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Sample records for sulfoxide bladder instillations

  1. Measuring the success of combined intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide and triamcinolone for treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafni-Kane, Adam; Botros, Sylvia M; Du, Hongyan; Sand, Robert I; Sand, Peter K

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate change in bladder capacity as a measure of response to combined intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and triamcinolone instillations for the treatment of newly diagnosed bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). 141 newly diagnosed women were identified retrospectively. 79 were treated with weekly DMSO/triamcinolone instillations. Change in bladder capacity with bladder retrofill, daytime urinary frequency, nocturia episodes per night, and Likert scale symptom scores were reviewed. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, Spearman's rank correlations, COX regression analysis, and a Kaplan-Meier survival curve were performed. Significant changes (median (25(th)-percentile to 75(th)-percentile) were noted for bladder capacity (75 mL (25 to 130 mL), p measure of response to intravesical DMSO/triamcinolone for newly diagnosed BPS/IC. Clinical outcomes do not differ based upon presence of DO.

  2. Intravesical instillation of Adriamycin plus irradiation in the prophylactic treatment of recurring bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Fumio; Kan, Masaharu; Tsujimura, Haruhiro; Nakajima, Mikio

    1989-01-01

    The prevention of the recurrence of bladder tumors was attempted in 45 patients by intravesical instillation of Adriamycin plus irradiation (20 Gy). 30 ml saline solution containing ADM 30mg was instilled into the bladder and then irradiation was performed every day for 10 days. Patients' ages ranged from 36 to 84 years with a mean of 66.5 years; the sex ratio was 3(M) : 1(F). The recurrence rate following therapy was 8.1% after 1 year, 29.4% after 2 years and 29.4% after 3 years. The recurrence rate was low in patients with low grade tumors, those with single tumors and those who received this combination therapy after surgery. Only one patient was obliged to interrupt the therapy due to a bladder irritation. (author)

  3. On the influence of the instillation time on the results of HAL (Hexvix) fluorescence detection of superficial bladder cancer

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    Jichlinski, Patrice; Aymon, Daniela; Wagnieres, Georges A.; Marti, Alexandre; Lange, Norbert; Guillou, Louis; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; van den Bergh, Hubert

    2003-10-01

    Hexyl aminolevulinate (HAL) fluorescence cystoscopy is being investigated as a new diagnostic tool for the detection of flat urothelial malignancies in bladder cancers. However, the influence of the bladder instillation time on the performance of this detection modality has not been addressed up to now. We report our initial experience comparing different instillation schedules of HAL cystoscopy in the diagnosis of superficial bladder cancer. A total of 718 fluorescent positive (433) and fluorescence negative (285) biopsies have been taken in the bladder of 143 patients using the Storz D-light fluorescence imaging system (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) which allows both white and blue light (380-450 nm) bladder wall inspection. Following hospitalisation, 50 ml of HAL (8mM) phosphate buffer solution was instilled into the bladder of patients during one hour (1 hour protocol involving 57 patients), or during two hours followed by a two hours resting time after removal of the solution (2+2 hours protocol involving 86 patients). Both instillation subgroups were homogeneous in terms of proportion of high risk disease, previous BCG treatment and/or recurrent disease. This study indicates that the instillation duration does not influence the results of HAL (Hexvix) fluorescence cystoscopy in our conditions. Compared to the standard use of ALA, HAL (Hexvix) fluorescence cystoscopy allows a significant reduction of the instillation time (to less than one hour) without prejudicing the efficacy of the method, what represents a real advantage in daily clinical practice.

  4. Bladder instillation of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide alters the muscle contractions in rat urinary bladder via a protein kinase C-related pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, T.I.; Chen, W.J.; Liu, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is a common cause of urinary tract infection. We determined the effects of intravesical instillation of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) on muscle contractions, protein kinase C (PKC) translocation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat urinary bladder. The contractions of the isolated rat detrusor muscle evoked by electrical field stimulations were measured short-term (1 h) or long-term (24 h) after intravesical instillation of LPS. One hour after LPS intravesical instillation, bladder PKC-α translocation from cytosolic fraction to membrane fraction and endothelial (e)NOS protein was elevated, and detrusor muscle contractions were significantly increased. PKC inhibitors chelerythrine and Ro32-0432 inhibited this LPS-enhanced contractile response. Application of PKC activator β-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate enhanced the muscle contractions. Three hours after intravesical instillation of LPS, iNOS mRNA was detected in the bladder. Immunoblotting study also demonstrated that the induction of iNOS proteins is detected in bladder in which LPS was instilled. 24 h after intravesical instillation of LPS, PKC-α translocation was impaired in the bladder; LPS did not affect PKC-δ translocation. Muscle contractions were also decreased 24 h after LPS intravesical instillation. Aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, blocked the decrease in PKC-α translocation and detrusor contractions induced by LPS. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms involved in the alteration of urinary bladder contractions after short-term and long-term treatment of LPS; an iNOS-regulated PKC signaling may participate in causing the inhibition of muscle contractions in urinary bladder induced by long-term LPS treatment

  5. The management of non-invasive bladder tumours with Doxorubicin intravesical instillation after transurethral resection.

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    Al-Gallab, Musa I; Naddaf, Louai A; Kanan, Mohamad R

    2009-04-01

    Evaluation of the intravesical instillation of doxorubicin for its effect on disease recurrence for patients with non-invasive bladder tumour. The study was performed at Al Assad University Hospital in Lattakia, Syria and included patients with non-invasive bladder tumours who were managed with transurethral resection and induction and maintenance therapy with intravesical doxorubicin. They were followed up by cystoscopy every 3 months for 2 years and every 6 months thereafter with special emphasis on recurrence rates. The study included 85 patients with non-invasive bladder tumours: 23 with non-invasive papillary carcinoma (Stage Ta), 62 with tumour invading subepithelial connective tissue (Stage T1). Twelve patients had well differentiated tumours (Grade 1), 48 had moderately differentiated (Grade 2), 25 had poorly differentiated (Grade 3) tumours. The total recurrence rate was 23%. The rates of recurrence were 56% in Grade 3 and 0% in Grade 1. The recurrence rate was 41% in patients with large tumours versus 17% in those with small tumours; 44% in those with multiple tumours compared to 18% in those with solitary tumours; 30% of Stage Ta tumours recurred and 21% of Stage T1 tumours. In short term follow-up, our rate of recurrence was 23%. Adjuvant intravesical doxorubicin was shown to reduce the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Tumour grade, size and number were shown to be prognostic factors for recurrence.

  6. Bladder cancers respond to intravesical instillation of HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells).

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    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Wullt, Björn; Gustafsson, Lotta; Månsson, Wiking; Ljunggren, Eva; Svanborg, Catharina

    2007-09-15

    We studied if bladder cancers respond to HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) to establish if intravesical HAMLET application might be used to selectively remove cancer cells in vivo. Patients with nonmuscle invasive transitional cell carcinomas were included. Nine patients received 5 daily intravesical instillations of HAMLET (25 mg/ml) during the week before scheduled surgery. HAMLET stimulated a rapid increase in the shedding of tumor cells into the urine, daily, during the 5 days of instillation. The effect was specific for HAMLET, as intravesical instillation of NaCl, PBS or native alpha-lactalbumin did not increase cell shedding. Most of the shed cells were dead and an apoptotic response was detected in 6 of 9 patients, using the TUNEL assay. At surgery, morphological changes in the exophytic tumors were documented by endoscopic photography and a reduction in tumor size or change in tumor character was detected in 8 of 9 patients. TUNEL staining was positive in biopsies from the remaining tumor in 4 patients but adjacent healthy tissue showed no evidence of apoptosis and no toxic response. The results suggest that HAMLET exerts a direct and selective effect on bladder cancer tissue in vivo and that local HAMLET administration might be of value in the future treatment of bladder cancers. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. In vivo fluorescence imaging of an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model indicates differential uptake of intravesically instilled near-infrared labeled 2-deoxyglucose analog by neoplastic urinary bladder tissues

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    Piao, Daqing; Davis, Carole A.; Hurst, Robert E.; Slaton, Joel W.

    2017-02-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most expensive cancers to manage due to frequent recurrences requiring life-long surveillance and treatment. A near-infrared labeled 2-deoxy-d-glucose probe IRDye800CW-DG targeting glucose metabolism pathway has shown to enhance the sensitivity of diagnosing several types of cancers as tested on tumor models not including bladder tumor. This pilot study has explored differential uptake of intravesically administered IRDye800CW-DG in an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model. Twenty-five female Fischer rats were randomly grouped to four conditions: no-tumor-control (n=3), no-tumor-control intravesically instilled with IRDye800CWDG (n=6), rats bearing GFP-labeled AY-27 rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma cells and washed with saline (n=5), and rats bearing AY-27 tumors and intravesically instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=11). Near-infrared fluorescence was measured from the opened bladder wall of anesthetized rat at an excitation wavelength of 750nm and an emission wavelength of 776nm, by using an in-house fluorescence imaging system. There is no statistically significant difference of the peak fluorescence intensity among the no-tumor-control bladders (n=3), the no-tumorcontrol bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), and the GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders washed by saline (n=5). When compared to that of the no-tumor-control bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), the fluorescence intensity of GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG and with histology confirmed neoplastic bladder tissue (n=11) was remarkably more intense (3.34 fold of over the former) and was also statistically significant (pbladder tissues suggests the potential for cystoscopy-adaptation to enhance diagnosis and guiding surgical management of flat urinary bladder cancer.

  8. Delayed healing at transurethral resection of bladder tumour sites after immediate postoperative mitomycin C instillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Mark F; Mogensen, Karin; Hermann, Gregers G

    2014-01-01

    The most common reactions to mitomycin C are dysuria and drug-related palmar and genital desquamation. This report describes two cases of delayed healing of the mucosa at resection sites after transurethral resection of bladder tumours, most likely due to immediate postoperative mitomycin C...

  9. Intravesical treatments of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

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    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schwalenberg, Thilo

    2012-12-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a disabling chronic condition that affects up to 7% of women in the USA. In men, BPS/IC seems to be less common, but might be underestimated because it can be confused with chronic prostatitis. The aetiology and pathophysiology of BPS/IC are not well understood. Consequently, diagnosis and treatment is challenging and most therapies used to date are off-label. These therapies include bladder instillation with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and BCG, as well as hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Overall, botulinum neurotoxin A injection, intravesical sodium hyaluronate instillation and DMSO instillation seem to be the best-performing treatments, with response rates of 79%, 76% and 75%, respectively, and can be used effectively as second-line or third-line therapies for BPS/IC. However, additional high-quality randomized controlled trials are necessary to improve the available data.

  10. [Systematic review on conservative treatment options in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients refractory to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin instillation therapy].

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    Martini, Thomas; Wezel, Felix; Löbig, Niklas; Mitterberger, Michael J; Colleselli, Daniela

    2017-08-01

    Background Adjuvant Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) intravesical instillation is the recommended standard treatment in patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, a significant proportion of patients fail treatment, and radical cystectomy (RC) is the subsequent gold standard. On the other hand, there is an unmet need for conservative alternatives for patients who are unfit or unwilling to undergo surgery. This study aimed to identify conservative treatment options in NMIBC patients after BCG failure. Material and Methods We performed a systematic search in the databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, including all randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and single-arm studies, in which patients with NMIBC were treated with second-line intravesical or systemic therapy after BCG failure. A minimum of eight patients were included in each treatment arm. Full papers were restricted to English language. Literature research and data analysis were assessed independently by two reviewers. Data on treatment response, recurrence, time to recurrence, progression and rate of cystectomy were collected and analysed. Results  This systematic review included 42 publications with a total of 3521 patients (2371 BCG failures). Valrubicin, taxanes, gemcitabine, combination chemotherapy, thermochemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, combination of BCG and interferon and immunotherapies or targeted therapies were identified as conservative treatment options. For taxanes, gemcitabine and thermochemotherapy there is the highest evidence for a clinical meaningful response with minor toxicities. Conclusions Despite some promising response rates for taxanes, gemcitabine or thermochemotherapy, an evidence-based recommendation for treatment options superior to RC in patients failing BCG therapy cannot be made. The definition of BCG failure is still inconsistent and heterogeneous outcomes in patients with BCG

  11. Prosthetic Joint Infection due to Mycobacterium bovis after Intravesical Instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG

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    Eric Gomez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is a treatment to prevent recurrence of superficial urothelial bladder carcinoma. Complications after bladder instillation of BCG have been reported including locally invasive and systemic infections due to dissemination of Mycobacterium bovis from the bladder. We present an uncommon case and literature review of prosthetic joint infection due to M. bovis after intravesical BCG treatment of bladder cancer.

  12. Reiter's syndrome postintravesical Bacillus Calmette–Guérin instillations

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    Keng Lim Ng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG has been a proven and effective immunotherapy treatment for superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder, especially for high-grade tumors and carcinoma in situ. Nevertheless, significant side effects are associated with BCG instillations, including fever, myalgia, malaise, dysuria, hematuria, and irritable lower urinary tract symptoms. We herein report the case of a patient who developed Reiter's syndrome following intravesical BCG instillations. A 39-year-old Chinese man presented with a 3-week history of dysuria, suprapubic pain, and pain at the tip of the penis postmicturition. Initial investigations revealed that he had microhematuria, and an ultrasound with computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a bladder mass. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor was performed and the patient received a single dose of intravesical mitomycin postoperatively. Results of histopathological examination revealed high-grade bladder TCC (G3pT1, and the patient was managed with intravesical BCG for 2 weeks following the surgery. Four weekly cycles of BCG were administered uneventfully; however, before the fifth instillation, the patient complained of urethral discharge, bilateral conjunctivitis, and low back pain. Reiter's syndrome was diagnosed as a rare but known complication of BCG instillation and the BCG immunotherapy was withheld. The patient was treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (for back pain and eye ointment (for conjunctivitis and his condition improved. This case report of Reiter's syndrome should be highlighted as a rare but significant complication of BCG immunotherapy and urologists should have a high index of suspicion to diagnose this rare complication.

  13. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin instillation therapy: A potential cause of incidental F-18 FDG uptke in the prostate gland on F-18 FDG PET/CT in patients with bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Choon Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Choi, Seock Hwan; Son, Seung Hyun; Jung, Ji Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-induced granulomatous prostatitis can be a potential cause of benign F-18 FDG uptake. A total of 395 bladder cancer patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT (PET/CT) were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups according to BCG therapy status. Elapsed time after BCG therapy, serum PSA level, results of prostate biopsy, and the SUV max and uptake pattern in the prostate gland were reviewed. For patients who underwent follow-up PET/CT, the changes in SUV max were calculated. While 35 % of patients showed prostate uptake in the BCG therapy group, only 1 % showed prostate uptake in the non-BCG therapy group (p < 0.001). Among 49 patients with FDG-avid prostate lesions, none had suspected malignancy during the follow-up period (median: 16 months). Five patients revealed granulomatous prostatitis on biopsy. The incidence of FDG-avid prostate lesions was significantly higher if the elapsed time after BCG therapy was less than 1 year compared to more than 1 year (p < 0.001). Serum PSA was normal in 88 % of patients. All patients with incidental F-18 FDG uptake in the prostate gland showed focal or multifocal prostate uptake, and median SUV max was 4.7. In 16 patients who underwent follow-up PET/CT, SUV max was decreased in 14 patients (88 %) without treatment, and no patients demonstrated further increased prostate uptake (p < 0.001). BCG-induced granulomatous prostatitis can be a potential cause of benign F-18 FDG uptake, especially in those with a history of bladder cancer treated with BCG. In BCG-induced granulomatous prostatitis, focal or multifocal prostate uptake is frequently seen within 1 year after BCG therapy, and the intensity of prostate uptake is decreased on the follow-up PET/CT without any treatment

  14. Analyzing the effects of instillation volume on intravesical delivery using biphasic solute transport in a deformable geometry.

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    Smith, Sean G; Griffith, Boyce E; Zaharoff, David A

    2018-04-05

    Ailments of the bladder are often treated via intravesical delivery-direct application of therapeutic into the bladder through a catheter. This technique is employed hundreds of thousands of times every year, but protocol development has largely been limited to empirical determination. Furthermore, the numerical analyses of intravesical delivery performed to date have been restricted to static geometries and have not accounted for bladder deformation. This study uses a finite element analysis approach with biphasic solute transport to investigate several parameters pertinent to intravesical delivery including solute concentration, solute transport properties and instillation volume. The volume of instillation was found to have a substantial impact on the exposure of solute to the deeper muscle layers of the bladder, which are typically more difficult to reach. Indeed, increasing the instillation volume from 50-100 ml raised the muscle solute exposure as a percentage of overall bladder exposure from 60-70% with higher levels achieved for larger instillation volumes. Similar increases were not seen for changes in solute concentration or solute transport properties. These results indicate the role that instillation volume may play in targeting particular layers of the bladder during an intravesical delivery.

  15. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin instillation therapy: A potential cause of incidental F-18 FDG uptke in the prostate gland on F-18 FDG PET/CT in patients with bladder cancer

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    Kim, Choon Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Choi, Seock Hwan; Son, Seung Hyun; Jung, Ji Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [Kyungpook National University Medical Center and School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-induced granulomatous prostatitis can be a potential cause of benign F-18 FDG uptake. A total of 395 bladder cancer patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT (PET/CT) were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups according to BCG therapy status. Elapsed time after BCG therapy, serum PSA level, results of prostate biopsy, and the SUV{sub max} and uptake pattern in the prostate gland were reviewed. For patients who underwent follow-up PET/CT, the changes in SUV{sub max} were calculated. While 35 % of patients showed prostate uptake in the BCG therapy group, only 1 % showed prostate uptake in the non-BCG therapy group (p < 0.001). Among 49 patients with FDG-avid prostate lesions, none had suspected malignancy during the follow-up period (median: 16 months). Five patients revealed granulomatous prostatitis on biopsy. The incidence of FDG-avid prostate lesions was significantly higher if the elapsed time after BCG therapy was less than 1 year compared to more than 1 year (p < 0.001). Serum PSA was normal in 88 % of patients. All patients with incidental F-18 FDG uptake in the prostate gland showed focal or multifocal prostate uptake, and median SUV{sub max} was 4.7. In 16 patients who underwent follow-up PET/CT, SUV{sub max} was decreased in 14 patients (88 %) without treatment, and no patients demonstrated further increased prostate uptake (p < 0.001). BCG-induced granulomatous prostatitis can be a potential cause of benign F-18 FDG uptake, especially in those with a history of bladder cancer treated with BCG. In BCG-induced granulomatous prostatitis, focal or multifocal prostate uptake is frequently seen within 1 year after BCG therapy, and the intensity of prostate uptake is decreased on the follow-up PET/CT without any treatment.

  16. Novel multisensor probe for monitoring bladder temperature during locoregional chemohyperthermia for nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer: technical feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordeiro, Ernesto R.; Geijsen, Debby E.; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J.; Schooneveldt, Gerben; Sijbrands, Jan; Hulshof, Maarten C.; de la Rosette, Jean; de Reijke, Theo M.; Crezee, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of locoregional hyperthermia combined with intravesical instillation of mitomycin C to reduce the risk of recurrence and progression of intermediate- and high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer is currently investigated in clinical trials. Clinically effective locoregional

  17. HAMLET treatment delays bladder cancer development.

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    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Hou, Yuchuan; Svensson, Majlis; Holmqvist, Bo; Svanborg, Catharina

    2010-04-01

    HAMLET is a protein-lipid complex that kills different types of cancer cells. Recently we observed a rapid reduction in human bladder cancer size after intravesical HAMLET treatment. In this study we evaluated the therapeutic effect of HAMLET in the mouse MB49 bladder carcinoma model. Bladder tumors were established by intravesical injection of MB49 cells into poly L-lysine treated bladders of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment groups received repeat intravesical HAMLET instillations and controls received alpha-lactalbumin or phosphate buffer. Effects of HAMLET on tumor size and putative apoptotic effects were analyzed in bladder tissue sections. Whole body imaging was used to study HAMLET distribution in tumor bearing mice compared to healthy bladder tissue. HAMLET caused a dose dependent decrease in MB49 cell viability in vitro. Five intravesical HAMLET instillations significantly decreased tumor size and delayed development in vivo compared to controls. TUNEL staining revealed selective apoptotic effects in tumor areas but not in adjacent healthy bladder tissue. On in vivo imaging Alexa-HAMLET was retained for more than 24 hours in the bladder of tumor bearing mice but not in tumor-free bladders or in tumor bearing mice that received Alexa-alpha-lactalbumin. Results show that HAMLET is active as a tumoricidal agent and suggest that topical HAMLET administration may delay bladder cancer development. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibacterial activity of probiotics in bladder tumor patients

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    Molchanov R.N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The chronic urinary tract infection (UTI is a risk factor that worsens a natural course of bladder tumors. Using of probiotics, possessing antagonistic influence on pathogenic microflora and immunocorrection effect, for preventive maintenance and treat¬ment of a chronic UTI in bladder tumor patients is an actual and perspective direction. The goal of the research was studying antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect of a single bladder instillation of either lactobacilli or aerococci in bladder tumor patients. In the preoperative period a single bladder instillation with either lactobacterin or a-bacterin preparation to 35 bladder tumor patients was done. Bacteriuria, leucocyturia, lactobacilli and aerococci count in urine were measured before and in 1, 3, 6 and 24 hours after instillation. Decrease in bacteriuria level in both groups of patients was revealed. Lactobacilli and aerococci count in urine gradually decreased up to complete elimination in 24 hours (in 1 patient who received lactobacterin (12,5 % and in 9 patients who received a-bacterin. (40,9 %. Leucocyturia study did not show statistically confidence dynamics throughout the observation period in both groups. Thus, bladder instillation with lactobacterin or a-bacterin leads to suppression of uropathogenic microflora in bladder tumor patients; in the majority of patients spontaneous elimination of lactobacilli and aerococci occurs within 24 hours.

  19. The effect of intravesical instillations with Hyaluronic Acid on sexual dysfunction in women with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI).

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    Nightingale, Gemma; Shehab, Qasem; Kandiah, Chandrakumaran; Rush, Lorraine; Rowe-Jones, Clare; Phillips, Christian H

    2018-02-01

    To determine whether sexual dysfunction in women with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) improved following treatment with intravesical Hyaluronic Acid (HA) instillations. Ethical approval was obtained for a prospective study to be performed. Patients referred for bladder instillations to treat RUTI, and who were sexually active, were recruited to the study. A selection of validated questionnaires (ICIQ-UI, ICIQ-VS, FSDS-R, ICIQ-FLUTS, O'Leary/Sant and PGI-I) were completed at baseline, three, six and 12 months after initiation of treatment with bladder instillations. Treatment consisted of weekly bladder instillations with a preparation containing HA for four weeks then monthly for two further treatments. Results were populated in SPSS for statistical analysis and statistical significance was powered for 22 patients. Thirty women were included in the study. FSDS-R was used to determine sexual dysfunction and showed that 57% patients with RUTI had significant sexual distress. There was a significant improvement in FSDS-R at three, six and 12 months when compared to baseline (Friedman two-way analysis p sexual dysfunction, and an improvement in bladder symptoms following treatment with HA. To our knowledge, this is the first study to prove an improvement in sexual dysfunction following intravesical treatment with HA which is sustained for up to 12 months. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A pharmacoeconomic analysis of the use of single MMC instillation in low risk NMIBC in Italy

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    Renzo Colombo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer accounts for 5-10% of all cancers in Europe and up to 85% patients presents a noninvasive tumor, whose treatment of choice is the transurethral bladder resection (TURB paired with adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Despite several clinical trials showed that this treatment is safe and decreases recurrences by 17% to 44% this practice is limited for many reasons. The study objective is to analyze the economical advantages of the single immediate post operative Mitomycin C instillation in Non Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC low-risk patients.METHODS: A cost-benefit analysis was performed evaluating the economical gain that would raised from a scenario with a single immediate post operative mitomycin C instillation in each low-risk NMIBC patient who underwent to TURB. Net present value and cost-benefit ratio were calculated and sensitivity analyses were performed. Base case analysis was performed considering tumor recurrence rate reduction of 11.7% and a TURB costs of 2,167.0 €, while sensitivity analyses were performed using a recurrence rate reduction of 19.2% and 15.0% and a TURB cost of 2,472.93 €. The discount rate was 2%.RESULTS: The single immediate post operative instillation of mitomycin C resulted to be cost-beneficial with a cost-benefit ratio that goes from 0.48 to 0.79 when compared to TURB alone raising a Net Present Value that goes from 660,284.39 € to 2,650,530.79 €.CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that even assuming conservative parameters for recurrence rates reduction, a single immediate post operative mitomycin C instillation in low risk NMIBC patients would lower not only the recurrence rate but also the caring cost for bladder cancer.

  1. Applications of Nanotechnology in Bladder Cancer Therapy

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    Jong-Wei Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective therapies can prevent superficial bladder cancer from developing into muscle-invasive stage or more severe stages which require radical cystectomy and negatively affect life quality. In terms of therapeutic approaches against superficial bladder cancer, intravesical (regional therapy has several advantages over oral (systemic therapy. Though urologists can directly deliver drugs to bladder lesions by intravesical instillation after transurethral resection, the efficacy of conventional drug delivery is usually low due to the bladder permeability barrier and bladder periodical discharge. Nanoparticles have been well developed as pharmaceutical carriers. By their versatile properties, nanoparticles can greatly improve the interactions between urothelium and drugs and also enhance the penetration of drugs into urothelium with lesions, which dramatically improves therapeutic efficacy. In this review, we discuss the advances of nanotechnology in bladder cancer therapy by different types of nanoparticles with different encapsulating materials.

  2. Bladder injuries frequently missed in polytrauma patients

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    Tanweer Karim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanweer Karim, Margaret Topno, Vinod Sharma, Raymond Picardo, Ankur HastirSurgery, MGM Medical College, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai, IndiaAbstract: Bladder injuries are very common in patients who have had road traffic accidents. The method of diagnosis and management of such injuries is well established and accepted. However, trauma to the bladder can be associated with other life-threatening injuries which are frequently missed, and often diagnosed during laparotomy for other reasons. The aim of this study was to diagnose bladder injury in polytrauma patients as early as possible, taking into consideration the fact that these patients are hemodynamically unstable and require rapid evaluation and management. In order to achieve our objective, we used bedside sonography with retrograde instillation of normal saline to diagnose bladder injury in addition to use of the conventional retrograde cystogram.Keywords: bladder injury, bladder rupture, retrograde cystogram

  3. Bladder Management

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    ... Catheterization • Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Bladder Management [ Download this pamphlet: "Bladder Management" - (PDF, 499KB) ] The ... and medication or surgery may be helpful. Bladder Management Foley or Suprapubic Catheter A tube is inserted ...

  4. Bladder Cancer

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    ... organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. It ... urinate Low back pain Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in ...

  5. Retrograde cystogram for precise localization and irradiation of the urinary bladder of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, D.

    1988-01-01

    Using a Bangerter cannula contrast medium (Telebrix 30 Meglumine) was instilled for retrograde urography in adult, female mice. Afterwards localization, size and shape of the urinary bladder were examined by computer tomography. (author)

  6. VEGF induces sensory and motor peripheral plasticity, alters bladder function, and promotes visceral sensitivity.

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    Malykhina, Anna P; Lei, Qi; Erickson, Chris S; Epstein, Miles L; Saban, Marcia R; Davis, Carole A; Saban, Ricardo

    2012-12-19

    This work tests the hypothesis that bladder instillation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) modulates sensory and motor nerve plasticity, and, consequently, bladder function and visceral sensitivity.In addition to C57BL/6J, ChAT-cre mice were used for visualization of bladder cholinergic nerves. The direct effect of VEGF on the density of sensory nerves expressing the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) and cholinergic nerves (ChAT) was studied one week after one or two intravesical instillations of the growth factor.To study the effects of VEGF on bladder function, mice were intravesically instilled with VEGF and urodynamic evaluation was assessed. VEGF-induced alteration in bladder dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was performed on retrogradly labeled urinary bladder afferents by patch-clamp recording of voltage gated Na+ currents. Determination of VEGF-induced changes in sensitivity to abdominal mechanostimulation was performed by application of von Frey filaments. In addition to an overwhelming increase in TRPV1 immunoreactivity, VEGF instillation resulted in an increase in ChAT-directed expression of a fluorescent protein in several layers of the urinary bladder. Intravesical VEGF caused a profound change in the function of the urinary bladder: acute VEGF (1 week post VEGF treatment) reduced micturition pressure and longer treatment (2 weeks post-VEGF instillation) caused a substantial reduction in inter-micturition interval. In addition, intravesical VEGF resulted in an up-regulation of voltage gated Na(+) channels (VGSC) in bladder DRG neurons and enhanced abdominal sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. For the first time, evidence is presented indicating that VEGF instillation into the mouse bladder promotes a significant increase in peripheral nerve density together with alterations in bladder function and visceral sensitivity. The VEGF pathway is being proposed as a key modulator of neural plasticity in the pelvis and

  7. VEGF induces sensory and motor peripheral plasticity, alters bladder function, and promotes visceral sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykhina Anna P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work tests the hypothesis that bladder instillation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF modulates sensory and motor nerve plasticity, and, consequently, bladder function and visceral sensitivity. In addition to C57BL/6J, ChAT-cre mice were used for visualization of bladder cholinergic nerves. The direct effect of VEGF on the density of sensory nerves expressing the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1 and cholinergic nerves (ChAT was studied one week after one or two intravesical instillations of the growth factor. To study the effects of VEGF on bladder function, mice were intravesically instilled with VEGF and urodynamic evaluation was assessed. VEGF-induced alteration in bladder dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons was performed on retrogradly labeled urinary bladder afferents by patch-clamp recording of voltage gated Na+ currents. Determination of VEGF-induced changes in sensitivity to abdominal mechanostimulation was performed by application of von Frey filaments. Results In addition to an overwhelming increase in TRPV1 immunoreactivity, VEGF instillation resulted in an increase in ChAT-directed expression of a fluorescent protein in several layers of the urinary bladder. Intravesical VEGF caused a profound change in the function of the urinary bladder: acute VEGF (1 week post VEGF treatment reduced micturition pressure and longer treatment (2 weeks post-VEGF instillation caused a substantial reduction in inter-micturition interval. In addition, intravesical VEGF resulted in an up-regulation of voltage gated Na+ channels (VGSC in bladder DRG neurons and enhanced abdominal sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. Conclusions For the first time, evidence is presented indicating that VEGF instillation into the mouse bladder promotes a significant increase in peripheral nerve density together with alterations in bladder function and visceral sensitivity. The VEGF pathway is being proposed as a

  8. Novel Multisensor Probe for Monitoring Bladder Temperature During Locoregional Chemohyperthermia for Nonmuscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Technical Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijsen, Debby E.; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J.; Schooneveldt, Gerben; Sijbrands, Jan; Hulshof, Maarten C.; de la Rosette, Jean; de Reijke, Theo M.; Crezee, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose: The effectiveness of locoregional hyperthermia combined with intravesical instillation of mitomycin C to reduce the risk of recurrence and progression of intermediate- and high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer is currently investigated in clinical trials. Clinically effective locoregional hyperthermia delivery necessitates adequate thermal dosimetry; thus, optimal thermometry methods are needed to monitor accurately the temperature distribution throughout the bladder wall. The aim of the study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of a novel intravesical device (multi-sensor probe) developed to monitor the local bladder wall temperatures during loco-regional C-HT. Materials and Methods: A multisensor thermocouple probe was designed for deployment in the human bladder, using special sensors to cover the bladder wall in different directions. The deployment of the thermocouples against the bladder wall was evaluated with visual, endoscopic, and CT imaging in bladder phantoms, porcine models, and human bladders obtained from obduction for bladder volumes and different deployment sizes of the probe. Finally, porcine bladders were embedded in a phantom and subjected to locoregional heating to compare probe temperatures with additional thermometry inside and outside the bladder wall. Results: The 7.5 cm thermocouple probe yielded optimal bladder wall contact, adapting to different bladder volumes. Temperature monitoring was shown to be accurate and representative for the actual bladder wall temperature. Conclusions: Use of this novel multisensor probe could yield a more accurate monitoring of the bladder wall temperature during locoregional chemohyperthermia. PMID:24112045

  9. Lung clearance and disposition of 63Ni in F344/N rats after intratracheal instillation of nickel sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medinsky, M.A.; Benson, J.M.; Hobbs, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiology studies have indicated increased incidences of respiratory tract and renal cancer in nickel refinery workers. Since the most likely route of exposure to nickel in the workplace is via the respiratory tract, the objectives of the experiments described here were to determine the retention pattern of Ni in the lungs, identify the target organs for Ni absorbed from the respiratory tract, and determine rates for excretion of Ni. Male and female F344 rats were given 17, 190, or 1800 nmoles Ni (as a nickel sulfate solution) in saline, containing trace amounts of 63 Ni, by intratracheal instillation. Urine and feces were collected, and rats were necropsied at predetermined times up to 96 hr after instillation. At all times, lungs, trachea, larynx, kidney, and urinary bladder contained the highest concentrations of Ni as determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Urine was the major route for excretion of Ni, accounting for 50% of the dose after instillation of 17 or 190 nmoles Ni, and 80% of the dose after instillation of 1800 nmoles Ni. The half-time for urinary excretion of Ni increased from 4.6 hr at the highest dose to 23 hr at the lowest dose used. Fecal excretion accounted for 30% (17- and 190-nmole doses) or 13% (1800 nmoles) of the initial dose. Of the Ni remaining in the body at the end of 96 hr, over 50% was in the lungs. The long-term half-time for clearance of Ni from the lungs ranged from 21 hr at the highest dose to 36 hr at the lowest dose instilled. As the amount of instilled Ni decreased, the fraction of the instilled Ni associated with the long-term clearance component increased (from 24% at the highest dose to 40% at the lowest dose). Results suggest that, over the range of doses studied, both pulmonary clearance of Ni and routes for excretion of Ni were dependent on the instilled dose

  10. Dimethyl sulfoxide complexing with iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovikov, Yu Ya; Serguchev, Yu A; Staninets, V I

    1986-01-01

    Dielectrometry, conductometry, IR-spectroscopy are used to study dimethyl sulfoxide complexing with iodine in binary system and in CCl/sub 4/, C/sub 6/H/sub 6/, C/sub 6/H/sub 5/Cl, C/sub 6/H/sub 5/CF/sub 3/, 1, 2-dichloroethane solutions. Complexes of 1:1 composition are formed in solutions, in the binary system of 2:1 and 2:2 composition. I/sub 2/ molecules add to oxygen atoms. In CCl/sub 4/ and in binary system gradual transformation of so called external charge transfer complexes (CTC-1) to internal ones (CTC-2) that are described by the 1st order reaction kinetic equations is observed. On dissolution of CTC of 2:2 composition they disproportionate into two CTC molecules 1:1. Enthalpy of forming CTC-1 1:1 is approximately 4 kcal/mol, CTC-2 1:1 - 8, CTC-1 2:1 - 8 kcal/mol.

  11. Topical medication instillation techniques for glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Wang, Xuemei; Wu, Meijing

    2017-02-20

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide and the second most common cause of blindness after cataracts. The primary treatment for glaucoma aims to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) with the use of topical medicines. Topical medication instillation techniques, such as eyelid closure and nasolacrimal occlusion when instilling drops, have been proposed as potential methods to increase ocular absorption and decrease systemic absorption of the drops. To investigate the effectiveness of topical medication instillation techniques compared with usual care or another method of instillation of topical medication in the management of glaucoma or ocular hypertension. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 12), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 8 December 2016), Embase Ovid (1947 to 8 December 2016), PubMed (1948 to 8 December 2016), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to 8 December 2016), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts Database (1970 to 8 December 2016), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (last searched 13 May 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) (searched 8 December 2016) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) (searched 8 December 2016). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We included randomized controlled trials which had compared any topical medication instillation technique with usual care or a different method of instillation of topical medication. Two review authors independently screened records from the searches for eligibility, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data. We followed methods recommended by Cochrane. We identified two trials (122 eyes of 61 participants) that had evaluated a topical medication instillation technique. We

  12. Neurogenic Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Dorsher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented.

  13. Bladder Leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Selahattin; Sungur, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    Leiomyoma of the bladder is a very rare disorder that accounts for 0.43% of all bladder neoplasms. Although the pathophysiology of the bladder leiomyoma is unknown, there are some theories in it. The patients can be asymptomatic; and clinical symptoms, when present, are associated with the tumor size and location. Imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, intravenous urography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful but definitive diagnosis is made by histopathological examination. Surgical resection of tumor with transurethral, open, laparoscopic and robotic approaches is the main treatment. We present a case of leiomyoma of the bladder in an adult male patient.

  14. [Bladder pain syndrome--an urological-gynecological problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabkowski, Tomasz; Bortnowski, Leszek; Zieliński, Henryk

    2011-03-01

    Bladder Pain Syndrome remains a great challenge for urologists, both in diagnostics and treatment. Etiopathogenesis of the disease is unknown. It is reported that the reason for Bladder Pain Syndrome is the urothelium dysfunction resulting in the destruction of the protective glycosaminoglycan layer/barrier protecting the urothelium from bacteria adhesion and penetration of toxic substances/by bacteria. It is considered to be a syndrome of dysuria and diuresis. Urine analysis usually is normal. It is diagnosed after exclusion of other causes leading to painful symptoms. It is estimated that 90% of the cases of the disease concern women. Treatment with glycocorticosteroids, antihistaminic drugs and antiallergic drugs was not successful. The attempts to find the right method of treatment led to the introduction of hyaluronic acid, which alleviated Bladder Pain Syndrome and its symptoms. Hyaluronic acid reacting with glycosaminoglycans on the bladder decreases penetrability of irritant substances. The patients were treated with 4-8 weekly instillations--40 mg of hyaluronic acid in 50 ml NaCl solution for 1-2 months. After the last instillation, therapy is repeated for the next 6-8 months with one instillation monthly. This method is for patients a chance for getting rid of painful symptoms from the bladder

  15. Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic, and Activity Evaluation of TMX-101 in a Multicenter Phase 1 Study in Patients With Papillary Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, T.J.H.; Lammers, R.J.M.; Falke, J.; Heijden, A.G. van der; Rustighini, I.; Pozzi, R.; Ravic, M.; Eisenhardt, A.; Vergunst, H.; Witjes, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a strong tendency to recur despite adjuvant instillations. TMX-101 is a new liquid form of imiquimod for intravesical instillation and has activity in vitro against urothelial carcinoma. The purpose was to analyze the activity

  16. Intravesical or intrarectal instillation of Maalox for the treatment of radiation cystitis or proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawagoe, Koh; Kawana, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Intravesical or intrarectal instillation of Maalox, a well-known material for protection of mucous epithelia, was performed in 3 cases of radiation cystitis and one case of radiation proctitis, resulting in successful control of hemorrhage. Four cases of uterine cervical cancer with radiotherapy, including 2 cases of primary and 2 cases of postoperative radiotherapy, were managed by Maalox treatment with intervals of one to nine years between radiotherapy and Maalox instillation. One of the three patients with hemorrhagic cystitis, who had received internal iliac arterial embolization at the another hospital, was to be performed the operation of the urinary tract diversion. 50-100 ml of original or 1/2 diluted Maalox was instilled into urinary bladder or rectum with clump of catheter for 30 min. to 1 hr. after sufficient irrigation with 500 ml of 100 times diluted isodine. Blood transfusion for anemia was done in all cases, and antibiotics, or anticoagulant agents were systematically administered in some cases. Macrohematuria or melena ceased within 2 to 8 days after initiation of Maalox therapy in all cases. In one of the three cases of hemorrhagic cystitis, macroscopic hematuria, which reappeared one year later, was also successfully treated by Maalox therapy. In a case of radiation proctitis, though the melena disappeared in 5 days, diarrhea continued and the patient died of the primary disease two months later with the formation of rectovaginal fistula. No ultimate way of treatment of radiation hemorrhagic cystitis or proctitis has been established, though both of them were clinically important and serious side effects of radiotherapy. Therefore, intravesical or intrarectal instillation of Maalox could become one of the leading ways of treatment of intractable hemorrhagic cystitis, because the technique was simple and the effectiveness was valid without any notable side effects. (author)

  17. Cysteine sulfoxide derivatives in Petiveria alliacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubec, R; Musah, R A

    2001-11-01

    Two diastereomers of S-benzyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide have been isolated from fresh roots of Petiveria alliacea. Their structures and absolute configurations have been determined by NMR, MALDI-HRMS, IR and CD spectroscopy and confirmed by comparison with authentic compounds. Both the R(S) and S(S) diastereomers of the sulfoxide are present in all parts of the plant (root, stem, and leaves) with the latter diastereomer being predominant. Their total content greatly varied in different parts of the plant between 0.07 and 2.97 mg g(-1) fr. wt, being by far the highest in the root. S-Benzylcysteine has also been detected in trace amounts (<10 microg g(-1) fr. wt) in all parts of the plant. This represents the first report of the presence of S-benzylcysteine derivatives in nature.

  18. Photodynamic management of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A.; Stepp, H.; Beyer, W.; Pongratz, T.; Sroka, R.; Bader, M.; Kriegmair, M.; Zaak, D.; Waidelich, R.; Karl, A.; Hofstetter, A.; Stief, C.; Baumgartner, R.

    2009-06-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is among the most expensive oncological diseases. Any improvement in diagnosis or therapy carries a high potential for reducing costs. Fluorescence cystoscopy relies on a selective formation of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) or more general photoactive porphyrins (PAP) in malignant urothelium upon instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or its hexyl-derivative h-ALA. Fluorescence cystoscopy equipment has been developed with the aim to compensate for the undesired distortion caused by the tissue optical properties by displaying the red fluorescence simultaneously with the backscattered blue light. Many clinical studies proved a high sensitivity in detecting flat carcinoma in situ and small papillary malignant tumours. As a result, recurrence rates were significantly decreased in most studies. The limitation lies in a low specificity, caused by false positive findings at inflamed bladder wall. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently being investigated as a promising tool to overcome this limitation. H-ALA-PDT (8 or 16 mM h-ALA in 50 ml instillation for 1-2 h, white light source, catheter applicator) has recently been investigated in a phase I study. 17 patients were applied 100 J/cm2 (3 patients received incrementing doses of 25 - 50 - 100 J/cm2) during approx. 1 hour irradiation time in 3 sessions, 6 weeks apart. PDT was performed without any technical complications. Complete photobleaching of the PpIX-fluorescence, as intended, could be achieved in 43 of 45 PDT-sessions receiving 100 J/cm2. The most prominent side effects were postoperative urgency and bladder pain, all symptoms being more severe after 16 mM h-ALA. Preliminary evaluation shows complete response assessed at 3 months after the third PDT-session (i.e. 6 months after first treatment) in 9 of 12 patients. 2 of these patients were free of recurrence until final follow-up at 84 weeks.

  19. Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and bladder oversensitivity in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Lee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the role of sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa in bladder oversensitivity of rats with metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female Wistar rats were fed a fructose-rich diet (60% or a normal diet for 3 months. Based on cystometry, the fructose-fed rats (FFRs were divided into a group with normal detrusor function or detrusor overactivity (DO. Acidic adenosine triphosphate (ATP solution (5mM, pH 3.3 was used to elicit reflex micturition. Cystometric parameters were evaluated before and after drug administration. Functional proteins of the bladder mucosa were assessed by western blotting. RESULTS: Compared to the controls, intravesical acidic ATP solution instillation induced a significant increase in provoked phasic contractions in both FFR groups and a significant decrease in the mean functional bladder capacity of group DO. Pretreatment with capsaicin for C-fiber desentization, intravesical liposome for mucosal protection, or intravenous pyridoxal 5-phosphate 6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid for antagonized purinergic receptors can interfere with the urodynamic effects of intravesical ATP in FFRs and controls. Over-expression of TRPV1, P2X(3, and iNOS proteins, and down-regulation of eNOS proteins were observed in the bladder mucosa of both fructose-fed groups. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations of sensory receptors and enzymes in the bladder mucosa, including over-expression of TRPV1, P2X(3, and iNOS proteins, can precipitate the emergence of bladder phasic contractions and oversensitivity through the activation of C-afferents during acidic ATP solution stimulation in FFRs. The down-regulation of eNOS protein in the bladder mucosa of FFRs may lead to a failure to suppress bladder oversensitivity and phasic contractions. Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and DO causing by metabolic syndrome are easier to elicit bladder oversensitivity to certain urothelium stimuli.

  20. Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially if your symptoms disrupt your work schedule, social interactions and everyday activities. Causes Normal bladder function The ... fills, nerve signals sent to your brain eventually trigger the need to urinate. When you urinate, nerve ...

  1. Neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause skin to break down and lead to pressure sores Kidney damage if the bladder becomes too full, ... dysfunction; NBSD Patient Instructions Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Images Voiding cystourethrogram References Chapple CR, Osman NI. ...

  2. Bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dye workers, rubber workers, aluminum workers, leather workers, truck drivers, and pesticide applicators are at the highest ... examining the inside of the bladder with a camera), with biopsy Intravenous pyelogram - IVP Pelvic CT scan ...

  3. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Bladder Cancer Think Tank Bladder Cancer Research Network Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium Get Involved Ways to ... us? Who we are The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) is a community of patients, caregivers, survivors, ...

  4. Immunostimulation in the urinary bladder by local application of Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton preparation (Rubratin) for superficial bladder cancer immunotherapy--a phase I/II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reijke, T. M.; de Boer, E. C.; Schamhart, D. H.; Kurth, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    Twelve patients with superficial papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (pTa, pT1) were treated with six consecutive weekly intravesical instillations of Rubratin (in a dose of 1.5, 3.0, or 4.5 mg), a cell wall skeleton preparation of Nocardia rubra (NCW). The main objective of this

  5. [Treatment of interstitial cystitis by intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid: A prospective study on 31 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Agt, S; Gobet, F; Sibert, L; Leroi, A-M; Grise, P

    2011-03-01

    We evaluate the efficacy of hyaluronate acid instillation for treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC). From March 2008 to May 2009, a prospective study included 31 patients. We used the new definition of IC established by the ICS in 2002. Patients have a urinalysis, a cystoscopy, a hydrodistension test and bladder biopsies. The urodynamic evaluation was not systematic. Patients received weekly six instillations of 40mg (50ml) intravesical hyaluronate acid. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of treatment with two specific questionnaires of interstitial cystitis filled before and after 6 weeks of treatment: the O'Leary-Sant and Pelvic pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF). Four groups were defined: good response, partial response, poor response and no response. They were composed by 14 patients (45%), two (7%), seven (22%) and eight patients (26%). We obtained 52% positive response (good response and partial response) after 6 weeks of treatment. Patients with cystoscopy and histology abnormal had a response rate of 60%. No serious side effects were observed. Hyaluronate acid has a place in the treatment of interstitial cystitis with an efficiency comparable to other treatments and good tolerance. The response rate to treatment can be improved by better selection of patients, particularly those having a cystoscopy and histology abnormal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. NaSO2Ph Induced Exclusive Isomerization of 1,2-Allenyl Sulfoxides to 2-Alkynylic Phenyl Sulfoxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅春玲; 麻生明

    2005-01-01

    The clean isomerization of 1,2-allenyl sulfoxides in the presence of NaSO2Ph afforded 2-alkynylic phenyl sulfoxides in good yields and selectivities. Although strong base-catalyzed isomerization of allenes to alkynes is known, the mechanism for the current reaction is interesting for the obvious reason that NaSOEPh is a weak base.

  7. Bladder stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health care provider will perform a physical exam. This will also include a rectal exam. The exam may reveal an enlarged prostate or other problems. The following tests may be done: Bladder or pelvic x-ray Cystoscopy Urinalysis Urine culture (clean catch)

  8. Long-term experience with sodium chondroitin sulfate in patients with painful bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, J I; Olarte, H; Escudero, F; Gómez, G

    2013-09-01

    To assess the response of patients diagnosed with painful bladder syndrome to treatment with instillations of sodium chondroitin sulfate. We present a series of cases of patients with painful bladder syndrome who followed a bladder instillation protocol with sodium chondroitin sulfate, according to our centre's regimen. The response to treatment was assessed with respect to pain, according to the Downie scale; urinary frequency, according to the voiding diary; and subjective improvement, according to the Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) scale. A total of 28 patients with a median age of 59 years (range 22-90) followed this protocol. From the medical histories, 19.4% had suffered an infection of the urinary tract, 3.8% had suffered urinary tuberculosis, 7.6% received pelvic radiation therapy and 26.9% had taken anticholinergic drugs for overactive bladder syndrome. We evaluated the response to treatment at 0, 3, 6 and 12 months and found that at the end of treatment 72.3% of the patients had improved bladder pain and 75% were significantly better. Treatment with sodium chondroitin sulfate through endovesical instillation in painful bladder syndrome improves pain, voiding frequency and quality of life in the long term. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Combination (RaHPP) of radiotherapy, hyperthermia and chemotherapy (peplomycin and picibanil) for bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washida, Hiroto; Tsugaya, Masayuki; Hirao, Noriaki; Hachisuka, Yusuke

    1984-09-01

    Four patients with urinary bladder carcinoma were treated by combination therapy which consisted of hyperthermia vesical irrigation of two anticancer drugs (peplomycin and picibanil), intravesical instillation of those drugs and radiation. Following the therapeutic method we planned, 40 mg of peplomycin and 10 KE of picibanil in 1,500 ml of sterile distilled water was irrigated at 42 to 43/sup 0/C into the bladder for 3 hours; 40 mg of peplomycin and 10 KE of picibanil in 40 ml of sterile distilled water was instilled into the bladder; and, the focus was irradiated with /sup 60/Co to a focal dose of 200 rad 30 minutes later. This pattern of treatment was repeated once a week, 3 to 5 times in total. On the days this pattern was not taken, 5 KE of picibanil in 20 ml of sterile distilled water was instilled into the bladder cavity. Complete response was observed in one patient and partial response in 3 patients. The side effect was temporary irritable bladder symptom. (author).

  10. Combination (RaHPP) of radiotherapy, hyperthermia and chemotherapy (peplomycin and picibanil) for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washida, Hiroto; Tsugaya, Masayuki; Hirao, Noriaki; Hachisuka, Yusuke

    1984-01-01

    Four patients with urinary bladder carcinoma were treated by combination therapy which consisted of hyperthermia vesical irrigation of two anticancer drugs (peplomycin and picibanil), intravesical instillation of those drugs and radiation. Following the therapeutic method we planned, 40 mg of peplomycin and 10 KE of picibanil in 1,500 ml of sterile distilled water was irrigated at 42 to 43 0 C into the bladder for 3 hours; 40 mg of peplomycin and 10 KE of picibanil in 40 ml of sterile distilled water was instilled into the bladder; and, the focus was irradiated with 60 Co to a focal dose of 200 rad 30 minutes later. This pattern of treatment was repeated once a week, 3 to 5 times in total. On the days this pattern was not taken, 5 KE of picibanil in 20 ml of sterile distilled water was instilled into the bladder cavity. Complete response was observed in one patient and partial response in 3 patients. The side effect was temporary irritable bladder symptom. (author)

  11. Adjuvant chemotherapy for superficial transitional cell bladder carcinoma : Long-term results of a European organization for research and treatment of cancer randomized trial comparing doxorubicin, ethoglucid and transurethral resection alone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurth, K; Tunn, U; Ay, R; Schroder, FH; PavoneMacaluso, M; Debruyne, F; TenKate, F; DePauw, M; Sylvester, R; Essed, E; Caubergh, RV; Hoekstra, JW; deVoogt, HJ; Newling, DWW; deReijke, TM; Mensink, HJA; Groen, JM; Jakse, G; Leisinger, HJ; Richards, B; Adib, RA; Robinson, M; Denis, L; Bouffioux, C; Schulman, C; Carpentier, PJ

    Purpose: We compared the efficacy of transurethral resection alone or transurethral resection followed by bladder instillations of doxorubicin or ethoglucid for 1 year in patients with superficial bladder carcinoma, and followed them long term for the incidence of progression to muscle invasion.

  12. Optimal Treatment for Intermediate- and High-Risk, Nonmuscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.M. van der Meijden

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to clinical and pathological factors the prognosis of a patient with non-muscle invasive bladder tumors can be assessed. The prognosis is determined by the likelihood of recurrence(30-70% and/or progression to muscle invasive bladder cancer(1-15%.Trans urethral resection of bladder tumors remains the initial therapy but adjuvant intravesical instillations are necessary.All patients benefit from a single immediate post operative instillation with a chemotherapeutic agent and for low risk tumors this is the optimal therapy.Patients with intermediate and high risk tumors need more intravesical chemo-or immunotherapy. Chemotherapy reduces recurrences but not progression. Intravesical immunotherapy(BCG prevents or delays progression. Patients at high risk for progression may need upfront cystectomy.

  13. The Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Bladder Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Ifeoma; Didangelos, Athanasios; Dawes, John; Cartwright, Rufus; Khullar, Vik; Bradbury, Elizabeth J; O'Sullivan, Suzanne; Williams, Dic; Chessell, Iain P; Pallas, Kenny; Graham, Gerry; O'Reilly, Barry A; McMahon, Stephen B

    2016-08-01

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) pathology is poorly understood. Treatment strategies are empirical, with limited efficacy, and affected patients have diminished quality of life. We examined the hypothesis that inflammatory mediators within the bladder contribute to BPS pathology. Fifteen women with BPS and 15 women with stress urinary incontinence without bladder pain were recruited from Cork University Maternity Hospital from October 2011 to October 2012. During cystoscopy, 5-mm bladder biopsies were taken and processed for gene expression analysis. The effect of the identified genes was tested in laboratory animals. We studied the expression of 96 inflammation-related genes in diseased and healthy bladders. We measured the correlation between genes and patient clinical profiles using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Analysis revealed 15 differentially expressed genes, confirmed in a replication study. FGF7 and CCL21 correlated significantly with clinical outcomes. Intravesical CCL21 instillation in rats caused increased bladder excitability and increased c-fos activity in spinal cord neurons. CCL21 atypical receptor knockout mice showed significantly more c-fos upon bladder stimulation with CCL21 than wild-type littermates. There was no change in FGF7-treated animals. The variability in patient samples presented as the main limitation. We used principal component analysis to identify similarities within the patient group. Our study identified two biologically relevant inflammatory mediators in BPS and demonstrated an increase in nociceptive signalling with CCL21. Manipulation of this ligand is a potential new therapeutic strategy for BPS. We compared gene expression in bladder biopsies of patients with bladder pain syndrome (BPS) and controls without pain and identified two genes that were increased in BPS patients and correlated with clinical profiles. We tested the effect of these genes in laboratory animals, confirming their role in bladder pain. Manipulating

  14. Disulfide high mobility group box-1 causes bladder pain through bladder Toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Kouzoukas, Dimitrios E; Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L; Westlund, Karin N; Hunt, David E; Vera, Pedro L

    2017-05-25

    Bladder pain is a prominent symptom in several urological conditions (e.g. infection, painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis, cancer). Understanding the mechanism of bladder pain is important, particularly when the pain is not accompanied by bladder pathology. Stimulation of protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4) in the urothelium results in bladder pain through release of urothelial high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). HGMB1 has two functionally active redox states (disulfide and all-thiol) and it is not known which form elicits bladder pain. Therefore, we investigated whether intravesical administration of specific HMGB1 redox forms caused abdominal mechanical hypersensitivity, micturition changes, and bladder inflammation in female C57BL/6 mice 24 hours post-administration. Moreover, we determined which of the specific HMGB1 receptors, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) or receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), mediate HMGB1-induced changes. Disulfide HMGB1 elicited abdominal mechanical hypersensitivity 24 hours after intravesical (5, 10, 20 μg/150 μl) instillation. In contrast, all-thiol HMGB1 did not produce abdominal mechanical hypersensitivity in any of the doses tested (1, 2, 5, 10, 20 μg/150 μl). Both HMGB1 redox forms caused micturition changes only at the highest dose tested (20 μg/150 μl) while eliciting mild bladder edema and reactive changes at all doses. We subsequently tested whether the effects of intravesical disulfide HMGB1 (10 μg/150 μl; a dose that did not produce inflammation) were prevented by systemic (i.p.) or local (intravesical) administration of either a TLR4 antagonist (TAK-242) or a RAGE antagonist (FPS-ZM1). Systemic administration of either TAK-242 (3 mg/kg) or FPS-ZM1 (10 mg/kg) prevented HMGB1 induced abdominal mechanical hypersensitivity while only intravesical TLR4 antagonist pretreatment (1.5 mg/ml; not RAGE) had this effect. The disulfide form of HMGB1 mediates bladder pain directly (not

  15. Leiomyoma of urinary bladder with bladder stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farouk, K.; Gondal, M.; Khan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder is a rare benign mesenchymal tumour. We describe here a case of leiomyoma of the urinary bladder in a 65-year-old gentleman who presented with haematuria, passage of clots and combined obstructive and irritative urinary symptoms. The investigations revealed a vesical calculus and a mass on the left lateral wall of the urinary bladder. Cystolitholapaxy and transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. Histopathological report of the resected tumour revealed a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder. So far, a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder and a concomitant vesical calculus have not been described in literature. (author)

  16. Biodistribution of gold nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation in mouse lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadauskas, Evaldas; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Danscher, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The liver is the major site of deposition of circulating gold nanoparticles. Therefore the degree of translocation was determined by the hepatic deposition of gold. Mice were instilled with 5 intratracheal doses of gold...... repeatedly during 3 weeks, the load was substantial. Ultrastructurally, AMG silver enhanced gold nanoparticles were found in lysosome-/endosome-like organelles of the macrophages and analysis with AMG, ICP-MS and NAA of the liver revealed an almost total lack of translocation of nanoparticles. In mice given...... repeated instillations of 2 nm gold nanoparticles, 1.4‰ (by ICP-MS) to 1.9‰ (by NAA) of the instilled gold was detected in the liver. With the 40 nm gold, no gold was detected in the liver (detection level 2 ng, 0.1‰) except for one mouse in which 3‰ of the instilled gold was found in the liver. No gold...

  17. Immunostimulation in the urinary bladder by local application of Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeletons (Rubratin) and bacillus Calmette-Guérin as therapy for superficial bladder cancer: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, E. C.; de Reijke, T. M.; Vos, P. C.; Kurth, K. H.; Schamhart, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    Twelve patients with superficial bladder cancer were treated with intravesical instillations of Rubratin (ASTA Pharma AG, Frankfurt, Germany), a cell-wall preparation of Nocardia rubra. The objective was to compare the immunostimulating effect of Rubratin with that of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG).

  18. BCG-induced interleukin-6 upregulation and BCG internalization in well and poorly differentiated human bladder cancer cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, R. F.; de Boer, E. C.; Kurth, K. H.; Schamhart, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is a successful therapy for superficial bladder cancer. However, the working mechanism of BCG after intravesical instillation is not completely understood. A functional role of urothelial (tumor) cells in the initiation of the BCG-induced immune reaction

  19. Decryptification of Acid Phosphatase in Arthrospores of Geotrichum Species Treated with Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Acetone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, David A.; Martel, Anita J.; MacDonald, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Decryptification of acid phosphatase in Geotrichum sp. arthrospores was accomplished using acetone or dimethyl sulfoxide treatment. Both dimethyl sulfoxide and acetone irreversibly destroyed the integrity of the spore membranes without solubilizing acid phosphatase. PMID:1167386

  20. Bladder sensation measures and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, David E; Neil, Nancy J; Govier, Fred E; Kobashi, Kathleen C

    2009-09-01

    We performed a prospective multicomponent study to determine whether subjective and objective bladder sensation instruments may provide data on sensory dysfunction in patients with overactive bladder. We evaluated 70 prospectively enrolled patients with urodynamics and questionnaires on validated urgency (Urgency Perception Score), general overactive bladder (Urogenital Distress Inventory) and quality of life (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire). We first sought a correlation between sensory specific (Urgency Perception Score) and quality of life questionnaire scores. We then assessed a correlation between sensory questionnaire scores and urodynamic variables, exploring the hypothesis that certain urodynamic parameters may be bladder sensation measures. We evaluated 2 urodynamic derivatives (first sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity) to increase sensory finding discrimination. We noted a moderate correlation between the Urgency Perception Score (0.56) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (0.74) vs the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (each p Perception Score and bladder capacity (-0.25, p sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity statistically significantly correlated with the Urgency Perception Score despite the lesser or absent correlation associated with the individual components of these derivatives. Bladder sensation questionnaires may be valuable to identify patients with sensory dysfunction and provide additional data not obtained in generalized symptom questionnaires. Urodynamic variables correlated with bladder sensation questionnaire scores and may be an objective method to assess sensory dysfunction.

  1. Palladium(II)-catalyzed ortho-olefination of arenes applying sulfoxides as remote directing groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binjie; Shen, Chuang; Yao, Jinzhong; Yin, Hong; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-01-03

    A novel palladium-catalyzed ortho-C(sp(2))-H olefination protocol has been developed by the use of sulfoxide as the directing group. Importantly, relatively remote coordination can be accessed to achieve the ortho olefination of benzyl, 2-arylethyl, and 3-arylpropenyl sulfoxide substrates, and the olefinated sulfoxide can be easily transformed to other functionalities.

  2. The paediatric neuropathic bladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pathophysiological terms, a neurogenic bladder is caused by a spinal reflex arc that occurs when ... and potential progressive renal damage because of high bladder ... creatinine level, can also be used to assess kidney function. Urodynamic ...

  3. Octreotide: a powerful non-narcotic analgesic for ocular instillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Maratea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative substances for pain treatment is necessary for patients who cannot tolerate the side effects of opioids or cannot reach an adequate analgesia with these drugs. The technique using the endo-ocular instillation of drops, 2 ml of solution containing 0.05 mg of octreotide plus 1 ml of water for injectable preparations, thus obtaining a solution containing 0.025 mg / ml of octreotide, was instilled via a precision dropping that provided 0.00119 mg / drop of octreotide. Due to characteristics of pain, we administered the doses ranging from 1 to 3 drops per eye. The absence of side effects and the simplicity of execution have prompted to consider this method with extreme interest, in order to research the drugs and routes of administration which follow more the conditions of tolerability and selectivity of effects.

  4. Late sensory function after intraoperative capsaicin wound instillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, E K; Hansen, J B; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    is partly re-established after skin injection of capsaicin. However, no study has evaluated the long-term effects of wound instillation of purified capsaicin on sensory functions. METHODS: Patients included in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study of the analgesic effect of capsaicin after....... placebo group at the 1-week follow-up (Pfunction on the operated side between groups at the pre-operative, 1-week or 2 1/2 year post-operative follow-up (P>0.05). The sensory function......BACKGROUND: Intense capsaicin-induced C-fiber stimulation results in reversible lysis of the nerve soma, thereby making capsaicin wound instillation of potential interest for the treatment of post-operative pain. Clinical histological and short-term sensory studies suggest that the C-fiber function...

  5. Iloprost Instillation in Two Neonates with Pulmonary Hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktas, S.; Aksu, M.; Hirfanoglu, I. M.; Atalay, Y.; Turkyilmaz, C.; Unal, S.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension may coexist with certain diseases in neonates. Iloprost inhalation is one of the treatments which cause selective pulmonary vasodilatation. Inhalation is not an easy way of drug administration in mechanically ventilated infants; as some exhibit desaturations during inhalation. Moreover, inhalation of drug requires cessation of mechanical ventilation, if patient is on high frequency oscillatory ventilation. We presented two patients with pulmonary hypertension; term baby with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and preterm baby with respiratory distress syndrome; who had iloprost instillation during mechanical ventilation treatment. Iloprost instillation was well tolerated with no side effects in the term patient with diaphragmatic hernia; whereas severe blood pressure fluctuations were observed in the preterm infant. This report may courage administration of iloprost in term neonates with resistant pulmonary hypertension. (author)

  6. Now at the Met: fine art of reversible sulfoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilani, Tal; Fass, Deborah

    2013-08-08

    In this issue, Lee et al. (2013) exhibit methionine sulfoxidation in a new light. By bringing together two antagonistic enzymes affecting methionine redox state, the authors demonstrate that methionine oxidation constitutes a reversible, posttranslational regulatory mechanism, akin to protein phosphorylation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recommended vapor pressures for thiophene, sulfolane, and dimethyl sulfoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulem, Michal; Růžička, K.; Růžička, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 303, č. 2 (2011), s. 205-216 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : thiophene sulfolane * dimethyl sulfoxide * vapor pressure * heat capacity * vaporization enthalpy * recommended vapor pressure equation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2011

  8. Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation: international consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul J; Attinger, Christopher E; Steinberg, John S; Evans, Karen K; Lehner, Burkhard; Willy, Christian; Lavery, Larry; Wolvos, Tom; Orgill, Dennis; Ennis, William; Lantis, John; Gabriel, Allen; Schultz, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation is increasingly utilized as an adjunct therapy for a wide variety of wounds. Despite its growing popularity, there is a paucity of evidence and lack of guidance to provide effective use of this therapy. A panel of experts was convened to provide guidance regarding the appropriate use of negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation. A face-to-face meeting was held where the available evidence was discussed and individual clinical experience with this therapy was shared. Follow-up communication among the panelists continued until consensus was achieved. The final consensus recommendations were derived through more than 80 percent agreement among the panelists. Nine consensus statements were generated that address the appropriate use of negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation. The question of clinical effectiveness of this therapy was not directly addressed by the consensus panel. This document serves as preliminary guidelines until more robust evidence emerges that will support or modify these consensus recommendations.

  9. Nanotechnology in bladder cancer: current state of development and clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Ben; Lin, Tzu-yin; Dall'Era, Marc; Pan, Chong-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is being developed for the diagnosis and treatment of both nonmyoinvasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and invasive bladder cancer. The diagnostic applications of nanotechnology in NMIBC mainly focus on tumor identification during endoscopy to increase complete resection of bladder cancer while nanotechnology to capture malignant cells or their components continues to be developed. The therapeutic applications of nanotechnology in NMIBC are to reformulate biological and cytotoxic agents for intravesical instillation, combine both diagnostic and therapeutic application in one nanoformulation. In invasive and advanced bladder cancer, magnetic resonance imaging with supraparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can improve the sensitivity and specificity in detecting small metastasis to lymph nodes. Nanoformulation of cytotoxic agents can potentially decrease the toxicity while increasing efficacy. PMID:25929573

  10. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG for immunotherapy in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnini, K R; Buss, J H; Collares, T; Seixas, F K

    2015-05-01

    In the past three decades, intravesical instillation of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been used for treating bladder cancer and it still remains at the forefront of immunotherapy for cancer patients. Although BCG-based therapy is the most effective intravesical therapy for this kind of tumor and represents the only agent known to reduce progression into muscle invasive bladder cancer, BCG is ineffective in approximately 30-40 % of cases and disease recurs in up to 50 % of patients. Since that BCG is considered an effective vehicle for delivery of antigens due to its unique characteristics, the genetic manipulation of these mycobacteria has been appealing in the search for less toxic and more potent therapeutic agents for bladder cancer immunotherapy. Herein, we discuss current advances in recombinant BCG construction, research, concerns, and future directions to promote the development of this promising immunotherapeutic approach for bladder cancer.

  11. The effects of visual fluorescence marking induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid for endoscopic diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniltchenko, Dmitri I.; Koenig, Frank; Schnorr, Dietmar; Valdman, Alexander; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.

    2003-10-01

    During cystoscopy procedure, fluorescence diagnostics induced by 5-ALA improves visual detection of the bladder cancer. Macroscopic ALA-fluorescence allows visualizing of small flat tumors, carcinoma in situ, true neoplasm margins and dysplasias of the bladder. Following ALA instillation, cystoscopy has been performed under both standard and blue light illumination. Totally, 153 biopsies have been carried out at 53 patients with suspicion of bladder cancer. The results were compared to ALA-fluorescence data. In 13% of the patients, bladder cancer and dysplasia were found out in addition, due to red fluorescence. The sensitivity and specificity of ALA-fluorescence technique aggregated 96% and 52% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of 5-ALA-fluorescent detection exceeded standard endoscopy under white light on 20%. The new method does not exclude a false positive and a false negative fluorescent luminescence. The ALA-based fluorescence detection system enhances the diagnosis of malignant/dysplastic bladder lesions significantly.

  12. Radioprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide on two biological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, D.M.L.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Del Mastro, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of dimethyl sulfoxide treatment on two biological systems are examined: a) In vivo, the level of albinic mouse survive from IPEN, when irradiated with 9 Gy of 60 Co., 1 hour after the injection ip of DMSO 0,025M. b) In vivo, molecular level, when DMSO 1M, is added 10 min. before the irradiation with 25.000 Gy of 60 Co, from an aqueous solution of proteins from crystalline bovine. (C.G.C.) [pt

  13. Simultaneous gauche and anomeric effects in α-substituted sulfoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Matheus P

    2012-09-07

    α-Substituted sulfoxides can experience both gauche and anomeric effects, since these compounds have the geometric requirements and strong electron donor and acceptor orbitals which are essential to make operative the hyperconjugative nature of these effects. Indeed, the title effects were calculated to take place for 1,3-oxathiane 3-oxide in polar solution, where dipolar effects are absent or at least minimized, while only the gauche effect is present in 2-fluorothiane 1-oxide. Since the fluorine atom is a suitable probe for structural analysis using NMR, the (1)J(CF) dependence on the rotation around the F-C-S═O dihedral angle of (fluoromethyl)methyl sulfoxide was evaluated; differently from 1,2-difluoroethane and fluoro(methoxy)methane, this coupling constant is at least not exclusively dependent on dipolar interactions (or on hyperconjugation). Because of the nonmonotonic behavior of the (1)J(CF) rotational profile, this coupling constant does not appear to be of significant diagnostic value for probing the conformations of α-fluoro sulfoxides.

  14. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has ex...... can be challenging, and misdiagnosis as a psychological problem, overactive bladder, or chronic urinary infection has plagued patients with the problem....

  15. In vivo evaluation of the efficacy of albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles against hydatid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadnia, Sara; Moazeni, Mohammad; Mohammadi-Samani, Soliman; Oryan, Ahmad

    2013-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, which in this disease the metacestode develop in visceral organs especially liver and lungs. The disease is present worldwide and affects humans as well as herbivores including cattle, sheep, camels, horses and others. Benzimidazole carbamate derivatives, such as mebendazole and albendazole, are currently used for chemotherapeutic treatment of CE in inoperable patients and have to be applied in high doses for extended periods of time, and therefore adverse side effects are frequently observed. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the in vivo effects of 0.5 mg/kg, BID, albendazole sulfoxide (ricobendazole) and two different therapeutic regimens of 0.5 mg/kg BID and 2 mg/kg every 48 h of albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was prepared by solvent diffusion-evaporation method. Fifty Balb/c mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of protoscoleces and 8 months post infection, the infected mice were treated for 15 days with the above mentioned regimens. They were then euthanized and the size and weight of the cysts as well as their ultrastructural changes were investigated. Although the cysts showed reduced size and weight in the treated animals but these reductions were not statistically significant. The cysts in the animals which received albendazole sulfoxide loaded SLN every 48 h showed more ultrastructural modification. However, these ultrastructural changes should be supported by further biochemical and molecular studies before introducing it as an efficient therapeutic regimen for treatment of human and animal hydatid disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of Cyclic α-Diazo-β-keto Sulfoxides in Batch and Continuous Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw, Patrick G; Buckley, Naomi M; Eccles, Kevin S; Lawrence, Simon E; Maguire, Anita R; Collins, Stuart G

    2017-04-07

    Diazo transfer to β-keto sulfoxides to form stable isolable α-diazo-β-keto sulfoxides has been achieved for the first time. Both monocyclic and benzofused ketone derived β-keto sulfoxides were successfully explored as substrates for diazo transfer. Use of continuous flow leads to isolation of the desired compounds in enhanced yields relative to standard batch conditions, with short reaction times, increased safety profile, and potential to scale up.

  17. Can vacuum-assisted closure and instillation therapy (VAC-Instill therapy) play a role in the treatment of the infected open abdomen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, M; D'Haeninck, A; Dedrye, L; Penninckx, F; Aerts, R

    2011-03-01

    Severe superimposed infection during open abdomen treatment with development of intra-abdominal sepsis is a challenging complication associated with high mortality rates. We report our experience with VAC-Instill therapy (KCI, San Antonio, USA) used for treatment of an infected open abdomen following pancreatic surgery. A literature search revealed no analogous case reports using VAC-Instill therapy for treatment of an infected laparostomy. The encouraging result of the case presented seems to indicate that VAC-Instill therapy could be used as adjunctive treatment in the management of the infected open abdomen when traditional therapy fails to control the infection.

  18. Bladder necrosis: 'A man without a bladder'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosschieter, Judith; Oudshoorn, Frederik H K; Meuleman, Eric J H; Nieuwenhuijzen, Jakko A

    2018-02-17

    Since the use of antibiotics, bladder necrosis has become a rare condition. We report a case of bladder necrosis in a 90-year-old man following urinary retention. After insertion of a transurethral catheter (TUC), 2 L of urine was evacuated. In the following days, the TUC became intermittently blocked. Adequate bladder drainage could not be obtained despite intensive rinsing and placement of a suprapubic catheter. On surgical exploration necrosis of almost the entire bladder wall, except for the trigone, was encountered. Surgical debridement of the non-viable bladder wall without opening the abdominal cavity was conducted, and a TUC was placed in the Retzius cavity to ensure evacuation of urine. Since the patient was haemodynamically unstable, construction of a urinary diversion was waived and urinary drainage of the Retzius cavity by the TUC was accepted, resulting in adequate urinary drainage without compromising renal function. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Tandem rhodium catalysis: exploiting sulfoxides for asymmetric transition-metal catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, K G M; Dong, V M

    2015-06-07

    Sulfoxides are uncommon substrates for transition-metal catalysis due to their propensity to inhibit catalyst turnover. In a collaborative effort with Ken Houk, we developed the first dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of allylic sulfoxides using asymmetric rhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation. A detailed mechanistic analysis of this transformation using both experimental and theoretical methods revealed rhodium to be a tandem catalyst that promoted both hydrogenation of the alkene and racemization of the allylic sulfoxide. Using a combination of deuterium labelling and DFT studies, a novel mode of allylic sulfoxide racemization via a Rh(III)-π-allyl intermediate was identified.

  20. Fluorescent imaging of high-grade bladder cancer using a specific antagonist for chemokine receptor CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Koji; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Oishi, Shinya; Tanahara, Noriko; Kotani, Hirokazu; Mikami, Yoshiki; Toda, Yoshinobu; Evans, Barry J; Peiper, Stephen C; Saito, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Jun; Fujii, Nobutaka; Ogawa, Osamu

    2010-09-01

    We previously reported that the expression of CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) was upregulated in invasive bladder cancers and that the small peptide T140 was a highly sensitive antagonist for CXCR4. In this study, we identified that CXCR4 expression was induced in high-grade superficial bladder tumors, including carcinoma in situ and invasive bladder tumors. To visualize the bladder cancer cells using urinary sediments from the patients and chemically induced mouse bladder cancer model, a novel fluorescent CXCR4 antagonist TY14003 was developed, that is a T140 derivative. TY14003 could label bladder cancer cell lines expressing CXCR4, whereas negative-control fluorescent peptides did not label them. When labeling urinary sediments from patients with invasive bladder cancer, positive-stained cells were identified in all patients with bladder cancer and positive urine cytology but not in controls. Although white blood cells in urine were also labeled with TY14003, they could be easily discriminated from urothelial cells by their shape and size. Finally, intravesical instillation of TY14003 into mouse bladder, using N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder cancer model, demonstrated that fluorescent signals were detected in the focal areas of bladder of all mice examined at 12 weeks of BBN drinking by confocal microscopy and fluorescent endoscopy. On the contrary, all the normal bladders were found to be negative for TY14003 staining. In conclusion, these results indicate that TY14003 is a promising diagnostic tool to visualize small or flat high-grade superficial bladder cancer.

  1. Developments in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, L.; Niijima, T.; Prout, G.; Schroder, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Guidelines for Radiation Therapy in Clinical Research on Bladder Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Situ; Policy on Monitoring and Reporting Results; Standardization of Protocol Formnd The Role of Cytology in the Diagnosis, Detection and Follow-up of Bladder Cancer

  2. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has...

  3. Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If You Have Questions Print en español Ultrasonido: vejiga What It Is A bladder ultrasound is a safe and painless test that ... Exam: Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG) Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Urinary ... only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

  4. Modulating the internalization of bacille Calmette-Guérin by cathelicidin in bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Se Young; Kim, Soon-Ja; Chi, Byung Hoon; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Chang, In Ho

    2015-04-01

    To confirm the role of cathelicidin (LL-37) in the internalization of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) into bladder cancer cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis evaluated the changes in protein and messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression with BCG incubation after LL-37 pretreatment in 5637 and T24 human bladder cancer cells. The internalization rate was evaluated by a double immunofluorescence assay, and confocal microscopy confirmed the function of LL-37 in BCG internalization. We also investigated the difference in internalization rates and cell viability between LL-37, anti-LL-37 antibody, and LL-37 plus anti-LL-37 antibody. The levels of LL-37 increased after BCG exposure in bladder cancer cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Increasing LL-37 levels using recombinant LL-37 protein further dose dependently decreased BCG internalization in both cell lines. The internalization rates of BCG after LL-37 instillation were lower compared with the controls, and the internalization rate of BCG after anti-LL-37 antibody instillation was significantly higher compared with the controls in both cell lines (P internalization. Blocking the action of cathelicidin may increase the internalization and effectiveness of BCG in reducing bladder cancer cell proliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies on extraction of uranium (VI) with petroleum sulfoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yanzhao; Sun Sixiu; Bao Borong

    1999-01-01

    The extraction of uranium(VI) with petroleum sulfoxides(PSO) in different diluents is studied. The extraction ability of U(VI) decreases in the following order: benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, heptane, kerosene, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. The influence of the concentrations of nitric acid, PSO, salting out agent, complexing anion and temperature on the extraction equilibrium is also investigated, and the enthalpy of the extraction reaction is obtained. The relationship between the extraction equilibrium constants K ex and the physical parameters of diluents is derived. The extraction mechanism and equilibrium are examined by measurement of IR spectrophotometry

  6. Bladder Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, also called urothelial carcinoma. Smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is often diagnosed at an early stage. Start here to find information on bladder cancer treatment, screening, research, and statistics.

  7. Bladder Contracture – A Rare and Serious Side Effect of Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Instillation of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG is an effective treatment for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. The high incidence of side effects may limit its tolerability in patients. Local side effects including cystitis and hematuria are common but generally self-limiting. Bladder contractures are a rare but serious consequence of BCG treatment. In this case, an 82 year-old male developed BCG reactivation and subsequent bladder contractures following transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP three years post-BCG. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of BCG reactivation post-TURP leading to the rare but serious effect of bladder contractures.

  8. Enhancing early bladder cancer detection with fluorescence-guided endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y. T.; Xie, T. Q.; Du, C. W.; Bastacky, S.; Meyers, S.; Zeidel, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    We report an experimental study of the possibility of enhancing early bladder cancer diagnosis with fluorescence-image-guided endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). After the intravesical instillation of a 10% solution of 5-aminolevulinic acid, simultaneous fluorescence imaging (excitation of 380-420 nm, emission of 620-700 nm) and OCT are performed on rat bladders to identify the photochemical and morphological changes associated with uroepithelial tumorigenesis. The preliminary results of our ex vivo study reveal that both fluorescence and OCT can identify early uroepithelial cancers, and OCT can detect precancerous lesions (e.g., hyperplasia) that fluorescence may miss. This suggests that a cystoscope combining 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence and OCT imaging has the potential to enhance the efficiency and sensitivity of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  9. Synthesis of enyne and aryl vinyl sulfoxides: functionalization via Pummerer rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Frederico B; Shamim, Anwar; Argomedo, Luiz M Z; Pimenta, Daniel C; Stefani, Hélio A

    2015-11-01

    An efficient methodology for the synthesis of aryl-substituted vinyl sulfoxides through direct substitution of aryl-substituted alkynyl grignard reagents on menthyl-p-toluenesulfinate followed by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction has been developed. It has also been described that the reaction of alkyl-substituted and cycloalkyl-substituted alkynyl grignard reagents with menthyl-p-toluenesulfinate led to two products, i.e., alkynyl sulfoxide derivatives, as a result of substitution, and enyne sulfoxide derivatives, which resulted from substitution followed by Michael type addition. It was possible to selectively synthesize the enyne sulfoxide derivatives by changing the concentration of the grignard reagent. These alkenyl sulfoxides were transformed into the corresponding [Formula: see text]-thio aldehydes in high yields via additive Pummerer rearrangement.

  10. Enantiomeric behaviour of albendazole and fenbendazole sulfoxides in domestic animals: pharmacological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Bettencourt P S; Virkel, Guillermo L; Lanusse, Carlos E

    2009-09-01

    Albendazole and fenbendazole are methylcarbamate benzimidazole anthelmintics extensively used to control gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals. These parent compounds are metabolised to albendazole sulfoxide and fenbendazole sulfoxide (oxfendazole), respectively. Both sulfoxide derivatives are anthelmintically active and are manufactured for use in animals. They metabolites have an asymmetric centre on their chemical structures and two enantiomeric forms of each sulfoxide have been identified in plasma, tissues of parasite location and within target helminths. Both the flavin-monooxygenase and cytochrome P450 systems are involved in the enantioselective biotransformation of these anthelmintic compounds in ruminant species. A relevant progress on the understanding of the relationship among enantioselective metabolism and systemic availability of each enantiomeric form has been achieved. This article reviews the current knowledge on the pharmacological implications of the enantiomeric behaviour of albendazole sulfoxide and oxfendazole in domestic animals.

  11. Stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide: an investigation of rac-thioridazine biotransformation by some endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Keyller Bastos; De Souza Borges, Warley; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2008-04-14

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for the stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide (THD-2-SO) and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide (THD-5-SO) in culture medium and to study the biotransformation of rac-thioridazine (THD) by some endophytic fungi. The simultaneous resolution of THD-2-SO and THD-5-SO diastereoisomers was performed on a CHIRALPAK AS column using a mobile phase of hexane:ethanol:methanol (92:6:2, v/v/v)+0.5% diethylamine; UV detection was carried out at 262 nm. Diethyl ether was used as extractor solvent. The validated method was used to evaluate the biotransformation of THD by 12 endophytic fungi isolated from Tithonia diversifolia, Viguiera arenaria and Viguiera robusta. Among the 12 fungi evaluated, 4 of them deserve prominence for presenting an evidenced stereoselective biotransformation potential: Phomopsis sp. (TD2) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the form (S)-(SE) (12.1%); Glomerella cingulata (VA1) presented greater mono-5-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE)+(R)-(FE) (10.5%); Diaporthe phaseolorum (VR4) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE) and (R)-(FE) (84.4% and 82.5%, respectively) and Aspergillus fumigatus (VR12) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE) and (R)-(SE) (31.5% and 34.4%, respectively).

  12. Stages of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  13. Bladder Diseases - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Bladder Diseases: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Enfermedades de la vejiga: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National ...

  14. Bladder perforations in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-20

    Nov 20, 2014 ... Mean recovery time for patients was 15 days. ... fracture.[1,2] Isolated bladder perforations are rare, and they .... PA, perineal injury, pelvic fracture. Trauma .... Lower genitourinary injury and pelvic fractures in pediatric patients.

  15. Bladder cancer and schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Schistosoma-associated bladder cancer was believed, for several decades, to be a completely unique entity of disease, different from urothelial cancer. This was probably due to its distinct clinico pathologic and demographic features that varied from those of urothelial entity. The carcinogenesis is an extremely complex process resulting from the accumulation of many genetic and epigenetic changes leading to alterations in the cell proliferation regulation process. In bladder cancer, many of these carcinogenic cascades were not fully documented or somewhat conflicting. In spite of the efforts performed, much is still needed to explore the presence or absence of the carcinogenic difference with a different etiology. The control of schistosomiasis in certain countries and the subsequent decrease in the intensity of infestation showed changing of features approaching that of urothelial tumors. However the schistosoma-associated bladder cancer presented in more advanced stages than schistosoma-non associated urothelial cancer. More recently, data are gathered that, upon applying the same treatment protocol and management care, stage by stage comparison of the treatment end-results were found to be similar in bladder cancer patients with a different etiology. All treatment options; including radical cystectomy with or without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy or tri modality bladder preserving treatment seem to lead to similar end-results regardless of etiologic factor(s) implicated in bladder cancer development.

  16. Mandatory role of proteinase-activated receptor 1 in experimental bladder inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Carole A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general, inflammation plays a role in most bladder pathologies and represents a defense reaction to injury that often times is two edged. In particular, bladder neurogenic inflammation involves the participation of mast cells and sensory nerves. Increased mast cell numbers and tryptase release represent one of the prevalent etiologic theories for interstitial cystitis and other urinary bladder inflammatory conditions. The activity of mast cell-derived tryptase as well as thrombin is significantly increased during inflammation. Those enzymes activate specific G-protein coupled proteinase-activated receptors (PARs. Four PARs have been cloned so far, and not only are all four receptors highly expressed in different cell types of the mouse urinary bladder, but their expression is altered during experimental bladder inflammation. We hypothesize that PARs may link mast cell-derived proteases to bladder inflammation and, therefore, play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of cystitis. Results Here, we demonstrate that in addition to the mouse urinary bladder, all four PA receptors are also expressed in the J82 human urothelial cell line. Intravesical administration of PAR-activating peptides in mice leads to an inflammatory reaction characterized by edema and granulocyte infiltration. Moreover, the inflammatory response to intravesical instillation of known pro-inflammatory stimuli such as E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, substance P, and antigen was strongly attenuated by PAR1-, and to a lesser extent, by PAR2-deficiency. Conclusion Our results reveal an overriding participation of PAR1 in bladder inflammation, provide a working model for the involvement of downstream signaling, and evoke testable hypotheses regarding the role of PARs in bladder inflammation. It remains to be determined whether or not mechanisms targeting PAR1 gene silencing or PAR1 blockade will ameliorate the clinical manifestations of cystitis.

  17. Treatment of carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder with an alpha-emitter immunoconjugate targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autenrieth, Michael E; Seidl, Christof; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Horn, Thomas; Kurtz, Florian; Feuerecker, Benedikt; D'Alessandria, Calogero; Pfob, Christian; Nekolla, Stephan; Apostolidis, Christos; Mirzadeh, Saed; Gschwend, Jürgen E; Schwaiger, Markus; Scheidhauer, Klemens; Morgenstern, Alfred

    2018-07-01

    Patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the bladder refractory to bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) treatment are usually treated with cystectomy. Therefore, new treatment options with preservation of the urinary bladder are needed. The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of a novel targeted alpha-emitter immunotherapy for CIS after BCG treatment failure. A pilot study was conducted in 12 patients (age range 64-86 years, ten men, two women) with biopsy-proven CIS of the bladder refractory to BCG treatment. The patients were treated intravesically with a single instillation (one patient was treated twice) of the alpha-emitter 213 Bi coupled to an anti-EGFR antibody (366-821 MBq). The primary aims of the study were to determine the feasibility of treatment with the 213 Bi-immunoconjugate and evaluation of adverse effects. Therapeutic efficacy was monitored by histological mapping of the urinary bladder 8 weeks after treatment and at different time points thereafter. The study proved that intravesical instillation of the 213 Bi-immunoconjugate targeting EGFR is feasible. No adverse effects were observed and all blood and urine parameters determined remained in their normal ranges. Therapeutic efficacy was considered satisfactory, in that three of the 12 patients showed no signs of CIS 44, 30 and 3 months after treatment. Intravesical instillation of 213 Bi-anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody was well tolerated and showed therapeutic efficacy. Repeated instillation and/or instillation of higher activities of the 213 Bi-immunoconjugate might lead to better therapeutic outcomes. A phase I clinical trial is planned.

  18. Evaluating Eye Drop Instillation Technique and Its Determinants in Glaucoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate eye drop instillation technique and to explore its determinants in glaucoma patients. Methods. One hundred and thirteen patients diagnosed with glaucoma and self-administering topical antiglaucoma eye drops for at least 1 month were evaluated. All patients instilled artificial tear solution in one eye as they would do at home. The whole process was evaluated by two study staff. A comprehensive score system associated with eye drop instillation techniques was used to quantify the instillation technique and explore its determinants such as demographic and clinical characteristics. Results. Half of the patients (48.67% finished the administration of eye drop on first attempt.1.7 eye drops were squeezed out on average. 43 patients (37.17% got contact with ocular surface or adnexa. Only 19.7% patients had eye drop instillation techniques being defined as well. 11 patients (9.7% had prior instruction regarding using eye drops, while only 4 patients knew to occlude the tear duct by pressing the dacryocyst area. Older age and worse visual acuity were found to be independent risk factors for worse instillation technique. Conclusions. Eye drop instillation technique in glaucoma patients deserves great attention from eye care practitioners during their lifelong follow-up, especially those aged older and have worse visual acuity.

  19. Significance of Intratracheal Instillation Tests for the Screening of Pulmonary Toxicity of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Fujisawa, Yuri; Fujita, Katsuhide

    Inhalation tests are the gold standard test for the estimation of the pulmonary toxicity of respirable materials. Intratracheal instillation tests have been used widely, but they yield limited evidence of the harmful effects of respirable materials. We reviewed the effectiveness of intratracheal instillation tests for estimating the hazards of nanomaterials, mainly using research papers featuring intratracheal instillation and inhalation tests centered on a Japanese national project. Compared to inhalation tests, intratracheal instillation tests induced more acute inflammatory responses in the animal lung due to a bolus effect regardless of the toxicity of the nanomaterials. However, nanomaterials with high toxicity induced persistent inflammation in the chronic phase, and nanomaterials with low toxicity induced only transient inflammation. Therefore, in order to estimate the harmful effects of a nanomaterial, an observation period of 3 months or 6 months following intratracheal instillation is necessary. Among the endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, cell count and percentage of neutrophil, chemokines for neutrophils and macrophages, and oxidative stress markers are considered most important. These markers show persistent and transient responses in the lung from nanomaterials with high and low toxicity, respectively. If the evaluation of the pulmonary toxicity of nanomaterials is performed in not only the acute but also the chronic phase in order to avoid the bolus effect of intratracheal instillation and inflammatory-related factors that are used as endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, we speculate that intratracheal instillation tests can be useful for screening for the identification of the hazard of nanomaterials through pulmonary inflammation.

  20. Instilling fear makes good business sense: unwarranted hysterectomies in Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Teena; Vasan, Akhila; S, Vijayakumar

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses data from two fact-finding exercises in two districts of Karnataka to trace how government and private doctors alike pushed women to undergo hysterectomies. The doctors provided grossly unscientific information to poor Dalit women to instil a fear of "cancer" in their minds to wilfully mislead them to undergo hysterectomies, following which many suffered complications and died. The paper examines a review, made by two separate panels of experts, of women's medical records from private hospitals to illustrate that a large proportion of the hysterectomies performed were medically unwarranted; that private doctors were using highly suspect diagnostic criteria, based on a single ultrasound scan, to perform the hysterectomies and had not sent even a single sample for histopathology; and that the medical records were incomplete, erroneous and, in several instances, manipulated. The paper describes how a combination of patriarchal bias, professional unscrupulousness and pro-private healthcare policies posed a serious threat to the survival and well-being of women in Karnataka.

  1. Transurethral instillation with fusion protein MrpH.FimH induces protective innate immune responses against uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Bouzari, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections in human. Innate immunity recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to activate responses against pathogens. Recently, we demonstrated that MrpH.FimH fusion protein consisting of MrpH from Proteus mirabilis and FimH from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) results in the higher immunogenicity and protection, as compared with FimH and MrpH alone. In this study, we evaluated the innate immunity and adjuvant properties induced by fusion MrpH.FimH through in vitro and in vivo methods. FimH and MrpH.FimH were able to induce significantly higher IL-8 and IL-6 responses than untreated or MrpH alone in cell lines tested. The neutrophil count was significantly higher in the fusion group than other groups. After 6 h, IL-8 and IL-6 production reached a peak, with a significant decline at 24 h post-instillation in both bladder and kidney tissues. Mice instilled with the fusion and challenged with UPEC or P. mirabilis showed a significant decrease in the number of bacteria in bladder and kidney compared to control mice. The results of these studies demonstrate that the use of recombinant fusion protein encoding TLR-4 ligand represents an effective vaccination strategy that does not require the use of a commercial adjuvant. Furthermore, MrpH.FimH was presented as a promising vaccine candidate against UTIs caused by UPEC and P. mirabilis. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Safety of gentamicin bladder irrigations in complex urological cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoor, William; Ferguson, Denise; Mashni, Susan; Creelman, Lisa; Reeves, Deborah; Minevich, Eugene; Reddy, Pramod; Sheldon, Curtis

    2006-05-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections are common in complex pediatric urological cases, particularly those requiring clean intermittent catheterization. At our institution gentamicin bladder irrigations have been used for antimicrobial prophylaxis and to treat symptomatic bacteriuria, particularly when the infection does not involve the upper urinary tract. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of this therapy. A retrospective study was performed of all children treated with gentamicin bladder irrigations from 1999 to 2004. The dose was 14 mg gentamicin in 30 ml saline instilled via catheter once or twice daily. Serum creatinine and random gentamicin levels were obtained according to a protocol based on risk of gentamicin toxicity. Patient demographics, laboratory results and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records. A total of 80 patients (38 males and 42 females) were identified. Median patient age was 10 years and median duration of treatment was 90 days. No patient had detectable serum gentamicin levels greater than 0.4 mg/dl. Small increases in serum creatinine were seen in 3 patients, all of whom had chronic renal insufficiency. A total of 21 patients (26%) had breakthrough UTIs, of which 5 (24%) were gentamicin resistant. No adverse events were documented. Gentamicin bladder irrigations are a helpful adjunct in the management of complex pediatric urological cases involving recurrent symptomatic bacteriuria. We no longer require intensive laboratory monitoring of low risk patients at our institution.

  3. Spontaneous Bladder Perforation in an Infant Neurogenic Bladder: Laparoscopic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cabezalí Barbancho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder perforation is an uncommon event in childhood. It is usually associated with bladder augmentation. We are presenting a case of bladder rupture in an infant with neurogenic bladder without prior bladder surgery. Three days after lipomyelomeningocele excision the patient showed signs and symptoms of acute abdomen. The ultrasound exploration revealed significant amount of intraperitoneal free fluid and therefore a laparoscopic exploration was performed. A posterior bladder rupture was diagnosed and repaired laparoscopically. Currently, being 3 years old, she keeps successfully dry with clean intermittent catheterization. Neurogenic bladder voiding function can change at any time of its evolution and lead to complications. Early diagnosis of spontaneous bladder rupture is of paramount importance, so it is essential to think about it in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen.

  4. Adducts of rare earth tris-acetylacetonates with dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyubenko, N.G.; Kalenichenko, Yu.V.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1988-01-01

    Adducts of rare earth and yttrium (r.e.e., M) acetylacetonates with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), MA 3 xnDMSO are synthesized. The acetylacetonates of light r.e.e. (M=La-Tb) are shown by different physico-chemical methods to form diadducts of the MA 3 x2DMSOxH 2 O composition, where A - -acetylacetonate-ion, and the acetyl-acetonates of heavy r.e.e. (M=Dy-Lu, Y)-monoadducts MA 3 xDMSO. The estimation of adduct thermal stability is carried out using the values of seeming activation energy of their thermal degradation. Monoadducts are shown to give volatile forms of rare earth acetylacetonates during heating in vacuum, and diadducts do not form volatile forms of acetylacetonates

  5. DFT Study of dimers of dimethyl sulfoxide in gas phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Fazaeli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Density functional (DFT calculations at M05-2x/aug-cc-pVDZ level were used to analyze the interactions between dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO dimers. The structures obtained have been ana-lyzed with the Atoms in Molecules (AIMs and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO methodologies. Four minima were located on the potential energy surface of the dimers. Three types of interac-tions are observed, CH•••O, CH•••S hydrogen bonds and orthogonal interaction between the lone pair of the oxygen with the electron-deficient region of the sulfur atom. Stabilization energies of dimers including BSSE and ZPE are in the range 27–40 kJmol-1. The most stable conformers of dimers at DFT level is cyclic structure with antiparallel orientation of S=O groups pairing with three C–H∙∙∙O and a S∙∙∙O interactions.

  6. Trimesic acid dimethyl sulfoxide solvate: space group revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Bernès

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title solvate, C9H6O6·C2H6OS, was determined 30 years ago [Herbstein, Kapon & Wasserman (1978. Acta Cryst. B34, 1613–1617], with data collected at room temperature, and refined in the space group P21. The present redetermination, based on high-resolution diffraction data, shows that the actual space group is more likely to be P21/m. The crystal structure contains layers of trimesic acid molecules lying on mirror planes. A mirror plane also passes through the S and O atoms of the solvent molecule. The molecules in each layer are interconnected through strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional supramolecular network within each layer. The donor groups are the hydroxyls of the trimesic acid molecules, while the acceptors are the carbonyl or the sulfoxide O atoms.

  7. Review of underactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Huei Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, many patients cannot empty their bladders within an acceptable duration. Common complaints include weak urinary stream and incomplete emptying, which may affect quality of life. Bladder emptying requires sufficient detrusor contractile power, velocity, and durability. The urodynamic term for inadequate detrusor contraction is detrusor underactivity (DU. Although this definition was provided by the ICS, it may not be clinically practical. Analogous to the relationship between overactive bladder (OAB and detrusor overactivity (DO, the symptom complex caused by DU is termed underactive bladder (UAB. Many conditions lead to UAB, such as advanced age, neurogenic bladder and BOO, but the definite pathophysiology directly leading to UAB is still being widely studied without a widely-accepted consensus. The preferred mainstream treatment for increased residual urine volume caused by UAB is intermittent catheterization, while pharmacotherapy is still disappointing after decades of development. There are no studies on surgical treatment for UAB with an acceptable level of evidence. We reviewed the recent literature on UAB and DU to provide a comprehensive discussion of the related presentation, etiology, diagnosis and management.

  8. Mitomycin C instillation following ureterorenoscopic laser ablation of upper urinary tract carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M Aboumarzouk

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Using a set standard protocol, MMC can safely be instilled into the UUT after TCC ablation with minimal complications or side effects, good preservation of renal function, and with a low recurrences rate comparable to the literature.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Registry: Malignant tumor of urinary bladder Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (1 link) MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Bladder Cancer General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  10. cis-Bis(2,2′-bipyridine-κ2N,N′bis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOzinc bis(tetraphenylborate dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Tomyn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the mononuclear title complex, [Zn(C10H8N22(C2H6OS2](C24H20B2·C2H6OS, the ZnII ion is coordinated by four N atoms of two bidentate 2,2′-bipyridine molecules and by the O atoms of two cis-disposed dimethyl sulfoxide molecules in a distorted octahedral geometry. The S atom and the methyl groups of one of the coordinated dimethyl sulfoxide molecules are disordered in a 0.509 (2:0.491 (2 ratio. The crystal packing is stabilized by C—H...O hydrogen bonds between the dimethyl sulfoxide solvent molecules and tetraphenylborate anions.

  11. Application of lanthanide complexes for the purification of di-isobutyl-sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, V.K.L.; Martinez, S.A.Q.; Silva, R.M.X. da

    1984-01-01

    A new procedure for the purification of sulfoxides based on the selective precipitation of their complexes with class (a) metallic ions is reported. A commercial sample of di-isobutylsulfoxide containing about 5 - 10% of the corresponding sulfone was purified by precipitation with lanthanide perchlorates from alcoholic solutions. The recovery of the sulfoxide from the solid complex was accomplished by dissolving the complex in water and extracting the sulfoxide with chloroform. Alternatively the aqueous solution of the complex was passed successively through columns containing strongly acidic cation-exchanger resin in the H-cycle and strongly basic anionic-exchanger in the OH-cycle. T.L.C. homogeneous sulfoxide was obtained simply by evaporation of the solvent at reduced pressure. (Author) [pt

  12. Pain during ice water test distinguishes clinical bladder hypersensitivity from overactivity disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bountra Chas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bladder cooling reflex (BCR i.e. uninhibited detrusor contractions evoked by intravesical instillation of cold saline, is a segmental reflex believed to be triggered by menthol sensitive cold receptors in the bladder wall, with the afferent signals transmitted by C fibres. The BCR is a neonatal reflex that becomes suppressed by descending signals from higher centres at approximately the time when the child gains full voluntary control of voiding. It re-emerges in adults with neurogenic detrusor overactivity as a consequence of loss of central descending inhibition, resulting from conditions such as spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis. We have recently shown an increase of nerve fibres expressing the cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in both overactive (IDO and painful bladder syndrome (PBS, but its functional significance is unknown. We have therefore studied the bladder cooling reflex and associated sensory symptoms in patients with PBS and overactivity disorders. Methods The BCR, elicited by ice water test (IWT was performed in patients with painful bladder syndrome (PBS, n = 17, idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO, n = 22, neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO, n = 4 and stress urinary incontinence (as controls, n = 21. The IWT was performed by intravesical instillation of cold saline (0 – 4°C. A positive IWT was defined as presence of uninhibited detrusor contraction evoked by cold saline, associated with urgency or with fluid expulsion. Patients were asked to report and rate any pain and cold sensation during the test. Results A positive IWT was observed in IDO (6/22, 27.3% and NDO (4/4, 100% patients, but was negative in all control and PBS patients. Thirteen (76.5% PBS patients reported pain during the IWT, with significantly higher pain scores during ice water instillation compared to the baseline (P = 0.0002, or equivalent amount of bladder filling (100 mls with saline at room temperature (P = 0.015. None

  13. Inactivation of MXR1 Abolishes Formation of Dimethyl Sulfide from Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a sulfur compound of importance for the organoleptic properties of beer, especially some lager beers. Synthesis of DMS during beer production occurs partly during wort production and partly during fermentation. Methionine sulfoxide reductases are the enzymes responsible for reduction of oxidized cellular methionines. These enzymes have been suggested to be able to reduce dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as well, with DMS as the product. A gene for an enzymatic activity lead...

  14. Experimental Treatment of Bladder Cancer with Bi-213-anti-EGFR MAb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Christof; Pfost, Birgit; Müller, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Therapy of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (carcinoma in situ) comprises transurethral resection of the tumour and subsequent instillation of the chemotherapeutic drug mitomycin C in order to eradicate remaining tumour cells. Yet 15 – 40% of treated patients relapse within 5 years. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies to combat tumour recurrence are needed. Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides efficiently kill single tumour cells or small tumour cell clusters. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed on bladder cancer cells, conjugates composed of the alpha-emitter Bi-213 and the anti-EGFR antibody matuzumab should provide a powerful drug to eliminate disseminated bladder cancer cells. Therefore, the aims of our study were (i) to analyse the cytotoxic effects of Bi-213-anti-EGFR radioimmunoconjugates at the cellular level, (ii) to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of intravesically applied Bi-213- anti-EGFR-Mab in a nude mouse model with intravesical human bladder cancer xenografts, (iii) to compare Bi- 213-anti-EGFR-Mab efficacy with chemotherapy using mitomycin C and (iv) to demonstrate that radioimmunotherapy is not toxic to cells of the bladder wall and of the kidneys

  15. Tunability of photoswitchable ruthenium sulfoxide compounds on the basis of ligand substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicke, Sebastian; Dieckmann, Volker; Springfeld, Kristin; Imlau, Mirco [Deparment of Physics, University of Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Photoswitchable ruthenium sulfoxide compounds provide a light-induced linkage isomerization in combination with pronounced changes in characteristic optical properties. As representative of the ruthenium sulfoxide group the molecular compound [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(R-OSO)]{sup +} (OSO: 2-methylsulfinylbenzoate) can be tuned in its optical properties by the substitution of the photoswitchable ligands (R=Bn, BnCl, BnMe). These modified sulfoxides were studied in respect to their photochromic properties and kinetics of the generation and relaxation of the light-induced isomers. The kinetics were determined by pump-probe technique and show in each case two reversible thermal decay processes following Arrhenius law. The two photo-excited states offer lifetimes in the magnitude of {tau}{sub 1}{approx}10{sup 3} s and {tau}{sub 2}{approx}10{sup 4} s at room temperature with activation energies about E{sub A,I}=0.72 eV to 0.92 eV and E{sub A,II}=0.8 eV to 1.00 eV. Another respresentative of the photoswitchable sulfoxides is the [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(pySO)]{sup 2+} compound. This molecule is the first sulfoxide which allows for reversible switching between the ground and metastable states by light exposure. With this compound the sulfoxides are highly qualified for optical data storage on a molecular scale.

  16. Radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    Methods of treating bladder cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as various combinations of these. The author investigated clinically and histopathologically the therapeutic results of preoperative irradiation in cases of bladder cancer. 1. The survival rates (crude survival rates) in forty cases of bladder cancer were 90% after one year, 62.5% after three years and 46% after five years from the treatment. 2. As the result of irradiation, urogram improved in 25%, which was comparatively remarkable in high stage cases. There were no cases of deterioration of urogram findings caused by irradiation. Cystoscopy revealed disappearance or remarkable shrinkage of the tumors in 35% of the total cases and effects of the irradiation was observed not correlated to the stage and grade. 3. With respect to the histopathological changes, the changes became greater as the dosage increased and the higher the stage and grade were the more remarkable tendency was observed. 4. From our clinical observations such as urogram, cystoscopy and histopathologically, we estimated the optimum dosage of preoperative irradiation for bladder cancer is 3000 - 4000 rad. Thus, we concluded that the radiotherapy is effective in reducing both surgical invasion and postoperative recurrence. (author)

  17. Characterization of a Mouse Model of Emphysema Induced by Multiple Instillations of Low-Dose Elastase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena V. Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many experimental models have been proposed to study the pathophysiological features of emphysema, as well as to search for new therapeutic approaches for acute or chronically injured lung parenchyma. We aimed to characterize an emphysema model induced by multiple instillations of elastase by tracking the changes in inflammation, remodeling, and cardiac function after each instillation. Forty-eight C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned across 2 groups. Emphysema (ELA animals received 1, 2, 3, or 4 intratracheal instillations of pancreatic porcine elastase (PPE, 0.2 IU with a 1-week interval between them. Controls (C received saline following the same protocol. Before and after implementation of the protocol, animals underwent echocardiographic analysis. After the first instillation of PPE, the percentage of mononuclear cells in the lung parenchyma was increased compared to C (p = 0.0001. The second instillation resulted in hyperinflated alveoli, increased mean linear intercept, and reduced elastic fiber content in lung parenchyma compared to C (p=0.0197. Following the third instillation, neutrophils and collagen fiber content in alveolar septa and airways were increased, whereas static lung elastance was reduced compared to C (p=0.0094. After the fourth instillation, the percentage of M1 macrophages in lungs; levels of interleukin-1beta, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor; and collagen fiber content in the pulmonary vessel wall were increased compared to C (p=0.0096. At this time point, pulmonary arterial hypertension was apparent, with increased diastolic right ventricular wall thickness. In conclusion, the initial phase of emphysema was characterized by lung inflammation with predominance of mononuclear cells, whereas at the late stage, impairment of pulmonary and cardiovascular functions was observed. This model enables analysis of therapies at different time points during controlled

  18. Ruthenium sulfoxides structure and reactivity with nitrogen heterocyclic bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Denise de.

    1990-01-01

    Ruthenium (II) sulfoxides are compounds of great interest in oxidative catalysis and in chemotherapy. In order to contribute for the understanding of the chemistry and electronic structure of this class of compounds, it has been studied a series of [Ru Cl 2 (S-DMSO) 2 L x ] complexes, where x = 1 (polymeric compounds) or 2 (monomers) and L N-heterocyclic ligands (pyridine, pyrazine and imidazole derivatives). The nature of N-heterocyclic ligand and their coordination are of great relevance to the stability, spectroscopic and electrochemical characteristics of the complexes. The trans-interactions are extremely important in this series, influencing the strength of the Ru(II)-> S-DMSO and Ru(II)-> L π-back donation. The DMSO and L ligands are π-acceptors. The metal-> ligand π-back donation is strengthened when the ligand is trans to chloride, which is π-donor, due to trans-cooperative interactions of the type: π-donor -> Ru(II) π-acceptor. Another interesting aspect in the series of [Ru Cl 2 (S-DMSO) 2 L 2 ] complexes is the occurrence of dissociative equilibria in the solution, due to the existence of three types of ligands. It was observed that the trans-N isomer of 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine derivative undergoes thermal substitution, with preferential liabilization of the N-heterocyclic ligand. Chloride ion is the most inert ligand in this complex. (author). 145 refs., 76 figs., 21 tabs

  19. Role of Helicobacter pylori methionine sulfoxide reductase in urease maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Lisa G.; Mahawar, Manish; Sharp, Joshua S.; Benoit, Stéphane; Maier, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The persistence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is due in part to urease and Msr (methionine sulfoxide reductase). Upon exposure to relatively mild (21% partial pressure of O2) oxidative stress, a Δmsr mutant showed both decreased urease specific activity in cell-free extracts and decreased nickel associated with the partially purified urease fraction as compared with the parent strain, yet urease apoprotein levels were the same for the Δmsr and wild-type extracts. Urease activity of the Δmsr mutant was not significantly different from the wild-type upon non-stress microaerobic incubation of strains. Urease maturation occurs through nickel mobilization via a suite of known accessory proteins, one being the GTPase UreG. Treatment of UreG with H2O2 resulted in oxidation of MS-identified methionine residues and loss of up to 70% of its GTPase activity. Incubation of pure H2O2-treated UreG with Msr led to reductive repair of nine methionine residues and recovery of up to full enzyme activity. Binding of Msr to both oxidized and non-oxidized UreG was observed by cross-linking. Therefore we conclude Msr aids the survival of H. pylori in part by ensuring continual UreG-mediated urease maturation under stress conditions. PMID:23181726

  20. Diapause prevention effect of Bombyx mori by dimethyl sulfoxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Yamamoto

    Full Text Available HCl treatment has been, for about 80 years, the primary method for the prevention of entry into embryonic diapauses of Bombyx mori. This is because no method is as effective as the HCl treatment. In this study, we discovered that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO prevented entry into the diapause of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The effect of diapause prevention was 78% as a result of treatment with 100% DMSO concentration, and the effect was comparable to that of the HCl treatment. In contrast, in the case of non-diapause eggs, hatchability was decreased by DMSO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of DMSO was restricted within 24 hours after oviposition of diapause eggs, and the critical period was slightly shorter than the effective period of the HCl treatment. DMSO analogs, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF and dimethyl sulfide (DMS, did little preventive effect against the diapause. Furthermore, we also investigated the permeation effects of chemical compounds by DMSO. When treated with an inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (CK2 dissolved in DMSO, the prevention rate of the diapause was less than 40%. This means that the inhibition effect by the CK2 inhibitor was the inhibition of embryonic development after diapause prevention by DMSO. These data suggest that DMSO has the effects of preventing from entering into the diapause and permeation of chemicals into diapause eggs.

  1. Extraction of plutonium(IV) by bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfoxide: a novel branched-chain extractant (Preprint No. ST.23)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, J.P.; Kedari, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Di-n-alkyl sulfoxides offer certain distint advantages over other common extractants for use in actinides separation particularly in the presence of high radiation fields. Despite widespread interest in these extractants, practical applications of such sulfoxides in nuclear fuel reprocessing have been seriously hampered owing to their poor solubility in common aliphatic hydrocarbon diluents. Recently a promising new branched-chain sulfoxide extractant, bis( 2-ethylhexyl) sulfoxide (BESO) has been introduced as a novel extracting agent for uranium. It possesses almost all the advantages of other sulfoxides, but excels the rest in terms of its complete miscibility with dodecane and the highest Ksub(H) value reported for any sulfoxide. As a part of comprehensive program to explore its analytical usefulness, data concerning preliminary studies on the extraction of plutonium with BESO form nitric acid solutions are reported. (author)

  2. Elastase-induced emphysema: retention of instilled proteinase in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhaus, R.A.; Janoff, A.

    1982-01-01

    Airway instillation of proteinases with the ability to degrade elastin has been used to produce disease in the rat analogous to human pulmonary emphysema. This study examined the retention, localization, and fate of endotracheally instilled elastase using 125 I labeled enzyme and immunoperoxidase histochemistry. Porcine pancreatic elastase labeled with 125 I was detected in rat lungs through 96 h after instillation; over half of the label was still present after 7 h. Similar results were obtained when elastase was reacted with a specific, catalytic site inactivator prior to instillation. Trypsin and denatured elastase, however, were cleared much more rapidly from the lung (less than half of the label present after 30 min). When lungs were homogenized after instillation of active elastase, the soluble fraction contained elastase bound to rat alpha1-antitrypsin. In addition, a small amount of label (less than 10%) appeared bound to insoluble components for extended periods of time. Using immunoperoxidase histochemistry, it was found that exogenous elastase was rapidly contained with pulmonary alveolar macrophages, as well as associated with alveolar septums and other parenchymal structures. Similar results were obtained with elastase from both porcine pancreas and human neutrophils. These results suggest that exogenous elastase in the rat, and perhaps endogenous elastolytic enzymes in humans, may have several fates in the lungs: complex formation with endogenous inhibitors, containment within the macrophage, and/or association with connective tissue targets

  3. Study into complexing of anhydrous uranyl chloride with organic o-bases in nonaqueous media. Interaction with aliphatic sulfoxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobets, L V; Buchikhin, E P; Klyshevich, R P; Belyachis, G F

    1982-01-01

    The methods of spectrophotometry, conductometry and calorimetry have been used to investigate interaction of uranyl chloride with dimethyl, diamil, dioctyl sulfoxides in the nonaqueous acetone media. Existence of complexes with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 composition for dimethyl sulfoxide and with 1:1, 1:2 composition for diamil-, dioctyl sulfoxides is revealed. The constants of formation and dissociation of these complexes are calculated; the enthalpies of their formation in acetone are determined.

  4. Study into complexing of anhydrous uranyl chloride with organic o-bases in nonaqueous media. Interaction with aliphatic sulfoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobets, L.V.; Buchikhin, E.P.; Klyshevich, R.P.; Belyachis, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    The methods of spectrophotometry, conductometry and calorimetry have been used to investigate interaction of uranyl chloride with dimethyl, diamil, dioctyl sulfoxides in the nonaqueous acetone media. Existence of complexes with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 composition for dimethyl sulfoxide and with 1:1, 1:2 composition for diamil-, dioctyl sulfoxides is revealed. The constants of formation and dissociation of these complexes are calculated; the enthalpies of their formation in acetone are determined

  5. Dopamine D2 receptor function is compromised in the brain of the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Oien, Derek B.; Ortiz, Andrea N.; Rittel, Alexander G.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Johnson, Michael A.; Levant, Beth; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that brain oxidative stress and altered rodent locomotor behavior are linked. We observed bio-behavioral changes in methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mice associated with abnormal dopamine signaling. Compromised ability of these knockout mice to reduce methionine sulfoxide enhances accumulation of sulfoxides in proteins. We examined the dopamine D2-receptor function and expression, which has an atypical arrangement and quantity of methionine residues. Indeed...

  6. Efficacy and safety of hexaminolevulinate fluorescence cystoscopy in the diagnosis of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, Woo Jung; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong; Jeong, Byong Chang

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hexaminolevulinate fluorescence cystoscopy in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. In a prospective design, we included patients who had a bladder lesion suggesting bladder cancer. Patients with massive hematuria, urethral Foley catheter insertion, chronic retention state, or urinary tract infection were excluded. After the bladder was emptied, hexaminolevulinate was gently administered into the bladder. One hour later, cystoscopy under white light and blue light was performed. After marking the lesions confirmed with white light or blue light, transurethral resection of the bladder lesion and pathologic confirmation were done. Transurethral resection of the lesions that were negative in both white and blue light was also performed. From April 2010 to September 2010, 30 patients were enrolled. From the total of 30 patients (25 men and 5 women; mean age, 60.4±9.22 years), 134 specimens were extracted. Among these, 101 specimens showed positive results by blue light cystoscopy (BLC). The sensitivity of BLC and white light cystoscopy (WLC) was 92.3% and 80.8%, respectively (p=0.021). The specificity of BLC and WLC was 48% and 49.1%, respectively (p>0.05). The positive and negative predictive values of BLC were 71.2% and 81.8%, respectively, whereas those of WLC were 72.0% and 68.6%, respectively. With WLC, 48 specimens showed negative findings, but of that group, 15 specimens (31.2%) were revealed to be malignant with BLC. There were no significant side effects in the 24 hours after the instillation of hexaminolevulinate. Photodynamic diagnosis with hexaminolevulinate helps to find tumors that could be missed by use of WLC only. Photodynamic diagnosis might be valuable in complete resection as well as for more accurate diagnosis of bladder tumor.

  7. Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infection in people with neuropathic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Swee-Ling; Boswell-Ruys, Claire L; Lee, Bon San B; Simpson, Judy M; Clezy, Kate R

    2017-09-08

    excluded. Summary estimates of effect were obtained using a random-effects model, and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI were planned for continuous outcomes. This review includes a total of three studies (one cross-over and two parallel RCTs) which involved 110 participants. All three studies looked at intravesical instillation of a low virulent Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain in reducing the risk of symptomatic UTI in participants with neuropathic bladder, predominantly from SCI. Two studies used the E. coli 83972 strain and one study used the E. coli HU2117 strain.We did not find any RCTs involving other probiotics or other routes of administration for preventing UTI in people with neuropathic bladder.There was consistency in definition of symptomatic UTI in all three studies. Symptoms that all studies considered were relevant to diagnose UTI were adequately defined. All three studies defined microbiological diagnosis of symptomatic UTI.Asymptomatic bacteriuria was not considered an outcome measure in any of the included studies; however it was defined in two studies to establish successful inoculation.It is uncertain if the risk of symptomatic UTI is reduced with bladder inoculation using E. coli because the certainty of the evidence is very low (3 studies, 110 participants: RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.19; I 2 = 82%).Two studies reported adverse events. One study reported one episode of autonomic dysreflexia. One study reported three symptomatic UTI occurring in two patients, and two studies mentioned the absence of septicaemia and pyelonephritis. Intravesical instillation was reported as "generally safe". One study reported high attrition rates in participants due to the need to adhere to strict instillation protocols.The overall quality of the studies was poor. All three studies had high risk of attrition bias due to

  8. Functional and molecular characterization of hyposensitive underactive bladder tissue and urine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayabalan Nirmal

    Full Text Available The functional and molecular alterations of nerve growth factor (NGF and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and its receptors were studied in bladder and urine in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats.Diabetes mellitus was induced with a single dose of 45 mg/kg STZ Intraperitoneally (i.p in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Continuous cystometrogram were performed on control rats and STZ treated rats at week 4 or 12 under urethane anesthesia. Bladder was then harvested for histology, expression of EP receptors and NGF by western blotting, PGE2 levels by ELISA, and detection of apoptosis by TUNEL staining. In addition, 4-hr urine was collected from all groups for urine levels of PGE2, and NGF assay. DM induced progressive increase of bladder weight, urine production, intercontraction interval (ICI and residual urine in a time dependent fashion. Upregulation of Prostaglandin E receptor (EP1 and EP3 receptors and downregulation of NGF expression, increase in urine NGF and decrease levels of urine PGE2 at week 12 was observed. The decrease in ICI by intravesical instillation of PGE2 was by 51% in control rats and 31.4% in DM group at week 12.DM induced hyposensitive underactive bladder which is characterized by increased inflammatory reaction, apoptosis, urine NGF levels, upregulation of EP1 and EP3 receptors and decreased bladder NGF and urine PGE2. The data suggest that EP3 receptor are potential targets in the treatment of diabetes induced underactive bladder.

  9. Radiotherapy in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozan, R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1992, the problem of the vesical radiotherapy is not resolved. The author presents the situation and the different techniques of radiotherapy in bladder cancers: external radiotherapy, only and associated with surgery, interstitial curietherapy and non-classical techniques as per operative radiotherapy, neutron therapy and concurrent radiotherapy with chemotherapy. In order to compare their efficiency, the five-year survival are given in all cases.(10 tabs)

  10. Initial conservative treatment for grade 3 Ta-1 superficial bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Kondo, Hideaki; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2006-01-01

    We retrospectively investigated the therapeutic outcomes of our series of 7 Ta and 62 T1 bladder cancers with grade 3 (G3) malignancy in 61 men and 8 women having a mean age of 66.2 years. Following transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), 35 and 6 patients received intravesical instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and anthracycline-derivants, respectively, whereas 15 received no adjuvant therapy. Five and 2 patients received systemic and local chemotherapy with irradiation, respectively, and six underwent radical cystectomy for invasive potential. The 5-year non-recurrence, progression-free, and overall (cancer-specific) survival rates were 66, 82%, and 76 (88)%, respectively, after a median follow-up of 52 months. The 5-year non-recurrence rates were 24% in non-adjuvant, 85% in BCG, 0% in anthracycline-derivants, 65% in systemic and local chemoradiation therapy, and 68% in cystectomy. The 5-year progression-free and overall (cancer-specific) survival rates of the patients treated with BCG instillation were 91% and 94 (100)%. There were no significant differences in the 5-year non-recurrence and progression-free rates between 12 patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) and 23 patients without CIS. Complete TUR of all visible tumors and a reliable histopathological diagnosis of appropriate specimens bearing the muscle layer are mandatory for assessment of recurrence. G3 Ta-1 bladder cancers and CIS showed a high risk of recurrence, and required aggressive treatment. Since BCG therapy following TURBT significantly reduced the risk of recurrence and progression, adjuvant BCG therapy is considered to be the most promising initial conservative treatment for G3 Ta-1 bladder cancers. (author)

  11. Cystoscopic enucleation of bladder leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan A Barayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a rare case of bladder leiomyoma. A 61-year-old female patient was found to have a bladder mass during a work up of lower urinary tract symptoms. After full investigation, she underwent transurethral excision of the mass. The histopathology revealed typical feature of bladder leiomyoma. No recurrence was seen after a follow-up period of 12 months.

  12. Contemporary Management of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Fradet, Yves

    1991-01-01

    Bladder cancer is currently the fifth most common cancer in Western society, and its incidence appears to be increasing. Important advances have recently occurred in both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to bladder neoplasms. Presentation is not unique, and physician awareness is important to identify patients who are at risk for bladder neoplasia and consequently require further investigation. A diagnostic approach and contemporary management are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4 PMID:21229043

  13. Morphometric analysis of stab wounds by MSCT and MRI after the instillation of contrast medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Paolo; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Toniolo, Matteo; Viel, Guido; Miotto, Diego; Montisci, Massimo; Tagliaro, Franco; Giraudo, Chiara

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the morphology and depth of stab wounds experimentally produced on human legs amputated for medical reasons using multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after the instillation of a single contrast medium solution (CMS). For morphological analysis, MSCT and MRI scans were performed before and after the instillation of CMS into the wound cavity. Depth measurements were performed on the sagittal view only after CMS instillation. Subsequently, each wound was dissected using the layer-by-layer technique and the depth was measured by a ruler. One-way between-groups pairwise analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bland-Altman plot analysis were used for comparing radiological and anatomical measurements. Unenhanced MSCT images did not identify the wound channels, whereas unenhanced MRI evidenced the wound cavity in 50 % of cases. After the instillation of CMS, both MSCT and MRI depicted the wound channel in all the investigated stabbings, although the morphology of the cavity was irregular and did not resemble the shape of the blade. The radiological measurements of the wounds' depth, after the application of CMS, exhibited a high level of agreement (about 95 % at Bland-Altman plot analysis) with the anatomical measurements at dissection. A similar systematic underestimation, however, has been evidenced for MSCT (average 11.4 %; 95 % CI 7-17) and MRI (average 9.6 %; 95 % CI 6-13) data after the instillation of CMS with respect to wound dissection measurements. MSCT and MRI after the instillation of CMS can be used for depicting the morphometric features of stab wounds, although depth measurements are affected by a slight systematic underestimation compared to layer-by-layer dissection.

  14. Instillation of Sericin Enhances Corneal Wound Healing through the ERK Pathway in Rat Debrided Corneal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Nagai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sericin is a major constituent of silk produced by silkworms. We previously found that the instillation of sericin enhanced the proliferation of corneal epithelial cells, and acted to promote corneal wound healing in both normal and diabetic model rats. However, the mechanisms by which sericin promotes the proliferation of corneal cells have not been established. In this study, we investigated the effects of sericin on Akt and ERK activation in a human corneal epithelial cell line (HCE-T cells and rat debrided corneal epithelium. Although Akt phosphorylation was not detected following the treatment of HCE-T cells with sericin, ERK1/2 phosphorylation was enhanced. The growth of HCE-T cells treated with sericin was significantly increased, with the cell growth of sericin-treated HCE-T cells being 1.7-fold higher in comparison with vehicle-treated HCE-T cells. On the other hand, both of an ERK inhibitor U0126 (non-specific specific inhibitor and SCH772984 (specific inhibitor attenuated the enhanced cell growth by sericin, and the growth level in the case of co-treatment with sericin and ERK1/2 inhibitor was similar to that of cells treated with ERK1/2 inhibitor alone. In an in vivo study using rat debrided corneal epithelium, the corneal wound healing rate was enhanced by the instillation of sericin, and this enhancement was also attenuated by the instillation of U0126. In addition, the corneal wound healing rate in rats co-instilled with sericin and U0126 was similar to that following the instillation of U0126 alone. In conclusion, we found that the instillation of sericin enhanced cell proliferation via the activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway, resulting in the promotion of corneal wound healing in rat eyes. These findings provide significant information for designing further studies to develop potent corneal wound-healing drugs.

  15. Intraoperative photodynamic therapy of bladder cancer with alasens (results of multicenter trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Filonenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of multicenter prospective trial for efficacy of combined modality treatment: transurethral resection (TUR + photodynamic therapy (PDT with alasens for bladder cancer are represented in the article. Trials were organized by Research Institute of Organic Intermediates and Dyes and conducted according to clinical protocol approved by Ministry of Health of Russia, at the sites of leading Russian cancer clinical centers. The trial included 45 subjects with verified diagnosis of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients underwent TUR of bladder with simultaneous PDT as anti-relapse treatment. Alasens was administered to patients as intravesicular instillation of 3% solution in volume of 50 ml with 1.5–2h exposure (prior to TUR. TUR was performed after instillation. PDT session was conducted immediately after the completion of TUR on a single occasion by means of combined local irradiation on tumor bed with diffuse irradiation on whole urinary bladder mucosa (light dose of local irradiation – 100 J/cm2, diffuse irradiation – 20 J/cm2. Good tolerance of the treatment was noticed, there were no complications. Among 45 patients included in the trial, 35 (78% completed 12 month protocol follow-up without relapse. The recurrence of bladder tumor was registered in 10 (22% cases 6–12 months after TUR+PDT including 3 patients with recurrence 6 months after treatment, 3–9 months and 4–12 months. These patients underwent repeated TUR, whereafter their follow-up in the settings of the clinical trial was disposed. Thus, PDT with alasens after TUR allowed to decrease the recurrence rate of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer for 1st year after treatment to 22% versus 40–80% for TUR as monotherapy according to literature data. The obtained results were comparable by efficiency with TUR combined with methods of adjuvant treatment for bladder tumors (the recurrence rates for 1-year follow-up after TUR+chemotherapy – 36–44%, after TUR

  16. Permeability and ultrastructure of human bladder epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, J; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nielsen, S L

    1983-01-01

    Leakage of tight junctions as observed with electron microscopy and demonstration of solute transport across bladder epithelium was investigated in 13 patients with different bladder diseases: urinary retention and infection, bladder tumours and interstitial cystitis. The latter group showed...

  17. OVERACTIVE BLADDER SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Vishnevskiy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder is a specific syndrome characterized by bladder dysfunction that is clinically manifested by imperative urination (pollakiuria, urgency, urgent incontinence and nocturia. This state is very widely spread among children: every fifth child aged 4 to 7 shows typical bladder dysfunction. Quite often if urinary distresses are not studied well enough such children are falsely diagnosed with monosymptom enuresis, which, according to our information, actually happens in only 3,9% of cases. When examining children with urinary disorders it is reasonable to be geared to the protocol of European urologist association. According to this protocol, treatment should be started with antimuscarinimedications. The only antimuscarinic medication for treating children with hyperactive bladder that is legal in Russia is oxybutinin (Driptane, that is presently considered to be the «golden standard» of pharmaceutical treatment of overactive bladder for patients of any age. This statement is based on the modern idea of overactive bladder pathogenesis, that presupposes detrusorhypersensibility to acetylcholine. However, in some cases it might be reasonable to use some other medications, physiotherapy, sometimes as part of complex therapy. If individual dosage is observed, which will enable preventing or significantly lowering possible side effects, oxybutinin will be still considered «the golden standard» for treating overactive bladder for years to come in cases when detrusor hypersensibility to acetylcholine is the key component of bladder dysfunction pathogenesis.Key words: overactive bladder, oxybutinin, urination disorder, children.

  18. Molecular biology of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Doyle, William; Kwiatkowski, David J

    2015-04-01

    Classic as well as more recent large-scale genomic analyses have uncovered multiple genes and pathways important for bladder cancer development. Genes involved in cell-cycle control, chromatin regulation, and receptor tyrosine and PI3 kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways are commonly mutated in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Expression-based analyses have identified distinct types of bladder cancer that are similar to subsets of breast cancer, and have prognostic and therapeutic significance. These observations are leading to novel therapeutic approaches in bladder cancer, providing optimism for therapeutic progress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disruption Images Bladder catheterization, female Bladder catheterization, male Female urinary tract Male urinary tract References Morey AF, Zhao LC. Genital and lower urinary tract trauma. In: Wein AJ, ...

  20. Determination of albendazole sulfoxide in human plasma by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraner, Nihal; Özkan, Güler Yağmur; Güney, Berrak; Alkan, Erkin; Burul-Bozkurt, Nihan; Sağlam, Onursal; Fikirdeşici, Ezgi; Yıldırım, Mevlüt

    2016-06-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive method was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for determination of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZOX) in human plasma. The plasma samples were extracted by protein precipitation using albendazole sulfoxide-d3 as internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation was performed on Waters Xbridge C18Column (100×4.6mm, 3.5μm) with a mobile phase consisting of ammonia solution, water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.70mL/min. ABZOX was detected and identified by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was linear in the range of 3-1500ng/mL for ABZOX. This method was successfully applied to the bioequivalence study in human plasma samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and spectroscopic behavior of highly luminescent Eu 3+-dibenzoylmethanate (DBM) complexes with sulfoxide ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyama, E.; Brito, H. F.; Cremona, M.; Teotonio, E. E. S.; Reyes, R.; Brito, G. E. S.; Felinto, M. C. F. C.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper the synthesis, characterization and photoluminescent behavior of the [RE(DBM) 3L 2] complexes (RE = Gd and Eu) with a variety of sulfoxide ligands; L = benzyl sulfoxide (DBSO), methyl sulfoxide (DMSO), phenyl sulfoxide (DPSO) and p-tolyl sulfoxide (PTSO) have been investigated in solid state. The emission spectra of the Eu 3+-β-diketonate complexes show characteristics narrow bands arising from the 5D 0 → 7F J ( J = 0-4) transitions, which are split according to the selection rule for C n, C nv or C s site symmetries. The experimental Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters ( Ω2 and Ω4), radiative ( Arad) and non-radiative ( Anrad) decay rates, and R02 for the europium complexes have been determined and compared. The highest value of Ω2 (61.9 × 10 -20 cm 2) was obtained to the complex with PTSO ligand, indicating that Eu 3+ ion is in the highly polarizable chemical environment. The higher values of the experimental quantum yield ( q) and emission quantum efficiency of the emitter 5D 0 level ( η) for the Eu-complexes with DMSO, DBSO and PTSO sulfoxides suggest that these complexes are promising Light Conversion Molecular Devices (LCMDs). The lower value of quantum yield ( q = 1%), for the hydrated complex [Eu(DBM) 3(H 2O)], indicates that the luminescence quenching occurs via multiphonon relaxation by coupling with the OH-oscillators from water molecule coordinated to rare earth ion. The pure red emission of the Eu-complexes has been confirmed by ( x, y) color coordinates.

  2. Molecular Diagnosis in Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.M. Zuiverloon (Tahlita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEpidemiologyBladder cancer (BC) is the most prevalent type of urothelial cancer and is associated with thehighest costs of all cancer types due to intensive patient surveillance. Because bladder tumorsfrequently recur, patients need to be monitored extensively [1-4]. Incidence increases

  3. Postmortem MRI of bladder agenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Brendan R. [St George' s Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Weber, Martin A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Bockenhauer, Detlef [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Nephrology, London (United Kingdom); Hiorns, Melanie P.; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    We report a 35-week preterm neonate with bladder agenesis and bilateral dysplastic kidneys. A suprapubic catheter was inadvertently inserted into one of the larger inferior cysts of the left dysplastic kidney. A postmortem MRI scan was performed with the findings being confirmed on autopsy. We are unaware of another postmortem MRI study demonstrating bladder agenesis. (orig.)

  4. Postmortem MRI of bladder agenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Brendan R.; Weber, Martin A.; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Hiorns, Melanie P.; McHugh, Kieran

    2011-01-01

    We report a 35-week preterm neonate with bladder agenesis and bilateral dysplastic kidneys. A suprapubic catheter was inadvertently inserted into one of the larger inferior cysts of the left dysplastic kidney. A postmortem MRI scan was performed with the findings being confirmed on autopsy. We are unaware of another postmortem MRI study demonstrating bladder agenesis. (orig.)

  5. Vulvar Metastasis from Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a very rare entity; few cases are reported in the English literature. In this paper, we describe the clinical and pathological characteristics, evolution, and treatment of a patient with vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder followed by a brief review of the reported cases in the literature.

  6. Intraperitoneal instillation of saline and local anesthesia for prevention of shoulder pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller; Bjerrum, Flemming; Gögenür, Ismayil

    2013-01-01

    instillation (IPI) of saline and local anesthesia (LA) to minimize SP. METHODS: A search of the literature was conducted using PubMed and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE). Eligibility criteria were: randomized clinical trials (RCT) evaluating IPI of saline and/or LA to minimize incidence or severity of SP...

  7. Long-term effects of intratracheally instilled 253EsCl3 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, J.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Morrow, W.

    1975-01-01

    ts administered 253 EsCl 3 by intratracheal instillation developed more bone tumors and fewer lung tumors than similar rats administered 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . In explanation, it is suggested that 253 Es may irradiatete bone surface cells more effectively while 239 Pu may irradiate a greater total number of cells in the lung. (U.S.)

  8. Intravesical instillation of Formalin for hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to radiation for gynecologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnam, K.; Patil, U.B.; Mariano, E.

    1983-01-01

    Our experience with the use of Formalin instillation in intractable gross hematuria secondary to radiation cystitis in patients with gynecological malignancies is reported. This study indicates coagulative effect of low concentration of Formalin with minimal side effects as a method to control hemorrhage

  9. Distribution of endotracheally instilled surfactant protein SP-C in lung-lavaged rabbits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto; de Leij, Louis; Curstedt, T; ter Haar, J G; Schoots, Coenraad; Wildevuur, Charles; Okken, Albert

    In lung-lavaged surfactant-deficient rabbits (n = 6) requiring artificial ventilation, porcine surfactant was instilled endotracheally. This resulted in improvement of lung function so that the animals could be weaned off artificial ventilation. The animals were killed 4 1/2 h after surfactant

  10. Neuromodulation in bladder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S T; Neal, D E

    1998-10-01

    Neuromodulation is one option for the management of a wide variety of lower urinary tract disorders, including non-neuropathic and neuropathic bladder dysfunctions. The mechanisms of action of the reported techniques remain unclear; urodynamic changes are minimal, but symptomatic improvements are common. Although the treatment is relatively free from side-effects compared with more aggressive surgical options, the placebo effect is likely to be significant. Its exact cost effectiveness is unclear, but the technology is a welcome addition to the range of treatment options for lower urinary tract dysfunctions, such as urgency and urge incontinence.

  11. Basic bladder neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J Quentin

    2010-11-01

    Maintenance of normal lower urinary tract function is a complex process that requires coordination between the central nervous system and the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system. This article provides an overview of the basic principles that are recognized to regulate normal urine storage and micturition, including bladder biomechanics, relevant neuroanatomy, neural control of lower urinary tract function, and the pharmacologic processes that translate the neural signals into functional results. Finally, the emerging role of the urothelium as a sensory structure is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enthalpy of solution of potassium iodide in the water-formamide-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, L.N.; Solov'ev, S.N.; Vorob'ev, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Solution enthalpies are measured for potassium iodide in the water-formamide-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures in a sealed oscillating calorimeter with an isothermal shell at a constant water molar fraction equal to 0.3; 0.5 and 0.7 at 298.15 K. A diagram of the dependence of solution enthalpies on the of mixed solvent composition is plotted. Deviations of experimental solution enthalpies from the calculated ones are negative over the entire concentration range studied, which testifies to the preferable solvatation of electrolyte by the formid and dimthyl sulfoxide molecules

  13. Cardiac Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Following Instillation of 20 nm Citrate-capped Nanosilver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becak DP, Holland NA; Shannahan, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have garnered much interest due to their antimicrobial properties, becoming one of the most utilized nano scale materials. However, any potential evocable cardiovascular injury associated with exposure has not been previously reported. We have previously demonstrated expansion of myocardial infarction after intratracheal (IT) instillation of other nanomaterials. We hypothesized that pulmonary exposure to Ag core AgNP induces persistent increase in circulating cytokines, expansion of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and associated with altered coronary vessel reactivity. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 200 µg of 20 nm citrate capped Ag core AgNP, or a citrate vehicle intratracheally (IT). One and 7 days following IT instillation lungs were evaluated for inflammation and silver presence, serum was analyzed for concentrations of selected cytokines, and cardiac I/R injury and coronary artery reactivity was assessed. Results: AgNP instillation resulted in modest pulmonary injury with detection of silver in lung tissue and infiltrating cells, elevation of serum cytokines: G-CSF, MIP-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-13, IL-10, IL-18, IL-17, TNFα, and RANTES, expansion of I/R injury and depression of the coronary vessel reactivity at 1 day post IT compared to vehicle treated rats. Seven days post IT instillation was associated with persistent detection of silver in lungs, elevation in cytokines: IL-2, IL-13, and TNFα and expansion of I/R injury. Conclusions: Based on these data, IT instillation of AgNP increases circulating levels of several cytokines, which may contribute to persistent expansion of I/R injury possibly through an impaired vascular responsiveness.

  14. Pulmonary toxicity of well-dispersed cerium oxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation and inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuom@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Oyabu, Takako; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro [University of Occupational and Environmental Health (Japan); Shimada, Manabu; Kubo, Masaru [Hiroshima University (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan); Kitajima, Shinichi [National Sanatorium Hoshizuka Keiaien (Japan); Kuroda, Etsushi [Osaka University, Laboratory of Vaccine Science, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (Japan); Kawaguchi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    We performed inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of cerium dioxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles in order to investigate their pulmonary toxicity, and observed pulmonary inflammation not only in the acute and but also in the chronic phases. In the intratracheal instillation study, F344 rats were exposed to 0.2 mg or 1 mg of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed from 3 days to 6 months following the instillation. In the inhalation study, rats were exposed to the maximum concentration of inhaled CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (2, 10 mg/m{sup 3}, respectively) for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The same endpoints as in the intratracheal instillation study were examined from 3 days to 3 months after the end of the exposure. The intratracheal instillation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles caused a persistent increase in the total and neutrophil number in BALF and in the concentration of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2, chemokine for neutrophil, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress marker, in BALF during the observation time. The inhalation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles also induced a persistent influx of neutrophils and expression of CINC-1, CINC-2, and HO-1 in BALF. Pathological features revealed that inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, invaded the alveolar space in both studies. Taken together, the CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles induced not only acute but also chronic inflammation in the lung, suggesting that CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a pulmonary toxicity that can lead to irreversible lesions.

  15. Increased bladder wall thickness is associated with severe symptoms and reduced bladder capacity in patients with bladder pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Wu

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: There are obvious differences in bladder CT scans of patients with symptoms of bladder pain due to different etiology. Increased BWT was associated with increased pain scores and decreased bladder capacity in patients with KC and IC. BWT on a CT scan might be considered a marker for the severity of bladder inflammation.

  16. Bladder stones after bladder augmentation are not what they seem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Misseri, Rosalia; Whittam, Benjamin; Lingeman, James E; Amstutz, Sable; Ring, Joshua D; Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C; Cain, Mark P

    2016-04-01

    Bladder and renal calculi after bladder augmentation are thought to be primarily infectious, yet few studies have reported stone composition. The primary aim was to assess bladder stone composition after augmentation, and renal stone composition in those with subsequent nephrolithiasis. The exploratory secondary aim was to screen for possible risk factors for developing infectious stones. Patients treated for bladder stones after bladder augmentation at the present institution between 1981 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected on demographics, surgeries and stone composition. Patients without stone analysis were excluded. Stones containing struvite, carbonate apatite or ammonium acid ureate were classified as infectious. The following variables were analyzed for a possible association with infectious bladder stone composition: gender, history of cloacal exstrophy, ambulatory status, nephrolithiasis, recurrent urea-splitting urinary tract infections, first vs recurrent stones, timing of presentation with a calculus, history of bladder neck procedures, catheterizable channel and vesicoureteral reflux. Fisher's exact test was used for analysis. Of the 107 patients with bladder stones after bladder augmentation, 85 met inclusion criteria. Median age at augmentation was 8.0 years (follow-up 10.8 years). Forty-four patients (51.8%) recurred (14 multiple recurrences, 143 bladder stones). Renal calculi developed in 19 (22.4%) patients with a bladder stone, and 10 (52.6%) recurred (30 renal stones). Overall, 30.8% of bladder stones were non-infectious (Table). Among patients recurring after an infectious bladder stone, 30.4% recurred with a non-infectious one. Among patients recurring after a non-infectious stone, 84.6% recurred with a non-infectious one (P = 0.005). Compared with bladder stones, renal stones were more likely to be non-infectious (60.0%, P = 0.003). Of patients with recurrent renal calculi after an infectious stone, 40.0% recurred with

  17. Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for murine bladder tumors: initiation of the response by fibronectin-mediated attachment of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, T L; Palmer, J O; McGarr, J A; Brown, E J

    1987-04-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for superficial bladder cancer. Although the mechanisms by which BCG inhibits tumor growth are not known, previous studies have shown that systemic immunization to BCG and the local expression of the immune response in the bladder are associated with a favorable response to BCG therapy. We have investigated the conditions required for the initiation of an immunological response after the intravesical instillation of BCG. Initial histological studies showed that BCG attached to the bladder wall only in areas where the urothelium was damaged by electrocautery and suggested that attachment was associated with the fibrin clot. Quantitative studies verified the histological observations. Minimal BCG attachment (mean less than 10(2) colony forming units) was observed in normal bladders in contrast with a mean of 1.42 X 10(4) colony forming units/bladder in bladders damaged by electrocautery (10 separate experiments). BCG attachment to the bladder wall was durable since organisms were observed in bladders 48 h after instillation. To investigate the proteins to which BCG attached, we tested the binding of BCG to extracellular matrix and inflammatory proteins which comprise a significant portion of the fibrin clot. BCG bound in vitro to coverslips coated in vivo with extracellular matrix proteins but did not bind to control albumin-coated coverslips. BCG also bound to coverslips coated with purified plasma fibronectin but not to coverslips coated with other purified extracellular matrix proteins including laminin, fibrinogen, and type IV collagen. BCG attachment to coverslips coated with either extracellular matrix proteins or purified fibronectin was inhibited by antibodies specific for fibronectin. Moreover, BCG attachment to cauterized bladders in vivo was inhibited by antifibronectin antibodies. These results demonstrate that fibronectin mediates the attachment of BCG

  18. Calcifications of the bladder in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechmar, M. von; Vogel, H.

    1989-01-01

    In schistosomiasis calcification of the urinary bladder are characteristic signs that allow a corresponding diagnosis in endemic regions. Problems concerning differential diagnosis occur only in very rare cases. The calcifications of the bladder can be easily detected by native diagnostics. A late complication in an affected bladder is often a bladder carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  19. Reduction of recurrence in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer using photodynamic diagnosis and immediate post-TUR-B chemoprophylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Malene Bøg

    2013-01-01

    (TUR-B), and one single instillation of 40 mg Mitomycin C (MMC) within 24 hours post-TUR-B were introduced at our institution by March 2008. For the study, patients were identified retrospectively using procedure codes for TUR-B and cystoscopy with biopsy and fulguration. Patients with muscle......-invasive bladder cancer were excluded. 190 consecutive patients, treated between 03-01-2008 and 28-02-2010, were included into the intervention group, while 216 patients, treated between 03-01-2006 and 29-02-2008, served as controls. Procedures and pathology results were registered. The groups were comparable...

  20. 1H, 15N and 13C NMR Assignments of Mouse Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Åshild S.; Aachmann, Finn L.; Sal, Lena S.; Kim, Hwa-Young; Del Conte, Rebecca; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Dikiy, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A recombinant mouse methionine-r-sulfoxide reductase 2 (MsrB2ΔS) isotopically labeled with 15N and 15N/13C was generated. We report here the 1H, 15N and 13C NMR assignments of the reduced form of this protein. PMID:19636904

  1. On the Origin of Microheterogeneity : A Mass Spectrometric Study of Dimethyl Sulfoxide-Water Binary Mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, Dong Nam; Wijnen, Jan W.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Wakisaka, Akihiro

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the microscopic solvent structure of dimethyl sulfoxide-water mixtures and its influence on the solvation structure of solute from a clustering point of View, by means of a specially designed mass spectrometric system. It was observed that the propensity to the cluster formation is

  2. The determination of sulfoxide configuration in six-membered rings using NMR specroscopy and DFT calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Slavětínská, Lenka; Janků, J.; Buděšínský, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2011), s. 356-366 ISSN 0957-4166 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1919 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : NMR * calculation of NMR parameters * sulfoxides * configuration Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.652, year: 2011

  3. Correlations between electrochemical and spectrochemical parameters of ruthenium sulfoxides series with N-heterocyclic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, D. de; Toma, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic study of Ru Cl sub(2) (DMSO) sub(2) L sub(2) derivates, where L = N-heterocyclic base is described, contributing for a best understanding of chemical behaviour and electronic structure of the ruthenium sulfoxides. The correlations between the electrochemical and the spectroscopical parameters of the serie are presented with more emphasis. (author)

  4. A Click Chemistry Approach towards Flavin-Cyclodextrin Conjugates-Bioinspired Sulfoxidation Catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomanová, P.; Šturala, J.; Buděšínský, Miloš; Cibulka, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 11 (2015), s. 19837-19848 ISSN 1420-3049 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : click chemistry * cyclodextrin * flavin * monooxygenase * oxidation * sulfoxides * green chemistry Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2015 http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/20/11/19667/htm

  5. An Orthotopic Model of Murine Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dobek, Georgina L.; Godbey, W. T.

    2011-01-01

    In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to c...

  6. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB

  7. Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Wojciech; Wesolowska, Iwona; Urbanczyk, Hubert; Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara; Miszczyk, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to 70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with

  8. Triclabendazole sulfoxide causes stage-dependent embryolethality in zebrafish and mouse in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Boix

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis and paragonimiasis are widespread foodborne trematode diseases, affecting millions of people in more than 75 countries. The treatment of choice for these parasitic diseases is based on triclabendazole, a benzimidazole derivative which has been suggested as a promising drug to treat pregnant women and children. However, at the moment, this drug is not approved for human use in most countries. Its potential adverse effects on embryonic development have been scarcely studied, and it has not been assigned a pregnancy category by the FDA. Thus, to help in the process of risk-benefit decision making upon triclabendazole treatment during pregnancy, a better characterization of its risks during gestation is needed.The zebrafish embryo test, a preimplantation and a postimplantation rodent whole embryo culture were used to investigate the potential embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of triclabendazole and its first metabolite triclabendazole sulfoxide. Albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide were included as positive controls.Triclabendazole was between 10 and 250 times less potent than albendazole in inducing dysmorphogenic effects in zebrafish or postimplantation rodent embryos, respectively. However, during the preimplantation period, both compounds, triclabendazole and triclabendazole sulfoxide, induced a dose-dependent embryolethal effect after only 24 h of exposure in rodent embryos and zebrafish (lowest observed adverse effect concentrations = 10 μM.In humans, after ingestion of the recommended doses of triclabendazole to treat fascioliasis and paragonimiasis (10 mg/kg, the main compound found in plasma is triclabendazole sulfoxide (maximum concentration 38.6 μM, while triclabendazole concentrations are approximately 30 times lower (1.16 μM. From our results it can be concluded that triclabendazole, at concentrations of the same order of magnitude as the clinically relevant ones, does not entail teratogenic potential in vitro during the

  9. Dimethyl sulfoxide in a 10% concentration has no effect on oxidation stress induced by ovalbumin-sensitization in a guinea-pig model of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolka, P; Mokra, D; Drgova, A; Petras, M; Mokry, J

    2012-04-01

    In allergic asthma, activated cells produce various substances including reactive oxygen species (ROS). As heterogenic pathophysiology of asthma results to different response to the therapy, testing novel interventions continues. Because of water-insolubility of some potentially beneficial drugs, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is often used as a solvent. Based on its antioxidant properties, this study evaluated effects of DMSO on mobilization of leukocytes into the lungs, and oxidation processes induced by ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitization in a guinea-pig model of allergic asthma. Guinea-pigs were divided into OVA-sensitized and naive animals. One group of OVA-sensitized animals and one group of naive animals were pretreated with 10% DMSO, the other two groups were given saline. After sacrificing animals, blood samples were taken and total antioxidant status (TAS) in the plasma was determined. Left lungs were saline-lavaged and differential leukocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) was made. Right lung tissue was homogenized, TAS and products of lipid and protein oxidation were determined in the lung homogenate and in isolated mitochondria. OVA-sensitization increased total number of cells and percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils in BAL fluid; increased lipid and protein oxidation in the lung homogenate and mitochondria, and decreased TAS in the lungs and plasma compared with naive animals. However, no differences were observed in DMSO-instilled animals compared to controls. In conclusion, OVA-sensitization increased mobilization of leukocytes into the lungs and elevated production of ROS, accompanied by decrease in TAS. 10% DMSO had no effect on lipid and protein oxidation in a guinea-pig model of allergic asthma.

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  11. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  12. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K

    1993-01-01

    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X...... or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis....

  13. Neurogenic bladder in Hunter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, K; Moda, Y; Sone, A; Tanaka, H; Hino, Y

    1994-01-01

    We encountered a rare patient with Hunter's syndrome who exhibited urinary retention as a result of a neurogenic bladder, uninhibited detrusor contractions, and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Neurological findings were consistent with cervical myelopathy and cervical MR imaging showed very narrow segments at the cord level C2-4. We speculate that this Hunter's syndrome patient has cervical myelopathy and that this neurological dysfunction causes the neurogenic bladder. PMID:8014981

  14. Inflammogenic effect of well-characterized fullerenes in inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Kazuhiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We used fullerenes, whose dispersion at the nano-level was stabilized by grinding in nitrogen gas in an agitation mill, to conduct an intratracheal instillation study and an inhalation exposure study. Fullerenes were individually dispersed in distilled water including 0.1% Tween 80, and the diameter of the fullerenes was 33 nm. These suspensions were directly injected as a solution in the intratracheal instillation study. The reference material was nickel oxide in distilled water. Wistar male rats intratracheally received a dose of 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, or 1 mg of fullerenes and were sacrificed after 3 days, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. In the inhalation study, Wistar rats were exposed to fullerene agglomerates (diameter: 96 ± 5 nm; 0.12 ± 0.03 mg/m3; 6 hours/days for 5 days/week for 4 weeks and were sacrificed at 3 days, 1 month, and 3 months after the end of exposure. The inflammatory responses and gene expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractants (CINCs were examined in rat lungs in both studies. Results In the intratracheal instillation study, both the 0.1 mg and 0.2 mg fullerene groups did not show a significant increase of the total cell and neutrophil count in BALF or in the expression of CINC-1,-2αβ and-3 in the lung, while the high-dose, 1 mg group only showed a transient significant increase of neutrophils and expression of CINC-1,-2αβ and -3. In the inhalation study, there were no increases of total cell and neutrophil count in BALF, CINC-1,-2αβ and-3 in the fullerene group. Conclusion These data in intratracheal instillation and inhalation studies suggested that well-dispersed fullerenes do not have strong potential of neutrophil inflammation.

  15. Role of wound instillation with bupivacaine through surgical drains for postoperative analgesia in modified radical mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Jonnavithula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Modified Radical Mastectomy (MRM is the commonly used surgical procedure for operable breast cancer, which involves extensive tissue dissection. Therefore, wound instillation with local anaesthetic may provide better postoperative analgesia than infiltration along the line of incision. We hypothesised that instillation of bupivacaine through chest and axillary drains into the wound may provide postoperative analgesia. Methods: In this prospective randomised controlled study 60 patients aged 45-60 years were divided into three groups. All patients were administered general anaesthesia. At the end of the surgical procedure, axillary and chest wall drains were placed before closure. Group C was the control with no instillation; Group S received 40 ml normal saline, 20 ml through each drain; and Group B received 40 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine and the drains were clamped for 10 min. After extubation, pain score for both static and dynamic pain was evaluated using visual analog scale and then 4 th hourly till 24 h. Rescue analgesia was injection tramadol, if the pain score exceeds 4. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 13. Results : There was a significant difference in the cumulative analgesic requirement and the number of analgesic demands between the groups (P: 0.000. The mean duration of analgesia in the bupivacaine group was 14.6 h, 10.3 in the saline group and 4.3 h in the control group. Conclusion : Wound instillation with local anaesthetics is a simple and effective means of providing good analgesia without any major side-effects.

  16. Hemostasis in acquired hemophilia--role of intracavitary instillation of EACA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu S

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available An 82 year old man developed antibodies against coagulation factor VIII:C without any apparent cause. Bleeding from the soft tissue cavity could not be controlled by factor VIII:C concentrates, immunosuppression with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in the standard dosages. However, a single injection of Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid (EACA instilled into the cavity under aseptic precautions achieved lasting hemostasis with resultant wound healing.

  17. Saline instillation before tracheal suctioning decreases the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pedro; Denari, Silvia; Ruiz, Soraia A L; Demarzo, Sergio E; Deheinzelin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    To compare the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) with or without isotonic saline instillation before tracheal suctioning. As a secondary objective, we compared the incidence of endotracheal tube occlusion and atelectasis. Randomized clinical trial. The study was conducted in a medical surgical intensive care unit of an oncologic hospital. We selected consecutive patients needing mechanical ventilation for >72 hrs. Patients were allocated into two groups: a saline group that received instillation of 8 mL of saline before tracheal suctioning and a control group which did not. VAP was diagnosed based on clinical suspicion and confirmed by bronchoalveolar lavage quantitative culture. The incidence of atelectasis on daily chest radiography and endotracheal tube occlusions were recorded. The sample size was calculated to a power of 80% and a type I error probability of 5%. One hundred thirty patients were assigned to the saline group and 132 to the control group. The baseline demographic variables were similar between groups. The rate of clinically suspected VAP was similar in both groups. The incidence of microbiological proven VAP was significantly lower in the saline group (23.5% x 10.8%; p = 0.008) (incidence density/1.000 days of ventilation 21.22 x 9.62; p < 0.01). Using the Kaplan-Meier curve analysis, the proportion of patients remaining without VAP was higher in the saline group (p = 0.02, log-rank test). The relative risk reduction of VAP in the saline instillation group was 54% (95% confidence interval, 18%-74%) and the number needed to treat was eight (95% confidence interval, 5-27). The incidence of atelectases and endotracheal tube occlusion were similar between groups. Instillation of isotonic saline before tracheal suctioning decreases the incidence of microbiological proven VAP.

  18. Interstitial cystitis: painful bladder syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R F Sholan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of a bladder of unknown etiology. It negatively affects the quality of life, causes depressive disorders, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of interstitial cystitis is still unclear and it’s considered as painful bladder syndrome with multifactorial origin. According to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 470/100 000 people (60/100 000 men, 850/100 000 women are diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Diagnosis of the disease is difficult and is substantially based on clinical symptoms. Pelvic pain, urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia are the basic complaints in this pathology. The diagnosis requires exclusion of diseases with similar manifestations. So interstitial cystitis is frequently misdiagnosed as urinary tract infection, overactive bladder, urethral obstruction or diverticulosis, chronic prostatitis, bladder cancer, vulvodynia, endometriosis, and chronic pelvic pain. Etiopathogenesis of the disease is uncertain, which makes etiologic treatment impossible. Currently scientific discussions on the causes of disease continue as well as different treatment regimens are offered, but are often ineffective, palliative and temporary. The treatment for intersticial cystitis should focus on restoring normal bladder function, prevention of relapse of symptoms and improvement of patients’ quality of life. The literature review presents current view on the terminology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  19. Current management of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Rufus; Renganathan, Arasee; Cardozo, Linda

    2008-10-01

    The concept of overactive bladder has helped us address the problem of urgency and urge incontinence from a symptomatic perspective. In this review, we provide a critical summary of clinically relevant recent publications, focusing in particular on advances in our understanding of assessment methods and therapeutic interventions for overactive bladder in women. According to current definitions, the prevalence of overactive bladder in western nations is now estimated as 13.0%. Although the prevalence increases with age, the symptoms of overactive bladder may follow a relapsing and remitting course. There has been a proliferation of validated symptom and quality of life measures and increasing sophistication in the analysis of bladder diaries. The role of urodynamics in the evaluation of urgency remains uncertain, with many trials showing limited benefit as a preoperative investigation. Fluid restriction and bladder retraining remain important first-line interventions. Many new anticholinergic medications have been licensed, with limited benefits compared with existing preparations. Intravesical botulinum toxin has become a popular alternative for patients who fail oral therapies. Although there have been few important therapeutic innovations, recent publications have led to greater sophistication in assessment methods and a clearer understanding of the role of existing interventions.

  20. Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sillén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB and the dysfunctional voiding (DV, have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome, most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB, with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed.

  1. Time course of changes in tear meniscus radius and blink rate after instillation of artificial tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandlitz, Stefan; Purslow, Christine; Murphy, Paul J; Pult, Heiko

    2014-08-26

    Using a novel digital meniscometer (PDM), alterations in tear meniscus radius (TMR) were measured simultaneously with blink rate (BR) following the instillation of artificial tears. Central TMR and BR of 22 subjects (11 male and 11 female; mean age, 24.3 ± 2.6 SD years) were measured at baseline, and 0, 1, 5, 10, and 30 minutes after instillation of an artificial tear containing hydroxypropyl-guar and glycol (SYS) or saline (SAL). A dose of 35 μL was applied in one eye in a randomized order with a washout period between each drop. For SAL, compared to baseline TMR (0.33 ± 0.08 mm), TMR significantly increased with drop instillation (1.55 ± 0.69 mm) and at 1 minute (0.66 ± 0.36 mm; P tears. Difference in residence time reflects the different viscosity of each drop. An overload with a large drop may result in an initially increased BR. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  2. Steroid instillation for idiopathic urethritis in children: an 8-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Sivasankar; Ninan, George Kaithayil; Pringle, Kirsty

    2015-04-01

    Idiopathic urethritis (IU) in children is of unknown etiology and treatment options are limited. We aim to report our experience with steroid instillation in IU in children. Retrospective data collection of all male children diagnosed with IU over a period of 8 years. Patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) and positive urine culture at presentation were excluded from the study. Data were collected on patient demographics, laboratory and radiological investigations, cystoscopy findings, management, and outcomes. A total of 16 male children were diagnosed with IU. The mean age was 11.6 (7-16) years. Presenting symptoms included dysuria in 10; frank hematuria in 7; loin pain in 5; and scrotal pain in 2 patients. Serum C-reactive protein and full blood count was tested in 13 patients and was within normal limits in all of them. Endoscopy findings included posterior urethritis in 12, anterior urethritis in 2, and urethral stricture with inflammation in 2 patients. Ten patients required more than one episode of steroid instillation. Mean follow-up was 19.4 (1-74) months. Complete resolution of symptoms and signs occurred in 15 (93.6%) patients and improvement of symptoms and signs noted with ongoing treatment in 1 (6.4%) patient. IU in children can be successfully managed with steroid instillation. In our series, 93.6% of children had complete resolution of symptoms. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Retrograde Instillation of Methylene Blue in the Difficult Diagnosis of BPF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ravenna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases in which we were able to diagnose bronchopleural fistula through retrograde methylene blue instillation during bronchoscopy. In the first case, methylene blue was injected through an abdominal drain, followed by air instillation and detected in the left bronchial tree, demonstrating the presence of a fistula in the lingula’s bronchus. In the second case, methylene blue was injected into a pleural drain, through a breach on a surgical suture and detected in the right bronchial tree, demonstrating the presence of a fistula in the right inferior bronchus. The retrograde instillation of methylene blue, through a drain in the abdomen or the thoracic wall, is a safe, cheap, and practical method that allows the bronchoscopist to identify the presence of a fistula and, more importantly, to identify the exact point on the bronchial tree where a fistula is located. This provides the possibility of sealing the fistula with a variety of devices. It is our opinion that this procedure should be considered a primary method of diagnosis when a bronchopleural fistula is suspected and a drain on the thoracic or abdominal wall is positioned such that effusions are able to drain.

  4. Photodynamic therapy of bladder cancer - a phase I study using hexaminolevulinate (HAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, M J; Stepp, Herbert; Beyer, Wolfgang; Pongratz, Thomas; Sroka, Ronald; Kriegmair, Martin; Zaak, Dirk; Welschof, Mona; Tilki, Derya; Stief, Christian G; Waidelich, Raphaela

    2013-10-01

    To assess the safety and feasibility of hexaminolevulinate (HAL) based photodynamic therapy (PDT) as adjuvant treatment after transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) in patients with intermediate or high-risk urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder. Seventeen patients received 50 ml of either a 16 mM (4 patients) or 8 mM HAL (13 patients) solution instilled intravesically. Bladder wall irradiation was performed using an incoherent white light source coupled via a quartz fiber assembled into a flexible transurethral irrigation catheter. Each patient received 3 treatments with HAL-PDT 6 weeks apart. After PDT, patients were followed by regular cystoscopy for up to 21 months to assess time to recurrence. Reported adverse events (AEs) were coded according the World Health Organization Adverse Reaction Terminology (WHO-ART). Efficacy was assessed by cystoscopy, cytology, and histology, and was defined as the number of patients who were tumor-free at 6 or 21 months after initial PDT treatment. Transient bladder irritability was reported by 15 of the 17 patients and resolved completely in all patients. No evidence of a cumulative effect of treatment on the incidence of AEs could be detected. PDT treatment was performed without any technical complications. Furthermore preliminary assessment of efficacy showed that of the 17 patients included, 9 (52.9%; 95% CI: 27.8-77.0) were tumor-free at 6 months, 4 (23.5%; 95% CI: 6.8-49.9) were tumor-free at 9 months, and 2 (11.8%, 95% CI: 1.5-36.4) were tumor-free after 21 months. PDT using hexaminolevulinate and an incoherent white light system with the special flexible irradiation catheter system is technically feasible and safe and may offer an alternative in the treatment of non-muscle-invasive intermediate and high-risk bladder cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intravesical Glycosaminoglycan Replacement with Chondroitin Sulphate (Gepan? instill) in Patients with Chronic Radiotherapy- or Chemotherapy-Associated Cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Schwalenberg, Thilo; Berger, Frank Peter; Horn, Lars Christian; Thi, Phuc Ho; Stolzenburg, Jens?Uwe; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Intravesical instillation of glycosaminoglycans is a promising option for the treatment of chronic cystitis, as it supports the regeneration of the damaged urothelial layer. We investigated the efficacy of short-term intravesical chondroitin sulphate treatment (six courses of instillation) in patients with chronic radiotherapy- or chemotherapy-associated cystitis. Methods This prospective, observational study included patients with chronic radiotherapy- or chemotherap...

  6. Bladder preservation using chemoradiation therapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toyofumi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Sato, Mototaka; Mori, Naoki; Sekii, Ken-Ichiro; Itatani, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the long-term results and molecular markers of outcome with selective organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer using chemoradiation therapy. We examined locally invasive bladder cancer in 32 patients (30 men, 2 women; mean age at treatment 68.1 years) who underwent bladder-sparing protocols in the Department of Urology at Sumitomo Hospital between 2000 and 2005. The clinical stage was T2, T3, and T4 in 13, 16, and 3 patients, respectively. Our protocol includes aggressive transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and 46 Gy radiotherapy (2 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week) to the pelvis with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy (20 mg/body/day, 5 days/week, the first and fourth week, intravenously). The initial evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), urine cytology, and cystoscopy with a biopsy. During follow-up, if the patients developed superficial recurrence, they was treated with TURBT and intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), while patients with invasive recurrence were advised to undergo a salvage cystectomy. We examined the association between the expression of the Bcl-2 family in pretreatment TUR specimens and patient outcome. The mean follow-up was 54.6 months. The first assessment after the induction chemoradiotherapy showed that bladder preservation was achieved in 27 patients (84.4%). The actuarial local control rate with an intact bladder was 56.3% (18 patients) at 3 years. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 90.6, 84.0, and 66.9%, respectively. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 75.0, 67.2, and 33.3% in T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Bcl-x positivity was significantly associated with a poor cancer-specific survival rate (log-rank test, p=0.038). Chemoradiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer can achieve survival rates similar to those in patients treated with radical cystectomy, with successful bladder preservation. Our results suggest that the expression of Bcl-x is a

  7. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekov, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  8. Antioxidant properties of dimethyl sulfoxide and its viability as a solvent in the evaluation of neuroprotective antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartín-Suárez, Carolina; Soto-Otero, Ramón; Sánchez-Sellero, Inés; Méndez-Álvarez, Estefanía

    2011-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide is an amphiphilic compound whose miscibility with water and its ability to dissolve lipophilic compounds make it an appreciated solvent in biomedical research. However, its reported antioxidant properties raise doubts about its use as a solvent in evaluating new antioxidants. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate its antioxidant properties and carry out a comparative study on the antioxidant properties of some known neuroprotective antioxidants in the presence and absence of dimethyl sulfoxide. The antioxidant properties of dimethyl sulfoxide were studied in rat brain homogenates by determining its ability to reduce both lipid peroxidation (TBARS formation) and protein oxidation (increase in protein carbonyl content and decrease in free thiol content) induced by ferrous chloride/hydrogen peroxide. Its ability to reduce the production of hydroxyl radicals by 6-hydroxydopamine autoxidation was also estimated. The same study was also performed with three known antioxidants (α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone; 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane; 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide) in the presence and absence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Our results showed that dimethyl sulfoxide is able to reduce both lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation induced by ferrous chloride/hydrogen peroxide in rat brain homogenates. It can also reduce the production of hydroxyl radicals during 6-hydroxydopamine autoxidation. However, it increases the oxidation of protein thiol groups caused by ferrous chloride/hydrogen peroxide in rat brain homogenate. Despite the here reported antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of dimethyl sulfoxide, the results obtained with α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane, and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide corroborate the antioxidant properties attributed to these compounds and support the potential use of dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent in the study of the antioxidant properties of lipophilic compounds. Dimethyl sulfoxide

  9. Transition-Metal-Free Highly Efficient Aerobic Oxidation of Sulfides to Sulfoxides under Mild Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A highly efficient transition-metal-free catalytic system Br2/NaNO2/H2O has been developed for a robust and economic acid-free aerobic oxidation of sulfides. It is noteworthy that the sulfide function reacts under mild conditions without over-oxidation to sulfone. The role of NaNO2as an efficient NO equivalent for the activation of molecular oxygen was identified. Under the optimal conditions, a broad range of sulfide substrates were converted into their corresponding sulfoxides in high yields by molecular oxygen. The present catalytic system utilizes cheap and readily available agents as the catalysts, exhibits high selectivity for sulfoxide products and releases only innocuous water as the by-products.

  10. ASYMMETRIC SULFOXIDATION OF ALBENDAZOLE TO RICOBENDAZOLE BY FUNGI: EFFECT OF pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Barth

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Albendazole (ABZ is an anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of infectious diseases in veterinary and human medicine. This drug is a prochiral drug that after administration, is rapidly oxidized in the pharmacologically active sulfoxide metabolite, which is also known as ricobendazole (ABZSOX. ABZSOX has a stereogenic center and possibly two enantiomers, (+-ABZSOX and (--ABZSOX. In the present work, we investigate the pH effect on the asymmetric stereoselective sulfoxidation of ABZ into ABZSOX by employing the fungi Nigrospora sphaerica, Papulaspora immera Hotson, and Mucor rouxii. The results show a possibility of obtaining the pure enantiomers of the ricobendazole drug using fungi as biocatalytic agents. The three fungi showed a high degree of enantioselectivity expressed by enantiomeric excess. In addition, M. rouxii can be used as an alternative to obtain the (+-ABZSOX enantiomer (ee 89.8%.

  11. Medical management of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvpreet S Ubee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB, as defined by the International Continence Society, is characterized by a symptom complex including urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually associated with frequency and nocturia. OAB syndrome has an incidence reported from six European countries ranging between 12-17%, while in the United States; a study conducted by the National Overactive Bladder Evaluation program found the incidence at 17%. In Asia, the prevalence of OAB is reported at 53.1%. In about 75%, OAB symptoms are due to idiopathic detrusor activity; neurological disease, bladder outflow obstruction (BOO intrinsic bladder pathology and other chronic pelvic floor disorders are implicated in the others. OAB can be diagnosed easily and managed effectively with both non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. The first-line treatments are lifestyle interventions, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle exercises and anticholinergic drugs. Antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for OAB symptoms; with proven efficacy, and adverse event profiles that differ somewhat.

  12. Composition and particle size of electrolytic copper powders prepared in water-containing dimethyl sulfoxide electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyrbekova, Aigul'; Abzhalov, B. S.; Mamyrbekova, Aizhan

    2017-07-01

    The possibility of the electroprecipitation of copper powder via the cathodic reduction of an electrolyte solution containing copper(II) nitrate trihydrate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is shown. The effect electrolysis conditions (current density, concentration and temperature of electrolyte) have on the dimensional characteristics of copper powder is studied. The size and shape of the particles of the powders were determined by means of electron microscopy; the qualitative composition of the powders, with X-ray diffraction.

  13. Enantioselective synthesis of the novel chiral sulfoxide derivative as a glycogen synthase kinase 3beta inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Morihisa; Kunitomo, Jun; Kimura, Eiji; Yamano, Toru; Itoh, Fumio; Kori, Masakuni

    2010-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) inhibitors are expected to be attractive therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently we discovered sulfoxides (S)-1 as a novel GSK-3beta inhibitor having in vivo efficacy. We investigated practical asymmetric preparation methods for the scale-up synthesis of (S)-1. The highly enantioselective synthesis of (S)-1 (94% ee) was achieved by titanium-mediated oxidation with D-(-)-diethyl tartrate on gram scale.

  14. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is

  15. Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering | Mahfouz | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering. ... could affect the bladder and lead to eventual loss of its integrity, with the need for replacement or repair. ... Tissue engineering relies upon three essential pillars; the scaffold, the cells seeded on ...

  16. Aging changes in the kidneys and bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect kidney function. COMMON PROBLEMS Aging increases the risk of kidney and bladder problems such as: Bladder control issues, such as leakage or urinary incontinence (not being able to hold your urine), or ...

  17. An orthotopic model of murine bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobek, Georgina L; Godbey, W T

    2011-02-06

    In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to create a burn injury. An electrocautery unit is used to deliver 2.5W to the exposed end of the wire, burning away extracellular layers and providing attachment sites for carcinoma cells that are delivered in suspension to the bladder through a subsequent catheterization. Cells remain in the bladder for 90 minutes, after which the catheters are removed and the bladders allowed to drain naturally. The development of tumor is monitored via ultrasound. Specific attention is paid to the catheterization technique in the accompanying video.

  18. Dimethyl sulfoxide-inducible cytoplasmic factor involved in erythroid differentiation in mouse erythroleukemia (Friend) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Oishi, M.

    1987-01-01

    A previous report described an intracellular factor (differentiation-inducing factor I, or DIF-I) that seem to play a role in erythroid differentiation in mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. The authors have detected another erythroid-inducing factor in cell-free extracts from dimethyl sulfoxide- or hexamethylenebis(acetamide)-treated MEL cells, which acts synergistically with DIF-I. The partially purified factor (termed DIF-II) triggered erythroid differentiation when introduced into undifferentiated MEL cells that had been potentiated by the induction of DIF-I. The activity in the extracts appeared in an inducible manner after addition of dimethyl sulfoxide or hexamethylenebis(acetamide), reached a maximum at 6 hr, and then rapidly decreased. The induction was inhibited by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and also by cycloheximide. No induction was observed in a mutant MEL cell line defective in erythroid differentiation. These characteristics are consistent with the supposition that DIF-II is one of the putative dimethyl sulfoxide-inducible factors detected in previously reported cell-fusion and cytoplast-fusion experiments. The role of DIF-II in MEL-cell differentiation and in vitro differentiation in general is discussed

  19. Corynebacterium diphtheriae methionine sulfoxide reductase a exploits a unique mycothiol redox relay mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossounian, Maria-Armineh; Pedre, Brandán; Wahni, Khadija; Erdogan, Huriye; Vertommen, Didier; Van Molle, Inge; Messens, Joris

    2015-05-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases are conserved enzymes that reduce oxidized methionines in proteins and play a pivotal role in cellular redox signaling. We have unraveled the redox relay mechanisms of methionine sulfoxide reductase A of the pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd-MsrA) and shown that this enzyme is coupled to two independent redox relay pathways. Steady-state kinetics combined with mass spectrometry of Cd-MsrA mutants give a view of the essential cysteine residues for catalysis. Cd-MsrA combines a nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction with an intramolecular disulfide bond cascade linked to the thioredoxin pathway. Within this cascade, the oxidative equivalents are transferred to the surface of the protein while releasing the reduced substrate. Alternatively, MsrA catalyzes methionine sulfoxide reduction linked to the mycothiol/mycoredoxin-1 pathway. After the nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction, MsrA forms a mixed disulfide with mycothiol, which is transferred via a thiol disulfide relay mechanism to a second cysteine for reduction by mycoredoxin-1. With x-ray crystallography, we visualize two essential intermediates of the thioredoxin relay mechanism and a cacodylate molecule mimicking the substrate interactions in the active site. The interplay of both redox pathways in redox signaling regulation forms the basis for further research into the oxidative stress response of this pathogen. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Studies of a novel cysteine sulfoxide lyase from Petiveria alliacea: the first heteromeric alliinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musah, Rabi A; He, Quan; Kubec, Roman; Jadhav, Abhijit

    2009-11-01

    A novel alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) was detected and purified from the roots of the Amazonian medicinal plant Petiveria alliacea. The isolated enzyme is a heteropentameric glycoprotein composed of two alpha-subunits (68.1 kD each), one beta-subunit (56.0 kD), one gamma-subunit (24.8 kD), and one delta-subunit (13.9 kD). The two alpha-subunits are connected by a disulfide bridge, and both alpha- and beta-subunits are glycosylated. The enzyme has an isoelectric point of 4.78 and pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and approximately 52 degrees C, respectively. Its activation energy with its natural substrate S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide is 64.6 kJ mol(-1). Kinetic studies showed that both K(m) and V(max) vary as a function of substrate structure, with the most preferred substrates being the naturally occurring P. alliacea compounds S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide and S-2-hydroxyethyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide. The alliinase reacts with these substrates to produce S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate and S-(2-hydroxyethyl) 2-hydroxyethanethiosulfinate, respectively.

  1. Oxygen atom transfer reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. A bonding evolution theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Navarrete, Patricio; Sensato, Fabricio R; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson

    2014-08-07

    In this research, a comprehensive theoretical investigation has been conducted on oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. The joint use of the electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory (CT) provides a powerful tool to analyze the evolution of chemical events along a reaction pathway. The progress of the reaction has been monitored by structural stability domains from ELF topology while the changes between them are controlled by turning points derived from CT which reveal that the reaction mechanism can be separated in several steps: first, a rupture of the peroxo O1-O2 bond, then a rearrangement of lone pairs of the sulfur atom occurs and subsequently the formation of S-O1 bond. The OAT process involving the oxidation of sulfides and sulfoxides is found to be an asynchronous process where O1-O2 bond breaking and S-O1 bond formation processes do not occur simultaneously. Nucleophilic/electrophilic characters of both dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfoxide, respectively, are sufficiently described by our results, which hold the key to unprecedented insight into the mapping of electrons that compose the bonds while the bonds change.

  2. Combined radiofrequency ablation and acetic acid-hypertonic saline solution instillation: an in vivo study of rabbit liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-Min; Han, Joon-Koo; Kim, Se-Hyung; Choi, Byung-Ihn [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Kon; Kim, Sang-Won [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    We wanted to determine whether combined radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and acetic acid-hypertonic saline solution (AHS) instillation can increase the extent of thermally mediated coagulation in in vivo rabbit liver tissue. We also wished to determine the optimal concentration of the solution in order to maximize its effect on extent of the RFA-induced coagulation. Forty thermal ablation zones were produced in 40 rabbits by using a 17-gauge internally cooled electrode with a 1-cm active tip under ultrasound guidance. The rabbits were assigned to one of four groups: group A: RFA alone (n=10); group B: RFA with 50% AHS instillation (n=10); group C: RFA with 25% AHS instillation (n=10); group D: RFA with 15% AHS instillation (n=10). A range of acetic acid concentrations diluted in 36% NaCl to a total volume of 2 mL were instilled into the liver before RFA. The RF energy (30W) was applied for three minutes. After RFA, in each group, the maximum diameters to the thermal ablation zones in the gross specimens were compared. Technical success and the complication that arose were evaluated by CT and on the basis of autopsy findings. All procedures are technically successful. There were six procedure-related complications (6/40; 15%); two localized perihepatic hematomas and four chemical peritonitis. The incidence of chemical peritonitis was highest for group B with the 50% AHS solution instillation (30%). With instillation of 15% AHS solution, a marked decrease of tissue impedance (24.5 {+-} 15.6 {omega}) and an increase of current (250 mA) occurred as compared to RFA alone. With instillation of the solutions before RFA (group B, C and D). this produced a greater mean diameter of coagulation necrosis than the diameters for rabbits not instilled with the solution (group A) ({rho}<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between group B, C, and D. Combined AHS instillation and RFA can increase the dimension of coagulation necrosis in the liver with a single

  3. [Occupational hazards and bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamova, R S

    1991-01-01

    Occupational exposure to health hazards was studied in 258 industrial workers who had developed cancer of the bladder against 454 matched controls. All the test subjects and controls were residents of the Tambov Province centers of chemical industry. Statistical significance (relative risk-4.7) was established for exposure to aromatic amines. For those contacting with aniline dyes the relative risk (RR) made up 2.4. The risk to develop bladder cancer in powder shops (RR-3.2) was attributed to the hazards of dyes and diphenylamine. In leather-shoe and textile industry the exposure to dyes was not safe (RR-6.1), neither was it to chemicals, oil products, pesticides, overheating (RR-3.2, 1.6, 3.2 and 2.9, respectively). It is stated that in line with a significant risk to develop bladder cancer at exposure to aromatic amines there exist a number of occupational factors contributing to this risk.

  4. Tumour cell expansion in bladder epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Rebel (Annemarie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBladder cancer is common in western society. The major problem of patients with superficial bladder cancer is the high recurrence rate and multifocality of these tumours. In 70 % of the patients superficial bladder cancer recurs after local resection of the tumour within 15 years. The

  5. Bladder Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder can be low-grade or high-grade. Bladder cancer is also divided into muscle-invasive and nonmuscle-invasive disease. Find evidence-based information on bladder cancer including treatment, screening, research, and statistics.

  6. Intratunical bupivacaine and methylprednisolone instillation for scrotal pain after testicular sperm retrieval procedures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GulK.Talu; TibetErdogru; TanselKaplancan; MustafaBahceci

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effect of intratunical instillation of bupivacaine and methylprednisolone for scrotal pain,swelling and peritesticular fibrosis due to testicular sperm retrieval procedures.Methods:A total of 65 patients were randomly divided into two groups.In the instillation group(GI),34 patients were administered 2.5mL of 0.5% bupivacaine combined with 10 mg/mL methylprednisolone before closure of the tunica vaginalis.In the control group (GC),31 patients only received analgesics postoperatively by intramuscular route.The pain(by visual analogue scale,VAS)and duration of pain-free period after surgery between the two groups were evaluated at 2 and 4 h and at days 2 and 7 postoperatively.Results:The mean pain scores were significantly lower in the GI than in the GC group at 2 and 4 h after surgery(P<0.05 and P<0.01,respectively).The mean duration of pain free interval after the procedure was 47.8±16.9(12-76)h in GI,which was significantly longer than that in GC[(9.9±3.6;4-20)h].Besides,in the GI,29% of patients were completely free from pain and 67% had no scrotal swelling,but in the GC,all the patients required additional NSAID injection due to pain and only 3 % had no scrotal swelling.Conclusion:This study confirms that direct intratunical instillation of bupivacaine and methylprednisolone around the testis reduces the postoperative pain,scrotal swelling and peritesticular fibrosis.

  7. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

      "nIn the name of God. Dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor to be here. Bladder dysfunction is serious enough to seek serious help. If you may know I am working in a private clinic which it is impossible to follow the patients so this lecture is based on unusual and rare cases who came to me. Bladder dysfunction (BD) is common among 30% of young and old people who are suffering from it, however it is more common in old ages. According to a research, women ...

  8. Combined field block and i.p. instillation of ropivacaine for pain management after laparoscopic sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, T; Hjort, D; Mogensen, T

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the effect of ropivacaine for combined port site and mesosalpinx infiltration, and peritoneal instillation on pain, nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic sterilization, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 80 patients. The total dose of ropivacaine was 285 mg. All...... patients received intra- and postoperative NSAID in fixed doses. Abdominal and shoulder pain, nausea and vomiting were recorded during the first 8 h after operation and in a diary for 3 days. In the ropivacaine group, abdominal pain scores were lower during the first 4 h (P

  9. Effect of intratracheally instilled depleted uranium on immunological function of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Hanhu; Yang Zhihua; Cao Zhenshan; Zhu Maoxiang; Liu Xingrong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study immunological effects of depleted uranium in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were exposed to depleted uranium by single intratracheal instillation. Body weight and peripheral blood cells were measured weekly and immunological functions were evaluated by weight coefficient of immune organs, plague forming cells of splenocytes, total and subpopulation counts of lymphocytes in thymus. Results: Early after administration, body weight decreased and red blood cells as well as platelets reduced while white blood cells increased, which returned to normal within 1 or 2 months. Immunological functions of splenocytes and thymocytes were affected dose-dependently by depleted uranium. Conclusion: Depleted uranium induces immunological dysfunction in rats. (authors)

  10. Feasibility of Raman spectroscopy in vitro after 5-ALA-based fluorescence diagnosis in the bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbergen, M. C. M.; van Swol, C. F. P.; van Moorselaar, R. J. A.; Mahadevan-Jansen, A.,; Stone, N.

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) has become popular in bladder cancer detection. Several studies have however shown an increased false positive biopsies rate under PDD guidance compared to conventional cystoscopy. Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that utilizes molecular specific, inelastic scattering of light photons to interrogate biological tissues, which can successfully differentiate epithelial neoplasia from normal tissue and inflammations in vitro. This investigation was performed to show the feasibility of NIR Raman spectroscopy in vitro on biopsies obtained under guidance of 5-ALA induced PPIX fluorescence imaging. Raman spectra of a PPIX solution was measured to obtain a characteristic signature for the photosensitzer without contributions from tissue constituents. Biopsies were obtained from patients with known bladder cancer instilled with 50ml, 5mg 5-ALA two hours prior to trans-urethral resection of tumor (TURT). Additional biopsies were obtained at a fluorescent and non-fluorescent area, snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. Each biopsy was thawed before measurements (10sec integration time) with a confocal Raman system (Renishaw Gloucestershire, UK). The 830 nm excitation (300mW) source is focused on the tissue by a 20X ultra-long-working-distance objective. Differences in fluorescence background between the two groups were removed by means of a special developed fluorescence subtraction algorithm. Raman spectra from ALA biopsies showed different fluorescence background which can be effectively removed by a fluorescence subtraction algorithm. This investigation shows that the interaction of the ALA induced PPIX with Raman spectroscopy in bladder samples. Combination of these techniques in-vivo may lead to a viable method of optical biopsies in bladder cancer detection.

  11. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  12. Bladder-type hydropneumatic accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anigas, F.

    1985-01-01

    Hydropneumatic pressure accumulators allow liquids to be stored under pressure, their operating principle being based on the inherent compressibility of elements in a liquid and gaseous state. A wide range of fluids can be covered by means of the appropriate choice of the material for the body and bladder. Their main applications are: energy accumulation, safety reserve, suspension. (author)

  13. Bladder carcinoma. Apport MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.; Spittler, G.; Jacqmin, D.; Morel, M.

    1991-01-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the second most commun cause of urogenital tumor. It is suspected by abdominal ultrasound and prouved by cystoscopy with biopsy. At present, MR Imaging is the most accurate diagnostic modality for loco-regional staging. Urography is still useful to appreciate urinary tract [fr

  14. Pulmonary toxicity of well-dispersed titanium dioxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiura, Yukiko; Izumi, Hiroto; Oyabu, Takako; Hashiba, Masayoshi; Kambara, Tatsunori; Mizuguchi, Yohei; Lee, Byeong Woo; Okada, Takami; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Myojo, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kitajima, Shinichi; Horie, Masanori; Kuroda, Etsushi; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the pulmonary toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles, we performed an intratracheal instillation study with rats of well-dispersed TiO 2 nanoparticles and examined the pulmonary inflammation and histopathological changes in the lung. Wistar Hannover rats were intratracheally administered 0.2 mg (0.66 mg/kg) and 1.0 mg (3.3 mg/kg) of well-dispersed TiO 2 nanoparticles (P90; diameter of agglomerates: 25 nm), then the pulmonary inflammation responses were examined from 3 days to 6 months after the instillation, and the pathological features were examined up to 24 months. Transient inflammation and the upregulation of chemokines in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were observed for 1 month. No respiratory tumors or severe fibrosis were observed during the recovery time. These data suggest that transient inflammation induced by TiO 2 may not lead to chronic, irreversible legions in the lung, and that TiO 2 nanoparticles may not have a high potential for lung disorder

  15. Evaluation of the conservative treatment of Trigger finger by local instillation of corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muris Pecar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trigger Finger (tenosynovitis stenosans is a specific, named disease from a group of repetitive strain injury (RSI diseases, caused by inflammation which results in difficulties during muscle contraction and weakened and painful tendon movement. It is common in the outpatient physical medicine and rehabilitation practice. The aim of our study was to evaluate the success of conservative treatment of Trigger Finger by local instillation of corticosteroids.Methods: The study was designed as an observational and open analysis of the results of conservative treatment of 45 patients. We used precise instillation of steroid anti-inflammatory antirheumatic drugs in the area of patho-anatomic, microtraumatic injuries of tendon and its sheath. Patients were evaluated before and after the treatment with 0 to 5 evaluation score scale. The data were analyzed using X2 test.Results: Most of the patients had evaluation score of 2, 3 and 4, before the treatment. After the treatment 10 (29% patients had achieved score 4 and 35 (71% patients had achieved score 5. All of the patients with score 5 had excellent working ability with full working capacity. Other patients had well-preserved working ability, which improved to excellent in maximum of 7 days.Conclusions: Conservative treatment of Trigger finger shows good therapeutic effects and taking into account the benefits, convenience and generally lower cost of conservative treatment for the patient, should be considered as an effective alternative to surgical treatment.

  16. Metabolism of nasally instilled benzo(a)pyrene and dihydrosafrole in dogs and monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petridou-Fischer, J.; Whaley, S.; Dahl, A.

    1987-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases are found in the nasal cavities of a variety of species and could play an important role in the metabolism of inhaled airborne xenobiotics. The object of this study was to examine the metabolism of 14 C-benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and 3 H-dihydrosafrole (DHS) deposited at the ethmoid and maxillary turbinate regions in Beagle dogs and Cynomolgus monkeys. While the animals were anesthetized, either compound was instilled at 10 minute intervals for 2 hours through catheters positioned at each region. Cotton swab samples of mucus from the nasopharynx were collected at 30 minute intervals during instillation. Metabolites in mucus were identified using high pressure liquid chromatography. Results showed that both regions in both species were capable of metabolizing BaP and DHS. BaP metabolites identified in the mucus were dihydrodiols, quinones, phenols, and tetrols. DHS metabolites were 2-methoxy-4-propyl-phenol, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-1-(1-hydroxypropyl)benzene. Radioactivity was found in urine and feces of animals treated with either compound, and was detected in the blood of animals treated with DHS. No differences were noted for the nasal metabolism between the two species. This study indicated that not only the nasal tissues, but also the alimentary tract, may be exposed to metabolites of inhaled xenobiotics carried by the mucus

  17. Pulmonary toxicity of well-dispersed titanium dioxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Yukiko, E-mail: y-yoshiura@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Izumi, Hiroto [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Science (Japan); Oyabu, Takako [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences (Japan); Hashiba, Masayoshi; Kambara, Tatsunori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Science (Japan); Mizuguchi, Yohei; Lee, Byeong Woo; Okada, Takami [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences (Japan); Tomonaga, Taisuke [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Science (Japan); Myojo, Toshihiko [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan); Kitajima, Shinichi [National Sanatorium Hoshizuka Keiaien (Japan); Horie, Masanori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Health Research Institute (HRI) (Japan); Kuroda, Etsushi [Osaka University, Laboratory of Vaccine Science, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (Japan); Morimoto, Yasuo [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Science (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    In order to investigate the pulmonary toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles, we performed an intratracheal instillation study with rats of well-dispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and examined the pulmonary inflammation and histopathological changes in the lung. Wistar Hannover rats were intratracheally administered 0.2 mg (0.66 mg/kg) and 1.0 mg (3.3 mg/kg) of well-dispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (P90; diameter of agglomerates: 25 nm), then the pulmonary inflammation responses were examined from 3 days to 6 months after the instillation, and the pathological features were examined up to 24 months. Transient inflammation and the upregulation of chemokines in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were observed for 1 month. No respiratory tumors or severe fibrosis were observed during the recovery time. These data suggest that transient inflammation induced by TiO{sub 2} may not lead to chronic, irreversible legions in the lung, and that TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles may not have a high potential for lung disorder.

  18. Leiomyoma of the bladder and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabbaj, N.; Dafiri, R.; Imani, F.; Benslimane, L.; Benchekroun, A.

    1998-01-01

    Unlike epithelial tumors, connective tissue tumors are uncommon, representing only 3 % of all bladder tumors. Leiomyoma of the bladder is the most frequent non-epithelial benign tumor of the bladder. Magnetic resonance imaging (MIR) is highly useful for diagnostic purposes and to determine the degree of extension. Only few reports of sonographic findings have been reported for leiomyoma of the bladder. The tumor usually develops within the bladder. Extra-vesicular formations have also been reported as well as a few intramural localizations. The characteristic feature is the absence of mucosal involvement. We analyzed the MRI findings in a case of leiomyoma of the bladder with intra and extra-vesicular development inflammatory reaction of the bladder wall and uterine adherences in a woman with a past history of chronic cystitis. The role of diagnostic MRI is discussed. (author)

  19. Pathobiology and Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Kuno, Toshiya; Suzuki, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis of bladder cancer has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies, prevention, or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. In particular, the chemoprevention of bladder cancer development is important, since urothelial cancer frequently recurs, even if the primary cancer is completely removed. The numerous alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis represent novel targets for therapy and prevention. In addition, knowledge about these genetic alterations will help provide a better understanding of the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions of bladder cancer. Animal models for investigating bladder cancer development and prevention can also be developed based on these alterations. This paper summarizes the results of recent preclinical and clinical chemoprevention studies and discusses screening for bladder cancer. PMID:21941546

  20. Kinetics and thermodynamics of oxidation mediated reaction in L-cysteine and its methyl and ethyl esters in dimethyl sulfoxide-d6 by NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Ryan J.; Singh, Jaideep; Krishnan, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    L-Cysteine (L-Cys), L-Cysteine methyl ester (L-CysME) or L-Cysteine ethyl ester (L-CysEE), when dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, undergoes an oxidation process. This process is slow enough and leads to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral changes that could be monitored in real time. The oxidation mediated transition is modeled as a pseudo-first order kinetics and the thermodynamic parameters are estimated using the Eyring's formulation. L-Cysteine and their esters are often used as biological models due to the remarkable thiol group that can be found in different oxidation states. This oxidation mediated transition is due to the combination of thiol oxidation to a disulfide followed by solvent-induced effects may be relevant in designing cysteine-based molecular models.

  1. Potentiometric investigation of acid dissociation and anionic homoconjugation equilibria of substituted phenols in dimethyl sulfoxide[Substituted phenols; Acid-base equilibria; Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); Potentiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaja, Malgorzata; Kozak, Anna; Makowski, Mariusz; Chmurzynski, Lech. E-mail: lech@chemik.chem.univ.gda.pl

    2003-10-01

    Standard acidity constants, K{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA), expressed as pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA) values, and anionic homoconjugation constants, K{sup DMSO}{sub AHA{sup -}}, (in the form of lg K{sup DMSO}{sub AHA{sup -}} values) have been determined for 11 substituted phenol-phenolate systems a polar protophilic aprotic solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with a potentiometric titration. A linear relationship has been determined between lg K{sup DMSO}{sub AHA{sup -}} and pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA). The tendency towards anionic homoconjugation in these systems increases with increasing pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA) that is with declining phenol acidity. The pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA) are correlated with both pK{sub a}{sup W} (HA) water and other polar non-aqeous solvents.

  2. [Effect of melatonin instillations on the clinical course of experimental uveitis and biochemical processes in tears and aqueous humor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokova, N B; Beznos, O V; Lozinskaya, N A; Beyshenova, G A; Nesterova, T V

    2016-01-01

    Acute immunogenic uveitis was modeled in rabbits via the subcutaneous and intravitreal injections of normal horse serum. We studied the effect of instillations of 0.1% melatonin solution on the clinical course of uveitis and biochemical parameters of tear fluid and aqueous humor: antioxi-dant activity, protein concentration and α(2)-macroglobulin level. Melatonin instillations decreased clinical manifestations of uveitis. We found that the antioxidant activity in tears of the rabbits treated with melatonin was substantially higher and the α(2)-macroglobulin level lower than in untreated animals. Antioxidant activity in aqueous humor taken on day 10 of uveitis was also twice higher while protein and α(2)-macroglobulin levels were 1.5-2 times lower than in untreated animals. These data indicate that instillations of melatonin increase the local antioxidant activity and decrease the acuity of inflammation and permeability of hematoophthalmic barrier in uveitis.

  3. Sulfoxide stimulation of chondrogenesis in limb mesenchyme is accompanied by an increase in type II collagen enhancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.E. Jr.; Higginbotham, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We have utilized a modification of the limb bud mesenchyme micromass culture system to screen compounds that might stimulate chondrogenesis. Two compounds in the sulfoxide family (methylphenylsulfoxide and p-chlorophenyl methyl sulfoxide) were stimulatory at 10(-2) M and 10(-3) M, respectively; whereas other sulfoxides and organic solvents were not active at these concentrations. In addition, specific growth factors (basic FGF, IGF-I, IGF-II) were not chondroinductive at concentrations that are active in other cell systems. Both sulfoxide compounds stimulated cartilage nodule formation, [ 35 S]sulfate incorporation, and activity of the regulatory sequences of the collagen II gene. In contrast, transforming growth factor beta-1 (10 ng/ml) stimulated sulfate incorporation but produced only a diffuse deposition of cartilage matrix and reduced the ability of the cells to utilize the regulatory sequences of the collagen II gene. The sulfoxides appear to promote the differentiation of limb bud cells to chondrocytes and thus exhibit chondroinductive activity

  4. Micro-instillation of fluorescein with an inoculation loop for ocular surface staining in dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrier, Emilie; Renault, Didier; Kaspi, Mathilde; Marcon, Agathe; Lambert, Victor; Garcin, Thibaud; Chiambaretta, Frederic; Garhofer, Gerhard; Thuret, Gilles; Gain, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    To describe and validate the micro-instillation of fluorescein on the ocular surface by a disposable calibrated inoculation loop to improve corneal and conjunctival staining quality. Accuracy and precision of the volume of 0.5% sodium fluorescein collected by a single use 1 μl-calibrated inoculation loop were measured using a precision balance. Twenty patients (40 eyes) suffering from dry eye syndrome were enrolled in a prospective interventional nonrandomized study. Fluorescein was instilled with the loop, and slit-lamp images were taken within 30 seconds using cobalt blue light with and without a yellow barrier filter. For comparison, after a washout period, the same images were retaken after instillation of one drop of fluorescein from a single-dose unit. The main outcome measure was the staining quality assessed by three experts, blind to the instillation method. Patient discomfort (tolerance, by a questionnaire) was also compared. The mean volume collected by the loop was 1.18 ± 0.12 μl, compared with 33.70 ± 6.10 μl using the single-dose unit. The loop avoided excess dye responsible for unpleasant tearing, masking of lesions and rapid diffusion into the stroma. Micro-instillation greatly improved image quality without losing information. The yellow filter further improved image contrast. Tolerance was excellent. The 1 μl-calibrated inoculation loop is a safe, convenient, inexpensive, disposable, sterile, well-tolerated tool for reproducible micro-instillation of commercial fluorescein. By greatly improving staining quality, it will help standardize assessment of dry eye severity. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Three-body dissociations: The photodissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide at 193 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, D.A.; North, S.W.; Stranges, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    When a molecule with two equivalent chemical bonds is excited above the threshold for dissociation of both bonds, how the rupture of the two bonds is temporally coupled becomes a salient question. Following absorption at 193 nm dimethyl sulfoxide (CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3}) contains enough energy to rupture both C-S bonds. This can happen in a stepwise (reaction 1) or concerted (reaction 2) fashion where the authors use rotation of the SOCH{sub 3} intermediate prior to dissociation to define a stepwise dissociation: (1) CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} 2CH{sub 3} + SO; (2a) CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} CH{sub 3} + SOCH{sub 3}; and (2b) SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} SO + CH{sub 3}. Recently, the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide following absorption at 193 nm was suggested to involve simultaneous cleavage of both C-S bonds on an excited electronic surface. This conclusion was inferred from laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and resonant multiphoton ionization (2+1 REMPI) measurements of the internal energy content in the CH{sub 3} and SO photoproducts and a near unity quantum yield measured for SO. Since this type of concerted three body dissociation is very interesting and a rather rare event in photodissociation dynamics, the authors chose to investigate this system using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline 9.0.2.1. The soft photoionization provided by the VUV undulator radiation allowed the authors to probe the SOCH{sub 3} intermediate which had not been previously observed and provided good evidence that the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide primarily proceeds via a two step dissociation, reaction 2.

  6. Radiolabelling and evaluation of a novel sulfoxide as a PET imaging agent for tumor hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurens, Evelyn; Yeoh, Shinn Dee; Rigopoulos, Angela; Cao, Diana; Cartwright, Glenn A.; O'Keefe, Graeme J.; Tochon-Danguy, Henri J.; White, Jonathan M.; Scott, Andrew M.; Ackermann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    [ 18 F]FMISO is the most widely validated PET radiotracer for imaging hypoxic tissue. However, as a result of the pharmacokinetics of [ 18 F]FMISO a 2 h wait between tracer administration and patient scanning is required for optimal image acquisition. In order to develop hypoxia imaging agents with faster kinetics, we have synthesised and evaluated several F-18 labelled anilino sulfoxides. In this manuscript we report on the synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a novel fluoroethyltriazolyl propargyl anilino sulfoxide. The radiolabelling of the novel tracer was achieved via 2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl azide click chemistry. Radiochemical yields were 23 ± 4% based on 2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl azide and 7 ± 2% based on K[ 18 F]F. The radiotracer did not undergo metabolism or defluorination in an in vitro assay using S9 liver fractions. Imaging studies using SK-RC-52 tumors in BALB/c nude mice have indicated that the tracer may have a higher pO 2 threshold than [ 18 F]FMISO for uptake in hypoxic tumors. Although clearance from muscle was faster than [ 18 F]FMISO, uptake in hypoxic tumors was slower. The average tumor to muscle ratio at 2 h post injection in large, hypoxic tumors with a volume greater than 686 mm 3 was 1.7, which was similar to the observed ratio of 1.75 for [ 18 F]FMISO. Although the new tracer showed improved pharmacokinetics when compared with the previously synthesised sulfoxides, further modifications to the chemical structure need to be made in order to offer significant in vivo imaging advantages over [ 18 F]FMISO

  7. Photofragmentation dynamics of gaseous dimethyl sulfoxide at 15 eV induced by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, A.C.O.; Leite, T.C.M.; Turci, C.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Barros, A.L.F. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, G.B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent widely used in chemical and biological laboratories and in industrial processes, as well. DMSO [(H{sub 3}C){sub 2} - SO] is a sulfur analog of acetone [(H{sub 3}C){sub 2} - CO]. Being the simplest alkyl sulfoxide, the DMSO is a model system for the understanding of more complex sulfoxide molecules. In this work the DMSO was excited with synchrotron light and the photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectrum was acquired at 15 eV. Our goal is to study the S-C bonding breaking process, especially in the H{sub 3}CSO{sup +} and CH{sub 3}{sup +} channels. The main question is how the 10a {yields} {infinity} transition affects the cleavage of S-C bond and consequently the production of those fragments. The experiments have been performed using the Toroidal Grating Monochromator (TGM) beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas-SP (research proposal D05A-TGM-11047). High purity samples were obtained commercially and used without any further purification. They were introduced into the Wiley-McLaren time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) from the vapours of the room temperature liquids after removing air and volatile impurities by a series of freeze-pump-thaw cycles. The work pressure was maintained at 1:0 x 10{sup -6} mbar during data acquisition. The basis pressure was 1:0 x 10{sup -8} mbar. The results confirm that at 10a {yields} {infinity} transition the main produced fragment is the H{sub 3}CSO{sup +}. It means that at 15 eV the S-C bonding breaking is the principal photofragmentation process. (author)

  8. Three-body dissociations: The photodissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide at 193 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, D.A.; North, S.W.; Stranges, D.

    1997-01-01

    When a molecule with two equivalent chemical bonds is excited above the threshold for dissociation of both bonds, how the rupture of the two bonds is temporally coupled becomes a salient question. Following absorption at 193 nm dimethyl sulfoxide (CH 3 SOCH 3 ) contains enough energy to rupture both C-S bonds. This can happen in a stepwise (reaction 1) or concerted (reaction 2) fashion where the authors use rotation of the SOCH 3 intermediate prior to dissociation to define a stepwise dissociation: (1) CH 3 SOCH 3 → 2CH 3 + SO; (2a) CH 3 SOCH 3 → CH 3 + SOCH 3 ; and (2b) SOCH 3 → SO + CH 3 . Recently, the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide following absorption at 193 nm was suggested to involve simultaneous cleavage of both C-S bonds on an excited electronic surface. This conclusion was inferred from laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and resonant multiphoton ionization (2+1 REMPI) measurements of the internal energy content in the CH 3 and SO photoproducts and a near unity quantum yield measured for SO. Since this type of concerted three body dissociation is very interesting and a rather rare event in photodissociation dynamics, the authors chose to investigate this system using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline 9.0.2.1. The soft photoionization provided by the VUV undulator radiation allowed the authors to probe the SOCH 3 intermediate which had not been previously observed and provided good evidence that the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide primarily proceeds via a two step dissociation, reaction 2

  9. Bladder symptoms assessed with overactive bladder questionnaire in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Elisa; Gilio, Francesca; Meco, Giuseppe; Fattapposta, Francesco; Vanacore, Nicola; Brusa, Livia; Giacomelli, Elena; Gabriele, Maria; Rubino, Alfonso; Locuratolo, Nicoletta; Iani, Cesare; Pichiorri, Floriana; Colosimo, Carlo; Carbone, Antonio; Palleschi, Giovanni; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2010-07-15

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) the urinary dysfunction manifests primarily with symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). The OAB questionnaire (OAB-q) is a measure designed to assess the impact of OAB symptoms on health-related quality of life. In this study, we quantified the urinary symptoms in a large cohort of PD patients by using the OAB-q short form. Possible correlations between the OAB-q and clinical features were tested. Three hundred and two PD patients were enrolled in the study. Correlations between the OAB-q and sex, age, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III), Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) staging, disease duration, and treatment were analyzed. Data were compared with a large cohort of 303 age-matched healthy subjects. The OAB-q yielded significantly higher scores in PD patients than in healthy subjects. In the group of PD patients, all the variables tested were similar between men and women. Pearson's coefficient showed a significant correlation between mean age, disease duration, mean OAB-q scores, UPDRS-III scores, and H-Y staging. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that OAB-q values were significantly influenced by age and UPDRS-III. No statistical correlations were found between OAB-q scores and drug therapy or the equivalent levodopa dose, whilst the items relating to the nocturia symptoms were significantly associated with the equivalent levodopa dose. Our findings suggest that bladder dysfunction assessed by OAB-q mainly correlates with UPDRS-III scores for severity of motor impairment, possibly reflecting the known role of the decline in nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in bladder dysfunction associated with PD and patients' age. Our study also suggests that the OAB-q is a simple, easily administered test that can objectively evaluate bladder function in patients with PD.

  10. Palpebral position interdependence in blepharoptosis: comparison of the effect of instillation of 10% phenylephrine drop and digital lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cardoso Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To quantify and compare the effects of instillation with 10% phenylephrine and digital lifting on the contralateral upper eyelid of patients with involutional bilateral blepharoptosis. Methods: The present prospective clinical study involved patients with involutional bilateral blepharoptosis who underwent two tests: 1 digital lifting of the more ptotic eyelid and observation of the effect on the contralateral eyelid and 2 instillation of two drops of 10% phenylephrine in the more ptotic eye and observation of the effect on the contralateral eyelid. Patients were filmed before and 5, 10, and 15 min after instillation, and the resulting images were analyzed to obtain eyelid measurements. The results were tested using a linear mixed-effects model. Results: A total of 27 patients, ranging from 52 to 82 years of age (mean age 68.51 ± 8.21 years, 24 (88.88% of whom were women, were included in the present study. In eyes that received instillation, the marginal distance reflex-1 (MDR1 values increased from baseline (1.21 ± 0.60 mm until 10 min after instillation, then remained statistically unchanged until 15 min after instillation (2.42 ± 0.90 mm. Significant differences were observed in the contralateral eye of the group that underwent digital lifting (1.51 ± 0.53 mm - 1.63 ± 0.56 mm and in the contralateral eye of the group that underwent 10% phenylephrine instillation (1.38 ± 0.54 mm - 1.63 ± 0.56 mm; p=0.02 and p<0.01, respectively. Conclusion: In all eyes, 10% phenylephrine elevated the upper eyelid, with improved eyelid height at 10 min after instillation. Significant differences were observed in the height of the contralateral eyelid when compared before and after each intervention in each group; however, this difference was very small and nearly undetectable by conventional clinical evaluation in the digital lifting group. However, the 10% phenylephrine eye-drop test resulted in substantial changes in MDR1 values in the

  11. Synthesis and Nrf2 Activating Ability of Thiourea and Vinyl Sulfoxide Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Young Sun; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Nam, Ghilsoo; Choi, Kyung Il [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Thiourea and vinyl sulfoxide derivatives were designed based on the structures of sulforaphene and gallic acid, prepared and tested for HO-1 inducing activity as a measure of Nrf2 activation, and inhibitory effect on NO production as a measure of anti-inflammatory activity. Both series of compounds showed moderate activity on HO-1 induction, and no inhibitory effect on NO production. Interestingly the thiourea compound 6d showed better HO-1 induction (71% SFN) than the corresponding isothiocyanate compound 6a (55% SFN). Overall, it seemed that more efficient electrophile is needed to get more effective Nrf2 activator.

  12. Combined experimental and theoretical investigation of interactions between kaolinite inner surface and intercalated dimethyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuai [School of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Qinfu, E-mail: lqf@cumtb.edu.cn [School of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Cheng, Hongfei [School of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Zeng, Fangui [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Snapshot of the kaolinite–DMSO system after equilibrium is reached. - Highlights: • Dimethyl sulfoxide arranges a monolayer structure between kaolinite layers. • Weak hydrogen bonds exist between methyl groups of dimethyl sulfoxide and kaolinite silica layer. • Intercalated dimethyl sulfoxide forms strong hydrogen bonds with kaolinite alumina layer. - Abstract: Kaolinite intercalation complex with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetry–differential scanning calorimetry (TG–DSC) combined with molecular dynamics simulation. The bands assigned to the OH stretching of inner surface of kaolinite were significantly perturbed after intercalation of DMSO into kaolinite. Additionally, the bands attributed to the vibration of gibbsite-like layers of kaolinite shifted to the lower wave number, indicating that the intercalated DMSO were strongly hydrogen bonded to the alumina octahedral surface of kaolinite. The slightly decreased intensity of 1031 cm{sup −1} and 1016 cm{sup −1} band due to the in-plane vibration of Si−O of kaolinite revealed that some DMSO molecules formed weak hydrogen bonds with the silicon tetrahedral surface of kaolinite. Based on the TG result of kaolinite–DMSO intercalation complex, the formula of A1{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}(DMSO){sub 0.7} was obtained, with which the kaolinite–DMSO complex model was constructed. The molecular dynamics simulation of kaolinite–DMSO complex directly confirmed the monolayer structure of DMSO in interlayer space of kaolinite, where the DMSO arranged almost parallel with kaolinite basal surface with all methyl groups being distributed near the interlayer midplane and oxygen atoms orienting toward to the alumina octahedral surface. The radial distribution function between kaolinite and intercalated DMSO verified the strong hydrogen bonds forming between hydroxyl hydrogen

  13. Photochromic ruthenium sulfoxide complexes: evidence for isomerization through a conical intersection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Beth Anne; Mockus, Nicholas V; Butcher, Dennis P; Lutterman, Daniel A; Turro, Claudia; Petersen, Jeffrey L; Rack, Jeffrey J

    2009-09-07

    The complexes [Ru(bpy)(2)(OS)](PF(6)) and [Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](PF(6)), where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, OS is 2-methylthiobenzoate, and OSO is 2-methylsulfinylbenzoate, have been studied. The electrochemical and photochemical reactivity of [Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) is consistent with an isomerization of the bound sulfoxide from S-bonded (S-) to O-bonded (O-) following irradiation or electrochemical oxidation. Charge transfer excitation of [Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) in MeOH results in the appearance of two new metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) maxima at 355 and 496 nm, while the peak at 396 nm diminishes in intensity. The isomerization is reversible at room temperature in alcohol or propylene carbonate solution. In the absence of light, solutions of O-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) revert to S-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+). Kinetic analysis reveals a biexponential decay with rate constants of 5.66(3) x 10(-4) s(-1) and 3.1(1) x 10(-5) s(-1). Cyclic voltammograms of S-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) are consistent with electron-transfer-triggered isomerization of the sulfoxide. Analysis of these voltammograms reveal E(S)(o)' = 0.86 V and E(O)(o)' = 0.49 V versus Ag/Ag(+) for the S- and O-bonded Ru(3+/2+) couples, respectively, in propylene carbonate. We found k(S-->O) = 0.090(15) s(-1) in propylene carbonate and k(S-->O) = 0.11(3) s(-1) in acetonitrile on Ru(III), which is considerably slower than has been reported for other sulfoxide isomerizations on ruthenium polypyridyl complexes following oxidation. The photoisomerization quantum yield (Phi(S-->O) = 0.45, methanol) is quite large, indicating a rapid excited state isomerization rate constant. The kinetic trace at 500 nm is monoexponential with tau = 150 ps, which is assigned to the excited S-->O isomerization rate. There is no spectroscopic or kinetic evidence for an O-bonded (3)MLCT excited state in the spectral evolution of S-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) to O-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+). Thus, isomerization occurs nonadiabatically from an S-bonded (or eta(2

  14. Potentiometric investigations of molecular heteroconjugation equilibria of substituted phenol+n-butylamine systems in dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaja, MaIgorzata; Baginska, Katarzyna; Kozak, Anna; Makowski, Mariusz; Chmurzynski, Lech

    2005-01-01

    Molecular heteroconjugation constants, K BHA DMSO and K AHB DMSO , expressed as their logarithms, have been determined by potentiometric titration for eleven substituted phenol+n-butylamine systems in a polar protophilic aprotic solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). An increasing tendency towards molecular heteroconjugation in these systems without proton transfer has been found with increasing pK a DMSO (HA), i.e., with decreasing phenol acidity. Moreover, a linear correlation has been established between the determined lgK BHA DMSO values and pK a DMSO (HA). Furthermore, overall stability constants, lgK o DMSO , could be correlated linearly with pK a DMSO (HA) values

  15. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on radiation-induced heteroallelic reversion in diploid yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.R.; Mahajan, J.M.; Krishnan, D.

    1976-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide has cryoprotective and radioprotective properties. It is also an efficient scavenger of radicals produced by radiolysis of water. Gamma-induced reversion of diploid yeast in the presence of this chemical during irradiation have been studied. The dose-modifying factor was in the same range as for survival. When the yeast was irradiated in the frozen state, the observed protection by DMSO disappeared. The results are discussed in terms of direct and indirect actions of radiations and the radical-scavenging ability of this chemical

  16. MRI of perforated gall bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, B.; Jain, M.; Khandelwal, N.; Singh, P.; Suri, S.

    2002-01-01

    Gall bladder perforation is a dreaded complication of acute cholecystitis that, if not diagnosed early in the course, might have a poor prognosis. Both CT and ultrasonography have been used until now extensively for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, but diagnosis of perforation is always difficult. Magnetic resonance, by its superior soft tissue resolution and multiplanar capability, is a better modality and should fare better than ultrasonography and CT, as demonstrated in our case. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates the wall of the gall bladder and defects to a much better advantage and more convincingly. In addition, MR colangiopancreatography images demonstrate the biliary tree better than other modalities. We suggest that in the case of acute cholecystitis, if perforation is suspected and CT and ultrasonography are not conclusive, MR should be the modality of choice. It can be used as a first line of investigation; however, it might not be cost-effective. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Orthotopic neo- bladder in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettini, Manlio

    2010-12-01

    Radical cystectomy is the most effective treatment madality for high grade urinary bladder carcinoma and orthotopic reconstruction is the better urinary diversion modality also in women. From 2002 to 2007 we performed 14 radical cystectomies followed by orthotopic reconstruction in women aged between 47 and 68 years (mean age 56) affected by urinary bladder carcinoma. Our reconstructive technique requires the preparation of two strips of the recti muscles fascia, the sectioning of the bladder neck and, when the uterus is present, hysteroannessiectomy and cystectomy en block leaving intact the lateral and inferior vaginal walls. The pelvic floor is stabilized by a colposacropexis with a prosthesis and placing an omental flap over the prosthesis. The orthotopic reconstruction is achieved via a neobladder according to the Padovana technique. The ureters are anastomized to the neobladder and splinted with single J stents. The pathological examination demonstrated in all patients the presence of a high grade carcinoma (G3): more specifically 4 patients had a full thickness intramural infiltration (T2), 2 patients had involvment of the perivescical fat (T3) ad 8 patients were in T1 stage. Lymphnodes were negative for tumour (NO). In 8 patients blood transfusions were necessary to treat post surgical anemia. No significant intra-, peri- or post operative complications were noted. The mean follow-up was 45 months: a patient died for diffuse metastatic disease after 11 months. The remaining patients are still alive and report normal lifestyle: 10 with normal micturition and 4 with urinary retention treated with intermittent self-catetherization. Two patients report nocturnal incontinence treated with hourly micturition and one pad. The five patients who had normal preoperative sexual intercourse resumed a normal sexual activity. The possibility to orthotopically recontruct the female urinary bladder has been established long time after the introduction of orthotopic

  18. The Antineoplastic Activity of Photothermal Ablative Therapy with Targeted Gold Nanorods in an Orthotopic Urinary Bladder Cancer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Su, Lih-Jen; La Rosa, Francisco G; Smith, Elizabeth Erin; Schlaepfer, Isabel R; Cho, Suehyun K; Kavanagh, Brian; Park, Wounjhang; Flaig, Thomas W

    2017-07-27

    Gold nanoparticles treated with near infrared (NIR) light can be heated preferentially, allowing for thermal ablation of targeted cells. The use of novel intravesical nanoparticle-directed therapy in conjunction with laser irradiation via a fiber optic cystoscope, represents a potential ablative treatment approach in patients with superficial bladder cancer. To examine the thermal ablative effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-directed gold nanorods irradiated with NIR light in an orthotopic urinary bladder cancer model. Gold nanorods linked to an anti-EGFR antibody (Conjugated gold NanoRods - CNR) were instilled into the bladder cavity of an orthotopic murine xenograft model with T24 bladder cancer cells expressing luciferase. NIR light was externally administered via an 808 nm diode laser. This treatment was repeated weekly for 4 weeks. The anti-cancer effect was monitored by an in vivo imaging system in a non-invasive manner, which was the primary outcome of our study. The optimal approach for an individual treatment was 2.1 W/cm 2 laser power for 30 seconds. Using this in vivo model, NIR light combined with CNR demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in tumor-associated bioluminescent activity ( n  = 16) compared to mice treated with laser alone ( n  = 14) at the end of the study ( p  = 0.035). Furthermore, the CNR+NIR light treatment significantly abrogated bioluminescence signals over a 6-week observation period, compared to pre-treatment levels ( p  = 0.045). Photothermal tumor ablation with EGFR-directed gold nanorods and NIR light proved effective and well tolerated in a murine in vivo model of urinary bladder cancer.

  19. The effect of wound instillation of a novel purified capsaicin formulation on postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Hansen, Jeanette B; Malmstrøm, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    , preclinical, and clinical studies, and may be an effective adjunct to postoperative pain management. METHODS: We performed a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the analgesic efficacy of a single intraoperative wound instillation of 1000 microg ultrapurified capsaicin (ALGRX......BACKGROUND: Acute postoperative pain is common after most surgical procedures. Despite the availability of many analgesic options, postoperative pain management is often unsatisfactory. Purified capsaicin (ALGRX 4975 98% pure) has demonstrated prolong inhibition of C-fiber function in in vitro...... 4975) after open mesh groin hernia repair in 41 adult male patients. The primary end-point was average daily visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores during the first week after surgery assessed as area under the curve (AUC). Pain was recorded twice daily in a pain diary for 4 wk. Physical examination...

  20. Diabetic foot wounds: the value of negative pressure wound therapy with instillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Paola, Luca

    2013-12-01

    Chronic wounds such as diabetic foot wounds are a tremendous burden to the health care system and often require a multidisciplinary approach to prevent amputations. Advanced technologies such as negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and bioengineered tissues have been successfully used in the treatment of these types of complex wounds. However, the introduction of NPWT with instillation (NPWTi) has provided an alternative treatment for treating complex and difficult-to-heal wounds. This article provides an overview of NPWT and the new NPWTi system and describes preliminary experience using NPWTi on patients with complicated infected diabetic foot wounds after surgical debridement and in a multidisciplinary setting. © 2013 The Author. International Wound Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  1. Circulating progesterone dynamics after intravaginal instillation of prostaglandin-F2α to lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijma, R; Stangaferro, M L; Giordano, J O

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate circulating progesterone (P4) concentration dynamics and test the feasibility of inducing luteal regression after intravaginal (IVG) instillation of the PGF2α analogue dinoprost (PGF) in lactating dairy cows. In two experiments, cows were synchronized using the Ovsynch protocol to induce the formation of a corpus luteum (CL). Cows with at least one functional (P4 ≥1 ng/mL) CL ≥15 mm 7.5 days after Ovsynch remained in the studies. In experiment 1, cows (n = 31) were stratified by parity group and received 5 mL of saline IVG (SAL-IVG, n = 6), 25 mg of PGF intramuscular (IM) (PGF25-IM, n = 7), 25 mg of PGF IVG (PGF25-IVG, n = 6), 50 mg of PGF IVG (PGF50-IVG, n = 6), and 125 mg of PGF IVG (PGF125-IVG, n = 6). Experiment 2 was conducted to test the hypothesis that IVG instillation of two 25 mg doses of PGF 12 hours apart would be more effective than a 25- or 50-mg dose in a single application. Cows (n = 32) were stratified by parity and received SAL-IVG (n = 7), PGF25-IM (n = 7), PGF25-IVG (n = 6), and PGF50-IVG (n = 6) as in experiment 1, whereas another group received two IVG instillations of 25 mg of PGF 12 hours apart (PGF25-2X-IVG, n = 6). Blood was collected at -1 hour, every 6 hours from 0 hour to 24 hours, and every 12 hours up to 96 hours after treatment (trt). In experiment 1, there was an effect of trt (P cows in the SAL-IVG group from 12 to 96 hours after trt. Although an initial decline in P4 concentrations was induced in all PGF-treated cows, some cows in the IVG-treated groups presented a rebound in plasma P4, indicating CL recovery. More cows in the PGF25-IVG and PGF125-IVG groups than in the PGF50-IVG and PGF25-IM groups presented CL recovery, suggesting that greater doses of PGF may not necessarily improve CL regression. In experiment 2, there was an effect of trt (P Cows in the PGF25-2X-IVG group had a P4 profile that was similar to that of cows in the PGF25-IM group and

  2. Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmada P Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma is an uncommon vascular neoplasm and has an unpredictable clinical behavior. It is characterized by round or spindle-shaped endothelial cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation. Most often, epitheloid hemangioendothelioma arise from the soft tissues of the upper and lower extremities and it has borderline malignant potential. We describe the first reported case of epitheloid hemangioendothelioma in the urinary bladder, which was treated by transurethral resection. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

  3. Dose-dependent pulmonary response of well-dispersed titanium dioxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyabu, Takako; Morimoto, Yasuo; Hirohashi, Masami; Horie, Masanori; Kambara, Tatsunori; Lee, Byeong Woo; Hashiba, Masayoshi; Mizuguchi, Yohei; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kuroda, Etsushi

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between pulmonary inflammation and particle clearance of nanoparticles, and also their dose dependency, we performed an instillation study of well-dispersed TiO 2 nanoparticles and examined the pulmonary inflammations, the particle clearance rate and histopathological changes. Wistar rats were intratracheally administered 0.1 mg (0.33 mg/kg), 0.2 mg (0.66 mg/kg), 1 mg (3.3 mg/kg), and 3 mg (10 mg/kg) of well-dispersed TiO 2 nanoparticles (diameter of agglomerates: 25 nm), and the pulmonary inflammation response and the amount of TiO 2 in the lung were determined from 3 days up to 12 months sequentially after the instillation. There were no increases of total cell or neutrophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in the 0.1 and the 0.2 mg-administered groups. On the other hand, mild infiltration of neutrophils was observed in the 1 and 3 mg-administered groups. Histopathological findings showed infiltration of neutrophils in the 1 and 3 mg-administered groups. Of special note, a granulomatous lesion including a local accumulation of TiO 2 was observed in the bronchioli-alveolar space in the 3 mg-administered group. The biological half times of the TiO 2 in the lung were 4.2, 4.4, 6.7, and 10.8 months in the 0.1, 0.2, 1, and 3 mg-administered groups, respectively. Neutrophil infiltration was observed as the particle clearance was delayed, suggesting that an excessive dose of TiO 2 nanoparticles may induce pulmonary inflammation and clearance delay.

  4. Lung deposition and extrapulmonary translocation of nano-ceria after intratracheal instillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiao; Zhang Haifeng; Ma Yuhui; Bai Wei; Zhang Zhiyong; Ding Yayun; Zhao Yuliang; Chai Zhifang; Lu Kai

    2010-01-01

    The broad potential applications of manufactured nanomaterials call for urgent assessment of their environmental and biological safety. However, most of the previous work focused on the cell level performance; little was known about the consequences of nanomaterial exposure at the whole-body and organ levels. In the present paper, the radiotracer technique was employed to study the pulmonary deposition and the translocation to secondary target organs after ceria nanoparticles (nano-ceria) were intratracheally instilled into Wistar rats. It was found that 63.9 ± 8.2% of the instilled nano-ceria remained in the lung by 28 d postexposure and the elimination half-life was 103 d. At the end of the test period, only 1/8-1/3 of the daily elimination of nano-ceria from the lung was cleared via the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages (AMs) with subsequent removal towards the larynx was no longer the predominant route for the elimination of nano-ceria from the lung. The whole-body redistribution of nano-ceria demonstrated that the deposited nano-ceria could penetrate through the alveolar wall into the systemic circulation and accumulate in the extrapulmonary organs. In vitro study suggested that nano-ceria would agglomerate and form sediments in the bronchoalveolar aqueous surrounding while binding to protein would be conducive to the redispersion of nano-ceria. The decrease in the size of agglomerates might enhance the penetration of nano-ceria into the systemic circulation. Our findings suggested that the effect of nanomaterial exposure, even at low concentration, should be assessed because of the potential lung and systemic cumulative toxicity of the nanomaterials.

  5. Transcatheter instillation of urokinase into loculated pleural effusion: analysis of treatment effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Won Mo; Park, Chan Sup; Cho, Chul Ho; Suh, Chang Hae; Chung, Won Kyun

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the indication for intracavitary Urokinase(UK) in the treatment of loculated pleural effusion. We analyzed CT and US in 31 patients who were treated with intracavitary UK in loculated pleural effusion. In each patient, a single chest catheter (10-12F) was insected under imaging guidance. When the amount of drainage was less than 100 ml/day, UK was instilled through the catheter until less than 50 ml/day was drained. On follow-up chest radiographs of more than 1 month, we classified the results of treatment into 3 groups: (1) completely effective (lung expansion, over 80%); (2) partially effective (20-80%); (3) ineffective (below 20%) group. Sonographic pattern of pleural fluid was classified into anechoic, linear septated, and honeycomb appearances and the thickness of parietal pleura was measured on CT. Sixteen patients were completely effective, nine were partially effective, and six were ineffective. All patients with completely or partially effective outcome had anechoic and linear septated appearance on US and had less than 4 mm of parietal pleural thickness on CT. Of six ineffective patients, US showed linear septated in one patient and honeycomb appearance in five patients and the thickness of parietal pleura on CT was 3 mm in one patient, 4 mm in two patients, 5 mm in one patient, and 6 mm in two patients. UK instillation through percutaneous catheter was an effective method in the treatment of loculated pleural effusion. However, we found near complete reaccumulation of pleural fluid when honeycomb appearance of pleural fluid on US or more than 5 mm parietal pleural thickness on CT was observed, which might suggest that we should consider the other kinds of treatment method in those patients

  6. Dose-dependent pulmonary response of well-dispersed titanium dioxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyabu, Takako [Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering (Japan); Morimoto, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuom@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Hirohashi, Masami; Horie, Masanori; Kambara, Tatsunori [Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology (Japan); Lee, Byeong Woo [Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering (Japan); Hashiba, Masayoshi [Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology (Japan); Mizuguchi, Yohei; Myojo, Toshihiko [Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering (Japan); Kuroda, Etsushi [Osaka University, Laboratory of Vaccine Science, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    In order to investigate the relationship between pulmonary inflammation and particle clearance of nanoparticles, and also their dose dependency, we performed an instillation study of well-dispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and examined the pulmonary inflammations, the particle clearance rate and histopathological changes. Wistar rats were intratracheally administered 0.1 mg (0.33 mg/kg), 0.2 mg (0.66 mg/kg), 1 mg (3.3 mg/kg), and 3 mg (10 mg/kg) of well-dispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (diameter of agglomerates: 25 nm), and the pulmonary inflammation response and the amount of TiO{sub 2} in the lung were determined from 3 days up to 12 months sequentially after the instillation. There were no increases of total cell or neutrophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in the 0.1 and the 0.2 mg-administered groups. On the other hand, mild infiltration of neutrophils was observed in the 1 and 3 mg-administered groups. Histopathological findings showed infiltration of neutrophils in the 1 and 3 mg-administered groups. Of special note, a granulomatous lesion including a local accumulation of TiO{sub 2} was observed in the bronchioli-alveolar space in the 3 mg-administered group. The biological half times of the TiO{sub 2} in the lung were 4.2, 4.4, 6.7, and 10.8 months in the 0.1, 0.2, 1, and 3 mg-administered groups, respectively. Neutrophil infiltration was observed as the particle clearance was delayed, suggesting that an excessive dose of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles may induce pulmonary inflammation and clearance delay.

  7. Bladder rupture caused by postpartum urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-García, Omar Felipe; Rico, Hugo; Gorbea-Sanchez, Viridiana; Herrerias-Canedo, Tomas

    2008-08-01

    Postpartum bladder rupture is an uncommon surgical emergency and a diagnostic challenge. A primigravida delivered a healthy newborn without complications at 39.4 weeks of gestation. The patient was admitted 80 hours postpartum with abdominal pain, oliguria, hematuria, and pain that worsened during the previous 4 hours. An inserted Foley catheter drained only a small amount of urine, and serum creatinine was elevated (3.5 mg/dL). A laparotomy was performed and revealed a 10-cm hole in the urinary bladder. The bladder was repaired and the patient was discharged 15 days after surgery. The follow-up cystoscopy revealed adequate healing of the bladder. Urinary retention can lead to serious complications, including bladder rupture. Postpartum bladder rupture due to urinary retention should be ruled out if there is a history of abdominal pain, oliguria, and elevated of serum creatinine.

  8. SOX4 expression in bladder carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Wiuf, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    The human transcription factor SOX4 was 5-fold up-regulated in bladder tumors compared with normal tissue based on whole-genome expression profiling of 166 clinical bladder tumor samples and 27 normal urothelium samples. Using a SOX4-specific antibody, we found that the cancer cells expressed...... in the clinical bladder material and a small subset of the genes showed a high correlation to SOX4 expression. The present data suggest a role of SOX4 in the bladder cancer disease....... the SOX4 protein and, thus, did an evaluation of SOX4 protein expression in 2,360 bladder tumors using a tissue microarray with clinical annotation. We found a correlation (P bladder cell line HU609, SOX4...

  9. Transurethral resection for botryoid bladder rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuyuki Nakata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of multimodal therapy for localized bladder rhabdomyosarcoma is quite good in terms of morbidity, and conservative surgery is generally recommended. However, in cases originating in the bladder neck, tumorectomy or partial cystectomy has adverse effects on bladder function. A 2-year-old girl underwent transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TUR-BT, chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide, and radiotherapy. She was in remission for 3 years when frequent urination became evident. Her bladder capacity and compliance were low; however, her urinary symptom was controlled using anticholinergic medication. Accordingly, TUR-BT could be an optional approach for bladder rhabdomyosarcoma. Keywords: Rhabdomyosarcoma, Transurethral resection, Conservative surgery

  10. Duplex gall bladder: bystander or culprit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jogender; Yadav, Arushi

    2017-08-30

    Gall bladder (GB) duplication is a rare anatomical malformation, which can be detected by preoperative imaging study. We present a case of duplex gall bladder in a 14-year-old boy who presented with abdominal pain. On ultrasound, he had right nephrolithiasis and duplex gall bladder. Duplex gall bladder was confirmed on MR cholangiopancreatography. There was a dilemma for surgical management of duplex gall bladder; however, he became asymptomatic after conservative treatment. Prophylactic surgery is not recommended for asymptomatic incidentally detected duplex gall bladder. Radiologists and paediatric surgeons should be sensitised about the exact anatomy of this entity. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Spectral and structural correlation for Bis (dibenzoyl methanato) dioxo uranium(VI) diphenyl sulfoxide. [UO2(DBM)2. PhSOPh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.; Raj, S.S.S.; Fun, Hoong Kun

    2001-01-01

    In the complex [UO 2 (DBM) 2 . PhSOPh]. the sulfoxide ligand is bonded to uranium (VI) ion through sulfoxide oxygen atom and DBM ligands through the oxygen atoms to give a distorted pentagonal bipyramidal geometry. The structural study is in consistence with the spectral studies. (author)

  12. Calcium transport in turtle bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatini, S.; Kurtzman, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    Unidirectional 45 Ca fluxes were measured in the turtle bladder under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions. In the open-circuited state net calcium flux (J net Ca ) was secretory (serosa to mucosa). Ouabain reversed J net Ca to an absorptive flux. Amiloride reduced both fluxes such that J net Ca was not significantly different from zero. Removal of mucosal sodium caused net calcium absorption; removal of serosal sodium caused calcium secretion. When bladders were short circuited, J net Ca decreased to approximately one-third of control value but remained secretory. When ouabain was added under short-circuit conditions, J net Ca was similar in magnitude and direction to ouabain under open-circuited conditions (i.e., absorptive). Tissue 45 Ca content was ≅30-fold lower when the isotope was placed in the mucosal bath, suggesting that the apical membrane is the resistance barrier to calcium transport. The results obtained in this study are best explained by postulating a Ca 2+ -ATPase on the serosa of the turtle bladder epithelium and a sodium-calcium antiporter on the mucosa. In this model, the energy for calcium movement would be supplied, in large part, by the Na + -K + -ATPase. By increasing cell sodium, ouabain would decrease the activity of the mucosal sodium-calcium exchanger (or reverse it), uncovering active calcium transport across the serosa

  13. Bladder tissue engineering through nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Daniel A; Sharma, Arun K; Erickson, Bradley A; Cheng, Earl Y

    2008-08-01

    The field of tissue engineering has developed in phases: initially researchers searched for "inert" biomaterials to act solely as replacement structures in the body. Then, they explored biodegradable scaffolds--both naturally derived and synthetic--for the temporary support of growing tissues. Now, a third phase of tissue engineering has developed, through the subcategory of "regenerative medicine." This renewed focus toward control over tissue morphology and cell phenotype requires proportional advances in scaffold design. Discoveries in nanotechnology have driven both our understanding of cell-substrate interactions, and our ability to influence them. By operating at the size regime of proteins themselves, nanotechnology gives us the opportunity to directly speak the language of cells, through reliable, repeatable creation of nanoscale features. Understanding the synthesis of nanoscale materials, via "top-down" and "bottom-up" strategies, allows researchers to assess the capabilities and limits inherent in both techniques. Urology research as a whole, and bladder regeneration in particular, are well-positioned to benefit from such advances, since our present technology has yet to reach the end goal of functional bladder restoration. In this article, we discuss the current applications of nanoscale materials to bladder tissue engineering, and encourage researchers to explore these interdisciplinary technologies now, or risk playing catch-up in the future.

  14. Analysis of intravesical recurrence after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozawa, Mizuki; Miyanaga, Naoto; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the pattern of recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The subjects were 77 patients with T2-3N0M0 bladder cancer whose bladder was preserved by intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation. The patterns of the first recurrences were retrospectively analyzed. With a median follow-up of 38.5 months, 17 patients (22.1%) experienced intravesical recurrence without metastasis, 14 (82.4%) of which were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence and 3 (17.6%) of which were muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrences. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at the same site as the initial tumor site in all three cases, whereas non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at different sites in 64% of the patients in that group. The peak hazard of the non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence was observed at around a year after treatment. Recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer was of a significantly lower histological grade with lower Ki-67-labeling indices than the initial muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Twelve (85.7%) of 14 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence achieved disease-free status. The multivariate analysis revealed that multiplicity, grade and tumor size were significantly correlated with the recurrence (P=0.0001, 0.0442 and 0.0412, respectively). Most of the recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The recurrence pattern and characteristics of the tumors did not differ from those of primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients with high-risk factors would be candidates for prophylactic intravesical therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence. (author)

  15. In situ generation of sulfoxides with predetermined chirality via a structural template with a chiral-at-metal ruthenium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Zheng; Yao, Su-Yang; Wu, Jin-Ji; Ye, Bao-Hui

    2014-05-30

    The reaction of Δ/Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2](2+) with a prochiral sulfide ligand, and then in situ oxidation, provide the corresponding Δ-[Ru(bpy)2{(R)-OSO-iPr}](+) and Λ-[Ru(bpy)2{(S)-OSO-iPr}](+) (OSO-iPr = 2-isopropylsulfonylbenzonate) enantiomers in a yield of 83% with 98% ee. The chiral sulfoxides were obtained by treatment of the sulfoxide complexes with TFA in a yield of 90% with 88-91% ee.

  16. cis-Dichlorido(dimethyl sulfoxide-κS(N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylguanidine-κN′′platinum(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan I. Eliseev

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, cis-[PtCl2(C5H13N3(C2H6OS], the four-coordinate PtII atom is bonded to one N atom of the N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylguanidine ligand, one dimethyl sulfoxide S atom and two chloride ligands, forming a cis-square-planar geometry. The bond lengths and angles of the N—Pt—Cl functionality are typical for imine dichloridoplatinum(II complexes. The H atom of the imino group is oriented towards the O atom of the sulfoxide group of a neighboring molecule and forms an N—H...O hydrogen bond.

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective C-H Olefination of Diaryl Sulfoxides through Parallel Kinetic Resolution and Desymmetrization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-Chao; Li, Yan; Zhang, Bo-Chao; Zhang, Feng-Xu; Yang, Yi-Nuo; Wang, Xi-Sheng

    2018-03-07

    The first example of Pd II -catalyzed enantioselective C-H olefination with non-chiral or racemic sulfoxides as directing groups was developed. A variety of chiral diaryl sulfoxides were synthesized with high enantioselectivity (up to 99 %) through both desymmetrization and parallel kinetic resolution (PKR). This is the first report of Pd II -catalyzed enantioselective C(sp 2 )-H functionalization through PKR, and it represents a novel strategy to construct sulfur chiral centers. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Giant Leiomyosarcoma of the Urinary Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José G A; Klojda, Carlos A B; Araújo, Claudio P De; Pires, Lucas A S; Babinski, Marcio A

    2016-05-01

    The bladder leiomyosarcoma is a rare and agressive mesenchymal tumour, and adult women of reproductive age have a higher incidence of developing the bladder leiomyosarcoma. The pathophysiology of the disease is not certain, and its main symptoms are hematuria, dysuria and abdominal pain. There are not a considerable amount of cases described in the literature. We report a case of a giant leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder in a 31-year-old woman.

  19. Use of sulfoxides for extraction-gravimetric determination of niobium and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, A.I.; Babkin, A.G.; Tkachenko, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    An extraction-gravimetrical technique has been developed for determination of niobium and tantalum. The technique permits simultaneous extraction of tantalum and its concentrating in the aqueous phase; the range of Ta concentrations determined is essentially wider than in case of the routine gravimetric methods. The technique is based upon the fact, that tantalum is extracted by sulfoxides from fluorine-sulphate solutions at lower concentration of Hf and at lower ratios between the volumes of organic and aqueous phases than niobium. Two subsequent extractions by 1M sulfoxide solutions provide for practically complete transfer of tantalum into the organic phase, whereas extraction of niobium is only 3-20%. Sufficient recovery of Ta and Nb from organic phases is provided by re-extraction by NH 4 F solution. The technique is suitable for niobium and tantalum determination at the ratios of their pentoxides from 1:100 to 100:1. The disturbing influence of Fe(3) is suppressed by reductions to Fe(2)

  20. γ-ray dosimetry using pararosaniline cyanide in dimethyl sulfoxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Assy, N.B.; Roushdy, H.M.; Rageh, M.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Levine, H.

    1982-01-01

    A chemical radiochromic dosimeter using pararosaniline cyanide in dimethyl sulfoxide can be used over a wide absorbed dose range. Experiments show that the dosimeter has a main optical absorption maximum at 554nm, which is 5nm higher than that of other polar solvents. Millimolar solutions of leucodye containing small amounts of carboxylic acid or nitrobenzene show a linear response for absorbed doses up to 11.75kGy. The yield of dye is linear with concentration up to 5mM. At that concentration the upper limit of linear response range can be extended to about 40kGy. The lower dose limit for 50mM concentration of the dye precursor hexahydroxyethyl pararosaniline (lambdasub(max)=608nm) is about 3Gy, with +-5%SD at a 95% confidence level, when using a 5cm pathlength cell. Dye formation yield varies not only with concentration of the leucocyanide, but also with type of oxidizing agent and temperature during irradiation. The latter parameter is especially critical, as dimethyl sulfoxide freezes at 17 0 C. The effect of storage temperature on the color produced after irradiation at different dose levels was also studied. (author)

  1. Loss of intercellular adhesion leads to differential accumulation of hypericin in bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucky, S. Sasidharan; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Chin, William W. L.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Olivo, Malini C. D.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) exploits the photoactive nature of certain compounds, namely photosensitizers, in order to enhance the visual demarcation between normal and neoplastic tissue. Hypericin is one such potent photosensitizer that preferentially accumulate in neoplastic tissue, and fluoresce in the visible spectrum when illuminated with light of an appropriate wavelength. In our study, we investigated the role of E-cadherin in the selective permeation of hypericin in bladder cancer tissues. Clinical studies were done on a series of 43 histologically graded bladder cancer biopsy specimens, obtained from 28 patients who received intravesical instillations with 8μM hypericin solution for at least 2 hours. Immunohistochemical staining was used to assess the expression of E-cadherin, in the cryosectioned tissues. Hypericin uptake was examined by fluorescence microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining showed a clear expression of E-cadherin along the urothelial lining of the normal and pre-malignant tissues. Partial expression of these cell adhesion molecules were still observed in malignant tissues, however there was a loss of expression to variable extends along the urothelium. Thus, loss of intercellular adhesion can be associated with enhanced hypericin permeation through paracellular diffusion.

  2. Bladder pressure measurements are an independent predictor of urinary tract infection in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Therèse M; Brown, Holly; Wolfe, Luke G; Malhotra, Ajai K; Aboutanos, Michel B; Ivatury, Rao R

    2011-02-01

    To determine the risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs) specific to trauma patients in order to assist in the development of infection control protocols. Data were collected prospectively from January 2003 until December 2005 by an epidemiology nurse and combined with registry data from our Level 1 trauma center. The trauma patients admitted to the Surgery and Trauma Intensive Care Unit (STICU)(n = 938) who did and did not have UTIs were compared for demographics, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and epidemiologic data, including use of Foley catheters and bladder pressure measurements (BPMs). An open system was used for the measurements in which the catheter was disconnected from the bag to instill 50 mL of saline into the bladder, and an 18-gauge needle was inserted into the catheter to measure the pressure. A total of 50 patients had no Foley catheter or UTIs. Among the 836 patients with catheters but no BPMs, there were 36 UTIs (4.31%), whereas the 52 patients with catheters and BPMs had 12 UTIs (23.08%)(p BPMs was an independent predictor of death (OR 2.475; CI 1.191-6.328). This is the first study that demonstrates a greater risk of UTI with BPM using the open technique independent of patient gender or degree of injury. Given these findings and a previous trial demonstrating no difference in UTI rates with a closed circuit for BPM, our institution has incorporated a closed circuit technique into its infection control protocol.

  3. Pulmonary exposure to carbon black by inhalation or instillation in pregnant mice: Effects on liver DNA strand breaks in dams and offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner

    2011-01-01

    cells and liver, and in offspring liver. Persistent lung inflammation was observed in exposed mothers. Inhalation exposure induced more DNA strand breaks in the liver of mothers and their offspring, whereas intratracheal instillation did not. Neither inhalation nor instillation affected gestation...... and lactation. Maternal inhalation exposure to Printex 90-induced liver DNA damage in the mothers and the in utero exposed offspring....

  4. Prophylactic vesical instillations with 0.2% chondroitin sulfate may reduce symptoms of acute radiation cystitis in patients undergoing radiotherapy for gynecological malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazewinkel, M.H.; Stalpers, L.J.A.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Roovers, J.P.W.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the feasibility and efficacy of intravesical instillations with 40 ml chondroitin sulfate 0.2% solution to prevent or reduce acute radiation cystitis in women undergoing pelvic radiotherapy. In a comparative pilot study in 20 patients, half of the patients received instillations.

  5. Bladder wash cytology, quantitative cytology, and the qualitative BTA test in patients with superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, H. G.; van Balken, M. R.; Schamhart, D. H.; Peelen, P.; de Reijke, T.; Debruyne, F. M.; Schalken, J. A.; Witjes, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Two new methods for the detection of transitional tumor cells in bladder wash (karyometry: QUANTICYT) and voided urine material (BARD BTA test) were compared with bladder wash cytology for the prediction of histology and tumor recurrence. Bladder wash material and voided urine were sampled from 138

  6. Effects of acute urinary bladder overdistension on bladder response during sacral neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, S; Schumacher, S; Scheepe, J R; Zendler, S; Braun, P M; Alken, P; Jünemann, K

    1999-10-01

    Urinary retention and micturition disorders after overdistension are clinically well-known complications of subvesical obstruction. We attempted to evaluate whether bladder overdistension influences bladder response and whether overdistension supports detrusor decompensation. Following lumbal laminectomy in 9 male foxhounds, the sacral anterior roots S2 and S3 were placed into a modified Brindley electrode for reproducible and controlled detrusor activation. The bladder was filled in stages of 50 ml from 0 to 700 ml, corresponding to an overdistension. At each volume, the bladder response during sacral anterior root stimulation was registered. After overdistension, the bladder was refilled stepwise from 0 to 300 ml and stimulated. In all dogs, the bladder response was influenced by the intravesical volume. The maximum pressure (mean 69.1 cm H(2)O) was observed at mean volume of 100 ml. During overdistension, a significant reduction in bladder response of more than 80% was seen. After overdistension, a significant reduction in intravesical pressure of 19.0% was observed. In 2 cases, reduction in bladder response was more than 50% after a single overdistension. We conclude that motoric bladder function is influenced during and after overdistension. A single bladder overdistension can support acute and long-lasting detrusor decompensation. In order to protect motoric bladder function, bladder overdistension must be prevented.

  7. Full-thickness endometriosis of the bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Jens Jørgen; Kristensen, Jens; Hartwell, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    referral centres in Denmark for surgical treatment of stage III and IV endometriosis. POPULATION: Thirty-one women with deep infiltrating bladder endometriosis. METHODS: All women presenting in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology with deep infiltrating bladder endometriosis between March 2002...... and March 2011. We included only patients with symptomatic full-thickness bladder detrusor endometriosis and mucosal involvement. All patients had had bladder symptoms for two to seven years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptoms after surgery and recurrence rate. RESULTS: The main preoperative symptom...

  8. Acute Pathophysiological Effects of Intratracheal Instillation of Budesonide and Exogenous Surfactant in a Neonatal Surfactant-depleted Piglet Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Yang

    2010-08-01

    Conclusions: Intratracheal instillation of surfactant or surfactant plus budesonide can improve oxygenation and pulmonary histologic outcome in neonatal surfactant-depleted lungs. The additional use of budesonide does not disturb the function of the exogenous surfactant. Intratracheal administration of a corticosteroid combined with surfactant may be an effective method for alleviating local pulmonary inflammation in severe RDS.

  9. Urinary fibronectin levels in patients treated with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin for superficial bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danişman, A; Bulut, K; Kukul, E; Ozen, I; Sevük, M

    2000-01-01

    Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to be an effective treatment for superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder, but the precise mechanism of action of BCG remains poorly understood. Fibronectin (FN), an important component of the extracellular matrix, has been found to play a role in BCG therapy. Some studies have shown that the soluble form of FN can compete efficiently with the matrix form of binding to the specific receptors on the bacteria and could consequently diminish the effect of BCG treatment. To evaluate a possible correlation between the urinary levels of FN and the efficacy of BCG therapy, we determined prospectively the urinary FN levels in 38 patients with TCC of the bladder and in 25 control subjects without malignancy matched for age and sex. All TCC patients were treated with transurethral tumor resection plus 6 weekly intravesical BCG instillations. After an average follow-up of 30 months, 8 patients (21.1%) had recurrent tumors, while 30 (78.9%) were free of tumor after intravesical BCG therapy. Urinary levels of FN in cancer patients have been shown to be significantly higher than controls (p 0. 05). It was also found that the mean urinary FN levels were not statistically significant between patients with recurrence and complete remission. The data suggest that BCG-bladder tumor cell binding is not influenced by soluble fibronectin and urinary FN may not be a ideal marker for selecting patients to BCG therapy. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Cardiovascular and inflammatory effects of intratracheally instilled ambient dust from Augsburg, Germany, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Annette

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale Several epidemiological studies associated exposure to increased levels of particulate matter in Augsburg, Germany with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. To elucidate the mechanisms of cardiovascular impairments we investigated the cardiopulmonary responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, a model for human cardiovascular diseases, following intratracheal instillation of dust samples from Augsburg. Methods 250 μg, 500 μg and 1000 μg of fine ambient particles (aerodynamic diameter 2.5-AB collected from an urban background site in Augsburg during September and October 2006 (PM2.5 18.2 μg/m3, 10,802 particles/cm3 were instilled in 12 months old SHRs to assess the inflammatory response in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, blood, lung and heart tissues 1 and 3 days post instillation. Radio-telemetric analysis was performed to investigate the cardiovascular responses following instillation of particles at the highest dosage based on the inflammatory response observed. Results Exposure to 1000 μg of PM2.5-AB was associated with a delayed increase in delta mean blood pressure (ΔmBP during 2nd-4th day after instillation (10.0 ± 4.0 vs. -3.9 ± 2.6 mmHg and reduced heart rate (HR on the 3rd day post instillation (325.1 ± 8.8 vs. 348.9 ± 12.5 bpm. BALF cell differential and inflammatory markers (osteopontin, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 from pulmonary and systemic level were significantly induced, mostly in a dose-dependent way. Protein analysis of various markers indicate that PM2.5-AB instillation results in an activation of endothelin system (endothelin1, renin-angiotensin system (angiotensin converting enzyme and also coagulation system (tissue factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in pulmonary and cardiac tissues during the same time period when alternation in ΔmBP and HR have been detected. Conclusions Our data suggests that high concentrations of PM2.5-AB

  11. Mini-open vacuum-assisted closure therapy with instillation for debilitated and septic patients with pleural empyema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziklavari, Zsolt; Ried, Michael; Neu, Reiner; Schemm, Rudolf; Grosser, Christian; Szöke, Tamas; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan

    2015-08-01

    This prospective study is an evaluation of the mini-open vacuum-assisted closure with instillation (Mini-VAC-Instill) therapy for the treatment of complicated pleural empyema. We investigated septic patients in poor general physical condition (Karnofsky index ≤50%) with multimorbidity and/or immunosuppression who were treated by minimally invasive intrathoracic VAC-Instill therapy without the insertion of an open-window thoracostomy (OWT) between December 2012 and November 2014. All patients underwent mini-thoracotomy with position of a tissue retractor, surgical debridement and local decortication. Surgery was followed by intrathoracic vacuum therapy including periodic instillation using antiseptics. The VAC dressings were changed under general anaesthesia and the chest wall was closed during the same hospital stay. All patients received systemic antibiotic therapy. Fifteen patients (13 males, median age: 71 years) underwent intrathoracic Mini-VAC-Instill dressings for the management of pleural empyema without bronchopleural fistula. The median length of vacuum therapy was 9 days (5-25 days) and the median number of VAC changes per patient was 1 (1-5). In-hospital mortality was 6.7% (n = 1) and was not related to Mini-VAC-Instill therapy or intrathoracic infection. Control of intrathoracic infection and closure of the chest cavity was achieved in 85.7% of surviving patients (12 of 14). After the follow-up at an average of 13.2 months (range, 3-25 months), we observed recurrence once, 21 days after discharge. Two patients died in the late postoperative period (Day 43 and Day 100 after discharge) of fulminant urosepsis and carcinoma-related multiorgan failure, respectively. Analysis of the follow-up interviews in the outpatient clinic showed a good quality of life and a subjectively good long-term aesthetic result. Mini-VAC-Instill therapy is an upgrade of Mini-VAC, which guarantees the advantage of an open treatment, including flushing but without OWT. This

  12. Hydrogen Gas Inhalation Attenuates Seawater Instillation-Induced Acute Lung Injury via the Nrf2 Pathway in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Mengyuan; Zhang, Sheng; Wu, Lifeng; Huan, Le; Huang, Fenglou; Cui, Yunliang; Lin, Zhaofen

    2016-12-01

    Seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury involves oxidative stress and apoptosis. Although hydrogen gas inhalation is reportedly protective in multiple types of lung injury, the effect of hydrogen gas inhalation on seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of hydrogen gas on seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury and explored the mechanisms involved. Rabbits were randomly assigned to control, hydrogen (2 % hydrogen gas inhalation), seawater (3 mL/kg seawater instillation), and seawater + hydrogen (3 mL/kg seawater instillation + 2 % hydrogen gas inhalation) groups. Arterial partial oxygen pressure and lung wet/dry weight ratio were detected. Protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 levels were determined. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to monitor changes in lung specimens, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. In addition, NF-E2-related factor (Nrf) 2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA and protein expression were measured, and apoptosis was assessed by measuring caspase-3 expression and using terminal deoxy-nucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. Hydrogen gas inhalation markedly improved lung endothelial permeability and decreased both MDA content and MPO activity in lung tissue; these changes were associated with decreases in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in BALF. Hydrogen gas also alleviated histopathological changes and cell apoptosis. Moreover, Nrf2 and HO-1 expressions were significantly activated and caspase-3 expression was inhibited. These results demonstrate that hydrogen gas inhalation attenuates seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury in rabbits and that the protective effects observed may be related to the activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

  13. Bladder extension variability during pelvic external beam radiotherapy with a full or empty bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkawa, Michael; Asadpour, Branka; Siluschek, Jaroslav; Gagel, Bernd; Piroth, Marc D.; Demirel, Cengiz; Eble, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Varying bladder fillings during radiotherapy lead to a changing dose-volume load to the bladder and adjacent structures. The aim of the study was to compare the extent of bladder wall movements during parallel series with full bladder (FB) and empty bladder (EB). Materials and methods: Three hundred and forty serial computed tomography (CT) scans were performed in 50 patients scheduled for primary and postoperative radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Each patient underwent two CT scans (with FB and EB) before and 2-3 times during radiotherapy. Displacements of the bladder wall were compared and correlated with changing bladder fillings. Results: The variability of FB was larger compared to EB volume (standard deviation of 124cc and 56cc; p < 0.01), but significant bladder wall displacement variabilities were only found at the anterior and superior borders. Within a bladder volume range between -100 and +200 ml relative to the FB planning scan, the mean bladder wall displacement remained <5 mm at the inferior, lateral, and posterior borders - as opposed to 15 and 21 mm at the anterior and superior borders. Conclusions: Treating the pelvis with EB compared to FB, bladder wall displacement can be only reduced at the superior and anterior borders. FB wall displacements are comparable with EB displacements at all other borders

  14. Bladder pressure sensors in an animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koldewijn, E. L.; van Kerrebroeck, P. E.; Schaafsma, E.; Wijkstra, H.; Debruyne, F. M.; Brindley, G. S.

    1994-01-01

    Urinary incontinence due to detrusor hyperreflexia might be inhibited on demand if changes in bladder pressure could be detected by sensors and transferred into pudendal nerve electrostimulation. The aim of this study is to investigate how the bladder wall reacts on different sensor implants.

  15. NEOADJUVANT RADIOTHERAPY FOR BLADDER CARCINOMA IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate the impact of preoperative accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy in the management of bladder carcinoma in Egyptian patients. Patients and Methods Between December 1996 and February 2000, 104 Egyptian patients with pathologically proven infiltrative bladder carcinoma were enrolled in ...

  16. Advances in immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyu; Chen Lijun

    2009-01-01

    The conventional treatments for bladder cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are highly invasive and bring about lots of side effects. Immunotherapy has become a promising strategy for the treatment of malignant tumors. This review presents the research advances in immunotherapy of bladder cancer. (authors)

  17. Bladder exstrophy associated with complete urethral duplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.E. Mensah

    ees.elsevier.com/afju · www.sciencedirect.com. Case report. Bladder exstrophy associated with complete urethral duplication: Bladder can be augmented with dorsal urethral mucosa. J.E. Mensaha,∗. , K.N. Ampadua, M.Y. Kyeia, B. Edusieb.

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma in bladder extrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral-Ribeiro, J; Silva, C; Sousa, L; Pérez García, D; Ribeiro dos Santos, A

    2005-01-01

    Bladder extrophy is a rare congenital malformation that nowadays is surgically corrected in neonatal period. We present a case report of a 71-year-old male with a verrucous squamous cell carcinoma arising in a classical uncorrected form of bladder extrophy.

  19. Neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Taweel W

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Waleed Al Taweel, Raouf SeyamDepartment of Urology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury poses a significant threat to the well-being of patients. Incontinence, renal impairment, urinary tract infection, stones, and poor quality of life are some complications of this condition. The majority of patients will require management to ensure low pressure reservoir function of the bladder, complete emptying, and dryness. Management typically begins with anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. Patients who fail this treatment because of inefficacy or intolerability are candidates for a spectrum of more invasive procedures. Endoscopic managements to relieve the bladder outlet resistance include sphincterotomy, botulinum toxin injection, and stent insertion. In contrast, patients with incompetent sphincters are candidates for transobturator tape insertion, sling surgery, or artificial sphincter implantation. Coordinated bladder emptying is possible with neuromodulation in selected patients. Bladder augmentation, usually with an intestinal segment, and urinary diversion are the last resort. Tissue engineering is promising in experimental settings; however, its role in clinical bladder management is still evolving. In this review, we summarize the current literature pertaining to the pathology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury.Keywords: neurogenic bladder, spinal cord injury, urodynamics, intestine, intermittent catheterization

  20. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Per-Uno; Agrawal, Sachin; Bläckberg, Mats

    2017-01-01

    The management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has evolved from the first reports on bladder endoscopy and transurethral resection to the introduction of adjuvant intravesical treatment. However, disease recurrence and progression remain an ongoing risk, placing a heavy burden...

  1. Bladder dysfunction in advanced Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winge, Kristian; Nielsen, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients often have lower urinary tract symptoms. Seventy-four percent of patients with early-to-moderate disease report more than one bladder disturbance symptom. Severe bladder symptoms are reported in 27-39% of PD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  2. Transient neuropathic bladder following herpes simplex genitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, R A; Williams, J J

    1979-08-01

    A case of transient bladder dysfunction and urinary retention concomitant with herpes genitalis is presented. The protean manifestations of the herpes simplex virus, the similar neurotropic behavior of simplex and zoster, and the neurologic sequelae of the cutaneous simplex eruption are discussed. The possibility of sacral radiculopathy after herpes genitalis must be considered when evaluating acute or episodic neurogenic bladders.

  3. Neuropathic bladder in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michael C

    2014-09-01

    The management of infants born with myelomeningocele depends on understanding how their bladder stores and empties urine. Storage at low pressure with effective emptying periodically throughout the day is the goal. Intervention is designed to impact on one or both of these processes so that infants can remain infection-free and at the same time allow for appropriate renal growth over time. Urodynamic evaluation plays an important role, so that neonates can be stratified according to their risk. Most patients require intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy to achieve these goals at some point in their lives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Danish Bladder Cancer Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Erik Hansen,1–3 Heidi Larsson,4 Mette Nørgaard,4 Peter Thind,3,5 Jørgen Bjerggaard Jensen1–3 1Department of Urology, Hospital of West Jutland-Holstebro, Holstebro, 2Department of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 3The Danish Bladder Cancer Database Group, 4Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 5Department of Urology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark Aim of database: The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC in Denmark. Study population: All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results presented in this paper are predominantly from the 2013 population. Main variables: In 2013, 970 patients were diagnosed with BC in Denmark and were included in a preliminary report from the database. A total of 458 (47% patients were diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive BC (non-MIBC and 512 (53% were diagnosed with muscle-invasive BC (MIBC. A total of 300 (31% patients underwent cystectomy. Among the 135 patients diagnosed with MIBC, who were 75 years of age or younger, 67 (50% received neoadjuvent chemotherapy prior to cystectomy. In 2013, a total of 147 patients were treated with curative-intended radiation therapy. Descriptive data: One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15–21. One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22–27%. One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10–18. Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1–5 in 2013. One-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24–39 and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16–31 in 2013. Conclusion: This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database is able to identify Danish BC patients and

  5. Intratracheal instillation of cerium oxide nanoparticles induces hepatic toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalabotu SK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Siva K Nalabotu1,2, Madhukar B Kolli1,2, William E Triest3,4, Jane Y Ma5, Nandini DPK Manne2,6, Anjaiah Katta1,2, Hari S Addagarla2, Kevin M Rice2,6–8, Eric R Blough1,2,6,7,91Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Marshall University, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine; 2Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems, Marshall University; 3Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center; 4Section of Pathology, Department of Anatomy and Pathology, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington; 5Health Effects Laboratory Division, NIOSH, Morgantown; 6Department of Biological Sciences; 7School of Kinesiology, College of Health Professions, Marshall University; 8Biotechnology Department, West Virginia State University; 9Department of Cardiology, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University Huntington, WV, USABackground: Cerium oxide (CeO2 nanoparticles have been posited to have both beneficial and toxic effects on biological systems. Herein, we examine if a single intratracheal instillation of CeO2 nanoparticles is associated with systemic toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats.Methods and results: Compared with control animals, CeO2 nanoparticle exposure was associated with increased liver ceria levels, elevations in serum alanine transaminase levels, reduced albumin levels, a diminished sodium-potassium ratio, and decreased serum triglyceride levels (P < 0.05. Consistent with these data, rats exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles also exhibited reductions in liver weight (P < 0.05 and dose-dependent hydropic degeneration, hepatocyte enlargement, sinusoidal dilatation, and accumulation of granular material. No histopathological alterations were observed in the kidney, spleen, and heart. Analysis of serum biomarkers suggested an elevation of acute phase reactants and markers of hepatocyte injury in the rats exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles.Conclusion: Taken together, these data suggest that

  6. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiangfei, Chai; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-21

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  7. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiangfei; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan; Van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  8. NKG2D is a key receptor for recognition of bladder cancer cells by IL-2-activated NK cells and BCG promotes NK cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva María García-Cuesta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG is used to treat superficial bladder cancer, either papillary tumors (after trans-urethral resection or high-grade flat carcinomas (carcinoma in situ, reducing recurrence in about 70% of patients. Initially, BCG was proposed to work through an inflammatory response, mediated by phagocytic uptake of mycobacterial antigens and cytokine release. More recently, other immune effectors such as monocytes, Natural Killer (NK and NKT cells have been suggested to play a role in this immune response. Here, we provide a comprehensive study of multiple bladder cancer cell lines as putative targets for immune cells and evaluated their recognition by NK cells in the presence and absence of BCG. We describe that different bladder cancer cells can express multiple activating and inhibitory ligands for NK cells. Recognition of bladder cancer cells depended mainly on NKG2D, with a contribution from NKp46. Surprisingly, exposure to BCG did not affect the immune phenotype of bladder cells nor increased NK cell recognition of purified IL-2-activated cell lines. However, NK cells were activated efficiently when BCG was included in mixed lymphocyte cultures, suggesting that NK activation after mycobacteria treatment requires the collaboration of various immune cells. We also analyzed the percentage of NK cells in peripheral blood of a cohort of bladder cancer patients treated with BCG. The total numbers of NK cells did not vary during treatment, indicating that a more detailed study of NK cell activation in the tumor site will be required to evaluate the response in each patient.

  9. Electrical conductivity of solutions of copper(II) nitrate crystalohydrate in dimethyl sulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyrbekova, Aigul K.; Mamitova, A. D.; Mamyrbekova, Aizhan K.

    2016-06-01

    Conductometry is used to investigate the electric conductivity of Cu(NO3)2 ṡ 3H2O solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide in the 0.01-2.82 M range of concentrations and at temperatures of 288-318 K. The limiting molar conductivity of the electrolyte and the mobility of Cu2+ and NO 3 - ions, the effective coefficients of diffusion of copper(II) ions and nitrate ions, and the degree and constant of electrolytic dissociation are calculated for different temperatures from the experimental results. It is established that solutions containing 0.1-0.6 M copper nitrate trihydrate in DMSO having low viscosity and high electrical conductivity can be used in electrochemical deposition.

  10. Vapor pressure, density, viscosity and refractive index of dimethyl sulfoxide + 1,4-dimethylbenzene system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA CIOCIRLAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental results of isothermal vapor–liquid equilibrium data between 303.15 and 333.15 K, and densities, viscosities, refractive indices from 298.15 to 323.15 K of the dimethyl sulfoxide + 1,4-dimethylbenzene system over the entire range of mixture composition. The obtained PTX data were correlated by the Wilson and NRTL models and estimated by the UNIFAC model. The excess Gibbs energy and activity coefficients were calculated and compared with others excess properties. Excess molar volumes, viscosity deviations and deviations in refractivity were calculated from the experimental data; all the computed quantities were fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. The resulting excess functions were interpreted in terms of structure and interactions.

  11. Crystal structure of hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)manganese(II) tetraiodide

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, Mohammed

    2016-11-15

    The title salt, [Mn(C2H6OS)6]I4, is made up from discrete [Mn(DMSO)6]2+ (DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide) units connected through non-classical hydrogen bonds to linear I4 2- tetraiodide anions. The MnII ion in the cation, situated on a position with site symmetry -3., is octahedrally coordinated by O atoms of the DMSO molecule with an Mn - O distance of 2.1808(12)Å. The I4 2- anion contains a neutral I2 molecule weakly coordinated by two iodide ions, forming a linear centrosymmetric tetraiodide anion. The title compound is isotypic with the Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn analogues.

  12. Chemiluminescence of curcumin and quenching effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on its peroxyoxalate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yari, Abdollah, E-mail: a.yari@ymail.co [Lorestan University, Department of Chemistry, Flakalaflak Street, 68178-17133 Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saidikhah, Marzieh [Lorestan University, Department of Chemistry, Flakalaflak Street, 68178-17133 Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The chemiluminescence behavior of the reaction between bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate (TCPO) and hydrogen peroxide, in the presence of curcumin as fluorophore, has been investigated. Experimental factors such as TCPO, sodium salicylate (SS), hydrogen peroxide and curcumin concentration were optimized. The chemiluminescence signal showed a linear decay while dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was added to the peroxyoxalate (PO-CL) system. The reaction resulted in a Stern-Volmer plot with a K{sub q} value of 7.3x10{sup 4}. The evaluated lower and upper detection limits of measurable concentrations of DMSO are 3.50x10{sup -5} and 1.53x10{sup -4} M, respectively. The PO-CL parameters were estimated by computer fitting of the experimental CL intensity to proper models.

  13. Efficient extraction of xylan from delignified corn stover using dimethyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, John; Decker, Stephen R.; Michener, William; Black, Stuart

    2013-09-13

    Xylan can be extracted from biomass using either alkali (KOH or NaOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); however, DMSO extraction is the only method that produces a water-soluble xylan. In this study, DMSO extraction of corn stover was studied at different temperatures with the objective of finding a faster, more efficient extraction method. The temperature and time of extraction were compared followed by a basic structural analysis to ensure that no significant structural changes occurred under different temperatures. The resulting data showed that heating to 70 degrees C during extraction can give a yield comparable to room temperature extraction while reducing the extraction time by ~90 %. This method of heating was shown to be the most efficient method currently available and was shown to retain the important structural characteristics of xylan extracted with DMSO at room temperature.

  14. Crystal structure of hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)manganese(II) tetraiodide

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, Mohammed; Davaasuren, Bambar; Rothenberger, Alexander; Wu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The title salt, [Mn(C2H6OS)6]I4, is made up from discrete [Mn(DMSO)6]2+ (DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide) units connected through non-classical hydrogen bonds to linear I4 2- tetraiodide anions. The MnII ion in the cation, situated on a position with site symmetry -3., is octahedrally coordinated by O atoms of the DMSO molecule with an Mn - O distance of 2.1808(12)Å. The I4 2- anion contains a neutral I2 molecule weakly coordinated by two iodide ions, forming a linear centrosymmetric tetraiodide anion. The title compound is isotypic with the Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn analogues.

  15. The OH-initiated atmospheric oxidation of divinyl sulfoxide: A theoretical investigation on the reaction mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weichao; Zhang, Dongju

    2012-08-01

    The potential energy surfaces for the OH + divinyl sulfoxide reaction in the presence of O2/NO are theoretically characterized at the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(d,p)//BH&HLYP/6-311++G(d,p)+ZPE level of theory. Various possible pathways including the direct hydrogen abstraction channels and the addition-elimination channels are considered. The calculations show that the exclusive feasible entrance channel is the formation of adduct CH2(OH)CHS(O)CHdbnd CH2 (IM1) in the initial reaction pathways. In the atmosphere, the newly formed adduct IM1 can further react with O2/NO to form the dominant products HCHO + C(O)HS(O)CHdbnd CH2 (P9). The calculated results confirm the experimental studies.

  16. Potentiometric investigation of acid dissociation and anionic homoconjugation equilibria of substituted phenols in dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaja, Malgorzata; Kozak, Anna; Makowski, Mariusz; Chmurzynski, Lech.

    2003-01-01

    Standard acidity constants, K a DMSO (HA), expressed as pK a DMSO (HA) values, and anionic homoconjugation constants, K DMSO AHA - , (in the form of lg K DMSO AHA - values) have been determined for 11 substituted phenol-phenolate systems a polar protophilic aprotic solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with a potentiometric titration. A linear relationship has been determined between lg K DMSO AHA - and pK a DMSO (HA). The tendency towards anionic homoconjugation in these systems increases with increasing pK a DMSO (HA) that is with declining phenol acidity. The pK a DMSO (HA) are correlated with both pK a W (HA) water and other polar non-aqeous solvents

  17. 5,5′-(Ethyne-1,2-diyldiisophthalic acid dimethyl sulfoxide tetrasolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Münch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C18H10O8·4C2H6OS, the mid-point of the triple bond of the main molecule is located on a special position, i.e. about an inversion center. The carboxyl groups are twisted slightly out of the planes of the aromatic rings to which they are attached, making dihedral angles of 24.89 (1 and 7.40 (2°. The cystal packing features strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds, weaker C—H...O interactions and O...S contacts [3.0981 (11 Å] and displays channel-like voids extending along the a-axis direction which contain the dimethyl sulfoxide solvent molecules.

  18. Potentiometric investigations of molecular heteroconjugation equilibria of substituted phenol+n-butylamine systems in dimethyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaja, MaIgorzata [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Baginska, Katarzyna [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Kozak, Anna [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Makowski, Mariusz [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Chmurzynski, Lech [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: lech@chem.univ.gda.pl

    2005-08-15

    Molecular heteroconjugation constants, K{sub BHA}{sup DMSO} and K{sub AHB}{sup DMSO}, expressed as their logarithms, have been determined by potentiometric titration for eleven substituted phenol+n-butylamine systems in a polar protophilic aprotic solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). An increasing tendency towards molecular heteroconjugation in these systems without proton transfer has been found with increasing pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA), i.e., with decreasing phenol acidity. Moreover, a linear correlation has been established between the determined lgK{sub BHA}{sup DMSO} values and pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA). Furthermore, overall stability constants, lgK{sub o}{sup DMSO}, could be correlated linearly with pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA) values.

  19. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Enhances Effectiveness of Skin Antiseptics and Reduces Contamination Rates of Blood Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Paul R.; Han, Xiang-Yang; Rolston, Kenneth V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2012-01-01

    Effective skin antisepsis is of central importance in the prevention of wound infections, colonization of medical devices, and nosocomial transmission of microorganisms. Current antiseptics have a suboptimal efficacy resulting in substantial infectious morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. Here, we introduce an in vitro method for antiseptic testing and a novel alcohol-based antiseptic containing 4 to 5% of the polar aprotic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The DMSO-containing antiseptic resulted in a 1- to 2-log enhanced killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis and other microbes in vitro compared to the same antiseptic without DMSO. In a prospective clinical validation, blood culture contamination rates were reduced from 3.04% for 70% isopropanol–1% iodine (control antiseptic) to 1.04% for 70% isopropanol–1% iodine–5% DMSO (P antiseptics containing strongly polarized but nonionizing (polar aprotic) solvents. PMID:22378911

  20. Complexes between lanthanide (III) and yttrium (III) picrates and tetra methylene sulfoxide as ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.A.A. da.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of addition compounds between lanthanide (III) and yttrium (III) picrates and tetra methylene sulfoxide as ligand were described. The adducts were prepared in the molar relation 1 (salt): 3(ligand) in ethanol. They are microcrystalline with more intense color than those of their respective hydrated salts. At room temperature conditions they are non hygroscopic and do not present perceptible alterations. They became slightly opalescent, when heated between 363 and 423 K. At higher temperatures under several heating ratios, the behavior shown is the same: melting between 439 and 472 K. The characterization of the compounds was made by elemental analysis, electrolytic conductance measurements, X-ray powder patterns, infrared spectroscopy, visible electronic absorption and emission spectra of the neodymium (III) and europium (III), respectively. (author). 116 refs., 17 tabs., 11 figs

  1. Lack of effect of deferoxamine, dimethyl sulfoxide, and catalase on monocrotaline pyrrole pulmonary injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruner, L.H.; Johnson, K.; Carpenter, L.J.; Roth, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP) is a reactive metabolite of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline. MCTP given intravenously to rats causes pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy. Lesions in lungs after MCTP treatment contain macrophages and neutrophils, which may contribute to the damage by generation of reactive oxygen metabolites. Rats were treated with MCTP and agents known to protect against oxygen radical-mediated damage in acute models of neutrophil-dependent lung injury. Rats received MCTP and deferoxamine mesylate (DF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or polyethylene glycol-coupled catalase (PEG-CAT). MCTP/vehicle-treated controls developed lung injury manifested as increased lung weight, release of lactate dehydrogenase into the airway, and sequestration of SVI-labeled bovine serum albumin in the lungs. Cotreatment of rats with DF, DMSO, or PEG-CAT did not protect against the injury due to MCTP. These results suggest that toxic oxygen metabolites do not play an important role in the pathogenesis of MCTP-induced pulmonary injury.

  2. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A deficiency exacerbates acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose induces acute liver injury via enhanced oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) acts as a reactive oxygen species scavenger by catalyzing the cyclic reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide. Herein, we investigated the protective role of MsrA against APAP-induced liver damage using MsrA gene-deleted mice (MsrA −/− ). We found that MsrA −/− mice were more susceptible to APAP-induced acute liver injury than wild-type mice (MsrA +/+ ). The central lobule area of the MsrA −/− liver was more impaired with necrotic lesions. Serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in MsrA −/− than in MsrA +/+ mice after APAP challenge. Deletion of MsrA enhanced APAP-induced hepatic GSH depletion and oxidative stress, leading to increased susceptibility to APAP-induced liver injury in MsrA-deficient mice. APAP challenge increased Nrf2 activation more profoundly in MsrA −/− than in MsrA +/+ livers. Expression and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and its target gene expression were significantly elevated in MsrA −/− than in MsrA +/+ livers after APAP challenge. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MsrA protects the liver from APAP-induced toxicity. The data provided herein constitute the first in vivo evidence of the involvement of MsrA in hepatic function under APAP challenge. - Highlights: • MsrA deficiency increases APAP-induced liver damage. • MsrA deletion enhances APAP-induced hepatic GSH depletion and oxidative stress. • MsrA deficiency induces more profound activation of Nrf2 in response to APAP. • MsrA protects the liver from APAP-induced toxicity.

  3. Solubility of nicotinic acid in water, ethanol, acetone, diethyl ether, acetonitrile, and dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Elsa M.; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We determined the solubility of nicotinic acid in six solvents by the gravimetric method. ► We found that, regardless of the solvent, the same monoclinic solid phase was in equilibrium with the solution. ► We determined the activity coefficients of nicotinic acid in the six solvents. ► We found that the solubility trends seem to be determined by the polarity and polarizability of the solvent. - Abstract: The mole fraction equilibrium solubility of nicotinic acid in six solvents (water, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, acetonitrile and diethyl ether) differing in polarity, polarizability, and hydrogen-bonding ability, was determined over the temperature range (283 to 333) K, using the gravimetric method. The results obtained led to the solubility order dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ≫ ethanol > water > acetone > diethyl ether > acetonitrile. An analysis based on various solvent descriptors, indicated that this trend seems to be mainly determined by the polarity and polarizability of the solvent. The activity coefficients of nicotinic acid in the different solvents, under saturation conditions, were determined as a function of the temperature and it was found that DMSO exhibits enhanced solubility relative to an ideal solution while the opposite is observed for all other solvents. Both the solvent and the fact that nicotinic acid is primarily zwitterionic in aqueous solution and non-zwitterionic in non-aqueous media, did not affect the nature of the solid phases in equilibrium with the different solutions. Indeed, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that, despite some differences in particle size and morphology, the starting material and the solid products obtained at the end of the solubility studies in the six solvents used in this work were all crystalline and corresponded to the same monoclinic phase.

  4. Membrane permeability of the human granulocyte to water, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Alex M; Higgins, Adam Z

    2014-02-01

    Granulocytes are currently transfused as soon as possible after collection because they rapidly deteriorate after being removed from the body. This short shelf life complicates the logistics of granulocyte collection, banking, and safety testing. Cryopreservation has the potential to significantly increase shelf life; however, cryopreservation of granulocytes has proven to be difficult. In this study, we investigate the membrane permeability properties of human granulocytes, with the ultimate goal of using membrane transport modeling to facilitate development of improved cryopreservation methods. We first measured the equilibrium volume of human granulocytes in a range of hypo- and hypertonic solutions and fit the resulting data using a Boyle-van't Hoff model. This yielded an isotonic cell volume of 378 μm(3) and an osmotically inactive volume of 165 μm(3). To determine the permeability of the granulocyte membrane to water and cryoprotectant (CPA), cells were injected into well-mixed CPA solution while collecting volume measurements using a Coulter Counter. These experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C for exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol. The best-fit water permeability was similar in the presence of all of the CPAs, with an average value at 21°C of 0.18 μmatm(-1)min(-1). The activation energy for water transport ranged from 41 to 61 kJ/mol. The CPA permeability at 21°C was 6.4, 1.0, 8.4, and 4.0 μm/min for dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, respectively, and the activation energy for CPA transport ranged between 59 and 68 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Danish Bladder Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Erik; Larsson, Heidi Jeanet; Nørgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data) is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results......-intended radiation therapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15-21). One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22-27%). One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10-18). Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1-5) in 2013. One......-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24-39) and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16-31) in 2013. CONCLUSION: This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database...

  6. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18(q21: 21. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment.

  7. Gel instillation sonohysterography (GIS) and saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH): comparison of two diagnostic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bij de Vaate, A J M; Brölmann, H A M; van der Slikke, J W; Emanuel, M H; Huirne, J A F

    2010-04-01

    To compare gel instillation sonohysterography (GIS) with saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH) as diagnostic methods for the evaluation of the uterine cavity. A prospective cohort study was performed at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, between September 2007 and April 2008. We included 65 women suspected of having an intrauterine abnormality with an indication for SCSH/GIS. First SCSH and subsequently GIS were performed in all women. Distension of the uterine cavity, image quality, visualization of intrauterine abnormalities and pain experienced on a visual analog scale (VAS score) were recorded for both procedures. The mean distension with GIS was 9.0 mm and with SCSH it was 8.5 mm (P = 0.15). The mean image quality, on a scale from 0 to 5, for SCSH was 4.0 and for GIS it was 3.6 (P = 0.01). No difference was found for the visualization of intrauterine abnormalities, and the VAS scores for pain experienced on SCSH and GIS were 1.5 and 1.6, respectively (P = 0.62). The image quality of SCSH is slightly better than that of GIS. This difference is likely to be attributable to the presence of air bubbles in the gel. The small difference in uterine cavity distension in favor of GIS and comparable stable distension during at least 4 min make GIS a suitable alternative for SCSH if air bubbles can be prevented. Copyright 2009 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Focal seizures after instillation of cyclomydril to a neonate with congenital CMV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L; Dow, K

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a term neonate who underwent a diagnostic eye examination on day one for possible genetic disorders. Five minutes after Cyclomydril (0.2% clyclopentolate and 1% phenylephrine) eye drops were instilled, a focal seizure lasting for approximately one hour occurred. The electroencephalograph (EEG) was normal but the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed calcifications in the bilateral periventricular regions. Urine CMV-DNA and maternal serum CMV-IgM were both positive. Auditory brainstem testing suggested severe sensoneural hearing loss. The baby was treated for congenital CMV infection and did not have further seizures. In this case the congenital CMV infection may have been the predisposing factor to central nervous system (CNS) toxicity induced by cyclopentolate. The exact mechanism is unknown but severe neurological impairment may be considered a contraindication for cyclopentolate eye drops in the neonate. To our knowledge, this is the first report of seizures occurring within the first week of life secondary to cyclomydril eye drops in a term neonate.

  9. Single Silver Nanoparticle Instillation Induced Early and Persisting Moderate Cortical Damage in Rat Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Roda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential toxic effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, administered by a single intratracheal instillation (i.t, was assessed in a rat model using commercial physico-chemical characterized nanosilver. Histopathological changes, overall toxic response and oxidative stress (kidney and plasma protein carbonylation, paralleled by ultrastructural observations (TEM, were evaluated to examine renal responses 7 and 28 days after i.t. application of a low AgNP dose (50 µg/rat, compared to an equivalent dose of ionic silver (7 µg AgNO3/rat. The AgNPs caused moderate renal histopathological and ultrastructural alteration, in a region-specific manner, being the cortex the most affected area. Notably, the bulk AgNO3, caused similar adverse effects with a slightly more marked extent, also triggering apoptotic phenomena. Specifically, 7 days after exposure to both AgNPs and AgNO3, dilatation of the intercapillary and peripheral Bowman’s space was observed, together with glomerular shrinkage. At day 28, these effects still persisted after both treatments, accompanied by an additional injury involving the vascular component of the mesangium, with interstitial micro-hemorrhages. Neither AgNPs nor AgNO3 induced oxidative stress effects in kidneys and plasma, at either time point. The AgNP-induced moderate renal effects indicate that, despite their benefits, novel AgNPs employed in consumer products need exhaustive investigation to ensure public health safety.

  10. Pulmonary Toxicity, Distribution, and Clearance of Intratracheally Instilled Silicon Nanowires in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny R. Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires (Si NWs are being manufactured for use as sensors and transistors for circuit applications. The goal was to assess pulmonary toxicity and fate of Si NW using an in vivo experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with 10, 25, 50, 100, or 250 μg of Si NW (~20–30 nm diameter; ~2–15 μm length. Lung damage and the pulmonary distribution and clearance of Si NW were assessed at 1, 3, 7, 28, and 91 days after-treatment. Si NW treatment resulted in dose-dependent increases in lung injury and inflammation that resolved over time. At day 91 after treatment with the highest doses, lung collagen was increased. Approximately 70% of deposited Si NW was cleared by 28 days with most of the Si NW localized exclusively in macrophages. In conclusion, Si NW induced transient lung toxicity which may be associated with an early rapid particle clearance; however, persistence of Si NW over time related to dose or wire length may lead to increased collagen deposition in the lung.

  11. Functional ability and fate of pulmonary alveolar macrophages after intratracheal instillation into rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Feddersen, D.; Mueller, H.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Haley, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) from donor rats were intratracheally instilled into recipient rats to determine if donor macrophages were functionally similar to the recipient's own macrophages. Recipient and donor (extrinsic) PAM were equivalent in their ability to phagocytize 1.7 μm and 3.9 μm latex microspheres in vivo and sensitized sheep red blood cells in vitro. Also, the extrinsic PAM appeared functionally equivalent to recipient PAM with respect to ability to translocate into interstitial tissue and migrate to the lung-associated lymph nodes (LALN). The recipient PAN appeared to phagocytize the extrinsic PAM, but the extrinsic PAM did not appear to phagocytize the recipient PAM. This could represent a different degree of physiological coordination of intrinsic and extrinsic PAM activities in the lung. Overall, results indicated that extrinsic PAM can live and function in the lungs of recipient rats, and perform most or all of the functions ascribed to recipient PAM. Results also support the hypothesis that PAM are able to move into the pulmonary interstitium and translocate to the LALM without the involvement of other pulmonary macrophages. (author)

  12. Scolicidal and apoptotic activities of albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfoxide-loaded PLGA-PEG as a novel nanopolymeric particle against Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Marziyeh; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Spotin, Adel; Akbari, Nagibeh Asl Rahnemaii; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Ahmadpour, Ehsan

    2016-12-01

    Treatment failures of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) with albendazole (ABZ) have attributed to its low solubility and poor drug absorption rate, resulting in low drug level in plasma. The scolicidal effects of ABZ-loaded liposome nanoparticles have recently evaluated; however, these particles have several challenges due to their low encapsulated load. This investigation was designed to evaluate and compare in vitro apoptotic activities of ABZ sulfoxide (ABZs) and ABZs-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-PEG against protoscoleces (PSCs). ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG was prepared by a double-emulsion method (W1/O/W2). Various concentrations of ABZs and ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG (50, 100, 150, and 200 μg/ml) were experimentally tested against PSC of CE at different exposure times (5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min). ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG at concentrations of 150 and 200 μg/ml was able to act at a 100 % scolicidal rate in all exposure times (5 to 60 min), while ABZs at a concentration of 200 μg/ml demonstrated 94, 100, and 100 % mortality rates following 20, 30, and 60 min of exposure times, respectively. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of caspase-3 was assessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR after 15 h of exposure. Caspase-3 mRNA expression was higher in both PSC treated with ABZs and PSC treated with ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG than that in control groups (P  0.05). DNA fragmentation assay and ultrastructural changes revealed that ABZs and ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG induced the apoptosis of PSC by activation of caspase-3. The higher permeability and scolicidal rate of ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG can be addressed as an effectual alternative strategy to improve the treatment of human CE.

  13. A Non-Invasive Bladder Sensory Test Supports a Role for Dysmenorrhea Increasing Bladder Noxious Mechanosensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    TU, Frank F.; EPSTEIN, Aliza E.; POZOLO, Kristen E.; SEXTON, Debra L.; MELNYK, Alexandra I.; HELLMAN, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Catheterization to measure bladder sensitivity is aversive and hinders human participation in visceral sensory research. Therefore, we sought to characterize the reliability of sonographically-estimated female bladder sensory thresholds. To demonstrate this technique’s usefulness, we examined the effects of self-reported dysmenorrhea on bladder pain thresholds. Methods Bladder sensory threshold volumes were determined during provoked natural diuresis in 49 healthy women (mean age 24 ± 8) using three-dimensional ultrasound. Cystometric thresholds (Vfs – first sensation, Vfu – first urge, Vmt – maximum tolerance) were quantified and related to bladder urgency and pain. We estimated reliability (one-week retest and interrater). Self-reported menstrual pain was examined in relationship to bladder pain, urgency and volume thresholds. Results Average bladder sensory thresholds (mLs) were Vfs (160±100), Vfu (310±130), and Vmt (500±180). Interrater reliability ranged from 0.97–0.99. One-week retest reliability was Vmt = 0.76 (95% CI 0.64–0.88), Vfs = 0.62 (95% CI 0.44–0.80), and Vfu = 0.63, (95% CI 0.47–0.80). Bladder filling rate correlated with all thresholds (r = 0.53–0.64, p dysmenorrhea pain had increased bladder pain and urgency at Vfs and increased pain at Vfu (p’s dysmenorrhea pain was unrelated to bladder capacity. Discussion Sonographic estimates of bladder sensory thresholds were reproducible and reliable. In these healthy volunteers, dysmenorrhea was associated with increased bladder pain and urgency during filling but unrelated to capacity. Plausibly, dysmenorrhea sufferers may exhibit enhanced visceral mechanosensitivity, increasing their risk to develop chronic bladder pain syndromes. PMID:23370073

  14. Complex bladder-exstrophy-epispadias management: Causes of failure of initial bladder closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouame Dibi Bertin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of the initial closure of the complex bladder-exstrophy remains a challenge in pediatric surgery. This study describes a personal experience of the causes of failure of the initial closure and operative morbidity during the surgical treatment of bladder-exstrophy complex. From April 2000 to March 2014, four patients aged 16 days to 7 years and 5 months underwent complex exstrophy-epispadias repair with pelvic osteotomies. There were three males and one female. Three of them had posterior pelvic osteotomy, one had anterior innominate osteotomy. Bladder Closure: Bladder closure was performed in three layers. Our first patient had initial bladder closure with polyglactin 4/0 (Vicryl ® 4/0, concerning the last three patients, initial bladder closure was performed with polydioxanone 4/0 (PDS ® 4/0. The bladder was repaired leaving the urethral stent and ureteral stents for full urinary drainage for three patients. In one case, only urethral stent was left, ureteral drainage was not possible, because stents sizes were more important than the ureteral diameter. Out of a total of four patients, initial bladder closure was completely achieved for three patients. At the immediate postoperative follow-up, two patients presented a complete disunion of the abdominal wall and bladder despite an appropriate postoperative care. The absorbable braided silk (polyglactin used for the bladder closure was considered as the main factor in the failure of the bladder closure. The second cause of failure of the initial bladder closure was the incomplete urine drainage, ureteral catheterisation was not possible because the catheters sizes were too large compared with the diameters of the ureters. The failure of the initial bladder-exstrophy closure may be reduced by a closure with an absorbable monofilament silk and efficient urine drainage via ureteral catheterisation.

  15. Spatial and temporal profile of cisplatin delivery by ultrasound-assisted intravesical chemotherapy in a bladder cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Sasaki

    Full Text Available Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is one of the most common tumors of the urinary tract. Despite the current multimodal therapy, recurrence and progression of disease have been challenging problems. We hereby introduced a new approach, ultrasound-assisted intravesical chemotherapy, intravesical instillation of chemotherapeutic agents and microbubbles followed by ultrasound exposure. We investigated the feasibility of the treatment for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. In order to evaluate intracellular delivery and cytotoxic effect as a function to the thickness, we performed all experiments using a bladder cancer mimicking 3D culture model. Ultrasound-triggered microbubble cavitation increased both the intracellular platinum concentration and the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin at the thickness of 70 and 122 μm of the culture model. The duration of enhanced cytotoxic effect of cisplatin by ultrasound-triggered microbubble cavitation was approximately 1 hr. Based on the distance and duration of delivery, we further tested the feasibility of repetition of the treatment. Triple treatment increased the effective distance by 1.6-fold. Our results clearly showed spatial and temporal profile of delivery by ultrasound-triggered microbubble cavitation in a tumor-mimicking structure. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the increase in intracellular concentration results in the enhancement of the cytotoxic effect in a structure with the certain thickness. Repetition of ultrasound exposure would be treatment of choice in future clinical application. Our results suggest ultrasound-triggered microbubble cavitation can be repeatable and is promising for the local control of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

  16. A Boy with a Large Bladder Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Shen Chow

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the frequent association of urinary tract infection with vesicoureteral reflux and urinary calculi, since vesicouretal reflux is induced by bladder stones, the coexistence of vesicoureteral reflux and bladder stones is rare. Because of its occurrence in children belonging to poor socioeconomic groups, it is believed to be a deficiency disorder. Most cases of bladder stones occur between the ages of 2 and 5 years. Common clinical presentations of bladder stones include urinary dribbling and enuresis, frequency of micturition, pain during micturition, pelvic pain and hematuria. We report the occurrence of a large bladder stone in a boy, who experienced intermittent lower abdominal pain and urinary incontinence, both during the day and at night. He had been diagnosed with enuresis and treated in pediatric clinics for 1 year. Delayed diagnosis resulted in bladder stone formation. The stone was larger than 2.5 cm and open vesicolithotomy was therefore selected as the best and safest treatment choice. His symptoms disappeared after surgery. Thorough metabolic and environmental evaluations of such cases are required on an individual basis. Bladder stones should be considered as a possible diagnosis in children presenting with urinary incontinence.

  17. Gall bladder function test with Ceruletid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, G.

    1981-01-01

    Compared with the stimulating food given orally in the gall bladder function test the administration of the decapeptide Ceruletid which is related with Cholecystokinin has the advantage of avoiding resorption disturbances in the upper gastrointestinal tract. To 100 patients with positive peroral cholecystography, Ceruletid was injected i.m. in a dose of 0.4 μg/kg body weight. The contrasting of the main bile duct was thus increased from 10% to 86%. The oral stimulating food brings an increase to appr. 20%. A special importance is assigned to the frequent diagnosis of adenomyomatoses which, with 6%, lies significantly above the 0.8% achieved by means of the oral stimulating food. More contractile segments of the gall bladder wall can cause pain symptoms which are typical for the biliary tract. Adenomyomatoses in the region of the infundibulum of the gall bladder cause colicky pains and are, as generally accepted, an absolute indication for a surgical intervention. The finding of small gall bladder conrements is often connected with a strong diminution of the gall bladder in order to prevent the small concrements from being overlapped by the non-contrasting bladder bile. Therefore, the application of Ceruletid should be considered also within the frame of the intravenous cholegraphy, thinking of the large number of normal gall bladder findings which were obtained with the oral stimulating food as the only diagnostical help. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Arsenic and urinary bladder cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, Michael I.; Simeonova, Petia P.

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that a close association exists between the elevated levels of arsenic in drinking water and the incidence of certain cancers, including transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. We have employed in vitro and in vivo models to examine the effects of sodium arsenite on the urinary bladder epithelium. Mice exposed to 0.01% sodium arsenite in drinking water demonstrated hyperproliferation of the bladder uroepithelium within 4 weeks after initiating treatment. This occurred in the absence of amorphous precipitates and was accompanied by the accumulation of trivalent arsenite (iAs 3+ ), and to a lesser extent dimethylarsenic (DMA), arsenate (iAs 5+ ), and monomethylarsenic (MMA) in bladder tissue. In contrast to the bladder, urinary secretion was primarily in the form of DMA and MMA. Arsenic-induced cell proliferation in the bladder epithelium was correlated with activation of the MAP kinase pathway, leading to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase activity, AP-1 activation, and expression of AP-1-associated genes involved in cell proliferation. Activation of the MAP kinase pathway involved both epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-dependent and -independent events, the latter involving Src activation. Studies summarized in this review suggest that arsenic accumulates in urinary bladder epithelium causing activation of specific signaling pathways that lead to chronic increased cell proliferation. This may play a non-epigenetic role in carcinogenesis by increasing the proliferation of initiated cells or increasing the mutational rate

  19. Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sadhna; Rajesh, Arumugam; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Lall, Chandana G; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Aeron, Gunjan; Bracken, Robert B; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of pathologic features, cytogenetic characteristics, and natural histories. It is the fourth most common cancer in males and the tenth most common cancer in females. Urinary bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate, necessitating long-term surveillance after initial therapy. Early detection is important, since up to 47% of bladder cancer-related deaths may have been avoided. Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are only moderately accurate in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer, with cystoscopy and pathologic staging remaining the standards of reference. However, the role of newer MR imaging sequences (eg, diffusion-weighted imaging) in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer is still evolving. Substantial advances in MR imaging technology have made multiparametric MR imaging a feasible and reasonably accurate technique for the local staging of bladder cancer to optimize treatment. In addition, whole-body CT is the primary imaging technique for the detection of metastases in bladder cancer patients, especially those with disease that invades muscle. © RSNA, 2012.

  20. Thrombomodulin expression regulates tumorigenesis in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Te; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Lin, Paul- Yang; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Miao-Fen

    2014-01-01

    The identification of potential tumor markers will help improve therapeutic planning and patient management. Thrombomodulin (TM) is a sensitive urothelial marker. TM was reported to be one of the endogenous anti-metastatic factors and has diagnostic and prognostic values for the progression of carcinoma. In the present study, we examine the role of TM in bladder cancer. We studied the role of TM in tumor behavior and related signaling pathways in vitro using the human bladder cancer cell lines HT1376, HT1197, J82 and T24, and in vivo using animal models. We also selected clinical specimens from 100 patients with bladder cancer for immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the predictive capacity of TM in tumor invasiveness. The data revealed that positive immunoreactivity for TM was inversely correlated with clinical stage and DNA methyltransferase 1 immunoreactivity. Decreased TM expression could predict the aggressive tumor growth and advanced clinical stage in bladder cancer. When TM was inhibited, tumor growth rate and invasion ability were augmented in vitro and in vivo. The underlying changes included increased cell proliferation, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB activation significantly increased TM expression and attenuated tumor aggressiveness in bladder cancer. TM plays an important role in bladder cancer tumor aggressiveness in vitro and in vivo and is a clinically significant predictor that may represent a suitable therapeutic target for bladder cancer

  1. Preliminary Experience with Instillation of Triamcinolone Acetonide into the Urethra for Idiopathic Urethritis: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Junaid; Radford, Anna R; Turner, Alexander; Subramaniam, Ramnath

    2017-11-01

    Idiopathic bulbar urethritis (IBU) is characterized by hematuria ± dysuria without infection. Symptoms result from inflammation of the bulbar urethra, distal to external sphincter. IBU is difficult to manage and there is no recommended therapy. To determine whether instillation of triamcinolone acetonide is a useful treatment of IBU and its associated complications. Data were prospectively collected, for 22 months, on 14 consecutive patients presenting with terminal hematuria or blood spotting ± dysuria to a pediatric urology unit. Median age was 12 years (range: 10-15). Mean symptom duration was 13 months (range: 8-24). Normal baseline laboratory blood tests, urine cultures, and ultrasound assessments were seen in all; therefore, none were excluded on the basis of a known pathology. Follow-up telephone interviews, to assess symptom persistence and side effects, were performed at 6 weeks postintervention. The mean follow-up period was 15 months (range: 4-20). Visual confirmation of IBU was obtained cystoscopically and 40 mg of triamcinolone was instilled to the inflamed area under direct vision using an open-ended ureteral catheter. Symptoms resolution was the primary outcome. Repeat cystoscopic assessment ± triamcinolone instillation was recorded, as was the occurrence of complications. Seven patients (50%) required at least one further treatment. Overall complete or partial resolution was reported in 12/14 patients (85.7%). No side effects were reported. This small prospective series demonstrates that intraurethral instillation of triamcinolone seems to be a promising treatment option to alleviate inflammatory symptoms in majority of cases of idiopathic urethritis. Patient Summary: Fourteen boys with inflammation of the urethra, with no identifiable cause, were treated by topically triamcinolone, directly to the inflamed area. We demonstrate an 85.7% complete/partial resolution of symptoms with no side effects seen.

  2. Hippocampus lipid peroxidation induced by residual oil fly ash intranasal instillation versus habituation to the open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Ana Claudia; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of particulate matter (PM) inhalation on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. It has been reported that air pollution may affect the central nervous system and decrease cognitive function. In rats, residual oil fly ash (ROFA) instillation causes decreased motor activity and increased lipid peroxidation in the striatum and the cerebellum. Our objective was to determine whether chronic instillation of particles induces changes in learning and memory in rats and whether oxidants in the hippocampus may contribute to these adverse effects. Forty-five-day-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ROFA by intranasal instillation and were treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at 150 mg/kg i.p. for 30 days. Control groups were exposed to ROFA, NAC, or neither. On days 1, 8, and 30 of the protocol, rats were submitted to the open field test to evaluate habituation. After the last open field session, the rats were killed by decapitation. The hippocampus was used to determine lipid peroxidation (LP) by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances test. ROFA instillation induced an increase in LP in the hippocampus compared to all treatment groups (p = .012). NAC treatment blocked these changes. All of the treatment groups presented a decrease in the frequency of peripheral walking (p = .001), rearing (p = .001), and exploration (p = .001) over time. Our study demonstrates that exposure to particles for 30 days and/or NAC treatment do not modify habituation to an open field, a simple form of learning and memory in rats, and that oxidative damage induced by ROFA does not modulate these processes.

  3. Is intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate useful in preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis? A multicenter case control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Gugliotta; Gloria Calagna; Giorgio Adile; Salvatore Polito; Salvatore Saitta; Patrizia Speciale; Stefano Palomba; Antonino Perino; Roberta Granese; Biagio Adile

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in the female population and, over a lifetime, about half of women have at least one episode of UTI requiring antibiotic therapy. The aim of the current study was to compare two different strategies for preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis: intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus chondroitin sulfate (CS), and antibiotic prophylaxis with sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective...

  4. Comparison of Outcomes for Normal Saline and an Antiseptic Solution for Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy with Instillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul J; Attinger, Christopher E; Oliver, Noah; Garwood, Caitlin; Evans, Karen K; Steinberg, John S; Lavery, Larry A

    2015-11-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation is an adjunctive treatment that uses periodic instillation of a solution and negative pressure for a wide diversity of wounds. A variety of solutions have been reported, with topical antiseptics as the most frequently chosen option. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of normal saline versus an antiseptic solution for negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation for the adjunctive treatment of infected wounds. This was a prospective, randomized, effectiveness study comparing 0.9% normal saline versus 0.1% polyhexanide plus 0.1% betaine for the adjunctive treatment of infected wounds that required hospital admission and operative débridement. One hundred twenty-three patients were eligible, with 100 patients randomized for the intention-to-treat analysis and 83 patients for the per-protocol analysis. The surrogate outcomes measured were number of operative visits, length of hospital stay, time to final surgical procedure, proportion of closed or covered wounds, and proportion of wounds that remained closed or covered at the 30-day follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences in the demographic profiles in the two cohorts except for a larger proportion of male patients (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the surrogate outcomes with the exception of the time to final surgical procedure favoring normal saline (p = 0.038). The authors' results suggest that 0.9% normal saline may be as effective as an antiseptic (0.1% polyhexanide plus 0.1% betaine) for negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation for the adjunctive inpatient management of infected wounds. Therapeutic, II.

  5. Experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasteghin K.T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Propose a new experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits after partial bladder obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty North Folk male rabbits, weighting 1,700 to 2,820 g (mean: 2,162 g were studied. The animals were distributed in 2 experimental groups, formed by 15 rabbits each: Group 1 - clinical control. In this group there was no surgical intervention; Group 2 - bladder outlet obstruction. In this group, after anesthetizing the animal, urethral cannulation with Foley catheter 10F was performed and then an adjustable plastic bracelet was passed around the bladder neck. It was then adjusted in order to not constrict the urethra. The following parameters were studied in M1 - pre-operative period; M2 - 4 weeks post-operatively moments: 1- urine culture; 2- cystometric study; 3- serum creatinine and BUN. RESULTS: Bladder weight was 2.5 times larger in the group with obstruction than in the control group. Cystometric evaluation showed a significant increase in maximal vesical volume in the final moment at Group G2. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups studied. There was no statistically significant difference between maximal detrusor pressure and vesical compliance in the different moments or in the studied groups. There was an absence of uninhibited detrusor contractions in all the animals in group 1, and involuntary contractions were detected in 93% of group 2 animals. There was no significant variation in BUN and serum creatinine either among the groups or in the same group. CONCLUSIONS: We observed in the group with obstruction a bladder weight 2.5 higher than normal bladders. We detected involuntary contractions in 93% of the animals in group 2, establishing this experimental model as appropriate to secondary bladder instability and partial bladder outlet obstruction.

  6. Is intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate useful in preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis? A multicenter case control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliotta, Giorgio; Calagna, Gloria; Adile, Giorgio; Polito, Salvatore; Saitta, Salvatore; Speciale, Patrizia; Palomba, Stefano; Perino, Antonino; Granese, Roberta; Adile, Biagio

    2015-10-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in the female population and, over a lifetime, about half of women have at least one episode of UTI requiring antibiotic therapy. The aim of the current study was to compare two different strategies for preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis: intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus chondroitin sulfate (CS), and antibiotic prophylaxis with sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim. This was a retrospective review of two different cohorts of women affected by recurrent bacterial cystitis. Cases (experimental group) were women who received intravesical instillations of a sterile solution of high concentration of HA + CS in 50 mL water with calcium chloride every week during the 1(st) month and then once monthly for 4 months. The control group included women who received traditional therapy for recurrent cystitis based on daily antibiotic prophylaxis using sulfamethoxazole 200 mg plus trimethoprim 40 mg for 6 weeks. Ninety-eight and 76 patients were treated with experimental and control treatments, respectively. At 12 months after treatment, 69 and 109 UTIs were detected in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The proportion of patients free from UTIs was significantly higher in the experimental than in the control group (36.7% vs. 21.0%; p = 0.03). Experimental treatment was well tolerated and none of the patients stopped it. The intravesical instillation of HA + CS is more effective than long-term antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. CT-guided lung biopsy: incidence of pneumothorax after instillation of NaCl into the biopsy track

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billich, Christian; Brenner, Gerhard; Schmidt, Stefan A.; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Pauls, Sandra [University of Ulm, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ulm (Germany); Muche, Rainer [University of Ulm, Institute of Biometrics, Ulm (Germany); Krueger, Stefan [University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine, Ulm (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution into the biopsy track reduces the incidence of pneumothoraces after CT-guided lung biopsy. A total of 140 consecutive patients with pulmonary lesions were included in this prospective study. All patients were alternatingly assigned to one of two groups: group A in whom the puncture access was sealed by instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution during extraction of the guide needle (n = 70) or group B for whom no sealing was performed (n = 70). CT-guided biopsy was performed with a 18-G coaxial system. Localization of lesion (pleural, peripheral, central), lesion size, needle-pleural angle, rate of pneumothorax and alveolar hemorrhage were evaluated. In group A, the incidence of pneumothorax was lower compared to group B (8%, 6/70 patients vs. 34%, 24/70 patients; P < 0.001). All pneumothoraces occurred directly post punctionem after extraction of the guide needle. One patient in group A and eight patients in group B developed large pneumothoraces requiring chest tube placement (P = 0.01). The frequency of pneumothorax was independent of other variables. After CT-guided biopsy, instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution into the puncture access during extraction of the needle significantly reduces the incidence of pneumothorax. (orig.)

  8. CT-guided lung biopsy: incidence of pneumothorax after instillation of NaCl into the biopsy track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billich, Christian; Brenner, Gerhard; Schmidt, Stefan A.; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Pauls, Sandra; Muche, Rainer; Krueger, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution into the biopsy track reduces the incidence of pneumothoraces after CT-guided lung biopsy. A total of 140 consecutive patients with pulmonary lesions were included in this prospective study. All patients were alternatingly assigned to one of two groups: group A in whom the puncture access was sealed by instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution during extraction of the guide needle (n 70) or group B for whom no sealing was performed (n = 70). CT-guided biopsy was performed with a 18-G coaxial system. Localization of lesion (pleural, peripheral, central), lesion size, needle-pleural angle, rate of pneumothorax and alveolar hemorrhage were evaluated. In group A, the incidence of pneumothorax was lower compared to group B (8%, 6/70 patients vs. 34%, 24/70 patients; P < 0.001). All pneumothoraces occurred directly post punctionem after extraction of the guide needle. One patient in group A and eight patients in group B developed large pneumothoraces requiring chest tube placement (P 0.01). The frequency of pneumothorax was independent of other variables. After CT-guided biopsy, instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution into the puncture access during extraction of the needle significantly reduces the incidence of pneumothorax. (orig.)

  9. Pulmonary permeability assessed by fluorescent-labeled dextran instilled intranasally into mice with LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Chen

    Full Text Available Several different methods have been used to assess pulmonary permeability in response to acute lung injury (ALI. However, these methods often involve complicated procedures and algorithms that are difficult to precisely control. The purpose of the current study is to establish a feasible method to evaluate alterations in lung permeability by instilling fluorescently labeled dextran (FITC-Dextran intranasally.For the mouse model of direct ALI, lipopolysaccharide (LPS was administered intranasally. FITC-Dextran was instilled intranasally one hour before the mice were euthanized. Plasma fluorescence intensities from the LPS group were significantly higher than in the control group. To determine the reliability and reproducibility of the procedure, we also measured the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, the protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, tight and adherens junction markers and pathological changes. Consistent results were observed when the LPS group was compared with the control group. Simultaneously, we found that the concentration of plasma FITC-Dextran was LPS dose-dependent. The concentration of plasma FITC-Dextran also increased with initial intranasal FITC-Dextran doses. Furthermore, increased fluorescence intensity of plasma FITC-Dextran was found in the intraperitoneally LPS-induced ALI model.In conclusion, the measurement of FITC-Dextran in plasma after intranasal instillation is a simple, reliable, and reproducible method to evaluate lung permeability alterations in vivo. The concentration of FITC-Dextran in the plasma may be useful as a potential peripheral biomarker of ALI in experimental clinical studies.

  10. Pulmonary permeability assessed by fluorescent-labeled dextran instilled intranasally into mice with LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Honglei; Wu, Shaoping; Lu, Rong; Zhang, Yong-guo; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Sun, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Several different methods have been used to assess pulmonary permeability in response to acute lung injury (ALI). However, these methods often involve complicated procedures and algorithms that are difficult to precisely control. The purpose of the current study is to establish a feasible method to evaluate alterations in lung permeability by instilling fluorescently labeled dextran (FITC-Dextran) intranasally. For the mouse model of direct ALI, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered intranasally. FITC-Dextran was instilled intranasally one hour before the mice were euthanized. Plasma fluorescence intensities from the LPS group were significantly higher than in the control group. To determine the reliability and reproducibility of the procedure, we also measured the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, the protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, tight and adherens junction markers and pathological changes. Consistent results were observed when the LPS group was compared with the control group. Simultaneously, we found that the concentration of plasma FITC-Dextran was LPS dose-dependent. The concentration of plasma FITC-Dextran also increased with initial intranasal FITC-Dextran doses. Furthermore, increased fluorescence intensity of plasma FITC-Dextran was found in the intraperitoneally LPS-induced ALI model. In conclusion, the measurement of FITC-Dextran in plasma after intranasal instillation is a simple, reliable, and reproducible method to evaluate lung permeability alterations in vivo. The concentration of FITC-Dextran in the plasma may be useful as a potential peripheral biomarker of ALI in experimental clinical studies.

  11. [Bladder-conserving treatment for bladder cancer: potential of and developments in radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Pieters, Bradley R; Koning, Caro C E

    2013-01-01

    The standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is surgical removal of the bladder and construction of a neobladder. Recently, important improvements have been made in the potential for bladder-conserving treatment using radiotherapy. External beam radiotherapy has undergone technological improvements, as a result of which it is possible to radiate the tumour more precisely while decreasing radiation to healthy tissue. Radiochemotherapy improves local recurrence-free and overall survival compared with radiotherapy alone. The results of this combined treatment are comparable with those of surgery. Additionally, Dutch radiotherapy departments have collected data in a national database of 1040 selected patients with confined bladder cancer. These patients were treated with external beam radiation, limited surgery and brachytherapy. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival was 75%. Bladder conserving treatment options for muscle-invasive bladder cancer should be discussed during the multidisciplinary meeting.

  12. Primary signet cell adenocarcinoma of bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Kinra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet cell cancer of the urinary bladder is a relatively rare entity. Since there is no mucinous epithelium in the bladder, It is proposed that the tumor arises from metaplastic urothelium. Two thirds of the tumours are mucin secreting, in most of which the site of the deposition is either extracellular or intracellular displacing the nucleus to a peripheral crescent, giving the cells a signet ring appearance. The tumours are most often infiltrative and diffusely involving the majority of the bladder akin to its name sake in stomach. It is essential to distinguish this carcinoma from gastrointestinal metastases as different therapeutic strategies are often necessary.

  13. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Slaoui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes.

  14. Bladder exstrophy: current management and postoperative imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, Ketsia; Borer, Joseph; Phelps, Andrew; Chow, Jeanne S.

    2014-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy is a rare malformation characterized by an infra-umbilical abdominal wall defect, incomplete closure of the bladder with mucosa continuous with the abdominal wall, epispadias, and alterations in the pelvic bones and muscles. It is part of the exstrophy-epispadias complex, with cloacal exstrophy on the severe and epispadias on the mild ends of the spectrum. Bladder exstrophy is the most common of these entities and is more common in boys. The goal of this paper is to describe common methods of repair and to provide an imaging review of the postoperative appearances. (orig.)

  15. Bladder exstrophy: current management and postoperative imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, Ketsia [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Borer, Joseph [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States); Phelps, Andrew [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Pediatric Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Chow, Jeanne S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Bladder exstrophy is a rare malformation characterized by an infra-umbilical abdominal wall defect, incomplete closure of the bladder with mucosa continuous with the abdominal wall, epispadias, and alterations in the pelvic bones and muscles. It is part of the exstrophy-epispadias complex, with cloacal exstrophy on the severe and epispadias on the mild ends of the spectrum. Bladder exstrophy is the most common of these entities and is more common in boys. The goal of this paper is to describe common methods of repair and to provide an imaging review of the postoperative appearances. (orig.)

  16. Modelling Creep (Relaxation of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravkovic Nebojsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We first present the results of an experiment in which the passive properties of the urinary bladder were investigated using strips of rabbit bladder. Under the assumption that the urinary bladder had orthopaedic characteristics, the strips were taken in the longitudinal and in the circumferential directions. The material was subjected to uniaxial tension, and stress-stretch curves were generated for various rates of deformation. We found that the rates did not have a significantly effect on the passive response of the material. Additionally, the stress-stretch dependence during relaxation of the material when exposed to isometric conditions was determined experimentally.

  17. Experimental electrical stimulation of the bladder using a new device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T.; Christiansen, P.; Nielsen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Repeated bladder contractions were evoked during a six month period in three unanaesthetized female minipigs by using unipolar carbon fiber electrodes embedded in the bladder wall adjacent to the ureterovesical junction. In contrast to bipolar and direct bladder muscle stimulation unipolar...... electrodes at each ureterovesical junction evoked bladder pressure increase similar to those produced in previous investigations in dogs. Sacral nerve stimulation of S2 evoked bladder contraction at a minimal current. Microscopic examination revealed no cellular reactions to the carbon fibers...

  18. Researchers studying alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new phase I clinical trial conducted by researchers at the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) is evaluating the safety and tolerability, or the degree to which any side effects can be tolerated by patients, of a two-drug combination as a potential alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients. The trial targets patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) whose cancers have stopped responding to traditional therapies. Read more...

  19. Correlation of gene expression with bladder capacity in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaco, Marc; Koslov, David S; Keys, Tristan; Evans, Robert J; Badlani, Gopal H; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Walker, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis and bladder pain syndrome are terms used to describe a heterogeneous chronic pelvic and bladder pain disorder. Despite its significant prevalence, our understanding of disease etiology is poor. We molecularly characterized interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and determined whether there are clinical factors that correlate with gene expression. Bladder biopsies from female subjects with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and female controls without signs of the disease were collected and divided into those with normal and low anesthetized bladder capacity, respectively. Samples then underwent RNA extraction and microarray assay. Data generated by these assays were analyzed using Omics Explorer (Qlucore, Lund, Sweden), GeneSifter® Analysis Edition 4.0 and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis to determine similarity among samples within and between groups, and measure differentially expressed transcripts unique to each phenotype. A total of 16 subjects were included in study. Principal component analysis and unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed clear separation between gene expression in tissues from subjects with low compared to normal bladder capacity. Gene expression in tissue from patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome who had normal bladder capacity did not significantly differ from that in controls without interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Pairwise analysis revealed that pathways related to inflammatory and immune response were most involved. Microarray analysis provides insight into the potential pathological condition underlying interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. This pilot study shows that patients with this disorder who have low compared to normal bladder capacity have significantly different molecular characteristics, which may reflect a difference in disease pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc

  20. Cardiovascular effects in rats after intratracheal instillation of metal welding particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Antonini, James M; Lin, Yen-Chang; Roberts, Jenny R; Kashon, Michael L; Castranova, Vincent; Kan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Studies have indicated that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes can induce a series of adverse effects in the respiratory system, including infection, bronchitis, siderosis and decreased pulmonary function. Recent clinical and epidemiological studies have found that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes is also associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm a direct effect of welding fumes on the cardiovascular system. The present study investigated the effects of pulmonary exposure to welding fumes on the heart and the vascular system in rats. Two chemically distinct welding fumes generated from manual metal arc-hard surfacing (MMA-HS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) welding were tested. Three groups of rats were instilled intratracheally with MMA-HS (2 mg/rat), GMA-MS (2 mg/rat) or saline as control once a week for seven weeks. On days 1 and 7 after the last treatment, basal cardiovascular function and the cardiovascular response to increasing doses of adrenoreceptor agonists were assessed. MMA-HS treatment reduced the basal levels of left ventricle end-systolic pressure and dP/dt(max) at 1 day post-treatment, and decreased dP/dt(min) in response to isoproterenol (ISO) at 7 days post-treatment. Unlike MMA-HS, GMA-MS only affected left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in response to ISO at 7 days post-treatment. Treatment with MMA-HS or GMA-MS did not alter heart rate and blood pressure. Our findings suggest that exposure to different welding fumes can induce different adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, and that cardiac contractility may be a sensitive indicator of cardiovascular dysfunction.

  1. Rapid and selective removal of preservative from ophthalmic formulations during eyedrops instillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuan-Hui; Chauhan, Anuj

    2015-11-01

    About 70% of eyedrops contain benzalkonium chloride (BAK) as a preservative to prevent the growth of microorganisms. While preservatives are mandated to maintain sterility, many patients exhibit irritation and toxicity to such compounds. We propose to mitigate the ocular toxicity in the ocular formulations without compromising sterility by designing a device that can be incorporated into an eyedrops bottle to selectively remove the preservatives during the process of drop instillation. Here, we specifically focus on macroporous poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) gel due to its excellent biocompatibility and high partition coefficient for BAK. In addition to specific selectivity for BAK, the device also requires high hydraulic permeability to allow drop dispensing without excessive pressure drop. The pHEMA monolith can remove nearly 100% of contained BAK from a 25 ml, 0.012% BAK solution with negligible uptake of the hydrophilic drugs such as timolol and dorzolamide. The filter, however, had to be pre-equilibrated with hydrophobic drugs to reach a high separation of BAK without reducing the concentration of the active drug. The average hydraulic permeability of the filter was 0.025 Darcy, which is about 5-fold lower than the ideal value. Incorporation of a pHEMA macroporous gel into an eyedrops bottle can virtually eliminate the exposure of the eyes to the preservatives without compromising the sterility. Our novel design can eliminate the preservative induced toxicity from eyedrops thereby impacting hundreds of millions of patients with chronic ophthalmic diseases such as glaucoma and dry eyes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. TEACHERS AND EDUCATION OF CHARACTER INSTILLATION (Research Result at Private Elementary School of Muhammadiyah in Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Teachers are the most important element in the development of character education in elementary school, because it becomes the main foundation for a child. Therefore character education made a continuous process to produce a future human figure rooted in the cultural values of the Indonesian nation. Character education in the current context is very relevant to students to tackle the ongoing moral crisis in our country, including free association, crime against friends, teenage theft, cheating, drug abuse and drugs, pornography, brawls, and others. This is based on the results of research on SDS Muhammadiyah about teacher and character education education. The research methodology was conducted with qualitative descriptive analysis. Data obtained based on interviews, observation, and study documentation with the object of research. The result of the research shows that character education education in SDS Muhammadiyah 29 Medan City is contained in all subjects and outside subjects that are instilled early on by all teachers. Cultivation of character education conducted in all subjects through 3 content, ie general content (PAI, PKn, IPS, IPA, Bahasa Indonesia, Mathematics, Arts and Culture, special content (Kemuhammadiyahan, and Local Content (Malay Arabic / Arabic, English, Computer. Character education model performed outside the subjects through 4 things, namely: religious habituation (religious, discipline exercises, fun activities, and sports activities. Commonalities include (the implementation of Zuhr prayers bertamaaah, dhuha congregation, tadarus Al-Qur'an and memorizing the verses of Al-Qur'an, and culture shake. Discipline includes (the existence of rules and school rules and liaison books every day. Kewiraaan include (Flag ceremony and Hizbul wathan. Exercise includes (physical fitness exercise.

  3. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sithamparam, S; Ahmad, R; Sabarudin, A; Othman, Z; Ismail, M

    2017-01-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients. (paper)

  4. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithamparam, S.; Ahmad, R.; Sabarudin, A.; Othman, Z.; Ismail, M.

    2017-05-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients.

  5. Influence of bladder and rectal volume on spatial variability of a bladder tumor during radical radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, Floris J.; Koedooder, Kees; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the spatial variability of a bladder tumor relative to the planning target volume boundaries during radical radiotherapy, and furthermore to develop strategies to reduce spatial variability. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with solitary T2-T4N0M0 bladder cancer were treated with a technique delivering 40 Gy/2 Gy in 20 fractions to the whole bladder with a concomitant boost to the bladder tumor of 20 Gy in 1 Gy fractions in an overall time of 4 weeks. CT scans were made weekly, immediately after treatment, and matched with the planning CT scan. Spatial variability of the tumor, as well as bladder volume and rectal diameter, were scored for each patient each week. Results: In 65% of patients, a part of the tumor appeared outside the planning target volume boundaries at least one time during the course of radiotherapy. No consistent relation of this variability with time was found. Bladder volumes and rectal diameters showed marked variability during the course of treatment. A large initial bladder volume and rectal diameter predicted a large volume variation and a large tumor spatial variability. Conclusion: In this study, a margin of 1.5 to 2 cm seemed to be inadequate in 65% of the patients with respect to spatial variability. Bladder volume and rectal diameter were found to be predictive for spatial variability of a bladder tumor during concomitant boost radiotherapy

  6. Influence of bladder and rectal volume on spatial variability of a bladder tumor during radical radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pos, Floris J; Koedooder, Kees; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the spatial variability of a bladder tumor relative to the planning target volume boundaries during radical radiotherapy, and furthermore to develop strategies to reduce spatial variability. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with solitary T2-T4N0M0 bladder cancer were treated with a technique delivering 40 Gy/2 Gy in 20 fractions to the whole bladder with a concomitant boost to the bladder tumor of 20 Gy in 1 Gy fractions in an overall time of 4 weeks. CT scans were made weekly, immediately after treatment, and matched with the planning CT scan. Spatial variability of the tumor, as well as bladder volume and rectal diameter, were scored for each patient each week. Results: In 65% of patients, a part of the tumor appeared outside the planning target volume boundaries at least one time during the course of radiotherapy. No consistent relation of this variability with time was found. Bladder volumes and rectal diameters showed marked variability during the course of treatment. A large initial bladder volume and rectal diameter predicted a large volume variation and a large tumor spatial variability. Conclusion: In this study, a margin of 1.5 to 2 cm seemed to be inadequate in 65% of the patients with respect to spatial variability. Bladder volume and rectal diameter were found to be predictive for spatial variability of a bladder tumor during concomitant boost radiotherapy.

  7. Bladder filling variation during radiation treatment of prostate cancer: Can the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner and biofeedback optimize bladder filling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, Marcel R.; Lin, Emile N.J. Th. van; Vight, Lisette P. van der; Kaanders, Johannes; Visser, Andries G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner in achieving a better reproducible bladder filling during irradiation of pelvic tumors, specifically prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: First, the accuracy of the bladder ultrasound scanner relative to computed tomography was validated in a group of 26 patients. Next, daily bladder volume variation was evaluated in a group of 18 patients. Another 16 patients participated in a biofeedback protocol, aiming at a more constant bladder volume. The last objective was to study correlations between prostate motion and bladder filling, by using electronic portal imaging device data on implanted gold markers. Results: A strong correlation between bladder scanner volume and computed tomography volume (r = 0.95) was found. Daily bladder volume variation was very high (1 Sd = 47.2%). Bladder filling and daily variation did not significantly differ between the control and the feedback group (47.2% and 40.1%, respectively). Furthermore, no linear correlations between bladder volume variation and prostate motion were found. Conclusions: This study shows large variations in daily bladder volume. The use of a biofeedback protocol yields little reduction in bladder volume variation. Even so, the bladder scanner is an easy to use and accurate tool to register these variations

  8. Lentivirus-ABCG1 instillation reduces lipid accumulation and improves lung compliance in GM-CSF knock-out mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malur, Anagha; Huizar, Isham [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Wells, Greg [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Barna, Barbara P. [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Malur, Achut G. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Thomassen, Mary Jane, E-mail: thomassenm@ecu.edu [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lentivirus-ABCG1 reduces lipid accumulation in lungs of GM-CSF knock-out mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up-regulation of ABCG1 improves lung function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of ABCG1 improves surfactant metabolism. -- Abstract: We have shown decreased expression of the nuclear transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and the PPAR{gamma}-regulated ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) in alveolar macrophages from patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). PAP patients also exhibit neutralizing antibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an upregulator of PPAR{gamma}. In association with functional GM-CSF deficiency, PAP lung is characterized by surfactant-filled alveolar spaces and lipid-filled alveolar macrophages. Similar pathology characterizes GM-CSF knock-out (KO) mice. We reported previously that intratracheal instillation of a lentivirus (lenti)-PPAR{gamma} plasmid into GM-CSF KO animals elevated ABCG1 and reduced alveolar macrophage lipid accumulation. Here, we hypothesized that instillation of lenti-ABCG1 might be sufficient to decrease lipid accumulation and improve pulmonary function in GM-CSF KO mice. Animals received intratracheal instillation of lenti-ABCG1 or control lenti-enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) plasmids and alveolar macrophages were harvested 10 days later. Alveolar macrophage transduction efficiency was 79% as shown by lenti-eGFP fluorescence. Quantitative PCR analyses indicated a threefold (p = 0.0005) increase in ABCG1 expression with no change of PPAR{gamma} or ABCA1 in alveolar macrophages of lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. ABCG1 was unchanged in control lenti-eGFP and PBS-instilled groups. Oil Red O staining detected reduced intracellular neutral lipid in alveolar macrophages from lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. Extracellular cholesterol and phospholipids were also decreased as shown by

  9. Lentivirus-ABCG1 instillation reduces lipid accumulation and improves lung compliance in GM-CSF knock-out mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malur, Anagha; Huizar, Isham; Wells, Greg; Barna, Barbara P.; Malur, Achut G.; Thomassen, Mary Jane

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lentivirus-ABCG1 reduces lipid accumulation in lungs of GM-CSF knock-out mice. ► Up-regulation of ABCG1 improves lung function. ► Upregulation of ABCG1 improves surfactant metabolism. -- Abstract: We have shown decreased expression of the nuclear transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and the PPARγ-regulated ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) in alveolar macrophages from patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). PAP patients also exhibit neutralizing antibodies to granulocyte–macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an upregulator of PPARγ. In association with functional GM-CSF deficiency, PAP lung is characterized by surfactant-filled alveolar spaces and lipid-filled alveolar macrophages. Similar pathology characterizes GM-CSF knock-out (KO) mice. We reported previously that intratracheal instillation of a lentivirus (lenti)-PPARγ plasmid into GM-CSF KO animals elevated ABCG1 and reduced alveolar macrophage lipid accumulation. Here, we hypothesized that instillation of lenti-ABCG1 might be sufficient to decrease lipid accumulation and improve pulmonary function in GM-CSF KO mice. Animals received intratracheal instillation of lenti-ABCG1 or control lenti-enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) plasmids and alveolar macrophages were harvested 10 days later. Alveolar macrophage transduction efficiency was 79% as shown by lenti-eGFP fluorescence. Quantitative PCR analyses indicated a threefold (p = 0.0005) increase in ABCG1 expression with no change of PPARγ or ABCA1 in alveolar macrophages of lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. ABCG1 was unchanged in control lenti-eGFP and PBS-instilled groups. Oil Red O staining detected reduced intracellular neutral lipid in alveolar macrophages from lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. Extracellular cholesterol and phospholipids were also decreased as shown by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Lung compliance was diminished in untreated GMCSF KO mice

  10. Time-dependent translocation and potential impairment on central nervous system by intranasally instilled TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangxue; Liu Ying; Jiao Fang; Lao Fang; Li Wei; Gu Yiqun; Li Yufeng; Ge Cuicui; Zhou Guoqiang; Li Bai; Zhao Yuliang; Chai Zhifang; Chen Chunying

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticles can be administered via nasal, oral, intraocular, intratracheal (pulmonary toxicity), tail vein and other routes. Here, we focus on the time-dependent translocation and potential damage of TiO 2 nanoparticles on central nervous system (CNS) through intranasal instillation. Size and structural properties are important to assess biological effects of TiO 2 nanoparticles. In present study, female mice were intranasally instilled with two types of well-characterized TiO 2 nanoparticles (i.e. 80 nm, rutile and 155 nm, anatase; purity > 99%) every other day. Pure water instilled mice were served as controls. The brain tissues were collected and evaluated for accumulation and distribution of TiO 2 , histopathology, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers at post-instillation time points of 2, 10, 20 and 30 days. The titanium contents in the sub-brain regions including olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results indicated that the instilled TiO 2 directly entered the brain through olfactory bulb in the whole exposure period, especially deposited in the hippocampus region. After exposure for 30 days, the pathological changes were observed in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb using Nissl staining and transmission electron microscope. The oxidative damage expressed as lipid peroxidation increased significantly, in particular in the exposed group of anatase TiO 2 particles at 30 days postexposure. Exposure to anatase TiO 2 particles also produced higher inflammation responses, in association with the significantly increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1β) levels. We conclude that subtle differences in responses to anatase TiO 2 particles versus the rutile ones could be related to crystal structure. Thus, based on these results, rutile ultrafine-TiO 2 particles are expected to have a little lower risk potential for producing adverse

  11. In vitro susceptibilities of the AIDS-associated microsporidian Encephalitozoon intestinalis to albendazole, its sulfoxide metabolite, and 12 additional benzimidazole derivatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Katiyar, S K; Edlind, T D

    1997-01-01

    Recent reports have described the successful treatment of Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in AIDS patients with albendazole. However, this compound is rapidly metabolized in vivo to albendazole sulfoxide, and furthermore it is only 1 of about 15 commercially developed benzimidazole derivatives. To compare the activities of albendazole, albendazole sulfoxide, and other benzimidazoles, an in vitro system involving infection of green monkey kidney cell (E6) monolayers with E. intestinalis...

  12. Treatment Options by Stage (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  13. Epidemiology of bladder cancer. A second look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynder, E.L.; Goldsmith, R.

    1977-09-01

    A case-control study among 574 male and 158 female bladder cancer patients and equal numbers of matched controls was conducted between 1969 and 1974 in 17 hospitals in six United States cities. We determined that cigarette smokers of both sexes were at higher relative risk than nonsmokers. Cigarette smoking was responsible for about one-half of male and one-third of female bladder cancer. There was an excess of bladder cancer patients with some previous occupational exposure, such as rubber, chemicals, and textiles. A weak association with coffee drinking, which appeared to be independent of smoking, was found for males. Users of artificial sweetners were not over-represented among the cases. The authors conclude that the epidemiologic pattern of bladder cancer cannot be fully accounted for by cigarette smoking and occupational exposure and suggest a series of metabolic studies to assess the role of additional factors, such as nutrition.

  14. 16. PRE-OPERATIVE BLADDER IRRIGATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    effectiveness of using preoperative bladder irrigation with 1% povidone iodine in reducing ... consenting patient who presented to the department of surgery for open ..... infections in a tertiary care center in south-western. Nigeria. International ...

  15. Conformal radiotherapy of urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muren, Ludvig Paul; Smaaland, Rune; Dahl, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in radiotherapy (RT) are founded on the enhanced tumour visualisation capabilities of new imaging modalities and the precise deposition of individualised radiation dose distributions made possible with the new systems for RT planning and delivery. These techniques have a large potential to also improve the results of RT of urinary bladder cancer. Major challenges to take full advantage of these advances in the management of bladder cancer are to control, and, as far as possible, reduce bladder motion, and to reliably account for the related intestine and rectum motion. If these obstacles are overcome, it should be possible in the near future to offer selected patients with muscle invading bladder cancer an organ-sparing, yet effective combined-modality treatment as an alternative to radical surgery

  16. Screening for Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is the focus of this summary. Enlarge Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and female urinary system (right panel) showing the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in ...

  17. Clinical observation of radiation urinary bladder disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuke; Liu Libo; Zhang Haiying; Liang Shuo; Chen Dawei; Wu Zhenfeng; Dong Lihua; Lu Xuejun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Clinical characteristic, diagnosis and treatment of radiation urinary bladder disease induced by radiation therapy for cancers in the pelvis were inquired into for providing diagnostic basis. Methods: Statistical analysis for the clinical cases was carried out. Results: The incidence of radiation bladder diseases induced by radiation therapy of cervix cancer are about 0.8%-2.96%, with an average of 2.14%. Radiation bladder disease is divided into acute radiation cystitis, chronic radiation cystitis and radiation vesical fistula. Chronic radiation cystitis is seen most often in the clinic and its main clinical symptom is painless macroscopic hematuria, which is again subdivided into slight and severe degrees. Diagnosis should include history of exposure to radiation, which dose exceed the dose threshold, and typical clinical characteristics. Conclusion: The characteristics, types and diagnostic basis of radiation urinary bladder disease analyzed in this study can provide the reference for drawing up diagnostic standard

  18. Integrated irradiation and cystectomy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Planned pre-operative irradiation and cystectomy for selected patients with bladder cancer was initiated approximately 20 years ago by a number of centres on the basis of the disappointing end results of treatment of bladder cancer by either irradiation or surgery and the empirical hope that the combination might lead to better results. This is a brief review of the logical basis for integrated treatment and of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) experience with such therapy. (author)

  19. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jinbo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in u...

  20. Simultaneous densitometric determination of anthelmintic drug albendazole and its metabolite albendazole sulfoxide by HPTLC in human plasma and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Jui J; Sanyal, Mallika; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2017-09-01

    A new, simple, accurate and precise high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of an anthelmintic drug, albendazole, and its active metabolite albendazole, sulfoxide. Planar chromatographic separation was performed on aluminum-backed layer of silica gel 60G F 254 using a mixture of toluene-acetonitrile-glacial acetic acid (7.0:2.9:0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. For quantitation, the separated spots were scanned densitometrically at 225 nm. The retention factors (R f ) obtained under the established conditions were 0.76 ± 0.01 and 0.50 ± 0.01 and the regression plots were linear (r 2  ≥ 0.9997) in the concentration ranges 50-350 and 100-700 ng/band for albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, specificity, accuracy (recovery) and precision, repeatability, stability and robustness. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation found were 9.84 and 29.81 ng/band for albendazole and 21.60 and 65.45 ng/band for albendazole sulfoxide, respectively. For plasma samples, solid-phase extraction of analytes yielded mean extraction recoveries of 87.59 and 87.13% for albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of albendazole in pharmaceutical formulations with accuracy ≥99.32%. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Complications of bladder distension during retrograde urethrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsanti, J A; Crowell, W; Losonsky, J; Talkington, F D

    1981-05-01

    A severe, ulcerative cystitis that resulted in macroscopic hematuria occurred in 8 of 20 healthy dogs undergoing a series of diagnostic tests. Four of the remaining 12 dogs had mild bladder lesions consisting of submucosal edema and hemorrhage. Nine of the 20 dogs developed urinary tract infection after the procedures. These complications seemed associated with the radiographic technique of retrograde urethrography performed when the urinary bladder was distended. To test this hypothesis, retrograde urethrography was performed on 5 additional dogs. With the bladder undistended, no complications occurred. However, distention of these same dogs' bladders for 1 minute or less with sterile lactated Ringer's solution administered through a Foley catheter in the penile urethra resulted in a macroscopic hematuria in all 5 dogs which persisted for 24 hours. A microscopic hematuria continued for 5 days. One dog developed a bacterial urinary tract infection. A severe fibrinopurulent cystitis was present at necropsy of 2 dogs 2 days after distention. The morphologic changes in the bladder gradually diminished over 7 days, but mild submucosal edema and hemorrhage were still present when 2 dogs were necropsied, 7 days after distention. These studies indicated that retrograde urethrography in dogs may be complicated by hemorrhagic cystitis and urinary tract infection if performed with urinary bladder distention.

  2. Laparoscopic hernia repair and bladder injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandri, K M; Bhoyrul, S; Mulvihill, S J

    2001-01-01

    Bladder injury is a complication of laparoscopic surgery with a reported incidence in the general surgery literature of 0.5% and in the gynecology literature of 2%. We describe how to recognize and treat the injury and how to avoid the problem. We report two cases of bladder injury repaired with a General Surgical Interventions (GSI) trocar and a balloon device used for laparoscopic extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair. One patient had a prior appendectomy; the other had a prior midline incision from a suprapubic prostatectomy. We repaired the bladder injury, and the patients made a good recovery. When using the obturator and balloon device, it is important to stay anterior to the preperitoneal space and bladder. Prior lower abdominal surgery can be considered a relative contraindication to extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair. Signs of gas in the Foley bag or hematuria should alert the surgeon to a bladder injury. A one- or two-layer repair of the bladder injury can be performed either laparoscopically or openly and is recommended for a visible injury. Mesh repair of the hernia can be completed provided no evidence exists of urinary tract infection. A Foley catheter is placed until healing occurs.

  3. Virtual computed tomography cystoscopy in bladder pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Halil; Ceylan, Kadir; Harman, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Yuksel; Temizoz, Osman; Can, Saban

    2006-01-01

    Objective: assessed the usefulness of virtual cystoscopy performed with multidetector computed tomography (CT) in patients with different urinary bladder pathologies compared to the conventional cystoscopy.Materials and methods: eighteen patients with different bladder pathologies, which consisted of 11 tumors, 3 diverticula, 2 trabecular changes and 2 stones, were assessed with conventional cystoscopy and virtual CT cystoscopy. The results of virtual CT cystoscopy were compared with the findings of conventional cystoscopy. We determined the detection rate and positive predictive value of CT imaging based virtual cystoscopy in the diagnosis of urinary bladder lesions. Results: CT scanning was well tolerated by all patients, and no complications occurred. Images in 16 (88%) of the 18 virtual cystoscopic examinations were either of excellent or good quality. All tumors except one, 2 trabecular changes and 2 stones were characterized with similar findings in the both of methods. The masses ranged from 0.4 to 7.0 cm in diameter. While conventional cystoscopy could not evaluate interior part of the diverticulum, virtual CT cystoscopy could demonstrate clearly within it. There were no false-positive findings in our series. Conclusion: virtual CT cystoscopy is a promising technique to be used in the detection of bladder lesions. It should be considered especially at the evaluation of bladder diverticula. In the future, it may be possible or even advantageous to incorporate into the imaging algorithm for evaluation of bladder lesion. (author)

  4. Neo bladder long term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhr, I.; Mohamed, A. M.; Moustafa, A.; Al-Sherbiny, M.; Salama, M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the commonest forms of orthotopic bladder substitution for bladder cancer surivors, used in our institute, is the use of ileocecal segment. Sometimes, the need for Indiana pouch heterotropic continent diversion arises. Aim: To compare the long-term effect of orthotopic ileocecal bladder and heterotropic Indiana pouch following radical cystectomy in bladder cancer patients. Patients and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, 91 patients underwent radical cystectomy/anterior pelvic exentration and ortho topic ileocecal bladder reconstruction (61 patients) and Indiana pouch (30 patients), when orthotopic diversion could not be technically or oncologically feasible. Results: Convalescence was uneventful in most patients. All minor and major urinary leakage cases, in both diversions groups, where successfully conservatively treated. Only one patient in the ileocecal group with major urinary leak required re-exploration with successful revision of uretro-colonic anastomosis. Only one patient in the Indiana pouch group had accidentally discovered sub-centimetric stone, which was simply expelled. The overall survival proportion of ileocecal group was 100% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p < 0.001). The disease free survival proportion of ileocecal group was 90.8% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p = 0.076). Effective comparative daytime and nighttime urinary continence as well as renal function deterioration were not statistically significant between both reconstruction types. Conclusion: Both ileocecal bladder and Indiana pouch are safe procedures in regard to long-term effects over kidney function following radical cystectomy

  5. Increased Bladder Wall Thickness in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Women With Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı Uzun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bladder wall thickness has been reported to be associated with overactive bladder (OAB in women. Diabetic women have an increased risk for OAB syndrome and may have an increased risk for bladder wall thickness. Methods: A total of 235 female patients aged 40 to 75 years were categorized into four groups. The first group consisted of women free of urgency or urge urinary incontinence. The second group included nondiabetic women with idiopathic OAB. The third group consisted of women with diabetes and clinical OAB, and women with diabetes but without OAB constituted the fourth group. Bladder wall thickness at the anterior wall was measured by ultrasound by the suprapubic approach with bladder filling over 250 mL. Results: The diabetic (third group and nondiabetic (second group women with OAB had significantly greater bladder wall thickness at the anterior bladder wall than did the controls. However, the difference was not significant between the diabetic (third group and the nondiabetic (second group women with OAB. Women with diabetes but without OAB (fourth group had greater bladder wall thickness than did the controls but this difference was not significant. Additionally, the difference in bladder wall thickness between diabetic women with (third group and without (fourth group OAB was not significant. Conclusions: This is the first study to show that bladder wall thickness is increased in diabetic women with and without OAB. Additionally, nondiabetic women with OAB had increased bladder wall thickness. Further studies may provide additional information for diabetic and nondiabetic women with OAB, in whom the etiopathogenesis of the disease may be similar.

  6. Selective bladder preservation with curative intent for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A contemporary review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Fumitaka; Kihara, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    Radical cystectomy plus urinary diversion, the reference standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, associates with high complication rates and compromises quality of life as a result of long-term effects on urinary, gastrointestinal and sexual function, and changes in body image. As a society ages, the number of elderly patients unfit for radical cystectomy as a result of comorbidity will increase, and thus the demand for bladder-sparing approaches for muscle-invasive bladder cancer will also inevitably increase. Trimodality bladder-sparing approaches consisting of transurethral resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Σ55-65 Gy) yield overall survival rates comparable with those of radical cystectomy series (50-70% at 5 years), while preserving the native bladder in 40-60% of muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients, contributing to an improvement in quality of life for such patients. Limitations of the trimodality therapy include muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence in the preserved bladder, which most often arises in the original muscle-invasive bladder cancer site; potential lack of curative intervention for regional lymph nodes; and increased morbidity in the event of salvage radical cystectomy for remaining or recurrent disease as a result of high-dose pelvic irradiation. Consolidative partial cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection followed by induction chemoradiotherapy at lower dose (exempli gratia (e.g.) 40 Gy) is a rational strategy for overcoming such limitations by strengthening locoregional control and reducing radiation dosage. Molecular profiling of the tumor and functional imaging might play important roles in optimal patient selection for bladder preservation. Refinement of radiation techniques, intensified concurrent or adjuvant chemotherapy, and novel sensitizers, including molecular targeting agent, are also expected to improve outcomes and consequently provide more muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with favorable

  7. Methionine sulfoxide profiling of milk proteins to assess the influence of lipids on protein oxidation in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Johannes; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-06-15

    Thermal treatment of milk and milk products leads to protein oxidation, mainly the formation of methionine sulfoxide. Reactive oxygen species, responsible for the oxidation, can be generated by Maillard reaction, autoxidation of sugars, or lipid peroxidation. The present study investigated the influence of milk fat on methionine oxidation in milk. For this purpose, quantitative methionine sulfoxide profiling of all ten methionine residues of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and αs1-casein was carried out by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS-sMRM). Analysis of defatted and regular raw milk samples after heating for up to 8 min at 120 °C and analysis of ultrahigh-temperature milk samples with 0.1%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat revealed that methionine oxidation of the five residues of the whey proteins and of residues M 123, M 135, and M 196 of αs1-casein was not affected or even suppressed in the presence of milk fat. Only the oxidation of residues M 54 and M 60 of αs1-casein was promoted by lipids. In evaporated milk samples, formation of methionine sulfoxide was hardly influenced by the fat content of the samples. Thus, it can be concluded that lipid oxidation products are not the major cause of methionine oxidation in milk.

  8. Studies of a Novel Cysteine Sulfoxide Lyase from Petiveria alliacea: The First Heteromeric Alliinase1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musah, Rabi A.; He, Quan; Kubec, Roman; Jadhav, Abhijit

    2009-01-01

    A novel alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) was detected and purified from the roots of the Amazonian medicinal plant Petiveria alliacea. The isolated enzyme is a heteropentameric glycoprotein composed of two α-subunits (68.1 kD each), one β-subunit (56.0 kD), one γ-subunit (24.8 kD), and one δ-subunit (13.9 kD). The two α-subunits are connected by a disulfide bridge, and both α- and β-subunits are glycosylated. The enzyme has an isoelectric point of 4.78 and pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and approximately 52°C, respectively. Its activation energy with its natural substrate S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide is 64.6 kJ mol−1. Kinetic studies showed that both Km and Vmax vary as a function of substrate structure, with the most preferred substrates being the naturally occurring P. alliacea compounds S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide and S-2-hydroxyethyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide. The alliinase reacts with these substrates to produce S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate and S-(2-hydroxyethyl) 2-hydroxyethanethiosulfinate, respectively. PMID:19789290

  9. Protection against UVB-induced oxidative stress in human skin cells and skin models by methionine sulfoxide reductase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelle, Edward; Maes, Daniel; Huang, Xi; Frenkel, Krystyna; Pernodet, Nadine; Yarosh, Daniel B; Zhang, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Environmental trauma to human skin can lead to oxidative damage of proteins and affect their activity and structure. When methionine becomes oxidized to its sulfoxide form, methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) reduces it back to methionine. We report here the increase in MSRA in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) after ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, as well as the reduction in hydrogen peroxide levels in NHEK pre-treated with MSRA after exposure. Further, when NHEK were pre-treated with a non-cytotoxic pentapeptide containing methionine sulfoxide (metSO), MSRA expression increased by 18.2%. Additionally, when the media of skin models were supplemented with the metSO pentapeptide and then exposed to UVB, a 31.1% reduction in sunburn cells was evident. We conclude that the presence of MSRA or an externally applied peptide reduces oxidative damage in NHEK and skin models and that MSRA contributes to the protection of proteins against UVB-induced damage in skin.

  10. The role of imaging in pediatric bladder augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal; Chow, Jeanne S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Phelps, Andrew [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Estrada, Carlos [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Bladder augmentation (also called augmentation cystoplasty) refers to a number of surgical methods that increase the capacity and compliance of the urinary bladder. Imaging has an important role in the postoperative evaluation of bladder augmentation. The most common augmentation procedures utilize enteric segments to augment the bladder. The various types of bladder augmentation have characteristic appearances on different imaging modalities. Spontaneous bladder perforation is a complication that is seen in both early and late post-operative periods and it is one of the most important complications for radiologists to be aware of as it is life-threatening. We review the indications for bladder augmentation in children, the surgical techniques employed, the normal postoperative appearances on imaging studies and the role of imaging complications of bladder augmentation including delayed spontaneous bladder rupture, which is life-threatening. (orig.)

  11. Acute inflammatory reaction in rats after intratracheal instillation of material collected from a nylon flocking plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D W; Castranova, V; Robinson, V A; Hubbs, A F; Mercer, R R; Scabilloni, J; Goldsmith, T; Schwegler-Berry, D; Battelli, L; Washko, R; Burkhart, J; Piacitelli, C; Whitmer, M; Jones, W

    1999-05-14

    Several cases of interstitial lung disease have been diagnosed among workers at a nylon flock plant, but the etiologic agent for the disease outbreak was unknown. The results of a medical survey and industrial hygiene study indicated that the dust present in the plant may be responsible. Thus, airborne dust collected at the plant was examined for its inflammatory potential in rat lungs. The endpoints measured were: (1) breathing rates, (2) differential cell counts of bronchoalveolar lavage cells, (3) alveolar macrophage (AM) chemiluminescence, (4) albumin concentration and matrix metalloprotease activities in the acellular fluid from the initial bronchoalveolar lavage, and (5) pulmonary histopathology. In the first study, rats received a single dose of the airborne dust sample (10 mg/kg body weight) by intratracheal (IT) instillation. At 1 d post-IT, all inflammatory endpoints were significantly increased versus controls, but by 29 d post-IT they did not differ significantly from controls. Histopathology demonstrated mild to moderate, multifocal, suppurative pneumonia, usually centered around bronchioles, at 1 d post-IT. At 29 d post-IT, pulmonary inflammation was minimal to mild and characterized by alveolar histocytosis usually restricted to the immediate area of retained bire-fringent fibers. In subsequent experiments, airborne dust was extracted with water and the dust (washed airborne dust) and water extract (soluble fraction) were separated by centrifugation for further study. Nylon tow dust was prepared in the laboratory by milling uncut nylon strands (called tow) that had not been treated with the finish or dyes that are commonly used in the flock plants. Rats were administered a single dose of a dust sample (10 mg/kg body weight) or the soluble fraction (1.3 ml/kg body weight) by IT administration and the same endpoints were measured at 1 d post-IT. The dust samples caused significant increases in all of the inflammatory endpoints; however, the soluble

  12. The acute pulmonary and thrombotic effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles after intratracheal instillation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemmar A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abderrahim Nemmar,1 Suhail Al-Salam,2 Sumaya Beegam,1 Priya Yuvaraju,2 Badreldin H Ali3 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE; 3Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Al-Khod, Sultanate of Oman Abstract: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs, used as a diesel fuel catalyst, can be emitted into the ambient air, resulting in exposure to humans by inhalation. Recent studies have reported the development of lung toxicity after pulmonary exposure to CeO2 NPs. However, little is known about the possible thrombotic effects of these NPs. The present study investigated the acute (24 hours effect of intratracheal (IT instillation of either CeO2 NPs (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg or saline (control on pulmonary and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress and thrombosis in mice. CeO2 NPs induced a significant increase of neutrophils into the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid with an elevation of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant catalase. Lung sections of mice exposed to CeO2 NPs showed a dose-dependent infiltration of inflammatory cells consisting of macrophages and neutrophils. Similarly, the plasma levels of C-reactive protein and TNFα were significantly increased, whereas the activities of catalase and total antioxidant were significantly decreased. Interestingly, CeO2 NPs significantly and dose dependently induced a shortening of the thrombotic occlusion time in pial arterioles and venules. Moreover, the plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were significantly elevated by CeO2 NPs. The direct addition of CeO2 NPs (1, 5, or 25 µg/mL to mouse whole blood, collected from the inferior vena cava, in vitro neither caused significant platelet aggregation nor affected prothrombin time or partial

  13. Finite element based bladder modeling for image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Remeijer, Peter; Lotz, Heidi T.; Bel, Arjan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A biomechanical model was constructed to give insight into pelvic organ motion as a result of bladder filling changes. Methods: The authors used finite element (FE) modeling to simulate bladder wall deformation caused by urine inflow. For ten volunteers, a series of MRI scans of the pelvic

  14. Can we improve transurethral resection of the bladder tumour for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, Esmee Iml; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The recurrence rate in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer is high, and the quality of transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) tumour influences recurrence risk. We review new methods that aim to improve the effectiveness of TURB, and highlight studies of the past

  15. Recurrent urinary tract infection and risk of bladder cancer in the Nijmegen bladder cancer study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Hanum, N.; Grotenhuis, A.J.; Castano-Vinyals, G.; Heijden, A.G. van der; Aben, K.K.H.; Mysorekar, I.U.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controversy exists on whether urinary tract infection (UTI) is a risk factor for urinary bladder cancer (UBC). Here, the association is investigated using data from one of the largest bladder cancer case-control studies worldwide. METHODS: Information on (i) history and age at onset of

  16. A conductivity study of preferential solvation of lithium ion in acetonitrile-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhzhukhina, Nataliia; Longinotti, M. Paula; Corti, Horacio R.; Calvo, Ernesto J.

    2015-01-01

    The electrical mobility of LiPF 6 in acetonitrile–dimethyl sulfoxide (ACN–DMSO) mixtures, a potential electrolyte in oxygen cathodes of lithium-air batteries, has been studied using a very precise conductance technique, which allowed the determination of the infinite dilution molar conductivity and association constant of the salt in the whole composition range. In the search for preferential Li + ion solvation, we also measured the electrical conductivity of tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF 6 ), a salt formed by a bulky cation, over the same composition range. The results show a qualitative change in the curvature of the LiPF 6 molar conductivity composition dependence for ACN molar fraction (x ACN ) ∼ 0.95, which was not observed for TBAPF 6 . The dependence of the measured Li/Li + couple potential with solvent composition also showed a pronounced change around the same composition. We suggest that these observations can be explained by Li + ion preferential solvation by DMSO in ACN–DMSO mixtures with very low molar fractions of DMSO

  17. Dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of refractory cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ba X; Tran, Dao M; Tran, Hung Q; Nguyen, Phuong T M; Pham, Tuan D; Dang, Hong V T; Ha, Trung V; Tran, Hau D; Hoang, Cuong; Luong, Khue N; Shaw, D Graeme

    2011-01-01

    Pain is a major concern of cancer patients and a significant problem for therapy. Pain can become a predominant symptom in advanced cancers. In this open-label clinical study, the authors have treated 26 cancer patients who have been declared as terminal without the option of conventional treatment. These patients suffered from high levels of pain that was poorly managed by all available interventional approaches recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) guideline. The results indicate that intravenous infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) solution can be a viable, effective, and safe treatment for refractory pain in cancer patients. These patients had pain due to the disease progression and complication of chemotherapy and radiation. Moreover, the preliminary clinical outcome of 96-day follow-up suggests that the application of DMSO and SB solution intravenously could lead to better quality of life for patients with nontreatable terminal cancers. The data of this clinical observation indicates that further research and application of the DMSO and SB combination may help the development of an effective, safe, and inexpensive therapy to manage cancer pain.

  18. Marmoset induced pluripotent stem cells: Robust neural differentiation following pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Qiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The marmoset is an important nonhuman primate model for regenerative medicine. For experimental autologous cell therapy based on induced pluripotent (iPS cells in the marmoset, cells must be able to undergo robust and reliable directed differentiation that will not require customization for each specific iPS cell clone. When marmoset iPS cells were aggregated in a hanging drop format for 3 days, followed by exposure to dual SMAD inhibitors and retinoic acid in monolayer culture for 3 days, we found substantial variability in the response of different iPS cell clones. However, when clones were pretreated with 0.05–2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO for 24 hours, all clones showed a very similar maximal response to the directed differentiation scheme. Peak responses were observed at 0.5% DMSO in two clones and at 1% DMSO in a third clone. When patterns of gene expression were examined by microarray analysis, hierarchical clustering showed very similar responses in all 3 clones when they were pretreated with optimal DMSO concentrations. The change in phenotype following exposure to DMSO and the 6 day hanging drop/monolayer treatment was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Analysis of DNA content in DMSO-exposed cells indicated that it is unlikely that DMSO acts by causing cells to exit from the cell cycle. This approach should be generally valuable in the directed neural differentiation of pluripotent cells for experimental cell therapy.

  19. Thermodynamic parameters of the complexation of uranyl(VI) by diethylenetriamine in dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassol, A.; Bernardo, P. di; Portanova, R.; Tolazzi, M.; Tomat, G.; Zanonato, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for the complex formation reactions between uranyl(VI) ion and diethylenetriamine (dien) in dimethyl sulfoxide have been determined by potentiometric and calorimetric measurements at 25 C in a medium of ionic strength 0.1 mol dm -3 . The amine forms a very stable 1:1 complex which results stabilized only by the highly favourable enthalpy change. Entropy change is negative and opposes the reaction. The comparison of the thermodynamic data concerning complexation of uranyl(VI) by charged and uncharged ligands reveals that in this case (uncharged ligand) the enthalpy contribution is mainly related to the formation of the metal-ligand bonds while the entropy term might be associated with the decrease in the translational and conformational entropy occurring in the complexation of the ligand. FTIR and calorimetric measurements have been carried out to study the effect of traces of water on the equilibria in solution. It has been found that water can interfere in the complexation reaction giving rise to the formation of a dinuclear hydroxo complex in which probably two μ 2 -OH bridges link two monomer moieties. (orig.)

  20. Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA): direct electrochemical oxidation on carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache, T A; Oliveira-Brett, A M

    2013-02-01

    The direct electrochemical behaviour of peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) adsorbed on glassy carbon and boron doped diamond electrodes surface, was studied over a wide pH range by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. MsrA oxidation mechanism occurs in three consecutive, pH dependent steps, corresponding to the oxidation of tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine amino acid residues. At the glassy carbon electrode, the first step corresponds to the oxidation of tyrosine and tryptophan residues and occurs for the same potential. The advantage of boron doped diamond electrode was to enable the separation of tyrosine and tryptophan oxidation peaks. On the second step occurs the histidine oxidation, and on the third, at higher potentials, the second tryptophan oxidation. MsrA adsorbs on the hydrophobic carbon electrode surface preferentially through the three hydrophobic domains, C1, C2 and C3, which contain the tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine residues, and tryptophan exists only in these regions, and undergo electrochemical oxidation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Excess molar volume and viscosity deviation for binary mixtures of γ-butyrolactone with dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowiak, Joanna; Śmiechowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Densities and viscosities of DMSO-GBL binary liquid mixtures were measured. • The volumetric parameters and excess quantities were obtained. • Ab initio calculations were performed for single molecules and dimers in the studied mixture. • The interactions in solutions are weaker than in pure solvents. - Abstract: The densities of binary liquid mixtures of dimethyl sulfoxide and γ-butyrolactone at (293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 313.15) K and viscosity at T = 298.15 K have been measured at atmospheric pressure over the entire range of concentration. From these data the excess molar volumes V E at (293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 313.15) K and the viscosity deviation, the excess entropy, and the excess Gibbs energy of activation for viscous flow at T = 298.15 K have been determined. These data were mathematically represented by the Redlich-Kister polynomial. Partial and apparent molar volumes have been calculated for better understanding of the interactions in the binary systems. The obtained data indicate the lack of specific interactions between unlike molecules, which seem to be a little weaker as compared to the interactions in pure solvents.

  2. Behavioural effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO): changes in sleep architecture in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavas, María; Beltrán, David; Navarro, José F

    2005-07-04

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an efficient solvent for water-insoluble compounds, widely used in biological studies and as a vehicle for drug therapy, but few data on its neurotoxic or behavioural effects is available. The aim of this work is to explore DMSO's effects upon sleep/wake states. Twenty male rats were sterotaxically prepared for polysomnography. Four concentrations of DMSO (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, in saline) were examined. DMSO or saline were administered intraperitoneally at the beginning of the light period. Three hours of polygraphic recording were evaluated for stages of vigilance after treatment. Sleep/wake parameters and EEG power spectral analyses during sleep were investigated. Results show no significant effect after 5% or 10% DMSO treatment. DMSO 15% increased mean episode duration of light slow wave sleep (SWS), decreasing mean episode duration of deep SWS and of quiet wake (QW). DMSO 20% increased light SWS enhancing number of episodes, while decreased deep SWS mean episode duration. EEG power spectra of sigma and delta activity were also affected by DMSO. Therefore, DMSO at 15% and 20% affects sleep architecture in rats, increasing light SWS and reducing deep SWS. Being aware of DMSO behavioural effects seems important since experimental artefacts caused by DMSO can lead to the erroneous interpretation of results.

  3. Regulation of Expression of Oxacillin-Inducible Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R. Baum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell wall-active antibiotics cause induction of a locus that leads to elevated synthesis of two methionine sulfoxide reductases (MsrA1 and MsrB in Staphylococcus aureus. To understand the regulation of this locus, reporter strains were constructed by integrating a DNA fragment consisting of the msrA1/msrB promoter in front of a promoterless lacZ gene in the chromosome of wild-type and MsrA1-, MsrB-, MsrA1/MsrB-, and SigB-deficient methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strain SH1000 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain COL. These reporter strains were cultured in TSB and the cellular levels of β-galactosidase activity in these cultures were assayed during different growth phases. β-galactosidase activity assays demonstrated that the lack of MsrA1, MsrB, and SigB upregulated the msrA1/msrB promoter in S. aureus strain SH1000. In S. aureus strain COL, the highest level of β-galactosidase activity was observed under the conditions when both MsrA1 and MsrB proteins were absent. The data suggest that the msrA1/msrB locus, in part, is negatively regulated by MsrA1, MsrB, and SigB in S. aureus.

  4. Lack of effect of deferoxamine, dimethyl sulfoxide, and catalase on monocrotaline pyrrole pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, L.H.; Johnson, K.; Carpenter, L.J.; Roth, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP) is a reactive metabolite of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline. MCTP given intravenously to rats causes pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy. Lesions in lungs after MCTP treatment contain macrophages and neutrophils, which may contribute to the damage by generation of reactive oxygen metabolites. Rats were treated with MCTP and agents known to protect against oxygen radical-mediated damage in acute models of neutrophil-dependent lung injury. Rats received MCTP and deferoxamine mesylate (DF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or polyethylene glycol-coupled catalase (PEG-CAT). MCTP/vehicle-treated controls developed lung injury manifested as increased lung weight, release of lactate dehydrogenase into the airway, and sequestration of 125 I-labeled bovine serum albumin in the lungs. Cotreatment of rats with DF, DMSO, or PEG-CAT did not protect against the injury due to MCTP. These results suggest that toxic oxygen metabolites do not play an important role in the pathogenesis of MCTP-induced pulmonary injury

  5. Singlet oxygen produced by quasi-continuous photo-excitation of hypericin in dimethyl-sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varchola, J.; Želonková, K. [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Chorvat Jr, D. [International Laser Centre, Ilkovicova 3, 841 05 Bratislava (Slovakia); Jancura, D. [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Center for Interdisciplinary Biosciences, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Miskovsky, P. [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); International Laser Centre, Ilkovicova 3, 841 05 Bratislava (Slovakia); Center for Interdisciplinary Biosciences, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); and others

    2016-09-15

    Singlet oxygen (O{sub 2}({sup 1}Δ{sub g})) production by photo-excited hypericin (Hyp) dissolved in dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO) was studied by means of time-resolved phosphorescence measurements. In order to minimize photo-bleaching, the samples were excited in quasi-continuous mode using long-pulse (35 μs) laser excitation. The measured lifetime of singlet oxygen is τ{sub Δ}=5.5±0.3 μs. This result helps to resolve the discrepancy existing in the literature concerning singlet oxygen lifetime in DMSO. The obtained quantum yield of singlet oxygen photosensitized by Hyp in air-saturated DMSO is Φ{sub Δ}=0.4±0.03. The rate constant for Hyp triplet state depopulation in reaction with ground state molecular oxygen is measured to be k{sub q}=1.6±0.3×10{sup 9} M{sup −1} s{sup −1}.

  6. Acute dimethyl sulfoxide therapy in brain edema. Part 3: effect of a 3-hour infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bigio, M; James, H E; Camp, P E; Werner, R; Marshall, L F; Tung, H

    1982-01-01

    Albino rabbits with experimental brain edema produced by a combined cryogenic left hemisphere lesion and metabolic 6-aminonicotinamide lesion were administered a 3-hour intravenous infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Simultaneous recording of intracranial pressure (ICP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and central venous pressure (CVP) and electroencephalography were performed while the animals were being ventilated mechanically to produce a constant Pa CO2 value (38-42 torr). At the end of the infusion, the brain water and electrolyte contents were measured. There was a persistent and progressive reduction of ICP during the infusion, the nadir occurring at 3 hours (p less than 0.005 from zero time), with no change in SAP or CVP. There was a reduction of brain water in both hemispheres when compared to untreated controls, but this was significant for the right hemisphere only (p less than 0.005). There was a significant reduction of the brain sodium content for both hemispheres, but no significant change occurred in brain potassium content. The DMSO infusion was effective not only in reducing ICP, but also in sustaining this reduction for 3 hours.

  7. Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of N-Methyl α-Bromoacetanilides with Benzylamines in Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikary, Keshab Kumar; Lee, Hai Whang

    2011-01-01

    Kinetic studies of the reactions of N-methyl-Y-α-bromoacetanilides with substituted X-benzylamines have been carried out in dimethyl sulfoxide at 25.0 .deg. C. The Hammett plots for substituent X variations in the nucleophiles (log k N vs σ X ) are slightly biphasic concave upwards/downwards, while the Bronsted plots (log k N vs pK a ) are biphasic concave downwards with breakpoints at X = H. The Hammett plots for substituent Y variations in the substrates (log k N vs σ Y ) are biphasic concave upwards/downwards with breakpoints at Y = H. The cross-interaction constant ρ XY values are all negative: ρ XY = -0.32 for X = Y = electron-donating: -0.22 for X = electron-withdrawing and Y = electron-donating: -1.80 for X = electron-donating and Y = electronwithdrawing: -1.43 for X = Y = electron-withdrawing substituents. Deuterated kinetic isotope effects are primary normal (k H /k D > 1) for Y = electron-donating, while secondary inverse (k H /k D < 1) for Y = electronwithdrawing substituent. The proposed mechanisms of the benzylaminolyses of N-methyl-Y-α-bromoacetanilides are a concerted mechanism with a five membered ring TS involving hydrogen bonding between hydrogen (deuterium) atom in N-H(D) and oxygen atom in C = O for Y = electron-donating, while a concerted mechanism with an enolate-like TS in which the nucleophile attacks the α-carbon for Y = electronwithdrawing substituents

  8. Enantioseparation of novel chiral sulfoxides on chlorinated polysaccharide stationary phases in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Caroline; Konjaria, Mari-Luiza; Shashviashvili, Natia; Lemasson, Elise; Bonnet, Pascal; Kakava, Rusudan; Volonterio, Alessandro; Chankvetadze, Bezhan

    2017-05-26

    Asymmetric sulfoxides is a particular case of chirality that may be found in natural as well as synthetic products. Twenty-four original molecules containing a sulfur atom as a centre of chirality were analyzed in supercritical fluid chromatography on seven polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases (CSP) with carbon dioxide - methanol mobile phases. While all the tested CSP provided enantioseparation for a large part of the racemates, chlorinated cellulosic phases proved to be both highly retentive and highly enantioselective towards these species. Favourable structural features were determined by careful comparison of the enantioseparation of the probe molecules. Molecular modelling studies indicate that U-shaped (folded) conformations were most favorable to achieve high enantioresolution on these CSP, while linear (extended) conformations were not so clearly discriminated. For a subset of these species adopting different conformations, a broad range of mobile phase compositions, ranging from 20 to 100% methanol in carbon dioxide, were investigated. While retention decreased continuously in this range, enantioseparation varied in a non-monotonous fashion. Abrupt changes in the tendency curves of retention and selectivity were observed when methanol proportion reaches about 60%, suggesting that a change in the conformation of the analytes and/or chiral selector is occurring at this point. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment options for high-risk T1 bladder cancer. Status quo and future perspectives of radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, C.; Roedel, C.; Ott, O.J.; Wittlinger, M.; Fietkau, R.; Sauer, R.; Krause, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: to review the standards and new developments in diagnosis and management of high-risk T1 bladder cancer with emphasis on the role of radiotherapy (RT) and radiochemotherapy (RCT). Material and methods: a systematic review of the literature on developments in diagnosis and management of high-risk T1 bladder cancer was performed. Results: first transurethral resection (TUR), as radical as safely possible, supported by fluorescence cystoscopy, shows higher detection and decreased recurrence rates. An immediate single postoperative instillation with a chemotherapeutic drug reduces the relative risk of recurrence by 40%. A second TUR is recommended to assess residual tumor. For adjuvant intravesical therapy, bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) demonstrated the highest efficacy. Early cystectomy should be reserved for selected patients. A recent phase III trial comparing RT versus conservative treatment in T1 G3 tumors could not show any advantage for RT. Data from Erlangen, Germany, using combined RCT in 80% of the patients, compare favorably with most of the contemporary BCG series. Conclusion: results of intravesical therapy are still unsatisfying and early cystectomy is associated with morbidity and mortality. RT alone proved not superior to other conservative treatment strategies. However, data on RCT are promising and demonstrate an alternative to intravesical therapy and radical cystectomy. (orig.)

  10. Image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer: bladder volume variation and its relation to margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muren, Ludvig; Redpath, Anthony Thomas; Lord, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    : The correlation between the relative bladder volume (RBV, defined as repeat scan volume/planning scan volume) and the margins required to account for internal motion was first studied using a series of 20 bladder cancer patients with weekly repeat CT scanning during treatment. Both conformal RT (CRT) and IGRT......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To control and account for bladder motion is a major challenge in radiotherapy (RT) of bladder cancer. This study investigates the relation between bladder volume variation and margins in conformal and image-guided RT (IGRT) for this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS...... these patients were given fluid intake restrictions on alternating weeks during treatment. RESULTS: IGRT gave the strongest correlation between the RBV and margin size (R(2)=0.75; p10mm were required in only 1% of the situations when the RBV1, whereas isotropic margins >10...

  11. Work Capacity of the Bladder During Voiding: A Novel Method to Evaluate Bladder Contractile Function and Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work in voiding (WIV of the bladder may be used to evaluate bladder status throughout urination rather than at a single time point. Few studies, however, have assessed WIV owing to the complexity of its calculations. We have developed a method of calculating work capacity of the bladder while voiding and analyzed the associations of bladder work parameters with bladder contractile function and bladder outlet obstruction (BOO. Methods: The study retrospectively evaluated 160 men and 23 women, aged >40 years and with a detrusor pressure at maximal flow rate (P det Q max of ≥40 cmH 2 O in men, who underwent urodynamic testing. The bladder power integration method was used to calculate WIV; WIV per second (WIV/t and WIV per liter of urine voided (WIV/v were also calculated. In men, the relationships between these work capacity parameters and P det Q max and Abrams-Griffiths (AG number were determined using linear-by-linear association tests, and relationships between work capacity parameters and BOO grade were investigated using Spearman′s association test. Results: The mean WIV was 1.15 ± 0.78 J and 1.30 ± 0.88 J, mean WIV/t was 22.95 ± 14.45 mW and 23.78 ± 17.02 mW, and mean WIV/v was 5.59 ± 2.32 J/L and 2.83 ± 1.87 J/L in men and women, respectively. In men, WIV/v showed significant positive associations with P det Q max (r = 0.845, P = 0.000, AG number (r = 0.814, P = 0.000, and Schafer class (r = 0.726, P = 0.000. Conversely, WIV and WIV/t showed no associations with P det Q max or AG number. In patients with BOO (Schafer class > II, WIV/v correlated positively with increasing BOO grade. Conclusions: WIV can be calculated from simple urodynamic parameters using the bladder power integration method. WIV/v may be a marker of BOO grade, and the bladder contractile function can be evaluated by WIV and WIV/t.

  12. Neurogenic Bladder in Lyme Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-hwa Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a multi-systemic, tick-borne infectious disease caused by a spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Various urologic symptoms are associated with Lyme disease, which can be primary or late manifestations of the disease. Although voiding dysfunction is a rarely reported symptom in patients with Lyme disease, it is one of the most disabling complications of Lyme disease. Korea is not an endemic area of Lyme disease, thus, fewer cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of a 32-year-old man with rapidly progressive bilateral ptosis, dysphagia, spastic paraparesis, and voiding difficulty in whom Lyme disease was diagnosed through serologic tests for antibodies and Western blot testing. A urodynamic study demonstrated detrusor areflexia and bulbocavernosus reflex tests showed delayed latency, indicating demyelination at S2-S4 levels. He received a 4-week course of intravenous ceftriaxone (2 g/day. The patient has recovered from the bilateral ptosis and spastic paraparesis but still suffers from neurogenic bladder.

  13. Cone Beam CT Imaging Analysis of Interfractional Variations in Bladder Volume and Position During Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Don; Parliament, Matthew; Rathee, Satyapal; Ghosh, Sunita; Ko, Lawrence; Murray, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify daily bladder size and position variations during bladder cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten bladder cancer patients underwent daily cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging of the bladder during radiotherapy. Bladder and planning target volumes (bladder/PTV) from CBCT and planning CT scans were compared with respect to bladder center-of-mass shifts in the x (lateral), y (anterior-posterior), and z (superior-inferior) coordinates, bladder/PTV size, bladder/PTV margin positions, overlapping areas, and mutually exclusive regions. Results: A total of 262 CBCT images were obtained from 10 bladder cancer patients. Bladder center of mass shifted most in the y coordinate (mean, -0.32 cm). The anterior bladder wall shifted the most (mean, -0.58 cm). Mean ratios of CBCT-derived bladder and PTV volumes to planning CT-derived counterparts were 0.83 and 0.88. The mean CBCT-derived bladder volume (± standard deviation [SD]) outside the planning CT counterpart was 29.24 cm 3 (SD, 29.71 cm 3 ). The mean planning CT-derived bladder volume outside the CBCT counterpart was 47.74 cm 3 (SD, 21.64 cm 3 ). The mean CBCT PTV outside the planning CT-derived PTV was 47.35 cm 3 (SD, 36.51 cm 3 ). The mean planning CT-derived PTV outside the CBCT-derived PTV was 93.16 cm 3 (SD, 50.21). The mean CBCT-derived bladder volume outside the planning PTV was 2.41 cm 3 (SD, 3.97 cm 3 ). CBCT bladder/ PTV volumes significantly differed from planning CT counterparts (p = 0.047). Conclusions: Significant variations in bladder and PTV volume and position occurred in patients in this trial.

  14. Chromium in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabek, Tomasz; Socha, Katarzyna; Kudelski, Jacek; Darewicz, Barbara; Markiewicz-Zukowska, Renata; Chlosta, Piotr; Borawska, Maria

    2017-12-23

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies report a strong role of chemical carcinogens in the etiology of bladder cancer. However, the involvement of heavy metals in tumourigenesis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder has been poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chromium (Cr) and bladder cancer. Chromium concentration in two 36-sample series of bladder cancer tissue and sera from patients with this neoplasm were matched with those of a control group. The amount of trace elements in every tissue sample was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. This was correlated with tumour stage. While the median chromium concentration levels reached statistically higher values in the bladder cancer tissue, compared with the non-cancer tissue (99.632ng/g and 33.144ng/g, respectively; p<0.001), the median Cr levels in the sera of the patients with this carcinoma showed no statistical difference when compared to those of the control group (0.511μg/l and 0.710μg/l, respectively; p=0.408). The median levels of Cr in the bladder tissue, depending on the stage of the tumour, compared with the tissue without the neoplasm, observed the same relationship for both non-muscle invasive and muscle-invasive tumours (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). This study shows that patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder had higher tissue Cr levels than people without tumour, while no difference was found in the Cr serum levels between the two groups of patients under investigation.

  15. A case-control study on the association between bladder cancer and prior bladder calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Ching-Chun; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-03-15

    Bladder calculus is associated with chronic irritation and inflammation. As there is substantial documentation that inflammation can play a direct role in carcinogenesis, to date the relationship between stone formation and bladder cancer (BC) remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the association between BC and prior bladder calculus using a population-based dataset. This case-control study included 2,086 cases who had received their first-time diagnosis of BC between 2001 and 2009 and 10,430 randomly selected controls without BC. Conditional logistic regressions were employed to explore the association between BC and having been previously diagnosed with bladder calculus. Of the sampled subjects, bladder calculus was found in 71 (3.4%) cases and 105 (1.1%) controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) of having been diagnosed with bladder calculus before the index date for cases was 3.42 (95% CI = 2.48-4.72) when compared with controls after adjusting for monthly income, geographic region, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and renal disease, tobacco use disorder, obesity, alcohol abuse, and schistosomiasis, bladder outlet obstruction, and urinary tract infection. We further analyzed according to sex and found that among males, the OR of having been previously diagnosed with bladder calculus for cases was 3.45 (95% CI = 2.39-4.99) that of controls. Among females, the OR was 3.05 (95% CI = 1.53-6.08) that of controls. These results add to the evidence surrounding the conflicting reports regarding the association between BC and prior bladder calculus and highlight a potential target population for bladder cancer screening.

  16. Somatic modulation of spinal reflex bladder activity mediated by nociceptive bladder afferent nerve fibers in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiying; Rogers, Marc J; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Schwen, Zeyad; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2014-09-15

    The goal of the present study was to determine if supraspinal pathways are necessary for inhibition of bladder reflex activity induced by activation of somatic afferents in the pudendal or tibial nerve. Cats anesthetized with α-chloralose were studied after acute spinal cord transection at the thoracic T9/T10 level. Dilute (0.25%) acetic acid was used to irritate the bladder, activate nociceptive afferent C-fibers, and trigger spinal reflex bladder contractions (amplitude: 19.3 ± 2.9 cmH2O). Hexamethonium (a ganglionic blocker, intravenously) significantly (P reflex bladder contractions to 8.5 ± 1.9 cmH2O. Injection of lidocaine (2%, 1-2 ml) into the sacral spinal cord or transection of the sacral spinal roots and spinal cord further reduced the contraction amplitude to 4.2 ± 1.3 cmH2O. Pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) at frequencies of 0.5-5 Hz and 40 Hz but not at 10-20 Hz inhibited reflex bladder contractions, whereas tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) failed to inhibit bladder contractions at all tested frequencies (0.5-40 Hz). These results indicate that PNS inhibition of nociceptive afferent C-fiber-mediated spinal reflex bladder contractions can occur at the spinal level in the absence of supraspinal pathways, but TNS inhibition requires supraspinal pathways. In addition, this study shows, for the first time, that after acute spinal cord transection reflex bladder contractions can be triggered by activating nociceptive bladder afferent C-fibers using acetic acid irritation. Understanding the sites of action for PNS or TNS inhibition is important for the clinical application of pudendal or tibial neuromodulation to treat bladder dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography study on dynamic changes of human tears after instillation of artificial tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Satta, Giovanni Maria; Coronella, Franco; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2014-07-01

    To analyze in vivo the dynamic changes induced by different artificial tears (ATs) in the precorneal tear film (PCTF) and lower tear meniscus (LTM) by using spectral-domain (SD) anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT). We prospectively examined 42 normal human eyes by using SD-OCT imaging. On the day before OCT imaging, all enrolled subjects were evaluated for abnormalities of ocular surface. All tear film images were obtained before and after instillation of three different types of ATs (mucomimetic, lipid-based, and saline) in five serial scans: immediately (within 30 seconds), at the first, fifth, 10th, and 20th minute. Subjects received a drop of 35 μL in one randomly selected eye. All examinations were conducted in the same conditions of temperature, brightness, humidity, and time of day. Changes in the morphological pattern of both LTM and PCTF were associated with the type of artificial tear instilled on the ocular surface. Similarly, the radius of curvature (rc), the height (h), and the depth (d) showed dynamic variations depending on treatment. Although by the 20th minute, both h and d returned to baseline values in all groups, a significant difference in rc (compared with baseline) was detected for mucomimetic ATs (P = 0.04) and lipid ATs (P = 0.02). Spectral-domain OCT imaging has preliminarily proved to be a noninvasive tool to evaluate, in real time, the different changes induced by ATs instillation. An important stride in understanding the clinical response to various tear substitutes can be achieved by this objective and quantitative approach. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  18. Intravesical Glycosaminoglycan Replacement with Chondroitin Sulphate (Gepan(®) instill) in Patients with Chronic Radiotherapy- or Chemotherapy-Associated Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalenberg, Thilo; Berger, Frank Peter; Horn, Lars Christian; Thi, Phuc Ho; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    Intravesical instillation of glycosaminoglycans is a promising option for the treatment of chronic cystitis, as it supports the regeneration of the damaged urothelial layer. We investigated the efficacy of short-term intravesical chondroitin sulphate treatment (six courses of instillation) in patients with chronic radiotherapy- or chemotherapy-associated cystitis. This prospective, observational study included patients with chronic radiotherapy- or chemotherapy-associated cystitis, who received six once-weekly intravesical instillations of 0.2% chondroitin sulphate 40 mL. Every week, patients recorded their symptoms and their benefits and tolerance of treatment, using a self-completed questionnaire. The study included 16 patients (mean age 68.5 years; 50% male). During the study, a reduction in all evaluated parameters was observed. After one dose of chondroitin sulphate, symptom improvement was observed in 38% of patients, and after the second dose, an additional 31% of patients showed improvement. At week 6, 80% of patients had either improved or were symptom free, and significant improvements in urinary urgency (p = 0.0082), pollakisuria (p = 0.0022), urge frequency (p = 0.0033) and lower abdominal pain (p = 0.0449) were observed. Haematuria, present in 9 of the 16 patients at baseline, was completely resolved in all cases after 6 weeks. The majority of patients (93%) evaluated the tolerance of chondroitin sulphate as 'good' or 'very good'. No treatment-related adverse events were reported. Intravesical administration of chondroitin sulphate was effective for the treatment of radiotherapy- or chemotherapy-associated cystitis. Even short-term treatment appears to be effective in reducing symptoms and improving the quality of life of patients.

  19. Study of consistency properties of instillation liniment-gel for therapy of pyoinflammatory diseases of maxillofacial region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kurinnoy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Using rotary viscometer «Reotest 2» researches of consistency properties of instillation gel-liniment for antimicrobial therapy of pyoinfl ammatory diseases of maxillufacial area are conducted. It is defi ned, that consistency properties of gel-liniment for antimicrobial therapy of pyoinflammatory diseases of maxillufacial area are within the limits of rheological optimum of consistency of ointments, and value «mechanical stability» (1,33 characterizes the system as exceptionally thixotropic, providing recoverability of the system after loading and allows to forecast stability of consistency properties of gel-liniment at the prolonged storage.

  20. Radiotherapy for bladder cancer and kidney cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Keiichi; Iizumi, Takashi; Shimizu, Shosei; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Kimura, Tomokazu; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    This paper explained the current state of radiotherapy for bladder cancer and kidney cancer, and discussed the role of radiotherapy in curative treatment and the future development. In the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer, it is important to judge the existence of pathological muscular layer invasion based on transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). In surgical results in Japan, the U.S., and Switzerland, 5-year survival rate is about 60 to 70%. Standard treatment for bladder cancer with muscle layer invasion had been surgery, and radiotherapy had been applied to the cases without resistance to surgery. Three combined therapy with TUR-BT and simultaneous chemoradiotherapy is the current standard bladder conserving therapy. The 5-year survival rate is approximately 60%, which is superior to the treatment with irradiation alone. Radiotherapy for kidney cancer is most often used as perioperative treatment for locally advanced cancer or as symptomatic treatment for metastatic lesions. However, due to recent improvement in radiotherapy technology, correspondence to respiratory movement and high dose administration associated with improvement in dose concentration have been realized, and stereotactic irradiation using a high single dose for inoperable disease cases or surgery refusal disease cases has come to be clinically applied. (A.O.)

  1. Effects of urinary bladder distention on location of the urinary bladder and urethra of healthy dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, G.R.; Osborne, C.A.; Jessen, C.R.; Feeney, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Evaluation of the anatomic location of the distended and empty urinary bladders and urethras of healthy adult male and female dogs and cats by retrograde urethrocystography revealed substantial variations. In 15 dogs in lateral recumbency with empty bladder lumens, the caudal portion of the urinary bladder was within the pelvic canal in 5 of 7 male and 5 of 8 female dogs. In female dogs examined in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 4 of 8 had the empty urinary bladders in part within the pelvic canal. After luminal distention, 3 of 7 male and 3 of 8 female dogs, while in lateral recumbency, had the urinary bladders in part intrapelvically. However, when female dogs were placed in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 1 of 7 urinary bladders was in part within the pelvis. The urinary bladders of 14 cats were consistently within the abdominal cavity, irrespective of whether the bladder lumen was distended or empty. Urethral flexures occurred in dogs with intrapelvic bladders that were distended or empty. Urethral flexures were not found in cats. The urethras of dogs and cats in lateral recumbency were generally closer to the floor of the pelvis after urinary bladder distention than when the bladder was empty. The urethra of the dogs and cats in ventrodorsal recumbency was to the left or right of or on the midsagittal plane, whether the urinary bladder was empty or distended. A greater degree of lateral displacement was encountered in ventrodorsal recumbency after urinary bladder distention

  2. MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

  3. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment of bladder cancer depends on the stage of the cancer. Treatment options include different types of surgery (transurethral resection, radical and partial cystectomy, and urinary diversion), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Learn more about how bladder cancer is treated.

  4. Expression profiles of variation integration genes in bladder urothelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J M; Wang, Y Q; Gao, Z L; Wu, J T; Shi, B K; Yu, C C

    2014-04-30

    Bladder cancer is a common cancer worldwide and its incidence continues to increase. There are approximately 261,000 cases of bladder cancer resulting in 115,000 deaths annually. This study aimed to integrate bladder cancer genome copy number variation information and bladder cancer gene transcription level expression data to construct a causal-target module network of the range of bladder cancer-related genomes. Here, we explored the control mechanism underlying bladder cancer phenotype expression regulation by the major bladder cancer genes. We selected 22 modules as the initial module network to expand the search to screen more networks. After bootstrapping 100 times, we obtained 16 key regulators. These 16 key candidate regulatory genes were further expanded to identify the expression changes of 11,676 genes in 275 modules, which may all have the same regulation. In conclusion, a series of modules associated with the terms 'cancer' or 'bladder' were considered to constitute a potential network.

  5. bladder injury during infected total hip arthroplasty prosthesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Radiology, Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey. Correspondence ... The bladder is the most frequently injured organ during pelvic surgery. However ... to the pelvic floor, and this could predispose the bladder to injury.

  6. Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection - UTI) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Urinary Tract & How It Works Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary ...

  7. Bladder Control Problems in Women: Lifestyle Strategies for Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... juices Spicy foods Tomato-based products Carbonated drinks Chocolate Consider avoiding these possible bladder irritants for about ... worse. See your doctor about treatment options. Behavior therapies, which take time and practice, can improve bladder ...

  8. Pattern and Risk Factors of Urinary Bladder Neoplasms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It poses biologic and clinical challenges. ... Conclusion: There is significant relationship between urinary schistosomal infestation and the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder among Sudanese patients. Keywords: Urinary Bladder, Transitional Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  9. Bladder cancer: overview and disease management. Part 1: non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Beverley

    2018-05-10

    Part 1 of this two-part article provides an overview of bladder cancer and discusses its management. Since publication of a previous article entitled 'Understanding the role of smoking in the aetiology of bladder cancer' ( Anderson, 2009 ), the author has received many requests for an update. This article provides an overview of bladder cancer and its current management practices, underlining the continued role of smoking as the predominant risk factor in the disease's development. The management of bladder cancer is governed by specific guidelines. Management of non-muscle-invasive cancers, including surgical intervention with transurethral resection, and intravesical therapy using chemotherapy and immunotherapy agents, is discussed. Cystectomy (removal of the bladder), is sometimes necessary. Treatments are effective in reducing tumour recurrence, but the effects of the risks and side-effects on the individual's quality of life can be significant. The prevalence of bladder cancer, and the nature of its management make this cancer one of the most expensive for the NHS to treat. The effectiveness of health promotional strategies in increasing peoples' awareness of their risk of developing the disease, and in enabling them to change long-term health behaviours is discussed. The role of the multidisciplinary team is explored, along with that of the uro-oncology cancer nurse specialist. Part 2 will consider the management of muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer.

  10. Management of urinary tract infections in patients with neurogenic bladder: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannek, Jürgen; Wöllner, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common morbidities in persons with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD). They are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality, and they affect the quality of life of the affected patients. Diagnosis and treatment of UTI in this group of patients are challenging. In this review, the current strategies regarding diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are summarized. it is important to correctly diagnose a UTI, as treatment of bacteriuria should strictly be avoided. A UTI is defined as a combination of laboratory findings (leukocyturia and bacteriuria) and symptoms. Laboratory findings without symptoms are classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria. Routine urine screening is not advised. Only UTI should be treated; treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is not indicated. Prior to treatment, urine for a urine culture should be obtained. Antibiotic treatment for ~7 days is advised. In recurrent UTI, bladder management should be optimized and morphologic causes for UTI should be excluded. If UTIs persist, medical prophylaxis should be considered. Currently, no prophylactic measure with evidence-based efficacy exists. Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis should be used merely as an ultimate measure. Among the various mentioned innovative approaches for UTI prevention, bacteriophages, intravesical instillations, complementary and alternative medicine techniques, and probiotics seem to be most promising. Recently, several promising innovative options for UTI prophylaxis have been developed which may help overcome the current therapeutic dilemma. However, further well designed studies are necessary to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

  11. Study of false positives in 5-ALA induced photodynamic diagnosis of bladder carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draga, Ronald O. P.; Grimbergen, Matthijs C. M.; Kok, Esther T.; Jonges, Trudy G. N.; Bosch, J. L. H. R.

    2009-02-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a technique that enhances the detection of tumors during cystoscopy using a photosensitizer which accumulates primarily in cancerous cells and will fluoresce when illuminated by violetblue light. A disadvantage of PDD is the relatively low specificity. In this retrospective study we aimed to identify predictors for false positive findings in PDD. Factors such as gender, age, recent transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT), previous intravesical therapy (IVT) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) were examined for association with the false positive rates in a multivariate analysis. Data of 366 procedures and 200 patients were collected. Patients were instilled with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) intravesically and 1253 biopsies were taken from tumors and suspicious lesions. Female gender and TURBT are independent predictors of false positives in PDD. However, previous intravesical therapy with Bacille Calmette-Guérin is also an important predictor of false positives. The false positive rate decreases during the first 9-12 weeks after the latest TURBT and the latest intravesical chemotherapy. Although shortly after IVT and TURBT false positives increase, PDD improves the diagnostic sensitivity and results in more adequate treatment strategies in a significant number of patients.

  12. Delayed Diagnosis of Iatrogenic Bladder Perforation in a Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette S. Birs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic bladder injuries have been reported in the neonate during umbilical artery/vein catheterization, voiding cystourethrogram, urinary catheterizations, and overwhelming hypoxic conditions. Patients with iatrogenic bladder perforations can present with acute abdomen indicating urinary peritonitis, septic-uremic shock, or subtle symptoms like abdominal distension, pain, hematuria, uremia, electrolyte imbalances, and/or difficulty urinating. The following neonatal case report of perforated bladder includes a review of the signs, symptoms, diagnostic tools, and management of bladder injury in neonates.

  13. Controllable Synthesis of Lindqvist Alkoxopolyoxovanadate Clusters as Heterogeneous Catalysts for Sulfoxidation of Sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Kun; Dong, Jing; Wei, Chuan-Ping; Yang, Song; Chi, Ying-Nan; Xu, Yan-Qing; Hu, Chang-Wen

    2017-05-15

    Six alkoxohexavanadate-based Cu- or Co-POVs [Cu(dpa)(acac)(H 2 O)] 2 [V 6 O 13 (OMe) 6 ] (1), [Cu(phen)(acac)(MeOH)] 2 [V 6 O 13 (OMe) 6 ] (2), [Co(dpa)(acac) 2 ] 2 [V 6 O 13 (OMe) 6 ]·2MeOH (3), [Co(phen)(acac) 2 ] 2 [V 6 O 13 (OMe) 6 ] (4), [Cu(dpa)(acac)] 2 [V IV 2 V V 4 O 12 (OMe) 7 ] (5), and [Cu(dpa)(acac)(MeOH)] 2 [V IV 2 V V 4 O 11 (OMe) 8 ] (6) (POV = polyoxovanadate; dpa = 2,2'-dipyridine amine; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; acac = acetylacetone anion) have been synthesized by controlling the reaction conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, element analyses, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In compounds 1-4 and 6, Cu or Co complexes and alkoxohexavanadate anions are assembled through electrostatic interactions. Differently, in compound 5, seven-methoxo-substituted Lindqvist-type [V 6 O 12 (OMe) 7 ] 2- are bridged to Cu complex via terminal O atoms by coordination bonds. All compounds 1-6 exhibit excellent heterogeneous catalytic performance in oxidative desulfurization and CEES ((2-chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a sulfur mustard simulant) abatement with H 2 O 2 as oxidant. Among them, the catalytic activity of 6 [conv. of DBT (dibenzothiophene) up to 100% in 6 h; conv. of CEES reached 100% and selectivity of CEESO ((2-chloroethyl) ethyl sulfoxide) up to 85% after 4 h] outperforms others and can be reused without losing its activity.

  14. Evaluation of dimethyl sulfoxide and dexamethasone on pulmonary contusion in experimental blunt thoracic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boybeyi, Ozlem; Bakar, Bulent; Aslan, Mustafa Kemal; Atasoy, Pinar; Kisa, Ucler; Soyer, Tutku

    2014-12-01

    A thoracic trauma model was designed to evaluate the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dexamethasone (DX) on histopathologic and oxidative changes in lung parenchyma seen after pulmonary contusion. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were included in the study. They were allocated into control (CG, n=6), sham (SG, n=6), DX (DXG, n=6), and DMSO (DMG, n=6) groups. Only a lung biopsy was performed in CG. In the experimental groups, blunt thoracic trauma was induced by dropping a cylindrical metal weight (0.5 kg) through a stainless steel tube onto the right hemithorax from a height of 0.4 m (E=1.96 J). In the SG, 1 mL of physiologic saline was injected intraperitoneally, in the DXG 10 mg/kg of DX was injected intraperitoneally, and in the DMG 1.2 g/mL of DMSO was injected intraperitoneally 15 minutes after trauma. After 6 hours, lung biopsy was performed for histopathologic and oxidative injury markers. Histopathologically, congestion, hemorrhage, neutrophil infiltration, endothelial-nitric oxide synthase (E-NoS), and total pathologic score were significantly higher in SG, DXG, and DMG when compared with CG (p<0.05). Neutrophil infiltration, total pathologic score, and E-NoS were significantly decreased in DMG when compared with SG and DXG (p<0.05). Biochemically, superoxide dismutase (SOD) level was significantly higher in SG, DXG, and DMG than in CG. SOD level was significantly lower in DXG and DMG than in SG (p<0.05). DMSO prevents further injury by decreasing neutrophil infiltration and endothelial injury in lung contusions. DX may have a role in the progression of inflammation but not in preventing the pathologic disruption of pulmonary parenchyma. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Maintained inspiratory activity during proportional assist ventilation in surfactant-depleted cats early after surfactant instillation: phrenic nerve and pulmonary stretch receptor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller Peter

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inspiratory activity is a prerequisite for successful application of patient triggered ventilation such as proportional assist ventilation (PAV. It has recently been reported that surfactant instillation increases the activity of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (PSRs followed by a shorter inspiratory time (Sindelar et al, J Appl Physiol, 2005 [Epub ahead of print]. Changes in lung mechanics, as observed in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome and after surfactant treatment, might therefore influence the inspiratory activity when applying PAV early after surfactant treatment. Objective To investigate the regulation of breathing and ventilatory response in surfactant-depleted young cats during PAV and during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP early after surfactant instillation in relation to phrenic nerve activity (PNA and the activity of PSRs. Methods Seven anesthetized, endotracheally intubated young cats were exposed to periods of CPAP and PAV with the same end-expiratory pressure (0.2–0.5 kPa before and after lung lavage and after surfactant instillation. PAV was set to compensate for 75% of the lung elastic recoil. Results Tidal volume and respiratory rate were higher with lower PaCO2 and higher PaO2 during PAV than during CPAP both before and after surfactant instillation (p Conclusion PSR activity and the control of breathing are maintained during PAV in surfactant-depleted cats early after surfactant instillation, with a higher ventilatory response and a lower breathing effort than during CPAP.

  16. Alexithymia and anesthetic bladder capacity in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chui-De; Lee, Ming-Huei; Chen, Wei-Chih; Ho, Hoi Lam; Wu, Huei-Ching

    2017-09-01

    In contrast to the inconsistent results of organic causes, it has been found that psychological risk factors are reliably related to functional somatic syndromes (FSSs), including interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Compared to patients with acute cystitis, a subgroup of IC/BPS patients with a history of childhood relational trauma reported intensified unregulated affective states (i.e., anxiety and depression) and trauma-related psychopathology (i.e., dissociation). Nevertheless, it remains unknown whether psychosocial risk factors can be separated from bladder-centric factors. This study aimed to verify whether psychosocial factors such as alexithymia, which is a key psychological factor of FSSs, are less likely to be linked to a low bladder capacity in patients with IC/BPS. Ninety-four female IC/BPS patients were recruited from the outpatient departments of urology, obstetrics, and gynecology. Anxiety, depression, dissociation, childhood relational trauma, and alexithymia were assessed using standardized scales, and anesthetic bladder capacity was examined by cystoscopic hydrodistention. Positive correlations were found between anesthetic bladder capacity and the psychosocial variables, including alexithymia. An increased bladder capacity was associated with anxiety, dissociation, and childhood relational trauma, and a combination of high cognitive and low affective alexithymia mediated the correlations between bladder capacity and the psychosocial variables. Psychosocial variables that are associated with an aversive childhood relational environment and affect dysregulation may constitute a pathogenic trajectory that differs from bladder-centric defects such as a lower bladder capacity. The findings of this study support the notion that IC/BPS in some patients may be due to an FSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Unusual presentation of metastatic gall bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To report the first case of rare isolated breast metastasis from carcinoma gall bladder. Single patient case report. A 35-year-old pre-menopausal female presented with 2 FNx01 2 cm right upper outer quadrant breast lump. Post-mastectomy, histology confirmed it to be metastatic adenocarcinoma positive for both Cytokeratin (CK 7 and CK20. Past history as told by the patient revealed that 2 years back, cholecystectomy was performed for gall stones, of which no histology reports were present; she had a port site scar recurrence which showed it to be adenocarcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy was advised which the patient did not complete. This is probably the first case reported of isolated breast metastasis from gall bladder carcinoma, diagnosed retrospectively. It also highlights the importance of adjuvant treatment in gall bladder malignancy.

  18. Progress in Personalizing Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum-based chemotherapy is commonly used for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer. However, there are currently no methods to predict chemotherapy response in this disease setting. A better understanding of the biology of bladder cancer has led to developments of molecular biomarkers that may help guide clinical decision making. These biomarkers, while promising, have not yet been validated in prospective trials and are not ready for clinical applications. As alkylating agents, platinum drugs kill cancer cells mainly through induction of DNA damage. A microdosing approach is currently being tested to determine if chemoresistance can be identified by measuring platinum-induced DNA damage using highly sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry technology. The hope is that these emerging strategies will help pave the road towards personalized therapy in advanced bladder cancer.

  19. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jinbo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in urothelial carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth. While the precise mechanisms of the functions of the androgen receptor in urothelial cells remain far from being fully understood, current evidence may offer chemopreventive or therapeutic options, using androgen deprivation therapy, in patients with bladder cancer. PMID:28241422

  20. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in urothelial carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth. While the precise mechanisms of the functions of the androgen receptor in urothelial cells remain far from being fully understood, current evidence may offer chemopreventive or therapeutic options, using androgen deprivation therapy, in patients with bladder cancer.

  1. Antibody conjugate radioimmunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Alan; Hopper, Melanie; Murray, Andrea; Frier, Malcolm; Bishop, Mike

    2002-01-01

    The administration of antibody conjugates for cancer therapy is now proving to be of clinical value. We are currently undertaking a programme of clinical studies using the monoclonal antibody C 595 (gG3) which reacts with the MUC1 glycoprotein antigen that is aberrantly expressed in a high proportion of bladder tumours. Radio immuno conjugates of the C 595 antibody have been produced with high radiolabelling efficiency and immuno reactivity using Tc-99 m and In-111 for diagnostic imaging, and disease staging and the cytotoxic radionuclides Cu-67 and Re-188 for therapy of superficial bladder cancer. A Phase I/II therapeutic trail involving the intravesical administration of antibody directly into the bladder has now begun. (author)

  2. Carcinoma of the bladder - the present situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhouse, T W [9050155GB:Coventry and Warwickshire Hospital (UK). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology

    1979-04-01

    Occupational exposure to carcinogens can result in the development of malignancies after a latent period as long as 45 years. New cases are therefore still being detected, although known carcinogens have been banned for some 30 years. Presenting symptoms, investigative techniques, types of bladder carcinoma and methods of spread are all discussed. Criteria for treatment selection are based on the stage of development of the tumor. Radiotherapy requires preliminary localization of the bladder in relation to external marks. A mercury-filled balloon is carefully positioned in the bladder at the internal meatus, and fluoroscopy provides films which are used in final calculations of dose distribution. A dose of 6000 rad is given by a 300 deg rotational technique over 6 weeks to the tumor volume contained within the 90% isodose curves. The advantages of the technique are discussed, and survival rates given for different tumors at various stages of development.

  3. Bladder Involvement in Stage I Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Paula C; Missmer, Stacey A; Laufer, Marc R

    2017-08-01

    Endometriosis-the ectopic implantation of endometrial-like tissue-affects 10% of adolescent females and adults. Bladder involvement, causing dysuria and hematuria, occurs in a very small number of endometriosis patients. The patient presented at age 12 years with dysuria and pelvic pain. Laparoscopy revealed stage I endometriosis. Postoperatively, she reported persistent dysuria and passage of tissue in her urine. Cystoscopy showed diffuse erythema; urine cytology revealed glandular and spindle cells suggestive of endometriosis. She was transitioned from oral contraceptives to an intranasal gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, with symptom resolution. Intravesicular endometriosis coinciding with stage I disease supports a mechanism of endometriosis dissemination other than direct bladder infiltration. Patients with endometriosis who complain of urinary symptoms warrant assessment, because intravesicular bladder involvement cannot be excluded using pelviscopy. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intraperitoneal instillation of ropivacaine plus dexmedetomidine for pain relief after laparoscopic hysterectomy: A comparison with ropivacaine alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Chiruvella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Intraperitoneal (IP instillation of local anesthetics has been shown to minimize postoperative pain after laparoscopic surgeries. We compared the antinociceptive effects of IP dexmedetomidine combined with ropivacaine with that of IP ropivacaine alone in the patients undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy. Materials and Methods: At the end of laparoscopic hysterectomy, in a double-blind, randomized manner, one of the following injections was given intraperitoneally. The patients were allocated into the following two groups: The patients in ropivacaine group (R group (N = 30 were given 30 mL of 0.2% ropivacaine plus 2 mL of normal saline; the patients in ropivacaine plus dexmedetomidine group (RD group (N = 30 were given 30 mL of 0.2% ropivacaine combined with 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine (diluted in 2 mL normal saline through trocars. All the patients were given diclofenac sodium when they had pain [visual analogue scale (VAS 3]. Results: VAS score at different time intervals, overall VAS in 24 h was significantly lower (1.86 ± 0.46 vs 4.7 ± 0.94, time to first request of analgesia (min was longest (126 ± 24 vs 59 ± 13 and total analgesic consumption (mg was lowest (95 ± 15 vs 175 ± 75 in RD group than in R group. Conclusion: The antinociceptive effects of the intraperitoneal instillation of ropivacaine in combination with dexmedetomidine is superior to ropivacaine alone.

  5. Long-term follow-up of lung biodistribution and effect of instilled SWCNTs using multiscale imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Faraj, Achraf; Bessaad, Amine; Cieslar, Katarzyna; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle; Cremillieux, Yannick; Lacroix, Ghislaine

    2010-01-01

    Due to their distinctive properties, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are being more and more extensively used in nanotechnology, with prospects in nanomedicine. It would therefore appear essential to develop and apply appropriate imaging tools for detecting and evaluating their biological impacts with the prospect of medical applications or in the situation of accidental occupational exposure. It has been shown recently that raw SWCNTs with metallic impurities can be noninvasively detected in the lungs by hyperpolarized 3 helium (HP- 3 He) MRI. Moreover raw and purified SWCNTs had no acute biological effect. The purpose of the present longitudinal study was to investigate long-term follow-up by imaging, as well as chronic lung effects. In a 3-month follow-up study, multiscale imaging techniques combining noninvasive HP- 3 He and proton (H) MRI to ex vivo light (histopathological analysis) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess the biodistribution and biological effects of intrapulmonary instilled raw SWCNTs. Specific in vivo detection of carbon nanotubes with MRI relied on their intrinsic metal impurities. MRI also has the ability to evaluate tissue inflammation by the follow-up of local changes in signal intensity. MRI and ex vivo microscopy techniques showed that granulomatous and inflammatory reactions were produced in a time and dose dependent manner by instilled raw SWCNTs.

  6. Bladder biomechanics and the use of scaffolds for regenerative medicine in the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajalloueian, Fatemeh; Lemon, Greg; Hilborn, Jöns

    2018-01-01

    and scaffolds. To replicate an organ that is under frequent mechanical loading and unloading, special attention towards fulfilling its biomechanical requirements is necessary. Several biological and synthetic scaffolds are available, with various characteristics that qualify them for use in bladder regeneration...... in vitro and in vivo, including in the treatment of clinical conditions. The biomechanical properties of the native bladder can be investigated using a range of mechanical tests for standardized assessments, as well as mathematical and computational bladder biomechanics. Despite a large body of research...

  7. Adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer using deformable image registration of empty and full bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juneja, Prabhjot; Caine, H.; Hunt, P.

    2015-01-01

    to conv-PTV. In conclusion, the results of this pilot study indicate that the use of a-PTVs could result in substantial decrease in the course averaged planning target volume. This reduction in the PTV is likely to decrease the radiation related toxicity and benefit bladder cancer patients. Currently...... mm) for bladder planning target volume (PTV). The goal of this retrospective study is to define, evaluate and optimize new patient-specific anisotropic PTVs (a-PTVs) using deformable image registration (DIR) between empty and full bladder computed tomography (CT) scans. This will provide an ART...

  8. Cases of a Borderline Pathology That Can Mimic Bladder Cancer: Primary Amyloidosis of Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Selçuk İşoğlu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is a disease characterised by accumulation of a fibrillar protein called amyloid in the extracellular space. The kidneys, ureters and the bladder can be affected in the urinary tract. However, primary amyloidosis of bladder is a rare entity. Macroscopic hematuria could be the first and only symptom of primary amyloidosis of the bladder; therefore, it has similar findings with urinary tract malignancies. Histopathological evaluation is mandatory for the diagnosis. Follow-up should always include cystoscopic evaluation as recurrence is expected in the natural course.

  9. Pathologic Pattern of Invasive Bladder Carcinoma: Impact of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe the pathologic pattern of invasive bladder carcinoma in cystectomy specimens in relation to bilharziasis. Patients and Methods: Between April 2002 and October 2006, 148 consecutive patients with invasive bladder cancer were subjected to radical cystectomy and orthotopic sigmoid bladder ...

  10. Brunn nests masquerading as bladder tumor: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Byun, Kyung Hwan; Jeon, Ji Min

    2005-01-01

    Brunn nests are the most common proliferative lesions of the bladder uroepithelium, but exuberant proliferation can mimic bladder tumor on radiologic imaging and cystoscopy. We describe a case of pathologically proven Brunn nests in a 34-year-old man, misdiagnosed as bladder tumor on preoperative imaging studies

  11. Xenon tissue/blood partition coefficient for pig urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K K; Bülow, J; Nielsen, S L

    1990-01-01

    In four landrace pigs the tissue/blood partition coefficient (lambda) for xenon (Xe) for the urinary bladder was calculated after chemical analysis for lipid, water and protein content and determination of the haematocrit. The coefficients varied from bladder to bladder owing to small differences...

  12. Giant urinary bladder calculus: Case report | Otieno | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vertical calculus weighing more than 100 g is categorised as a giant urinary bladder stone. Giant urinary bladder stones are very rare and very few cases have been reported in English literature and only one case from Africa. This is a case report of a patient with a giant urinary bladder calculus presenting as a rectal ...

  13. CASE REPORT: A GIANT URINARY BLADDER STONE IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vesical calculus weighing more than 100g is categorized as a giant urinary bladder stone. Male preponderance for urinary bladder calculi is well known. A rare case of a giant urinary bladder calculus weighing 1200g and occurring in a female patient is reported. The stone was removed by open vesicolithotomy.

  14. Cytotoxic and toxicogenomic effects of silibinin in bladder cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silibinin is a natural phenol found in the seeds of the milk thistle plant. Recent data have shown its effectiveness forpreventing/treating bladder tumours. Therefore, in this study we investigated the cytotoxic and toxicogenetic activityof silibinin in bladder cancer cells with different TP53 statuses. Two bladder urothelial ...

  15. Contemporary management of low-risk bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, the majority of which are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at initial presentation. Low-risk bladder cancer--defined as pTa low-grade papillary tumors--is the type of NMIBC with the most favorable oncologic outcome. Although the

  16. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurogenic bladder from occult herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, J F; Walicke, P A; Swenson, M R

    1986-11-01

    Active infection with herpes zoster may cause acute urinary retention, especially when it involves sacral dermatomes. Although frank retention usually develops days to weeks after eruption of the typical rash, bladder incompetence infrequently develops first, raising concern over other, more ominous etiologies. In the case presented, rash appearance was delayed until six weeks after the initial onset of urinary retention, a much longer interval than previously reported. Occult herpes zoster infection should be considered in patients presenting with an acute neurogenic bladder of obscure cause.

  18. Cohort profile: The Swedish National Register of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) and the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Christel; Liedberg, Fredrik; Hagberg, Oskar; Aljabery, Firas; Ströck, Viveka; Hosseini, Abolfazl; Gårdmark, Truls; Sherif, Amir; Malmström, Per-Uno; Garmo, Hans; Jahnson, Staffan; Holmberg, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To monitor the quality of bladder cancer care, the Swedish National Register of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) was initiated in 1997. During 2015, in order to study trends in incidence, effects of treatment and survival of men and women with bladder cancer, we linked the SNRUBC to other national healthcare and demographic registers and constructed the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe). Participants The SNRUBC is a nationwide register with detailed information on 97% of bladder cancer cases in Sweden as compared with the Swedish Cancer Register. Participants in the SNRUBC have registered data on tumour characteristics at diagnosis, and for 98% of these treatment data have been captured. From 2009, the SNRUBC holds data on 88% of eligible participants for follow-up 5 years after diagnosis of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, and from 2011, data on surgery details and complications for 85% of participants treated with radical cystectomy. The BladderBaSe includes all data in the SNRUBC from 1997 to 2014, and additional covariates and follow-up data from linked national register sources on comorbidity, socioeconomic factors, detailed information on readmissions and treatment side effects, and causes of death. Findings to date Studies based on data in the SNRUBC have shown inequalities in survival and treatment indication by gender, regions and hospital volume. The BladderBaSe includes 38 658 participants registered in SNRUBC with bladder cancer diagnosed from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2014. The BladderBaSe initiators are currently in collaboration with researchers from the SNRUBC investigating different aspects of bladder cancer survival. Future plans The SNRUBC and the BladderBaSe project are open for collaborations with national and international research teams. Collaborators can submit proposals for studies and study files can be uploaded to servers for remote access and analysis. For more information, please contact the corresponding

  19. Synergistic Roles of Helicobacter pylori Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase and GroEL in Repairing Oxidant-damaged Catalase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Manish; Tran, ViLinh; Sharp, Joshua S.; Maier, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced via the enzyme myeloperoxidase is a major antibacterial oxidant produced by neutrophils, and Met residues are considered primary amino acid targets of HOCl damage via conversion to Met sulfoxide. Met sulfoxide can be repaired back to Met by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr). Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme; we show it constitutes 4–5% of the total Helicobacter pylori protein levels. msr and katA strains were about 14- and 4-fold, respectively, more susceptible than the parent to killing by the neutrophil cell line HL-60 cells. Catalase activity of an msr strain was much more reduced by HOCl exposure than for the parental strain. Treatment of pure catalase with HOCl caused oxidation of specific MS-identified Met residues, as well as structural changes and activity loss depending on the oxidant dose. Treatment of catalase with HOCl at a level to limit structural perturbation (at a catalase/HOCl molar ratio of 1:60) resulted in oxidation of six identified Met residues. Msr repaired these residues in an in vitro reconstituted system, but no enzyme activity could be recovered. However, addition of GroEL to the Msr repair mixture significantly enhanced catalase activity recovery. Neutrophils produce large amounts of HOCl at inflammation sites, and bacterial catalase may be a prime target of the host inflammatory response; at high concentrations of HOCl (1:100), we observed loss of catalase secondary structure, oligomerization, and carbonylation. The same HOCl-sensitive Met residue oxidation targets in catalase were detected using chloramine-T as a milder oxidant. PMID:21460217

  20. Predictive Value of NRAMP1 and HGPX1 Gene Polymorphism for Maintenance BCG Response in Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenormand, Claire; Couteau, Jérôme; Nouhaud, François-Xavier; Maillet, Géraldine; Bou, Jacqueline; Gobet, Françoise; Pfister, Christian

    2016-04-01

    To assess the potential predictive value of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) and human glutathione peroxidase 1 (hGPX1) polymorphism in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) instillation, we conducted an original ancillary multicenter study. We evaluated patients included in the multicenter URO-BCG 4 trial, who received three weekly instillations of one-third dose BCG every 6 months (group I) or two weekly instillations every 3 months (group II) for 3 years. For clinical evaluation we also evaluated tumor recurrence and muscle progression. NRAMP1 and hGPX1 polymorphism analyses were performed on blood DNA. NRAMP1 exon 15 and hGPX1 exon 1c were amplified using Type-it Microsatellite PCR Kit® for multiplex polymerase chain reaction. From June 2004 to April 2010, 146 randomized patients were included in this retrospective study. Blood samples were obtained from 107 patients. With 36 months of follow-up, 13.6% of patients had a tumor recurrence and muscle-invasive progression was observed in 4.3% of patients. Concerning NRAMP1 D543N polymorphism, patients with allele A had no tumor recurrence or muscle-invasive progression. No significant difference was observed in gene polymorphism distribution between groups I and II. Moreover, we did not observe any significant association of gene polymorphisms, tumor recurrence or muscle-invasive progression, event time and disease-free survival. Our results suggest that no significant difference was found for NRAMP1 and hGPX1 gene polymorphisms associated with recurrence time, muscle invasion frequency and disease-free survival, nevertheless, we observed that the NRAMP1 D543N GG genotype group had a shorter time to tumor recurrence. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. The enigma of candiduria: evolution of bladder irrigation with amphotericin B for management--from Anecdote to Dogma and a lesson from Machiavelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, J P

    1993-01-01

    Candiduria has emerged as a common, vexing diagnostic and therapeutic problem over the past 40 years. Treatment by means of bladder irrigation with a solution of amphotericin B has become widely used in clinical practice. However, the specifics of the procedure--concentration of amphotericin B, use of continuous washing vs. instillation with cross-clamping to allow "dwell-times," and duration of treatment--are based entirely on anecdotal experiences. The published reports and evolution of recommendations are reviewed. A prospective randomized double-blind study is needed to provide answers. In the meantime, administration of 200-300 mL of amphotericin B solution by triple-lumen urethral catheter with cross-clamping for 60-90 minutes seems most appropriate. Irrigation for no longer than 2 days should suffice if the procedure is to be effective. The optimal concentration of amphotericin B has not been defined; however, 5-10 mg/L appears adequate.

  2. Acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity caused by a single intratracheal instillation of colloidal silver nanoparticles in mice: pathobiological changes and metallothionein responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth; Banlunara, Wijit; Maneewattanapinyo, Pattwat; Thammachareon, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-01-01

    To study the acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), 0 or 100 ppm of Ag-NPs were instilled intratracheally in mice. Cellular and biochemical parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and histological alterations were determined 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after instillation. Ag-NPs induced moderate pulmonary inflammation and injury on BALF indices during the acute period; however, these changes gradually regressed in a time-dependent manner. Concomitant histopathological and laminin immunohistochemical findings generally correlated to BALF data. Superoxide dismutase and metallothionein expression occurred in particle-laden macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells, which correlated to lung lesions in mice treated with Ag-NPs. These findings suggest that instillation of Ag-NPs causes transient moderate acute lung inflammation and tissue damage. Oxidative stress may underlie the induction of injury to lung tissue. Moreover, the expression of metallothionein in tissues indicated the protective response to exposure to Ag-NPs.

  3. Experimental and theoretical evaluation on the microenvironmental effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on adrenaline in acid aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhang-Yu; Liu, Tao; Guo, Dao-Jun; Liu, Yong-Jun; Liu, Cheng-Bu

    2010-12-01

    The microenvironmental effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on adrenaline was studied by several approaches including the cyclic voltammetry (CV) of adrenaline at a platinum electrode in acid aqueous solution, the chemical shift of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1H NMR) of adrenaline, and the change of diffusion coefficient of adrenaline. The experimental results demonstrated that DMSO has significant microenvironmental effect on adrenaline, which was confirmed by the density functional theory (DFT) study on the hydrogen bond (H-bond) complexes of adrenaline with water and DMSO.

  4. Nine cases of bladder cancer occurring in occupational dye users

    OpenAIRE

    村瀬, 達良; 高士, 宗久; 青田, 泰博; 下地, 敏雄; 三宅, 弘治; 三矢, 英輔

    1985-01-01

    Workers in the dye manufacturing industry have a high risk of urinary bladder cancer. There may also be a high relative risk of bladder cancer in occupational dye users. Nine occupational dye users were found to have bladder cancer. The period of engaging with dye work ranged from 5 to 40 years. Seven patients had bladder cancer and the other 2 patients had lesions both in the bladder and in the renal pelvis. Histopathology of all cases was transitional cell carcinoma. Three cases were classi...

  5. Glucocorticoid receptor beta increases migration of human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, Lucien; Nwaneri, Assumpta C; Grabnar, Maria; Demeter, Jonathan; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea; Hinds, Terry D

    2016-05-10

    Bladder cancer is observed worldwide having been associated with a host of environmental and lifestyle risk factors. Recent investigations on anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid signaling point to a pathway that may impact bladder cancer. Here we show an inverse effect on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform signaling that may lead to bladder cancer. We found similar GRα expression levels in the transitional uroepithelial cancer cell lines T24 and UMUC-3. However, the T24 cells showed a significant (p bladder cancer cells. Therefore, GRβ may have a significant role in bladder cancer, and possibly serve as a therapeutic target for the disease.

  6. Modeling bladder cancer in mice: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Owczarek, Tomasz B.; McKiernan, James M.; Abate-Shen, Cory

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis and treatment of bladder cancer have hardly improved in the last 20 years. Bladder cancer remains a debilitating and often fatal disease, and among the most costly cancers to treat. The generation of informative mouse models has the potential to improve our understanding of bladder cancer progression, as well as impact its diagnosis and treatment. However, relatively few mouse models of bladder cancer have been described and particularly few that develop invasive cancer phenotypes. This review focuses on opportunities for improving the landscape of mouse models of bladder cancer. PMID:25533675

  7. Detection of bladder tumors using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yingtian; Xie, Tuqiang; Wang, Zhenguo

    2004-07-01

    This paper summarizes the engineering development of our lab for endoscopic optical coherence tomography toward the ultimate goal to image bladder micro architecture and to diagnose bladder cancers. To test the utility and potential limitations of OCT setups for bladder tumor diagnosis, we used a rat bladder cancer model to track the morphological changes following tumor growth. Image results are presented, suggesting that OCT is able to differentiate cancerous lesions from inflammatory lesions based on OCT characterizations of epithelial thickness and backscattering changes of bladder tissue.

  8. Novel research approaches for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: thinking beyond the bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Mullins, Chris; Bavendam, Tamara; Kirkali, Ziya; Kusek, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite years of basic and clinical research focused on interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), including clinical trials of candidate therapies, there remains an insufficient understanding of underlying cause(s), important clinical features and a lack of effective treatments for this syndrome. Progress has been limited and is likely due to many factors, including a primary focus on the bladder and lower urinary tract as origin of symptoms without adequately considering the pote...

  9. Surgical Management of Anatomic Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Males with Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhoff, Toscane C; Groen, Jan; Scheepe, Jeroen R; Blok, Bertil F M

    2018-03-15

    Surgical treatment of anatomic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) may be indicated in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. A bothersome complication after surgery is urinary incontinence. To identify the optimal practice in the surgical treatment of anatomic BOO in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction, due to multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury (SCI), spina bifida, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA). A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Medline, Embase, Cochrane controlled trial databases, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for publications until January 2017. A total of 930 abstracts were screened. Eight studies were included. The types of anatomic BOO discussed were benign prostate obstruction, urethral stricture, and bladder neck sclerosis. The identified surgical treatments were transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in patients with Parkinson, CVA or SCI, endoscopic treatment of urethral stricture by laser ablation or urethrotomy (mainly in SCI patients), and bladder neck resection (BNR) in SCI patients. The outcome of TURP may be highly variable, and includes persistent or de novo urinary incontinence, regained normal micturition control, and urinary continence. Good results were seen in BNR and endoscopic urethrotomy studies. Laser ablation and cold knife urethrotomy resulted in restarting intermittent catheterization or adequate voiding. Overall, a high risk of bias was found. This systematic review provides an overview of the current literature on the outcome of several surgical approaches of different types of anatomic BOO in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Identifying the optimal practice was impossible due to limited availability of high-quality studies. The outcome of several surgical approaches in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction with benign prostate obstruction, urethral stricture

  10. Preoperative balloon occluded arterial infusion chemotherapy for locally invasive bladder cancer. Accurate staging for bladder preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Norio; Arima, Kiminobu; Kawamura, Juichi; Tochigi, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of bladder preservation by preoperative balloon occluded arterial infusion (BOAI) chemotherapy was studied in 111 patients with locally invasive bladder cancer. BOAI was performed by blocking the blood flow of the internal iliac artery and by performing intra-arterial infusion of adriamycin (50 mg/body) and cisplatin (100 mg/body). Before BOAI the clinical diagnosis was T2 in 36, T3a in 29, T3b in 27, T4 in 11 and after BOAI it was T0 in 1, T1 in 27, T2 in 25, T3a in 20, T3b in 20, and T4 in 10. Down staging was observed on diagnostic images in 46.6%. Thirty patients (27.0%) received transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-Bt) and their bladder could be preserved. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 100% in pT0 (n=9), 97.5% in pT1 (n=47), 79.9% in pT2 (n=21), 80.0% in pT3a (n=6), 39.9% in pT3b (n=18) and 51.9% in pT4 cases (n=9). For the bladder preservation, accurate staging diagnosis is required. Since 1992, endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used in addition to imaging diagnosis for improving the accuracy of staging diagnosis. The accuracies of staging diagnosis with and without endorectal MRI were 62.5% and 44.0%, respectively. BOAI as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy has the possibility of bladder-preserving therapy in locally invasive bladder cancer. Also, the endorectal MRI can improve the accuracy of staging diagnosis, which is important for the bladder preservation. (author)

  11. The Influence of Tetrodotoxin (TTX on the Distribution and Chemical Coding of Caudal Mesenteric Ganglion (CaMG Neurons Supplying the Porcine Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Lepiarczyk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of micturition disorders creates a serious problem for urologists. Recently, new therapeutic agents, such as neurotoxins, are being considered for the therapy of urological patients. The present study investigated the chemical coding of caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder after intravesical instillation of tetrodotoxin (TTX. The CaMG neurons were visualized with retrograde tracer Fast blue (FB and their chemical profile was disclosed with double-labeling immunohistochemistry using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, neuropeptide Y (NPY, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, somatostatin (SOM, calbindin (CB, galanin (GAL and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. It was found that in both the control (n = 6 and TTX-treated pigs (n = 6, the vast majority (92.6% ± 3.4% and 88.8% ± 2%, respectively of FB-positive (FB+ nerve cells were TH+. TTX instillation caused a decrease in the number of FB+/TH+ neurons immunopositive to NPY (88.9% ± 5.3% in the control animals vs. 10.6% ± 5.3% in TTX-treated pigs or VIP (1.7% ± 0.6% vs. 0%, and an increase in the number of FB+/TH+ neurons immunoreactive to SOM (8.8% ± 1.6% vs. 39% ± 12.8%, CB (1.8% ± 0.7% vs. 12.6% ± 2.7%, GAL (1.7% ± 0.8% vs. 10.9% ± 2.6% or nNOS (0% vs. 1.1% ± 0.3%. The present study is the first to suggest that TTX modifies the chemical coding of CaMG neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder.

  12. Metabolism of the fungicide Denmert (S-n-butyl S'-p-tert-butyl-benzyl N-3-pyridyldithiocarbonimidate, S-1358) and Denmert sulfoxides in liver enzyme systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Hideo; Okihara, Yukiko; Miyamoto, Junshi

    1976-01-01

    On incubation with rat liver microsomes plus MADPH, Denmert (S-n-butyl S'-p-tert-butylbenzyl N-3-pyridyldithiocarbonimidate) underwent at least two different types of oxidation; hydroxylation and sulfoxidation. Hydroxylation of Denmert at the tert-butyl group was one of the major metabolic attacks in mammalian metabolism. Sulfoxidation of Denmert gave two isomers of Denmert sulfoxides which were intermediates in the metabolism and readily transformed into 2-(3'-pyridylimino)-4-carboxylthiazolidine (HM) in the presence of L-cysteine without enzymatic mediation. This type of conjugation with cysteine appears to be a new class of metabolic reactions in mammals. Denmert S-oxide showed increased fungicidal activity when assayed in liquid cultures, but not on plant leaves. (auth.)

  13. Effectivity of intravescical thermo-chemotherapy prophylaxis for patients with high recurrence and progression risk for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözen, Ali Serdar; Umari, Paolo; Scheitlin, Walter; Su, Fuat Ernis; Akin, Yigit; Rassweiler, Jens

    2017-06-30

    Background&Aim: High grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is common in urological practice. Most of these cancers are or become refractory to intravesical immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Here we evaluated the efficacy of combined local bladder hyperthermia and intravesical mitomycin-C (MMC) instillation in patients with high-risk recurrent NMIBC. Between February 2014 and December 2015, 18 patients with high risk NMIBC were enrolled. Patients were treated in an outpatient basis with 6 weekly induction sessions followed by monthly maintenance sessions with intravesical MMC in local hyperthermia with bladder wall thermo-chemotherapy (BWT) system (PelvixTT system, Elmedical Ltd., Hod Hasharon, Israel). The follow-up regimen included cystoscopy after the induction cycle and thereafter with regular intervals. Time to disease recurrence was defined as time from the first intravesical treatment to endoscopic or histological documentation of a new bladder tumour. Adverse events were recorded according to CTC 4.0 (Common Toxicity Criteria) score system. Mean age was 72 (32-87) years. 10 patients had multifocal disease, 9 had CIS, 6 had recurrent disease and 2 had highly recurrent disease (> 3 recurrences in a 24 months period). 6 patients underwent previous intravesical chemotherapy with MMC. The average number of maintenance sessions per patient was 7.6. After a mean follow-up of 433 days, 15 patients (83.3%) were recurrence-free. 3 patients had tumour recurrence after a mean period of 248 days without progression. Side effects were limited to grade 1 in 2 patients and grade 2 in 1 patient. BWT seems to be feasible and safe in high grade NMIBC. More studies are needed to identify the subgroup of patients who may benefit more from this treatment.

  14. Effectivity of intravescical thermo-chemotherapy prophylaxis for patients with high recurrence and progression risk for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Serdar Gözen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background&Aim: High grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC is common in urological practice. Most of these cancers are or become refractory to intravesical immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Here we evaluated the efficacy of combined local bladder hyperthermia and intravesical mitomycin-C (MMC instillation in patients with high-risk recurrent NMIBC. Materials and methods: Between February 2014 and December 2015, 18 patients with high risk NMIBC were enrolled. Patients were treated in an outpatient basis with 6 weekly induction sessions followed by monthly maintenance sessions with intravesical MMC in local hyperthermia with bladder wall thermo-chemotherapy (BWT system (PelvixTT system, Elmedical Ltd., Hod Hasharon, Israel. The follow-up regimen included cystoscopy after the induction cycle and thereafter with regular intervals. Time to disease recurrence was defined as time from the first intravesical treatment to endoscopic or histological documentation of a new bladder tumour. Adverse events were recorded according to CTC 4.0 (Common Toxicity Criteria score system. Results: Mean age was 72 (32-87 years. 10 patients had multifocal disease, 9 had CIS, 6 had recurrent disease and 2 had highly recurrent disease (> 3 recurrences in a 24 months period. 6 patients underwent previous intravesical chemotherapy with MMC. The average number of maintenance sessions per patient was 7.6. After a mean follow-up of 433 days, 15 patients (83.3% were recurrence-free. 3 patients had tumour recurrence after a mean period of 248 days without progression. Side effects were limited to grade 1 in 2 patients and grade 2 in 1 patient. Conclusions: BWT seems to be feasible and safe in high grade NMIBC. More studies are needed to identify the subgroup of patients who may benefit more from this treatment.

  15. Pulmonary instillation of low doses of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice leads to particle retention and gene expression changes in the absence of inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husain, Mainul; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Guo, Charles

    2013-01-01

    We investigated gene expression, protein synthesis, and particle retention in mouse lungs following intratracheal instillation of varying doses of nano-sized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2). Female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to rutile nano-TiO2 via single intratracheal instillations of 18, 54, and 162......μg/mouse. Mice were sampled 1, 3, and 28days post-exposure. The deposition of nano-TiO2 in the lungs was assessed using nanoscale hyperspectral microscopy. Biological responses in the pulmonary system were analyzed using DNA microarrays, pathway-specific real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), gene-specific q...

  16. Robotic Extramucosal Excision of Bladder Wall Leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid E. Al-Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple case reports and reviews have been described in the literature for bladder wall leiomyoma resection via different approaches. The minimally invasive partial cystectomy remains the most widely accepted technique; however, case reports for enucleation of bladder wall leiomyoma have also been described. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the robotic extramucosal excision of a bladder wall leiomyoma, without cystotomy, but with complete removal of the muscular layer. Materials and Methods: A 35-year old male present with lower urinary tract symptoms and imaging showed bladder wall mass with histopathology showed leiomyoma. The patient consented for mass excision with the possibility of a partial cystectomy. The patient was placed in the supine, 30-degree Trendelenburg position during the procedure. A total of 4 ports were inserted. A 3-arm da Vinci robotic surgical system was docked, and the arms were connected. Extramucosal excision was accomplished without cystotomy and muscle approximation was achieved by 2 0 Vicryle. Result: The operative time was 90 minutes, blood loss of approximately 50mL and the patient was discharged after 72 hours with no immediate complications and a 6 months follow-up showed no recurrence. Conclusion: Such a technique results in complete excision of the tumor, without cystotomy, and also maintains an intact mucosa. These steps, in addition to decreasing the risk of local recurrence, also shorten the period of postoperative catheterization and hospitalization.

  17. Villous adenoma of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Villous adenoma is a known entity in the gastrointestinal tract, but very rare in the urinary tract. It is a benign tumor with excellent prognosis, but its progression to adenocarcinoma is not established. Here, we report an additional case of villous adenoma of the urinary bladder.

  18. Leech in urinary bladder causing hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shadrul; Das Choudhary, Mrigen Kumar; Islam, Kabirul

    2008-02-01

    To estimate efficacy of normal saline in the management of hematuria caused by accidental entry of a leech per urethra into the urinary bladder. An intervention study was carried out in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College between January 1998 and December 2003. A total of 43 boys (mean age 8 years, SD+/-2.6) were enrolled. In all cases, a leech had entered the urinary bladder through the urethra causing hematuria. All patients were equipped with a self-retaining Foley catheter. They were managed by infusing 50ml of normal saline into the urinary bladder through the catheter that was then clamped for 3h. After removing the catheter, in all cases the whole leech was spontaneously expelled intact, dead or alive, within 2-24h during the subsequent act of micturition. Hematuria gradually diminished to a clear flow within the next 6h in 27 cases, 12h in 14 cases and 24h in two cases. All patients were followed up for 2 weeks, and none developed recurrent hematuria. Catheterization and irrigation of the urinary bladder with normal saline is a relatively simple, safe and inexpensive method of removing the leech and controlling hematuria.

  19. Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alwis, A C D; Senaratne, A M R D; De Silva, S M P D; Rodrigo, V S D

    2006-09-01

    Masturbation in childhood is a normal behaviour which most commonly begins at 2 months of age, and peaks at 4 years and in adolescence. However excessive masturbation causes anxiety in parents. We describe a boy with a bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

  20. Elevated Bladder Cancer Risk in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study has found that drinking water from private wells, particularly dug wells established during the first half of the 20th century, may have contributed to the elevated risk of bladder cancer that has been observed in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont for over 50 years.

  1. Trigonalgia: An overlooked cause of bladder pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Aminu

    2015-12-04

    Dec 4, 2015 ... due to peculiarity of the trigonal anatomy from the rest of bladder, especially with the highest concentration of afferent nerves. Research ... The anatomy of the trigone consists of the superficial trigone which is a continuation of the .... Localization of peripheral autonomic neurons innervating the boar urinary ...

  2. Intravesical Gemcitabine for Treatment of Superficial Bladder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the mainstay of treatment and prophylaxis in superficial bladder cancer (SBC) as it reduces tumor recurrence and disease progression. About one-third of patients do not respond to BCG. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of intravesical ...

  3. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful ...

  4. Definition and symptoms of underactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Alan D; Drake, Marcus J

    2017-12-01

    Underactive bladder (UAB) is a symptom syndrome reflecting the urodynamic observation of detrusor underactivity (DU), a voiding contraction of reduced strength and/or duration, leading to prolonged or incomplete bladder emptying. An International Continence Society Working Group has described UAB as characterised by a slow urinary stream, hesitancy and straining to void, with or without a feeling of incomplete bladder emptying and dribbling, often with storage symptoms. Since DU often coexists with bladder outlet obstruction, or storage dysfunction (detrusor overactivity or incontinence), the exact contribution of the DU to the presenting complaints can be difficult to establish. The presence of voiding and post voiding lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is implicitly expected in UAB, but a reduced sensation of fullness is reported by some patients, and storage LUTS are also an important factor in many affected patients. These may result from a postvoid residual, but often they do not. The storage LUTS are often the key driver in leading the patient to seek healthcare input. Nocturia is particularly common and bothersome, but what the role of DU is in all the range of influences on nocturia has not been established. Qualitative research has established a broad impact on everyday life as a result of these symptoms. In general, people appear to manage the voiding LUTS relatively well, but the storage LUTS may be problematic.

  5. BLADDER NECK RESECTION WITH PRESERVATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion The complication of retrograde ejaculation in young patients who are in need of fertililty may be avoided by preservation of > 1 cm of the supramontanal part during bladder neck resection. La Résection du Col de Vessie avec Préservation de l'Ejaculation Antégrade Objectif Evaluer une nouvelle méthode de ...

  6. Radical radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fokdal, Lars; Høyer, Morten; von der Maase, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The exact value of radiotherapy in the treatment of muscle-invasive       bladder cancer is difficult to establish, as most studies exploring this       issue are retrospective with different procedures for selecting patients       for treatment, as well as varying treatment strategies. An estima...

  7. Laparoscopic Bladder -Conserving Surgery: Case Series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    advantages of minimal access surgery, upholds quality of life, improves patient's body image and preserves function. Methods: We present our experience in .... of the bladder, reporting an operative time of 205 min with minimal blood loss and R0 resection margins. (1,13). One patient has required salvage chemotherapy.

  8. Vaginal and bladder angiosarcoma after therapeutic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.A.; Moutos, D.M.; Pippitt, C.H. Jr.; Suda, R.R.; Smith, J.J.; Thurnau, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    Angiosarcoma involving the female genitourinary tract is a rare soft tissue malignancy of vascular origin. We have described probably the first reported case of postirradiation angiosarcoma involving the vagina and bladder, and have reviewed the existing literature on the subject of angiosarcoma resulting from previous therapeutic irradiation for gynecologic malignancy.10 references

  9. Primary Lymphoma of the Gall Bladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-29

    Jun 29, 1974 ... textbooks of pathology.'" We have been able to find only. 11 cases documented in the world literature; and only 4 of these in the English literature..·• They have appeared as isolated case reports or are mentioned in reviews deal- ing with primary sarcomas of the gall bladder. To the best of our knowledge ...

  10. FLUORESCENCE DIAGNOSIS FOR RECURRENT BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Ulyanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical case of successful use of local fluorescence spectroscopy combined with fluorescence imaging during cystoscopy for diagnosis of recurrent bladder cancer is represented in the article. Histological study of fluorescent foci confirmed tumor growth (urothelial carcinoma in all areas with high levels of diagnostic parameter. In the fluorescent focus with low diagnostic parameter inflammation was detected.

  11. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  12. Bladder-sphincter dysfunction in myelomeningocele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gool, J. D.; Dik, P.; de Jong, T. P.

    2001-01-01

    Pediatric urodynamics taught us that detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia creates a bladder outlet obstruction in about 50% of any population of children with myelomeningocele. This functional obstruction causes renal damage due to obstructive uropathy, exactly the same way as a congenital anatomical

  13. Correlation of the octanol/water partition coefficient with clearance halftimes of intratracheally instilled aromatic hydrocarbons in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.A.; Baker, S.M.; Bechtold, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on the lung retention of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) after inhalation have indicated that, in general, the PAH are rapidly cleared from the respiratory tract. Clearance of the PAH from the lungs is best described as bi-phasic, with the long-term component of the clearance curve having a half-time of greater than 24 h. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the lipophilicity (as measured by the octanol/water partition coefficient, P) of various PAH and the short-term and long-term clearance half-times of PAH in rat lungs. Female F344/Crl rats were administered intratracheally 1 nmol of 14 C-labelled anthracene (AN), benz (a) anthracene (BA), 1-nitropyrene (NP), 6-nitrobenzo (a) pyrene (6-NBP), or dibenzo (c, g) carbazole (DBC). At various times after instillation rats were sacrificed and the amount of 14 C from rat lungs following instillation of the different PAH was biphasic. In all cases, greater than 85% of the initial dose instilled was cleared with a half-time of less than 1 h. The half-times for clearance of the residual 14 C (1-15% of the dose) were 26, 30, 36, 53 and 63 h for AN, NP, 6-NBP, BA and DCB, respectively. The log of the octanol-water partition coefficients for the different PAH examined ranged from 4.1 (AN) to 6.05 (DBC). Plots of the octanol/water coefficients vs. the long-term clearance half-time for the PAH indicated a linear correlation (p 2 =0.96). The results from this study indicate that the greater the lipophilicity of the PAH, the slower the long-term clearance of a small fraction (1-15%) of PAH from rat lungs. These data suggest that predictions of long-term lung clearance can be made for PAH with log octanol-water partition coefficients between 4 and 6. (author)

  14. Restoration of bladder function in spastic neuropathic bladder using sacral deafferentation and different techniques of neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, S; Bross, S; Scheepe, J R; Alken, P; Jünemann, K P

    1999-01-01

    Conventional sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS) results in simultaneous activation of both the detrusor muscle and the external urethral sphincter. We evaluated the possibilities of different neurostimulation techniques to overcome stimulation induced detrusor-sphincter-dyssynergia and to achieve a physiological voiding. The literature was reviewed on different techniques of sacral anterior root stimulation of the bladder and the significance of posterior rhizotomy in patients with supraconal spinal cord injury suffering from the loss of voluntary bladder control, detrusor hyperreflexia and sphincter spasm. The achievement of selective detrusor activation would improve current sacral neurostimulation of the bladder, including the principle of "poststimulus voiding". This is possible with the application of selective neurostimulation in techniques of anodal block, high frequency block, depolarizing prepulses and cold block. Nowadays, sacral deafferentation is a standard therapy in combination with neurostimulation of the bladder because in conclusion advantages of complete rhizotomy predominate. The combination of sacral anterior root stimulation and sacral deafferentation is a successful procedure for restoration of bladder function in patients with supraconal spinal cord injury. Anodal block technique and cryotechnique are excellent methods for selective bladder activation to avoid detrusor-sphincter-dyssynergia and thus improve stimulation induced voiding.

  15. Estimation of bladder wall location in ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, A K; Jernigan, M E

    1991-05-01

    A method of automatically estimating the location of the bladder wall in ultrasound images is proposed. Obtaining this estimate is intended to be the first stage in the development of an automatic bladder volume calculation system. The first step in the bladder wall estimation scheme involves globally processing the images using standard image processing techniques to highlight the bladder wall. Separate processing sequences are required to highlight the anterior bladder wall and the posterior bladder wall. The sequence to highlight the anterior bladder wall involves Gaussian smoothing and second differencing followed by zero-crossing detection. Median filtering followed by thresholding and gradient detection is used to highlight as much of the rest of the bladder wall as was visible in the original images. Then a 'bladder wall follower'--a line follower with rules based on the characteristics of ultrasound imaging and the anatomy involved--is applied to the processed images to estimate the bladder wall location by following the portions of the bladder wall which are highlighted and filling in the missing segments. The results achieved using this scheme are presented.

  16. An improved delivery system for bladder irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammad K; Rajaei, Mojtaba

    2010-10-05

    Occasionally, urologists may see patients requiring temporary bladder irrigation at hospitals without stocks of specialist irrigation apparatus. One option is to transfer the patient to a urology ward, but often there are outstanding medical issues that require continued specialist input. Here, we describe an improved system for delivering temporary bladder irrigation by utilizing readily available components and the novel modification of a sphygmomanometer blub. This option is good for bladder irrigation in patients with moderate or severe gross hematuria due to various causes. In this prospective study from March 2007 to April 2009, we used our new system in eligible cases. In this system, an irrigant bag with 1 L of normal saline was suspended 80 cm above the indwelled 3-way Foley catheter, and its drainage tube was inserted into the irrigant port of the catheter. To increase the flow rate of the irrigant system, we inserted a traditional sphygmomanometer bulb at the top of the irrigant bag. This closed system was used for continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) in patients who underwent open prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). This high-pressure system is also used for irrigation during cystourethroscopy, internal urethrotomy, and transurethral lithotripsy. Our 831 eligible cases were divided into two groups: group 1 were endourologic cases and group 2 were open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB cases. The maximum and average flow rates were evaluated. The efficacy of our new system was compared prospectively with the previous traditional system used in 545 cases. In group 1, we had clear vision at the time of endourologic procedures. The success rate of this system was 99.5%. In group 2, the incidence of clot retention decreased two fold in comparison to traditional gravity-dependent bladder flow system. These changes were statistically significant (P = 0.001). We did not observe any adverse

  17. Bladder involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Roger Wroclawski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study bladder involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus patients through clinical and laboratorial evaluation, ultrasonography, radiological and endoscopic examination. Methods: Thirty-nine patients, either outpatients or inpatients at the Department of Rheumatology of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina from Universidade de São Paulo were evaluated as to clinical and laboratorial data. All patients were submitted to ultrasonographic evaluation of the upper urinary tract, radiological and endoscopic examinations of the middle and lower urinary tracts. Rresults: Mean age of patients varied between 13 and 62 years (median = 29 years. Thirty-six were females and three were males. The disease varied from 6 months to 22 years (median three years and one month. Clinical and laboratory activity of the disease was present in 30 patients. Twenty-two patients had the diagnosis of lupus established for three years or more. Twenty-five patients were asymptomatic and all had received corticosteroids for treatment at least once. Twenty-three received antimalarial drugs; ten received cytostatics, and seven patients received non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Upper urinary tract ultrasonography was normal in all cases but one with staghorn calculus associated with neurogenic bladder secondary to neurological involvement by the disease. Vesicoureteral reflux was observed in two cases. Other two patients had significant post-voiding residual urine, both with neurogenic bladder secondary to nervous system involvement by lupus. The average bladder maximum capacity in an awaken patient was 342 mL, and was decreased in 18.9% of cases. This subgroup of patients presented a greater frequency of urinary symptoms and greater use of cytostatic drugs (Z > Z5%. A pathognomonic cystoscopic pattern of bladder involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus could not be established. Cystoscopic aspects similar to those seen in the initial or minor

  18. Leiomyoma of the bladder and MRI; IRM et leiomyome vesical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabbaj, N.; Dafiri, R.; Imani, F.; Benslimane, L.; Benchekroun, A. [Hopital Avicenne, Rabat (Morocco)

    1998-08-01

    Unlike epithelial tumors, connective tissue tumors are uncommon, representing only 3 % of all bladder tumors. Leiomyoma of the bladder is the most frequent non-epithelial benign tumor of the bladder. Magnetic resonance imaging (MIR) is highly useful for diagnostic purposes and to determine the degree of extension. Only few reports of sonographic findings have been reported for leiomyoma of the bladder. The tumor usually develops within the bladder. Extra-vesicular formations have also been reported as well as a few intramural localizations. The characteristic feature is the absence of mucosal involvement. We analyzed the MRI findings in a case of leiomyoma of the bladder with intra and extra-vesicular development inflammatory reaction of the bladder wall and uterine adherences in a woman with a past history of chronic cystitis. The role of diagnostic MRI is discussed. (author)

  19. Freezing of Apheresis Platelet Concentrates in 6% Dimethyl Sulfoxide: The First Preliminary Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yılmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Transfusion of platelet suspensions is an essential part of patient care for certain clinical indications. In this pioneering study in Turkey, we aimed to assess the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: Seven units of platelet concentrates were obtained by apheresis. Each apheresis platelet concentrate (APC was divided into 2 equal volumes and frozen with 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. The 14 frozen units of APCs were kept at -80 °C for 1 day. APCs were thawed at 37 °C and diluted either with autologous plasma or 0.9% NaCl. The volume and residual numbers of leukocytes and platelets were tested in both before-freezing and post-thawing periods. Aggregation and thrombin generation tests were used to analyze the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets. Flow-cytometric analysis was used to assess the presence of frozen treated platelets and their viability. Results: The residual number of leukocytes in both dilution groups was <1x106. The mean platelet recovery rate in the plasma-diluted group (88.1±9.5% was higher than that in the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (63±10%. These results were compatible with the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines quality criteria. Expectedly, there was no aggregation response to platelet aggregation test. The mean thrombin generation potential of postthaw APCs was higher in the plasma-diluted group (2411 nmol/L per minute when compared to both the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (1913 nmol/L per minute and the before-freezing period (1681 nmol/L per minute. The flowcytometric analysis results for the viability of APCs after cryopreservation were 94.9% and 96.6% in the plasma and 0.9% NaCl groups, respectively. Conclusion: Cryopreservation of platelets with 6% DMSO and storage at -80 °C increases their shelf life from 7 days to 2 years. Besides the increase in hemostatic functions of platelets, the cryopreservation process also does not affect their

  20. Microbial activity in aquatic environments measured by dimethyl sulfoxide reduction and intercomparison with commonly used methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebler, C; Slezak, D

    2001-01-01

    A new method to determine microbial (bacterial and fungal) activity in various freshwater habitats is described. Based on microbial reduction of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to dimethyl sulfide (DMS), our DMSO reduction method allows measurement of the respiratory activity in interstitial water, as well as in the water column. DMSO is added to water samples at a concentration (0.75% [vol/vol] or 106 mM) high enough to compete with other naturally occurring electron acceptors, as determined with oxygen and nitrate, without stimulating or inhibiting microbial activity. Addition of NaN(3), KCN, and formaldehyde, as well as autoclaving, inhibited the production of DMS, which proves that the reduction of DMSO is a biotic process. DMSO reduction is readily detectable via the formation of DMS even at low microbial activities. All water samples showed significant DMSO reduction over several hours. Microbially reduced DMSO is recovered in the form of DMS from water samples by a purge and trap system and is quantified by gas chromatography and detection with a flame photometric detector. The DMSO reduction method was compared with other methods commonly used for assessment of microbial activity. DMSO reduction activity correlated well with bacterial production in predator-free batch cultures. Cell-production-specific DMSO reduction rates did not differ significantly in batch cultures with different nutrient regimes but were different in different growth phases. Overall, a cell-production-specific DMSO reduction rate of 1.26 x 10(-17) +/- 0. 12 x 10(-17) mol of DMS per produced cell (mean +/- standard error; R(2) = 0.78) was calculated. We suggest that the relationship of DMSO reduction rates to thymidine and leucine incorporation is linear (the R(2) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.944), whereas there is an exponential relationship between DMSO reduction rates and glucose uptake, as well as incorporation (the R(2) values ranged from 0.821 to 0.931). Based on our results, we

  1. Bladder perforation in a peritoneal dialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ounissi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dysfunction of the catheter in peritoneal dialysis (PD is a frequent compli-cation. However, perforation of organs are rare, particularly that of the urinary bladder. This re-quires an early diagnosis and prompt treatment of patients. We report here the case of a 38-year-old woman having end-stage renal disease due to autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease treated by PD since November 2000. Three years later, she was treated for Staphylococcal peritonitis. Four months later, she presented with a severe urge to urinate at the time of the fluid exchanges. The biochemical analysis of the fluid from the bladder showed that it was dialysis fluid. Injection of contrast through the catheter demonstrated the presence of a fistula between the bladder and the peritoneal cavity. She underwent cystoscopic closure of the fistulous tract and the PD catheter was removed. Subsequently, the patient was treated by hemodialysis. One month later, a second catheter was implanted surgically after confirming the closure of the fistula. Ten days later, she presented with pain at the catheter site and along the tunnel, which was found to be swollen along its track. The injection of contrast produced swelling of the subcutaneous tunnel but without extravasation of the dye. PD was withdrawn and the patient was put back on hemodialysis. Bladder fistula is a rare complication in PD and diagnosis should be suspected when patient complains of an urge to pass urine during the exchanges, which can be confirmed by contrast study showing presence of dye in the bladder. PD may be possible after the closure of the fistula, but recurrence may occur.

  2. Potential of Endocannabinoids to Control Bladder Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale E. Bjorling

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bladder-related pain is one of the most common forms of visceral pain, and visceral pain is among the most common complaints for which patients seek physician consultation. Despite extensive studies of visceral innervation and treatment of visceral pain, opioids remain a mainstay for management of bladder pain. Side effects associated with opioid therapy can profoundly diminish quality of life, and improved options for treatment of bladder pain remain a high priority. Endocannabinoids, primarily anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, are endogenously-produced fatty acid ethanolamides with that induce analgesia. Animal experiments have demonstrated that inhibition of enzymes that degrade AEA or 2-AG have the potential to prevent development of visceral and somatic pain. Although experimental results in animal models have been promising, clinical application of this approach has proven difficult. In addition to fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH; degrades AEA and monacylglycerol lipase (MAGL; degrades 2-AG, cyclooxygenase (COX acts to metabolize endocannabinoids. Another potential limitation of this strategy is that AEA activates pro-nociceptive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 channels. Dual inhibitors of FAAH and TRPV1 or FAAH and COX have been synthesized and are currently undergoing preclinical testing for efficacy in providing analgesia. Local inhibition of FAAH or MAGL within the bladder may be viable options to reduce pain associated with cystitis with fewer systemic side effects, but this has not been explored. Further investigation is required before manipulation of the endocannabinoid system can be proven as an efficacious alternative for management of bladder pain.

  3. N-Boc Amines to Oxazolidinones via Pd(II)/Bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted Acid Co-Catalyzed Allylic C–H Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted acid catalyzed allylic C–H oxidation reaction for the synthesis of oxazolidinones from simple N-Boc amines is reported. A range of oxazolidinones are furnished in good yields (avg 63%) and excellent diastereoselectivities (avg 15:1) to furnish products regioisomeric from those previously obtained using allylic C–H amination reactions. Mechanistic studies suggest the role of the phosphoric acid is to furnish a Pd(II)bis-sulfoxide phosphate catalyst that promotes allylic C–H cleavage and π-allylPd functionalization with a weak, aprotic oxygen nucleophile and to assist in catalyst regeneration. PMID:24999765

  4. N-Boc amines to oxazolidinones via Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted acid co-catalyzed allylic C-H oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osberger, Thomas J; White, M Christina

    2014-08-06

    A Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted acid catalyzed allylic C-H oxidation reaction for the synthesis of oxazolidinones from simple N-Boc amines is reported. A range of oxazolidinones are furnished in good yields (avg 63%) and excellent diastereoselectivities (avg 15:1) to furnish products regioisomeric from those previously obtained using allylic C-H amination reactions. Mechanistic studies suggest the role of the phosphoric acid is to furnish a Pd(II)bis-sulfoxide phosphate catalyst that promotes allylic C-H cleavage and π-allylPd functionalization with a weak, aprotic oxygen nucleophile and to assist in catalyst regeneration.

  5. Syntheses and luminescence properties of two novel lanthanide (III) perchlorate complexes with phenacyl p-tolyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shu-Yan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Li, Wen-Xian, E-mail: nmglwx@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Zheng, Yu-Shan [Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Product Quality Inspection Institute, Hohhot 010070 (China); Xin, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Feng; Cao, Xiao-Fang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Two novel solid binary complexes of rare earth perchlorate with phenacyl p-tolyl sulfoxide were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, coordination titration analysis, IR, TG-DSC, {sup 1}HNMR and UV spectra. The results indicated that the composition of these complexes was REL{sub 7} (ClO{sub 4}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O (RE=Eu (III), Tb (III), L=C{sub 6}H{sub 5}COCH{sub 2}SOC{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3}). The study on IR spectra and {sup 1}HNMR spectra revealed that phenacyl p-tolyl sulfoxide bonded with RE{sup 3+} ions by the oxygen atom in sulfinyl group. The emission spectra illustrated that both the Eu (III) and Tb (III) complexes displayed excellent luminescence in solid state, and The most intensive characteristic emission of the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes were 245,400 a.u. and 298,000 a.u. respectively. The slit with was 1 nm. By analysis luminescence and phosphorescence spectrum, it was found that the ligand had the advantage to absorb energy and transfer it to the Eu (III) and Tb (III) ions. The fluorescence lifetimes of the complexes were measured as well as the quantum yield of the Eu (III) complex.

  6. The action of hyperthermia on gene expression in Friend erythroleukemia cells by dimethyl sulfoxide or X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Azzam, E.I.; Einspenner, M.; Ewing, D.; Borsa, J.

    1982-02-01

    The effect of heat on gene control and on cell killing by X-rays or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was studied in cultured Friend erythroleukemia cells (FELC). FELC are very sensitive to heat and X-rays in terms of survival, as measured by the colony-forming assay. Heat inactivation kinetics are similar for FELC and Chinese hamster cells. Thermal enhancement of cell inactivation by irradiation was observed at 42.0 and 45.0deg C, and increased as a function of heating time. The simultaneous application of heat and X-rays had a greater effect in terms of cell inactivation. Dimethyl sulfoxide could induce FELC to synthesize hemoglobin, and hyperthermia could inhibit this response. Likewise, hyperthermia could affect induction of heme synthesis by irradiation. Heating before irradiation enhanced production of heme synthesis, whereas heating after irradiation inhibited induction of heme synthesis. The effects of hyperthermia on the survival and gene induction endpoints were compared. Thus, heat can affect both cell survival and gene induction by irradiation or DMSO. The two endpoints of gene induction and survival (proliferative capacity) responded differently, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to heat and X-rays, implying that different cellular targets are affected for each of these endpoints

  7. Pulmonary toxicity of nanomaterials: a critical comparison of published in vitro assays and in vivo inhalation or instillation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsiedel, Robert; Sauer, Ursula G; Ma-Hock, Lan; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Wiemann, Martin

    2014-11-01

    To date, guidance on how to incorporate in vitro assays into integrated approaches for testing and assessment of nanomaterials is unavailable. In addressing this shortage, this review compares data from in vitro studies to results from in vivo inhalation or intratracheal instillation studies. Globular nanomaterials (ion-shedding silver and zinc oxide, poorly soluble titanium dioxide and cerium dioxide, and partly soluble amorphous silicon dioxide) and nanomaterials with higher aspect ratios (multiwalled carbon nanotubes) were assessed focusing on the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) reference nanomaterials for these substances. If in vitro assays are performed with dosages that reflect effective in vivo dosages, the mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity can be assessed. In early tiers of integrated approaches for testing and assessment, knowledge on mechanisms of toxicity serves to group nanomaterials thereby reducing the need for animal testing.

  8. Chemoradiotherapy as a bladder-preservation approach for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiyoshi, Yoshiteru

    2004-01-01

    Radical cystectomy has been considered the (gold standard for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder r cancer. However, because of disappointing results with radical surgery in terms of survival and decreased quality of life (QOL), bladder-preservation treatment has been introduced as an alternative to radical cystectomy. The primary purpose of the bladder-preservation approach has been to maximize overall cure rates, with the secondary purpose being to preserve the patient's bladder. The modalities used to ensure successful bladder preservation include radical transurethral resection (TUR), concurrent cisplatin (CDDP)-based chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. In patients who achieve a complete response (CR) after trimodality therapy, 5-year survival rates of more than 50%, the same as those of radical cystectomy, can be achieved and 70% of this group will retain an intact functional bladder. In this article, bladder-preservation studies using chemoradiotherapy are reviewed. (author)

  9. Single-walled carbon nanotubes disturbed the immune and metabolic regulation function 13-weeks after a single intratracheal instillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun-Jung, E-mail: pejtoxic@hanmail.net [Myunggok Eye Research Institute, Konyang University, Daejeon 302-718 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Young-Shick [Division of Food and Nutrition, Chonnam National University, Yongbong-Ro, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byoung-Seok [Toxicologic Pathology Center, Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Cheolho [Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 126-16 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Uiseok; Kim, Younghun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Due to their unique physicochemical properties, the potential health effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have attracted continuous attention together with their extensive application. In this study, we aimed to identify local and systemic health effects following pulmonary persistence of SWCNTs. As expected, SWCNTs remained in the lung for 13 weeks after a single intratracheal instillation (50, 100, and 200 μg/kg). In the lung, the total number of cells and the percentages of lymphocytes and neutrophils significantly increased at 200 μg/kg compared to the control, and the Th1-polarized immune response was induced accompanying enhanced expression of tissue damage-related genes and increased release of chemokines. Additionally, SWCNTs enhanced the expression of antigen presentation-related proteins on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, however, maturation of dendritic cells was inhibited by their persistence. As compared to the control, a significant increase in the percentage of neutrophils and a remarkable decrease of BUN and potassium level were observed in the blood of mice treated with the highest dose. This was accompanied by the down-regulation of the expression of antigen presentation-related proteins on splenocytes. Moreover, protein and glucose metabolism were disturbed with an up-regulation of fatty acid β-oxidation. Taken together, we conclude that SWCNTs may induce adverse health effects by disturbing immune and metabolic regulation functions in the body. Therefore, careful application of SWCNTs is necessary for the enforcement of safety in nano-industries. - Highlights: • We evaluated local and systemic health effects following persistence of SWCNTs. • SWCNTs remained in the lung for 13 weeks after a single intratracheal instillation. • Th1-polarized immune response was induced in the lung. • The expression of antigen presentation-related proteins was altered. • Immune and metabolic regulation function were disturbed.

  10. A bladder preservation regimen using intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, Naoto; Akaza, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to investigate combined treatment with intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation therapy for bladder preservation in locally invasive bladder cancer. Patients with invasive bladder cancer, stage T2-3N0M0, were included in the study. lntra-arterial chemotherapy was performed with three injections of methotrexate and cisplatin at 3-week intervals. Simultaneously, the patients underwent X-ray irradiation (40 Gy) of the small pelvic space. Where a post-treatment transurethral resection (TUR) biopsy showed no residual tumor, the tumor site was irradiated by a 30 Gy proton beam and the bladder was preserved. Where tumors remained, radical cystectomy was performed. Between 1990 and 1996, 42 patients were treated according to this protocol. Post-treatment TUR biopsy and urine cytology showed no residual tumors in 39 of 42 cases (93%). The bladder was preserved in accordance with the study protocol in 36 cases. A median follow-up of 38 months showed 3-year non-recurrence in 72% of bladder-preserved patients and the rate of bladder preservation was 84%. The nine recurrences included eight cases of superficial bladder recurrence. One cancer death occurred among the bladder-preservation patients, giving 3-year survival and cause-specific survival rates of 84% and 100%, respectively. Although bladder function decreased slightly in compliance, bladder capacity was retained in almost all cases. This regimen is useful for bladder preservation in T2-3 locally invasive bladder cancer. Information from more cases and the results of more long-term observations are needed, as is an evaluation of appropriate subject selection and factors associated with quality of life issues, particularly regarding bladder function. (author)

  11. Comparing Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy Combined With Intravesical Chemotherapy Versus Intravesical Chemotherapy Alone: A Randomised Prospective Pilot Study for T1G3 Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma After Bladder-Preserving Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junxing, E-mail: Junxingchen@hotmail.com; Yao, Zhijun, E-mail: yaozhijun1985@qq.com; Qiu, Shaopeng, E-mail: qiushp@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Chen, Lingwu, E-mail: chenlingwu@hotmail.com [First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Urology (China); Wang, Yu, E-mail: zsyyjr@163.com; Yang, Jianyong, E-mail: yangjianyong_2011@163.com; Li, Jiaping, E-mail: jpli3s@126.com [First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Interventional Oncology (China)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of intra-arterial chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy versus intravesical chemotherapy alone for T1G3 bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) followed by bladder-preserving surgery. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with T1G3 BTCC were randomly divided into two groups. After bladder-preserving surgery, 29 patients (age 30-80 years, 24 male and 5 female) received intra-arterial chemotherapy in combination with intravesical chemotherapy (group A), whereas 31 patients (age 29-83 years, 26 male and 5 female) were treated with intravesical chemotherapy alone (group B). Twenty-nine patients were treated with intra-arterial epirubicin (50 mg/m{sup 2}) + cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2}) chemotherapy 2-3 weeks after bladder-preserving surgery once every 4-6 weeks. All of the patients received the same intravesical chemotherapy: An immediate prophylactic was administered in the first 6 h. After that, therapy was administered one time per week for 8 weeks and then one time per month for 8 months. The instillation drug was epirubicin (50 mg/m{sup 2}) and lasted for 30-40 min each time. The end points were tumour recurrence (stage Ta, T1), tumour progression (to T2 or greater), and disease-specific survival. During median follow-up of 22 months, the overall survival rate, tumour-specific death rate, recurrence rate, progression rate, time to first recurrence, and adverse reactions were compared between groups. Results: The recurrence rates were 10.3 % (3 of 29) in group A and 45.2 % (14 of 31) in group B, and the progression rates were 0 % (0 of 29) in group A and 22.6 % (7 of 31) in group B. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding recurrence (p = 0.004) and progression rates (p = 0.011). Median times to first recurrence in the two groups were 15 and 6.5 months, respectively. The overall survival rates were 96.6 and 87.1 %, and the tumour-specific death rates were 0 % (0 of 29) and 13.5 % (4 of 31

  12. Bladder wall thickness and ultrasound estimated bladder weight in healthy adults with portative ultrasound device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcen Kanyilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate bladder wall thickness (BWT and ultrasound estimated bladder weight (UEBW values in healthy population with a portative ultrasound device and their relationship with demographic parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Neurorehabilitation Clinic of Ege University Hospital. Ninety-five subjects (48 women and 47 men aged between 18 and 56 were included in the study. BWT and UEBW were determined non-invasively with a portative ultrasound device; Bladder Scan BVM 6500 (Verathon Inc., WA, USA at a frequency of 3.7 MHz at functional bladder capacity. These values were compared by gender, and their relation was assessed with age, body mass index (BMI and parity. Results: Mean BWT was 2.0 ± 0.4 mm and UEBW was 44.6 ± 8.3 g at a mean volume of 338.0 ± 82.1 ml. Although higher results were obtained in men at higher bladder volumes, the results did not differ significantly by gender. Correlation analyses revealed statistically significant correlation between UEBW and age (r = 0.32. BWT was negatively correlated with volume (r = -0.50 and bladder surface area (r = -0.57. Also, statistically significant correlations were observed between UEBW and volume (r = 0.36, bladder surface area (r = 0.48 and BWT (r = 0.25. Conclusion: Determined values of BWT and UEBW in healthy population are estimated with portative ultrasound devices, which are future promising, for their convenient, easy, non-invasive, time-efficient hand-held use for screening.

  13. Bladder leiomyoma presenting as dyspareunia: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jun; Lai, Hai-Ping; Lin, Shao-Kun; Zhang, Qing-Quan; Shao, Chu-Xiao; Jin, Lie; Lei, Wen-Hui

    2016-07-01

    Leiomyoma of the bladder is a rare tumor arising from the submucosa. Most patients with bladder leiomyoma may present with urinary frequency or obstructive urinary symptoms. However, there are a few cases of bladder leiomyoma coexisting with uterine leiomyoma presenting as dyspareunia. We herein report an unusual case of coexisting bladder leiomyoma and uterine leiomyoma presenting as dyspareunia. A 44-year-old Asian female presented to urologist and complained that she had experienced dyspareunia over the preceding several months. A pelvic ultrasonography revealed a mass lesion located in the trigone of urinary bladder. The mass lesion was confirmed on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). The CT scan also revealed a lobulated and enlarged uterus consistent with uterine leiomyoma. Then, the biopsies were then taken with a transurethral resection (TUR) loop and these biopsies showed a benign proliferation of smooth muscle in a connective tissue stroma suggestive of bladder leiomyoma. An open local excision of bladder leiomyoma and hysteromyomectomy were performed successfully. Histological examination confirmed bladder leiomyoma coexisting with uterine leiomyoma. This case highlights a rare presentation of bladder leiomyoma, dyspareunia, as the chief symptom in a patient who had coexisting uterine leiomyoma. Bladder leiomyomas coexisting with uterine leiomyomas are rare and can present with a wide spectrum of complaints including without symptoms, irritative symptoms, obstructive symptoms, or even dyspareunia.

  14. DNA strand breaks, acute phase response and inflammation following pulmonary exposure by instillation to the diesel exhaust particle NIST1650b in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Saber, Anne T.

    2015-01-01

    by the alkaline comet assay as DNA strand breaks in BAL cells, lung and liver tissue. The pulmonary acute phase response was analysed by Saa3 mRNA levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Instillation of DEP induced a strong neutrophil influx 1 and 3 days, but not 28 days post-exposure. Saa3 m...

  15. Colleges Urged to Instill "Charitable Impulse" in Students, Inspire Them to Reorient Public Policy as Well as Donate Their Time and Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Liz

    1987-01-01

    The president of the Council on Foundations, James A. Joseph, urges educators to develop volunteers who can eliminate the causes of social problems. Colleges and universities are in a special position to instill a sense of social responsibility in students. (MLW)

  16. Bladder chondrosarcoma plus urothelial carcinoma in recurred transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Hyun; Kim, Sung Han; Park, Weon Seo; Joung, Jae Young; Seo, Ho Kyung; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-10-20

    Sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma (SUC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the urinary bladder comprising 0.2-0.6 % of all histological bladder tumor subtypes. It presents as a high-stage malignancy and exhibits aggressive biological behavior, regardless of the treatment employed. It is defined as histologically indistinguishable from sarcoma and as a high-grade biphasic neoplasm with malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. The mean age of patients presenting with SUC is 66 years, and the male-to-female ratio is 3:1. In addition, gross hematuria is usually present. The prognosis of SUC is poorer than that of typical urothelial carcinoma because of uncertainty concerning the optimal treatment regimen. We report the case of a 77-year-old woman with SUC containing a chondrosarcoma component who, 12 years previously, had undergone a nephroureterectomy for pT3N0M0 ureter cancer of the contralateral upper urinary tract. From the 4th year of follow-up after nephroureterectomy, multiple recurrent bladder tumors staged as Ta transitional cell carcinoma developed, and six transurethral resections of the bladder (TURB) with multiple intravesical instillations were performed without any evidence of metastases and upper tract recurrences. In 2015, a right partial distal ureterectomy and an additional TURB were performed due to a papillary mass at the right contralateral ureterovesical junction of the bladder, which was confirmed as a high-grade pT1 transitional cell carcinoma. After a further 2 years of follow-up, total pelvic exenteration with an ileal conduit diversion was performed to remove the mass, which was a pT4N0M0 tumor composed of carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements compatible with a sarcomatoid carcinoma including grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma and chondrosarcoma. Immunohistochemical examination showed that tumor cells were positive for vimentin and p63 and negative for NSE and Cd56 markers. In the first postoperative month, a metastatic lung nodule

  17. Building tools for image-guided adaptive radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, X.

    2012-01-01

    From this thesis, we can conclude that the injection of lipiodol markers into the bladder wall is a feasible method to track bladder tumors for IGRT of partial bladder. We succeeded in developing a biomechanical bladder model and bladder segmentation methods for online CBCT, which are useful tools

  18. Bladder preservation for locally advanced bladder cancer by transurethral resection, systemic chemotherapy and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Masahito; Satoh, Mototaka; Tujimoto, Yuichi; Takada, Tuyoshi; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Fujioka, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-three out of 31 patients with clinical T2-4a N0 M0 bladder cancer and given a trial of trimodality therapy including transurethral resection (TUR), systemic chemotherapy and radiation between 1991 and 2002 completed this therapy. The other 8 dropped out because of insufficient clinical effect. Local bladder recurrence was seen in 3 patients and the bladder preservation rate was 64.5%. Nineteen of the 23 patients showed a complete histological response on a subsequent TUR specimen, the other 4 were not examined for histological response. Thirteen of the 19 patients showed a complete histological response after maximal TUR and systemic chemotherapy, while 6 did after TUR, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Bladder cancer was T2 in, 15, T3 in 1, and T4a in 3 patients. The CR rate for T2 cancer was significantly higher than that for T3-4a cancer. The 5-year disease-specific survival of the 23 patients treated with preservation therapy was 67.1%. Some of the patients with locally advanced bladder cancer may benefit from this preservation therapy. (author)

  19. Carcinoma Gall Bladder: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Y

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma gall bladder is a very aggressive disease with poor outcomes. Despite achievements in the field of advanced imaging techniques, there is a very high mortality rate of the disease Cancer is the second most common disease in India responsible for maximum mortality with about 0.3 million deaths per year. The magnitude of cancer problem in the Indian Sub-continent (sheer numbers is increasing due to poor to moderate living standards and inadequate medical facilities. Women are more commonly affected than men. The peak incidence occurs in people in their 60s, but the disease age range is from 29 to 90 years of age and there is great geographic and ethnic variation. Carcinoma gall bladder, a disease of old age, is now found in the younger age group and presents with greater ferocity.

  20. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as "probably carcinogenic to humans" based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry...... cleaners. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry. METHODS: Random-effects meta-analyses were...... carried out separately for occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene and employment as a dry cleaner. We qualitatively summarized exposure-response data because of the limited number of studies available. RESULTS: The meta-relative risk (mRR) among tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers was 1.08 (95% CI...