anaerobic oxidation of the organic contaminants to carbon dioxide and water. Due to the isotope selectivity of sulfate reducing bacteria, BSR shows the most pronounced isotope fractionation within the sulfur cycle. While sulfur displays a straightforward kinetic enrichment in the residual sulfate described by the enrichment factor epsilon (ɛ), the mechanism of oxygen isotope fractionation is still being discussed controversially. Nevertheless, it is agreed on that oxygen isotope exchange between ambient water and residual sulfate occurs during BSR in natural environments. With respect to this potential isotope exchange, the fractionation parameter theta (θ) is introduced instead of the kinetic enrichment factor epsilon (ɛ). The dual isotope system considering both sulfate-sulfur and sulfate-oxygen isotope fractionation and the respective fractionation parameters ɛ and θ provides an excellent tool for the recognition and quantification of BSR. Beyond that, the dual isotope approach may help identify and estimate interfering sulfur transformations such as re-oxidation and disproportionation processes which is especially vital for the understanding of the overall natural attenuation potential of the investigated aquifers. We present two examples from different field studies showing the benefits of applying the combination of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in dissolved sulfate to reveal the details of the sulfur cycle. The first case study is concerned with the evaluation of the potential for BSR in an AMD-affected aquifer close to an

  13. Occurrence and abatement of volatile sulfur compounds during biogas production. (United States)

    Andersson, Fräs Annika T; Karlsson, Anna; Svensson, Bo H; Ejlertsson, Jörgen


    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in biogas originating from a biogas production plant and from a municipal sewage water treatment plant were identified. Samples were taken at various stages of the biogas-producing process, including upgrading the gas to vehicle-fuel quality. Solid-phase microextraction was used for preconcentration of the VSCs, which were subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry. Other volatile organic compounds present also were identified. The most commonly occurring VSCs in the biogas were hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide was not always the most abundant sulfur (S) compound. Besides VSCs, oxygenated organic compounds were commonly present (e.g., ketones, alcohols, and esters). The effect of adding iron chloride to the biogas reactor on the occurrence of VSCs also was investigated. It was found that additions of 500-g/m3 substrate gave an optimal removal of VSCs. Also, the use of a prefermentation step could reduce the amount of VSCs formed in the biogas process. Moreover, in the carbon dioxide scrubber used for upgrading the gas, VSCs were removed efficiently, leaving traces (ppbv levels). The scrubber also removed other organic compounds.

  14. Methanation of Carbon Dioxide


    Goodman, Daniel Jacob


    The emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere has been linked to global warming. Carbon dioxide's (CO2) one of the most abundant greenhouse gases. Natural gas, mainly methane, is the cleanest fossil fuel for electricity production helping meet the United States ever growing energy needs. The methanation of CO2 has the potential to address both of these problems if a catalyst can be developed that meets the activity, economic and environmental requirements to industrialize the process. ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  16. Production of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.E.; Shuck, D.L.; Lyon, W.L.


    A continuous, four stage fluidized bed process for converting uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) to ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) powder suitable for use in the manufacture of fuel pellets for nuclear reactors is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of first reacting UF 6 with steam in a first fluidized bed, preferably at about 550 0 C, to form solid intermediate reaction products UO 2 F 2 , U 3 O 8 and an off-gas including hydrogen fluoride (HF). The solid intermediate reaction products are conveyed to a second fluidized bed reactor at which the mol fraction of HF is controlled at low levels in order to prevent the formation of uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ). The first intermediate reaction products are reacted in the second fluidized bed with steam and hydrogen at a temperature of about 630 0 C. The second intermediate reaction product including uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) is conveyed to a third fluidized bed reactor and reacted with additional steam and hydrogen at a temperature of about 650 0 C producing a reaction product consisting essentially of uranium dioxide having an oxygen-uranium ratio of about 2 and a low residual fluoride content. This product is then conveyed to a fourth fluidized bed wherein a mixture of air and preheated nitrogen is introduced in order to further reduce the fluoride content of the UO 2 and increase the oxygen-uranium ratio to about 2.25

  17. Effect of different sulfur levels from various sources on brassica napus growth and soil sulfur fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, R.; Khan, K.S.; Islam, M.; Yousaf, M.; Shabbir, G.


    A two year field study was conducted at two different locations in northern rain fed Punjab, Pakistan to assess the effect of different rates of sulfur application from various sources on soil sulfur fractions and growth of Brassica napus. The treatments included three sulfur sources i. e., single super phosphate, ammonium sulfate and gypsum each applied at five different rates (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg S ha/sup -1/ ). Sulfur application had a significant positive effect on the growth and yield parameters of Brassica napus. Among the sulfur sources ammonium sulfate resulted in maximum increase in plant growth and yield parameters, followed by single super phosphate. Sulfur content and uptake by crop plants was significantly higher with ammonium sulfate application as compared to other two sulfur sources. Sulfur application also exerted a significant positive effect on different S fractions in the soils. On an average, 18.0% of the applied sulfur got incorporated into CaCl/sub 2/ extractable sulfur fraction, while 15.6% and 35.5% entered into adsorbed and organic sulfur fractions in the soils, respectively. The value cost ratio increased significantly by sulfur application up to 30 kg ha/sup -1/. Among sulfur sources, ammonium sulfate performed best giving the highest net return. (author)

  18. The cohesive energy of uranium dioxide and thorium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, B.G.


    Theoretical values have been calculated of the heats of formation of uranium dioxide and thorium dioxide on the assumption that the atomic binding forces in these solids are predominantly ionic in character. The good agreement found between the theoretical and observed values shows that the ionic model may, with care, be used in calculating the energies of defects in the uranium and thorium dioxide crystal structures. (author)

  19. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9), also...

  20. Isotopic abundance analysis of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur with a combined elemental analyzer-mass spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.; Blochberger, K.


    Stable isotope ratio measurements of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur are of growing interest as analytical tool in many fields of research, but applications were somewhat hindered in the past by the fact that cumbersome sample preparation was necessary. A method has therefore been developed, consisting in essential of coupling an elemental analyzer with an isotope mass spectrometer, enabling fast and reliable conversion of C-, N- and S-compounds in any solid or liquid sample into the measuring gases carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide for on-line isotopic analysis. The experimental set-up and the main characteristics are described in short and examples of application in environmental research, food analysis and clinical diagnosis are given. (orig.)

  1. Use of Elemental Sulfur or Selenium in a Novel One-Pot Copper-Catalyzed Tandem Cyclization of Functionalized Ynamides Leading to Benzosultams. (United States)

    Siva Reddy, Alla; Kumara Swamy, K C


    A novel and efficient [Cu]-catalyzed one-pot regio- and stereospecific synthesis of benzo[1,4,2]dithiazine 1,1-dioxides and benzo[1,4,2]thiaselenazine 1,1-dioxides by cyclization of functionalized ynamides with elemental sulfur/selenium has been developed. Its generality is elegantly illustrated by extension to benzodithiazepines and benzothiaselenazepines. Involvement of water in the reaction is demonstrated by the incorporation of (2)D at the olefinic site by using D2O in place of water. Selective oxidation at sulfur in benzo[1,4,2]dithiazine 1,1-dioxide by using mCPBA as the oxidizing agent is also described.

  2. Determination of sulfur content in fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daucik, P.; Zidek, Z.; Kalab, P.


    The sulfur content in fuels, Diesel fuels, and in the solutions of dibutylsulfide in a white oil was determined by various methods. The results obtained by elemental analysis have shown that the method is not advisable for the determination of sulfur in fuels. A good agreement was found by comparing the results in the determination of the sulfur by Grote-Krekeler's and Hermann-Moritz's methods and by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. The last method is the modern, comfortable, and timesaving method enabling the fast and precise determination of sulfur contents in the various types of samples. (authors)

  3. A study on the electrolysis of sulfur dioxide and water for the sulfur cycle hydrogen production process (United States)


    Experimental electrolysis cells using various platinum catalyzed carbon electrodes were tested. When operated at 200 mA/sq cm current density using 50 w/o acid at 50 C and 1 atm, a reference cell required 1.22 volts and degraded rapidly. After several improvements were incorporated into electrodes and the test cell configuration, a later cell required only 0.77 volts under identical operating conditions. At a lower current density, 100 mA/sq cm, the cell required only 0.63 volts. Kinetic studies on metal electrodes, measurements of temperature effects on electrode kinetics, investigations of electrocatalytic activities of metal electrodes over a wide range of acid concentrations, cyclic voltametric studies and evaluation of alternate catalysts were also conducted. From diffusivity experiments, a cation exchange membrane material, P-4010, exhibited an excellent diffusion coefficient, more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of rubber. Ionic resistivity measurements of eight materials showed that microporous rubber had the lowest resistivity.

  4. The significance of elemental sulfur dissolution in liquid electrolyte lithium sulfur batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harks, Peter Paul R.M.L.; Robledo, Carla B.; Verhallen, Tomas W.; Notten, Peter H.L.; Mulder, Fokko M.


    It is shown that the dissolution of elemental sulfur into, and its diffusion through, the electrolyte allows cycling of lithium–sulfur batteries in which the sulfur is initially far removed and electrically insulated from the current collector. These findings help to understand why liquid

  5. Comparative study of reactions between µ-nitrido- or µ-oxo-bridged iron tetrasulfophthalocyanines and sulfur-containing reductants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereven’kov Ilia A.


    Full Text Available A comparative study of reactivity of μ-nitrido- and μ-oxo-dimers of iron tetrasulfophthalocyanine has been performed in aqueous solutions of various acidity. The substantially higher stability of nitrido-bridged structure under both strongly acidic and strongly alkaline environments was demonstrated. Reactions of the complexes with sulfur-containing reductants (sodium dithionite, thiourea dioxide, sodium hydroxymethanesulfinate, L-cysteine has been studied. Differences in reduction processes were explained.

  6. Implementation of an atmospheric sulfur scheme in the HIRLAM regional weather forecast model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, Annica


    Sulfur chemistry has been implemented into the regional weather forecast model HIRLAM in order to simulate sulfur fields during specific weather situations. The model calculates concentrations of sulfur dioxide in air (SO 2 (a)), sulfate in air (SO 4 (a)), sulfate in cloud water (SO 4 (aq)) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Modeled concentrations of SO 2 (a), SO 4 (a) and SO 4 (aq) in rain water are compared with observations for two weather situations, one winter case with an extensive stratiform cloud cover and one summer case with mostly convective clouds. A comparison of the weather forecast parameters precipitation, relative humidity, geopotential and temperature with observations is also performed. The results show that the model generally overpredicts the SO 2 (a) concentration and underpredicts the SO 4 (a) concentration. The agreement between modeled and observed SO 4 (aq) in rain water is poor. Calculated turnover times are approximately 1 day for SO 2 (a) and 2-2.5 days for SO 4 (a). For SO 2 (a) this is in accordance with earlier simulated global turnover times, but for SO 4 (a) it is substantially lower. Several sensitivity simulations show that the fractional mean bias and root mean square error decreases, mainly for SO 4 (a) and SO 4 (aq), if an additional oxidant for converting SO 2 (a) to SO 4 (a) is included in the model. All weather forecast parameters, except precipitation, agree better with observations than the sulfur variables do. Wet scavenging is responsible for about half of the deposited sulfur and in addition, a major part of the sulfate production occurs through in-cloud oxidation. Hence, the distribution of clouds and precipitation must be better simulated by the weather forecast model in order to improve the agreement between observed and simulated sulfur concentrations

  7. Long-term trends of sulfur deposition in East Asia during 1981-2005 (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Masatoshi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Morino, Yu; Uno, Itsushi; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Hara, Hiroshi


    We used a chemical transport model to investigate the long-term trends of sulfur deposition in East Asia during 1981-2005. The model reproduced the observed spatial distributions in East Asia of the rate of wet deposition of non-seasalt sulfate (nss-SO42-), volume-weighted mean concentrations of nss-SO42- in precipitation, precipitation, and concentrations in air of gaseous sulfur dioxide and particulate nss-SO42-. The model also reproduced well observed seasonal variations and long-term trends of wet deposition of nss-SO42- in Japan from 1988 to 2005. The increasing rate of wet deposition of nss-SO42- in Japan during 1991-2005 was demonstrated with 99.9% significance for both observed and modeled data. The annual rate of total (wet + dry) sulfur deposition in Japan increased from 15.6 Gmol S y-1 in 1981-1985 to 23.9 Gmol S y-1 in 2001-2005 in response to both increasing contributions from Chinese emissions and the eruption of Miyakejima volcano in 2000. During that 25-year period, approximately 2.1% of the sulfur from Chinese emissions was deposited in Japan. Over the same period, the rate of deposition of sulfur in East Asia increased gradually from 14.2 mmol S m-2 y-1 to 24.0 mmol S m-2 y-1, and the contribution of emissions from China to total sulfur deposition in East Asia increased from 65% to 77%. The contribution of Miyakejima volcano was 3% during 2001-2005. The increase in the sulfur deposition rate was remarkably high on the North China Plain, around Guangzhou, and south of Chongqing. The rate of increase in East Asia was greatest in winter, although the rate of sulfur deposition was highest in summer. Sulfur flux from China to Japan increased by a factor of 2.5 at altitudes of 0-3000 m from 1981 to 2005.

  8. Development of techniques of production of sulfur-35 and its inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikata, Eiji


    Techniques to produce routinely Curies of carrier-free sulfur-35 from neutron irradiated potassium chloride were developed. Firstly the ratio of sulfur-35 to phosphorus-32 produced respectively by the reactions 35 Cl(n,p) 35 S and 35 Cl(n,α) 32 P was determined. For the post-irradiation process, two processes of anion exchange and cation exchange were studied. The former process was based on the selective elution of carrier-free sulfate after precipitation of the bulk of potassium chloride by ethanol and the latter process on the selective adsorption of carrier-free phosphate on Fe +3 -cation exchange resin. A gloved box with various appendant equipments was constructed for routine production and a glass apparatus was installed in it. Sulfur-35 from 1 Ci to 5 Ci has been produced by the cation exchange process several times every year during past few years, and products of high quality have been obtained with yields higher than 90% without any troubles. In the studies on the synthesis of sulfur-35 labeled inorganic compounds, sulfate[ 35 S] was reduced with tin(II)-phosphoric acid to hydrogen sulfide[ 35 S], which was oxidized to elementary sulfur[ 35 S]. Sulfate[ 35 S] of sodium or copper(II) was precipitated from an aqueous solution of sodium or copper(II) chloride containing carrier-free sulfate [ 35 S] by adding carrier of either one of the sulfates and ethanol. Copper(II) sulfate[ 35 S] was pyrolyzed to evolve sulfur[ 35 S] dioxide, which was fixed in a sodium hydroxide solution as sodium sulfite[ 35 S]. This was allowed to react with colloidal sulfur in a boiling solution in the presence of 2-octanol to form thiosulfate[ 35 S] efficiently. By treating target potassium chloride before and after irradiation in an oxygen-free atmosphere, approximately 60% of sulfur-35 was recovered as thiosulfate. Reduction with nascent hydrogen and decomposition with acid of the thiosulfate were studied to prepare elementary sulfur [ 35 S]. (author)

  9. Graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres with ultra-high sulfur loading for high energy density lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ya; Guo, Jinxin; Zhang, Jun, E-mail:; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite with 91 wt% S is prepared. • It shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for Li–S cell. • The PVP coating and conductive graphene minimize polysulfides dissolution. • The flexible coatings with void space accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur. - Abstract: Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery with high theoretical energy density is one of the most promising energy storage systems for electric vehicles and intermittent renewable energy. However, due to the poor conductivity of the active material, considerable weight of the electrode is occupied by the conductive additives. Here we report a graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite (S-nanosphere@G) with sulfur content up to 91 wt% as the high energy density cathode material for Li–S battery. The sulfur nanospheres with diameter of 400–500 nm are synthesized through a solution-based approach with the existence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Then the sulfur nanospheres are uniformly wrapped by conductive graphene sheets through the electrostatic interaction between graphene oxide and PVP, followed by reducing of graphene oxide with hydrazine. The design of graphene wrapped sulfur nanoarchitecture provides flexible conductive graphene coating with void space to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur and to minimize polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the S-nanosphere@G nanocomposite with 91 wt% sulfur shows a reversible initial capacity of 970 mA h g{sup −1} and an average columbic efficiency > 96% over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. Taking the total mass of electrode into account, the S-nanosphere@G composite is a promising cathode material for high energy density Li–S batteries.

  10. Quantification of Sulfur by the Wet Oxidation for the Determination of 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Heung N.; Kang, Sang Hoon; Ahn, Hong Joo; Han, Sun Ho; Jee, Kwang Yong


    Natural sulfur contains four stable isotopes. The main isotopes are 32 S (95.02%) and 34 S (4.21%). Beside the stable isotopes, there exist also a radioactive one 35 S (T 1/2 = 87.4 d, Emax = 167 keV, pure β - emitter). Sulfur- 35 is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides generated by cosmic rays through spallation of argon atoms. 35 S for the labeled compound such as 35 S-thiourea is produced from the pile irradiation of the neutron ( 35 Cl(n,p) 35 S). Most 35 S produced by cosmic rays is rapidly converted to sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and sulfate (SO 4 2- ), and attached on the ambient aerosols. The quantities of 35 S do not present a significant external exposure hazard since the low-energy emissions barely penetrate the outer dead layer of skin. For uptakes of inorganic sulfur, 15% is assumed to be retained with a 20 day biological half-life and 5% retained with a 2,000 day biological half-life. The remaining 80% is assumed to be rapidly excreted. Because of its relatively weak emission, 35 S is primarily an internal radiation hazard. TLDs are not effective and Geiger-Muller detectors can measure to low efficiency (∼10%) for detecting 35 S. Therefore, it is important to use careful handling and frequent monitoring, either with survey meters with thin- windows probes or by taking wipe samples and counting in a liquid scintillation counter (LSC)

  11. Sulfur-carbon nanocomposites and their application as cathode materials in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J.; Howe, Jane Y.


    The invention is directed in a first aspect to a sulfur-carbon composite material comprising: (i) a bimodal porous carbon component containing therein a first mode of pores which are mesopores, and a second mode of pores which are micropores; and (ii) elemental sulfur contained in at least a portion of said micropores. The invention is also directed to the aforesaid sulfur-carbon composite as a layer on a current collector material; a lithium ion battery containing the sulfur-carbon composite in a cathode therein; as well as a method for preparing the sulfur-composite material.

  12. Carbon dioxide and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  13. [Respiratory manifestations after exposure to sulfurous anhydride in wine-cellar workers: 6 case reports]. (United States)

    Testud, F; Matray, D; Lambert, R; Hillion, B; Blanchet, C; Teisseire, C; Thibaudier, J M; Raoux, C; Pacheco, Y


    Sulfite treatment of wine [a process exploiting the biocidal and anti-oxidant properties of sulfur dioxide (SO2)] involves the use of liquified gas, aqueous solutions or bisulfites, i.e. the salts of sulfurous acid which slowly release SO2. This procedure can result in repeated exposures of operators to significant amounts of SO2. However, risks associated with the use of SO2 are greatly under-estimated by wine producers and wine-cellar workers. We report on 6 cases of respiratory symptoms attributable to SO2 identified during a survey of wine-cellars in the French Beaujolais district. Their pathogenesis is discussed after an overview of the occupational toxicology of SO2.

  14. Peatland Acidobacteria with a dissimilatory sulfur metabolism. (United States)

    Hausmann, Bela; Pelikan, Claus; Herbold, Craig W; Köstlbacher, Stephan; Albertsen, Mads; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Huemer, Martin; Nielsen, Per H; Rattei, Thomas; Stingl, Ulrich; Tringe, Susannah G; Trojan, Daniela; Wentrup, Cecilia; Woebken, Dagmar; Pester, Michael; Loy, Alexander


    Sulfur-cycling microorganisms impact organic matter decomposition in wetlands and consequently greenhouse gas emissions from these globally relevant environments. However, their identities and physiological properties are largely unknown. By applying a functional metagenomics approach to an acidic peatland, we recovered draft genomes of seven novel Acidobacteria species with the potential for dissimilatory sulfite (dsrAB, dsrC, dsrD, dsrN, dsrT, dsrMKJOP) or sulfate respiration (sat, aprBA, qmoABC plus dsr genes). Surprisingly, the genomes also encoded DsrL, which so far was only found in sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. Metatranscriptome analysis demonstrated expression of acidobacterial sulfur-metabolism genes in native peat soil and their upregulation in diverse anoxic microcosms. This indicated an active sulfate respiration pathway, which, however, might also operate in reverse for dissimilatory sulfur oxidation or disproportionation as proposed for the sulfur-oxidizing Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus. Acidobacteria that only harbored genes for sulfite reduction additionally encoded enzymes that liberate sulfite from organosulfonates, which suggested organic sulfur compounds as complementary energy sources. Further metabolic potentials included polysaccharide hydrolysis and sugar utilization, aerobic respiration, several fermentative capabilities, and hydrogen oxidation. Our findings extend both, the known physiological and genetic properties of Acidobacteria and the known taxonomic diversity of microorganisms with a DsrAB-based sulfur metabolism, and highlight new fundamental niches for facultative anaerobic Acidobacteria in wetlands based on exploitation of inorganic and organic sulfur molecules for energy conservation.

  15. Comparative Genomics of Green Sulfur Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Davenport, C; Tümmler, B


    Eleven completely sequenced Chlorobi genomes were compared in oligonucleotide usage, gene contents, and synteny. The green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are equipped with a core genome that sustains their anoxygenic phototrophic lifestyle by photosynthesis, sulfur oxidation, and CO(2) fixation. Whole...... weight of 10(6), and are probably instrumental for the bacteria to generate their own intimate (micro)environment....

  16. Halophilic and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.; Robertson, L.A.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muntyan, M.S.; Muyzer, G.; Rosenberg, E.; DeLong, F.; Delong, E.; Lory, S.; Stackebrandt, E.; Thompson, F.


    Chemotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) represent an important functional group of microorganisms responsible for the dark oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds generated by sulfidogens. Until recently, only a single genus of halophilic SOB (Halothiobacillus) has been described, and nothing was

  17. Stability of sulfur slopes on Io (United States)

    Clow, G. D.; Carr, M. H.


    The mechanical properties of elemental sulfur are such that the upper crust of Io cannot be primarily sulfur. For heat flows in the range 100-1000 ergs/sq cm sec sulfur becomes ductile within several hundred meters of the surface and would prevent the formation of calderas with depths greater than this. However, the one caldera for which precise depth data are available is 2 km deep, and this value may be typical. A study of the mechanical equilibrium of simple slopes shows that the depth to the zone of rapid ductile flow strongly controls the maximum heights for sulfur slopes. Sulfur scarps with heights greater than 1 km will fail for all heat flows greater than 180 ergs/sq cm sec and slope angles greater than 22.5 deg. The observed relief on Io is inconsistent with that anticipated for a predominantly sulfur crust. However, a silicate crust with several percent sulfur included satisfies both the mechanical constraints and the observed presence of sulfur on Io.

  18. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai


    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide and su...

  19. Multiple-heteroatom-containing sulfur compounds in a high sulfur coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, R.E.; Neill, P.H.


    Flash vacuum pyrolysis of a high sulfur coal has been combined with high resolution mass spectrometry yielding information on aromatic sulfur compounds containing an additional heteroatom. Sulfur emission from coal utilization is a critical problem and in order to devise efficient methods for removing organic sulfur, it is important to know what types of molecules contain sulfur. A high sulfur Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal (Argonne Premium Coal Sample No. 3) was pyrolyzed on a platinum grid using a quartz probe inserted into a modified all glass heated inlet system and the products characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). A significant number of products were observed which contained both sulfur and an additional heteroatom. In some cases two additional heteroatoms were observed. These results are compared to those found in coal extracts and liquefaction products

  20. Sulfur Removal by Adding Iron During the Digestion Process of High-sulfur Bauxite (United States)

    Zhanwei, Liu; Hengwei, Yan; Wenhui, Ma; Keqiang, Xie; Dunyong, Li; Licong, Zheng; Pengfei, Li


    This paper proposes a novel approach to sulfur removal by adding iron during the digestion process. Iron can react with high-valence sulfur (S2O3 2-, SO3 2-, SO4 2-) to generate S2- at digestion temperature, and then S2- enter red mud in the form of Na3FeS3 to be removed. As iron dosage increases, high-valence sulfur concentration decreases, but the concentration of S2- increases; sulfur digestion rate decreases while sulfur content in red mud markedly increases; the alumina digestion rate, conversely, remains fairly stable. So sulfur can be removed completely by adding iron in digestion process, which provide a theoretical basis for the effective removal of sulfur in alumina production process.

  1. Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration (United States)

    Berberoglu, Halil

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of

  2. Effects of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide on vegetation. Progress report, 1 June 1977--28 February 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, L.H.; McCune, D.C.; MacLean, D.C.


    The areas of research selected are related to fossil fuel combustion and are believed or are known to occur in the field: the mode of action of SO/sub 2/ in relation to its metabolic fate; the influence of NO/sub 2/ on the phytotoxicity of SO/sub 2/, and the combined effects of these pollutants on crop yield under field conditions; the effect of SO/sub 2/ on the plant with respect to its susceptibility to plant diseases; and the effect of SO/sub 2/ on the behavior and development of the Mexican bean beetle on soybean and on the production of volatile terpenoids in conifers with respect to their suitability for colonization by insects.

  3. Study on the behavior of sulfur in hydrolysis process of titanyl sulfate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Fanbo; Luo, Dongmei, E-mail:; Zhang, Zhao; Liang, Bin; Yuan, Xizhi; Fu, Li


    The existing forms of sulfur in hydrolysis process of titanyl sulfate solution were studied. Also the effects of sulfur on crystal structure, crystallite size and crystal phase transition of the hydrated titanium dioxide(TiO{sub 2}·H{sub 2}O) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) were conducted. The analysis and methods of thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimet (TG-DSC), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra and Raman spectroscopy were employed to characterize. The results indicated that the sulfur was present in the form of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions in the hydrolysate of titanyl sulfate solution, and a portion of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions were combined on the surface of hydrated titanium dioxide by chemical adsorption in the forms of inorganic chelating bidentate coordination and covalent sulfate coordination, the residual SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions were adsorbed on the surface of hydrated titanium dioxide by physical adsorption. The chemical adsorption of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions were conducive to the formation and stabilization of anatase, which changed the crystal structure, and hindered the transformation of the anatase into rutile. The results of Raman spectroscopy showed that the sulfur was dissociated in the forms of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and HSO{sub 4}{sup −} ions during the hydrolysis of titanyl sulfate solution. The characteristic peak at 1004 cm{sup −1} corresponding to a new complex has been observed, which was composed of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and hydrated titanium complex ions through the bonding on the surface. In basis of the above experimental results, the hydrolysis process of titanyl sulfate solution was illustrated from the microstructure with 3D atlas. - Highlights: • The SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions exist in TiO{sub 2}·H{sub 2}O by chemical and physical adsorption. • The SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions are conducive to the formation and

  4. Uranium dioxide electrolysis (United States)

    Willit, James L [Batavia, IL; Ackerman, John P [Prescott, AZ; Williamson, Mark A [Naperville, IL


    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  5. Uranium dioxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawidzki, T.W.


    A process for the preparation of a sintered, high density, large crystal grain size uranium dioxide pellet is described which involves: (i) reacting a uranyl nitrate of formula UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O with a sulphur source, at a temperature of from about 300 deg. C to provide a sulphur-containing uranium trioxide; (ii) reacting the thus-obtained modified uranium trioxide with ammonium nitrate to form an insoluble sulphur-containing ammonium uranate; (iii) neutralizing the thus-formed slurry with ammonium hydroxide to precipitate out as an insoluble ammonium uranate the remaining dissolved uranium; (iv) recovering the thus-formed precipitates in a dry state; (v) reducing the dry precipitate to UO 2 , and forming it into 'green' pellets; and (vi) sintering the pellets in a hydrogen atmosphere at an elevated temperature

  6. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Du, Ding


    This study extends the literature on forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by applying the reduced-form econometrics approach of Schmalensee et al. (1998) to a more recent sample period, the post-1997 period. Using the post-1997 period is motivated by the observation that the strengthening pace of global climate policy may have been accelerated since 1997. Based on our parameter estimates, we project 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 according to an economic and population growth scenario that is more consistent with recent global trends. Our forecasts are conservative due to that we do not have sufficient data to fully take into account recent developments in the global economy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Uranium dioxide calcining apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, E.A.; Peterson, R.S.


    This invention relates to an improved continuous calcining apparatus for consistently and controllably producing from calcinable reactive solid compounds of uranium, such as ammonium diuranate, uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) having an oxygen to uranium ratio of less than 2.2. The apparatus comprises means at the outlet end of a calciner kiln for receiving hot UO 2 , means for cooling the UO 2 to a temperature of below 100 deg C and conveying the cooled UO 2 to storage or to subsequent UO 2 processing apparatus where it finally comes into contact with air, the means for receiving cooling and conveying being sealed to the outlet end of the calciner and being maintained full of UO 2 and so operable as to exclude atmospheric oxygen from coming into contact with any UO 2 which is at elevated temperatures where it would readily oxidize, without the use of extra hydrogen gas in said means. (author)

  8. Fabrication of SO/sub 2/preparation system and calibration of PINSTECH sulfur standard for /sup 34/S/sup 32/S mass spectrometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.I.; Latif, Z.; Ali, M.; Qureshi, R.M.; Tasneem, M.A.; Khan, I.H.; Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, I.


    This report describes the fabrication and standardization of operation procedures of a SO/sub 2/ preparation system used for the extraction of sulfur dioxide gas from sulfur minerals (aqueous sulfate, elemental sulfur, and sulfides) for sulfur isotope ratio measurements on a gas source mass spectrometer for hydrological, geological and environmental applications. SO/sub 2/ preparation procedure as described by Fumitaka Yanagisawa and Hitoshi Sakai (1983) is adopted with some modifications. A chemically pure BaSO/sub 4/ powder is chosen as PINSTECH Sulfur Standard PSS-I for routine laboratory /sup 34/S analysis. PSS-1 is calibrated against the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard Cannon Diablo Troilite (CDT) using the NBS-127 sulfur standard Sigma /sup 34/S values of PSS-1 as analyzed at PINSTECH and Institute fur Hydorlogie, Munich are found to be 14.58 +-0.07 % CDT (n=6) and 14.59+-0.15% CDT (n=2) respectively. NBS-127 is BaSO/sub 4/ powder from the National Bureau of Standards, USA and has been calibrated against CDT. Interlaboratory comparison of various standards is also documented. Using this system, the reproducibility of sulfur isotope ratio measurements is better than +-0.2 % (n=10). (author)

  9. Fabrication of SO/sub 2/preparation system and calibration of PINSTECH sulfur standard for /sup 34/S/sup 32/S mass spectrometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajjad, M I; Latif, Z; Ali, M; Qureshi, R M; Tasneem, M A; Khan, I H; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, I


    This report describes the fabrication and standardization of operation procedures of a SO/sub 2/ preparation system used for the extraction of sulfur dioxide gas from sulfur minerals (aqueous sulfate, elemental sulfur, and sulfides) for sulfur isotope ratio measurements on a gas source mass spectrometer for hydrological, geological and environmental applications. SO/sub 2/ preparation procedure as described by Fumitaka Yanagisawa and Hitoshi Sakai (1983) is adopted with some modifications. A chemically pure BaSO/sub 4/ powder is chosen as PINSTECH Sulfur Standard PSS-I for routine laboratory /sup 34/S analysis. PSS-1 is calibrated against the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard Cannon Diablo Troilite (CDT) using the NBS-127 sulfur standard Sigma /sup 34/S values of PSS-1 as analyzed at PINSTECH and Institute fur Hydorlogie, Munich are found to be 14.58 +-0.07 % CDT (n=6) and 14.59+-0.15% CDT (n=2) respectively. NBS-127 is BaSO/sub 4/ powder from the National Bureau of Standards, USA and has been calibrated against CDT. Interlaboratory comparison of various standards is also documented. Using this system, the reproducibility of sulfur isotope ratio measurements is better than +-0.2 % (n=10). (author).

  10. Sulfur nanocrystals anchored graphene composite with highly improved electrochemical performance for lithium-sulfur batteries (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Zimin; Wang, Xiuli; Zhao, Xuyang; Tu, Jiangping; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui


    Two kinds of graphene-sulfur composites with 50 wt% of sulfur are prepared using hydrothermal method and thermal mixing, respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectra mapping show that sulfur nanocrystals with size of ∼5 nm dispersed on graphene sheets homogeneously for the sample prepared by hydrothermal method (NanoS@G). While for the thermal mixed graphene-sulfur composite (S-G mixture), sulfur shows larger and uneven size (50-200 nm). X-ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS) reveals the strong chemical bonding between the sulfur nanocrystals and graphene. Comparing with the S-G mixture, the NanoS@G composite shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. The NanoS@G composite delivers an initial capacity of 1400 mAh g-1 with the sulfur utilization of 83.7% at a current density of 335 mA g-1. The capacity keeps above 720 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles. The strong adherence of the sulfur nanocrystals on graphene immobilizes sulfur and polysulfides species and suppressed the "shuttle effect", resulting higher coulombic efficiency and better capacity retention. Electrochemical impedance also suggests that the strong bonding enabled rapid electronic/ionic transport and improved electrochemical kinetics, therefore good rate capability is obtained. These results demonstrate that the NanoS@G composite is a very promising candidate for high-performance Li-S batteries.

  11. Sulfur removal from low-sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel by metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, G.; Haemmerle, M.; Moos, R. [Functional Materials, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany); Malkowsky, I.M.; Kiener, C. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Achmann, S.


    Several materials in the class of metal-organic frameworks (MOF) were investigated to determine their sorption characteristics for sulfur compounds from fuels. The materials were tested using different model oils and common fuels such as low-sulfur gasoline or diesel fuel at room temperature and ambient pressure. Thiophene and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) were chosen as model substances. Total-sulfur concentrations in the model oils ranged from 30 mg/kg (S from thiophene) to 9 mg/kg (S from tetrahydrothiophene) as determined by elementary analysis. Initial sulfur contents of 8 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg were identified for low-sulfur gasoline and for diesel fuel, respectively, by analysis of the common liquid fuels. Most of the MOF materials examined were not suitable for use as sulfur adsorbers. However, a high efficiency for sulfur removal from fuels and model oils was noticed for a special copper-containing MOF (copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate, Cu-BTC-MOF). By use of this material, 78 wt % of the sulfur content was removed from thiophene containing model oils and an even higher decrease of up to 86 wt % was obtained for THT-based model oils. Moreover, the sulfur content of low-sulfur gasoline was reduced to 6.5 mg/kg, which represented a decrease of more than 22 %. The sulfur level in diesel fuel was reduced by an extent of 13 wt %. Time-resolved measurements demonstrated that the sulfur-sorption mainly occurs in the first 60 min after contact with the adsorbent, so that the total time span of the desulfurization process can be limited to 1 h. Therefore, this material seems to be highly suitable for sulfur reduction in commercial fuels in order to meet regulatory requirements and demands for automotive exhaust catalysis-systems or exhaust gas sensors. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Influence of sulfurous oxide on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J


    It has been determined that of the trees living in an atmosphere containing sulfurous oxide, the conifers suffer more injuries than ordinary foliaged trees. Experiments were conducted to find the causes of injuries and their relation in these two kinds of plants. Pine and alder were chosen as test plants. It was found that 1000 square centimeters of pine leaves had absorbed 1.6 c.c. of sulfurous oxide and the same surface area of alder leaves had accumulated 7.9 c.c. of sulfurous oxide. Experiments were also conducted to determine the effects of sulfurous oxide on transpiration in plants. Two similar twigs of a sycamore were arranged so that the water transpired could be weighed. Results indicate that the ratio between the total amount of water transpired by the leaves not acted on by the sulfurous oxide and those under its influence was 3.8:1. The author concludes that the amount of sulfurous oxide absorbed by pine leaves is smaller than that absorbed by trees with ordinary foliage for equal surfaces. Since its effect on transpiration is less in the case of pine, the cause of the greater injury to pine trees in nature must be due to the accumulation of sulfur. In trees annual leaves the damage to one year's foliage would have only an indirect influence on that of the following year.

  13. Status of the INERI sulfur-iodine integrated-loop experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, P.; Carles, Ph.; Buckingham, R.; Russ, B.; Besenbruch, G.


    The Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical water-splitting cycle has been studied as a potential source of hydrogen on a large scale. Coupled to a nuclear reactor, an S-I hydrogen plant could efficiently produce hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. In the S-I cycle, iodine and sulfur dioxide are combined with water to create two immiscible acid phases - a light sulfuric acid phase, and a heavy hydriodic acid phase. The sulfuric acid phase is decomposed at temperatures near 850 C degrees, and the resulting sulfur dioxide is recycled back into the process. The hydriodic acid in the lower phase is separated from excess water and iodine, and is then decomposed into the product hydrogen and iodine. The water and iodine from these steps are also recycled. In an International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project supported by the US DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Sandia National Labs (SNL) has teamed with Cea in France, and industrial partner General Atomics (GA) to construct and operate a closed-loop device for demonstration of hydrogen production by the S-I process. Previous work in Japan has demonstrated continuous closed-loop operation of the S-I cycle for up to one week using glass components at atmospheric pressure. This work will aim for operation under process conditions expected at the pilot plant-level and beyond pressures up to 20 bar using engineering materials of construction. Staff at Cea is responsible for the acid-generation step, known as the Bunsen reaction. SNL is handling the sulfuric acid decomposition step, and GA is providing equipment for decomposing hydriodic acid into the product hydrogen. All parties are assembling equipment at the GA site in San Diego, California. Operation of the closed-loop device is expected to commence in the second half of calendar year 2007. This paper will summarize project goals, work done to date, current status, and scheduled future work on the INERI S-I Integrated-Loop Experiment. (authors)

  14. Carbon dioxide and future climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J M


    The addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to burning fossil fuel is discussed. The release rate of carbon dioxide has been growing since at least 1950 at an average rate of 4.3% per year. If all known fossil fuel reserves in the world are consumed, a total of between 5 and 14 times the present amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will be released. The oceans would then be unlikely to withdraw the proportion of perhaps 40% which they are believed to have withdrawn up to the present. The increase in the atmosphere would be in excess of 3 times or conceivably ten times the present amount. If the reserves are used up within a few hundred years, more than half the excess carbon dioxide would remain in the atmosphere after a thousand years. The ''greenhouse'' effect of carbon dioxide is explained. The simulation with numerical models of the effects of carbon dioxide on atmospheric radiation fluxes is discussed. An estimated increase in the average annual temperature of the earth of 2.4 to 2.9C is given for doubling the carbon dioxide content; also a 7% increase in global average precipitation. The effect of increasing carbon dioxide on global mean temperature is viewed in the perspective of the glacial-interglacial cycles. The warming effect of carbon dioxide may induce a ''super-interglacial'' on the present interglacial which is expected to decline toward a new ice age in the next several thousand years. Finally it is proposed that it may be necessary to phase out the use of fossil fuels before all the knowledge is acquired which would necessitate such an action.

  15. Viscosity of liquid sulfur under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, Hidenori; Kato, T; Funakoshi, K; Suzuki, A; Urakawa, S


    The viscosity of liquid sulfur up to 9.7 GPa and 1067 K was measured using the in situ x-ray radiography falling sphere method. The viscosity coefficients were found to range from 0.11 to 0.69 Pa s, and decreased continuously with increasing pressure under approximately constant homologous temperature conditions. The observed viscosity variation suggests that a gradual structural change occurs in liquid sulfur with pressure up to 10 GPa. The L-L' transition in liquid sulfur proposed by Brazhkin et al (1991 Phys. Lett. A 154 413) from thermobaric measurements has not been confirmed by the present viscometry

  16. Insight into the loading temperature of sulfur on sulfur/carbon cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Huan; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo


    Highlights: • A cost-effective chemical activation method to prepare porous carbon nanospheres. • Carbon nanospheres with bimodal microporous structure show high specific area and large micropore volume. • The S/C composite cathodes with in-situformed S−C bond exhibit high sulfur activity with a reversible capacity of 1000 mA h g −1 . • S−C bond enables well confinement on sulfur and polysulfides. - Abstract: Lithium–sulfur batteries are highly desired because of their characteristics such as high energy density. However, the applications of Li-S batteries are limited because they exist dissolution of polysulfides into electrolytes. This study reports the preparation of sulfur cathodes by using bimodal microporous (0.5 nm and 0.8 nm to 2.0 nm) carbon spheres with high specific area (1992 m 2 g −1 ) and large micropore volume (1.2 g cm −1 ), as well as the encapsulation of polysulfides via formation of carbon–sulfur bonds in a sealed vacuum glass tube at high temperature. Given that sulfur and polysulfides are well confined by the S−C bond, the shuttle effect is effectively suppressed. The prepared S/C cathodes with a sulfur loading of up to 75% demonstrate high sulfur activity with reversible capacity of 1000 mA h g −1 at the current density of 0.1 A g −1 and good cycling stability (667 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles).

  17. Graphene oxide as a sulfur immobilizer in high performance lithium/sulfur cells (United States)

    Zhang, Yuegang; Cairns, Elton J.; Ji, Liwen; Rao, Mumin


    The loss of sulfur cathode material as a result of polysulfide dissolution causes significant capacity fading in rechargeable lithium/sulfur cells. Embodiments of the invention use a chemical approach to immobilize sulfur and lithium polysulfides via the reactive functional groups on graphene oxide. This approach obtains a uniform and thin (.about.tens of nanometers) sulfur coating on graphene oxide sheets by a chemical reaction-deposition strategy and a subsequent low temperature thermal treatment process. Strong interaction between graphene oxide and sulfur or polysulfides demonstrate lithium/sulfur cells with a high reversible capacity of 950-1400 mAh g.sup.-1, and stable cycling for more than 50 deep cycles at 0.1 C.

  18. Sulfurized carbon: a class of cathode materials for high performance lithium/sulfur batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng S. Zhang


    Full Text Available Liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries cannot come into practical applications because of many problems such as low energy efficiency, short cycle life, and fast self-discharge. All these problems are related to the dissolution of lithium polysulfide, a series of sulfur reduction intermediates, in the liquid electrolyte, and resulting parasitic reactions with the Li anode. Covalently binding sulfur onto carbon surface is a solution to completely eliminate the dissolution of lithium polysulfide and make the Li/S battery viable for practical applications. This can be achieved by replacing elemental sulfur with sulfurized carbon as the cathode material. This article reviews the current efforts on this subject and discusses the syntheses, electrochemical properties, and prospects of the sulfurized carbon as a cathode material in the rechargeable Li/S batteries.

  19. Graphene oxide as a sulfur immobilizer in high performance lithium/sulfur cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuegang; Cairns, Elton J.; Ji, Liwen; Rao, Mumin


    The loss of sulfur cathode material as a result of polysulfide dissolution causes significant capacity fading in rechargeable lithium/sulfur cells. Embodiments of the invention use a chemical approach to immobilize sulfur and lithium polysulfides via the reactive functional groups on graphene oxide. This approach obtains a uniform and thin (.about.tens of nanometers) sulfur coating on graphene oxide sheets by a chemical reaction-deposition strategy and a subsequent low temperature thermal treatment process. Strong interaction between graphene oxide and sulfur or polysulfides demonstrate lithium/sulfur cells with a high reversible capacity of 950-1400 mAh g.sup.-1, and stable cycling for more than 50 deep cycles at 0.1 C.

  20. Sulfur-Kβ /sub emission studies on sulfur-bearing heterocycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.R.; Andermann, G.G.; Fujiwara, F.


    Sulfur-K/β /sub x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFS) has been used to study the electronic structure and bonding in sulfur-bearing heterocycles. XFS not only has the capability of experimentally measuring valence electron energies in molecular species, but can also provide intensity data which can help define the nature of the molecular orbitals defined by the electrons. This report discusses the feasibility of using XFS as an analytical tool for the determination of total and specific sulfur heterocycle content in samples. A variety of compounds were studied. These include thiophene, thiophene derivatives, tetranydrothiophene, several more complex saturated and unsaturated sulfur heterocycles, and heterocycles containing both sulfur and nitrogen. The sulfur-K/β /sub spectra were obtained using a double crystal spectrometer which provided an instrumental resolution of about 0.7 eV

  1. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard


    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination...

  2. Study on the Influence of Sulfur Fumigation on Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the influence of different sulfur fumigation time and ... after sulfur fumigation though sulfur fumigation time and dosage were at low levels – 2 h ... Conclusion: Sulfur fumigation is not a desirable method for field processing of ...

  3. 46 CFR 151.50-21 - Sulfuric acid. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 151.50-21 Section 151.50-21 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-21 Sulfuric acid. (a) How sulfuric acid may be carried. (1) Sulfuric acid of concentration of 77.5 percent (1.7019 specific gravity) (59.8...

  4. Extraction of Uranium Using Nitrogen Dioxide and Carbon Dioxide for Spent Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayo Sawada; Daisuke Hirabayashi; Youichi Enokida [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan)


    For the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, a new method to extract actinides from spent fuel using highly compressed gases, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was proposed. Uranium extraction from broken pieces, whose average grain size was 5 mm, of uranium dioxide pellet with nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was demonstrated in the present study. (authors)

  5. Reducing carbon dioxide to products (United States)

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A


    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  6. Use of sulfur concrete for radioecological problems solution in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takibaev, Zh.; Belyashov, D.; Vagin, S.


    At present during intensive development of oil and gas fields in Kazakhstan a lot amount of sulfur is extracting. The problem of sulfur utilization demands its immediate solution. One of the perspective trends of sulfur utilization is use it in production of sulfur polymer concrete. It is well known, that encapsulation of low level radioactive and toxic wastes in sulfur polymer concrete and design from it radiation protection facilities have good perspectives for solution of radioecological problems. Sulfur concrete has high corrosion and radiation stability, improved mechanical and chemical properties. Unique properties of sulfur concrete allow to use it in materials ensuring protection from external irradiation

  7. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan; Stephan, Arul Manuel


    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  8. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi


    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  9. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Stephan, Arul Manuel, E-mail: [Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR-CECRI), Karaikudi (India)


    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  10. Environmental behavior and analysis of agricultural sulfur. (United States)

    Griffith, Corey M; Woodrow, James E; Seiber, James N


    Sulfur has been widely used for centuries as a staple for pest and disease management in agriculture. Presently, it is the largest-volume pesticide in use worldwide. This review describes the sources and recovery methods for sulfur, its allotropic forms and properties and its agricultural uses, including development and potential advantages of nanosulfur as a fungicide. Chemical and microbial reactivity, interactions in soil and water and analytical methods for determination in environmental samples and foodstuffs, including inexpensive analytical methods for sulfur residues in wine, beer and other food/beverage substrates, will be reviewed. The toxicology of sulfur towards humans and agriculturally important fungi is included, with some restrictions on use to promote safety. The review concludes with areas for which more research is warranted. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Properties of sulfur-extended asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkikh Vitaliy


    Full Text Available Currently, increased functional reliability of asphalt concrete coatings associated with various modifying additives that improve the durability of pavements. Promising builder is a technical sulfur. Asphalt concrete, made using a complex binder consisting of petroleum bitumen and technical sulfur, were calledsSulfur-Extended Asphalt Concrete. Such asphalt concrete, due to changes in the chemical composition of particulate and bitumen, changes the intensity of the interaction at the interface have increased rates of physical and mechanical properties. There was a lack of essential knowledge concerning mechanical properties of the sulfur-bituminous concrete with such an admixture; therefore, we had carried out the necessary examination. It is revealed that a new material satisfies local regulations in terms of compressive and tensile strength, shear resistance, and internal friction.

  12. Developing porous carbon with dihydrogen phosphate groups as sulfur host for high performance lithium sulfur batteries (United States)

    Cui, Yanhui; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Junwei; Liang, Xiao; Baker, Andrew P.; Qu, Deyang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Huayu; Zhang, Xinhe


    Carbon matrix (CM) derived from biomass is low cost and easily mass produced, showing great potential as sulfur host for lithium sulfur batteries. In this paper we report on a dihydrogen phosphate modified CM (PCM-650) prepared from luffa sponge (luffa acutangula) by phosphoric acid treatment. The phosphoric acid not only increases the surface area of the PCM-650, but also introduces dihydrogen phosphate onto PCM-650 (2.28 at% P). Sulfur impregnated (63.6 wt%) PCM-650/S, in comparison with samples with less dihydrogen phosphate LPCM-650/S, shows a significant performance improvement. XPS analysis is conducted for sulfur at different stages, including sulfur (undischarged), polysulfides (discharge to 2.1 V) and short chain sulfides (discharge to 1.7 V). The results consistently show chemical shifts for S2p in PCM-650, suggesting an enhanced adsorption effect. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) calculations is used to clarify the molecular binding: carbon/sulfur (0.86 eV), carbon/Li2S (0.3 eV), CH3-O-PO3H2/sulfur (1.24 eV), and CH3-O-PO3H2/Li2S (1.81 eV). It shows that dihydrogen phosphate group can significantly enhance the binding with sulfur and sulfide, consistent with XPS results. Consequently a CM functionalised with dihydrogen phosphate shows great potential as the sulfur host in a Li-S battery.

  13. Sulfur-centered reactive intermediates derived from the oxidation of sulfur compounds of biological interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinzadeh, Z. [Lab. de Chimie Physique, UMR, Univ. Rene Descartes, Paris (France)


    Sulphur compounds play a central role in the structure and activity of many vital systems. In the living cell, sulfur constitutes an essential part of the defense against oxidative damage and is transformed into a variety of sulfur free radical species. Many studies of the chemistry of sulfur-centered radicals using pulse radiolysis and photolysis techniques to detect and measure the kinetics of these radicals have been published and reviewed. This paper discusses the present state of research on the formation and reactivity of certain sulfur-centered radicals [RS{sup .}, RSS{sup .}, RS{sup .+}, (RSSR){sup .+}] and their implications for biological systems. (author)

  14. Sulfur-centered reactive intermediates derived from the oxidation of sulfur compounds of biological interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedinzadeh, Z.


    Sulphur compounds play a central role in the structure and activity of many vital systems. In the living cell, sulfur constitutes an essential part of the defense against oxidative damage and is transformed into a variety of sulfur free radical species. Many studies of the chemistry of sulfur-centered radicals using pulse radiolysis and photolysis techniques to detect and measure the kinetics of these radicals have been published and reviewed. This paper discusses the present state of research on the formation and reactivity of certain sulfur-centered radicals [RS . , RSS . , RS .+ , (RSSR) .+ ] and their implications for biological systems. (author)

  15. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.


    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO.sub.2) and water or bine into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation.

  16. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle (United States)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A


    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  17. Composite harm to plants by sulfurous acid gas and oxidant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J


    The composite effects on plants of sulfur dioxide and ozone, SO/sub 2/ and PAN, SO/sub 2/ and nitrogen dioxide, and NO/sub 2/ and ozone were studied. Pinto bean plants were exposed to SO/sub 2/ or O/sub 3/ only, to each gas alternately, and to a mixture of the two. The degree of injury by the gas or gases was indicated in percentage by area of the leaves damaged. In cases where no geometric effect occurred the damage to the plant by the individual gas had been great; damage from the individual gas had been slight in these cases where such an effect was observed. The geometric effect is produced when the density of SO/sub 2/ is rather low, generally 0.05-0.25 ppm. A mixture of SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ was applied to a tabacco plant; it affected fully grown leaves. In experiments on the composite effects of SO/sub 2/ and PAN on bean, tomato and pepper plants, PAN affected mainly young leaves while SO/sub 2/ affected mature ones. These effects were arithmetric rather then geometric. The SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ were also studied in the same manner. When SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ were mixed, a geometric effect was conspicuous in damage to vegetables, the symptoms of damage by either of the two appeared about the same, younger leaves being affected less. When treated with the two gases alternately, the damage was greater if the plants were first treated with NO/sub 2/; possible causes for this effect are discussed. No significant composite effect of NO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ was observed.

  18. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery. (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng


    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan


    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  20. Plutonium oxides analysis. Sulfur potentiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Total sulfur determination (sulfur, sulfates, sulfides ...) in plutonium oxides, suitable for sulfate ion content between 0.003 percent to 0.2 percent, by dissolution in nitric hydrofluoric acid, nitrates elimination, addition of hydrochloric acid and reduction in hydrogen sulfide which is carried by an inert gas and neutralized by sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulfide is titrated with mercuric acetate by constant intensity potentiometry [fr

  1. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi


    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  2. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases. (United States)

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong


    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed.

  3. Sulfur sources in protein supplements for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio José da Silva


    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the efficiency of different sulfur sources for ruminant nutrition. The fiber digestibility and the amino acid profile were analyzed in the duodenal digesta of crossbred steers fed Brachiaria dictyoneurahay. The sources utilized were elemental sulfur (ES70S, elemental sulfur (ES98S; calcium sulfate in hydrated (HCS, CaSO4.2H2O, and anhydrous (ACS, CaSO4, forms; and ammonium sulfate (AS, (NH42SO4, keeping a nitrogen:sulfur ratio of 11:1. The iso-protein supplements had 50% of protein in the total dry matter (DM. Five Holstein × Zebu steers, which were fistulated in the rumen and abomasum, were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The different sulfur sources in the supplement did not affect any of the evaluated nutritional factors, such as intake of hay dry matter and protein supplement, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, organic matter (OM, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC, ether extract (EE, total digestible nutrients (TDN, NDFap and CP digestibility coefficients, ruminal pH, and ruminal ammonia concentration. The concentrations of amino acids available in the abomasal digesta did not differ significantly in the tested diets. The sulfur sources evaluated in the present study are suitable as supplement for cattle, and their employment may be important to avoid environmental contaminations.

  4. Limestone-Concentrate-Pellet Roasting in wet Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A roast process for treating chalcopyrite concentrate was developed. The investigation of the reaction of limestone-concentrate-pellet in a wet carbon dioxide flow was carried out by means of a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine at which temperatures the roasting reaction would take place. The thermodynamic calculations on the roast reaction were made by the use of SOLGASMIX-PV program. The TGA curves and thermodynamic calculations indicated that the conversion of chalcopyrite into bornite took place at about 975K, and the conversion of bornite into chalcocite at 1065-1123K. The thermodynamic calculations also showed that the sulfur released was fixed as calcium sulfide within roasted pellets. X-ray diffraction examination identified these phases in products.

  5. Global warming potential of the sulfur-iodine process using life cycle assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, William C.; Utgikar, Vivek P.


    A life cycle assessment (LCA) of one proposed method of hydrogen production - thermochemical water-splitting using the sulfur-iodine cycle couple with a very high-temperature nuclear reactor - is presented in this paper. Thermochemical water-splitting theoretically offers a higher overall efficiency than high-temperature electrolysis of water because heat from the nuclear reactor is provided directly to the hydrogen generation process, instead of using the intermediate step of generating electricity. The primary heat source for the S-I cycle is an advanced nuclear reactor operating at temperatures corresponding to those required by the sulfur-iodine process. This LCA examines the environmental impact of the combined advanced nuclear and hydrogen generation plants and focuses on quantifying the emissions of carbon dioxide per kilogram of hydrogen produced. The results are presented in terms of global warming potential (GWP). The GWP of the system is 2500 g carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO 2 -eq) per kilogram of hydrogen produced. The GWP of this process is approximately one-sixth of that for hydrogen production by steam reforming of natural gas, and is comparable to producing hydrogen from wind- or hydro-electric conventional electrolysis. (author)

  6. The life sulfuric: microbial ecology of sulfur cycling in marine sediments. (United States)

    Wasmund, Kenneth; Mußmann, Marc; Loy, Alexander


    Almost the entire seafloor is covered with sediments that can be more than 10 000 m thick and represent a vast microbial ecosystem that is a major component of Earth's element and energy cycles. Notably, a significant proportion of microbial life in marine sediments can exploit energy conserved during transformations of sulfur compounds among different redox states. Sulfur cycling, which is primarily driven by sulfate reduction, is tightly interwoven with other important element cycles (carbon, nitrogen, iron, manganese) and therefore has profound implications for both cellular- and ecosystem-level processes. Sulfur-transforming microorganisms have evolved diverse genetic, metabolic, and in some cases, peculiar phenotypic features to fill an array of ecological niches in marine sediments. Here, we review recent and selected findings on the microbial guilds that are involved in the transformation of different sulfur compounds in marine sediments and emphasise how these are interlinked and have a major influence on ecology and biogeochemistry in the seafloor. Extraordinary discoveries have increased our knowledge on microbial sulfur cycling, mainly in sulfate-rich surface sediments, yet many questions remain regarding how sulfur redox processes may sustain the deep-subsurface biosphere and the impact of organic sulfur compounds on the marine sulfur cycle. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Quantification of Discrete Oxide and Sulfur Layers on Sulfur-Passivated InAs by XPS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrovykh, D. Y; Sullivan, J. M; Whitman, L. J


    .... The S-passivated InAs(001) surface can be modeled as a sulfur-indium-arsenic layer-cake structure, such that characterization requires quantification of both arsenic oxide and sulfur layers that are at most a few monolayers thick...

  8. Sulfur Isotope Exchange between S-35 Labeled Inorganic Sulfur-Compounds in Anoxic Marine-Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)



    of isotope exchange, specific radioactivities of the reduced sulfur pools were poorly defined and could not be used to calculate their rates of formation. Such isotope exchange reactions between the reduced inorganic sulfur compounds will affect the stable isotope distribution and are expected to decrease...

  9. Sulfur and Oxygen Isotope Fractionation During Bacterial Sulfur Disproportionation Under Anaerobic Haloalkaline Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poser, Alexander; Vogt, Carsten; Knöller, Kay; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Finster, Kai W.; Richnow, Hans H.


    Sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation of elemental sulfur disproportionation at anaerobic haloalkaline conditions was evaluated for the first time. Isotope enrichment factors of the strains Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus and Dethiobacter alkaliphilus growing at pH 9 or 10 were −0.9‰ to −1‰ for

  10. Use of zeolites for the removal of volatile sulfur compounds from industrial waste gases and from natural gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudzik,; Z,; Bilska, M


    The use of zeolites for the removal of sulfur dioxide from industrial waste gases and for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and volatile mercaptans from the natural gas or synthetic gas manufactured from coal is discussed. The effectiveness and cost of zeolite methods are superior to that of other methods. The best sorption properties with respect to sulfur dioxide are observed in faujasites and erionites. The molecular sieve 13X (a sodium form of low-silicon faujasite) is the most effective sorbent of hydrogen sulfide, produced commercially on a large scale. This zeolite is also a very effective catalyst for simultaneous oxygenation of hydrogen sulfide. The reaction with oxygen can begin at temperatures as low as -80/sup 0/C. The effectiveness of zeolite reactors is enhanced by the presence of oxygen in the gas being purified, and is hindered by the presence of water or water vapor. The extraordinary catalytic activity of sodium faujasites is due to free donors, and sulfur and oxygen ion donors at their surface. A zeolite reactor is also economical.

  11. Corrosion of Selected Materials in Boiling Sulfuric Acid for the Nuclear Power Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Lee, Han Hee; Kwon, Hyuk Chul; Kim, Hong Pyo; Hwang, Seong Sik


    Iodine sulfur (IS) process is one of the promising processes for a hydrogen production by using a high temperature heat generated by a very high temperature gas cooled reactor(VHTR) in the nuclear power industries. Even though the IS process is very efficient for a hydrogen production and it is not accompanied by a carbon dioxide evolution, the highly corrosive environment of the process limits its application in the industry. Corrosion tests of selected materials were performed in sulfuric acid to select appropriate materials compatible with the IS process. The materials used in this work were Fe-Cr alloys, Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, Fe-Si alloys, Ni base alloys, Ta, Ti, Zr, SiC, Fe-Si, etc. The test environments were 50 wt% sulfuric acid at 120 .deg. C and 98 wt% at 320 .deg. C. Corrosion rates were measured by using a weight change after an immersion. The surface morphologies and cross sectional areas of the corroded materials were examined by using SEM equipped with EDS. Corrosion behaviors of the materials were discussed in terms of the chemical composition of the materials, a weight loss, the corrosion morphology, the precipitates in the microstructure and the surface layer composition

  12. Impact of sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel on coastal air quality (United States)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Weigelt, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.


    Shipping traffic is a sector that faces an enormous growth rate and contributes substantially to the emissions from the transportation sector, but lacks regulations and controls. Shipping is not enclosed in the Kyoto Protocol. However, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced sufhur limits for marine heavy fuels, nitrogen oxide limits for newly-built ship engines and established Emission Control Areas (ECA) in the North and Baltic Sea as well as around North America with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI). Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, measurements of reactive trace gases and the chemical composition of the marine troposphere along shipping routes are sparse and up to now there is no regular monitoring system available. The project MeSmarT (measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) is a cooperation between the University of Bremen, the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH) and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. This study aims to analyse the influence of shipping emissions on the coastal air quality by evaluating ground-based remote sensing measurements using the MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique. Measurements of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been carried out in the marine troposphere at the MeSmarT measurement sites in Wedel and on Neuwerk and on-board several ship cruises on the North and Baltic Sea. The capability of two-channel MAX-DOAS systems to do simultaneous measurements in the UV and visible spectral range has been used in the so called "onion-peeling" approach to derive spatial distributions of ship emissions and to analyse the movement of the exhausted

  13. Genomic Insights into the Sulfur Metabolism of Phototrophic Green Sulfur Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A.


    Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, ferrous iron, and hydrogen for anaerobic photoautotrophic growth. Genome sequence data is currently available for 12 strains of GSB. We present here a genome-based survey of the distribution...... and phylogenies of genes involved in oxidation of sulfur compounds in these strains. Sulfide:quinone reductase, encoded by sqr, is the only known sulfur-oxidizing enzyme found in all strains. All sulfide-utilizing strains contain the dissimilatory sulfite reductase dsrABCEFHLNMKJOPT genes, which appear...... to be involved in elemental sulfur utilization. All thiosulfate-utilizing strains have an identical sox gene cluster (soxJXYZAKBW). The soxCD genes found in certain other thiosulfate-utilizing organisms like Paracoccus pantotrophus are absent from GSB. Genes encoding flavocytochrome c (fccAB), adenosine-5...

  14. Hydrogen sulfide oxidation by a microbial consortium in a recirculation reactor system: sulfur formation under oxygen limitation and removal of phenols. (United States)

    Alcantara, Sergio; Velasco, Antonio; Muñoz, Ana; Cid, Juan; Revah, Sergio; Razo-Flores, Elías


    Wastewater from petroleum refining may contain a number of undesirable contaminants including sulfides, phenolic compounds, and ammonia. The concentrations of these compounds must be reduced to acceptable levels before discharge. Sulfur formation and the effect of selected phenolic compounds on the sulfide oxidation were studied in autotrophic aerobic cultures. A recirculation reactor system was implemented to improve the elemental sulfur recovery. The relation between oxygen and sulfide was determined calculating the O2/S2- loading rates (Q(O2)/Q(S)2- = Rmt), which adequately defined the operation conditions to control the sulfide oxidation. Sulfur-producing steady states were achieved at Rmt ranging from 0.5 to 1.5. The maximum sulfur formation occurred at Rmt of 0.5 where 85% of the total sulfur added to the reactor as sulfide was transformed to elemental sulfur and 90% of it was recovered from the bottom of the reactor. Sulfide was completely oxidized to sulfate (Rmt of 2) in a stirred tank reactor, even when a mixture of phenolic compounds was present in the medium. Microcosm experiments showed that carbon dioxide production increased in the presence of the phenols, suggesting that these compounds were oxidized and that they may have been used as carbon and energy source by heterotrophic microorganisms present in the consortium.

  15. Effect of sulfur content in a sulfur-activated carbon composite on the electrochemical properties of a lithium/sulfur battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Changhyeon; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Kim, Ki-Won [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon [Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Guoxiu [School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ahn, Jae-Pyeung [Advanced Analysis Center, Research Planning & Coordination Division, KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyo-Jun, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • The content of sulfur in activated carbon was controlled by solution process. • The sulfur electrode with low sulfur content shows the best performance. • The Li/S battery has capacity of 1360 mAh/g at 1 C and 702 mAh/g at 10 C. - Abstract: The content of sulfur in sulfur/activated carbon composite is controlled from 32.37 wt.% to 55.33 wt.% by a one-step solution-based process. When the sulfur content is limited to 41.21 wt.%, it can be loaded into the pores of an activated carbon matrix in a highly dispersed state. On the contrary, when the sulfur content is 55.33 wt.%, crystalline sulfur can be detected on the surface of the activated carbon matrix. The best electrochemical performance can be obtained for a sulfur electrode with the lowest sulfur content. The sulfur/activated carbon composite with 32.37 wt.% sulfur afforded the highest first discharge capacity of 1360 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C rate and a large reversible capacity of 702 mAh g{sup −1} at 10 C (16.75 A/g)

  16. Dew point of gases with low sulfuric acid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieg, J.


    Discusses control of air pollution caused by sulfur compounds in solid fuels during combustion. Excessive amount of oxygen during combustion leads to formation of sulfur trioxide. Sulfur trioxide reacts with water vapor and forms sulfuric acid. Chemical reactions which lead to formation of sulfuric acid are described. Conditions for sulfuric acid condensation are analyzed. Several methods for determining dew point of flue gases with low sulfuric acid content are reviewed: methods based on determination of electric conductivity of condensed sulfuric acid (Francis, Cheney, Kiyoure), method based on determination of sulfuric acid concentration in the gaseous phase and in the liquid phase after cooling (Lee, Lisle and Sensenbaugh, Ross and Goksoyr). (26 refs.) (In Polish)

  17. The effective synthesis of Insoluble sulfur using electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daejin; Yu, Kookhyun [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Vulcanization is process that formed crosslinking by Insoluble sulfur between linear structure of rubber polymer. Recently, Synthesis of Insoluble sulfur is used Thermal polymerization using about 250 {approx} 300 .deg. C and extraction process is used carbon disulfide(CS2) for separation between soluble sulfur and insoluble sulfur. But this process isn't environmental, economical and safety. This research was focus on developing of insoluble sulfur synthesis process using electron beam. This new process is using under the 140 .deg. C. Because of that, explosion risk is decrease, environmental and economical factor is increased. The sulfur can be melt by increase temperature or made solution using carbon disulfide. And electron beam is irradiated melting sulfur or sulfur solution. After irradiation, The high purity insoluble sulfur can be obtained by separation with carbon disulfide.

  18. A primer on sulfur for the planetary geologist (United States)

    Theilig, E.


    Sulfur has been proposed as the dominant composition for the volcanic material on Io. Sulfur is a complex element which forms many intramolecular and intermolecular allotropes exhibiting a variety of physical properties. Cyclo-S8 sulfur is the most abundant and stable molecular form. The important molecular species within liquid sulfur change in concentration with temperature. Concentrations of the allotropes control the physical properties of the melt. Discontinuities in density, viscosity, and thermal properties reflect the polymerization process within liquid sulfur. Variations in the melting point are related to autodissociation of the liquid. Many solids forms of sulfur have been identified but only orthorhombic alpha and monoclinic beta sulfur, both composed of cyclo-S8 sulfur, are stable under terrestrial conditions. Physical properties of solid sulfur are dependent on the allotrope and, in some cases, the thermal history. Three natural terrestrial sulfur flows are described: (1) Siretoko-Iosan, Japan; (2) Volcan Azufre, Galapagos Islands; and (3) Mauna Loa, Hawaii. All of the flows are associated with fumarolic areas and are considered to have formed by the melting and mobilization of sulfur deposits. Surface textures of the flows indicate a behavior of molten sulfur similar to that of silicate lava. Channels, rivulets, and lobate edges were described for the flows. The solidification of man-made sulfur flows formed as part of the Frasch mining process by which sulfur is removed from the subsurface in a liquid state is described.

  19. Clues to early diagenetic sulfurization processes from mild chemical cleavage of labile sulfur-rich geomacromolecules (United States)

    Adam, P.; Schneckenburger, P.; Schaeffer, P.; Albrecht, P.


    Macromolecular fractions, isolated from the solvent extract of sulfur-rich Recent (Siders Pond, USA; Lake Cadagno, Switzerland; Walvis Bay, Namibia) and immature sediments (Gibellina, Messinian of Sicily; Vena del Gesso, Messinian of Italy), were investigated by chemical degradation using sodium ethanethiolate/methyliodide. This mild reagent which cleaves polysulfide bonds to yield methylsulfides has the advantage over other methods of leaving intact other functionalities (like double bonds) and preserving sulfur atoms at their incorporation site. The method is, therefore, well-suited to the molecular level investigation of sulfur-rich macromolecules from Recent sediments containing highly functionalized polysulfide-bound subunits. In Recent anoxic sulfur-rich sediments, the release of various methylthioethers clearly demonstrates that intermolecular sulfurization of organic matter does occur at the earliest stages of diagenesis. Steroids and phytane derivatives are the major sulfurized lipids, a feature also observed in more mature sulfur-rich sediments. Several phytene derivatives, such as cis and trans 1-methylthiophyt-2-enes, as well as methylthiosteroids, including 5α- and 5β-3-(methylthio)-cholest-2-enes, were identified by comparison with synthesized standards. Steroid methylthioenolethers are released from polysulfide-bound steroid enethiols present in the macromolecular fractions. The latter, which correspond to thioketones, can be considered as intermediates in the reductive sulfurization pathway leading from steroid ketones to polysulfide-bound saturated steroid skeletons and are characterized for the first time in the present study. Thus, it could be shown that the major part of the polysulfide-bound lipids occurring in Recent sediments is apparently the result of sulfurization processes affecting carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones). The unsaturated methylthioethers obtained from Recent sediments were not present in more mature evaporitic samples, which

  20. Self-assembled peptides for coating of active sulfur nanoparticles in lithium–sulfur battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewel, Yead; Yoo, Kisoo; Liu, Jin; Dutta, Prashanta


    Development of lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery is hindered by poor cyclability due to the loss of sulfur, although Li–S battery can provide high energy density. Coating of sulfur nanoparticles can help maintain active sulfur in the cathode of Li–S battery, and hence increase the cyclability. Among myriad of coating materials, synthetic peptides are very attractive because of their spontaneous self-assembly as well as electrical conductive characteristics. In this study, we explored the use of various synthetic peptides as a coating material for sulfur nanoparticles. Atomistic simulations were carried out to identify optimal peptide structure and density for coating sulfur nanoparticles. Three different peptide models, poly-proline, poly(leucine–lysine) and poly-histidine, are selected for this study based on their peptide–peptide and peptide-sulfur interactions. Simulation results show that both poly-proline and poly(leucine–lysine) can form self-assembled coating on sulfur nanoparticles (2–20 nm) in pyrrolidinone, a commonly used solvent for cathode slurry. We also studied the structural integrity of these synthetic peptides in organic [dioxolane (DOL) and dimethoxyethane (DME)] electrolyte used in Li–S battery. Both peptides show stable structures in organic electrolyte (DOL/DME) used in Li–S battery. Furthermore, the dissolution of sulfur molecules in organic electrolyte is investigated in the absence and presence of these peptide coatings. It was found that only poly(leucine–lysine)-based peptide can most effectively suppress the sulfur loss in electrolyte, suggesting its potential applications in Li–S battery as a coating material.Graphical abstract

  1. UV Digital Imaging of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions: Enhancing the Technique With Empirical Corrections (United States)

    Dalton, M. P.; Bluth, G. J.; Shannon, J. M.; Watson, I. M.


    SO2 emission measurements are an important component of monitoring volcanic processes, providing insight into the driving forces behind eruptions. Current spectrometric methods (COSPEC, DOAS) typically measure only a cross-section of the plume, which may not be representative of the actual emission flux, and coupled with the difficulty in determining wind speeds affecting the air mass, often leads to erratic SO2 flux values. In order to address these problems, we have developed a ground-based ultraviolet digital camera for the imaging and measurement of SO2 volcanic plumes. This camera improves on the spectrometric methods of SO2 observation by capturing a large portion of the plume in one measurement- a single image. The UV digital camera can also record multiple images every minute, producing a data set that is more comparable with other monitoring techniques. The UV digital camera has proven capable of imaging volcanic plumes under fairly demanding conditions, and determining SO2 fluxes that have roughly agreed with other SO2 measurement techniques. Initial field tests suggest that the data produced by the UV camera are significantly affected by atmospheric scattering. To better evaluate the errors and limitations associated with this new instrument, field experiments have been conducted to assess the effects that background sky brightness, meteorological conditions, and distance to the target have on the calculated SO2 concentrations and flux measurements. Our results will allow us to more accurately model and correct for changing atmospheric conditions and quantify the error associated with atmospheric background scattering. These corrections will make this remarkable new instrument a more accurate and valuable tool for monitoring volcanic emissions.

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide by ozone on surface of calcium carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Li


    Full Text Available Sulfate particles play a key role in the air quality and the global climate, but the heterogeneous formation mechanism of sulfates on surfaces of atmospheric particles is not well established. Carbonates, which act as a reactive component in mineral dust due to their special chemical properties, may contribute significantly to the sulfate formation by heterogeneous processes. This paper presents a study on the oxidation of SO2 by O3 on CaCO3 particles. Using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS, the formation of sulfite and sulfate on the surface was identified, and the roles of O3 and water in oxidation processes were determined. The results showed that in the presence of O3, SO2can be oxidized to sulfate on the surface of CaCO3 particles. The reaction is first order in SO2 and zero order in O3. The reactive uptake coefficient for SO2 [(0.6–9.8×1014 molecule cm-3] oxidation by O3 [(1.2–12×1014 molecule cm-3] was determined to be (1.4±0.3×10-7 using the BET area as the reactive area and (7.7±1.6×10-4 using the geometric area. A two-stage mechanism that involves adsorption of SO2 followed by O3 oxidation is proposed and the adsorption of SO2 on the CaCO3 surface is the rate-determining step. The proposed mechanism can well explain the experiment results. The atmospheric implications were explored based on a box model calculation. It was found that the heterogeneous reaction might be an important pathway for sulfate formation in the atmosphere.

  3. Further studies on the effect of sulfur dioxide on lichens and bryophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, O L


    After comparing sixteen aspects of their biology it is clear that despite wide differences in botanical affinity bryophytes and lichens are outstandingly similar in their response to SO/sub 2/. This suggests that these lower plants can only colonize inhospitable habitats by adaptations which carry with them an inherent susceptibility to air pollution. Extensive laboratory and field work has emphasized the controlling influence of habitat on the survival of species. Among the strongest modifying influences are shelter, the pH and buffer capacity of the substratum and nutrient flushing. There is an apparent connection between survival and age of substratum. Water relations were found to have little effect. The extreme sensitivity of most epiphytes and the problems raised by resistant species are discussed. 34 references, 5 figures, 7 tables.

  4. Response of two populations of holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) to sulfur dioxide. (United States)

    García, D; Rodríguez, J; Sanz, J M; Merino, J


    Experiments were carried out with seedlings of Quercus rotundifolia Lam., an evergreen schlerophyllous tree typical of the Spanish Mediterranean climate environments. Fruits were collected in two distant (800 km) populations located in the center (southern Spain) and northern border (northern Spain) of the area of distribution of the species. One-month-old potted plants were grown for 130 days in an enriched atmosphere of SO2 (0.23 ppm, 14 h/day) in controlled (growth chamber) conditions. Both northern and southern plants underwent a significant decrease in growth rate as a consequence of the treatment. Even so, plants appear to be quite resistant to SO2 compared with either more temperate or more productive species. The southern population was more sensitive to the treatment, as reflected by the bigger decrease in both growth and photosynthetic rates. Differences in resistance appear to be related to the biogeographic origin of the populations studied, which underlines the importance of biogeographic aspects in studies of resistance to air pollutants.

  5. Contribution to the question of susceptibility of leaves to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethge, H


    The sensitive limit of the moss lies at a concentration of about 1:1,000,000 when this concentration persists for a day. On the other hand 1:200,000 for several hrs. is endured without injury. For the seedlings investigated the sensitive limit thus appears to lie at a greater concentration than 1:500,000. Moss leaves are accordingly a little more sensitive than seedlings of parsley. Generalization of these values should not be attempted until additional investigations have been made on the proportions in the air.

  6. Sulfur dioxide induced aggregation of wine thaumatin-like proteins: Role of disulfide bonds. (United States)

    Chagas, Ricardo; Laia, César A T; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Ferreira, Luísa M


    Aggregation of heat unstable wine proteins is responsible for the economically and technologically detrimental problem called wine protein haze. This is caused by the aggregation of thermally unfolded proteins that can precipitate in bottled wine. To study the influence of SO 2 in this phenomenon, wine proteins were isolated and thaumatins were identified has the most prone to aggregate in the presence of this compound. Isolated wine thaumatins aggregation was followed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Our experimental results demonstrate that protein thermal unfolding after exposure of the protein to 70 °C does not present differences whether SO 2 is present or not. Conversely, when the protein solution is cooled to 15 °C (after heat stress) significant analytical changes can be observed between samples with and without SO 2 . A remarkable change of circular dichroism spectra in the region 220-230 nm is observed (which can be related to S-S torsion angles), as well as an increase in tryptophan fluorescence intensity (absence of fluorescence quenching by S-S bonds). Formation of covalently-linked dimeric and tetrameric protein species were also detected by SEC. The ability to dissolve the aggregates with 8 M urea seems to indicate that hydrophobic interactions are prevalent in the formed aggregates. Also, the reduction of these aggregates with tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (TCEP) to only monomeric species reveals the presence of intermolecular S-S bonds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The toxicity induced by H2O2 due to the exposure of 58 mug m-3 SO2 for 6 h day-1 for 18, 20 and 32 days was tolerated by cv. Lok 1, cv. Sujatha and cv. WH 147. Further exposure resulted in accumulation of damaging H2O2 levels (critical) and visible injury symptoms, while cv. Raj 1555 tolerated the

  8. Effect of small concentrations of sulfur dioxide during chronic poisoning on the immunologic reactivity of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navrotzky, V K


    A concentration of 0.018 to 0.022 mg SO/sub 2//liter decreased agglutination titer of rabbit blood serum to immunization with typhoid vaccine 4 to 8 times and reduced duration of high titer 3 to 4 times. Titer of blood complement was not altered. SO/sub 2/ poisoning increases both blood acetylcholine and cholinesterase activity.

  9. Association between maternal exposure to elevated ambient sulfur dioxide during pregnancy and term low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-M.; Li, C.-Y.; Yang, G.-Y.; Mao, I.-F.


    This retrospective cohort study investigated whether the risk of delivering full term (37-44 completed weeks of gestation) low birth weight (LBW) infants is associated with differences in exposure to air pollutants in different trimesters. Full-term infants (37 completed weeks of gestation) with a birth weight below 2500 g were classified as term LBW infants. The study infants comprised 92,288 full-term live singletons identified from the Taiwan birth registry and born in the city of Taipei or Kaoshiung in Taiwan between 1995 and 1997. Maternal exposures to various air pollutants including CO, SO 2 , O 3 , NO 2 , and PM 10 in each trimester of pregnancy was estimated as the arithmetic means of all daily measurements taken by the air quality monitoring station nearest to the district of residence of the mother at birth. The multivariable logistic regression model with adjustment for potential confounders was used to assess the independent effect of specific air pollutants on the risk of term LBW. This study suggested a 26% increase in term LBW risk given maternal ambient exposure to SO 2 concentration exceeding 11.4 ppb during pregnancy compared to low exposure ( 12.4 ppb of SO 2 in the last trimester showed 20% higher risk (OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.01-1.41) of term LBW delivery than mothers with lower exposure (<6.8 ppb). No significant elevation ORs was observed for other air pollutants

  10. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (United States)


    ... because they are inconsistent with section 123(a)(2) of the Clean Air Act which requires continuous control strategies. (1) Rule 13.2, submitted on October 12, 1979. [46 FR 26304, May 6, 1981] ...

  11. Statistical models and time series forecasting of sulfur dioxide: a case study Tehran. (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, S; Hosseinibalam, F; Alizadeh, R


    This study performed a time-series analysis, frequency distribution and prediction of SO(2) levels for five stations (Pardisan, Vila, Azadi, Gholhak and Bahman) in Tehran for the period of 2000-2005. Most sites show a quite similar characteristic with highest pollution in autumn-winter time and least pollution in spring-summer. The frequency distributions show higher peaks at two residential sites. The potential for SO(2) problems is high because of high emissions and the close geographical proximity of the major industrial and urban centers. The ACF and PACF are nonzero for several lags, indicating a mixed (ARMA) model, then at Bahman station an ARMA model was used for forecasting SO(2). The partial autocorrelations become close to 0 after about 5 lags while the autocorrelations remain strong through all the lags shown. The results proved that ARMA (2,2) model can provides reliable, satisfactory predictions for time series.

  12. 75 FR 81471 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP... (United States)


    ... measured at Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, and upper air data was measured at St. Cloud, MN. The modeling used a...'s ability to attain and maintain the one-hour SO 2 standard. IV. What action is EPA taking? EPA is... notes that it will not impose substantial direct costs on Tribal governments or preempt Tribal law. The...

  13. Benzene destruction in claus process by sulfur dioxide: A reaction kinetics study

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Sourab; Raj, Abhijeet Dhayal; Alshoaibi, Ahmed S.; Alhassan, Saeed M.; Chung, Suk-Ho


    interactions. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition to phenyl radical after overcoming an energy barrier of 6.4 kJ/mol. This addition reaction is highly exothermic, where a reaction energy of 182 kJ/mol is released. The most favorable pathway involves O-S bond

  14. Reaction of Acetaldehyde with Wine Flavonoids in the Presence of Sulfur Dioxide. (United States)

    Sheridan, Marlena K; Elias, Ryan J


    Acetaldehyde is responsible for many of the beneficial changes that occur in red wine as a result of oxidation. Ethylidene bridges are formed between flavonoids upon their reaction with acetaldehyde, which can contribute to improvements in color stability and SO 2 -resistant pigments. In the present study, the reactions between acetaldehyde and various flavonoids (catechin, tannins from grape seed extract, and malvidin-3-glucoside) were examined in a model wine system. Lower pH conditions were seen to significantly increase the rate of reaction with acetaldehyde, whereas dissolved oxygen did not affect the rate. In systems containing SO 2 , the rate of reaction of acetaldehyde with catechin was slowed but was not prevented until SO 2 was in great excess. Significant improvements in color stability were also observed after treatment with acetaldehyde, despite the presence of equimolar SO 2 . These results demonstrate that acetaldehyde is reactive in its sulfonate form, which is contrary to widely held assumptions. In addition, the products of the reaction of flavonoids with acetaldehyde were characterized using MALDI-TOF MS in this study. Ethyl-bridged catechin nonamers were observed, as well as anthocyanin and pyranoanthocyanin derivatives of catechin and tannin oligomers. The results of this work illustrate the significance of acetaldehyde reactions in forming stable pigments in wine and the reactivity of acetaldehyde from its sulfonate form.

  15. Arcsecond Resolution Mapping of Sulfur Dioxide Emission in the Circumstellar Envelope of VY Canis Majoris (United States)

    Fu, Roger R.; Moullet, Arielle; Patel, Nimesh A.; Biersteker, John; Derose, Kimberly L.; Young, Kenneth H.


    We report Submillimeter Array observations of SO2 emission in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris, with an angular resolution of ≈1''. SO2 emission appears in three distinct outflow regions surrounding the central continuum peak emission that is spatially unresolved. No bipolar structure is noted in the sources. A fourth source of SO2 is identified as a spherical wind centered at the systemic velocity. We estimate the SO2 column density and rotational temperature assuming local thermal equilibrium (LTE) as well as perform non-LTE radiative transfer analysis using RADEX. Column densities of SO2 are found to be ~1016 cm-2 in the outflows and in the spherical wind. Comparison with existing maps of the two parent species OH and SO shows the SO2 distribution to be consistent with that of OH. The abundance ratio f_{SO_{2}}/f_{SO} is greater than unity for all radii larger than 3 × 1016 cm. SO2 is distributed in fragmented clumps compared to SO, PN, and SiS molecules. These observations lend support to specific models of circumstellar chemistry that predict f_{SO_{2}}/f_{SO}>1 and may suggest the role of localized effects such as shocks in the production of SO2 in the CSE.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Roger R.; Moullet, Arielle; Patel, Nimesh A.; Biersteker, John; Derose, Kimberly L.; Young, Kenneth H.


    We report Submillimeter Array observations of SO 2 emission in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris, with an angular resolution of ≈1''. SO 2 emission appears in three distinct outflow regions surrounding the central continuum peak emission that is spatially unresolved. No bipolar structure is noted in the sources. A fourth source of SO 2 is identified as a spherical wind centered at the systemic velocity. We estimate the SO 2 column density and rotational temperature assuming local thermal equilibrium (LTE) as well as perform non-LTE radiative transfer analysis using RADEX. Column densities of SO 2 are found to be ∼10 16 cm –2 in the outflows and in the spherical wind. Comparison with existing maps of the two parent species OH and SO shows the SO 2 distribution to be consistent with that of OH. The abundance ratio f SO 2 /f SO is greater than unity for all radii larger than 3 × 10 16 cm. SO 2 is distributed in fragmented clumps compared to SO, PN, and SiS molecules. These observations lend support to specific models of circumstellar chemistry that predict f SO 2 /f SO >1 and may suggest the role of localized effects such as shocks in the production of SO 2 in the CSE.

  17. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Industrial... February 28, 2005, that combusts coal or oil shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere any gases... from the combustion of natural gas, wood, municipal-type solid waste, or other fuels or heat derived...

  18. Emission rates of sulfur dioxide, trace gases and metals from Mount Erebus, Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, P.R.; Meeker, K. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro (USA)); Finnegan, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))


    SO{sub 2} emission rates have been measured annually since 1983 at Mount Erebus, Antarctica by correlation spectrometer (COSPEC V). Following a 4 month period of sustained strombolian activity in late 1984, SO{sub 2} emissions declined from 230 Mg/day in 1983 to 25 Mg/day and then slowly increased from 16 Mg/day in 1985 to 51 Mg/day in 1987. Nine sets of filter packs containing partcle and {sup 7}LiOH treated filters were collected in the plume in 1986 and analyzed by neutron activation. Using the COSPEC data and measured element/S ratios on the filters, emission rates have been determined for trace gases and metals. The authors infer HCl and HF emissions in 1983 to be about 1200 and 500 Mg/day, respectively. Mt Erebus has therefore been an important source of halogens to the Anarctic atmosphere and could be responsible for excess Cl found in Central Antarctica snow.

  19. 75 FR 35519 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Dioxide (United States)


    ... trigger level of 0.6 ppm (600 ppb) SO 2 , one expected exceedance; and (3) augmenting implementation of... that short-term SO 2 bursts were ``localized, infrequent, and site-specific'' as a rational basis for... these receptors triggers central nervous system reflexes that result in [[Page 35526...

  20. Exothermic reactions among components of lithium-sulfur dioxide and lithium-thionyl chloride cells (United States)

    Dallek, S.; James, S. D.; Kilroy, W. P.


    Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were made on various components of Li-SOCl2 cells to identify those combinations that react exothermically and might cause batteries to explode. The passivation of Li by SO2 in acetonitrile (AN) was characterized over a wide range of SO2 concentration (0.1-14M). In the absence of SO2, trace additions of water greatly lower the exothermicity of the Li-AN reaction. The Li-SOCl2-LiAlCl4 mixture is inert over a wide range of temperature well above the melting point of Li. However, adding carbon black converts this inert mixture into one which is highly and consistently reactive. The addition of copper powder enhances carbon's catalytic effect on the reactivity of the Li-SOCl2-LiAlCl4 mixture while trace additions of water have the opposite effect.

  1. Multimodel Surface Temperature Responses to Removal of U.S. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions (United States)

    Conley, A. J.; Westervelt, D. M.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Fiore, A. M.; Shindell, D.; Correa, G.; Faluvegi, G.; Horowitz, L. W.


    Three Earth System models are used to derive surface temperature responses to removal of U.S. anthropogenic SO2 emissions. Using multicentury perturbation runs with and without U.S. anthropogenic SO2 emissions, the local and remote surface temperature changes are estimated. In spite of a temperature drift in the control and large internal variability, 200 year simulations yield statistically significant regional surface temperature responses to the removal of U.S. SO2 emissions. Both local and remote surface temperature changes occur in all models, and the patterns of changes are similar between models for northern hemisphere land regions. We find a global average temperature sensitivity to U.S. SO2 emissions of 0.0055 K per Tg(SO2) per year with a range of (0.0036, 0.0078). We examine global and regional responses in SO4 burdens, aerosol optical depths (AODs), and effective radiative forcing (ERF). While changes in AOD and ERF are concentrated near the source region (United States), the temperature response is spread over the northern hemisphere with amplification of the temperature increase toward the Arctic. In all models, we find a significant response of dust concentrations, which affects the AOD but has no obvious effect on surface temperature. Temperature sensitivity to the ERF of U.S. SO2 emissions is found to differ from the models' sensitivity to radiative forcing of doubled CO2.

  2. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary NAAQS Review: Integrated Review Plan - Advisory with CASAC (United States)

    The SO2 Integrated Review Plan is the first document generated as part of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) review process. The Plan presents background information, the schedule for the review, the process to be used in conducting the review, and the key policy-...

  3. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary Standards Documents from Current Review - Federal Register Notices (United States)

    EPA develops and publishes a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding the review of the SO2 national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). A public comment period follows. Taking into account comments received on the proposed rule, EPA issues a final rule.

  4. Sulfur dioxide : Relevance of toxic and nutritional effects for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping; Stulen, Ineke; De Kok, Luit J.


    Shoots of Chinese cabbage formed a sink for atmospheric SO2 and there was a linear relation between the rate of uptake and the atmospheric SO2 level (0.03-1.4 mu l l(-1)). Chinese cabbage appeared to be rather susceptible to the toxic effects of SO2. Shoot biomass production was reduced upon

  5. The Effect of Extinguishing Agents on Burning Sonobuoys Containing Lithium-Sulfur Dioxide Batteries (United States)


    components and the JP-5. In addition, the types of extinguish- ment materials, such as carbor spheres, that have some degree of success on metal fires , would...NWC TP 6571, publication UNCLASSIFIED.) 8. John F. Riley. "Na-X, a New Fire Extinguishing Agent for Metal Fires ," Fire Technology, Vol. 10, No. 4

  6. Galvanic detection of sulfur dioxide in ambient air at trace levels by anodic oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindqvist, F.


    A continuous method for the measurement of SO2 in ambient air at trace levels is described. The principle of detection is based on the anodic oxidation of SO2 in a galvanic cell. A differential measuring technique with a cell with two anodes and one cathode is used; background and noise current are

  7. 75 FR 29534 - Inorganic Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft... (United States)


    ..., among other things, the Agency's risk assessment methodologies and assumptions, as applied to this draft... and will be publicly available only in hard copy form. Publicly available docket materials are available either in the electronic docket at , or, if only available in hard copy...

  8. Effect of sulfur dioxide on pulmonary macrophage endocytosis at rest and during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skornik, W.A.; Brain, J.D.


    Inhaled SO2 may cause damage by injuring upper airways. To what extent can SO2 also alter pulmonary macrophage function in the parenchyma and what is the impact of exercise? We studied the effect of SO2 on pulmonary macrophage endocytosis in resting and in exercising animals by measuring the rates of macrophage endocytosis in situ for 1 h of a test particle of insoluble radioactive colloidal gold (198Au), 1, 24, or 48 h after inhalation exposure to SO2. Resting hamsters exposed for 4 h to 50 ppm SO2 had no significant reduction in macrophage endocytosis compared with air-breathing control hamsters. However, if hamsters were exposed to the same concentration of SO2 while continuously running (40 min at 0.9 km/h), macrophage endocytosis was significantly reduced 1 h after exposure even though the exposure time was only one-sixth as long. Twenty-four hours later, the percentage of gold ingested by pulmonary macrophages remained significantly depressed. By 48 h, the rate had returned to control values. Exercise alone did not affect endocytosis. Hamsters exposed to 50 ppm SO2, with or without exercise, also showed significant reductions in the number of lavaged macrophages. This decrease was greatest and most persistent in the SO2 plus exercise group. These data indicate that even when animals are exposed to water-soluble gases, which are normally removed by the upper airways, exercise can potentiate damage to more peripheral components of the pulmonary defense system such as the macrophage

  9. Effects of Rhizobium inoculation on Trifolium resupinatum antioxidant system under sulfur dioxide pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Bayat


    Full Text Available Introduction: Plant growth stimulating rhizobacteria are beneficial bacteria that can cause resistance to various stresses in plants. One of these stresses is SO2 air pollution. SO2 is known as a strong damaging air pollutant that limits growth of plants. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effects of bacterial inoculation with native and standard Rhizobium on Persian clover root growth and antioxidants activity and capacity under air SO2 pollution. Materials and methods: In this study, 31 days plants (no-inoculated and inoculated with two strains of Rhizobium exposed to the different concentrations of SO2 (0 as a control, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 ppm for 5 consecutive days and 2 hours per day. Results: Results showed different concentrations of SO2 had a significant effect on Persian clover root weight and antioxidant system. Increasing SO2 stress decreased root fresh and dry weight and antioxidant capacities (IC50 and increased antioxidant activities (I% of Persian clover leaves significantly in comparison to the control plants (under 0 ppm and increased SOD, CAT and GPX activity. Inoculation of Persian clover plants with native and standard Rhizobium increased root weight and did not show a significant effect on antioxidants activity and capacity, but interaction between Rhizobium inoculation and SO2 treatment reduced significantly the stress effects of high concentration of SO2 on root growth and antioxidants activity and capacity. In fact, level of this change of root growth and antioxidant system under SO2 pollution stress in inoculated plants was lower than in the non-inoculated plants. Discussion and conclusion: As a result, an increase in SO2 concentration caused a decrease in root weight, increase in antioxidants activity and capacity of Persian clover. Inoculation with Rhizobium strains could alleviate the effect of SO2 pollution on antioxidant system by effects on root growth.

  10. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (United States)


    ....2 lb/MMBtu) heat input. If coal is combusted with other fuels, the affected facility shall neither... excess of 520 ng/J (1.2 lb/MMBtu) heat input. If coal is fired with coal refuse, the affected facility.../MMBtu) heat input. If coal is combusted with other fuels, the affected facility is subject to the 50...

  11. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (United States)


    ... the check or money order number of the payment. (c) If an excess emissions penalty due under this part... shall be made by money order, cashier's check, certified check, or U.S. Treasury check made payable to.... Box 952491, St. Louis, MO 63195-2491. (3) Payments of penalties of $25,000 or more may be made by wire...

  12. Effects of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide on net photosynthesis and dark respiration of Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, V J; Unsworth, M H


    Rates of net photosynthesis, P/sub N/, and dark respiration of Vicia faba plants were measured in the laboratory in clean air and in air containing up to 175 parts 10/sup -9/ (500 m/sup -3/) SO/sub 2/. At all SO/sub 2/ concentrations exceeding 35 parts 10/sup -9/, P/sub N/ was inhibited compared with clean air. At light saturation, the magnitude of inhibition depended on SO/sub 2/ concentration but at low irradiances the inhibition was independent of concentration. Dark respiration rates increased substantially, independent of concentration. When exposures continued for up to 3 days, P/sub N/ returned to clean air values about 1 h after fumigation ceased: dark respiration recovered after one photoperiod. There were no visible injuries. Reviewing possible mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of P/sub N/, it is suggested that SO/sub 2/ competes with CO/sub 2/ for binding sites in RuBP carboxylase. Analysis of resistance analogues demonstrates that SO/sub 2/ altered both stomatal and internal (residual) resistances. A model of crop photosynthesis shows the implications of the observed responses for the growth of field crops in which plants are assumed to respond like laboratory plants. Photosynthesis of the crop would be less sensitive than that of individual plants to SO/sub 2/ concentration. Daily dry matter accumulation of hypothetical polluted crops would be substantially less than clean air values but would vary relatively little with SO/sub 2/ concentration. It is concluded that physiological bases exist to account for observed reductions in growth of plants at very low SO/sub 2/ concentrations, and that thresholds for plant responses to SO/sub 2/ require reassessment. 30 references, 5 figures, 1 table.


    Fluxes and deposition velocities of O3 and SO2 were measured over both a deciduous and a mixed coniferous-deciduous forest for full growing seasons. Fluxes and deposition velocities of O3 were measured over a coniferous forest for a month. Mean deposition velocities of 0.35 t...

  14. The role of support and promoter on the oxidation of sulfur dioxide using platinum based catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutsopoulos, Sotiris; Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Eriksen, Kim Michael


    The catalytic oxidation of SO2 to SO3 was studied over platinum based catalysts in the absence and the presence of dopants. The active metal was supported on silica gel or titania (anatase) by impregnation. The activities of the silica supported catalysts were found to follow the order PtRh/SiO2 ...

  15. Organosulfate Formation through the Heterogeneous Reaction of Sulfur Dioxide with Unsaturated Compounds (United States)

    George, C.; Passananti, M.; Kong, L.; Shang, J.; Perrier, S.; Jianmin, C.; Donaldson, D. J.


    The atmospheric formation of organosulfur derivatives through reaction with SO2 is generally mediated by oxidants such as O3, OH; recently we have proposed a direct reaction between SO2 and unsaturated compounds as another possible pathway for organosulfate formation in the troposphere. For the first time it was shown recently that a heterogeneous reaction between SO2 and oleic acid (OA; an unsaturated fatty acid) takes place and leads efficiently to the formation of organosulfur products. Here, we demonstrate that this reaction proceeds on various unsaturated compounds, and may therefore have a general environmental impact. We used different experimental strategies i.e., a coated flow tube (CFT), an aerosol flow tube (AFT) and a DRIFT (diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform) cell. The reaction products were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer (LC-HR-MS). We report indeed that SO2 reacts with large variety of C=C unsaturations and that even in the presence of ozone, SO2 reacts with OA leading to organosulfur products. A strong enhancement in product formation is observed under actinic illumination, increases the atmospheric significance of this chemical pathway. This is probably due to the chromophoric nature of the SO2 adduct with C=C bonds, and means that the contribution of this direct addition of SO2 could be in excess of 5%. The detection in atmospheric aerosols of organosulfur compounds with the same chemical formulae as the products identified here seems to confirm the importance of this reaction in the atmosphere.

  16. Detection of volcanic eruptions from space by their sulfur dioxide clouds (United States)

    Krueger, A. J.


    The capabilities of the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus 7 satellite for tracking volcano plumes are assessed. TOMS was installed on the sun-synchronous polar orbiting satellite to measure spatial variations in the global total ozone field. Radiance absorption coefficients of the atmosphere for four near-UV wavelengths from 312.5-380.0 are measured. Data from the El Chichon eruption in March-April 1982 revealed that SO2 was an absorbing species at 312.5 and 317.5 nm. The near-UV absorption level differences between SO2 and O3 permit discriminating the atmospheric densities of each species. An examination of the data base generated by TOMS since 1978 showed the perceptible tracks of all known major eruptions in the 1978-1982 time period. A constellation of three of the polar orbiting TOMS would be sufficient to provide near-real time alerts of plumes to warn aircraft of the hazards.

  17. [An observation of the effect of sulfur dioxide on rat nasal mucosa]. (United States)

    Lu, Z Q


    This paper reports the effect of SO2 on rat nasal mucosa. The rats were forced to inhale SO2 and the effect on the nasal mucosa observed. The rats were divided into four groups. The first group inhaled 10ppm SO2; the second group 20ppm; the third group 40 ppm and the fourth group served as control. The observation lasted for 6 months. It was found that the nasal mucosa in the control group remained columnar ciliated. In the experimental groups, during the early stage (groups I, II) of exposure, there was no significant morphological change in epithelium. Then (groups I, II) the epithelium changed into cuboidal with complete disappearance of cilia, only some short and slender microvilli remained. While in the late stage (group III), the epithelium had transformed into squamous stratified and the amount of mucosal glands reduced.

  18. Benzene destruction in claus process by sulfur dioxide: A reaction kinetics study

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Sourab


    Benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) are present as contaminants in the H 2S gas stream entering a Claus furnace. The exhaust gases from the furnace enter catalytic units, where BTX form soot particles. These particles clog and deactivate the catalysts. A solution to this problem is BTX oxidation before the gases enter catalyst beds. This work presents a theoretical investigation on benzene oxidation by SO2. Density functional theory is used to develop a detailed mechanism for phenyl radical -SO2 interactions. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition to phenyl radical after overcoming an energy barrier of 6.4 kJ/mol. This addition reaction is highly exothermic, where a reaction energy of 182 kJ/mol is released. The most favorable pathway involves O-S bond breakage, leading to the release of SO. A remarkable similarity between the pathways for phenyl radical oxidation by O2 and its oxidation by SO2 is observed. The reaction rate constants are also evaluated to facilitate process simulations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Reaction Mechanism for m- Xylene Oxidation in the Claus Process by Sulfur Dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Sourab


    In the Claus process, the presence of aromatic contaminants such benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX), in the H2S feed stream has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX form soot particles and clog and deactivate the catalysts. Among BTX, xylenes are proven to be most damaging contaminant for catalysts. BTX oxidation in the Claus furnace, before they enter catalyst beds, provides a solution to this problem. A reaction kinetics study on m-xylene oxidation by SO2, an oxidant present in Claus furnace, is presented. The density functional theory is used to study the formation of m-xylene radicals (3-methylbenzyl, 2,6-dimethylphenyl, 2,4-dimethylphenyl, and 3,5-dimethylphenyl) through H-abstraction and their oxidation by SO2. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radicals through an O-atom rather than the S-atom with the release of 180.0-183.1 kJ/mol of reaction energies. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers in the range 3.9-5.2 kJ/mol for several m-xylene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO, and the O-atom remaining on aromatics leads to CO formation. Among four m-xylene radicals, the resonantly stabilized 3-methylbenzyl exhibited the lowest SO2 addition and SO elimination rates. The reaction rate constants are provided to facilitate Claus process simulations to find conditions suitable for BTX oxidation. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  20. Effects of sulfur dioxide on nitrogen fixation, carbon partitioning, and yield components in snapbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, S.M.; Campbell, W.F.


    The air pollutant SO 2 is known to affect plant biochemistry and physiology, although very little is known about its effects on N 2 -fixation in legumes. This study sought to determine if N 2 -fixation, C partitioning, and plant productivity of snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were affected under short-term, low-level SO 2 exposures. Plants were exposed, 29 d after planting (7 d before anthesis), to 0, 18, and 36 μmol SO 2 m -3 for 4 h d -1 for 5 d in a fumigation chamber. On the last day of SO 2 treatment, plants were also exposed to 14 CO 2 to determine changes in C partitioning patterns. At these concentrations, there was no visible damage to plant tissue and no significant changes in dry weight or yield components. Only the 36 μmol SO 2 m -3 treatment reduced C 2 H 2 reduction rates, but recovery to near control rates occurred within 24 h after SO 2 removal. Leaves of plants treated with 18 μmol SO 2 m -3 exported more of their total assimilated 14 C than control plants, while those treated with 36 μmol SO 2 m -3 retained greater amounts. Retention of 14 C at the 36 μmol SO 2 m -3 level may account for the inhibition of C 2 H 2 -reduction because of less photosynthate arriving at the root nodules. These data suggest that SO 2 levels that do not cause visible injury may interfere with C metabolism and transport in snapbean