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Sample records for sulfonamide veterinary residues

  1. Residual veterinary antibiotics in pig excreta after oral administration of sulfonamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jinrong; Zhao, Tao; Liu, Qingyun; He, Jinhua; He, Dechun; Wu, Genyi; Li, Yongtao; Jiang, Chengai; Xu, Zhencheng

    2016-04-01

    Sulfonamides (SAs) are applied widely as feed additives in the farming of livestock and poultry. It can lead to the excretion of large amounts of SAs in manure and result in persistent environmental pollution. We evaluated the fate of four SAs, sulfamerazine (SM1), sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), sulfadimoxine (SDM') and sulfaquinoxaline (SQ), from oral administration to excretion in urine and feces in pigs. The four SAs were added to homemade feed to make them reach the required concentration gradient, which were 0, 50 and 100 mg/kg (low, normal and high concentrations, respectively). In different treatments, excretions of the four SAs were 35.68-86.88 %. With regard to total excretion, the order was SQ > SCP > SM1 > SDM' for all treatments. The concentration of SAs in the feed had significant effects on the amount of the four SAs excreted every day. The concentration of SAs in feces and in the urine for different treatments was 15.03-26.55 and 14.54-69.22 %, respectively. In each treatment, excretions of SCP, SDM' and SQ in feces were lower than that in urine. The four SAs remained longer in urine than in feces. Excretions in urine and feces were lower if SAs were administered orally rather than by injection.

  2. Simple and sensitive monitoring of sulfonamide veterinary residues in milk by stir bar sorptive extraction based on monolithic material and high performance liquid chromatography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojia; Qiu, Ningning; Yuan, Dongxing

    2009-11-13

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for the quantitative monitoring of five sulfonamide antibacterial residues (SAs) in milk was developed by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coupling to high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The analytes were concentrated by SBSE based on poly (vinylimidazole-divinylbenzene) monolithic material as coating. The extraction procedure was very simple, milk was diluted with water then directly sorptive extraction without elimination of fats and protein in samples was required. To achieve optimum extraction performance for SAs, several parameters, including extraction and desorption time, desorption solvent, ionic strength and pH value of sample matrix were investigated. Under the optimized experimental conditions, low detection limits (S/N=3) quantification limits (S/N=10) of the proposed method for the target compounds were achieved within the range of 1.30-7.90 ng/mL and 4.29-26.3 ng/mL from spiked milk, respectively. Good linearities were obtained for SAs with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) above 0.996. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of SAs compounds in different milk samples and satisfied recoveries of spiked target compounds in real samples were obtained.

  3. Application of Stable Isotope in Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Liu Zhanfeng; Du Xiaoning

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has happened a series of significant food safety events worldwide, which lower down consumers' confidence in food safety, and they are taking increasing care about the sources of their foods. The safety problem of animal-origin foods has become a global topic for discussion. Therefore, it is a pressing task to establish a precise, sensitive and reliable method for analyzing veterinary drug residue. An introduction of the present status regarding veterinary drug residue analysis was made in the paper, and it briefly summarized the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) which could be reached in veterinary drug residue analysis by isotopic internal standard method domestically and abroad. The paper also made a review of the progress in applied research of stable isotope labeled compound in veterinary drug residue analysis of, such as, antibiotic medicines, furans and sulfonamides. The paper elucidated the great importance of the application of stable isotopes in the sane development of China's food safety system. (authors)

  4. Development of flow-through and dip-stick immunoassays for screening of sulfonamide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo

    2008-08-20

    Two formats of membrane-based competitive enzyme immunoassays (flow-through and dip-stick) have been developed for the screening of sulfonamide residues in pig muscle and milk. Membrane was coated with anti-sulfonamide antibody and a sulfonamide hapten D2-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugant was used as the labeled antigen for competitive assay of sulfonamides. Visual detection limits of the flow-through or dip-stick assay were 1-5 microg L(-1) or 1-10 microg L(-1) in buffer for seven sulfonamides, respectively. Assay validation was performed using samples spiked with single sulfonamide, spiked samples were tested using the developed strip assays and results were compared with those obtained by a validated high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) method. Results showed that the two strip assays were correlated well with HPLC, respectively. With assay times of 5 min (flow-through) and 15 min (dip-stick), these rapid tests could offer simple, rapid and cost-effective on-site screening tools to detect sulfonamides in pig muscle (flow-through or dip-stick) or milk (only dip-stick).

  5. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  6. Development of an analytical method for determination of sulfonamide residues in eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Azzeddine, Chams

    2009-01-01

    For the determination of sulfonamide residues in eggs, Premitest is selected for screening, providing a qualitative biological approach, it is inexpensive, fast, multi-elements and easy to implement. The H. P.L.C. / UV is the quantitative method of choice for confirmation and determination of these contaminants. During my internship, I had the opportunity to participate in the development of this method. It is recognized slower and more expensive but more specific and more sensitive. In this report, I present this optimized method and some criteria checked during my internship. Other criteria are to be completed to validate the method that will be subsequently used for routine analysis.

  7. The residues and environmental risks of multiple veterinary antibiotics in animal faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Xue-Lian; Li, Wei; Lu, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Bei; Wang, Jing

    2013-03-01

    To understand the residues and ecological risks of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in animal faeces from concentrated animal feeding operations in northeastern China, 14 VAs were identified by high performance liquid chromatography, and the preliminary risks of six antibiotics were assessed using the hazard quotient (HQ). The investigated VAs occurred in 7.41 to 57.41 % of the 54 samples, and the levels ranged from 0.08 to 56.81 mg kg(-1). Tetracyclines were predominant with a maximum level of 56.81 mg kg(-1) mostly detected in pig faeces. Sulfonamides were common and detected with the highest concentration of 7.11 mg kg(-1). Fluoroquinolones were more widely detected in chicken faeces rather than in pig or cow faeces, which contained the dominant antibiotic enrofloxacin. In comparison, the residue of tylosin was less frequently found. The risk evaluations of the six antibiotics revealed that tetracyclines, especially oxytetracycline, displayed the greatest ecological risk because of its high HQ value of 15.75. The results of this study imply that multiple kinds of VAs were jointly used in animal feeding processes in the study area. These medicine residues in animal faeces may potentially bring ecological risks if the animal manure is not treated effectively.

  8. 75 FR 50771 - Draft Revised Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ...] (formerly Docket No. 1999D-4071) Draft Revised Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in New Veterinary...) entitled ``Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products, Active Substances and Excipients... 2001 final guidance), has been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on...

  9. Review on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for sulfonamide residues in edible animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Shuo

    2009-10-31

    The current status of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for sulfonamides in edible animal products is reviewed. The attention was focused on the design and synthesis of haptens, conjugation to carrier protein, production of antibody, application of homologous and heterologous systems, as well as the molecular modeling of the haptens and sulfonamides. Researches have shown that sulfonamides seem to be particularly resistant to attempts to produce broad specificity antibodies. By summarizing the available research on sulfonamide ELISAs, it is hoped that it can be considered as a basis for further investigation aimed at developing the most efficient approaches for detection.

  10. 76 FR 67746 - Revised Guidance for Industry on Impurities: Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ...] Revised Guidance for Industry on Impurities: Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products... Veterinary Medicinal Products, Active Substances and Excipients (Revision)'' VICH GL18(R). This revised guidance has been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of...

  11. Rapid trace level determination of sulfonamide residues in honey with online extraction using short C-18 column by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Na, Na; Safdar, Muhammad; Lu, Xin; Ma, Lin; He, Lan; Ouyang, Jin

    2013-11-01

    A sensitive and inexpensive quantification method with online extraction using a short C-18 column for sulfonamide residues in honey by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was developed and validated. In sample preparation, acid hydrolysis was used to break the N-glycoside bond between the honey sugar and sulfonamide drugs and derivatization of sulfonamide residues with fluorescamine was conducted at pH 3.5 using a citrate buffer (0.5M) in the honey matrix. The chromatography was carried out on Zorbax Extended C-18 (250mm×4.6mm; 5μm) column, using a mixture of acetonitrile and an acetate buffer (pH 4.50, 20mM) as a mobile phase. A Zorbax Extended C-18 (12mm×4.6mm; 5μm) column was used for online extraction of fifteen sulfonamide residues from honey sample with the help of a two position valve. The limit of quantification of sulfonamide residues in honey was less than 3ngg(-1), and the percentage recovery of study compounds in spiked honey sample was from 80% for sulfacetamide to 100% of sulfachloropyridazine. The developed method has excellent linearity for all studied sulfonamides with a correlation coefficient 0.993. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Survey of Veterinary Drug Residues in Raw Milk in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rong-Wei; Yu, Zhong-Na; Zhen, Tian-Yuan; Wang, Jun

    2017-10-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in raw milk from Hebei, the second-largest dairy production province in the People's Republic of China. A total of 192 raw milk samples were collected from 64 milk stations in seven districts. Twenty-eight veterinary drug residues were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry based on a China National Standard. Raw milk samples with multiple residues of veterinary drugs were not found in the present study. Residues of four veterinary drugs, penicillin G, sulfacetamide, trimethoprim, and lincomycin, were detected in 12 (6.25%) raw milk samples, with detection ratios of 1.04, 0.52, 3.13, and 1.56%, respectively. All veterinary drug residues detected were under the maximum residue levels as regulated by China, the European Union, the United States, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In general, raw milk from Hebei province was considered relatively safe for human consumption because of the low prevalence of veterinary drug residues. However, stringent control measurements for veterinary drug residues in raw milk are required because some veterinary drugs were detected in milk from some areas of Hebei province.

  13. Residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Zuidema, T.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Two major trends are observed in the analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents. First is the selection of sample material for monitoring the use of registered veterinary drugs. Traditionally meat, kidney and liver were analyzed but, due to the food scandals in which meat was very

  14. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  15. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  16. Residues of veterinary antibiotics in manures from feedlot livestock in eight provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Dong, Yuan Hua; Wang, Hui

    2010-02-01

    The residue levels of selected fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines in 143 animal dung samples collected in 2007 from large-scale livestock and poultry feedlots in 8 provinces were determined by using ultrasonic extraction and liquid chromatography. Recoveries from spiked pig dung samples (spike level=1mg/kg) ranged from 73.9 to 102.0% for fluoroquinolones, from 81.6 to 92.3% for sulfonamides, and from 57.2 to 72.6% for tetracyclines. Relative standard deviations of the recoveries were less than 10% within the same day. Method quantification limits were measured from 0.031 to 0.150 mg/kg for fluoroquinolones, from 0.023 to 0.082 mg/kg for sulfonamides, and 0.091 to 0.182 mg/kg for tetracyclines in spiked pig manure samples. Analysis of 61 pig, 54 chicken and 28 cow dung samples collected in China revealed that in pig and cow dung, up to 33.98 and 29.59 mg/kg ciprofloxacin, 33.26 and 46.70 mg/kg enrofloxacin, 59.06 and 59.59 mg/kg oxytetracycline, and 21.06 and 27.59 mg/kg chlortetracycline could be detected, respectively. A maximum concentration of 99.43 mg/kg fleroxacin, 225.45 mg/kg norfloxacin, 45.59 mg/kg ciprofloxacin and 1420.76 mg/kg enrofloxacin could be detected in chicken dung. No appreciable sulfonamide antibiotic concentrations (less than 10mg/kg) were found in any animal dung, and only sulfadimidine was observed, at a maximum concentration of 6.04 mg/kg, in chicken dung. Both enrofloxacin and chlortetracycline were detected with a very high occurrence in three animal manure samples. The residue levels for most antibiotics showed significant statistical differences among the sampling districts and the animal species. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Database dedicated to information published during the Benelux conferences on hormone and veterinary drug residue analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impens, S.; Brabander, H.F. de; Bergwerff, A.A.; Ginkel, L.A. van; Schilt, R.; Stephany, R.W.; Wasch, K. de; Courtheyn, D.; Peteghem, C. van

    2002-01-01

    Every other year scientists working in the field of residue analysis participate the "International Symposium on Hormone and Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis" and "Euroresidue" conferences. In each symposium a lot of innovative information is presented. In order to obtain a retrieval system for this

  18. Development of irradiation technique on degradation residue of pesticide veterinary drugs and mycotoxins in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiang; Huang Min; Chen Hao; Wu Ling; Gao Peng; Wang Yan; Lei Qing

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation technology is a new processing technology, It was widely used in food, medicines and medical supplies, chemical and other industries. In this paper, illustrated their applications in the degradation of pesticides, veterinary drugs and mycotoxins aspects residual pollution in food. Analysis of residual contaminants in food irradiation control study limitations and look forward to the prospect of food irradiation technology. (authors)

  19. Quantum Dots Applied to Methodology on Detection of Pesticide and Veterinary Drug Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia-Wei; Zou, Xue-Mei; Song, Shang-Hong; Chen, Guan-Hua

    2018-02-14

    The pesticide and veterinary drug residues brought by large-scale agricultural production have become one of the issues in the fields of food safety and environmental ecological security. It is necessary to develop the rapid, sensitive, qualitative and quantitative methodology for the detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues. As one of the achievements of nanoscience, quantum dots (QDs) have been widely used in the detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues. In these methodology studies, the used QD-signal styles include fluorescence, chemiluminescence, electrochemical luminescence, photoelectrochemistry, etc. QDs can also be assembled into sensors with different materials, such as QD-enzyme, QD-antibody, QD-aptamer, and QD-molecularly imprinted polymer sensors, etc. Plenty of study achievements in the field of detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues have been obtained from the different combinations among these signals and sensors. They are summarized in this paper to provide a reference for the QD application in the detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues.

  20. Development of Analytical Method and Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Korean Animal Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Sang; Park, Su-Jeong; Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kang, Myung-Hee; Choi, Bo-Kyung; Hur, Sun Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the residual amount of veterinary drugs such as meloxicam, flunixin, and tulathromycin in animal products (beef, pork, horsemeat, and milk). Veterinary drugs have been widely used in the rearing of livestock to prevent and treat diseases. A total of 152 samples were purchased from markets located in major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Ulsan and Jeju), including Jeju. Veterinary drugs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the Korean Food Standards Code. The resulting data, which are located within 70-120% of recovery range and less than 20% of relative standard deviations, are in compliance with the criteria of CODEX. A total of five veterinary drugs were detected in 152 samples, giving a detection rate of approximately 3.3%; and no food source violated the guideline values. Our result indicated that most of the veterinary drug residues in animal products were below the maximum residue limits specified in Korea.

  1. Surveillance of veterinary drug residues in pork meat in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rakotoharinome

    2015-06-01

    Table I presents the results of the percentage of positive samples in the various regions of Madagascar. On average 37.2% sam­ples were contaminated by antimicrobial residues. A significant increase from 32 to 39% was observed between 2010 and 2011, respectively. No significant differences were found between samples according to sex, breed or age class in individual ani­mals. No differences between pig farm origins were found either (Figure 1. However, Amoron’i Mania Region, and particularly suburban Ambositra, was the most contaminated area in 2010 (67%; n = 9 and Melaky region (Western Madagascar in 2011. Pork meat samples originating from the same production area were less contaminated by drug residues when the animals were slaughtered in urban abattoirs compared to provincial abat­toirs. In this first step toward a national surveillance system, we confirm that drug residues in animal products are a serious public health concern for Madagascar.

  2. The effect of processing on veterinary residues in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, W A

    1999-01-01

    Heat stability of antibiotics in foods to cooking has been determined by a variety of methods. These include heating in such liquid media as milk, water, buffers and meat extracts, and in solids such as buffered meat homogenates and various sausages. Inactivation of incurred residues in tissues and eggs was also studied. Time and temperature of heating were more easily controlled in liquid media, but results in actual meat products are more indicative of actual cooking processes. Ordinary cooking procedures for meat, even to "well-done", cannot be relied on to inactivate even the more heat sensitive compounds such as penicillins and tetracyclines. More severe heating as for canning or prolonged cooking with moist heat can inactivate the more heat sensitive compounds. The relevance to food safety is uncertain since the nature of the degradation products is unknown in most cases.

  3. Screening of veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS/MS. Background and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatour, Thierry; Racault, Lucie; Bessaire, Thomas; Desmarchelier, Aurélien

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory agencies and government authorities have established maximum residue limits (MRL) in various food matrices of animal origin for supporting governments and food operators in the monitoring of veterinary drug residues in the food chain, and ultimately in the consumer's plate. Today, about 200 veterinary drug residues from several families, mainly with antibiotic, antiparasitic or antiinflammatory activities, are regulated in a variety of food matrices such as milk, meat or egg. This article provides a review of the regulatory framework in milk and muscle including data from Codex Alimentarius, Europe, the U.S.A., Canada and China for about 220 veterinary drugs. The article also provides a comprehensive overview of the challenge for food control, and emphasizes the pivotal role of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), either in tandem with quadrupoles (LC-MS/MS) or high resolution MS (LC-HRMS), for ensuring an adequate consumer protection combined with an affordable cost. The capability of a streamlined LC-MS/MS platform for screening 152 veterinary drug residues in a broad range of raw materials and finished products is highlighted in a production line perspective. The rationale for a suite of four methods intended to achieve appropriate performance in terms of scope and sensitivity is presented. Overall, the platform encompasses one stream for the determination of 105 compounds in a run (based on acidic QuEChERS-like), plus two streams for 23 β-lactams (alkaline QuEChERS-like) and 10 tetracyclines (low-temperature partitioning), respectively, and a dedicated stream for 14 aminoglycosides (molecularly-imprinted polymer).

  4. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for seven sulfonamide residues and investigation of matrix effects from different food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Guozhen; Zheng, Wenjie; Wang, Shuo

    2007-03-21

    Direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed to detect a broad range of sulfonamides in various matrices. Screening for this class of antibiotics in pig muscle, chicken muscle, fish, and egg extracts was accomplished by simple, rapid extraction methods carried out with only phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer. Twenty milliliters of extract solution was added to 4 g of sample to extract the sulfonamide residues, and sample extracts diluted with assay buffer were directly analyzed by ELISA; matrix effects could be avoided with 1:5 dilution of pig muscle, chicken muscle, and egg extracts with PBS and 1:5 dilution of fish extract with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA)-PBS. For liver sample, the extraction method was a little more complicated; 2 g of sample was added to 20 mL of ethanol, mixed, and then centrifuged. The solvent of 10 mL of the upper liquid was removed, and the residues were dissolved in 10 mL of PBS and then filtered; the filtrate was diluted two-fold with 0.5% BSA-PBS for ELISA. These common methods were able to detect seven sulfonamide residues such as sulfisozole, sulfathiazole, sufameter, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethizole, and sulfachlorpyridazine in pig muscle, liver, chicken muscle, egg, and fish. The assay's detection limits for these compounds were less than 100 microg kg-1. Various extraction methods were tested, and the average recovery (n=3) of 100 microg kg-1 for the matrices was found to range from 77.3 to 123.7%.

  5. Determination of veterinary antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin by liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Enrique La Rosa Zambrano

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available TITLE: Determination of veterinary antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin by liquid chromatography Introduction: The presence of certain infectious agents makes necessary the use of antibiotics to ensure the welfare of animals destined for human consumption; however, the withdrawal time must be considered and respected since there is the possibility of finding residues above the permitted levels, which could constitute a risk to public health. Objective: Present a collection of information based on how is performed the detection and quantification of antibiotic residues in various products of animal origin using chromatography methods. Method: Review of databases in Elsevier, SciELO, Springer, Hindawi, FAO, EFSA, Senasa and Sanipes, using keywords such as “liquid chromatography”, “mass spectrometry”, “antibiotic residues” and “products of animal origin” in Spanish and English. Results: They were selected 71 references among articles, book chapters, norms and regulations published between 2000 and 2017, which it is emphasized that chromatographic methodologies for antibiotic residues monitoring must be sensitive, reproducible, reliable and identify volumes in mg/kg; likewise, they must follow the requirements of international standards for the maximum residue limits detecction. Conclusions: Liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer is the most used technique to allow the separation of complex matrices based on the molecular weight of the compound (antibiotic or its fragments; however, It is complex, expensive and requires highly trained personnel.

  6. Veterinary antibiotic resistance, residues, and ecological risks in environmental samples obtained from poultry farms, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Nabawy, Ehab Elsayed

    2015-02-01

    In Egypt, poultry production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) into the environment. About 80 % of meat production in Egypt is of poultry origin, and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of VAs in these farms have not yet been properly evaluated. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enteric key bacteria and the incidence of residual antibiotics in poultry farm environmental samples and to determine whether fertilizing soils with poultry litter from farms potentially brings ecological risks. From December 2011 to September 2012, a total of 225 litter, bird dropping, and water samples were collected from 75 randomly selected boiler poultry farms. A high prevalence of Escherichia coli (n = 179; 79.5 %) in contrast to the low prevalence of Salmonella spp. (n = 7; 3.1 %) was detected. Amongst E. coli isolates, serotypes O142:K86, O125:K70, O91:K, and O119:K69 were the most common. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica serotypes emek and enteritidis were recovered. The antibiograms using the disc diffusion method revealed significantly more common resistant and multi-resistant isolates in broiler poultry farms. Residues of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were detected at 2.125 and 1.401 mg kg(-1) mean levels, respectively, in environmental samples contaminated with E. coli-resistant strains by HPLC. The risk evaluations highlighted that tetracycline residues in poultry litter significantly display environmental risks with a hazard quotient value above 1 (1.64). Our study implies that ineffective implementation of veterinary laws which guide and guard against incorrect VA usage may potentially bring health and environmental risks.

  7. Immunology-Based Techniques for the Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Milagro; Toldrá, Fidel

    Veterinary drugs are used in farm animals, via the feed or the drinking water, to prevent the outbreak of diseases or even for the treatment of diseases. However, the growth of animals may be promoted through the use of hormones and antibiotics. Depending on the type of residue and the application and washing conditions, these substances or its metabolites may remain in meat and other foods of animal origin and may cause adverse effects on consumers’ health. This is the main reason why its use is strictly regulated or even banned (case of the European Union) in different countries. Antibiotics typically used for growth promotion include chloramphenicol, nitrofurans, and enrofloxacin but others like sulphonamides, macrolides etc. may also be used (Reig & Toldrá, 2007).

  8. Comparison of veterinary drug residue results in animal tissues by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole ... use of a commercial lipid removal product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary drug residues in animal-derived foods must be monitored to ensure food safety, verify proper veterinary practices, enforce legal limits in domestic and imported foods, and other purposes. A common goal in drug residue analysis in foods is to achieve acceptable monitoring results for as m...

  9. Analytical strategies for residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents in food-producing animals - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2005-01-01

    After a brief introduction into the field of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents, the most important EU regulations and directives for the inspection of food-producing animals and animal products regarding the residue control of these substances are presented and discussed. Main attention

  10. Evaluation of a method for assaying sulfonamide antimicrobial residues in cheese: hot-water extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Giorgio; Bogialli, Sara; Curini, Roberta; Di Corcia, Antonio; Laganá, Aldo

    2006-06-28

    Several sulfonamide antimicrobials (SAAs) are largely used in veterinary medicine. A rapid, specific, and sensitive procedure for determining 12 SAAs in cheese is presented. The method is based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion technique followed by liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS) equipped with an electrospray ion source. Target compounds were extracted from Mozzarella, Asiago, Parmigiano, Emmenthal, and Camembert cheese samples by 6 mL of water modified with 10% methanol and heated at 120 degrees C. The addition of methanol to hot water served to improve remarkably extraction yields of the most lipophilic SAAs, that is, sulfadimethoxine and sulfaquinoxaline. After acidification and filtration, 100 microL of the aqueous extract was injected in the LC column. MS data acquisition was performed in the multireaction monitoring mode, selecting two precursor-to-product ion transitions for each target compound. Methanol-modified hot water appeared to be an efficient extractant, because absolute recovery ranged between 67 and 88%. Using sulfamoxole as surrogate analyte, recovery of the 12 analytes spiked in the five types of cheese considered at the 50 ng/g level ranged between 75 and 105% with RSD not higher than 11%. Statistical analysis of the mean recovery data showed that the extraction efficiency was not affected by the type of cheese analyzed. This result indicates this method could be applied to other cheese types not considered here. The accuracy of the method was determined at three spike levels, that is, 20, 50, and 100 ng/g, and varied between 73 and 102% with relative standard deviations ranging between 4 and 12%. On the basis of a signal-to-noise ratio of 10, limits of quantification were estimated to be <1 ng/g.

  11. Analysis of veterinary drug residue monitoring results for commercial livestock products in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chun Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of livestock diseases. However, the emergence of issues related to drug resistance prompted governments to enact a series of laws regulating the use of antibiotics in livestock. Following control of the problem of drug resistant bacteria, public attention has shifted to the recurring incidence of human health and safety issues caused by residual veterinary drugs in livestock products. To guarantee the safety and hygiene of meat, milk, and eggs from food-producing animals, governments and relevant agencies established laws and regulations for the use of veterinary drugs. It is, therefore, necessary to monitor the content of residual drugs in livestock products at regular intervals to assess whether the regulations have resulted in the effective management of food product safety, and to prevent and manage sudden problems related to this issue. A 2011–2015 livestock product post-marketing monitoring program launched by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA inspected 1487 livestock products. Over the past 5 years, there were 34 samples identified that did not conform to the regulations; these samples included residue drugs such as β-agonists, chloramphenicols, β-lactam antibiotics, sulfa drugs, enrofloxacin, and lincomycin. Inspections of commercial livestock products with the consistent cooperation of agricultural authorities did not detect the drugs that were banned by the government, whereas the detection of other drugs decreased annually with an increase in the post-market monitoring sample size. In the future, the TFDA will continue to monitor the status of residual veterinary drugs in commercial livestock products, adjust the sampling of food products annually according to monitoring results, and closely cooperate with agricultural authorities on source management. Keywords: Agricultural authorities, Livestock products, Post-market monitoring, Veterinary drug residues

  12. Occurrence of sulfonamide residues along the Ebro River basin: removal in wastewater treatment plants and environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Galán, M Jesús; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2011-02-01

    Sulfonamides (SAs) have become one of the antibiotic families most frequently found in all kind of environmental waters. In the present work, the presence of 16 SAs and one of their acetylated metabolites in different water matrices of the Ebro River basin has been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in 2007 and 2008. Influent and effluent samples from seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), together with a total of 28 river water samples were analyzed by on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromathography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS). Sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine were the SAs most frequently detected in WWTPs (96-100%), showing also the highest concentrations, ranging from 27.2 ng L(-1) to 596 ng L(-1) for sulfamethoxazole and from 3.7 ng L(-1) to 227 ng L(-1) for sulfapyridine. Sulfamethoxazole was also the SA most frequently detected in surface waters (85% of the samples) at concentrations between 11 ng L(-1) and 112 ng L(-1). In order to assess the effectiveness of the wastewater treatment in degrading SAs, removal efficiencies in the seven WWTPs were calculated for each individual SA (ranging from 4% to 100%) and correlated to the corresponding hydraulic retention times or residence times of the SAs in the plants. SAs half-lives were also estimated, ranging from to 2.5 hours (sulfadimethoxine) to 128 h (sulfamethazine). The contribution of the WWTPs to the presence of SAs depends on both the load of SAs discharging on the surface water from the WWTP effluent but also on the flow of the receiving waters in the discharge sites and the dilution exerted; WWTP4 exerts the highest pressure on the receiving water course. Finally, the potential environmental risk posed by SAs was evaluated calculating the hazard quotients (HQ) to different non-target organisms in effluent and river water. The degree of susceptibility resulted in algae>daphnia>fish. Sulfamethoxazole was the only SA posing a risk to algae in

  13. Analysis of veterinary drug residue monitoring results for commercial livestock products in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hsin-Chun Lee; Chi-Min Chen; Jen-Ting Wei; Hsiu-Yi Chiu

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of livestock diseases. However, the emergence of issues related to drug resistance prompted governments to enact a series of laws regulating the use of antibiotics in livestock. Following control of the problem of drug resistant bacteria, public attention has shifted to the recurring incidence of human health and safety issues caused by residual veterinary drugs in livestock products. To guarantee the safety and hygiene of meat, milk, and egg...

  14. Residues of selected antibiotics in the South Moravian Rivers, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarova, Katerina; Vavrova, Milada; Koleckarova, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the contamination level of aquatic ecosystems of the Oslava and the Jihlava Rivers, and of the Nove Mlyny Water Reservoir, situated in the South Moravian Region (Czech Republic), by residues of selected veterinary pharmaceuticals. We isolated and determined 10 sulfonamide antibiotics in samples of surface water and bottom sediments using optimized analytical methods. A representative number of sampling sites in the entire basin of selected waters were chosen. Samples were collected particularly near the larger cities in order to assess their possible impact to the aquatic ecosystems. Extraction, pre-concentration and purification of samples were performed using optimized methods of solid phase extraction and pressurized solvent extraction. Final identification and quantification were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector. The concentration of sulfonamides in water samples were all under the limit of detection. Regarding sediment samples, sulfadimidine was found at most sampling sites; its highest values were recorded in the Jihlava River (up to 979.8 µg.kg(-1) dry matter). Other frequently detected sulfonamides were sulfamethoxazole and sulfamerazine. Most other sulfonamides were under the limit of detection or limit of quantification. Monitoring of antibiotic residues in the environment, especially in the aquatic ecosystem, is a current topic due to the growing worldwide use in both human and veterinary medicine. According to obtained results, we document the pollution of selected rivers and water reservoir by particular sulfonamides which basically reflects their application in veterinary medicine.

  15. Characterizing chronic and acute health risks of residues of veterinary drugs in food: latest methodological developments by the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobis, Alan; Cerniglia, Carl; Chicoine, Alan; Fattori, Vittorio; Lipp, Markus; Reuss, Rainer; Verger, Philippe; Tritscher, Angelika

    2017-11-01

    The risk assessment of residues of veterinary drugs in food is a field that continues to evolve. The toxicological end-points to be considered are becoming more nuanced and in light of growing concern about the development of antimicrobial resistance, detailed analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the residues of veterinary drugs in food is increasingly incorporated in the assessment. In recent years, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has refined its approaches to provide a more comprehensive and fit-for-purpose risk assessment. This publication describes in detail the consideration of acute and chronic effects, the estimation of acute and chronic dietary exposure, current approaches for including microbiological endpoints in the risk assessment, and JECFA's considerations for the potential effects of food processing on residues from veterinary drugs. JECFA now applies these approaches in the development of health-based guidance values (i.e. safe exposure levels) for residues of veterinary drugs. JECFA, thus, comprehensively addresses acute and chronic risks by using corresponding estimates for acute and chronic exposure and suitable correction for the limited bioavailability of bound residues by the Gallo-Torres model. On a case-by-case basis, JECFA also considers degradation products that occur from normal food processing of food containing veterinary drug residues. These approaches will continue to be refined to ensure the most scientifically sound basis for the establishment of health-based guidance values for veterinary drug residues.

  16. [Scientific basis in the setting of residue limits for veterinary drugs in food of animal origin taking into account the presence of their metabolites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumori, K

    1993-01-01

    Maximum residue level (MRL) for veterinary drugs in food of animal origin has been proposed by FAO/WHO, as a new evaluation procedure taking into account the presence of metabolites for the regulation of veterinary drug residues. The MRL is the maximum concentration of residue resulting from the use of a veterinary drug that is recommended to be legally permitted as acceptable in a food. It is established from the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) obtained from the data of toxicological studies, the residue concentration of the drug when used according to good practice in the use of veterinary drugs, and the lowest level consistent with the practical analytical methods available for routine residue analysis. Among the veterinary drugs, some chemicals contain a large amount of bound residues that are neither extractable from tissues by the analytical method identical with that used in parent chemicals. Especially, the bioavailable residues which are probably absorbed when the food is ingested are of great toxicological concern. In this case, the FAO/WHO recommends that the MRL can be established after the calculation of daily intake of residues of toxicological concern by the addition of both the extractable and bioavailable bound residues.

  17. Determination of pesticides and veterinary drug residues in food by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiá, Ana [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Research Center on Desertification (CIDE, UV-CSIC-GV), Carretera Moncada-Náquera, Moncada (Spain); Suarez-Varela, Maria Morales; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin [Unit of Public Health, Hygiene and Environmental Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Center for Advanced Research in Public Health (CSISP-FISABIO), Valencia (Spain); Picó, Yolanda, E-mail: Yolanda.Pico@uv.es [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Research Center on Desertification (CIDE, UV-CSIC-GV), Carretera Moncada-Náquera, Moncada (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-14

    Monitoring of pesticides and veterinary drug residues is required to enforce legislation and guarantee food safety. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is the prevailing technique for assessing both types of residues because LC offers a versatile and universal separation mechanism suitable for non-gas chromatography (GC) amenable and the majority of GC-amenable compounds. This characteristic becomes more relevant when LC is coupled to MS because the high sensitivity and specificity of the detector allows to apply generic sample preparation procedures, which simultaneously extract a wide variety of residues with different physico-chemical properties. Determination of metabolites and degradation products, non-target suspected screening of an increasing number of residues, and even unknowns identification are also becoming inherent LC-MS advantages thanks to the latest advances. For routine analysis and, in particular, for official surveillance purposes in food control, analytical methods properly validated following strict guidelines are needed. After a brief introduction and an outline of the legislation applicable around the world, aspects such as improvement of specificity of high-throughput methods, resolution and mass accuracy of identification strategies and quantitative accuracy are critically reviewed in this article. In them, extraction, separation and determination are emphasized. The main objective is to offer an assessment of the state of the art and identify research needs and future trends in determining pesticide and veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS. - Highlights: • An overview of status and future trends in this field. • Analytical method's compliance with guidelines to ensure reliability. • QuEChERS platform is a referent to extract both, pesticides and veterinary drugs in food. • The progress that liquid chromatography has shown in recent years is revised. • Determination of target, non-target and unknowns is

  18. Determination of pesticides and veterinary drug residues in food by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiá, Ana; Suarez-Varela, Maria Morales; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of pesticides and veterinary drug residues is required to enforce legislation and guarantee food safety. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is the prevailing technique for assessing both types of residues because LC offers a versatile and universal separation mechanism suitable for non-gas chromatography (GC) amenable and the majority of GC-amenable compounds. This characteristic becomes more relevant when LC is coupled to MS because the high sensitivity and specificity of the detector allows to apply generic sample preparation procedures, which simultaneously extract a wide variety of residues with different physico-chemical properties. Determination of metabolites and degradation products, non-target suspected screening of an increasing number of residues, and even unknowns identification are also becoming inherent LC-MS advantages thanks to the latest advances. For routine analysis and, in particular, for official surveillance purposes in food control, analytical methods properly validated following strict guidelines are needed. After a brief introduction and an outline of the legislation applicable around the world, aspects such as improvement of specificity of high-throughput methods, resolution and mass accuracy of identification strategies and quantitative accuracy are critically reviewed in this article. In them, extraction, separation and determination are emphasized. The main objective is to offer an assessment of the state of the art and identify research needs and future trends in determining pesticide and veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS. - Highlights: • An overview of status and future trends in this field. • Analytical method's compliance with guidelines to ensure reliability. • QuEChERS platform is a referent to extract both, pesticides and veterinary drugs in food. • The progress that liquid chromatography has shown in recent years is revised. • Determination of target, non-target and unknowns is covered.

  19. A generic approach for expanding homolog-targeted residue screening of sulfonamides using a fast matrix separation and class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Chunlin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Guo Bin, E-mail: binnguo@126.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Wang Xiaoying [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Li Jie [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Zhu Weitao; Chen Bo [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Ouyang Shan [Food Inspection and Quarantine Center, Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of the People' s Republic of China, Shenzhen 518067 (China); Yao Shouzhuo [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2012-08-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Generic homolog-targeted screening approach for multi-residual sulfonamide analogs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup for direct injection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Class-specific fragmentation for expanding coverage of N{sup 4}-acetyl and N-OH metabolites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PreS-IDA-EPI in LC-QqLIT for simultaneous screening and confirmation of real samples. - Abstract: A generic and efficient homolog-targeted approach was used to expand screening and detection of target class of sulfonamides and structural analogs, based on a fast single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup (SEP/MAC) for class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a liquid chromatography-hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-QqLIT). By combining the two-stage process conducted in a single tube as one-pot protocol, the straightforward SEP/MAC procedure was optimized to offer clean extracts with reasonable recovery (71-109% with RSDs < 20%) and decreased matrix interferences (-9 to 19%) of multiresidual sulfonamide extraction from different tissue samples. The novel use of neutral loss scan of 66 Da (NLS) or precursor ion scanning of m/z 108 (PreS) in positive ion mode was found to achieve more comprehensive coverage of protonated molecular ions of a wide array of sulfonamides including N{sup 4}-acetyl and hydroxylamine metabolites plus their possible dimers. Moreover, the PreS-triggered automatically enhanced product ion spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous screening, profiling and confirmation of an unlimited number of analytes belonging to the sulfonamide class within a single analysis. The validation and application results of the generic SEP/MAC-based LC-QqLIT strategy consistently demonstrated favorable performances with acceptable accuracy (67-116%), precision (RSDs < 25%), and sensitivity (LOQs {<=} 7.5 ng

  20. Analysis of veterinary drug residue monitoring results for commercial livestock products in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Chun; Chen, Chi-Min; Wei, Jen-Ting; Chiu, Hsiu-Yi

    2018-04-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of livestock diseases. However, the emergence of issues related to drug resistance prompted governments to enact a series of laws regulating the use of antibiotics in livestock. Following control of the problem of drug resistant bacteria, public attention has shifted to the recurring incidence of human health and safety issues caused by residual veterinary drugs in livestock products. To guarantee the safety and hygiene of meat, milk, and eggs from food-producing animals, governments and relevant agencies established laws and regulations for the use of veterinary drugs. It is, therefore, necessary to monitor the content of residual drugs in livestock products at regular intervals to assess whether the regulations have resulted in the effective management of food product safety, and to prevent and manage sudden problems related to this issue. A 2011-2015 livestock product post-marketing monitoring program launched by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) inspected 1487 livestock products. Over the past 5 years, there were 34 samples identified that did not conform to the regulations; these samples included residue drugs such as β-agonists, chloramphenicols, β-lactam antibiotics, sulfa drugs, enrofloxacin, and lincomycin. Inspections of commercial livestock products with the consistent cooperation of agricultural authorities did not detect the drugs that were banned by the government, whereas the detection of other drugs decreased annually with an increase in the post-market monitoring sample size. In the future, the TFDA will continue to monitor the status of residual veterinary drugs in commercial livestock products, adjust the sampling of food products annually according to monitoring results, and closely cooperate with agricultural authorities on source management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Iatrogenic, sulfonamide-induced hypothyroid crisis in a Labrador Retriever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, K; Harkin, K; Schermerhorn, T

    2009-12-01

    This case report describes a sulfonamide-induced hypothyroid crisis in a 4-year-old Labrador Retriever bitch. Empirical therapy with high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 10 days produced signs of weakness, ataxia and mental depression and the clinicopathological results supported hypothyroid-induced central nervous system depression. Short-term levothyroxine sodium therapy led to complete resolution of all clinical signs and follow-up thyroid hormone assays ruled out underlying thyroid pathology. This case report is the first to highlight this potentially life-threatening manifestation of sulfonamide-induced hypothyroidism. Sulfonamide combinations are widely used antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and early recognition of this syndrome is critical.

  2. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Eighty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including MRLs for generic fish species, acute reference doses (ARfDs) for veterinary drugs, an approach for dietary exposure assessment of compounds used for multiple purposes (i.e veterinary drugs and pesticides), dietary exposure assessment for less-than-lifetime exposure, and the assessment of short-term (90-day and 12-month) studies in dogs. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two insecticides (diflubenzuron and teflubenzuron), an antiparasitic agent (ivermectin), an ectoparasiticide (sisapronil) and a β2-adrenoceptor agonist (zilpaterol hydrochloride). In addition, the Committee considered issues raised in concern forms from the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods on lasalocid sodium, an antiparasitic agent. Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), ARfDs and proposed MRLs.

  3. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Seventy-eighth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues of food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including extrapolation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) to minor species, MRLs for veterinary drug residues in honey, MRLs relating to fish and fish species, dietary exposure assessment methodologies, the decision-tree approach to the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs and guidance for JECFA experts. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicology and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two anthelminthic agents (derquantel, monepantel), three antiparasitic agents (emanectin benzoate, ivermectin, lasalocid sodium), one antibacterial, antifungal and anthelminthic agent (gentian violet), a production aid (recombinant bovine somatotropins) and an adrenoceptor agonist and growth promoter (zilpaterol hydorchloride). Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs)) and proposed MRLs.

  4. Development of an improved high resolution mass spectrometry based multi-residue method for veterinary drugs in various food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A; Butcher, P; Maden, K; Walker, S; Widmer, M

    2011-08-26

    Multi-residue methods for veterinary drugs or pesticides in food are increasingly often based on ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Previous available time of flight (TOF) technologies, showing resolutions up to 15,000 full width at half maximum (FWHM), were not sufficiently selective for monitoring low residue concentrations in difficult matrices (e.g. hormones in tissue or antibiotics in honey). The approach proposed in this paper is based on a single stage Orbitrap mass spectrometer operated at 50,000 FWHM. Extracts (liver and kidney) which were produced according to a validated multi-residue method (time of flight detection based) could not be analyzed by Orbitrap because of extensive signal suppression. This required the improvement of established extraction and clean-up procedures. The introduced, more extensive deproteinzation steps and dedicated instrumental settings successfully eliminated these detrimental suppression effects. The reported method, covering more than 100 different veterinary dugs, was validated according to the EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EEC. Validated matrices include muscle, kidney, liver, fish and honey. Significantly better performance parameters (e.g. linearity, reproducibility and detection limits) were obtained when comparing the new method with the older, TOF based method. These improvements are attributed to the higher resolution (50,000 versus 12,000 FWHM) and the superior mass stability of the of the Orbitrap over the previously utilized TOF instrument. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reported prevalence and quantitative LC-MS methods for the analysis of veterinary drug residues in honey: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Ryan; Haynes, Carion; Cook, Jo Marie

    2014-04-01

    Insect pollination increases the value and productivity of three-quarters of crop species grown for food. Declining beehive health in commercial apiaries has resulted in numerous reports from government laboratories worldwide of contamination with antimicrobial chemicals in honey. This review includes pertinent discussion of legislation and events leading to increased government oversight in the commercial honey market. A detailed summary of the variety and prevalence of veterinary drug residues being found in honey as well as a selection of robust quantitative and confirmatory LC-MS methods with an emphasis on those adopted by government testing laboratories are presented.

  6. Residues of veterinary drugs in eggs and their distribution between yolk and white

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Petz, M.

    2000-01-01

    Veterinary drugs and feed additives (especially some coccidiostats) can be absorbed by the digestive tract of laying hens and transferred to the egg. Physicochemical characteristics of these compounds determine their pharmacokinetic behavior and distribution to and within the egg. Traditionally the

  7. High-throughput untargeted screening of veterinary drug residues and metabolites in tilapia using high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Chang, James; Wang, Perry G; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Feng

    2017-03-08

    An analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of one hundred and thirty-seven veterinary drug residues and metabolites from sixteen different classes in tilapia utilizing an improved fully non-targeted way of data acquisition with fragmentation. The automated on-line extraction procedure was achieved in a simple disposable pipet extraction. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The methodology was validated by taking into consideration the guidelines specified in European SANCO/12571/2013 Guideline 2013 and Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The extraction recoveries ranged from 81% to 111%. The limits of decision ranged from 0.01 to 2.73 μg kg -1 and the detection capabilities ranged from 0.01 to 4.73 μg kg -1 . The one hundred and thirty-seven compounds behave dynamic 0.1-500 μg kg -1 , with correlation coefficient >0.99. The fully non-targeted data acquisition way improves both sensitivity and selectivity for the fragments, which is beneficial for screening performance and identification capability. This validated method has been successfully applied on screening of veterinary drug residues and metabolites in muscle of tilapia, an important and intensively produced fish in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Transport of sulfonamide antibiotics in crop fields during monsoon season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Yol; Ruidisch, Marianne; Huwe, Bernd

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have documented the occurrence of veterinary sulfonamide antibiotics in groundwater and rivers located far from pollution sources, although their transport and fate is relatively unknown. In mountainous agricultural fields, the transport behaviour can be influenced by climate, slope and physico-chemical properties of the sulfonamides. The objective of this research is to describe the transport behaviour of three sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine) in sloped agricultural fields located in the Haean catchment, South Korea. During dry and monsoon seasons, a solute transport experiment was conducted in two typical sandy loam agricultural fields after application of antibiotics and potassium bromide as conservative tracers. Field measurement and modelling revealed that frequency and amount of runoff generation indicate a relation between slope and rain intensity during monsoon season. Since the steepness of slope influenced partitioning of precipitation between runoff and subsurface flow, higher loss of sulfonamide antibiotics and bromide by runoff was observed at the steeper sloped field. Bromide on topsoil rapidly infiltrated at high infiltration rates. On the contrary, the sulfonamides were relatively retarded in the upper soil layer due to adsorption onto soil particles. Presence of furrows and ridges affected the distribution of sulfonamide antibiotics in the subsurface due to gradient from wetter furrows to drier ridges induced by topography. Modelling results with HydroGeoSphere matched with background studies that describe physico-chemical properties of the sulfonamides interaction between soil and the antibiotic group, solute transport through vadose zone and runoff generation by storm events.

  9. A generic approach for expanding homolog-targeted residue screening of sulfonamides using a fast matrix separation and class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chunlin; Guo Bin; Wang Xiaoying; Li Jie; Zhu Weitao; Chen Bo; Ouyang Shan; Yao Shouzhuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Generic homolog-targeted screening approach for multi-residual sulfonamide analogs. ► Single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup for direct injection. ► Class-specific fragmentation for expanding coverage of N 4 -acetyl and N-OH metabolites. ► PreS–IDA–EPI in LC–QqLIT for simultaneous screening and confirmation of real samples. - Abstract: A generic and efficient homolog-targeted approach was used to expand screening and detection of target class of sulfonamides and structural analogs, based on a fast single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup (SEP/MAC) for class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a liquid chromatography–hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC–QqLIT). By combining the two-stage process conducted in a single tube as one-pot protocol, the straightforward SEP/MAC procedure was optimized to offer clean extracts with reasonable recovery (71–109% with RSDs 4 -acetyl and hydroxylamine metabolites plus their possible dimers. Moreover, the PreS-triggered automatically enhanced product ion spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous screening, profiling and confirmation of an unlimited number of analytes belonging to the sulfonamide class within a single analysis. The validation and application results of the generic SEP/MAC-based LC–QqLIT strategy consistently demonstrated favorable performances with acceptable accuracy (67–116%), precision (RSDs −1 ) to meet the acceptance criteria for all the sulfonamide–tissue combinations. Thus, the integration of the matrix-independent SEP/MAC procedure and the multiparameter matching algorithm with the unit-resolution LC–QqLIT instrument can serve as a valuable semi-targeted discovery strategy for rapid screening and reliable quantitative/confirmatory analysis of real samples.

  10. Validation of a standard field test method in four countries to assess the toxicity of residues in dung of cattle treated with veterinary medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floate, Kevin D.; Düring, Rolf Alexander; Hanafi, Jamal; Jud, Priska; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean Pierre; Scheffczyk, Adam; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg; Sautot, Lucille; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.

    2016-01-01

    Registration of veterinary medical products includes the provision that field tests may be required to assess potential nontarget effects associated with the excretion of product residues in dung of treated livestock (phase II, tier B testing). However, regulatory agencies provide no guidance on

  11. Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods and Strategies to Strengthen National Residue Control Programmes for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-08-01

    Awareness of food safety is rising among consumers, and many importing countries implement food control regulations to guarantee the quality and safety of imported foods for their consumers. Many developing countries have also taken steps to put in place control systems that encourage responsible use of veterinary medicines to combat possible drug resistance, control drug residues and ensure compliance with international and national standards. However, these countries still require the necessary know-how and skills to protect local consumers and to access international markets. One significant constraint is the capacity of laboratory services to generate surveillance data using reliable and cost effective analytical methods validated to national and international standards. The IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on the Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen National Residue Control Programmes for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues was initiated in 2009 to conduct work on robust nuclear and related technologies suitable for the screening and confirmatory analysis of residues of veterinary medicines, including antimicrobials and anthelmintics commonly used in animal production, with public health and trade significance. The CRP also explored mechanisms to enhance networking among research institutions involved in research on pharmacologically active veterinary drug residues in food (primarily) and environmental samples. The project was implemented by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture between 2009 and 2014 and involved eleven research contracts and one technical contract, five research agreements and one institution. The CRP was a continuation of the CRP on the Development of Strategies for the Effective Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Livestock and Livestock Products in Developing Countries and the key findings are also summarized in this publication.

  12. Residues and risks of veterinary antibiotics in protected vegetable soils following application of different manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Yujuan; Wu, Longhua; Liu, Xinghua; Luo, Yongming

    2016-06-01

    The protected vegetable farming is a style of high frequent rotation farming which requires a huge amount of fertilizers to maintain soil fertility. A total of 125 surface soils covering from east to west of China were sampled for the analysis of 17 antibiotics in order to identify antibiotics contamination caused by long-term manures application. The results indicate that the agricultural land has accumulated a statistically significantly higher antibiotics concentration than conventional open croplands. The maximum oxytetracycline concentration was 8400 μg kg(-1), the highest level that has ever been reported for oxytetracycline in soils. The residual concentration is decided by both plant duration and manure type. Short-term (antibiotics residue in the soils on the whole. Principal component analysis suggests that the various combinations of antibiotic compounds in the soil may be used to trace the manure source. The antibiotics in soil may threaten water quality through contamination by diffusion. Ciprofloxacin and sulfachinoxalin are calculated to be a higher migration risk to surface waters, hence their environmental fate requires further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Wide-Scope Screening Method for Multiclass Veterinary Drug Residues in Fish, Shrimp, and Eel Using Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, Sherri B; Storey, Joseph M; Lohne, Jack J; Andersen, Wendy C; Burger, Robert; Johnson, Aaron S; Madson, Mark R

    2017-08-30

    A screening method for veterinary drug residues in fish, shrimp, and eel using LC with a high-resolution MS instrument has been developed and validated. The method was optimized for over 70 test compounds representing a variety of veterinary drug classes. Tissues were extracted by vortex mixing with acetonitrile acidified with 2% acetic acid and 0.2% p-toluenesulfonic acid. A centrifuged portion of the extract was passed through a novel solid phase extraction cartridge designed to remove interfering matrix components from tissue extracts. The eluent was then evaporated and reconstituted for analysis. Data were collected with a quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer using both nontargeted and targeted acquisition methods. Residues were detected on the basis of the exact mass of the precursor and a product ion along with isotope pattern and retention time matching. Semiquantitative data analysis compared MS 1 signal to a one-point extracted matrix standard at a target testing level. The test compounds were detected and identified in salmon, tilapia, catfish, shrimp, and eel extracts fortified at the target testing levels. Fish dosed with selected analytes and aquaculture samples previously found to contain residues were also analyzed. The screening method can be expanded to monitor for an additional >260 veterinary drugs on the basis of exact mass measurements and retention times.

  14. Structural characterization of product ions by electrospray ionization and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to support regulatory analysis of veterinary drug residues in foods Part 2: Benzimidazoles nitromidaz.....

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Analysis for identification and quantification of regulated veterinary drug residues in foods are usually achieved by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The instrument method requires the selection of characteristic ions, but structure elucidation is seldom perform...

  15. Multi-residue analysis of pesticides, plant hormones, veterinary drugs and mycotoxins using HILIC chromatography - MS/MS in various food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danezis, G P; Anagnostopoulos, C J; Liapis, K; Koupparis, M A

    2016-10-26

    One of the recent trends in Analytical Chemistry is the development of economic, quick and easy hyphenated methods to be used in a field that includes analytes of different classes and physicochemical properties. In this work a multi-residue method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 28 xenobiotics (polar and hydrophilic) using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography technique (HILIC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology. The scope of the method includes plant growth regulators (chlormequat, daminozide, diquat, maleic hydrazide, mepiquat, paraquat), pesticides (cyromazine, the metabolite of the fungicide propineb PTU (propylenethiourea), amitrole), various multiclass antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides quinolones, kasugamycin and mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, B2, fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A). Isolation of the analytes from the matrix was achieved with a fast and effective technique. The validation of the multi-residue method was performed at the levels: 10 μg/kg and 100 μg/kg in the following representative substrates: fruits-vegetables (apples, apricots, lettuce and onions), cereals and pulses (flour and chickpeas), animal products (milk and meat) and cereal based baby foods. The method was validated taking into consideration EU guidelines and showed acceptable linearity (r ≥ 0.99), accuracy with recoveries between 70 and 120% and precision with RSD ≤ 20% for the majority of the analytes studied. For the analytes that presented accuracy and precision values outside the acceptable limits the method still is able to serve as a semi-quantitative method. The matrix effect, the limits of detection and quantification were also estimated and compared with the current EU MRLs (Maximum Residue Levels) and FAO/WHO MLs (Maximum Levels) or CXLs (Codex Maximum Residue Limits). The combined and expanded uncertainty of the method for each analyte per substrate, was also estimated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  16. Analysis of Veterinary Drug and Pesticide Residues Using the Ethyl Acetate Multiclass/Multiresidue Method in Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniye Imamoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple multiclass, ethyl acetate (EtOAc multiresidue method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS detection was developed for the determination and quantification of 26 veterinary drugs and 187 total pesticide residues in milk. Sample preparation was a simple procedure based on liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate with 0.1% acetic acid and centrifuged prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an Inertsil X-Terra C18 column with acetic acid in methanol and water gradient. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 2 to 13% and 6 to 16%, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 75 to 120% with the RSD (n=18. The developed method was validated according to the criteria set in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11945/2015. The validated methodology represents a fast and cheap alternative for the simultaneous analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues which can be easily extended to other compounds and matrices.

  17. Multi-class multi-residue analysis of veterinary drugs in meat using enhanced matrix removal lipid cleanup and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Limian; Lucas, Derick; Long, David; Richter, Bruce; Stevens, Joan

    2018-05-11

    This study presents the development and validation of a quantitation method for the analysis of multi-class, multi-residue veterinary drugs using lipid removal cleanup cartridges, enhanced matrix removal lipid (EMR-Lipid), for different meat matrices by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection. Meat samples were extracted using a two-step solid-liquid extraction followed by pass-through sample cleanup. The method was optimized based on the buffer and solvent composition, solvent additive additions, and EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup. The developed method was then validated in five meat matrices, porcine muscle, bovine muscle, bovine liver, bovine kidney and chicken liver to evaluate the method performance characteristics, such as absolute recoveries and precision at three spiking levels, calibration curve linearity, limit of quantitation (LOQ) and matrix effect. The results showed that >90% of veterinary drug analytes achieved satisfactory recovery results of 60-120%. Over 97% analytes achieved excellent reproducibility results (relative standard deviation (RSD) meat matrices. The matrix co-extractive removal efficiency by weight provided by EMR-lipid cartridge cleanup was 42-58% in samples. The post column infusion study showed that the matrix ion suppression was reduced for samples with the EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup. The reduced matrix ion suppression effect was also confirmed with 30%) for all tested veterinary drugs in all of meat matrices. The results showed that the two-step solid-liquid extraction provides efficient extraction for the entire spectrum of veterinary drugs, including the difficult classes such as tetracyclines, beta-lactams etc. EMR-Lipid cartridges after extraction provided efficient sample cleanup with easy streamlined protocol and minimal impacts on analytes recovery, improving method reliability and consistency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klátyik, Szandra; Bohus, Péter; Darvas, Béla; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively), and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively). Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants) and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects between the

  19. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szandra Klátyik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU, and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively, and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively. Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects

  20. [Tetracyclines, sulfonamides and metronidazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Iglesias, Luis

    2003-11-01

    Tetracyclines form a group of natural and semisynthetic products that acts inhibiting the bacterial protein synthesis. They are bacteriostatic agents, exhibiting activity against a wide range of organisms, but they are at the present of limited use because of their acquired resistance. Doxycycline is currently the most frequently used tetracycline in human medicine and it is included in the List of Essential Medicines of the World Health Organization. Sulfonamides are synthetic, broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotics. They were the first effective systemic antimicrobial agents. Their mode of action is based on the inhibition of DNA synthesis. Due to their toxicity and high adquired resistance their use is currently very low. Metronidazole is the main compound of 5-nitroimidazole family. It is a very active bactericidal antibiotic against anaerobic and some microaerophilic bacteria and it is still very useful in the treatment of bacterian and parasitic infections.

  1. High-throughput screening of pesticide and veterinary drug residues in baby food by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Ling, Yun; Huang, Junrong; Chang, James

    2014-06-20

    A new analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 333 pesticide and veterinary drug residues in baby food. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a generic extraction method. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The method was validated by taking into consideration the guidelines specified in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANCO/12571/2013. The extraction recoveries were in a range of 79.8-110.7%, with coefficient of variation 0.99. The limits of detection for the analytes are in the range 0.01-5.35μgkg(-1). The limits of quantification for the analytes are in the range 0.01-9.27μgkg(-1). This method has been successfully applied on screening of pesticide and veterinary drugs in ninety-three commercial baby food samples, and tilmicosin, fenbendazole, tylosin tartrate and thiabendazole were detected in some samples tested in this study. The present study is very useful for fast screening of different food contaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Drug and chemical residues in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussman, H C

    1975-02-01

    Given the large number of chemical substances that may find their way into the food supply, a system is needed to monitor their presence. The U. S. Department of Agriculture's Meat and Poultry Inspection Program routinely tests for chemical residues in animals coming to slaughter. Pesticides, heavy metals, growth promotants (hormones and hormonelike agents), and antibiotics are included. Samples are taken statistically so that inferences as to national incidence of residues can be drawn. When a problem is identified, a more selective sampling is designed to help follow up on the initial regulatory action. In testing for pesticides, only DDT and dieldrin are found with any frequency and their levels are decreasing; violative residues of any chlorinated hydrocarbon are generally a result of an industrial accident rather than agricultural usage. Analyses for heavy metals have revealed detectable levels of mercury, lead, and others, but none at levels that are considered a health hazard. Of the hormone or hormonelike substances, only diethylstilbestrol has been a residue problem and its future is uncertain. The most extensive monitoring for veterinary drugs is on the antimicrobials, including sulfonamides, streptomycin, and the tetracycline group of antibiotics that constitute the bulk of the violations; their simultaneous use prophylactically and therapeutically has contributed to the problem in certain cases. A strong, well-designed user education program on proper application of pesticides, chemicals, and veterinary drugs appears to be one method of reducing the incidence of unwanted residues.

  3. Enzymatic Transformation and Bonding of Sulfonamide Antibiotics to Model Humic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schwarz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonamides are consumed as pharmaceutical antibiotics and reach agricultural soils with excreta used as fertilizer. Subsequently, nonextractable residues rapidly form in soil, which has been researched in a couple of studies. To further elucidate conditions, strength, and mechanisms of the fixation to soil humic substances, three selected sulfonamides were investigated using the biochemical oligomerization of substituted phenols as a model for the humification process. Catechol, guaiacol, and vanillin were enzymatically reacted using laccase from Trametes versicolor. In the presence of the substituted phenols alone, the concentration of sulfonamides decreased. This decrease was even more pronounced when additional laccase was present. Upon the enzymatic oligomerization of the substituted phenols to a humic-like structure the sulfonamides were sorbed, transformed, sequestered, and nonextractable bound. Sulfonamides were transformed depending on their molecular properties. Fractions of different bonding strength were determined using a sequential extraction procedure. Isolated nonextractable products were analyzed by chromatographic, spectroscopic, and calorimetric methods to identify coupling and bonding mechanisms of the sulfonamides. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements suggested cross-linking of such incorporated sulfonamides in humic oligomers. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements showed clear differences between the vanillin-sulfapyridine oligomer and the parent sulfapyridine indicating bound residue formation through covalent binding.

  4. Analysis of banned veterinary drugs and herbicide residues in shellfish by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Geng-Ruei; Chen, Hui-Shan; Lin, Feng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Seafood safety is a crucial public health concern for consumers. In this study, we applied a validated method to analyze the residue of banned veterinary drugs in shellfish, namely chloramphenicol, malachite green, leucomalachite green, and nitrofuran metabolites; additionally, the QuEChERS method was employed to detect 76 herbicides by LC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS. In total, 42 shellfish samples, which included hard clams, freshwater clams, and oysters, were collected from aquafarms and production areas in Taiwan during 2012. Our results revealed 3.8 ng/g of chloramphenicol in one hard clam, 19.9–32.1 ng/g of ametryn in two hard clams, 16.1–60.1 ng/g of pendimethalin in four hard clams, and 17.0 ng/g of mefenacet in one oyster, indicating that 19.1% of the samples contained residues from banned veterinary drugs and pesticides. These data can be used to monitor the residue of veterinary drugs and pesticides in aquatic organisms and as a reference for food safety. - Highlights: • A certified method was employed for analyzing residues of banned veterinary drugs and herbicides in shellfish samples. • The trace levels of chloramphenicol, ametryn, pendimethalin were detected in hard clam samples. • For ensuring food safety, continual monitoring of aquatic products is necessary.

  5. An update discussion on the current assessment of the safety of veterinary antimicrobial drug residues in food with regard to their impact on the human intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniglia, Carl E; Pineiro, Silvia A; Kotarski, Susan F

    2016-05-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract ecosystem consists of complex and diverse microbial communities that have now been collectively termed the intestinal microbiome. Recent scientific breakthroughs and research endeavours have increased our understanding of the important role the intestinal microbiome plays in human health and disease. The use of antimicrobial new animal drugs in food-producing animals may result in the presence of low levels of drug residues in edible foodstuffs. There is concern that antimicrobial new animal drugs in or on animal-derived food products at residue-level concentrations could disrupt the colonization barrier and/or modify the antimicrobial resistance profile of human intestinal bacteria. Therapeutic doses of antimicrobial drugs have been shown to promote shifts in the intestinal microbiome, and these disruptions promote the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. To assess the effects of antimicrobial new animal drug residues in food on human intestinal bacteria, many national regulatory agencies and international committees follow a harmonized process, VICH GL36(R), which was issued by a trilateral organization of the European Union, the USA, and Japan called the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH). The guidance describes a general approach currently used by national regulatory agencies and international committees to assess the effects of antimicrobial new animal drug residues in animal-derived food on human intestinal bacteria. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this current approach as part of the antimicrobial new animal drug approval process in participating countries, give insights on the microbiological endpoints used in this safety evaluation, and discuss the availability of new information. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Contamination of food with residues of antibiotics in the sulphonamide class, risk can be avoided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lidia Chitescu,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfaquinoxaline and sulfadiazine are the most common usedsulfonamides in veterinary practice. The recommended withdrawal periods if not observed before slaughteringof the medicated animals, the products may obtain from such animals may be contaminated with residue. Theinterest in having reliable methods able to detect low amounts of sulfonamides in food is very actual. In thisstudy, a multiresidue analysis was performed to simultaneously determine those four sulfonamides in chickenmuscle tissue by the Waters LC.Criteria of validation: specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and linearity,according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, show that the method can detect differentkinds of sulfonamides within one run, without mass spectrometry analyses, or Fluor metric derivatization ofanalyts.The method is accurate, simple, economical in both time and cost, capable of detecting sulfonamidesresidues below the maximum residue limits (MRL and easy to perform to routine samples, in normal conditionof laboratory.The sulfonamides were extracted with acetonitrile and acetone and dichloromethane. N-hexane wasadded for defeating the sample. Separation was carried out on a Zorbax SB- C18 analytical column, using asmobile phase a mixture of 75:25 = di-natrium-hydrogenphosphat solution 6 g/1000 ml (pH = 8.5 : methanol.The detection wavelength was set at: 254 nm Calibration graphs were linear with very good correlationcoefficients in the concentration range from 0.320 to 1.5μg /mL. The limits of quantification (LOQ for thesulfonamides were in the range of 6.6–0.34 μg /kg. The recovery for spiked chicken muscle with 50–150 μg/kg ranged more than 70%. The relative standard deviation (Reds of the sulfonamides for six measurementsat 50 go/kg, 100 μg /kg and 150 μg /kg was less then 15%.The applicability of the method to the analysis of chicken muscle tissue was

  7. Quinoline-2-sulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Kusz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C9H8N2O2S, the sulfamoyl –NH2 group is involved in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the sulfonamide O and quinoline N atoms. In the crystal, molecules are linked into dimers via pairs of N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming an R22(10 motif. The dimers are further assembled into chains parallel to the b axis through N—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a C(4 motif. The crystal packing is additionally stabilized by intermolecular C—H...O interactions. The crystal studied was a non-merohedral twin with a domain ratio of 0.938 (2:0.062 (2. Density functional theory (DFT calculations, at the B3LYP/6–31 G(d,p level of theory, were used to optimize the molecular structure and to determine interaction energies for the title compound. The resulting interaction energy is ∼4.4 kcal mol−1 per bridge for the C(4 chain and ∼5.9 kcal mol−1 per bridge for the R22(10 motif.

  8. Veterinary vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoret, P P

    1999-11-01

    Veterinary vaccinology is a very interesting and rapidly developing field. In fact veterinary vaccines are not only used for the prevention of infectious diseases in the animal health sector, but also help to solve problems of public health, to reduce detrimental environmental impact of the use of some veterinary drugs and prevent the emergence of resistance of micro-organisms or parasites. After a short introduction, this paper will deal with the use of vaccines for animal health and welfare, including new developments in the veterinary field such as marker vaccines and vectored vaccines, the special case of equine influenza-inactivated vaccines and the use of veterinary vaccines in public health. The conclusions will analyse the reasons as to why develop veterinary vaccines and the obstacles to their development.

  9. Risk-based approach to developing a national residue sampling plan for testing under European Union regulation for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives in domestic animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Martin; Shanahan, Conor; Butler, Francis; Evans, Rhodri; O'Sullivan, Dan; Glynn, Denise; Camon, Tim; Lawlor, Peadar; O'Keeffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency × Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) × Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system

  10. Food Sample Preparation for the Determination of Sulfonamides by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Bitas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are a common practice in veterinary medicine, mainly for therapeutic purposes. Sectors of application include livestock farming, aquacultures, and bee-keeping, where bacterial infections are frequent and can be economically damaging. However, antibiotics are usually administered in sub-therapeutic doses as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. Due to their excessive use, antibiotic residues can be present in foods of animal origin, which include meat, fish, milk, eggs, and honey, posing health risks to consumers. For this reason, authorities have set maximum residue limits (MRLs of certain antibiotics in food matrices, while analytical methods for their determination have been developed. This work focuses on antibiotic extraction and determination, part of which was presented at the “1st Conference in Chemistry for Graduate, Postgraduate Students and PhD Candidates at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki”. Taking a step further, this paper is a review of the most recent sample preparation protocols applied for the extraction of sulfonamide antibiotics from food samples and their determination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, covering a five-year period.

  11. Molecular dynamics-assisted pharmacophore modeling of caspase-3-isatin sulfonamide complex: Recognizing essential intermolecular contacts and features of sulfonamide inhibitor class for caspase-3 binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sivakumar Prasanth; Patel, Chirag N; Jha, Prakash C; Pandya, Himanshu A

    2017-12-01

    The identification of isatin sulfonamide as a potent small molecule inhibitor of caspase-3 had fuelled the synthesis and characterization of the numerous sulfonamide class of inhibitors to optimize for potency. Recent works that relied on the ligand-based approaches have successfully shown the regions of optimizations for sulfonamide scaffold. We present here molecular dynamics-based pharmacophore modeling of caspase-3-isatin sulfonamide crystal structure, to elucidate the essential non-covalent contacts and its associated pharmacophore features necessary to ensure caspase-3 optimal binding. We performed 20ns long dynamics of this crystal structure to extract global conformation states and converted into structure-based pharmacophore hypotheses which were rigorously validated using an exclusive focussed library of experimental actives and inactives of sulfonamide class by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) statistic. Eighteen structure-based pharmacophore hypotheses with better sensitivity and specificity measures (>0.6) were chosen which collectively showed the role of pocket residues viz. Cys163 (S 1 sub-site; required for covalent and H bonding with Michael acceptor of inhibitors), His121 (S 1 ; π stack with bicyclic isatin moiety), Gly122 (S 1 ; H bond with carbonyl oxygen) and Tyr204 (S 2 ; π stack with phenyl group of the isatin sulfonamide molecule) as stringent binding entities for enabling caspase-3 optimal binding. The introduction of spatial pharmacophore site points obtained from dynamics-based pharmacophore models in a virtual screening strategy will be helpful to screen and optimize molecules belonging to sulfonamide class of caspase-3 inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of bi-functionalized mesoporous silicas as reversed phase/cation-exchange mixed-mode sorbents for multi-residue solid phase extraction of veterinary drug residues in meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Natalia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Sierra, Isabel

    2017-04-01

    A SBA-15 type mesoporous silica was synthesized and bi-functionalized with octadecylsilane (C18) or octylsilane (C8), and sulfonic acid (SO 3 - ) groups in order to obtain materials with reversed-phase/strong cation-exchange mixed-mode retention mechanism. The resulting hybrid materials (SBA-15-C18-SO 3 - and SBA-15-C8-SO 3 - ) were comprehensively characterized. They showed high surface area, high pore volume and controlled porous size. Elemental analysis of the materials revealed differences in the amount of C18 and C8. SBA-15-C18-SO 3 - contained 0.19mmol/g of C18, while SBA-15-C8-SO 3 - presented 0.54mmol/g of C8. The SO 3 - groups anchored to the silica surface of the pore walls were 0.20 and 0.09mmol/g, respectively. The bi-functionalized materials were evaluated as SPE sorbents for the multi-residue extraction of 26 veterinary drug residues in meat samples using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detector (UHPLC-MS/MS). Different sorbent amounts (100 and 200mg) and organic solvents were tested to optimize the extraction procedure. Both silicas showed big extraction potential and were successful in the extraction of the target analytes. The mixed-mode retention mechanism was confirmed by comparing both silicas with SBA-15 mesoporous silica mono-functionalized with C18 and C8. Best results were achieved with 200mg of SBA-15-C18-SO 3 - obtaining recoveries higher than 70% for the majority of analytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of novel sulfonamides derivatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Chemistry, Comsat Institute of Information & Technology Riawind road. Lahore ... Newer sulfonamides and their derivatives has obtained great attention in pharmaceutical field in ... MS data was recorded on Finnigan MAT 112 mass ..... potent and orally active sulfonamide ETB selective antagonists. Bioorg.

  14. Sulfonamide-Resistant Bacteria and Their Resistance Genes in Soils Fertilized with Manures from Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Na; Yang, Xiaohong; Jiao, Shaojun; Zhang, Jun; Ye, Boping; Gao, Shixiang

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are recognized as new environmental pollutants that warrant special concern. There were few reports on veterinary antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes in China. This work systematically analyzed the prevalence and distribution of sulfonamide resistance genes in soils from the environments around poultry and livestock farms in Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China. The results showed that the animal manure application made the spread and abundance of a...

  15. Veterinary radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirshin, V.A.; Belov, A.D.; Budarkov, V.A.; Prochazka, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The monograph summarizes the authors' experience and data from Soviet and foreign scientific literature. It consists of the following chapters: radioactive sources; utilization of ionizing radiation and radioactive isotopes; biological effects of ionizing radiation; radiation sickness in animals; combined post-irradiation syndromes; prophylaxis of radiation injury; therapy of irradiated animals; and veterinary radiation hygiene control of the environment, fodder, animals and animal products. (P.A.)

  16. Validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of sulfonamides, trimethoprim and dapsone in muscle, egg, milk and honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenina, Ivana; Bilandžić, Nina; Kolanović, Božica Solomun; Božić, Đurđica; Sedak, Marija; Đokić, Maja; Varga, Ines

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative multi-residue method that includes 13 sulfonamides, trimethoprim and dapsone was developed and validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for muscle, milk egg and honey samples. For all matrices, the same extraction procedure was used. Samples were extracted with an acetone/dichloromethane mixture and cleaned up on aromatic sulfonic acid (SO3H) SPE cartridges. After elution and concentration steps, analytes were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Data were acquired according to the multiple reaction-monitoring approach (MRM) and analytes were quantified both by the isotope dilution and the matrix-matched approaches calculating the response factors for the scanned product ions. The developed method shows good linearity, specificity, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility), and trueness. Estimated CCβ for sulfonamides ranged between 5.6 and 8.2 µg kg(-1) for eggs, between 11.1 and 69.9 µg kg(-1) for milk, between 64.7 and 87.9 µg kg(-1) for muscle, and between 2.7 and 5.3 µg kg(-1) for honey. CCβ values for dapsone were 3.1, 0.6, 0.7 and 1.5 µg kg(-1) and for trimethoprim were 3.1, 6.7, 81.7 and 3.0 µg kg(-1) calculated for eggs, milk, muscle and honey, respectively. Recovery for all matrices was in the range from 89.1% and 109.7%. In matrix effect testing, no significant deviations were found between different samples of muscle and milk; however, a matrix effect was observed when testing different types of honey. The validation results demonstrate that the method is suitable for routine veterinary drug analysis and confirmation of suspect samples.

  17. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    ¹Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ABU Zaria, Nigeria, ²Department of. Veterinary Physiology ... dogs, AGRs have a highly sensitive sense of smell. The rats ..... Gonadal Axis and thyroid Activity in. Male rats.

  18. Why sulfonamides are contraindicated in Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Vicky; Hsu, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are not effective for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Patients suspected of having RMSF based on history and physical exam should be treated with doxycycline and not a sulfonamide to avoid increased morbidity and mortality.

  19. Why sulfonamides are contraindicated in Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Vicky; Hsu, Sylvia

    2014-02-18

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are not effective for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Patients suspected of having RMSF based on history and physical exam should be treated with doxycycline and not a sulfonamide to avoid increased morbidity and mortality.

  20. Wide-scope analysis of pesticide and veterinary drug residues in meat matrices by high resolution MS: detection and identification using Exactive-Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, María Luz; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Génin, Eric; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    A multiresidue and multiclass method for the simultaneous determination of more than 350 compounds including pesticides, biopesticides and veterinary drugs in different meat matrices (beef, pork and chicken) by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap MS has been developed. In the present study, the determination of fragments was accomplished as an essential tool for a reliable identification of compounds using high resolution MS. To obtain these fragments, different strategies have been carried out in order to ensure an appropriate fragment assignment and identification. The analytical method is suitable for qualitative analysis, and it was also evaluated for quantitative analysis. Generic extraction conditions were optimized, obtaining adequate recovery and precision values for most of the studied analytes (>290). The limits of detection ranged from 2 to 16 µg kg(-1). Limits of quantification were 10 µg kg(-1) with the exception of few compounds with a higher value (50 or 100 µg kg(-1)). Limits of identification were also established, and they ranged from 2 to 150 µg kg(-1). This method was applied to the analysis of 18 meat samples and some veterinary drugs as enrofloxacin and sulfadiazine were detected and further identified/quantified (with triple quadrupole) in two different samples at 33 µg kg(-1) and trace levels, respectively. No pesticides were detected in the analyzed samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Simultaneous occurrence of nitrates and sulfonamide antibiotics in two ground water bodies of Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Galán, M. a. Jesús; Garrido, Teresa; Fraile, Josep; Ginebreda, Antoni; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2010-03-01

    SummaryIn the present work the occurrence of 19 selected sulfonamides, including one acetylated metabolite, was investigated in ground water samples taken from two ground water bodies in Catalonia (Plana de Vic and La Selva). Both include areas designated as nitrate vulnerable zones, according to Directive 91/676/EEC. A fully automated analytical methodology based on on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS) was developed for this purpose. The high selectivity and sensitivity achieved (limits of detection between 0.005 and 0.8 ng/L) permitted to demonstrate the ubiquity of these antibiotics in both ground water bodies. Results showed a wide range of concentrations, from 0.01 ng/L up to 3460.57 ng/L. Since sulfonamides are related to livestock veterinary practices, they can be used as a specific indicator of manure contamination. However, the presence of sulfonamides appeared not to be directly related to the concentration of nitrates, as it is reflected on the low correlation coefficients found.

  2. Surface runoff and transport of sulfonamide antibiotics and tracers on manured grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Michael; Stamm, Christian; Waul, Christopher; Singer, Heinz; Müller, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    Despite their common use in animal production the environmental fate of the veterinary sulfonamide antibiotics after excretion is only poorly understood. We performed irrigation experiments to investigate the transport of these substances with surface runoff on grassland. Liquid manure from pigs treated with sulfadimidine was spiked with sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, the herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), and the conservative tracer bromide and spread onto eight plots. Four plots received the same amounts of the spiked substances in aqueous solution (controls). Apart from the application matrix we varied the time between application and irrigation. Manure increased the runoff volume up to six times compared with the controls. It seemed that manure enhanced the runoff by sealing the soil surface. On manured plots the relative antibiotic concentrations in runoff were higher than on the controls, reaching an average of 0.3% (sulfadiazine), 0.8% (sulfathiazole), and 1.4% (sulfadimidine) of the input concentrations after a 1-d contact time. The corresponding values on the controls were 0.16% for sulfadiazine and 0.08% for sulfathiazole. After 3 d, the maximum values on the manured plots were even higher, whereas they had fallen below the limit of quantification on the controls. As a consequence, the sulfonamide losses were 10 to 40 times larger on the manured plots. The relative mobility of the sulfonamides on the control plots followed the trend expected from their chromatographic separation but the opposite was found on the manured plots. Hence it is important to consider explicitly the physical and chemical effects of manure when assessing the environmental fate of sulfonamides.

  3. Hydroxylamine as an oxygen nucleophile: substitution of sulfonamide by a hydroxyl group in benzothiazole-2-sulfonamides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, J.A.G.; Belle, R.; Mecinovic, J.

    2013-01-01

    Benzothiazole-2-sulfonamides react with an excess of hydroxylamine in aqueous solutions to form 2-hydroxybenzothiazole, sulfur dioxide, and the corresponding amine. Mechanistic studies that employ a combination of structure-reactivity relationships, oxygen labeling experiments, and (in)direct

  4. Application of a hybrid ordered mesoporous silica as sorbent for solid-phase multi-residue extraction of veterinary drugs in meat by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Natalia; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Sierra, Isabel

    2016-08-12

    A quick, sensitive and selective analytical reversed-phase multi-residue method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ion-trap mass spectrometry detector (UHPLC-IT-MS/MS) operating in both positive and negative ion mode was developed for the simultaneous determination of 23 veterinary drug residues (β-blockers, β-agonists and Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)) in meat samples. The sample treatment involved a liquid-solid extraction followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. SBA-15 type mesoporous silica was synthetized and modified with octadecylsilane, and the resulting hybrid material (denoted as SBA-15-C18) was applied and evaluated as SPE sorbent in the purification of samples. The materials were comprehensively characterized, and they showed a high surface area, high pore volume and a homogeneous distribution of the pores. Chromatographic conditions and extraction procedure were optimized, and the method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method detection limits (MDLs) and the method quantification limits (MQLs) were determined for all the analytes in meat samples and found to range between 0.01-18.75μg/kg and 0.02-62.50μg/kg, respectively. Recoveries for 15 of the target analytes ranged from 71 to 98%. In addition, for comparative purpose SBA-15-C18 was evaluated towards commercial C18 amorphous silica. Results revealed that SBA-15-C18 was clearly more successful in the multi-residue extraction of the 23 mentioned analytes with higher recovery values. The method was successfully tested to analyze prepacked preparations of mince bovine meat. Traces of propranolol, ketoprofen and diclofenac were detected in some samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin ... One of these mutations led to an amino acid exchange at position 544 ... organs such as comb, wattle, brain, heart, .... congestion in various tissues and edema of.

  6. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    and Aji, T. G.. 1. 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. ... limited nervous, muscle and skeletal systems development ... samples. Colloid area/volume and perimeter: This ..... BANKS, W. J., (1993): Applied Veterinary.

  7. Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. ... dogs diagnosed with parvovirus enteritis in some veterinary clinics in Nigeria · EMAIL ... Rabies vaccination status among occupationally exposed humans in Nigeria ...

  8. American Veterinary Medical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free client handout to share with them. Compounding Veterinary Compounding FDA has withdrawn its draft guidance for ... new guidance, the AVMA is working to ensure veterinary access and animal health are protected. NEWS & ALERTS ...

  9. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 3Veterinary. Teaching ... salivation, cornea opacity, haematuria and convulsion were observed in 20, 8, 2, 4, 1 and 3 of the patients ... intravenous fluid administration either for.

  10. Veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzeminski, M.; Lass, P.; Teodorczyk, J.; Krajka, J.

    2004-01-01

    The veterinary use of radionuclide techniques dates back to the mid-sixties, but its more extensive use dates back to the past two decades. Veterinary nuclear medicine is focused mainly on four major issues: bone scintigraphy - with the majority of applications in horses, veterinary endocrinology - dealing mainly with the problems of hyperthyreosis in cats and hyperthyreosis in dogs, portosystemic shunts in small animals and veterinary oncology, however, most radionuclide techniques applied to humans can be applied to most animals. (author)

  11. Multiclass analysis of antibiotic residues in honey by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jose Luis Martínez; Aguilera-Luiz, María Del Mar; Romero-González, Roberto; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2009-03-11

    A method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of different veterinary drug residues (macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones, and sulfonamides) in honey. Honey samples were dissolved with Na(2)EDTA, and veterinary residues were extracted from the supernatant by solid-phase extraction (SPE), using OASIS HLB cartridges. The separation and determination was carried out by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), using an electrospay ionization source (ESI) in positive mode. Data acquisition under MS/MS was achieved by applying multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of two ion transitions per compound to provide a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. The method was validated, and mean recoveries were evaluated at three concentration levels (10, 50, and 100 microg/kg), ranging from 70 to 120% except for doxycycline, erythromycin, and tylmicosin with recovery higher than 50% at the three levels assayed. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the recoveries were less than 20% within the intraday precision and less than 25% within the interday precision. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were always lower than 4 microg/kg. The developed procedure was applied to 16 honey samples, and erythromycin, sarafloxacin, and tylosin were found in a few samples.

  12. Rapid method for quantification of nine sulfonamides in bovine milk using HPLC/MS/MS and without using SPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot, Carolina; Regal, Patricia; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Fente, Cristina; Cepeda, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    Sulfonamides are antimicrobial agents widely employed in animal production and their residues in food could be an important risk to human health. In the dairy industry, large quantities of milk are monitored daily for the presence of sulfonamides. A simple and low-cost extraction protocol followed by a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous detection of nine sulfonamides in whole milk. The method was validated at the maximum residue limits established by European legislation. The limits of quantification obtained for most sulfonamides were between 12.5 and 25 μg kg(-1), detection capabilities ranged from 116 to 145 μg kg(-1), and recoveries, at 100 μg kg(-1), were greater than 89±12.5%. The method was employed to analyse 100 raw whole bovine milk samples collected from dairy farms in the northwest region of Spain. All of the samples were found to be compliant, but two were positive; one for sulfadiazine and the other for sulfamethoxipyridazine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Veterinary medicines in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, A B A; Fogg, L A; Blackwell, P A; Kay, P; Pemberton, E J; Croxford, A

    2004-01-01

    The impact of veterinary medicines on the environment will depend on a number of factors including physicochemical properties, amount used and method of administration, treatment type and dose, animal husbandry practices, manure storage and handling practices, metabolism within the animal, and degradation rates in manure and slurry. Once released to the environment, other factors such as soil type, climate, and ecotoxicity also determine the environmental impact of the compound. The importance of individual routes into the environment for different types of veterinary medicines varies according to the type of treatment and livestock category. Treatments used in aquaculture have a high potential to reach the aquatic environment. The main routes of entry to the terrestrial environment are from the use of veterinary medicines in intensively reared livestock, via the application of slurry and manure to land, and by the use of veterinary medicines in pasture-reared animals where pharmaceutical residues are excreted directly into the environment. Veterinary medicines applied to land via spreading of slurry may also enter the aquatic environment indirectly via surface runoff or leaching to groundwater. It is likely that topical treatments have greater potential to be released to the environment than treatments administered orally or by injection. Inputs from the manufacturing process, companion animal treatments, and disposal are likely to be minimal in comparison. Monitoring studies demonstrate that veterinary medicines do enter the environment, with sheep dip chemicals, antibiotics, sealice treatments, and anthelmintics being measured in soils, groundwater, surface waters, sediment, or biota. Maximum concentrations vary across chemical classes, with very high concentrations being reported for the sheep dip chemicals. The degree to which veterinary medicines may adsorb to particulates varies widely. Partition coefficients (K(d)) range from low (0.61 L kg(-1)) to high

  14. Report on the third research co-ordination meeting of the coordinated research project: 'The development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' (D3.20.22)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The third RCM for the CRP on the development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries was held in Natal, Brazil, from 11-15 April 2005. The meeting was attended by ten Research Contract Holders, a second representative of the research group of the host country, two Research Agreement Holders, two Technical Contract Holders and the Scientific Secretary. The work in the second phase of this CRP has built upon the progress reported from the first phase, resulting in good quality immunoassay reagents, confirmatory methods and a number of validated methods. It is recommended that all contracts (with one exception), including technical contracts, be renewed to facilitate the completion of the work plans agreed at the meeting. A protocol for the validation of immunoassays will be provided by a Research Agreement Holder. The protocol has already been successfully applied for validation of an RIA method in Brazil. It is recommended that this protocol be adopted by all participants in the project to harmonize the validation of immunoassay methods developed. Work on the development of the 125 I-radioimmunoassay for chloramphenicol has not been satisfactory. It is recommended that this work is transferred to the research group in Brazil. The meeting agreed that the FAO/IAEA Joint Division's INFOCRIS database and associated e-learning modules are a very useful resource for developing country scientists. It is recommended to proceed with the expansion of the database as planned. In addition, it was suggested that a database and bibliography of original literature on, for example, pharmacokinetic and metabolism studies on veterinary drugs and hormonal growth promoters should be included. Much of this data was published many years ago and is very difficult to access, but is of importance in the design and development of methods. Some of the results generated by CRP participants should be

  15. Validação de métodos cromatográficos para a determinação de resíduos de medicamentos veterinários em alimentos Validation of chromatographic methods for the determination of residues of veterinary drugs in foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas Augusto Rizzato Paschoal; Susanne Rath; Flavia Pereira da Silva Airoldi; Felix G. R. Reyes

    2008-01-01

    Different agencies that supply validation guidelines worldwide establish almost the same parameters to be evaluated in the validation process of bioanalytical methods. However, they recommend different procedures, as well as establish different acceptance criteria. The present review delineates and discusses the stages involved in the validation procedures of bioanalytical methods designed for determining veterinary residues in food, explaining the main differences in the guidelines establish...

  16. Use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and mechanisms of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, S; Chaslus-Dancla, E

    2001-01-01

    This review deals with the application of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine and food animal production and the possible consequences arising from the widespread and multipurpose use of antimicrobials. The various mechanisms that bacteria have developed to escape the inhibitory effects of the antimicrobials most frequently used in the veterinary field are reported in detail. Resistance of bacteria to tetracyclines, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics, beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol/florfenicol is described with regard to enzymatic inactivation, decreased intracellular drug accumulation and modification/protection/replacement of the target sites. In addition, basic information is given about mobile genetic elements which carry the respective resistance genes, such as plasmids, transposons, and gene cassettes/integrons, and their ways of spreading via conjugation, mobilisation, transduction, and transformation.

  17. Second research coordination meeting of the coordinated research project 'Development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' (D3.20.22)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The second RCM under this CRP was held in Pretoria, South Africa, 3 - 7 November 2003. Eleven of the twelve research contract holders, three research agreement holders and one technical contract holder attended the RCM. The three research agreement holders gave presentations on relevant aspects of veterinary drug residues analysis. The increasingly important role of bioassay techniques such as reporter gene assays for the direct screening of the effects of hormonal and other residues in animal cells and the future role of such assays to complement existing instrumental techniques was highlighted. The technical contract holder and research contract holders reviewed the results of the research and method development performed under the first phase of the CRP. Considerable progress has been made in many aspects of the overall work plan. Several commercial immunoassay methods have been critically evaluated. The main problems identified with these kits were the instability of reagents, notably the enzyme conjugates, resulting in poor performance, and the need for better sample preparation protocols applicable to a wider range of matrices. Work plans have been agreed with several laboratories to attempt to address these problems. Good progress has been made in several laboratories working on the development of in-house ELISA methods for chloramphenicol residues. The laboratories involved have produced and characterized antisera in various species and these will be used with reagents produced by technical contract holders to elaborate assay protocols. Further investigation into aspects such as reagent stability, antibody maturation and assay development using various assay formats is planned. A full set of reagents and protocols for their optimisation in a 125 I radioimmunoassay (RIA) for chloramphenicol have been developed by the technical contract holders and transferred to a research contract holder for further method development. However, this researcher was unable to

  18. Removal of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and quinolones by industrial-scale composting and anaerobic digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Pu, Chengjun; Yu, Xiaolu; Sun, Ying; Chen, Junhao

    2018-02-15

    This study evaluated and compared the removal of antibiotics by industrial-scale composting and anaerobic digestion at different seasons. Twenty compounds belonged to three classes of widely used veterinary antibiotics (i.e., tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and quinolones) were investigated. Results show that of the three groups of antibiotics, tetracyclines were dominant in swine feces and poorly removed by anaerobic digestion with significant accumulation in biosolids, particularly in winter. Compared to that in winter, a much more effective removal (> 97%) by anaerobic digestion was observed for sulfonamides in summer. By contrast, quinolones were the least abundant antibiotics in swine feces and exhibited a higher removal by anaerobic digestion in winter than in summer. The overall removal of antibiotics by aerobic composting could be more than 90% in either winter or summer. Nevertheless, compost products from livestock farms in Beijing contained much higher antibiotics than commercial organic fertilizers. Thus, industrial composting standards should be strictly applied to livestock farms to further remove antibiotics and produce high quality organic fertilizer.

  19. Elimination patterns of worldwide used sulfonamides and tetracyclines during anaerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmeyer, Astrid; Breier, Bettina; Groißmeier, Kathrin; Hamscher, Gerd

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotics such as sulfonamides and tetracyclines are frequently used in veterinary medicine. Due to incomplete absorption in the animal gut and/or unmetabolized excretion, the substances can enter the environment by using manure as soil fertilizer. The anaerobic fermentation process of biogas plants is discussed as potential sink for antibiotic compounds. However, negative impacts of antibiotics on the fermentation process are suspected. The elimination of sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, tetracycline and chlortetracycline in semi-continuous lab-scale fermenters was investigated. Both biogas production and methane yield were not negatively affected by concentrations up to 38 mg per kg for sulfonamides and 7 mg per kg for tetracyclines. All substances were partly eliminated with elimination rates between 14% and 89%. Both matrix and structure of the target molecule influenced the elimination rate. Chlortetracycline was mainly transformed into iso-chlortetracycline. In all other cases, the elimination pathways remained undiscovered; however, sorption processes seem to have a negligible impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of manure-related DOM on sulfonamide transport in arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Arenz-Leufen, Martina Gesine; Jacques, Diederik; Lichtner, Peter; Engelhardt, Irina

    2016-09-01

    Field application of livestock manure introduces colloids and veterinary antibiotics, e.g. sulfonamides (SAs), into farmland. The presence of manure colloids may potentially intensify the SAs-pollution to soils and groundwater by colloid-facilitated transport. Transport of three SAs, sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMPD), and sulfamoxole (SMOX), was investigated in saturated soil columns with and without manure colloids from sows and farrows, weaners, and fattening pigs. Experimental results showed that colloid-facilitated transport of SMOX was significant in the presence of manure colloids from fattening pigs with low C/N ratio, high SUVA280 nm and protein C, while manure colloids from sows and farrows and weaners had little effect on SMOX transport. In contrast, only retardation was observed for SDZ and SMPD when manure colloids were present. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of colloids and SAs were replicated well by a newly developed numerical model that considers colloid-filtration theory, competitive kinetic sorption, and co-transport processes. Model results demonstrate that mobile colloids act as carriers for SMOX, while immobile colloids block SMOX from sorbing onto the soil. The low affinity of SMOX to sorb on immobile colloids prevents aggregation and also promotes SMOX's colloid-facilitated transport. Conversely, the high affinity of SDZ and SMPD to sorb on all types of immobile colloids retarded their transport. Thus, manure properties play a fundamental role in increasing the leaching risk of hydrophobic sulfonamides.

  1. Veterinary Antibiotics in Young Dutch Groundwater under Intensive Livestock Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliet, M. V.; Kivits, T.; Broers, H. P.; Beeltje, H.; Griffioen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Dutch groundwater is heavily affected by nutrient loads from agricultural origin. The use of antibiotics is also widespread in Dutch farming practice, 200.000 kg active substance over 1.839.000 ha of agricultural land. National measures were established to reduce the applications. Spreading of manure over farmlands is assumed to be the main pathway for the leaching of antibiotics to groundwater, but actual numbers are lacking. We studied the occurrence of veterinary antibiotics in groundwater in two areas with intensive livestock farming, sampling existing multi-level wells that were previously age dated using tritium-helium. Wells were selected based on the following criteria: the uppermost screen is situated just below the average groundwater level, which is not deeper than 3 meters, the well is in an agricultural field where rainwater infiltrates avoiding areas adjacent to ditches or streams, the groundwater quality is known for several years and the age of the extracted water is known to be young (antibiotics used in in intensive livestock farming were analyzed belonging to the following groups: tetracyclines, sulfonamides, diaminopyrimidines, β-lactams, macrolides, lincosamides, quinolones and in addition nitrofurans and chloramphenicol. The samples were analyzed for antibiotics by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry preceded by solid phase extraction (Oasis HLB cartridge). Five out of 22 antibiotics were detected: sulfamethazine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, lincomycin, chloramphenicol in concentration ranges of 0.2 to 18 ng/l. Sulfamethazine was most frequently found, and shows a continuous concentration-depth profile in 3 out of 4 multi-level wells. Sulfonamides were found in groundwater up to 20 m. depth and in water aged between 1 and 25 years old. The study shows that sulfonamides are omnipresent in groundwater up to 25 years old, which corresponds with the known history of the use of antibiotics in veterinary practice.

  2. Veterinary Services Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...

  3. Mechanistic link between uptake of sulfonamides and bacteriostatic effect: model development and application to experimental data from two soil microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focks, Andreas; Klasmeier, Jörg; Matthies, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Sulfonamides (SA) are antibiotic compounds that are widely used as human and veterinary pharmaceuticals. They are not rapidly biodegradable and have been detected in various environmental compartments. Effects of sulfonamides on microbial endpoints in soil have been reported from laboratory incubation studies. Sulfonamides inhibit the growth of sensitive microorganisms by competitive binding to the dihydropteroate-synthase (DHPS) enzyme of folic acid production. A mathematical model was developed that relates the extracellular SA concentration to the inhibition of the relative bacterial growth rate. Two factors--the anionic accumulation factor (AAF) and the cellular affinity factor (CAF)--determine the effective concentration of an SA. The AAF describes the SA uptake into bacterial cells and varies with both the extra- and intracellular pH values and with the acidic pKa value of an SA. The CAF subsumes relevant cellular and enzyme properties, and is directly proportional to the DHPS affinity constant for an SA. Based on the model, a mechanistic dose-response relationship is developed and evaluated against previously published data, where differences in the responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Panthoea agglomerans toward changing medium pH values were found, most likely as a result of their diverse pH regulation. The derived dose-response relationship explains the pH and pKa dependency of mean effective concentration values (EC50) of eight SA and two soil bacteria based on AAF and CAF values. The mathematical model can be used to extrapolate sulfonamide effects to other pH values and to calculate the CAF as a pH-independent measure for the SA effects on microbial growth. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  4. Sulfonamide-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes in soils fertilized with manures from Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Yang, Xiaohong; Jiao, Shaojun; Zhang, Jun; Ye, Boping; Gao, Shixiang

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are recognized as new environmental pollutants that warrant special concern. There were few reports on veterinary antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes in China. This work systematically analyzed the prevalence and distribution of sulfonamide resistance genes in soils from the environments around poultry and livestock farms in Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China. The results showed that the animal manure application made the spread and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) increasingly in the soil. The frequency of sulfonamide resistance genes was sul1 > sul2 > sul3 in pig-manured soil DNA and sul2 > sul1 > sul3 in chicken-manured soil DNA. Further analysis suggested that the frequency distribution of the sul genes in the genomic DNA and plasmids of the SR isolates from manured soil was sul2 > sul1 > sul3 overall (psulfonamide resistance genes. The present study also indicated that Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Shigella were the most prevalent sul-positive genera in the soil, suggesting a potential human health risk. The above results could be important in the evaluation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes from manure as sources of agricultural soil pollution; the results also demonstrate the necessity and urgency of the regulation and supervision of veterinary antibiotics in China.

  5. Sulfonamide-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes in soils fertilized with manures from Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wang

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are recognized as new environmental pollutants that warrant special concern. There were few reports on veterinary antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes in China. This work systematically analyzed the prevalence and distribution of sulfonamide resistance genes in soils from the environments around poultry and livestock farms in Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China. The results showed that the animal manure application made the spread and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs increasingly in the soil. The frequency of sulfonamide resistance genes was sul1 > sul2 > sul3 in pig-manured soil DNA and sul2 > sul1 > sul3 in chicken-manured soil DNA. Further analysis suggested that the frequency distribution of the sul genes in the genomic DNA and plasmids of the SR isolates from manured soil was sul2 > sul1 > sul3 overall (p<0.05. The combination of sul1 and sul2 was the most frequent, and the co-existence of sul1 and sul3 was not found either in the genomic DNA or plasmids. The sample type, animal type and sampling time can influence the prevalence and distribution pattern of sulfonamide resistance genes. The present study also indicated that Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Shigella were the most prevalent sul-positive genera in the soil, suggesting a potential human health risk. The above results could be important in the evaluation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes from manure as sources of agricultural soil pollution; the results also demonstrate the necessity and urgency of the regulation and supervision of veterinary antibiotics in China.

  6. [Drugs in veterinary medicine. The role of the veterinary drug industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, J C

    1984-02-01

    Veterinary medicines constitute an unescapable element in the scheme of animal health and welfare. Nowadays, they are used more and more to improve health and productivity in farm animals. When a veterinary medicine is prescribed it must not only be effective but must also be safe for both animals and humans. Due to ever changing regulations and constant improvements in residue detection techniques it is necessary to conduct new investigations with existing products. It therefore costs a great deal of time and money to introduce, and maintain, a product in the market. In future, therefore, fewer medicines with more limited indications will be introduced and these will be to combat important production disorders in the more significant species only. In view of the above, research and production will be restricted to large, international, concerns. Due to our well structured agricultural industry and the existence of well organized and equipped veterinary research institutions, and practitioners, Holland is able to play an important role in the development of veterinary medicines. Close co-operation between all involved parties coupled with an efficient registration procedure is not ony of benefit to the veterinary pharmaceutical industry but also for international recognition of our national animal husbandry industry, ancillary industries and veterinary and other consultants. In this scheme of things the accent is not upon qualifications but upon the skills of veterinarians - wherever placed - who are involved in the administration of veterinary medicines.

  7. Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinn, P. J

    2011-01-01

    "Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...

  8. Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences is the official journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The journal welcomes original research articles, short communications and reviews on all aspects of veterinary sciences and related disciplines.

  9. Effect of humic acid (HA) on sulfonamide sorption by biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Fei; Sun, Binbin; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Zhongqi; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-01-01

    Effect of quantity and fractionation of loaded humic acid (HA) on biochar sorption for sulfonamides was investigated. The HA was applied in two different modes, i.e. pre-coating and co-introduction with sorbate. In pre-coating mode, the polar fractions of HA tended to interact with low-temperature biochars via H-bonding, while the hydrophobic fractions were likely to be adsorbed by high-temperature biochars through hydrophobic and π-π interactions, leading to different composition and structure of the HA adlayers. The influences of HA fractionation on biochar sorption for sulfonamides varied significantly, depending on the nature of interaction between HA fraction and sorbate. Meanwhile, co-introduction of HA with sulfonamides revealed that the effect of HA on sulfonamide sorption was also dependent on HA concentration. These findings suggest that the amount and fractionation of adsorbed HA are tailored by the surface properties of underlying biochars, which differently affect the sorption for organic contaminants. - Highlights: • Effect of quantity and fractionation of coated HA on sorption of sulfonamides by BC was studied. • Fractionation of coated HA is tailored by surface properties of BC. • Roles of HA in BC sorption depend on interaction between HA adlayer and sorbate. • Roles of HA in sulfonamide sorption by BC also depend on HA aqueous concentration. - The quantity and fractionation of adsorbed HA play a major role in sulfonamide sorption by biochars

  10. Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 49 of 49 ... Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 49 of 49 Items ...

  11. Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 16 of 16 Items ...

  12. Open Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this journal: ...

  13. .* Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Central Diagnostic, National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, 'Department of Veterinary Medicine. Ahmadu Bello ..... environment as reported by (Olabode et al., 2009; Okwor and Eze, 2011;Jwander et al., 2013b). Farmers who had the same complaints of. Marek's disease from the same source of.

  14. Sulfonamidation of Aryl and Heteroaryl Halides through Photosensitized Nickel Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehoon; McCarver, Stefan J; Lee, Chulbom; MacMillan, David W C

    2018-03-19

    Herein we report a highly efficient method for nickel-catalyzed C-N bond formation between sulfonamides and aryl electrophiles. This technology provides generic access to a broad range of N-aryl and N-heteroaryl sulfonamide motifs, which are widely represented in drug discovery. Initial mechanistic studies suggest an energy-transfer mechanism wherein C-N bond reductive elimination occurs from a triplet excited Ni II complex. Late-stage sulfonamidation in the synthesis of a pharmacologically relevant structure is also demonstrated. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting of the co-ordinated research project: 'The development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' (D3.20.22)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'the development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' was held in the Vienna International Centre from 2 to 6 September 2002. Twelve Research Contracts (RCs) and 3 Research Agreements (RAs) have been awarded under this CRP and all awardees, the Project Officer and a guest speaker from the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AAHFS) participated in the RCM. The objective of the RCM was to plan the first phase of the CRP, initiation of the development and validation of methods. Specific objectives were to: Agree upon a small number of veterinary drugs upon which to focus the research; Agree upon analytical methodologies to be employed; formulate individual work plans for each research contract holder within the framework of the overall work plan. Each RC holder presented an overview of residues monitoring from the perspective of their respective countries. Emphasis was placed on problems encountered and future requirements. The participants visited the Austrian National Reference Laboratory for veterinary drug residues at Moedling and discussed the activities there with Mr. Kuhn and laboratory staff. An overall framework for phase of the CRP, focusing upon the compounds and analytical techniques of major importance to the majority of participants, was formulated. Each RC holder discussed and revised their individual work plan with the RA holders and the PO. The overall framework was then reviewed and a summary of the individual work plans presented. Conclusions and recommendations were drafted

  16. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Corresponding author: Email: yahidauad@gmail.com; Tel No:+2348037811882 ... and veterinary medicine as potent anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and .... steroid skeleton, similar to hydrocortisone. ... for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth.

  17. Tanzania Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Journal are the Research Workers, Veterinary Clinicians, Animal Scientists, Field Officers ... Prevalence and risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium infestations in ... Mastitis pathogens prevalent in dairy cattle at Magadu farm, Morogoro- ...

  18. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Also, the advantage of ... antibodies. The major disadvantage of the polyclonal ... advantage of a monoclonal antibody over .... department in the veterinary school was obtained from the ..... methodology for both routine diagnostic and research ...

  19. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Control Services, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Abuja; 9National Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B 01 Vom,. Nigeria. *Corresponding ... because the poultry industry contributes ..... holidays have been identified as source of transmission ...

  20. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Removal of nutrients and veterinary antibiotics from swine wastewater by a constructed macrophyte floating bed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Qiming; Hu, Lixia; Chen, Hancheng; Chang, Zhizhou; Zou, Huixian

    2010-12-01

    The potential of three varieties of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), Dryan, Tachimasari and Waseyutaka, to improve the water quality of swine wastewater was evaluated using a constructed macrophyte floating bed system. With respect to reductions in levels of nutrients, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sulfonamide antimicrobials (SAs, including sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole), Dryan performed better than Tachimasari and Waseyutaka. For Dryan, total N was reduced by 84.0%, total P by 90.4%, COD by 83.4% and sulfonamide antimicrobials by 91.8-99.5%. Similar results were observed for Tachimasari and Waseyutaka. The results indicated that the treatment of swine wastewater using the constructed macrophyte floating bed system was effective in the removal of nutrients and veterinary antibiotics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Teaching veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, A

    1994-08-01

    The history of parasitology and the teaching of veterinary parasitology in South Africa are reviewed briefly. Courses in veterinary parasitology are presented at the faculties of veterinary science at the University of Pretoria and the Medical University of South Africa as well as at the Pretoria Technicon. At the University of Pretoria, the three disciplines of veterinary parasitology, entomology, helminthology and protozoology, are covered in 330 core lectures; from 13 to 40% of the contact time is devoted to practical classes. Teaching veterinary parasitology is both labour intensive and costly, viz. R1700 (US$570) per student per annum. Such costs are justified by the R148.8 million (US$49.6 million) spent every year in South Africa on anthelmintics, ectoparasiticides and vaccines to control parasites. Veterinary parasitology is a dynamic subject and the curriculum must be revised regularly to incorporate new information. Because the parasite faunas are so diverse no single textbook can satisfy the requirements of the various institutions worldwide which teach the subject, with the result that extensive use is made of notes. In Australia and in Europe, ticks and tick-borne diseases are less important than they are in Africa; consequently insufficient space is devoted to them in textbooks to satisfy the requirements of the subject in African countries. Parasite control under extensive and intensive conditions is dealt with adequately at the University of Pretoria, but increasing emphasis will be given to small-scale farming systems, particularly if alternative food animals are to be kept.

  3. Monitoring Antibiotic Residues and Corresponding Antibiotic Resistance Genes in an Agroecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser M. Awad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs have been commonly reported due to the overuse worldwide of antibiotics. Antibiotic overuse disturbs the environment and threatens public human health. The objective of this study was to measure the residual concentrations of veterinary antibiotics in the tetracycline group (TCs, including tetracycline (TC and chlortetracycline (CTC, as well as those in the sulfonamide group (SAs, including sulfamethazine (SMT, sulfamethoxazole (SMX, and sulfathiazole (STZ. We also isolated the corresponding ARGs in the agroecosystem. Four sediment samples and two rice paddy soil samples were collected from sites near a swine composting facility along the Naerincheon River in Hongcheon, Korea. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS was employed with a solid-phase extraction method to measure the concentration of each antibiotic. ARGs were identified by the qualitative polymerase chain-reaction using synthetic primers. SAs and their corresponding ARGs were highly detected in sediment samples whereas TCs were not detected except for sediments sample #1. ARGs for TCs and SAs were detected in rice paddy soils, while ARGs for TCs were only found in sediment #2 and #4. Continuous monitoring of antibiotic residue and its comprehensive impact on the environment is needed to ensure environmental health.

  4. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Radiology in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrusovsky, J.; Benes, J.

    1985-01-01

    A textbook is presented for pregraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary medicine, offering an extensive review of all aspects of radiology as applied in veterinary sciences. Based on findings published in the literature and the authors' own research, the textbook familiarizes the reader with the problems of nuclear physics, biological effects of ionizing radiation on animals, the principles of biological cycles of radionuclides in the atmosphere, the fundamentals of radiochemistry, dosimetry, radiometry and nuclear medicine. Radiation protection of animals, raw materials, feeds, foodstuff and water, and the questions of the aplications of ionizing radiation and of radionuclides in veterinary medicine are discussed in great detail. The publication is complemented with numerous photographs, figures and graphs. (L.O.)

  6. Veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Comar, C.L.; Wentworth, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the expanding horizons of nuclear medicine, the equipment necessary for a nuclear medicine laboratory is listed, and the value of this relatively new field to the veterinary clinician is indicated. Although clinical applications to veterinary medicine have not kept pace with those of human medicine, many advances have been made, particularly in the use of in vitro techniques. Areas for expanded applications should include competitive protein binding and other in vitro procedures, particularly in connection with metabolic profile studies. Indicated also is more intensive application by the veterinarian of imaging procedures, which have been found to be of such great value to the physician. (U.S.)

  7. Antimalarial activity of compounds comprising a primary benzene sulfonamide fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Katherine T; Fisher, Gillian M; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D M; Skinner-Adams, Tina; Moeker, Janina; Lopez, Marie; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2013-11-15

    Despite the urgent need for effective antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action no new chemical class of antimalarial drug has been approved for use since 1996. To address this, we have used a rational approach to investigate compounds comprising the primary benzene sulfonamide fragment as a potential new antimalarial chemotype. We report the in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum drug sensitive (3D7) and resistant (Dd2) parasites for a panel of fourteen primary benzene sulfonamide compounds. Our findings provide a platform to support the further evaluation of primary benzene sulfonamides as a new antimalarial chemotype, including the identification of the target of these compounds in the parasite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Infrared thermography in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, R.; Zivcak, J.; Sevcik, A.; Danko, J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of infrared thermography in veterinary medicine has been practiced since at least the 1960's, but it is only now, in approximately the last 5 years, that it has been viewed with a reasonably open mind in the veterinary community at large. One of the reasons is progress in sensors technology, which contributed for an outstanding improvement of the thermal imager parameters. Paper deals with veterinary thermography and with description of applications at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice. (authors)

  9. Development of a new screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in muscle tissues using liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry with a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtaud-Pessel, D; Jagadeshwar-Reddy, T; Verdon, E

    2011-10-01

    A liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was developed for screening meat for a wide range of antibiotics used in veterinary medicine. Full-scan mode under high resolution mass spectral conditions using an LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer with resolving power 60,000 full width at half maximum (FWHM) was applied for analysis of the samples. Samples were prepared using two extraction protocols prior to LC-HRMS analysis. The scope of the method focuses on screening the following main families of antibacterial veterinary drugs: penicillins, cephalosporins, sulfonamides, macrolides, tetracyclines, aminoglucosides and quinolones. Compounds were successfully identified in spiked samples from their accurate mass and LC retention times from the acquired full-scan chromatogram. Automated data processing using ToxId software allowed rapid treatment of the data. Analyses of muscle tissues from real samples collected from antibiotic-treated animals was carried out using the above methodology and antibiotic residues were identified unambiguously. Further analysis of the data for real samples allowed the identification of the targeted antibiotic residues but also non-targeted compounds, such as some of their metabolites.

  10. Discovery of tertiary sulfonamides as potent liver X receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuercher, William J; Buckholz, Richard G; Campobasso, Nino; Collins, Jon L; Galardi, Cristin M; Gampe, Robert T; Hyatt, Stephen M; Merrihew, Susan L; Moore, John T; Oplinger, Jeffrey A; Reid, Paul R; Spearing, Paul K; Stanley, Thomas B; Stewart, Eugene L; Willson, Timothy M

    2010-04-22

    Tertiary sulfonamides were identified in a HTS as dual liver X receptor (LXR, NR1H2, and NR1H3) ligands, and the binding affinity of the series was increased through iterative analogue synthesis. A ligand-bound cocrystal structure was determined which elucidated key interactions for high binding affinity. Further characterization of the tertiary sulfonamide series led to the identification of high affinity LXR antagonists. GSK2033 (17) is the first potent cell-active LXR antagonist described to date. 17 may be a useful chemical probe to explore the cell biology of this orphan nuclear receptor.

  11. Analytik, Vorkommen und Verhalten aromatischer Sulfonamide in der aquatischen Umwelt

    OpenAIRE

    Hartig, Claudia

    2000-01-01

    Subject of this PhD-thesis are the analysis and behaviour of aromatic sulfonamides as organic micropollutants in the aquatic environment. On the grounds of their widespread application, bacteriostatics as well as benzene- and toluenesulfonamides (BTS) are investigated. Analysis of the sulfonamides consists of solid-phase extraction (LiChrolut EN) and HPLC-MS/MS. Limits of detection vary from 0.1-20 ng/L. The MS/MS detection is carried out in SRM mode. Matrix effects of the investigated second...

  12. Tanzania Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the ...

  13. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Fowlpox Virus from Backyard Poultry in Plateau State Nigeria: Isolation and Phylogeny of the P4b Gene Compared to a Vaccine Strain. Meseko, C. A.. 1. ; Shittu, I. 1. ; Bwala, D. G.. 2. ; Joannis, T. M.. 1 and Nwosuh, C. I.. 2. 1Regional Laboratory For Animal Influenza and Transboundary Animal Diseases, National Veterinary ...

  14. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers ...

  15. Veterinary Molecular Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Weesendorp, E.; Bossers, A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2017-01-01

    In veterinary molecular diagnostics, samples originating from animals are tested. Developments in the farm animals sector and in our societal attitude towards pet animals have resulted in an increased demand for fast and reliable diagnostic techniques. Molecular diagnostics perfectly matches this

  16. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Sonographic Measurements of Ocular Biometry of Indigenous Nigerian. Dogs in Zaria ..... between L2 and R) anesthetic risks and additional costs were ... prevalent worldwide problem (Toni et al.,. 2013). Paunknis and ... correlation with refractive error is larger for axial length than .... Veterinary Medical Association. 207:12.

  17. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, ... momohasabeh@gmail.com; Tel No:+2348038352906. ... in-contact humans from pig farms and abattoir. ... Momoh et al. 141 and may enhance the distribution of resistance genes into ... treating clinical infections in both man and.

  18. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    xyphoid cartilage to the pelvic area and aquasonic gel applied. The uterus was ... is used in both veterinary and human medicine ... Idris et al. 135 the pelvic region was gently made wet, with ... showing multiple fetuses (blue arrow). Plate IV: ... The beginning of bone formation which appears as hyperechoic structures ...

  19. Prioritizing veterinary pharmaceuticals for aquatic environment in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghee; Jung, Jinyong; Kim, Myunghyun; Park, Jeongim; Boxall, Alistair B A; Choi, Kyungho

    2008-09-01

    Pharmaceutical residues may have serious impacts on nontarget biological organisms in aquatic ecosystems, and have therefore precipitated numerous investigations worldwide. Many pharmaceutical compounds available on the market need to be prioritized based on their potential ecological and human health risks in order to develop sound management decisions. We prioritized veterinary pharmaceuticals in Korea by their usage, potential to enter the environment, and toxicological hazard. Twenty compounds were identified in the top priority class, most of which were antibiotics. Among these compounds, 8 were identified as deserving more immediate attention: amoxicillin, enramycin, fenbendazole, florfenicol, ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin. A limitation of this study is that we initially screened veterinary pharmaceuticals by sales tonnage for veterinary use only. However, this is the first attempt to prioritize veterinary pharmaceuticals in Korea, and it provides important concepts for developing environmental risk management plans for such contaminants in aquatic systems. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. New directions for veterinary technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.

  1. Recent advances in sample preparation techniques and methods of sulfonamides detection - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Stanislava G; Kochuk, Elena V; Apyari, Vladimir V; Tolmacheva, Veronika V; Zolotov, Yury A

    2014-11-19

    Sulfonamides (SAs) have been the most widely used antimicrobial drugs for more than 70 years, and their residues in foodstuffs and environmental samples pose serious health hazards. For this reason, sensitive and specific methods for the quantification of these compounds in numerous matrices have been developed. This review intends to provide an updated overview of the recent trends over the past five years in sample preparation techniques and methods for detecting SAs. Examples of the sample preparation techniques, including liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and QuEChERS, are given. Different methods of detecting the SAs present in food and feed and in environmental, pharmaceutical and biological samples are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bithiophene sulfonamide-based molecular and polymeric semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J.; Xia, Yu; Drees, Martin; Melkonyan, Ferdinand; Zhao, Wei

    2017-05-30

    The present invention relates to new semiconducting compounds having at least one optionally substituted bithiophene sulfonamide moiety. The compounds disclosed herein can exhibit high carrier mobility and/or efficient light absorption/emission characteristics, and can possess certain processing advantages such as solution-processability and/or good stability at ambient conditions.

  3. Sorption of fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides in 13 Brazilian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Rafael Marques Pereira; Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo Ferracciú; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges

    2013-08-01

    Animal production is a leading economic activity in Brazil and antibiotics are widely used. However, the occurrence, behavior, and impacts of antibiotics in Brazilian soils are still poorly known. We evaluated the sorption behavior of four fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) and five sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimidine, and sulfathiazole) in 13 Brazilian soils with contrasting physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. Fluoroquinolone sorption was very high (Kd≥544 L kg(-1)) whereas sulfonamide sorption ranged from low to high (Kd=0.7-70.1 L kg(-1)), consistent with previous reports in the literature. Soil texture and cation exchange capacity were the soil attributes that most affected sorption. Cation exchange was the most important sorption mechanism for the fluoroquinolones in highly weathered tropical soils, although cation bridging and ion pairing could not be ruled out. Hydrophobic partition played an important role in the sorption of the sulfonamides, but sorption was also affected by non-hydrophobic interactions with organic and/or mineral surfaces. Sorption for both compound classes tended to be higher in soils with high Al and Fe oxihydroxide contents, but they were not correlated with Kd values. No direct effect of soil pH was seen. The fluoroquinolones are not expected to leach even in worst-case scenarios (soils rich in sand and poor in organic carbon), whereas soil attributes dictate leaching potential for the sulfonamides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Veterinary homeopathy: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Vockeroth, W G

    1999-01-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies, including homeopathy, have a definite place in veterinary medicine today. The public is demanding access to a full range of conventional and complementary therapies, and the best scenario is to have all therapies available, for there is a place and a need for all of them in the right situation. In my own practice, I use both alternative and conventional therapies, as well as referring patients to specialists, for services such as ultrasound and surgery...

  5. Nanomedicine in veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei

    2015-08-01

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Assessment of veterinary drug use and determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and January 2010 to assess veterinary drug usage by broiler chicken farmers and to determine antimicrobial residues in broiler meat in Urban district, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Fifty five smallholder farmers were interviewed on types of antimicrobials, reasons for use, ...

  7. Radiation protection for veterinary practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A.

    1993-01-01

    This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.)

  8. About veterinary education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalla, M

    2003-01-01

    The cons and pros of veterinary education in Iraq are described. Started as a small institution, with few students and with foreign staffs, then expanded to enroll more than hundred students each year, with all Iraqi staff. The graduates of the Veterinary College played an important role in monitoring animal health, supervising research projects involving animal welfare, some served as educators of various veterinary science specializations, others worked as private practitioners or recruited in the army. Veterinary education was very vital, as other sciences for progress of the country.

  9. Veterinary Oncology Immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2018-03-01

    The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells, be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells, and be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy are among the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields; cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as a pillar of treatment alongside traditional modalities. This article highlights approaches that seem to hold particular promise in human clinical trials and many that have been tested in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyclosporine in veterinary dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeiro, Brian S

    2013-01-01

    Cyclosporine is an immunomodulatory medication that is efficacious and approved for atopic dermatitis in dogs and allergic dermatitis in cats; it has also been used to successfully manage a variety of immune-mediated dermatoses in dogs and cats. This article reviews the use of cyclosporine in veterinary dermatology including its mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, side effects, and relevant clinical updates. Dermatologic indications including atopic/allergic dermatitis, perianal fistulas, sebaceous adenitis, and other immune-mediated skin diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Holistic pediatric veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Veterinary medical education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international

  13. Piloting interprofessional education interventions with veterinary and veterinary nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, Tierney; Lumbis, Rachel; Orpet, Hilary; Welsh, Perdi; Gregory, Sue; Baillie, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) has received little attention in veterinary education even though members of the veterinary and nursing professions work closely together. The present study investigates veterinary and veterinary nursing students' and practitioners' experiences with interprofessional issues and the potential benefits of IPE. Based on stakeholder consultations, two teaching interventions were modified or developed for use with veterinary and veterinary nursing students: Talking Walls, which aimed to increase individuals' understanding of each other's roles, and an Emergency-Case Role-Play Scenario, which aimed to improve teamwork. These interventions were piloted with volunteer veterinary and veterinary nursing students who were recruited through convenience sampling. A questionnaire (the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale [RIPLS]) was modified for use in veterinary education and used to investigate changes in attitudes toward IPE over time (pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and four to five months afterward). The results showed an immediate and significant positive change in attitude after the intervention, highlighting the students' willingness to learn collaboratively, their ability to recognize the benefits of IPE, a decreased sense of professional isolation, and reduced hierarchical views. Although nearly half of the students felt concerned about learning with students from another profession before the intervention, the majority (97%) enjoyed learning together. However, the positive change in attitude was not evident four to five months after the intervention, though attitudes remained above pre-intervention levels. The results of the pilot study were encouraging and emphasize the relevance and importance of veterinary IPE as well as the need for further investigation to explore methods of sustaining a change in attitude over time.

  14. Computer applications in veterinary medicine | Hassan | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... become essential tools in almost every field of research and applied technology. ... Computers in veterinary medicine have been used for veterinary education; ... agro-veterinary project design, monitoring and implementation; preparation of ...

  15. Radiation protection in veterinary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, C.P.

    1989-06-01

    This Code of Practice is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons in ensuring that workers and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of x-ray equipment in veterinary practice. (author)

  16. Perspectives on academic veterinary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, H B; Gelberg, S

    2001-09-15

    It is important for veterinary administrators to apply knowledge bases from other fields to their own unique administrative needs. For example, although some resources are written for business managers, the discussions of four key management competency areas, guidelines for mastering these skills, organizational assessment tools, and other self-help tools may provide interesting food-for-thought for veterinary administrators.(76) In developing their own administrative styles, administrators should seek to apply those principles that seem to intuitively fit with their personal research styles, work situations, managerial styles, administrative preferences, and unique organizational culture. Through strengthening their liaisons with community and university business programs, counseling agencies, employee assistance programs, and psychology researchers, administrators can continue to be exposed to and benefit from new paradigms for consideration in veterinary medical environments. Through these liaisons, the unique needs of veterinary medical environments are also communicated to individuals within the fields of psychology and business, thus stimulating new research that specifically targets veterinary medical environment leadership issues. Each field has unique contributions to help veterinary administrators work toward creating veterinary medical environments that are creative, energetic, visionary, pragmatic, and highly marketable in order to help administrators recruit and nurture the best and brightest veterinary researchers, teachers, and clinicians.

  17. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The Journal publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted. Other sites related to ...

  18. Biosolid-borne tetracyclines and sulfonamides in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Shiny; Reinhold, Dawn

    2013-07-01

    Tetracyclines and sulfonamides used in human and animal medicine are released to terrestrial ecosystems from wastewater treatment plants or by direct manure application. The interactions between plants and these antibiotics are numerous and complex, including uptake and accumulation, phytometabolism, toxicity responses, and degradation in the rhizosphere. Uptake and accumulation of antibiotics have been studied in plants such as wheat, maize, potato, vegetables, and ornamentals. Once accumulated in plant tissue, organic contaminants can be metabolized through a sequential process of transformation, conjugation through glycosylation and glutathione pathways, and ultimately sequestration into plant tissue. While studies have yet to fully elucidate the phytometabolism of tetracyclines and sulfonamides, an in-depth review of plant and mammalian studies suggest multiple potential transformation and conjugation pathways for tetracyclines and sulfonamides. The presence of contaminants in the vicinity or within the plants can elicit stress responses and defense mechanisms that can help tolerate the negative effects of contaminants. Antibiotics can change microbial communities and enzyme activity in the rhizosphere, potentially inducing microbial antibiotic resistance. On the other hand, the interaction of microbes and root exudates on pharmaceuticals in the rhizosphere can result in degradation of the parent molecule to less toxic compounds. To fully characterize the environmental impacts of increased antibiotic use in human medicine and animal production, further research is essential to understand the effects of different antibiotics on plant physiology and productivity, uptake, translocation, and phytometabolism of antibiotics, and the role of antibiotics in the rhizosphere.

  19. Sulfonamide-Based Inhibitors of Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase Eis Abolish Resistance to Kanamycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzan, Atefeh; Willby, Melisa J.; Green, Keith D.; Gajadeera, Chathurada S.; Hou, Caixia; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Posey, James E.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-12-08

    A two-drug combination therapy where one drug targets an offending cell and the other targets a resistance mechanism to the first drug is a time-tested, yet underexploited approach to combat or prevent drug resistance. By high-throughput screening, we identified a sulfonamide scaffold that served as a pharmacophore to generate inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis acetyltransferase Eis, whose upregulation causes resistance to the aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotic kanamycin A (KAN) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rational systematic derivatization of this scaffold to maximize Eis inhibition and abolish the Eis-mediated KAN resistance of M. tuberculosis yielded several highly potent agents. A crystal structure of Eis in complex with one of the most potent inhibitors revealed that the inhibitor bound Eis in the AG-binding pocket held by a conformationally malleable region of Eis (residues 28–37) bearing key hydrophobic residues. These Eis inhibitors are promising leads for preclinical development of innovative AG combination therapies against resistant TB.

  20. Radiological protection in veterinary practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Emiko; Tabara, Takashi; Kusama, Tomoko.

    1990-01-01

    To propose measures for radiological protection of veterinary workers in Japan, X-ray exposure of workers in typical conditions in veterinary clinics was assessed. Dose rates of useful beam and scattered radiation, worker exposure doses at different stations, and effectiveness of protective clothing were determined using TLD and ion chambers. As precausions against radiation, the following practices are important: (1) use of suitable and properly maintained X-ray equipment, (2) proper selection of safe working stations, (3) use of protective clothing. Regulations are necessary to restrict the use of X-rays in the veterinary field. Because the use of X-rays in the veterinary field is not currently controlled by law, the above precautions are essential for minimizing exposure of veterinary staff. (author)

  1. Multiresidue determination of fluoroquinolone, sulfonamide, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol antibiotics in urban waters in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xianzhi; Tan, Jianhua; Tang, Caiming; Yu, Yiyi; Wang, Zhendi

    2008-01-01

    A feasible method has been optimized to simultaneously determine multiclass antibiotic residues, including sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol in urban riverine water and wastewater by off-line solid phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode-array ultraviolet detector and a fluorescence detector. Internal standard and standard addition methods were used in combination to identify and quantify these antibiotics to compensate for the matrix interference. The method quantification limits (MQLs) were determined to be 0.035 to 0.100 microg/L and 0.100 to 0.300 microg/L for the riverine water and wastewater, respectively. Recoveries of the investigated antibiotics ranged from 63 to 126%. Sulfamethoxazole was the most frequently detected antibiotic residue in Guangzhou section of the Major Pearl River, South China, with a maximum level of 0.510 microg/L. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics were relatively less detected with a maximum level of 0.459 microg/L. The maximum concentration of sulfamethoxazole reached 5.597 microg/L in the raw wastewater from a large-scale sewage treatment plant in Guangzhou city. Around 30% of sulfamethoxazole might survive the primary clarification and biotreatment processes in the sewage treatment plant. None of the investigated antibiotics have been found above MQLs in the final effluent after chlorine disinfection.

  2. Dental Education in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Eubanks

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.

  3. Studying the interaction between three synthesized heterocyclic sulfonamide compounds with hemoglobin by spectroscopy and molecular modeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeeminejad, Samane; Assaran Darban, Reza; Beigoli, Sima; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Chamani, Jamshidkhan

    2017-11-01

    The interaction between synthesized heterocyclic benzene sulfonamide compounds, N-(7-benzyl-56-biphenyl-2m-tolyl-7H-pyrrolo[23-d]pyrimidine-4-yl)-benzene sulfonamide (HBS 1 ), N-(7-benzyl-56-biphenyl-2-m-tolyl-7H-pyrrolo[23-d] pyrimidine-4-yl)-4-methyl- benzene sulfonamide (HBS 2 ), and N-(7-benzyl-56-biphenyl-2-m-tolyl-7H-pyrrolo[23-d]pyrimidine-4-yl)-4-chloro-benzene sulfonamide (HBS 3 ) with Hb was studied by fluorescence quenching, zeta potentional, circular dichroism, and molecular modeling techniques. The fluorescence spectroscopy experiments were performed in order to study the conformational changes, possibly due to a discrete reorganization of Trp residues during binding between HBS derivatives and Hb. The variation of the K SV value suggested that hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions were the predominant intermolecular forces stabilizing the complex. The K SV1 ans K SV2 values of HBS derivatives with Hb are .6 × 10 13 and 3 × 10 13  M -1 for Hb-HBS 1 , 1 × 10 13 and 4 × 10 13  M -1 for Hb-HBS 2 , .9 × 10 13 , and 6 × 10 13  M -1 for Hb-HBS 3 , respectively. The molecular distances between Hb and HBS derivatives in binary and ternary systems were estimated according to Förster's theory of dipole-dipole non-radiation energy transfer. The quantitative analysis data of circular dichroism spectra demonstrated that the binding of the three HBS derivatives to Hb induced conformational changes in Hb. Changes in the zeta potential of the Hb-HBS derivatives complexes demonstrated a hydrophobic adsorption of the anionic ligand onto the surface of Hb as well as both electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption in the case of the complex. The modeling data thus confirmed the experimental results. This study is expected to provide important insight into the interaction of Hb with three HBS derivatives to use in various toxicological and therapeutic processes.

  4. Computer automation in veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, H

    1996-05-01

    Computers have been used to automate complex and repetitive tasks in veterinary hospitals since the 1960s. Early systems were expensive, but their use was justified because they performed jobs which would have been impossible or which would have required greater resources in terms of time and personnel had they been performed by other methods. Systems found in most veterinary hospitals today are less costly, magnitudes more capable, and often underused. Modern multitasking operating systems and graphical interfaces bring many opportunities for automation. Commercial and custom programs developed and used in a typical multidoctor mixed species veterinary practice are described.

  5. Multi-residue determination of 210 drugs in pork by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiqiang; Chai, Tingting; Mu, Pengqian; Xu, Nana; Song, Yue; Wang, Xinlu; Jia, Qi; Qiu, Jing

    2016-09-09

    This paper presents a multi-residue analytical method for 210 drugs in pork using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Q-Trap tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) within 20min via positive ESI in scheduled multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The 210 drugs, belonging to 21 different chemical classes, included macrolides, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, β-lactams, β-agonists, aminoglycosides, antiviral drugs, glycosides, phenothiazine, protein anabolic hormones, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), quinolones, antifungal drugs, corticosteroids, imidazoles, piperidines, piperazidines, insecticides, amides, alkaloids and others. A rapid and simple preparation method was applied to process the animal tissues, including solvent extraction with an acetonitrile/water mixture (80/20, v/v), defatting and clean-up processes. The recoveries ranged from 52% to 130% with relative standard deviations (RSDs)<20% for spiked concentrations of 10, 50 and 250μg/kg. More than 90% of the analytes achieved low limits of quantification (LOQs)<10μg/kg. The decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ) values were in the range of 2-502μg/kg and 4-505μg/kg, respectively. This method is significant for food safety monitoring and controlling veterinary drug use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibacterial activity of sulfamethoxazole transformation products (TPs): general relevance for sulfonamide TPs modified at the para position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewsky, Marius; Wagner, Danny; Delay, Markus; Bräse, Stefan; Yargeau, Viviane; Horn, Harald

    2014-10-20

    Sulfonamide antibiotics undergo transformation in the aquatic environment through biodegradation, photolysis, or hydrolysis. In this study, the residual antibacterial activity of 11 transformation products (TPs) of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated with regard to their in vitro growth and luminescence inhibition on Vibrio fischeri (30 min and 24 h exposure). Two transformation products, 4-hydroxy-SMX and N(4)-hydroxy-acetyl-SMX, were synthesized in-house and confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results of individual compound experiments showed that TPs modified at the para amino group still exhibit clear antibacterial effects, whereas TPs resulting from breakdown of the SMX structure lost this mechanism of action. 4-NO2- and 4-OH-SMX were found to inhibit growth to a clearly greater extent than the parent compound, SMX. In contrast, the N(4)-acetyl- and N(4)-hydroxy-acetyl-derivatives retain less than 10 and 5% of the effect of SMX on growth and luminescence inhibition, respectively. The effect of a mixture of para-modified TPs was observed to be additive. Considering the homologous series of sulfa drugs widely prescribed and their common mechanism of action, the potential environmental impact must consider the total amount of sulfonamide antibiotics and their derivative TPs, which might end up in a water body. Extrapolating the results obtained here for the para TPs of SMX to other sulfa drugs and determining the persistence and occurrence of these compounds in the aquatic environment is required for improved risk assessment.

  7. Development and validation of an LC-UV method for the determination of sulfonamides in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Companyó, R

    2012-05-01

    A simple LC-UV method was developed for the determination of residues of eight sulfonamides (sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadiazine, sulfadimidine, sulfadoxine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfadimethoxine) in six types of animal feed. C18, Oasis HLB, Plexa and Plexa PCX stationary phases were assessed for the clean-up step and the latter was chosen as it showed greater efficiency in the clean-up of interferences. Feed samples spiked with sulfonamides at 2 mg/kg were used to assess the trueness (recovery %) and precision of the method. Mean recovery values ranged from 47% to 66%, intra-day precision (RSD %) from 4% to 15% and inter-day precision (RSD %) from 7% to 18% in pig feed. Recoveries and intra-day precisions were also evaluated in rabbit, hen, cow, chicken and piglet feed matrices. Calibration curves with standards prepared in mobile phase and matrix-matched calibration curves were compared and the matrix effects were ascertained. The limits of detection and quantification in the feeds ranged from 74 to 265 µg/kg and from 265 to 868 µg/kg, respectively. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Current Issues and the Veterinary Medical Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Andre J.

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…

  9. Needlestick injuries in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J Scott; Jack, Douglas C

    2008-08-01

    Needlestick injuries are an inherent risk of handling needles during the course of veterinary practice. While significant effort has been expended to reduce needlestick injuries in human medicine, a relatively lax approach seems to be prevalent in veterinary medicine. It appears that needlestick injuries are very common among veterinary personnel and that serious adverse effects, while uncommon, do occur. Clients may also receive injuries in clinics during the course of animal restraint, and at home following prescription of injectable medications or fluids. Because of occupational health, personal health, and liability concerns, veterinary practices should review the measures they are taking to reduce the likelihood of needlestick injuries and develop written needlestick injury avoidance protocols.

  10. Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As seen on the center's logo, the mission statement for FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reads: "Protecting Human and Animal Health." To achieve this broad...

  11. Hazard of Sulfonamides and Detection Technology Research Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiahui; Wang, Guangyu

    2017-12-01

    As a kind of widely used antibiotic with typical characteristics, sulfonamides have been greatly applied in clinical medicine for long time. It can’t be effectively treated by pollutant disposal system during pharmaceutical process and utilization and will be discharged into natural environment to be one of the antibiotics with great effect. This kind of substance is difficult to be biodegraded and will be easy to accumulate in the environment, generating huge eco-toxicological effect with significant mutagenicity and teratogenic effect. It is the severe threat for ecological balance, human health and drinking water safety. Its environmental behavior and detection technology attract extensive attention home and abroad.

  12. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  13. Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. PMID:28801498

  14. Potentiometric determination of acid dissociation constants (pKa) for human and veterinary antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Zhimin; Adams, Craig

    2004-07-01

    This work determined the acid dissociation constants (pKa) of 26 common human and veterinary antibiotics by potentiometric titration. Selected antibiotics consisted of sulfonamides, macrolides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, and other miscellaneous antibiotics. After validation of analysis methods using phosphoric acid as a model compound, a second-derivative (delta2pH/deltaV2) method was primarily applied to determining pKa's from titration curves for most antibiotics due to its convenience and accuracy. For tetracyclines, however, a least-square non-linear regression method was developed to determine their pKa's because the second-derivative method cannot well distinguish the pKa,2 and pKa,3 of tetracyclines. Results indicate that the pKa values are approximately 2 and 5-7.5 for sulfonamides; 7.5-9 for macrolides; 3-4, 7-8 and 9-10 for tetracyclines; 3-4, 6, 7.5-9 and 10-11 for fluoroquinolones; while compound-specific for other miscellaneous antibiotics. The moieties corresponding to specific pKa's were identified based on chemical structures of antibiotics. In addition, the pKa's available in literature determined by various techniques are compiled in comparison with the values of this work. These results are expected to essentially facilitate the research on occurrence, fate and effects, analysis methods development, and control of antibiotics in various treatment operations.

  15. Traceability of sulfonamide antibiotic treatment by immunochemical analysis of farm animal hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Javier; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Sánchez-Baeza, Francisco; Garcia Regueiro, Jose-Antonio; Castellari, Massimo; Marco, M-Pilar

    2009-10-01

    The use of hair to trace use of unauthorized substances, therapeutic agents, or their misuse is becoming very attractive since residues can be detected for a long time after treatment. For this purpose, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been evaluated for its capability to trace sulfonamide antibiotic treatment by analyzing cattle and pig hair samples. Pigmented and nonpigmented hair samples from control and sulfamethazine (SMZ)-treated pigs and calves were collected, extracted under different alkaline conditions, and analyzed by ELISA after just diluting the extracts with the assay buffer. Data analysis following the European recommendations for screening methods demonstrates that the ELISA can detect SMZ in hair samples with a limit of detection (90% of the zero dose (IC(90))) between 30 and 75 ng g(-1). The same samples have been analyzed by HPLC after a dual solid-phase extraction. The ELISA results matched very well those obtained by the chromatographic method, demonstrating that the immunochemical method can be used as a screening tool to trace animal treatments. Between the benefits of this method are the possibility to directly analyze hair extracts with sufficient detectability and its high-throughput capability. Preliminary validation data are reported using an experimental approach inspired on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria for screening methods.

  16. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2012-01-01

    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... and 28 students from 2010). Our results show that anxiety levels in veterinary students are significantly higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course (p...

  17. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines for an integrative veterinary medicine curriculum within veterinary colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, M.A.; Shmalberg, J.; Adair, H.S.; Allweiler, S.; Bryan, J.N.; Cantwell, S.; Carr, E.; Chrisman, C.; Egger, C.M.; Greene, S.; Haussler, K.K.; Hershey, B.; Holyoak, G.R.; Johnson, M.; Jeune, S. Le; Looney, A.; McConnico, R.S.; Medina, C.; Morton, A.J.; Munsterman, A.; Nie, G.J.; Park, N.; Parsons-Doherty, M.; Perdrizet, J.A.; Peyton, J.L.; Raditic, D.; Ramirez, H.P.; Saik, J.; Robertson, S.; Sleeper, M.; Dyke, J. Van; Wakshlag, J.

    2016-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270

  18. Emotions in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    2012-01-01

    A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources...... of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination...

  19. Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Pelligand, L; Whiting, M; Chambers, D; Toutain, P-L; Whitehead, M L

    2017-08-12

    For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. British Veterinary Association.

  20. Distribution of Penicillin G Residues in Culled Dairy Cow Muscles: Implications for Residue Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which type of muscle should be analyzed. In order to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type, 7 culled dairy cows were dosed with Penicillin G (Pen G) from ...

  1. Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Gigi

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to ...

  2. Modularity and three-dimensional isostructurality of novel synthons in sulfonamide-lactam cocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha; Mittapalli, Sudhir; Nangia, Ashwini

    2015-07-01

    The design of novel supramolecular synthons for functional groups relevant to drugs is an essential prerequisite for applying crystal engineering in the development of novel pharmaceutical cocrystals. It has been convincingly shown over the past decade that molecular level control and modulation can influence the physicochemical properties of drug cocrystals. Whereas considerable advances have been reported on the design of cocrystals for carboxylic acids and carboxamide functional groups, the sulfonamide group, which is a cornerstone of sulfa drugs, is relatively unexplored for reproducible heterosynthon-directed crystal engineering. The occurrence of synthons and isostructurality in sulfonamide-lactam cocrystals (SO2NH2⋯CONH hydrogen bonding) is analyzed to define a strategy for amide-type GRAS (generally recognized as safe) coformers with sulfonamides. Three types of supramolecular synthons are identified for the N-H donor of sulfonamide hydrogen bonding to the C=O acceptor of amide. Synthon 1: catemer synthon C 2 (1)(4) chain motif, synthon 2: dimer-cyclic ring synthon R 2 (2)(8)R 4 (2)(8) motifs, and synthon 3: dimer-catemer synthon of R 2 (2)(8)C 1 (1)(4)D notation. These heterosynthons of the cocrystals observed in this study are compared with the N-H⋯O dimer R 2 (2)(8) ring and C(4) chain motifs of the individual sulfonamide structures. The X-ray crystal structures of sulfonamide-lactam cocrystals exhibit interesting isostructurality trends with the same synthon being present. One-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional isostructurality in crystal structures is associated with isosynthons and due to their recurrence, novel heterosynthons for sulfonamide cocrystals are added to the crystal engineer's toolkit. With the predominance of sulfa drugs in medicine, these new synthons provide rational strategies for the design of binary and potentially ternary cocrystals of sulfonamides.

  3. Selective Access to Heterocyclic Sulfonamides and Sulfonyl Fluorides via a Parallel Medicinal Chemistry Enabled Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joseph W; Chenard, Lois; Young, Joseph M

    2015-11-09

    A sulfur-functionalized aminoacrolein derivative is used for the efficient and selective synthesis of heterocyclic sulfonyl chlorides, sulfonyl fluorides, and sulfonamides. The development of a 3-step parallel medicinal chemistry (PMC) protocol for the synthesis of pyrazole-4-sulfonamides effectively demonstrates the utility of this reagent. This reactivity was expanded to provide rapid access to other heterocyclic sulfonyl fluorides, including pyrimidines and pyridines, whose corresponding sulfonyl chlorides lack suitable chemical stability.

  4. A Clinical Pharmacology Course for Veterinary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Lynn Mulcahy

    1983-01-01

    A one-semester, two-credit course is described that was developed cooperatively by the colleges of pharmacy and veterinary medicine at Washington State University to help resolve an acute shortage of clinical pharmacologists in veterinary medicine and veterinary medical education. Course procedures, content, and evaluation are outlined (MSE)

  5. 7 CFR 371.4 - Veterinary Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary Services. 371.4 Section 371.4 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.4 Veterinary Services. (a) General statement. Veterinary Services (VS) protects and safeguards the Nation's livestock and...

  6. Understanding veterinary leadership in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Caroline Elizabeth; Butler, Allan J; Murray, Yaqub Paul

    2018-04-21

    The Vet Futures Report has identified 'exceptional leadership' as a key ambition for the long-term sustainability of the industry. This research investigates what it is like to be a veterinary surgeon in an in-practice leadership position, applying the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Through the researchers' interpretation of the seven participants' stories of their leadership experiences, the study advances understanding of the work environment, underlying motivations and the perceived responsibilities of veterinary leaders. Findings suggest, for many, a struggle in transition to leader positions, improving with time. The increase in pace of work is relayed by participants, with an ongoing, and unchallenged, work-life imbalance. The vets involved are highly motivated, driven by enjoyment of their jobs, a desire for self-determination and a need to make a difference. Relationships form the core of the perceived responsibilities, and yet are identified as the greatest day-to-day challenge of leadership. This study offers a valuable insight for veterinary surgeons, suggesting the industry could benefit from pausing and reflecting on behaviours. With a greater understanding of the complexity of leadership and followership, progress can be made to enact positive changes for the future. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  8. African Journals Online: Veterinary Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... African Journals Online: Veterinary Science ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ... Life Sciences, Chemistry, Mathematics & Physics, Earth Sciences ... The Nigerian Journal of Animal Science (NJAS) is an official ...

  9. Radiation protection in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology is an essential part of present-day veterinary practice. The need for radiation protection exists because occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can result in deleterious effects that may manifest themselves not only in exposed individuals but in their descendants as well. These are respectively called somatic and genetic effects. Somatic effects are characterized by observable changes occurring in the body organs of the exposed individual. These changes may appear from within a few hours to many years later, depending on the amount and duration of exposure of the individual. In veterinary medicine, the possibility that anyone may be exposed to enough radiation to create somatic effect is extremely remote. Genetic effects are more a cause for concern at the lower doses used in veterinary radiology. Although the radiation doses may be small and appear to cause no observable damage, the probability of chromosomal damage in the germ cells, with the consequence of mutations, does exist. These mutations may give rise to genetic defects and therefore make these doses significant when applied to a large number of individuals. There are two main aspects of the problem to be considered. First, personnel working with X-ray equipment must be protected from excessive exposure to radiation during their work. Secondly, personnel in the vicinity of veterinary X-ray facilities and the general public require adequate protection

  10. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. Section Policies. Articles. Checked Open Submissions, Checked Indexed, Checked Peer Reviewed. Publication Frequency.

  11. Removal of veterinary antibiotics from anaerobically digested swine wastewater using an intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Zhenya; Liu, Rui; Lei, Zhongfang

    2018-03-01

    A lab-scale intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor (IASBR) was applied to treat anaerobically digested swine wastewater (ADSW) to explore the removal characteristics of veterinary antibiotics. The removal rates of 11 veterinary antibiotics in the reactor were investigated under different chemical organic demand (COD) volumetric loadings, solid retention times (SRT) and ratios of COD to total nitrogen (TN) or COD/TN. Both sludge sorption and biodegradation were found to be the major contributors to the removal of veterinary antibiotics. Mass balance analysis revealed that greater than 60% of antibiotics in the influent were biodegraded in the IASBR, whereas averagely 24% were adsorbed by sludge under the condition that sludge sorption gradually reached its equilibrium. Results showed that the removal of antibiotics was greatly influenced by chemical oxygen demand (COD) volumetric loadings, which could achieve up to 85.1%±1.4% at 0.17±0.041kgCOD/m -3 /day, while dropped to 75.9%±1.3% and 49.3%±12.1% when COD volumetric loading increased to 0.65±0.032 and 1.07±0.073kgCOD/m -3 /day, respectively. Tetracyclines, the dominant antibiotics in ADSW, were removed by 87.9% in total at the lowest COD loading, of which 30.4% were contributed by sludge sorption and 57.5% by biodegradation, respectively. In contrast, sulfonamides were removed about 96.2%, almost by biodegradation. Long SRT seemed to have little obvious impact on antibiotics removal, while a shorter SRT of 30-40day could reduce the accumulated amount of antibiotics and the balanced antibiotics sorption capacity of sludge. Influent COD/TN ratio was found not a key impact factor for veterinary antibiotics removal in this work. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Analytical methods for multiresidue determination of sulfonamides and trimethoprim in meat and ground water samples by CE-MS and CE-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Chinchilla, Jorge J; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents two methods based on CZE-MS detection and CZE-MS/MS detection developed for the multiresidue determination of ten sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfadoxin, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfameter, sulfamerazine, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethizole) and a potentiator, trimethoprim (TMP), whose contents are regulated by the EU Council Regulation no. 2377/90 in animal edible tissues. Experimental designs were employed to optimize the electrospray conditions. MS/MS experiments using an IT as analyzer operating in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode were carried out to achieve the minimum number of points according to the 2002/657/EC European Decision for unambiguous identification. The proposed procedures have been compared in terms of the performance characteristics and trueness. The limits of detection and quantification were in all cases lower than the maximum residue limits legislated for these compounds and the recoveries were satisfactory, being possible the application for their monitoring in foodstuff of animal origin and in environmental samples, allowing the determination of sulfonamides and TMP residues in meat and in superficial water in the low microg/L range.

  13. Long-term batch study of sorption, transformation and extractability to characterize the fate of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Stephan; Kasteel, Roy; Groeneweg, Joost; Vereecken, Harry

    2010-05-01

    The occurrence of veterinary antibiotic substances in various environmental compartments is of growing concern. Once released into the environment (e.g. via manure), these organic substances can cause changes in the composition of microbial populations, provoke the development and spreading of resistance genes and finally reach the food chain. The substance under study is the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ), which belongs to the chemical group of the sulfonamides. These compounds are widely applied in animal husbandry. There are hardly any studies on the macroscopic sorption and desorption behaviour in combination with transformation processes, particularly investigating the sorbed fraction. We are conducting long-term batch sorption experiments to characterize the partitioning between the liquid and the solid phases as well as formation of transformation products. A sequential extraction procedure enables us to analyse the composition of the various sorbed fractions. We applied 14C-labelled SDZ in aqueous solution to fresh soil, originating from an agricultural field (silty loam). Adsorption and desorption studies are conducted for the duration of 60 d and 80 d, respectively. Unique setups for single time-steps allow us to trace the development of the partition process between the liquid and the solid phase and also partitioning within the solid phase. The composition of these liquid phases concerning the parent substance and the transformation products is analyzed. Using Radio-HPLC we find at least five transformation products: 4-hydroxy-sulfadiazine (4-OH-SDZ), 4-(2-iminopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-aniline (An-SDZ) and additionally three yet unknown products. By means of a sequential extraction, differently strong bound fractions of the compound can be distinguished. Extractions consist of a mild method (0.01 M CaCl2-solution; 24 h) followed by a methanol extraction (4 h). Finally, a residual fraction is gained by microwave extraction at an elevated temperature

  14. Multiresidue analysis of 22 sulfonamides and their metabolites in animal tissues using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction and high resolution mass spectrometry (hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, H; Arnaudguilhem, C; Jaber, F; Lobinski, R

    2014-08-15

    A new high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) method was developed for a simultaneous multi-residue analysis of 22 sulfonamides (SAs) and their metabolites in edible animal (pig, beef, sheep and chicken) tissues. Sample preparation was optimized on the basis of the "QuEChERS" protocol. The analytes were identified using their LC retention times and accurate mass; the identification was further confirmed by multi-stage high mass accuracy (Pig kidney" with ǀ Z-scoreǀpig, beef, sheep, and chicken) allowing the simultaneous quantification of target sulfonamides at concentration levels above the MRL/2 and the identification of untargeted compounds such as N(4)-acetyl metabolites using multi-stage high mass accuracy mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibiotic residues in liquid manure from swine feedlot and their effects on nearby groundwater in regions of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Chong; Chen, Yongxing; Huang, Hongkun; Ren, Tianzhi

    2018-04-01

    A survey was conducted in regions of North China to better understand the effect of antibiotic residue pollution from swine feedlots to nearby groundwater environment. A total of nine experimental sites located in the regions of Beijing, Hebei, and Tianjin were selected to analyze the presence of residues of 11 most commonly used antibiotics, including tetracyclines (TCs), fluoroquinolones (FQNs), sulfonamides (SAs), macrolides, and fenicols, by using liquid chromatography spectrometry. The three most common antibiotics were TCs, FQNs, and SAs, with mean concentrations of 416.4, 228.8, and 442.4 μg L -1 in wastewater samples; 19.9, 11.8, and 0.3 μg L -1 in groundwater samples from swine feedlots; and 29.7, 14.0, and 0 μg L -1 in groundwater samples from villages. Ordination analysis revealed that the composition and distribution of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (AGRs) were similar in groundwater samples from swine feedlots and villages. FQNs and TCs occurred along the path from wastewater to groundwater at high concentrations and showed correlations with ARGs, with a strong correlation between FQN resistance gene (qnrA) copy number. FQN concentration was also found (P swine feedlots through wastewater could disseminate into surrounding groundwater environments together with ARG occurrence (i.e., qnrA, sulI, sulII, tetG, tetM, and tetO). Overall, this study suggests that the spread of veterinary antibiotics from swine feedlots to groundwater environments should be highly attended and controlled by restricting excess antibiotic usage or improving the technology of manure management.

  16. Veterinary Homeopathy: The Implications of Its History for Unorthodox Veterinary Concepts and Veterinary Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Dwight B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of veterinary homeopathy, its future and implications are discussed. The need for investigation into the validity of both allopathic and homeopathic claims is stressed and it is suggested that maintenance of quality is the key factor in any approach. (BH)

  17. Effect of biochar amendment on the control of soil sulfonamides, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and gene enrichment in lettuce tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Xie, Shanni; Tian, Da; Zhao, Yu; Wu, Jun; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochar can prevent soil sulfonamides from accumulating in lettuce tissues. • ARB enrichment in lettuce tissues decreased significantly after biochar amendment. • Impedance effect of biochar addition on soil ARGs was also quite effective. • Biochar application can be a practical strategy to protect vegetable safety. - Abstract: Considering the potential threat of vegetables growing in antibiotic-polluted soil with high abundance of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) against human health through the food chain, it is thus urgent to develop novel control technology to ensure vegetable safety. In the present work, pot experiments were conducted in lettuce cultivation to assess the impedance effect of biochar amendment on soil sulfonamides (SAs), antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and ARG enrichment in lettuce tissues. After 100 days of cultivation, lettuce cultivation with biochar amendment exhibited the greatest soil SA dissipation as well as the significant improvement of lettuce growth indices, with residual soil SAs mainly existing as the tightly bound fraction. Moreover, the SA contents in roots and new/old leaves were reduced by one to two orders of magnitude compared to those without biochar amendment. In addition, isolate counts for SA-resistant bacterial endophytes in old leaves and sul gene abundances in roots and old leaves also decreased significantly after biochar application. However, neither SA resistant bacteria nor sul genes were detected in new leaves. It was the first study to demonstrate that biochar amendment can be a practical strategy to protect lettuce safety growing in SA-polluted soil with rich ARB and ARGs.

  18. Multi-component analysis of tetracyclines, sulfonamides and tylosin in swine manure by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Anne Marie; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2006-03-01

    A multi-component method focussing on thorough sample preparation has been developed for simultaneous analysis of swine manure for three classes of antibiotic-tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and tylosin. Liquid manure was initially freeze-dried and homogenised by pulverization before extraction by pressurised liquid extraction. The extraction was performed at 75 degrees C and 2,500 psig in three steps using two cycles with 0.2 mol L(-1) citric acid buffer (pH 4.7) and one cycle with a mixture of 80% methanol with 0.2 mol L(-1) citric acid (pH 3). After liquid-liquid extraction with heptane to remove lipids, the pH of the manure was adjusted to 3 with formic acid and the sample was vacuum-filtered through 0.6 mum glass-fibre filters. Finally the samples were pre-concentrated by tandem SPE (SAX-HLB). Recoveries were determined for manure samples spiked at three concentrations (50-5,000 microg kg(-1) dry matter); quantification was achieved by matrix-matched calibration. Recoveries were >70% except for oxytetracycline (42-54%), sulfadiazine (59-73%), and tylosin (9-35%) and did not vary with concentration or from day-to-day. Limits of quantification (LOQ) for all compounds, determined as a signal-to-noise ratio of 10, were in the range 10-100 microg kg(-1) dry matter. The suitability of the method was assessed by analysis of swine manure samples from six different pig-production sites, e.g. finishing pigs, sows, or mixed production. Residues of antibiotics were detected in all samples. The largest amounts were found for tetracyclines (up to 30 mg kg(-1) dry matter for the sum of CTC and ECTC). Sulfonamides were detected at concentrations up to 2 mg kg(-1) dry matter (SDZ); tylosin was not detected in any samples.

  19. Effect of biochar amendment on the control of soil sulfonamides, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and gene enrichment in lettuce tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Mao [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Sun, Mingming [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Feng, Yanfang, E-mail: fengyanfang@163.com [Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Wan, Jinzhong [Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection of China, Nanjing 210042 (China); Xie, Shanni; Tian, Da [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Zhao, Yu [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Jun; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Jiang, Xin, E-mail: Jiangxin@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Biochar can prevent soil sulfonamides from accumulating in lettuce tissues. • ARB enrichment in lettuce tissues decreased significantly after biochar amendment. • Impedance effect of biochar addition on soil ARGs was also quite effective. • Biochar application can be a practical strategy to protect vegetable safety. - Abstract: Considering the potential threat of vegetables growing in antibiotic-polluted soil with high abundance of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) against human health through the food chain, it is thus urgent to develop novel control technology to ensure vegetable safety. In the present work, pot experiments were conducted in lettuce cultivation to assess the impedance effect of biochar amendment on soil sulfonamides (SAs), antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and ARG enrichment in lettuce tissues. After 100 days of cultivation, lettuce cultivation with biochar amendment exhibited the greatest soil SA dissipation as well as the significant improvement of lettuce growth indices, with residual soil SAs mainly existing as the tightly bound fraction. Moreover, the SA contents in roots and new/old leaves were reduced by one to two orders of magnitude compared to those without biochar amendment. In addition, isolate counts for SA-resistant bacterial endophytes in old leaves and sul gene abundances in roots and old leaves also decreased significantly after biochar application. However, neither SA resistant bacteria nor sul genes were detected in new leaves. It was the first study to demonstrate that biochar amendment can be a practical strategy to protect lettuce safety growing in SA-polluted soil with rich ARB and ARGs.

  20. Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth A Innes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.

  1. Nitrotriazole- and imidazole-based amides and sulfonamides as antitubercular agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Maria V; Bloomer, William D; Rosenzweig, Howard S; Arena, Alexander; Arrieta, Francisco; Rebolledo, Joseph C J; Smith, Diane K

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-three 3-nitrotriazole-based and 2-nitroimidazole-based amides and sulfonamides were screened for antitubercular (anti-TB) activity in aerobic Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv by using the BacTiter-Glo (BTG) microbial cell viability assay. In general, 3-nitrotriazole-based sulfonamides demonstrated anti-TB activity, whereas 3-nitrotriazole-based amides and 2-nitroimidazole-based amides and sulfonamides were inactive. Three 3-nitrotriazole-based sulfonamides (compounds 4, 2, and 7) demonstrated 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50), IC90, and MIC values of 0.38, 0.43, and 1.56 μM (compound 4), 0.57, 0.98, and 3.13 μM (compound 2), and 0.79, 0.87, and 3.13 μM (compound 7), respectively. For 3-nitrotriazole-based sulfonamides, anti-TB activity increased with lipophilicity, whereas the one-electron reduction potential (E1/2) did not play a role. 2-Nitroimidazole-based analogs, which were inactive in the BTG assay, were significantly more active in the low-oxygen assay and more active than the 3-nitrotriazoles. All active nitrotriazoles in the BTG assay were similarly active or more potent (lower MIC values) against resistant strains, with the exception of compounds 2, 3, 4, and 8, which demonstrated greater MIC values against isoniazid-resistant strains. Five 3-nitrotriazole-based sulfonamides demonstrated activity in infected murine J774 macrophages, causing log reductions similar to those seen with rifampin. However, some compounds caused toxicity in uninfected macrophages. In conclusion, the classes of 3-nitrotriazole-based amides and sulfonamides merit further investigation as potential antitubercular agents. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Crystal structures of 4-meth-oxy-N-(4-methyl-phenyl)benzene-sulfonamide and N-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-4-meth-oxy-benzene-sulfonamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Vinola Z; Preema, C P; Naveen, S; Lokanath, N K; Suchetan, P A

    2015-11-01

    Crystal structures of two N-(ar-yl)aryl-sulfonamides, namely, 4-meth-oxy-N-(4-methyl-phen-yl)benzene-sulfonamide, C14H15NO3S, (I), and N-(4-fluoro-phen-yl)-4-meth-oxy-benzene-sulfonamide, C13H12FNO3S, (II), were determined and analyzed. In (I), the benzene-sulfonamide ring is disordered over two orientations, in a 0.516 (7):0.484 (7) ratio, which are inclined to each other at 28.0 (1)°. In (I), the major component of the sulfonyl benzene ring and the aniline ring form a dihedral angle of 63.36 (19)°, while in (II), the planes of the two benzene rings form a dihedral angle of 44.26 (13)°. In the crystal structure of (I), N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds form infinite C(4) chains extended in [010], and inter-molecular C-H⋯πar-yl inter-actions link these chains into layers parallel to the ab plane. The crystal structure of (II) features N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming infinite one dimensional C(4) chains along [001]. Further, a pair of C-H⋯O inter-molecular inter-actions consolidate the crystal packing of (II) into a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture.

  3. Development and validation of an ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of sulfonamides, quinolones and benzimidazoles in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-Lin; Chen, Guo; Zhu, Li; Yang, Ting; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Lei; Wu, Yin-Liang

    2014-07-01

    A simple, sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 38 veterinary drugs (18 sulfonamides, 11 quinolones and 9 benzimidazoles) and 8 metabolites of benzimidazoles in bovine milk by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Samples were extracted with acidified acetonitrile, cleaned up with Oasis(®) MCX cartridges, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS on an Acquity UPLC(®) BEH C18 column with gradient elution. The method allows such multi-analyte measurements within a 13min runtime while the specificity is ensured through the MRM acquisition mode. The method was validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC determining specificity, decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), recovery, precision, linearity and stability. For compounds which have MRLs in bovine milk, the CCα values fall into a range from 11 to 115μg/kg, and the CCβ values fall within a range of 12-125μg/kg. For compounds which have not MRLs in bovine milk, the CCα values fall into a range from 0.01 to 0.08μg/kg, and the CCβ values fall within a range of 0.02-0.11μg/kg. The mean recoveries of the 46 analytes were between 87 and 119%. The calculated RSD values of repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility experiments were below 11% and 15% for the 46 compounds, respectively. The method was demonstrated to be suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfonamides, quinolones and benzimidazoles in bovine milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A step towards the environmental prioritisation of veterinary medicines from animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahr, J.; Bondt, N.; Koeijer, de Tanja; Wipfler, E.L.; Berendsen, Bjorn; Hoeksma, Paul; Overbeek, van Leo; Mevius, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    Animal manure from intensive livestock farming is spread on arable fields and grassland on a large scale in the Netherlands. This manure can contain residues of veterinary medicines that have been given to livestock. Some of these substances are increasingly found in groundwater and surface water.

  5. Biological and Docking Studies of Sulfonamide Derivatives of 4-Aminophenazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.S.; Ismail, A.; Murtaza, S.; Shamim, S.; Tahir, M.N.; Usman Ali Rana, U.A.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfonamide derivatives of 4-aminophenazone (4APZ) were synthesized and accordingly characterized by spectroscopic techniques. These newly synthesized compounds were examined for their biological activities such as enzyme inhibition, analgesic, antibacterial, antioxidant and DNA interaction. A direct correlation between enzyme inhibition activity and concentration of the compounds was observed both by experimental and molecular docking studies. Analgesic activity of the compounds was investigated by formalin-induced paw licking (FIPL), acetic acid-induced writhing (AIW) and heat conduction methods in mice. Membrane stabilization effect was determined by hypotonicity-induced hemolysis. Bacterial strains, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. mutans and A. odontolyticus were used for investigating the antibacterial potential of the compounds. Antioxidant potential was investigated by Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP) and DPPH free radical scavenging method. DNA interaction studies of the synthesized compounds showed weak interaction. Hyperchromic effect was observed along the series and large positive K values were obtained for most of the compounds. (author)

  6. Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    Part 2 of this narrative review outlines the theoretical and practical bases for assessing the efficacy and effectiveness of conventional medicines and homeopathic products. Known and postulated mechanisms of action are critically reviewed. The evidence for clinical efficacy of products in both categories, in the form of practitioner experience, meta-analysis and systematic reviews of clinical trial results, is discussed. The review also addresses problems and pitfalls in assessing data, and the ethical and negative aspects of pharmacology and homeopathy in veterinary medicine. PMID:28821700

  7. Veterinary School Applicants: Financial Literacy and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.

  8. Veterinary Business Management Association presents program to aid future growth and stability of veterinary profession

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Spiraling veterinary student debt and the lack of a sustainable and profitable business model for many private practices in the modern business environment threaten the future growth and stability of the veterinary profession.

  9. Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.

  10. MARKETING STUDIES OF VETERINARY PHARMACY ORGANIZATIONS ASSORTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Deltsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is an active growth of veterinary pharmacy organizations and consumed medicinal drugs for veterinary use. Content-analysis showed that there was an insufficient number of studies devoted to the activity of veterinary pharmacies. The purpose of our work was the analysis of correspondence of range fullness of veterinary pharmacies to the contemporary state of pharmaceutical market of drugs for veterinary use. Veterinary clinics and pharmacies of Moscow and Moscow oblast were the object of our study. We have applied sociological methods (questionnaire, interview, marketing and statistic analysis methods. We have established that liquid dosage forms (53% occupy the biggest part of drugs in the State Registry of Veterinary Drugs. Solutions occupy 68% of this amount. Antimicrobial drugs for systematic use (40% are the most numerous drugs from pharmacotheraperutic group represented in the State Registry. Assortment of veterinary drugs is targeted mainly on a farm livestock (more than 50%. 58% of the market share is domestic drugs. Principal commodity groups which are released by veterinary pharmacies are feed-stuff (31% and drugs (30%. Pharmacy organizations does not have sufficient number of drugs in their assortment (fullness coefficient 7.9% which speaks about nonconformity of the assortment fullness.

  11. Multiresidue Method for Quantification of Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim in Tilapia Fillet by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Using QuEChERS for Sample Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Kátia S D; Assalin, Márcia R; Vallim, José H; Jonsson, Claudio M; Queiroz, Sonia C N; Reyes, Felix G R

    2018-01-01

    A multiresidue method for detecting and quantifying sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethoxypyridazine) and trimethoprim in tilapia fillet ( Oreochromis niloticus ) using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The sample preparation was optimized using the QuEChERS approach. The chromatographic separation was performed using a C18 column and 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase in the isocratic elution mode. Method validation was performed based on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and Brazilian guideline. The validation parameters evaluated were linearity ( r  ≥ 0.99); limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), 1 ng·g -1 and 5 ng·g -1 , respectively; intraday and interdays precision (CV lower than 19.4%). The decision limit (CC α 102.6-120.0 ng·g -1 and 70 ng·g -1 for sulfonamides and trimethoprim, respectively) and detection capability (CC β 111.7-140.1 ng·g -1 and 89.9 ng·g -1 for sulfonamides and trimethoprim, respectively) were determined. Analyses of tilapia fillet samples from fish exposed to sulfamethazine through feed (incurred samples) were conducted in order to evaluate the method. This new method was demonstrated to be fast, sensitive, and suitable for monitoring sulfonamides and trimethoprim in tilapia fillet in health surveillance programs, as well as to be used in pharmacokinetics and residue depletion studies.

  12. Stability Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Chiral Purity of R-(-)-5-[2-aminopropyl]-2-methoxybenzene Sulfonamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasawar, G B; Farooqui, M N

    2009-09-01

    A chiral reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the enantiomeric resolution of racemic mixture of (-)-5-[2-aminopropyl]-2-methoxybenzene sulfonamide in bulk drug. The enantiomeric separation of sulfonamide was resolved on a Crownpak CR (+) column using perchloric acid buffer of pH 1.0 as mobile phase and with UV detection at 226 nm. The method is validated and proved to be robust. The limit of detection and quantification of S (-)-(5)-[2-aminopropyl]-2-methoxybenzene sulfonamide] was found to be 0.084 and 0.159 mug/ml, respectively for 20 mul injection volume. The percentage recovery of S (-)-(5)-[2-aminopropyl]-2-methoxybenzene sulfonamide] ranged from 99.57 to 101.88 in bulk drug samples of R (-)-(5)-[2- aminopropyl]-2-methoxybenzene sulfonamide].

  13. 78 FR 23742 - Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Institute of Food and Agriculture Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute... information collection for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP). This notice initiates a 30...

  14. Introduction to veterinary clinical oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Ethical dilemmas in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Carol A; McDonald, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Veterinarians frequently encounter situations that are morally charged and potentially difficult to manage. Situation involving euthanasia, end-of-life care, economics, and inadequate provision of care create practical and moral dilemmas. Ethical tension may be attributable to differences in beliefs regarding the moral value of animals, client and veterinary responsibilities, and deciding what is best for an animal. Veterinarians can employ communication skills used in medical situations to explore the reasons underpinning ethical dilemmas and to search for solutions with clients, staff, and colleagues.

  16. Removal and factors influencing removal of sulfonamides and trimethoprim from domestic sewage in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan A; Yang, Yang; Dai, Yu-Nv; Chen, Chun-Xing; Wang, Su-Yu; Tao, Ran

    2013-10-01

    Twelve pilot-scale constructed wetlands with different configurations were set up in the field to evaluate the removal and factors that influence removal of sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfacetamide, sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole) and trimethoprim from domestic sewage. The treatments included four flow types, three substrates, two plants and three hydraulic loading rates across two seasons (summer and winter). Most target antibiotics were efficiently removed by specific constructed wetlands; in particular, all types of constructed wetlands performed well for the degradation of sulfapyridine. Flow types were the most important influencing factor in this study, and the best removal of sulfonamides was achieved in vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands; however, the opposite phenomenon was found with trimethoprim. Significant relationships were observed between antibiotic degradation and higher temperature and redox potential, which indicated that microbiological pathways were the most probable degradation route for sulfonamides and trimethoprim in constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification and dynamic modeling of biomarkers for bacterial uptake and effect of sulfonamide antimicrobials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Merle K.; Focks, Andreas; Siegfried, Barbara; Rentsch, Daniel; Krauss, Martin; Schwarzenbach, René P.; Hollender, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    The effects of sulfathiazole (STA) on Escherichia coli with glucose as a growth substrate was investigated to elucidate the effect-based reaction of sulfonamides in bacteria and to identify biomarkers for bacterial uptake and effect. The predominant metabolite was identified as pterine-sulfathiazole by LC-high resolution mass spectrometry. The formation of pterine-sulfathiazole per cell was constant and independent of the extracellular STA concentrations, as they exceeded the modeled half-saturation concentration K M S of 0.011 μmol L −1 . The concentration of the dihydrofolic acid precursor para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) increased with growth and with concentrations of the competitor STA. This increase was counteracted for higher STA concentrations by growth inhibition as verified by model simulation of pABA dynamics. The EC value for the inhibition of pABA increase was 6.9 ± 0.7 μmol L −1 STA, which is similar to that calculated from optical density dynamics indicating that pABA is a direct biomarker for the SA effect. - Highlights: ► Elucidation of the effect-based reaction of sulfonamides in bacteria. ► Identification of a biomarker for uptake and effect-based reaction of sulfonamides. ► Investigation of a biomarker for the bacterial growth inhibition by sulfonamides. ► Quantitative mechanistic modeling of biomarker dynamics using enzyme kinetics. ► Mechanistic quantitative linking of sulfonamide concentrations and effects. - Identification of specific biomarkers for the uptake and effect-based reaction of sulfonamides in bacteria and resulting growth inhibition.

  18. Multiclass method for the quantification of 92 veterinary antimicrobial drugs in livestock excreta, wastewater, and surface water by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinfang; Cui, Yonghui; Tao, Yanfei; Huang, Lingli; Peng, Dapeng; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Liu, Zhenli; Chen, Dongmei; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-11-01

    A simple multiresidue method was developed for detecting and quantifying 92 veterinary antimicrobial drugs from eight classes (β-lactams, quinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, lincomycins, macrolides, chloramphenicols, and pleuromutilin) in livestock excreta and water by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The feces samples were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile/water (80:20, v/v) and edetate disodium, followed by a cleanup using solid-phase extraction with an amino cartridge. Water samples were purified with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance solid-phase extraction column. Urine samples were extracted with acetonitrile and edetate disodium. Detection of veterinary antimicrobial drugs was achieved by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry using both positive and negative electrospray ionization mode. The recovery values of veterinary antimicrobial drugs in feces, urine, and water samples were 75-99, 85-110, and 85-101% and associated relative standard deviations were less than 15, 10, and 8%, respectively. The limits of quantification in feces, urine, and water samples were 0.5-1, 0.5-1, and 0.01-0.05 μg/L, respectively. This method was applied to determine real samples obtained from local farms and provides reliable quantification and identification results of 92 veterinary antimicrobial drugs in livestock excreta and water. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Determination of sulfonamides in meat by liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dal Ho; Choi, Jong Oh; Kim, Jin Seog; Lee, Dai Woon

    2002-01-01

    Liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) has been used for the determination of sulfonamides in meat. Five typical sulfonamides were selected as target compounds, and beef meat was selected as a matrix sample. As internal standards, sulfapyridine and isotope labeled sulfamethazine ( 13 C 6 -SMZ) were used. Compared to the results of recent reports, our results have shown improved precision to a RSD of 1.8% for the determination of sulfamethazine spiked with 75 ng/g level in meat

  20. Veterinary Preventive Medicine Curriculum Development at Louisiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, William T.

    1976-01-01

    The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)

  1. 21 CFR 201.105 - Veterinary drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to the...

  2. A new era in veterinary immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of

  3. The ninth international veterinary immunology symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Introduction to the special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August, 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune...

  4. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Making a difference through veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-11

    More than 100 people gathered in Birmingham on April 23 for the third joint conference of the Veterinary Public Health Association and the Association of Government Vets. With the theme of 'VPH hands on - making a difference together', the meeting considered the role vets play in society through their work on public health and sustainability. Kathryn Clark reports. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Veterinary Safety's Conflicts in the EAEU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalymbek, Bakytzhan; Shulanbekova, Gulmira K.; Madiyarova, Ainur S.; Mirambaeva, Gulnaz Zh.

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to the problem of veterinary safety of the countries under the Eurasian Economic Union. Animal health's measures are provided in order to prevent the entry and spread of infectious animal diseases, including common to humans and animals, as well as goods not conforming to the common veterinary and sanitary requirements.…

  7. 21 CFR 530.5 - Veterinary records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary records. 530.5 Section 530.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.5 Veterinary records...

  8. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine mammals...

  9. Perceptions of veterinary admissions committee members of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, ...

  10. Phenotypic and genotypic bacterial antimicrobial resistance in liquid pig manure is variously associated with contents of tetracyclines and sulfonamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, C S; Harms, K S; Küchenhoff, H; Kunz, A; Müller, C; Meyer, K; Schwaiger, K; Bauer, J

    2010-05-01

    Antibiotic residues as well as antibiotic-resistant bacteria in environmental samples might pose a risk to human health. This study aimed to investigate the association between antibiotic residues and bacterial antimicrobial resistance in liquid pig manure used as fertilizer. Concentrations of tetracyclines (TETs) and sulfonamides (SULs) were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 305 pig manure samples; antibiotic contents were correlated to the phenotypic resistance of Escherichia coli (n = 613) and enterococci (n = 564) towards up to 24 antibiotics. In 121 samples, the concentration of the TET resistance genes tet(M), tet(O) and tet(B) was quantified by real-time-PCR. TETs were found in 54% of the samples. The median sum concentration of all investigated TETs in the positive samples was 0.73 mg kg(-1). SULs were found with a similar frequency (51%) and a median sum concentration of 0.15 mg kg(-1) in the positive samples. Associated with the detection of TETs and/or SULs, resistance rates were significantly elevated for several substances - some of them not used in farm animals, e.g. chloramphenicol and synercid. In addition, multiresistant isolates were found more often in samples containing antibiotics. Analysis of the resistance genes tet(M) and tet(O) already showed a significant increase in their concentrations - but not in tet(B) - in the lowest range of total TET concentration. Mean tet(M) concentrations increased by the factor of 4.5 in the TET concentration range of 0.1-1 mg kg(-1), compared to negative manure samples. Antibiotic contamination of manure seems to be associated with a variety of changes in bacterial resistance, calling for a prudent use of antibiotics in farm animals. This study provides an interdisciplinary approach to assess antimicrobial resistance by combining the microbiological analysis of bacterial resistance with high quality chemical analysis of antibiotic residues in a representative number of environmental

  11. Hydroxylamine-O-sulfonamide is a versatile lead compound for the development of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, Anna; Vergara, Alessandro; Caterino, Marco; Alterio, Vincenzo; Monti, Simona M; Ombouma, Joanna; Dumy, Pascal; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Winum, Jean-Yves; De Simone, Giuseppina

    2015-07-21

    Hydroxylamine-O-sulfonamide, a molecule incorporating two zinc-binding groups (ZBGs), has been investigated as a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI) by means of kinetic, crystallographic and Raman spectroscopy studies, highlighting interesting results on its mechanism of action. These data can be exploited to design new, effective and selective CAIs.

  12. Deciphering the bacterial microbiome in huanglongbing-affected citrus treated with thermotherapy and sulfonamide antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a serious citrus disease that threatens the citrus industry. In previous studies, sulfonamide antibiotics and heat treatment suppressed ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), but did not completely eliminate the Las. Furthermore, there are few reports studying the bacteria...

  13. Multicomponent ternary cocrystals of the sulfonamide group with pyridine-amides and lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2015-11-04

    SMBA was selected as a bifunctional sulfa drug to design ternary cocrystals with pyridine amides and lactam coformers. Supramolecular assembly of five ternary cocrystals of p-sulfonamide benzoic acid with nicotinamide and 2-pyridone is demonstrated and reproducible heterosynthons are identified for crystal engineering.

  14. Lysine sulfonamides as novel HIV-protease inhibitors: Nepsilon-acyl aromatic alpha-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranix, Brent R; Lavallée, Jean-François; Sévigny, Guy; Yelle, Jocelyn; Perron, Valérie; LeBerre, Nicholas; Herbart, Dominik; Wu, Jinzi J

    2006-07-01

    A series of lysine sulfonamide analogues bearing Nepsilon-acyl aromatic amino acids were synthesized using an efficient synthetic route. Evaluation of these novel protease inhibitors revealed compounds with high potency against wild-type and multiple-protease inhibitor-resistant HIV viruses.

  15. Preparation and application of epitope magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for enrichment of sulfonamide antibiotics in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufeng; Wang, Cheng; Li, Xiangdao; Liu, Lifen

    2017-10-01

    Sulfonamides, which are widely used synthetic antibiotics, are hydrophilic and stable. They can easily migrate into the environment and aquatic animals, and increase the risk of cancer, drug resistance, and allergic symptoms if consumed by humans. Here, we developed an epitope magnetic imprinting approach to enrich multiple sulfonamide antibiotics from a water sample. Epitope magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (EMMIPs) were prepared by free-radical polymerization using vinyl-functioned Fe 3 O 4 as a core, sulfanilamide (SA) as a dummy template, methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. The performance of the EMMIPs was first evaluated by rebinding SA, and then an adsorption experiment was conducted to assess the extraction of multiple sulfonamide antibiotics containing the SA group. The binding experiments showed that the EMMIPs reached adsorption equilibrium in only 5 min with adsorption of SA at 2040 μg/g, compared with just 462 μg/g for the epitope magnetic non-imprinted polymers. EMMIPs were combined with HPLC for the detection of six sulfonamide antibiotics in surface water samples. The recoveries ranged from 79.3 to 92.4% and the relative standard deviations from 0.9 to 7.3%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Interaction of nitrogen dioxide with sulfonamide-substituted phthalocyanines: Towards NO2 gas sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pochekailov, Sergii; Nožár, Juraj; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Rakušan, J.; Karásková, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, 5 July (2012), s. 1-9 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA MPO FR-TI1/144 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : phthalocyanine * sulfonamide * nitrogen dioxide Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.535, year: 2012

  17. Synthesis of New Thiazole Derivatives Bearing A Sulfonamide Moiety Of Expected Anticancer And Radiosensitizing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.Sh.I.

    2012-01-01

    In a search for new cytotoxic agents with improved antitumor activity and selectivity, some new pyrano thiazole and thiazolopyranopyrimidine derivatives bearing sulfonamide moiety were synthesized. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antitumor activity alone and in combination with γ-irradiation. These new compounds were docked inside the active site of carbonic anhydrase II to predict their mechanism of action.

  18. Fate of sulfonamide antibiotics in contact with activated sludge--sorption and biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Chien-Ju; Ng, Kok-Kwang; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy

    2012-03-15

    The sorption and biodegradation of three sulfonamide antibiotics, namely sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), in an activated sludge system were investigated. Experiments were carried out by contacting 100 μg/L of each sulfonamide compound individually with 2.56 g/L of MLSS at 25±0.5 °C, pH 7.0, and dissolved oxygen of 3.0±0.1 mg/L in a batch reactor over different periods of 2 d and 14 d. All sulfonamides were removed completely over 11-13 d. Sorptive equilibrium was established well within the first few hours, followed by a lag period of 1-3 days before biodegradation was to deplete the antibiotic compounds linearly in the ensuing 10 days. Apparent zeroth-order rate constants were obtained by regression analysis of measured aqueous concentration vs. time profiles to a kinetic model accounting for sorption and biodegradation; they were 8.1, 7.9, and 7.7 μg/L/d for SDM, SMX, and SMM, respectively, at activated sludge concentration of 2.56 g/L. The measured kinetics implied that with typical hydraulic retention time (e.g. 6 h) provided by WWTP the removal of sulfonamide compounds from the wastewater during the activated sludge process would approximate 2 μg/L. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accumulation of sulfonamide resistance genes in arable soils due to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Holger; Solehati, Qodiah; Zimmerling, Ute; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael; Müller, Tanja; Focks, Andreas; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-04-01

    Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.

  20. Effect of biochar amendment on the control of soil sulfonamides, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and gene enrichment in lettuce tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Xie, Shanni; Tian, Da; Zhao, Yu; Wu, Jun; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin

    2016-05-15

    Considering the potential threat of vegetables growing in antibiotic-polluted soil with high abundance of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) against human health through the food chain, it is thus urgent to develop novel control technology to ensure vegetable safety. In the present work, pot experiments were conducted in lettuce cultivation to assess the impedance effect of biochar amendment on soil sulfonamides (SAs), antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and ARG enrichment in lettuce tissues. After 100 days of cultivation, lettuce cultivation with biochar amendment exhibited the greatest soil SA dissipation as well as the significant improvement of lettuce growth indices, with residual soil SAs mainly existing as the tightly bound fraction. Moreover, the SA contents in roots and new/old leaves were reduced by one to two orders of magnitude compared to those without biochar amendment. In addition, isolate counts for SA-resistant bacterial endophytes in old leaves and sul gene abundances in roots and old leaves also decreased significantly after biochar application. However, neither SA resistant bacteria nor sul genes were detected in new leaves. It was the first study to demonstrate that biochar amendment can be a practical strategy to protect lettuce safety growing in SA-polluted soil with rich ARB and ARGs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Domestic violence shelter partnerships and veterinary student attitudes at North American veterinary schools and colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K

    2013-01-01

    Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.

  2. Enhanced removal of sulfonamide antibiotics by KOH-activated anthracite coal: Batch and fixed-bed studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Linzi; Ai, Jing; Fu, Heyun; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-01-01

    The presence of sulfonamide antibiotics in aquatic environments poses potential risks to human health and ecosystems. In the present study, a highly porous activated carbon was prepared by KOH activation of an anthracite coal (Anth-KOH), and its adsorption properties toward two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine) and three smaller-sized monoaromatics (phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 1,3-dinitrobenzene) were examined in both batch and fixed-bed adsorption experiments to probe the interplay between adsorbate molecular size and adsorbent pore structure. A commercial powder microporous activated carbon (PAC) and a commercial mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) possessing distinct pore properties were included as comparative adsorbents. Among the three adsorbents Anth-KOH exhibited the largest adsorption capacities for all test adsorbates (especially the two sulfonamides) in both batch mode and fixed-bed mode. After being normalized by the adsorbent surface area, the batch adsorption isotherms of sulfonamides on PAC and Anth-KOH were displaced upward relative to the isotherms on CMK-3, likely due to the micropore-filling effect facilitated by the microporosity of adsorbents. In the fixed-bed mode, the surface area-normalized adsorption capacities of Anth-KOH for sulfonamides were close to that of CMK-3, and higher than that of PAC. The irregular, closed micropores of PAC might impede the diffusion of the relatively large-sized sulfonamide molecules and in turn led to lowered fixed-bed adsorption capacities. The overall superior adsorption of sulfonamides on Anth-KOH can be attributed to its large specific surface area (2514 m"2/g), high pore volume (1.23 cm"3/g) and large micropore sizes (centered at 2.0 nm). These findings imply that KOH-activated anthracite coal is a promising adsorbent for the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics from aqueous solution. - Highlights: • A high efficiency adsorbent for sulfonamide removal is prepared from anthracite. • Effects of

  3. The European system of veterinary specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary specialist diplomas were available in many European countries during the second half of the 20th century. However, such an early recognition of the importance of veterinary specialization actually delayed the concept of the European veterinary specialist in Europe, compared with the United States, where the first specialist colleges were established in the 1960s, because it was felt that the national system was functioning properly and there was therefore no need for a new structure in the European countries. The European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS) was established in 1996, and currently there are 23 specialist colleges with more than 2,600 veterinarians officially listed in the EBVS register as European specialists. The Advisory Committee on Veterinary Training (ACVT) approved the establishment of EBVS but never implemented a supervising body (with ACVT representation). Such a body, the European Coordinating Committee on Veterinary Training, was later implemented by the profession itself, although it still lacked a political component. Each college depends on the EBVS, which has the function to define standards and criteria for monitoring the quality of college diplomates. To become a European Diplomate, veterinarians must have gone through an intensive period of training supervised by a diplomate, after which candidates must pass an examination. Although the term European veterinary specialist still does not have any legal recognition, national specialist qualifications are being phased out in many countries because of the inherent higher quality of EBVS specialist qualifications.

  4. The need for veterinary nursing in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funmilayo A. Okanlawon, RN, PhD, FWACN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nursing care has been identified as an integral part of human medicine but is not well recognised in veterinary medicine as practised in Nigeria. In caring for human beings, a nurse is expected to have the fundamental understanding of disease aetiology, manifestations, diagnosis, manage-ment, rehabilitation, prevention and control. This is equally applicable to the care of animals. The role of veterinary nursing in veterinary medicine is significant considering the multitude of issues involved in the care of animals. The keeping of domestic animals is becoming popular and consequently the spread of infectious diseases from animals to human beings is on the increase. It is vital for human beings and animals to coexist in a healthy environment. The authors examine the importance of nursing care in veterinary medicine, the current situation in Nigeria, the role of veterinary nurses, the inter-professional approach to veterinary medicine, preparedness for the emergence of infectious diseases and career opportunities for veterinary nurses. This premise falls within the context of the ‘One Health’ concept.

  5. Veterinary and human vaccine evaluation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009

  6. Simultaneous determination of sulfonamides, tetracyclines and tiamulin in swine wastewater by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Weiwei; Qiang, Zhimin; Adams, Craig; Zhang, Heqing; Chen, Liping

    2008-08-22

    Little is known about the contamination level of antibiotics in swine wastewater in China. The highly complex matrix of swine wastewater, which generally has a chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration as high as 15,000 mg/L, makes it difficult to detect antibiotics at trace levels. In this work, a highly selective and sensitive analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of three classes of commonly used veterinary antibiotics including five sulfonamides, three tetracyclines and one macrolide in swine wastewater using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The method detection limits (MDL) in the swine wastewater were determined to be between 5 and 91 ng/L, depending on specific antibiotics. Except sulfamethizole, all the other eight antibiotics were detected in the swine wastewaters collected from three concentrated swine feeding plants located in the Beijing (China) area, showing a concentration range of 0.62-32.67 microg/L. These results reveal the representative concentration levels of selected antibiotics in the swine wastewaters of Beijing area.

  7. Analysis of trace levels of sulfonamide and tetracycline antimicrobials in groundwater and surface water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, M.E.; Meyer, M.; Thurman, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    A method has been developed for the trace analysis of two classes of antimicrobials consisting of six sulfonamides (SAs) and five tetracyclines (TCs), which commonly are used for veterinary purposes and agricultural feed additives and are suspected to leach into ground and surface water. The method used solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) with positive ion electrospray. The unique combination of a metal chelation agent (Na2EDTA) with a macroporous copolymer resulted in quantitative recoveries by solid-phase extraction (mean recovery, 98 ?? 12%) at submicrogram-per-liter concentrations. An ammonium formate/formic acid buffer with a methanol/water gradient was used to separate the antimicrobials and to optimize the signal intensity. Mass spectral fragmentation and ionization characteristics were determined for each class of compounds for unequivocal identification. For all SAs, a characteristic m/z 156 ion representing the sulfanilyl fragment was identified. TCs exhibited neutral losses of 17 amu resulting from the loss of ammonia and 35 amu from the subsequent loss of water. Unusual matrix effects were seen only for TCs in this first survey of groundwater and surface water samples from sites around the United States, requiring that TCs be quantitated using the method of standard additions.

  8. Residues in food derived from animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossklaus, D.

    1989-01-01

    The first chapter presents a survey of fundamentals and methods of the detection and analysis of residues in food derived from animals, also referring to the resulting health hazards to man, and to the relevant legal provisions. The subsequent chapters have been written by experts of the Federal Health Office, each dealing with particular types of residues such as those of veterinary drugs, additives to animal feeds, pesticide residues, and with environmental pollutants and the contamination of animal products with radionuclides. (MG) With 35 figs., 61 tabs [de

  9. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  10. Inspections in veterinary medicine 2005; Veterinaerinspektioner 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Helene

    2006-11-15

    In Sweden 300 veterinary clinics have a license for x-ray diagnostics. Six of them also have a license for nuclear medicine. During 2005 eight clinics were inspected and the results show that the radiation protection in veterinary medicine can be improved. No clinic fulfilled the regulations of categorization of workplaces and workers (SSI FS 1998:3). Half of the clinics had no Swedish manual to the x-ray equipment and just as many had not performed the annual function check. Obviously, there is a need for more information to staff in veterinary medicine.

  11. Veterinary medicine books recommended for academic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley-Low, Jill

    2004-10-01

    This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US).

  12. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...

  13. Sleep hygiene among veterinary medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D; Hunt, Suzanne A; Borst, Luke B; Gerard, Mathew

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand veterinary medical students' sleep hygiene and identify the extent to which sleep hygiene behaviors may result in consequences (either positive or negative) for students. A total of 187 doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) program students at a large College of Veterinary Medicine in the United States. The Epworth Sleep Scale and Daytime Sleepiness Scale were administered to 393 students enrolled in the DVM program. About 55.1% of students reported sleep per night, 28.9% reported having trouble sleeping, and 50.3% reported feeling sleepy all day. With respect to sleep quality, 5.3% described it as excellent, 52.4% as good, 34.2% as fair, and 8.0% as poor. A significant percentage of veterinary medical students exhibit poor sleep hygiene habits that may be detrimental to both their health and academic endeavors.

  14. Good veterinary governance: definition, measurement and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msellati, L; Commault, J; Dehove, A

    2012-08-01

    Good veterinary governance assumes the provision of veterinary services that are sustainably financed, universally available, and provided efficiently without waste or duplication, in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. Good veterinary governance is a necessary condition for sustainable economic development insomuch as it promotes the effective delivery of services and improves the overall performance of animal health systems. This article defines governance in Veterinary Services and proposes a framework for its measurement. It also discusses the role of Veterinary Services and analyses the governance dimensions of the performance-assessment tools developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). These tools (OIE PVS Tool and PVS Gap Analysis) track the performance of Veterinary Services across countries (a harmonised tool) and over time (the PVS Pathway). The article shows the usefulness of the OIE PVS Tool for measuring governance, but also points to two shortcomings, namely (i) the lack of clear outcome indicators, which is an impediment to a comprehensive assessment of the performance of Veterinary Services, and (ii) the lack of specific measures for assessing the extent of corruption within Veterinary Services and the extent to which demand for better governance is being strengthened within the animal health system. A discussion follows on the drivers of corruption and instruments for perception-based assessments of country governance and corruption. Similarly, the article introduces the concept of social accountability, which is an approach to enhancing government transparency and accountability, and shows how supply-side and demand-side mechanisms complement each other in improving the governance of service delivery. It further elaborates on two instruments--citizen report card surveys and grievance redress mechanisms--because of their wider relevance and their possible applications in many settings, including Veterinary

  15. Clinical decision making in veterinary practice

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to develop an understanding of the factors which influence veterinary surgeons’ clinical decision making during routine consultations. Methods The research takes a qualitative approach using video-cued interviews, in which one of the veterinary surgeon’s own consultations is used as the basis of a semi-structured interview exploring decision making in real cases. The research focuses primarily on small animal consultations in first opinion practice, how...

  16. Research data services in veterinary medicine libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerby, Erin E

    2016-10-01

    The study investigated veterinary medicine librarians' experience with and perceptions of research data services. Many academic libraries have begun to offer research data services in response to researchers' increased need for data management support. To date, such services have typically been generic, rather than discipline-specific, to appeal to a wide variety of researchers. An online survey was deployed to identify trends regarding research data services in veterinary medicine libraries. Participants were identified from a list of contacts from the MLA Veterinary Medical Libraries Section. Although many respondents indicated that they have a professional interest in research data services, the majority of veterinary medicine librarians only rarely or occasionally provide data management support as part of their regular job responsibilities. There was little consensus as to whether research data services should be core to a library's mission despite their perceived importance to the advancement of veterinary research. Furthermore, most respondents stated that research data services are just as or somewhat less important than the other services that they provide and feel only slightly or somewhat prepared to offer such services. Lacking a standard definition of "research data" and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.

  17. Factors Associated with Veterinary Clinical Faculty Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr, Martin

    Faculty attrition and recruitment for veterinary clinical faculty positions have been reported as significant problems in veterinary medical education. To investigate the factors that may be important in veterinary clinical faculty retention, the perceptions and views of veterinary clinical academic faculty were determined using a web-distributed electronic survey. Responses were dichotomized by whether the respondent had or had not left an academic position and were analyzed for their association with faculty attrition. A total of 1,226 responses were recorded, and results demonstrated that factors other than compensation were associated with veterinary clinical faculty attrition, including departmental culture, work-life balance, and recognition and support of clinical medicine by the administration. Forty-four percent of respondents who had held a faculty appointment reported leaving academia either voluntarily or for non-voluntary reasons such as failure to achieve tenure, retirement, or having their position closed. Attention to correcting deficiencies in workplace culture and professional rewards could be a beneficial means by which to decrease the faculty attrition rates currently observed in clinical academic veterinary medicine.

  18. Cultural awareness in veterinary practice: student perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jennifer N; Volet, Simone; Fozdar, Farida

    2011-01-01

    Australian veterinary classrooms are increasingly diverse and their growing internal diversity is a result of migration and large numbers of international students. Graduates interact with other students and increasingly with clients whose attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors differ from their own. An understanding and respect for these differences has an impact on client communication and health care outcomes. The present study explored how students understand and are likely to deal with issues of cultural diversity in veterinary professional practice as well as the educational needs that students feel should be met in regard to preparation to engage productively with diversity in professional practice. The present study also explored the extent to which the rich diversity of the undergraduate student population constitutes an educational resource. A class of final-year veterinary students was invited to participate in a workshop exploring intercultural confidence in veterinary consultation. Twelve groups of six to eight students discussed a fictitious scenario involving a challenging clinical encounter with a client from a different culture. Students were reticent to see the scenario in terms of cultural difference, although they generally recognized that awareness of cultural issues in veterinary practice was important. They also tended to not see their own ethnicity as relevant to their practice. While some felt that veterinary practice should be culture blind, most recognized a need to orient to cultural difference and to respond sensitively. Their suggestions for curricular improvements to address these issues are also included.

  19. Enhanced removal of sulfonamide antibiotics by KOH-activated anthracite coal: Batch and fixed-bed studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Linzi; Ai, Jing; Fu, Heyun; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-04-01

    The presence of sulfonamide antibiotics in aquatic environments poses potential risks to human health and ecosystems. In the present study, a highly porous activated carbon was prepared by KOH activation of an anthracite coal (Anth-KOH), and its adsorption properties toward two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine) and three smaller-sized monoaromatics (phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 1,3-dinitrobenzene) were examined in both batch and fixed-bed adsorption experiments to probe the interplay between adsorbate molecular size and adsorbent pore structure. A commercial powder microporous activated carbon (PAC) and a commercial mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) possessing distinct pore properties were included as comparative adsorbents. Among the three adsorbents Anth-KOH exhibited the largest adsorption capacities for all test adsorbates (especially the two sulfonamides) in both batch mode and fixed-bed mode. After being normalized by the adsorbent surface area, the batch adsorption isotherms of sulfonamides on PAC and Anth-KOH were displaced upward relative to the isotherms on CMK-3, likely due to the micropore-filling effect facilitated by the microporosity of adsorbents. In the fixed-bed mode, the surface area-normalized adsorption capacities of Anth-KOH for sulfonamides were close to that of CMK-3, and higher than that of PAC. The irregular, closed micropores of PAC might impede the diffusion of the relatively large-sized sulfonamide molecules and in turn led to lowered fixed-bed adsorption capacities. The overall superior adsorption of sulfonamides on Anth-KOH can be attributed to its large specific surface area (2514 m(2)/g), high pore volume (1.23 cm(3)/g) and large micropore sizes (centered at 2.0 nm). These findings imply that KOH-activated anthracite coal is a promising adsorbent for the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stability Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Chiral Purity of R-(-)-5-[2-aminopropyl]-2-methoxybenzene Sulfonamide

    OpenAIRE

    Kasawar, G. B.; Farooqui, M. N.

    2009-01-01

    A chiral reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the enantiomeric resolution of racemic mixture of (-)-5-[2-aminopropyl]-2-methoxybenzene sulfonamide in bulk drug. The enantiomeric separation of sulfonamide was resolved on a Crownpak CR (+) column using perchloric acid buffer of pH 1.0 as mobile phase and with UV detection at 226 nm. The method is validated and proved to be robust. The limit of detection and quantification of S (-)-(5)-[2-aminopropyl]-2-methoxyben...

  1. L-Threonine-derived novel bifunctional phosphine-sulfonamide catalyst-promoted enantioselective aza-morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Fangrui

    2011-03-18

    A series of novel bifunctional phosphine-sulfonamide organic catalysts were designed and readily prepared from natural amino acids, and they were utilized to promote enantioselective aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reactions. l-Threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide 9b was found to be the most efficient catalyst, affording the desired aza-MBH adducts in high yields and with excellent enantioselectivities. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shuyu; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hammerum, Anette M; Porsbo, Lone J; Jensen, Lars B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is very common in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3) in E. coli isolated from pigs and humans with a specific objective to assess the genetic diversity of plasmids involved in the mobility of sul genes. Methods A total of 501 E. coli isolates from pig feces, pig carcasses and human stools were tested for their susceptibility to selected antimicrobial. Multip...

  3. Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in eggs, tissue and feed samples in the State of Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alomirah, H.; Al-Mazeedi, H.; Al-Zenki, S.; Al-Faili, B.; Al-Foudary, M.; Abuzid, A.; Al-Sayed, I.; Sidhu, J.

    2007-01-01

    A total of 238 locally produced and imported eggs, tissue (meat, poultry and aquacultured fish) and feed and feedstuffs samples were collected at different seasonal periods from different farms and retail outlets in Kuwait and screened for presence of beta-lactams, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, streptomycin, macrolides and chloramphenicol (799 tests) using Charm II system. The results indicated that all of the 222 tests performed on table egg samples were negative for the analyzed antimicrobial residues indicating adherence to the guidelines for microbial use and withdrawal. Similarly, all of the 268 tests performed on tissue samples were negative for the analyzed antimicrobial residues except for chloramphenicol. These chloramphenicol positive samples, all of the 66 tests performed were negative for beta-lactams residues. Out of the 79 feed and feedstuff samples analyzed for teracyclines residues, broiler diet and concentrate samples (5%) were above the tetracyclines MRL (100 ppb.). On the other hands, results have revealed a widespread of sulfonamide residues and to a less extent chloramphenicol in tested feed and feedstuff samples. The Charm II system was reliable for rapid screening of antimicrobial residues. In general, results obtained in our study necessitate more effective and well planned national antimicrobial residues surveillance programs focusing particularly on samples imported from highly risk sources. (author)

  4. Distribution of sulfonamides in liquid and solid anaerobic digestates: effects of hydraulic retention time and swine manure to rice straw ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongmei; Xu, Caiyun; Du, Jing; Wu, Huashan; Huang, Hongying; Chang, Zhizhou; Xu, Yueding; Zhou, Lixiang

    2017-02-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (20 and 15 days) and swine manure to rice straw ratios on distribution of sulfonamides (SAs) in liquid and solid anaerobic digestates were studied using bench-scale completely stirred tank reactors at (37 ± 1) °C. Results showed that anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment exhibited a good removal effect on sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfadimidine (SM2) and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), especially at HRT = 20 days and co-digestion with swine manure and rice straw. The removal rates of SDZ and SM2 were more than 90%, but only 72.8% for SCP. The residual SAs were mainly remained in solid digestates, with residual rates ranging from 28.8% to 71.3%, 40.6% to 88.0, and 82.7% to 97.0% for SDZ, SM2 and SCP, respectively. Due to lower pKa and higher log K ow of SCP, its residue in solid digestates was far more than SDZ and SM2. Higher HRT and co-digestion could improve the degradation of SAs, which can also be put down to the occurrence of cometabolism of SAs and COD.

  5. Results of extended plant tests using more realistic exposure scenarios for improving environmental risk assessment of veterinary pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Elisabeth; Berkner, Silvia; Ebert, Ina; Förster, Bernhard; Graf, Nadin; Herrchen, Monika; Kuehnen, Ute; Römbke, Jörg; Simon, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background Residues of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) enter the environment via application of manure onto agricultural areas where in particular antibiotics can cause phytotoxicity. Terrestrial plant tests according to OECD guideline 208 are part of the environmental risk assessment of VMPs. However, this standard approach might not be appropriate for VMPs which form non-extractable residues or transformation products in manure and manure-amended soil. Therefore, a new test design with...

  6. SPECIAL ISSUE VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOPATHOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS 8TH INTERNATIONAL VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the Special Issue of Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. that summarizes the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto, Brazil. The 8 th IVIS highlighted the importance of veterinary immunology for animal health, vaccinology, reproducti...

  7. Ethnography in the Danish Veterinary Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Kirketerp Nielsen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this project is research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based learning concept to be used in the veterinary education. Herd visits and animal contact are essential for the development of veterinary competences and skills during education. Yet veterinary students have little occasion to reach/attain a proper level of confidence in their own skills/abilities, as they have limited “training-facilities” (Kneebone & Baillie, 2008. One possible solution mightbe to provide a safe, virtual environment (game-based where students could practise interdisciplinary clinical skills in an easily-accessible, interactive setting. A playable demo using Classical Swine Fever in a pig herd as an example has been produced for this purpose. In order totailor the game concept to the specific veterinary learning environment and to ensure compliance with both learning objectives and the actual learning processes/procedures of the veterinary students, the project contains both a developmental aspect (game development and an exploration of the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context. The initial phase of the project was a preliminary exploration of the actual learning context, providing an important starting point for the upcoming phase in which I will concentrate on research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based virtual environment in this course context. In the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context of a veterinary course in Herd Health Management (Pig module,ethnographic studies have been conducted by using multiple data collection methods; participant observation, spontaneous dialogues and interviews (Borgnakke, 1996; Hammersley & Atkinson, 2007. All courserelated activities in the different learning spaces (commercial pig herds, auditoriums, post-mortem examinations, independent group work were followed.This paper will

  8. Rationalization of activity cliffs of a sulfonamide inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases with induced-fit docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Franco, José L; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Yoo, Jakyung

    2014-02-21

    Inhibitors of human DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) are of increasing interest to develop novel epi-drugs for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. As the number of compounds with reported DNMT inhibition is increasing, molecular docking is shedding light to elucidate their mechanism of action and further interpret structure-activity relationships. Herein, we present a structure-based rationalization of the activity of SW155246, a distinct sulfonamide compound recently reported as an inhibitor of human DNMT1 obtained from high-throughput screening. We used flexible and induce-fit docking to develop a binding model of SW155246 with a crystallographic structure of human DNMT1. Results were in excellent agreement with experimental information providing a three-dimensional structural interpretation of 'activity cliffs', e.g., analogues of SW155246 with a high structural similarity to the sulfonamide compound, but with no activity in the enzymatic assay.

  9. Distribution of quinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines in aquatic environment and antibiotic resistance in Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru eSuzuki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has become the center of rapid industrial development and economic growth. However, this growth has far outpaced investment in public infrastructure, leading to the unregulated release of many pollutants, including wastewater-related contaminants such as antibiotics. Antibiotics are of major concern because they can easily be released into the environment from numerous sources, and can subsequently induce development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Recent studies have shown that for some categories of drugs this source-to-environment antibiotic resistance relationship is more complex. This review summarizes current understanding regarding the presence of quinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines in aquatic environments of Indochina and the prevalence of bacteria resistant to them. Several noteworthy findings are discussed: 1 quinolone contamination and the occurrence of quinolone resistance are not correlated; 2 occurrence of the sul sulfonamide resistance gene varies geographically; and 3 microbial diversity might be related to the rate of oxytetracycline resistance.

  10. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of new 4-amino-7-chloroquinolyl amides, sulfonamides, ureas and thioureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli; Yearick, Kimberly; Iwaniuk, Daniel P; Natarajan, Jayakumar K; Alumasa, John; de Dios, Angel C; Roepe, Paul D; Wolf, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We report the synthesis and in vitro antimalarial activities of more than 50 7-chloro-4-aminoquinolyl-derived sulfonamides 3-8 and 11-26, ureas 19-22, thioureas 23-26, and amides 27-54. Many of the CQ analogues prepared for this study showed submicromolar antimalarial activity versus HB3 (chloroquine sensitive) and Dd2 (chloroquine resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum) and low resistance indices were obtained in most cases. Systematic variation of the side chain length and introduction of fluorinated aliphatic and aromatic termini revealed promising leads that overcome CQ resistance. In particular, sulfonamide 3 exhibiting a short side chain with a terminal dansyl moiety combined high antiplasmodial potency with a low resistance index and showed IC(50)s of 17.5 and 22.7 nM against HB3 and Dd2 parasites.

  11. Sulfonamide and carbamate derivatives of 6-chloropurine: synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkata Narayana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of new sulfonamide derivatives, 9-(substitutedbenzenesulfonyl-6-chloro-9H-purines 7(a-e and carbamate derivatives, 6-chloro-purine-9-carboxylic acid substituted alkyl/arylester 9(a-d, have been synthesized through an intermediate, sodium salt of 6-chloro-9(H-purine (6 which was prepared by the treatment of 6-chloro-9(H-purine (4 with sodium hydride. Structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by IR, NMR ( 1H and 13C, mass spectra and elemental analysis. Antimicrobial activity against three bacterial strains and three fungal strains at two different concentrations, 100 and 200 µg/mL including MIC values was investigated. Bio-screening data disclosed that most of the sulfonamide derivatives, 7a, 7c and 7d, and one carbamate derivative 9a showed promising antimicrobial activity having MIC values in the range of 18.0-25.0 µg/mL.

  12. Rationalization of Activity Cliffs of a Sulfonamide Inhibitor of DNA Methyltransferases with Induced-Fit Docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Medina-Franco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of human DNA methyltransferases (DNMT are of increasing interest to develop novel epi-drugs for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. As the number of compounds with reported DNMT inhibition is increasing, molecular docking is shedding light to elucidate their mechanism of action and further interpret structure–activity relationships. Herein, we present a structure-based rationalization of the activity of SW155246, a distinct sulfonamide compound recently reported as an inhibitor of human DNMT1 obtained from high-throughput screening. We used flexible and induce-fit docking to develop a binding model of SW155246 with a crystallographic structure of human DNMT1. Results were in excellent agreement with experimental information providing a three-dimensional structural interpretation of ‘activity cliffs’, e.g., analogues of SW155246 with a high structural similarity to the sulfonamide compound, but with no activity in the enzymatic assay.

  13. Piperazine sulfonamide BACE1 inhibitors: Design, synthesis, and in vivo characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumming, Jared; Babu, Suresh; Huang, Ying; Carrol, Carolyn; Chen, Xia; Favreau, Leonard; Greenlee, William; Guo, Tao; Kennedy, Matthew; Kuvelkar, Reshma; Le, Thuy; Li, Guoqing; McHugh, Nansie; Orth, Peter; Ozgur, Lynne; Parker, Eric; Saionz, Kurt; Stamford, Andrew; Strickland, Corey; Tadesse, Dawit; Voigta, Johannes; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Qi (Ligand); (Merck)

    2010-08-17

    With collaboration between chemistry, X-ray crystallography, and molecular modeling, we designed and synthesized a series of novel piperazine sulfonamide BACE1 inhibitors. Iterative exploration of the non-prime side and S2{prime} sub-pocket of the enzyme culminated in identification of an analog that potently lowers peripheral A{beta}{sub 40} in transgenic mice with a single subcutaneous dose.

  14. Deciphering the Bacterial Microbiome in Huanglongbing-Affected Citrus Treated with Thermotherapy and Sulfonamide Antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Yang

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is a serious citrus disease that threatens the citrus industry. In previous studies, sulfonamide antibiotics and heat treatment suppressed 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las, but did not completely eliminate the Las. Furthermore, there are few reports studying the bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus treated by heat and sulfonamide antibiotics. In this study, combinations of heat (45°C or 40°C and sulfonamide treatment (sulfathiazole sodium-STZ, or sulfadimethoxine sodium-SDX were applied to HLB-affected citrus. The bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus following thermotherapy and/or chemotherapy was characterized by PhyloChipTMG3-based metagenomics. Our results showed that the combination of thermotherapy at 45°C and chemotherapy with STZ and SDX was more effective against HLB than thermotherapy alone, chemotherapy alone, or a combination of thermotherapy at 40°C and chemotherapy. The PhyloChipTMG3-based results indicated that 311 empirical Operational Taxonomic Units (eOTUs were detected in 26 phyla. Cyanobacteria (18.01% were dominant after thermo-chemotherapy. Thermotherapy at 45°C decreased eOTUs (64.43% in leaf samples, compared with thermotherapy at 40°C (73.96% or without thermotherapy (90.68% and it also reduced bacterial family biodiversity. The eOTU in phylum Proteobacteria was reduced significantly and eOTU_28, representing "Candidatus Liberibacter," was not detected following thermotherapy at 45°C. Following antibiotic treatment with SDX and STZ, there was enhanced abundance of specific eOTUs belonging to the families Streptomycetaceae, Desulfobacteraceae, Chitinophagaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, which may be implicated in increased resistance to plant pathogens. Our study further develops an integrated strategy for combating HLB, and also provides new insight into the bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus treated by heat and sulfonamide antibiotics.

  15. Synthesis of Morpholine Containing Sulfonamides: Introduction of Morpholine Moiety on Amine Functional Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Singh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonamides have been the center of drug structures as this group is quite stable & well tolerated in human beings. The synthesis of these structures was started in search of new pharmacological active reagents. These compounds are being tested for the desired activity (ICAM-1/LFA-1 Interaction inhibitors as anti-adhesion therapeutic agents, the biological activity & structure activity relationship will be published elsewhere. Synthesis of morpholine moiety from amino group is done by using reagent 2-chloroethanol.

  16. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  17. Electrochemically modified carbon fiber bundles as selective sorbent for online solid-phase microextraction of sulfonamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Xu; Zhang, Wenpeng; Chen, Zilin

    2016-01-01

    The authors show that carbon fiber bundles electrochemically modified with the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is a viable sorbent for online solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of the sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfadimidine and sulfamethoxazole) prior to their determination by HPLC. The fibers were packed in a tube loop made from polyether ether ketone (PEEK) that was coupled to the HPLC system for online SPME. Preconcentration factors can reach values of up to 300, and the limit of detection (at an S/N ration of 3) can be as low as 0.05 ng⋅mL −1 . The method was applied to the analysis of the sulfonamides in spiked rat plasma with intra-day and inter-day RSDs of <3.33 and <4.57 %, and with recoveries in the range from 91.7 to 97.8 % in spiked plasma. The in-tube SPME was also applied to the determination of the 3 sulfonamides in rat plasma after oral administration (tablet powder) with high sensitivity. In addition to its efficient extraction, the PEEK tube based SPME has chemical and mechanical stability under even harsh conditions. (author)

  18. Effect of pH and soil structure on transport of sulfonamide antibiotics in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Yol; Huwe, Bernd

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the effect of solution pH and soil structure on transport of sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine) in combination with batch sorption tests and column experiments. Sorption isotherms properly conformed to Freundlich model, and sorption potential of the antibiotics is as follows; sulfadimethoxine > sulfamethoxazole > sulfamethazine. Decreasing pH values led to increased sorption potential of the antibiotics on soil material in pH range of 4.0-8.0. This likely resulted from abundance of neutral and positive-charged sulfonamides species at low pH, which electrostatically bind to sorption sites on soil surface. Due to destruction of macropore channels, lower hydraulic conductivities of mobile zone were estimated in the disturbed soil columns than in the undisturbed soil columns, and eventually led to lower mobility of the antibiotics in disturbed column. The results suggest that knowledge of soil structure and solution condition is required to predict fate and distribution of sulfonamide antibiotics in environmental matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural Basis for the Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori α-Carbonic Anhydrase by Sulfonamides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyanta K Modak

    Full Text Available Periplasmic α-carbonic anhydrase of Helicobacter pylori (HpαCA, an oncogenic bacterium in the human stomach, is essential for its acclimation to low pH. It catalyses the conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate using Zn(II as the cofactor. In H. pylori, Neisseria spp., Brucella suis and Streptococcus pneumoniae this enzyme is the target for sulfonamide antibacterial agents. We present structural analysis correlated with inhibition data, on the complexes of HpαCA with two pharmacological inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrases, acetazolamide and methazolamide. This analysis reveals that two sulfonamide oxygen atoms of the inhibitors are positioned proximal to the putative location of the oxygens of the CO2 substrate in the Michaelis complex, whilst the zinc-coordinating sulfonamide nitrogen occupies the position of the catalytic water molecule. The structures are consistent with acetazolamide acting as site-directed, nanomolar inhibitors of the enzyme by mimicking its reaction transition state. Additionally, inhibitor binding provides insights into the channel for substrate entry and product exit. This analysis has implications for the structure-based design of inhibitors of bacterial carbonic anhydrases.

  20. Effects of pig slurry on the sorption of sulfonamide antibiotics in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Bruhn, S; Aust, M O

    2004-07-01

    Sorption of p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) and five sulfonamide antibiotics to loess Chernozem topsoil amended with varied additions of pig slurry was investigated in batch trials. In unfertilized soil, partition coefficients (Kd) of sulfonamides ranged from 0.3 to 2.0. Strong sorption nonlinearity (1/n = 0.5 to 0.8) was best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.7 to 1.0) and was indicative for specific sorption mechanisms. Adsorption to pig slurry was much stronger, and nondesorbable portions were increased compared with soil. However, in a mixture of soil and slurry (50:1 w/w), sorption of the antibiotics was significantly decreased at a lower concentration range of pABA and the sulfonamides. This was attributed to competitive adsorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) constituents from manure. An increase in pig slurry amendment resulted in increased total organic matter, DOM concentration, and ionic strength, but pH decreased. As a result, the nonadsorbed portions of pABA, sulfanilamide, and sulfadiazine (logD(ow) 0.1)--remained nearly constant in the presence of increased manure input. The pH changes caused by manure amendment strongly affected ionisation status of the latter compounds, thus resulting in increased adsorption, which compensated the mobilizing effect of DOM. It is suggested that the effect of manure be considered in test methods to determine the soil retention of pharmaceutical substances.

  1. Lessons of history in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald F

    2013-01-01

    The future of veterinary medicine is best understood in the context of history. What began as a profession rooted in urban centers in proximity to horses, physicians, and medical schools, was transformed into a land grant-based agricultural profession with the arrival of the internal combustion engine in the early twentieth century. Most of the United States' current veterinary colleges are still located in towns or small cities in the middle section of the country, outside the largest metropolitan areas where most veterinarians practice companion-animal medicine. Throughout veterinarian history, substantial numbers of US students have been educated in foreign colleges and this continues today, creating an even greater geographic imbalance between the veterinary educational process and US population centers and major medical schools. Three themes deserve special attention as we celebrate the profession's 150th anniversary. We must first move beyond the land-grant culture and develop a more geographically balanced approach to establishing new veterinary colleges that are also in closer association with schools of medicine and public health. We must also facilitate more opportunities for women leadership in organized veterinary medicine, in practice ownership, in academia, and in the corporate structures that educate, hire, and interface with veterinarians. Finally, we need to expand our understanding of One Health to include the concept of zooeyia (the role of animals in promoting human health), as well as continue to emphasize veterinarians' special roles in the control and management of zoonotic diseases and in advancing comparative medicine in the age of the genome.

  2. Career identity in the veterinary profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Jones, S; Abbey, G

    2015-04-25

    This research investigates vet and vet nurse career identity through the qualitative methodology of narrative enquiry. It derives learning and understanding from these empirical data to assist the veterinary profession to adjust to the changing industry landscape. Through a case series of 20 vets and vet nurses' career stories, this paper seeks understanding about career identity and its impact on individuals and organisations in the light of industry consolidation. Findings suggest that career is central to identity for many veterinary professionals who tend to have a strong sense of self; this is particularly evident around self as learner and technically competent, teacher and educator, ethical and moral and dedicated and resilient. Consequently, mismatches between 'who I am' and 'what I do' tend not to lead to identity customisation (to fit self into role or organisation) but to the search for alternative, more identity-compatible employment. This study offers a valuable insight for employers, veterinary professionals and universities. It suggests that businesses can gain competitive advantage and employees achieve validation and enrichment by working towards organisational and individual identity congruence and that teaching veterinary professionals with contemporary business in mind may develop graduates with a more sustainable identity. British Veterinary Association.

  3. Evaluating the economic and noneconomic impacts of the veterinary medical profession in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J W; Dartt, B A

    2000-01-01

    This study reaffirms the diversity and breadth of the veterinary profession. As it turns out, some of the furthest-reaching impacts of the veterinary medical profession were largely non-quantifiable. The veterinary medical profession had a substantial direct economic impact in Michigan during 1995. The total economic contribution of the veterinary medical profession to Michigan during 1995 that was attributable to expenditures on salaries, supplies, services, and their multiplier effect was approximately $500 million. In addition, the profession was associated with nearly 8,500 jobs (combined professional and lay positions). The veterinary medical profession was also considered to have an impact on the prosperity of the live-stock, equine, and pet food industries in Michigan, even though the economic contribution in these areas could not be directly quantified. Economic well-being of the individual businesses in these industries is directly related to the health and productivity of the associated animals, and improvements in output or productivity that accompany improved animal health likely carry substantial economic benefits in these sectors. In addition, progressive animal health management provides a crucial method of managing risk in the animal industries. Similarly, although the economic contribution could not be quantified, the veterinary medical profession enhances the safety and quality of human food through research, regulation, and quality assurance programs in livestock production, minimizing the risk of drug residues and microbial contamination. During 1995, approximately 5.3 million Michigan residents benefitted from the physical, psychological, and emotional well-being that accompanies companion animal ownership. By preserving the health and longevity of companion animals, veterinarians sustain and enhance these aspects of the human-animal bond. As Michigan enters a new century, it is likely that the state's veterinary medical profession will

  4. Polymorphism in R-tamsulosin (an alpha blocker): The unexpected manifestation of a sulfonamide⋯o-diethoxybenzene heterosynthon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanubolu, Jagadeesh Babu; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Ravikumar, Krishnan

    2014-12-01

    A two point Nsbnd H⋯O dimer or an infinite catemer are the most preferred motifs/synthons for sulfonamide structures. Such synthons are known to be so robust that they are only disrupted in the presence of highly activated O acceptors such as pyridine-N-oxide and sulfoxide. We demonstrate in this article that a multi-point synthon offered by much weaker ethoxy O and amine N acceptors can however strongly compete and disrupt the robust sulfonamide homosynthons. This has been illustrated with the synthon analysis in three polymorphic crystal structures of R-tamsulosin, an active drug used in the treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and its hydrochloride salt. These crystalline solids are characterized by Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy. Forms I, II of the free base and hydrochloride salt crystallize in the monoclinic P21, C2, and P21 space groups respectively with two molecules in the asymmetric unit (Z‧ = 2), whereas, form III of freebase crystallize in the orthorhombic P212121 space group with Z‧ = 1. Remarkably, all four crystal structures contain a totally unexpected sulfonamide⋯o-diethoxybenzene heterosynthon. The multi-point motifs observed in polymorphs are relatively stronger than those in the hydrochloride salt because of the gauche conformation of the tamsulosin linker chain which renders an additional hydrogen bond interaction with amine N acceptor, and resemble the crown ether sulfonamide recognition pattern. Observation of this new heterosynthon offers potential scope in the design of pharmaceutical cocrystals for sulfonamide bearing drug molecules. The present study also presents a detailed hydrogen bond motif analysis in 310 primary sulfonamide structures culled from the latest version of Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). The role of various competing groups is discussed in the context of understanding the most recurring

  5. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  6. Veterinary Students' Recollection Methods for Surgical Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebaek, Rikke; Tanggaard, Lene; Berendt, Mette

    2016-01-01

    When veterinary students face their first live animal surgeries, their level of anxiety is generally high and this can affect their ability to recall the procedure they are about to undertake. Multimodal teaching methods have previously been shown to enhance learning and facilitate recall; however......, student preferences for recollection methods when translating theory into practice have not been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate veterinary students' experience with recollection of a surgical procedure they were about to perform after using multiple methods for preparation. From...... a group of 171 veterinary students enrolled in a basic surgery course, 26 students were randomly selected to participate in semi-structured interviews. Results showed that 58% of the students used a visual, dynamic method of recollection, mentally visualizing the video they had watched as part...

  7. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in veterinary diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Ruiz, L.; Jimenez-Flores, Y.; Rivera-Montalvo, T.; Arias-Cisneros, L.; Méndez-Aguilar, R.E.; Uribe-Izquierdo, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Environmental and Personnel Dosimetry made in a radiology area of a veterinary hospital. Dosimetry was realized using thermoluminescent (TL) materials. Environmental Dosimetry results show that areas closer to the X-ray equipment are safe. Personnel Dosimetry shows important measurements of daily workday in some persons near to the limit established by ICRP. TL results of radiation measurement suggest TLDs are good candidates as a dosimeter to radiation dosimetry in veterinary radiology. - Highlights: ► Personnel dosimetry in laboratory veterinary diagnostic was determined. ► Student workplaces are safe against radiation. ► Efficiency value of apron lead was determined. ► X-ray beams distribution into veterinarian laboratory was measured.

  8. Database on veterinary clinical research in homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Jürgen; Albrecht, Henning

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present report is to provide an overview of the first database on clinical research in veterinary homeopathy. Detailed searches in the database 'Veterinary Clinical Research-Database in Homeopathy' (http://www.carstens-stiftung.de/clinresvet/index.php). The database contains about 200 entries of randomised clinical trials, non-randomised clinical trials, observational studies, drug provings, case reports and case series. Twenty-two clinical fields are covered and eight different groups of species are included. The database is free of charge and open to all interested veterinarians and researchers. The database enables researchers and veterinarians, sceptics and supporters to get a quick overview of the status of veterinary clinical research in homeopathy and alleviates the preparation of systematical reviews or may stimulate reproductions or even new studies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Muñana, Karen

    2015-01-01

    with the initial drug is unsatisfactory, and 4) when treatment changes should be considered. In this consensus proposal, an overview is given on the aim of AED treatment, when to start long-term treatment in canine epilepsy and which veterinary AEDs are currently in use for dogs. The consensus proposal for drug...... treatment protocols, 1) is based on current published evidence-based literature, 2) considers the current legal framework of the cascade regulation for the prescription of veterinary drugs in Europe, and 3) reflects the authors' experience. With this paper it is aimed to provide a consensus...

  10. The veterinary drug ivermectin influences immune response in the yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Helen M.; Tracy, Saoirse R.

    2009-01-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a key enzyme involved in the immune response of insects. We show that egg-to-adult exposure to residues of 0.001, but not 0.0005 mg kg -1 ivermectin elevated PO activity in yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) developing in cattle dung. Fly fat content was unaffected by the treatments. Therefore, the response of PO was a direct effect of ivermectin and not an indirect one caused by an alteration in body 'condition'. This supports the non-intuitive conclusion that flies surviving exposure to faecal residues may have enhanced immune function. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the effects on PO activity of insecticidal residues in livestock dung. The non-target effects of such residues are of wide interest, given the global use of veterinary products. - Phenoloxidase activity in Scathophaga stercoraria is enhanced by ivermectin and that effect is transferred to the adult fly from the larval stage

  11. Balancing knowledge and basic principles in veterinary parasitology - Competencies for future Danish veterinary graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang; Nejsum, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Veterinary parasitology has always been considered to be relevant and interesting by the Danish veterinary students. Students have to acquaint themselves with many new, small creatures with complicated and varied life cycles and with intricate Latin names that are difficult to pronounce, as only...... clinician should know a range of parasites by heart as an active resource for their work. The dilemma has been tackled (partly) by introducing a veterinary paraclinical refresher course of 18 h (half practicals and half lectures) in the fourth study year. The focus here is on host(herd)-oriented clinical...

  12. Competency-based veterinary education - An integrative approach to learning and assessment in the clinical workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    When graduating from veterinary school, veterinary professionals must be ready to enter the complex veterinary profession. Therefore, one of the major responsibilities of any veterinary school is to develop training programmes that support students’ competency development on the trajectory from

  13. Veterinary and human medicine: learning from each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Laura

    2016-03-26

    A well-attended session at this year's joint SPVS/VPMA congress considered what lessons the medical and veterinary professions might learn from one another. Laura Honey reports. British Veterinary Association.

  14. Thirtieth Annual Congress on Veterinary Acupuncture: IVAS Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kaphle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 155 participants from 25 countries attended the 30th Annual IVAS Congress, September 8–11, 2004 in Oostende, Belgium. The focus was on veterinary acupuncture (AP and immunology, and the event was sponsored by the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society (IVAS. IVAS is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting excellence in the practice of veterinary AP as an integral part of the total veterinary health care delivery system. The Society endeavors to establish uniformly high standards of veterinary AP through its educational programs and accreditation examination. IVAS seeks to integrate veterinary AP and the practice of Western veterinary science, while also noting that the science of veterinary AP does not overlook allied health systems, such as homeopathy, herbology, nutrition, chiropractic, kinesiology, etc. (www.ivas.org.

  15. Assessment of veterinary services in central Ethiopia: A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    services, and black-market drug dealers were found to be challengers associated .... veterinary service, private veterinarians, traditional healers and NGOs mainly ... timeliness, effectiveness and affordability of the veterinary service providers.

  16. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  17. [Occurrence of quinolone and sulfonamide antibiotics in swine and cattle manures from large-scale feeding operations of Guangdong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yi-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Mo, Ce-Hui; Li, Yan-Wen; Wu, Xiao-Lian; Liu, Xing-Yue

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence and distribution of four quinolones and four sulfonamides in swine and cattle feces sampled from twenty large-scale feeding operations in different areas of Guangdong province were detected using solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quinolone and sulfonamide compounds were observed in all pig dung samples. Their total concentrations ranged from 24.5 microg/kg to 1516.2 microg/kg (F. W.) with an average of 581.0 microg/kg and ranged from 1925.9-13399.5 microg/kg with an average of 4403.9 microg/kg respectively. The dominant compounds in pig feces were ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin for quinolones and sulfamerazine and sulfamethoxazole for sulfonamides. Quinolone compounds which dominated with norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin were also observed in all cattle dung samples, its total concentrations ranged from 73.2 microg/kg to 1328.0 microg/kg which averaged 572.9 microg/kg. While the positive rates of sulfonamide compounds detected in cattle dung samples were above 90%, predominated by sulfamethoxazole and sulfamerazine. Concentration and distribution of both quinolone and sulfonamide compounds in swine and cattle dungs of different feeding operations varied greatly. Relatively high concentrations of the two kinds of antibiotics were found in both swine and cattle dungs from Guangzhou area, while sulfameter and sulfamethazine in cattle dungs from Foshan and Shenzhen areas were below the limit of detection.

  18. Veterinary Technician Program Director Leadership Style and Program Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda-Francis, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Program directors of American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) accredited veterinary technician programs may have little or no training in leadership. The need for program directors of AVMA-accredited veterinary technician programs to understand how leadership traits may have an impact on student success is often overlooked. The purpose of…

  19. Veterinary education in Africa: current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, G E; Kriek, N P J

    2009-03-01

    Veterinary education commenced in South Africa in 1920 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa in association with the Transvaal University College, now the University of Pretoria. Sir Arnold Theiler, Director of Veterinary Research and Education, was the first Dean. Today there are 46 veterinary training institutions in Africa of which 21 are in sub-Saharan Africa. Veterinary services are indispensable to the sustained health and wellbeing of animals and humans, and agricultural economies of countries worldwide. Veterinary education, postgraduate training, and research, and adequate numbers of veterinarians, are essential to satisfy the millennium development goals, the objectives of NEPAD and the African Union, and the agreements regulating international trade. The relevance of the veterinary profession internationally is currently subject to profound scrutiny. Its contributions are assessed against major environmental, demographic, political, disease, technological and economic needs. The scope of veterinary training in future will have to emphasise veterinary public health, food safety, emerging diseases, international trade, bioterrorism, and biomedical research, within the context of a one-health system focusing on the interface between wildlife, domesticated animals, humans, and their environment. Within the context of time available, it would mean reducing the time allocated to training in the field of companion animals. A brief history and scope of veterinary education; current international trends in veterinary education and provisioning; and some perspectives on future veterinary training and initiatives applicable to Africa are provided.

  20. Undergraduates\\' view of the veterinary profession: A study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the veterinary profession: A study of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nigeria. ... the university, however only 33.7% believed that they obtain veterinary services ... of the opinion that both veterinary and medical students study similar courses. ... that veterinarians, pharmacists and physicians can work together in the Food ...

  1. The Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary First initiated in 1995 to provide veterinary students with spay/neuter experience, the shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine has grown to be comprehensive in nature incorporating spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Junior veterinary students spend five days in shelters; senior veterinary students spend 2-weeks visiting shelters in mobile veterinary units. The program has three primary components: spay/neuter, shelter medical days and Animals in Focus. Student gain significant hands-on experience and evaluations of the program by students are overwhelmingly positive. Abstract The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education. PMID:26479234

  2. 78 FR 69991 - Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    .... FDA-2013-N-1380] Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Termination AGENCY: Food... announcing the termination of the Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. This document removes the Veterinary Advisory Committee from the Agency's list of standing advisory committees. DATES: This rule is...

  3. 75 FR 36588 - Veterinary Feed Directive; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... 558 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0155] Veterinary Feed Directive; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food... veterinary feed directive (VFD) regulation. The agency is taking this action in response to requests for an... CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-230), Food and Drug Administration, 7500...

  4. 75 FR 57658 - National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Correcting Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0093] RIN 0579-AC04 National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Correcting Amendment..., Docket No. APHIS-2006-0093), and effective on February 1, 2010, we amended the National Veterinary... Veterinary Accreditation Program, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 200, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 851-3401...

  5. 75 FR 4576 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ...] Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory... Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl...

  6. 9 CFR 107.1 - Veterinary practitioners and animal owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary practitioners and animal... FROM PREPARATION PURSUANT TO AN UNSUSPENDED AND UNREVOKED LICENSE § 107.1 Veterinary practitioners and...)(1) Products prepared by a veterinary practitioner (veterinarian) solely for administration to...

  7. 75 FR 52605 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ...] Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory..., Rockville, MD 20852, 301-468-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3...

  8. Entrepreneurship Education and Veterinary Medicine: Enhancing Employable Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Colette; Treanor, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has the purpose of exploring the potential for entrepreneurship education within veterinary medicine. It aims to examine some of the key themes in the entrepreneurship education literature, discuss the make-up of the UK veterinary sector, consider veterinary curricula requirements and illustrate how entrepreneurship education…

  9. European veterinary specialists denounce alternative medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Venker-van Haagen, Anjop

    On November 19, the Federation of Veterinarians in Europe (FVE) issued a policy statement urging its 200,000 members "to work only on the basis of scientifically proven and evidence-based methods and to stay away from non-evidence-based methods." The Swedish Veterinary Association banned its members

  10. Approach to complexity in veterinary epidemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducrot, C.; Calavas, D.; Legay, J.-M.

    1996-01-01

    One of the main goals of veterinary epidemiology is to analyse the determinants of disease, commonly called risk factors. The analysis of such systems is usually based on a pluridisciplinary approach, a planned observation of the natural state, and a judicious use of various methods to analyse...

  11. Improving Student Engagement in Veterinary Business Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage-Chan, Elizabeth; Jackson, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Improving Student Engagement in Veterinary Business StudiesIn a densely packed veterinary curriculum, students may find it particularly challenging to engage in the less overtly clinical subjects, yet pressure from industry and an increasingly competitive employment market necessitate improved veterinary student education in business and management skills. We describe a curriculum intervention (formative reflective assignment) that optimizes workplace learning opportunities and aims to provide better student scaffolding for their in-context business learning. Students were asked to analyze a business practice they experienced during a period of extra-mural studies (external work placement). Following return to the college, they were then instructed to discuss their findings in their study group, and produce a group reflection on their learning. To better understand student engagement in this area, we analyzed individual and group components of the assignment. Thematic analysis revealed evidence of various depths of student engagement, and provided indications of the behaviors they used when engaging at different levels. Interactive and social practices (discussing business strategies with veterinary employees and student peers) appeared to facilitate student engagement, assist the perception of relevance of these skills, and encourage integration with other curriculum elements such as communication skills and clinical problem solving.

  12. Mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Brad R; McCafferty, Owen E

    2009-12-01

    This article discusses mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. Combining practices can be professionally and economically advantageous but requires a great deal of thought, planning, and implementation. If due diligence is performed and true business teamwork is undertaken, the benefits can be enormous and rewarding.

  13. Prose Learning for Veterinary Educators: Facilitating Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, John E.

    1978-01-01

    A prose text in veterinary medicine can be arranged and supplemented to facilitate efficient and effective acquisition into short-term memory. Methods include: variation in textual format; relating new information to previous knowledge and future goals; providing specific, test-relevant objectives or introductions, describing mnemonic devices; and…

  14. Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

  15. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The Editorial Board of the Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (SJVS) wishes to invite research articles, case reports and review articles for ... be accompanied by a cover letter verifying that the final manuscript has been seen and approved by all authors and transferring copyright ownership to SJVS.

  16. Research data services in veterinary medicine libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E. Kerby, MSI

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Lacking a standard definition of ‘‘research data’’ and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.

  17. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  18. Enhancing cognitive learning in Veterinary Osteology through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at Veterinary anatomy education. The objective was to assess the importance of student participation in skeletal preparation. The hypothesis that the students would be more interested in the discipline if the teaching methodology used is based on creative and constructivist methods. Thirteen animal skeletons were ...

  19. Comparative oncology: Integrating human and veterinary medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer constitutes the major health problem both in human and veterinary medicine. Comparative oncology as an integrative approach offers to learn more about naturally occurring cancers across different species. Canine models have many advantages as they experience spontaneous disease, have many genes similar ...

  20. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, ...

  1. Cone beam computed tomography in veterinary dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thielen, B.; Siguenza, F.; Hassan, B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in imaging dogs and cats for diagnostic dental veterinary applications. CBCT scans of heads of six dogs and two cats were made. Dental panoramic and multi-planar reformatted (MPR) para-sagittal

  2. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force recommendations for a veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials...... sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification...... of underlying causes of seizures not yet apparent in the veterinary literature.There is a need for a standardized veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol which will facilitate more detailed examination of areas susceptible to generating and perpetuating seizures, is cost efficient, simple to perform and can...

  3. Guidelines for zoo and aquarium veterinary medical programs and veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backues, Kay; Clyde, Vickie; Denver, Mary; Fiorello, Christine; Hilsenroth, Rob; Lamberski, Nadine; Larson, Scott; Meehan, Tom; Murray, Mike; Ramer, Jan; Ramsay, Ed; Suedmeyer, Kirk; Whiteside, Doug

    2011-03-01

    These guidelines for veterinary medical care and veterinary hospitals are written to conform with the requirements of the Animal Welfare Act, which states that programs of disease prevention and parasite control, euthanasia, and adequate veterinary care shall be established and maintained under the supervision of a veterinarian. Ideally the zoo and aquarium should be providing the best possible veterinary medical care for the animals in their collections. Many of these animals are rare and endangered and the institutions should endeavor both to provide for the long term health and well being of these animals and to advance the field of non-domestic animal medicine. It is hoped that this publication will aid in this process.

  4. 77 FR 77008 - Solicitation of Veterinary Shortage Situation Nominations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... clients can reasonably be expected to pay for professional veterinary services and where food animal... the event of a discrepancy between the primary reviewer's scoring and the panel poll results, the...

  5. Ion-exchange solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yanmei; Xuan, Yanfang; Song, Wei; Si, Wenshuai; Zhao, Zhihui; Rao, Qinxiong

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers is crucial for an assessment of potential risks to soil microbial communities and human health. We develop a robust and sensitive method to quantitatively determine 19 veterinary drugs (amantadine, sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones) in organic fertilizers. The method involved a simple solid-liquid extraction step using the combination of acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer as extraction solvent, followed by cleanup with a solid-phase extraction cartridge containing polymeric mixed-mode anion-exchange sorbents. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used to separate and detect target analytes. We particularly focused on the optimization of sample clean-up step: different diluents and dilution factors were tested. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, sensitivity and specificity. The recoveries of all the drugs ranged from 70.9% to 112.7% at three concentration levels, with the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 15.7%. The limits of quantification were between 1.0 and 10.0μg/kg for all the drugs. Matrix effect was minimized by matrix-matched calibration curves. The analytical method was successfully applied for the survey of veterinary drugs contamination in 20 compost samples. The results indicated that fluoroquinolones had higher incidence rate and mean concentration levels ranging from 31.9 to 308.7μg/kg compared with other drugs. We expect the method will provide the basis for risk assessment of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in broiler manure and agricultural soil in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-08-01

    Repeated applications of animal manure as fertilizer are normal agricultural practices that may release veterinary antibiotics and hormones into the environment from treated animals. Broiler manure samples and their respective manure-amended agricultural soil samples were collected in selected locations in the states of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka in Malaysia to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. The samples were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The broiler manure samples were found to be contaminated with at least six target analytes, namely, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, trimethoprim and tylosin. These analytes were detected in broiler manure samples with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78,516 μg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) (doxycycline). For manure-amended agricultural soil samples, doxycycline and enrofloxacin residues were detected in every soil sample. The maximum concentration of antibiotic detected in soil was 1331 μg kg(-1) DW (flumequine). The occurrence of antibiotics and hormones in animal manure at high concentration poses a risk of contaminating agricultural soil via fertilization with animal manure. Some physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and metal content played a considerable role in the fate of the target veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in the environment. It was suggested that these parameters can affect the adsorption of pharmaceuticals to solid environmental matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kerry; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan; Robert, Vincent A R G; Crous, Pedro W; Geiser, David M

    2016-11-01

    Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically distinct species, all but two of which were previously known to infect humans, distributed among eight species complexes. The majority of the veterinary isolates (47/67 = 70.1%) were nested within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), and these included 8 phylospecies and 33 unique 3-locus sequence types (STs). Three of the FSSC species (Fusarium falciforme, Fusarium keratoplasticum, and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12) accounted for four-fifths of the veterinary strains (38/47) and STs (27/33) within this clade. Most of the F. falciforme strains (12/15) were recovered from equine keratitis infections; however, strains of F. keratoplasticum and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12 were mostly (25/27) isolated from marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Our sampling suggests that the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), with eight mycoses-associated species, may represent the second most important clade of veterinary relevance within Fusarium Six of the multilocus STs within the FSSC (3+4-eee, 1-b, 12-a, 12-b, 12-f, and 12-h) and one each within the FIESC (1-a) and the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (ST-33) were widespread geographically, including three STs with transoceanic disjunctions. In conclusion, fusaria associated with veterinary mycoses are phylogenetically diverse and typically can only be identified to the species level using DNA sequence data from portions of one or more informative genes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Mathematical modeling and simulation in animal health - Part II: principles, methods, applications, and value of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in veterinary medicine and food safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z; Gehring, R; Mochel, J P; Lavé, T; Riviere, J E

    2016-10-01

    This review provides a tutorial for individuals interested in quantitative veterinary pharmacology and toxicology and offers a basis for establishing guidelines for physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development and application in veterinary medicine. This is important as the application of PBPK modeling in veterinary medicine has evolved over the past two decades. PBPK models can be used to predict drug tissue residues and withdrawal times in food-producing animals, to estimate chemical concentrations at the site of action and target organ toxicity to aid risk assessment of environmental contaminants and/or drugs in both domestic animals and wildlife, as well as to help design therapeutic regimens for veterinary drugs. This review provides a comprehensive summary of PBPK modeling principles, model development methodology, and the current applications in veterinary medicine, with a focus on predictions of drug tissue residues and withdrawal times in food-producing animals. The advantages and disadvantages of PBPK modeling compared to other pharmacokinetic modeling approaches (i.e., classical compartmental/noncompartmental modeling, nonlinear mixed-effects modeling, and interspecies allometric scaling) are further presented. The review finally discusses contemporary challenges and our perspectives on model documentation, evaluation criteria, quality improvement, and offers solutions to increase model acceptance and applications in veterinary pharmacology and toxicology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Veterinary Clinical Trials Network - a Pragmatic Approach to Filling the Evidence Gaps for Veterinary Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Doit

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Including current published evidence is vital as part of evidence-based decision making in veterinary practice. Sometimes there is no published evidence which is relevant or applicable to the clinical situation.This can be either because it refers to patients with experimentally induced conditions, from a referral population or who lack the co-morbities often seen outside of the experimental context. The Veterinary Clinical Trials Network is unique. It is a rapidly expanding network of veterinary practices, with whom we are working to establish methods for running prospective, pragmatic, practical clinical trials in veterinary practice.Data is extracted from the patient record using an XML Schema. The data extracted is already captured by the Practice Management Software (PMS system as part of the consultation, no extra information is required, and the extraction method is automated. This improves participation as it minimises the time input required from vets and vet nurses. Other data is obtained directly from owners of the animals involved.By working with a large number of first opinion veterinary practices we are able to include enough patients to ensure that our trials are suitably powered, and the participants will be representative of the wider vet-visiting pet population. The research generated from this clinical trials network will help strengthen the evidence base to aid decision making by veterinary practitioners.

  10. Examining why ethics is taught to veterinary students: a qualitative study of veterinary educators' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; Lassen, Jesper; Millar, Kate M; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I Anna S

    2014-01-01

    Although it is widely agreed that veterinary students need to be introduced to ethics, there is limited empirical research investigating the reasons why veterinary ethics is being taught. This study presents the first extensive investigation into the reasons for teaching veterinary ethics and reports data collected in semi-structured interviews with educators involved in teaching undergraduate veterinary ethics at three European schools: the University of Copenhagen, the University of Nottingham, and the Technical University of Lisbon (curricular year 2010-2011). The content of the interview transcripts were analyzed using Toulmin's argumentative model. Ten objectives in teaching veterinary ethics were identified, which can be grouped into four overarching themes: ethical awareness, ethical knowledge, ethical skills, and individual and professional qualities. These objectives include recognizing values and ethical viewpoints, identifying norms and regulations, developing skills of communication and decision making, and contributing to a professional identity. Whereas many of the objectives complement each other, there is tension between the view that ethics teaching should promote knowledge of professional rules and the view that ethics teaching should emphasize critical reasoning skills. The wide range of objectives and the possible tensions between them highlight the challenges faced by educators as they attempt to prioritize among these goals of ethics teaching within a crowded veterinary curriculum.

  11. Microscope use in clinical veterinary practice and potential implications for veterinary school curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherry M; Dowers, Kristy L; Cerda, Jacey R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy (skill of using a microscope) and the concepts of cytology (study of cells) and histology (study of tissues) are most often taught in professional veterinary medicine programs through the traditional method of glass slides and light microscopes. Several limiting factors in veterinary training programs are encouraging educators to explore innovative options for teaching microscopy skills and the concepts of cytology and histology. An anonymous online survey was administered through the Colorado Veterinary Medical Association to Colorado veterinarians working in private practice. It was designed to assess their current usage of microscopes for cytological and histological evaluation of specimens and their perceptions of microscope use in their veterinary education. The first part of the survey was answered by 183 veterinarians, with 104 indicating they had an onsite diagnostic lab. Analysis pertaining to the use of the microscope in practice and in veterinary programs was conducted on this subset. Most respondents felt the amount of time spent in the curriculum using a microscope was just right for basic microscope use and using the microscope for viewing and learning about normal and abnormal histological sections and clinical cytology. Participants felt more emphasis could be placed on clinical and diagnostic cytology. Study results suggest that practicing veterinarians frequently use microscopes for a wide variety of cytological diagnostics. However, only two respondents indicated they prepared samples for histological evaluation. Veterinary schools should consider these results against the backdrop of pressure to implement innovative teaching techniques to meet the changing needs of the profession.

  12. Errors in veterinary practice: preliminary lessons for building better veterinary teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, T; Guile, D; May, S A

    2015-11-14

    Case studies in two typical UK veterinary practices were undertaken to explore teamwork, including interprofessional working. Each study involved one week of whole team observation based on practice locations (reception, operating theatre), one week of shadowing six focus individuals (veterinary surgeons, veterinary nurses and administrators) and a final week consisting of semistructured interviews regarding teamwork. Errors emerged as a finding of the study. The definition of errors was inclusive, pertaining to inputs or omitted actions with potential adverse outcomes for patients, clients or the practice. The 40 identified instances could be grouped into clinical errors (dosing/drugs, surgical preparation, lack of follow-up), lost item errors, and most frequently, communication errors (records, procedures, missing face-to-face communication, mistakes within face-to-face communication). The qualitative nature of the study allowed the underlying cause of the errors to be explored. In addition to some individual mistakes, system faults were identified as a major cause of errors. Observed examples and interviews demonstrated several challenges to interprofessional teamworking which may cause errors, including: lack of time, part-time staff leading to frequent handovers, branch differences and individual veterinary surgeon work preferences. Lessons are drawn for building better veterinary teams and implications for Disciplinary Proceedings considered. British Veterinary Association.

  13. The role of veterinary team effectiveness in job satisfaction and burnout in companion animal veterinary clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Irene C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L; Conlon, Peter D; Sargeant, Jan M

    2014-09-01

    To determine the role of veterinary team effectiveness regarding job satisfaction and burnout in companion animal veterinary practice. Cross-sectional observational study. 48 companion animal veterinary health-care teams. 274 team members participated in an online survey. Overall job satisfaction was evaluated with a 1-item measure, and the 3 dimensions of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) were measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Team effectiveness was assessed with a survey developed for this study. Demographic and team effectiveness factors (coordinated team environment, toxic team environment, team engagement, and individual engagement) associated with job satisfaction and burnout were evaluated. Overall mean job satisfaction score was 5.46 of 7 (median, 6.00); veterinary technicians and kennel attendants had the lowest scores. According to the Maslach survey results, 22.4% of participants were in the high-risk category for exhaustion, 23.2% were in the high-risk category for cynicism, and 9.3% were in the high-risk category for professional efficacy. A coordinated team environment was associated with increased professional efficacy and decreased cynicism. A toxic team environment was negatively associated with job satisfaction and positively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Individual engagement was positively associated with job satisfaction and professional efficacy and negatively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Results suggested the effectiveness of a veterinary team can significantly influence individual team members' job satisfaction and burnout. Practices should pay specific attention to the effectiveness with which their veterinary team operates.

  14. Bound xenobiotic residues in food commodities of plant and animal origin: IUPAC Reports on Pesticides (40)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skidmore, M.W.; Paulson, G.D.; Kuiper, H.A.; Ohlin, B.

    1998-01-01

    In order to assess the dietary risk resulting from the use of pesticides or veterinary drugs the nature of the chemical residues on food commodities needs to be determined. Elucidation of the nature of the chemical residue is carried out using radiolabelled studies where the radiolabelled xenobiotic

  15. Vibrational Spectra And Potential Energy Distributions of Normal Modes of N,N'-Etilenbis(P-Toluen sulfonamide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyar, S.

    2008-01-01

    N-substituted sulfonamides are well known for their diuretic, antidiabetic, antibacterial and antifungal, anticancer e.g., and are widely used in the therapy of patients. These important bioactive properties are strongly affected by the special features of -CH 2 -SO 2 -NR-linker and intramolecular motion Thus, the studies of energetic and spatial properties on N-substituted sulfonamides are of great importance to improve our understanding of their biological activities and enhance abilities to predict new drugs. Density Functional Theory B3LYP /6-31G(d,p) level has been applied to obtain the vibrational force field for the most stable conformation of N,N'-etilenbis(p-toluensulfonamit)(ptsen)having sulfonamide moiety. The results of these calculation have been compared with spectroscopic data to verify accuracy of calculation and applicability of the DFT approach to ptsen. Additionally, complete normal coordinate analyses with quantum mechanical scaling (SQM) were performed to derive the potential energy distributions (PE)

  16. Solid-State Examination of Conformationally Diverse Sulfonamide Receptors Based on Bis(2-anilinoethynyl)pyridine, -Bipyridine, and -Thiophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Orion B; Johnson, Charles A; Vonnegut, Chris L; Fajardo, Kevin A; Zakharov, Lev N; Johnson, Darren W; Haley, Michael M

    2015-03-04

    Utilizing an induced-fit model and taking advantage of rotatable acetylenic C(sp)-C(sp 2 ) bonds, we disclose the synthesis and solid-state structures of a series of conformationally diverse bis-sulfonamide arylethynyl receptors using either pyridine, 2,2'-bipyridine, or thiophene as the core aryl group. Whereas the bipyridine and thiophene structures do not appear to bind guests in the solid state, the pyridine receptors form 2 + 2 dimers with water molecules, two halides, or one of each, depending on the protonation state of the pyridine nitrogen atom. Isolation of a related bis-sulfonimide derivative demonstrates the importance of the sulfonamide N-H hydrogen bonds in dimer formation. The pyridine receptors form monomeric structures with larger guests such as BF 4 - or HSO 4 - , where the sulfonamide arms rotate to the side opposite the pyridine N atom.

  17. Solid-State Examination of Conformationally Diverse Sulfonamide Receptors Based on Bis(2-anilinoethynyl)pyridine, -Bipyridine, and -Thiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Orion B.; Johnson, Charles A.; Vonnegut, Chris L.; Fajardo, Kevin A.; Zakharov, Lev N.; Johnson, Darren W.; Haley, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing an induced-fit model and taking advantage of rotatable acetylenic C(sp)–C(sp2) bonds, we disclose the synthesis and solid-state structures of a series of conformationally diverse bis-sulfonamide arylethynyl receptors using either pyridine, 2,2′-bipyridine, or thiophene as the core aryl group. Whereas the bipyridine and thiophene structures do not appear to bind guests in the solid state, the pyridine receptors form 2 + 2 dimers with water molecules, two halides, or one of each, depending on the protonation state of the pyridine nitrogen atom. Isolation of a related bis-sulfonimide derivative demonstrates the importance of the sulfonamide N–H hydrogen bonds in dimer formation. The pyridine receptors form monomeric structures with larger guests such as BF4− or HSO4−, where the sulfonamide arms rotate to the side opposite the pyridine N atom. PMID:26405435

  18. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  19. Efficacy of sulfonamides and Baycox(®) against Isospora suis in experimental infections of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Anja; Mundt, Hans-Christian

    2011-12-01

    Sulfonamide treatment of piglets against neonatal coccidiosis has frequently been suggested in the literature. In order to evaluate the efficacy of sulfonamides against experimental Isospora suis infections in suckling piglets (oral infection with 1,500 sporulated oocysts of I. suis per piglet on the fourth day of life), two trials were conducted. In trial I, oral sulfadimidine (group Sulfa-Oral) was applied in doses of 100 mg/kg of body weight (BW) 1 day before infection and 75 mg/kg BW daily for the following 5 days, and sulfamethoxypyrimidine (SMP) was applied parenterally in daily doses of 75 mg/kg BW for the same time period. In trial II, SMP was applied parenterally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW (a) from the day of infection daily for 7 days (SMP-Standard), (b) for 2 days starting on the day of infection (SMP-Early), (c) for 3 days starting 2 days post-infection (d.p.i.; SMP-Middle), (d) for 2 days starting 5 d.p.i. (SMP-Late), and (e) every other day from the day of infection until 6 d.p.i. (SMP-Alternating), as well as (f) orally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW from the day of infection for 7 days (SMP-Oral). The sulfonamide-treated groups were compared to a toltrazuril-treated group (single oral treatment with Baycox® 5% suspension, 20 mg/kg BW 2 d.p.i.) and to a water-treated Control group. Each group consisted of seven to nine piglets. The parameters evaluated were oocyst excretion and fecal consistency/diarrhea from 4 to 15 d.p.i. Sulfa-Oral, SMP-Early, and SMP-Late had no significant effect in reduction of oocyst excretion and diarrhea, whereas treatment for 3-7 days with SMP reduced both parasite shedding and diarrhea significantly. Oral treatment with SMP was comparable to parenteral application. Baycox® in a single application had the most pronounced effect and completely suppressed oocyst excretion and diarrhea during the examination period. It could be shown that repeated application of sulfonamides, provided that the appropriate time period after infection

  20. Adsorption of sulfonamides to demineralized pine wood biochars prepared under different thermochemical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Mengxing; Chen, Wei; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zheng, Shourong; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to understand the key factors and mechanisms controlling adsorption of sulfonamides to biochars. Batch adsorption experiments were performed for sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine to three pine-wood biochars prepared under different thermochemical conditions: pyrolysis at 400 °C (C400) and 500 °C (C500), and pyrolysis at 500 °C followed with hydrogenation (C500-H). For both sulfonamides, the adsorbent surface area-normalized adsorption was stronger to C500 than to C400. This is attributable to the enhanced π–π electron-donor–acceptor interaction with the carbon surface of C500 due to the higher degree of graphitization. Despite the relatively large difference in surface O-functionality content between C500 (12.2%) and C500-H (6.6%), the two biochars exhibited nearly identical adsorbent surface area-normalized adsorption, indicating negligible role of surface O-functionalities in the adsorption to these adsorbents. Effects of solution chemistry conditions (pH, Cu 2+ , and dissolved soil humic acid) on adsorption were examined. -- Highlights: • Adsorption to biochars is dominated by π–π electron-donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction. • Graphitic surfaces of biochars are predominant adsorption sites. • Surface O-functionalities of biochars play minor roles in adsorption. • Adsorption affinities are markedly affected by Cu ions and humic acids. -- Adsorption of sulfonamides to biochars is dominated by π–π electron-donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction with the graphitic surface

  1. Malaria parasite carbonic anhydrase: inhibition of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides and its therapeutic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krungkrai, Sudaratana R; Krungkrai, Jerapan

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) is responsible for the majority of life-threatening cases of human malaria, causing 1.5-2.7 million annual deaths. The global emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites necessitates identification and characterization of novel drug targets and their potential inhibitors. We identified the carbonic anhydrase (CA) genes in P. falciparum. The pfCA gene encodes anα-carbonic anhydrase, a Zn2+-metalloenzme, possessing catalytic properties distinct from that of the human host CA enzyme. The amino acid sequence of the pfCA enzyme is different from the analogous protozoan and human enzymes. A library of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides possessing a large diversity of scaffolds were found to be very good inhibitors for the malarial enzyme at moderate-low micromolar and submicromolar inhibitions. The structure of the groups substituting the aromatic-ureido- or aromatic-azomethine fragment of the molecule and the length of the parent sulfonamide were critical parameters for the inhibitory properties of the sulfonamides. One derivative, that is, 4- (3, 4-dichlorophenylureido)thioureido-benzenesulfonamide (compound 10) was the most effective in vitro Plasmodium falciparum CA inhibitor, and was also the most effective antimalarial compound on the in vitro P. falciparum growth inhibition. The compound 10 was also effective in vivo antimalarial agent in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei, an animal model of drug testing for human malaria infection. It is therefore concluded that the sulphonamide inhibitors targeting the parasite CA may have potential for the development of novel therapies against human malaria. PMID:23569766

  2. Thermodynamic aspects of solubility and partitioning processes of some sulfonamides in the solvents modeling biological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlovich, German L.; Ryzhakov, Alex M.; Strakhova, Nadezda N.; Kazachenko, Vladimir P.; Schaper, Klaus-Jürgen; Raevsky, Oleg A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility processes of some sulfonamide isomers in water and 1-octanol were investigated. • Transfer processes from water to 1-octanol were evaluated by analysis of enthalpic and entropic terms. • Impact of various substituents in phenyl rings on solubility and transfer processes was studied. -- Abstract: The thermodynamic aspects of solubility processes of sulfonamides (SAs) with the general structures 4-NH 2 –C 6 H 4 –SO 2 NH–C 6 H 2 (R 1 )(R 2 )-R 3 (R 1 = 2-CH 3 , 2-Cl; R 2 = 4-CH 3 , 4-Cl; R 3 =5-H, 5-Cl), 4-NH 2 -2-Cl–C 6 H 3 –SO 2 NH–C 6 H 3 (R 1 )-R 2 (R 1 = 2-H, 2-Cl; R 2 = 4-H, 4-Cl) and 4-NH 2 -2-CH 3 –C 6 H 3 –SO 2 NH–C 6 H 3 (R 1 )-R 2 (R 1 = 2-H, 2-Cl, 2-NO 2 ; R 2 = 4-H, 4-Cl) in water and 1-octanol (as phases modeling various drug delivery pathways) were studied using the isothermal saturation method. For the sulfonamides with various substituents in phenyl rings the processes of transfer from water to 1-octanol were studied by a diagram method combined with analysis of enthalpic and entropic terms. Distinguishing between enthalpy and entropy, as is possible through the present approach, leads to the insight that the contribution of these terms is different for different molecules (entropy- or enthalpy-determined). Thus, in contrast to the interpretation of only the Gibbs energy of transfer (extensively used for pharmaceuticals in the form of the partition coefficient, logP), the analysis of thermodynamic functions of the transfer process provides additional mechanistic information. This may be important for further evaluation of the physiological distribution of drug molecules and may provide a better understanding of biopharmaceutical properties of drugs

  3. Novel 1,4-naphthoquinone-based sulfonamides: Synthesis, QSAR, anticancer and antimalarial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingaew, Ratchanok; Prachayasittikul, Veda; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-10-20

    A novel series of 1,4-naphthoquinones (33-44) tethered by open and closed chain sulfonamide moieties were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic and antimalarial activities. All quinone-sulfonamide derivatives displayed a broad spectrum of cytotoxic activities against all of the tested cancer cell lines including HuCCA-1, HepG2, A549 and MOLT-3. Most quinones (33-36 and 38-43) exerted higher anticancer activity against HepG2 cell than that of the etoposide. The open chain analogs 36 and 42 were shown to be the most potent compounds. Notably, the restricted sulfonamide analog 38 with 6,7-dimethoxy groups exhibited the most potent antimalarial activity (IC₅₀ = 2.8 μM). Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) study was performed to reveal important chemical features governing the biological activities. Five constructed QSAR models provided acceptable predictive performance (Rcv 0.5647-0.9317 and RMSEcv 0.1231-0.2825). Four additional sets of structurally modified compounds were generated in silico (34a-34d, 36a-36k, 40a-40d and 42a-42k) in which their activities were predicted using the constructed QSAR models. A comprehensive discussion of the structure-activity relationships was made and a set of promising compounds (i.e., 33, 36, 38, 42, 36d, 36f, 42e, 42g and 42f) was suggested for further development as anticancer and antimalarial agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Design, synthesis, characterization and computational docking studies of novel sulfonamide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Hira; Maryam, Arooma; Bokhari, Saleem Ahmed; Ashiq, Ayesha; Rauf, Sadaf Abdul; Khalid, Rana Rehan; Qureshi, Fahim Ashraf; Siddiqi, Abdul Rauf

    2018-01-01

    This study reports three novel sulfonamide derivatives 4-Chloro-N-[(4-methylphenyl) sulphonyl]-N-propyl benzamide ( 1A ), N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl benzene sulfonamide ( 1B ) and 4-methyl-N-(2-nitrophenyl) benzene sulfonamide ( 1C ). The compounds were synthesised from starting material 4-methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride and their structure was studied through 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR spectra. Computational docking was performed to estimate their binding energy against bacterial p -amino benzoic acid (PABA) receptor, the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS). The derivatives were tested in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria including E. coli, B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. linen. 1A was found active only against B. linen ; 1B was effective against E. coli, B. subtilis and B. linen whereas 1C showed activity against E. coli, B. licheniformis and B. linen . 1C showed maximum activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 50, 100 and 150 µg/mL against E. coli, B. licheniformis and B. linen respectively. 1C exhibited maximum affinity to DHPS with binding free energy of -8.1 kcal/mol. It enriched in the top 0.5 % of a library of 7663 compounds, ranked in order of their binding affinity against DHPS. 1C was followed by 1B which showed a moderate to low level MIC of 100, 250 and 150 µg/mL against E. coli, B. subtilis and B. linen respectively, whereas 1A showed a moderate level MIC of 100 µg/mL but only against B. linen . These derivatives may thus serve as potential anti-bacterial alternatives against resistant pathogens.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of some sulfonamide derivatives on clinical isolates of Staphylococus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekdemir Yunus

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a non-motile, gram positive, non-sporforming, facultative anaerobic microorganism. It is one of the important bacteria as a potential pathogen specifically for nosocomial infections. The sulfonamide derivative medicines are preferred to cure infection caused by S. aureus due to methicillin resistance. Methods Antimicrobial activity of four sulfonamide derivatives have been investigated against 50 clinical isolates of S. aureus and tested by using MIC and disc diffusion methods. 50 clinical isolate which collected from specimens of patients who are given medical treatment in Ondokuz Mayis University Medical School Hospital. A control strain of S. aureus ATCC 29213 was also tested. Results The strongest inhibition was observed in the cases of I [N-(2-hydroxy-4-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid], and II [N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid] against S. aureus. Compound I [N-(2-hydroxy-4-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid] showed higher effect on 21 S. aureus MRSAisolates than oxacillin antibiotic. Introducing an electron withdrawing on the ring increased the antimicrobial activity remarkably. Conclusion This study may help to suggest an alternative possible leading compound for development of new antimicrobial agents against MRSA and MSSA resistant S. aureus. It was also shown here that that clinical isolates of 50 S. aureus have various resistance patterns against to four sulfonamide derivatives. It may also be emphasized here that in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing results for S. aureus need standardization with further studies and it should also have a correlation with in vivo therapeutic response experiments.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of curcumin-sulfonamide hybrids: Biological evaluation and molecular docking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banuppriya, Govindharasu; Sribalan, Rajendran; Padmini, Vediappen

    2018-03-01

    Curcumin-sulfonamide hybrids (4a-e) were synthesized and their in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were studied. The synthesized compounds showed a very good potent activity towards antioxidant and anti-inflammatory studies rather than its parent as well as standard. These compounds have exhibited an excellent toxicity effect to the cancer cell lines such as A549 and AGS. The compounds 4a and 4c have showed good anticancer activity than curcumin. The molecular docking studies were also performed against various Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) enzymes. The DFT calculations were also done in order to support the docking results.

  7. Determination of sulfonamides and trimethoprim using high temperature HPLC with simultaneous temperature and solvent gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giegold, Sascha; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Tuerk, Jochen; Kiffmeyer, Thekla; Wenclawiak, Bernd

    2008-10-01

    A fast HPLC method for the analysis of eight selected sulfonamides (SA) and trimethoprim has been developed with the use of high temperature HPLC. The separation could be achieved in less than 1.5 min on a 50 mm sub 2 microm column with simultaneous solvent and temperature gradient programming. Due to the lower viscosity of the mobile phase and the increased mass transfer at higher temperatures, the separation could be performed on a conventional HPLC system obtaining peak widths at half height between 0.6 and 1.3 s.

  8. 4-Methyl-N-(1-methyl-1H-indazol-5-yl)benzene­sulfonamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicha, Hakima; Oulemda, Bassou; Rakib, El Mostapha; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H15N3O2S, the fused ring system is close to planar, the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.030 (2) Å, and makes a dihedral angle of 48.84 (9)° with the benzene ring belonging to the methyl­benzene­sulfonamide moiety. In the crystal, mol­ecules are ­connected through N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O contacts, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001). PMID:24427093

  9. Preclinical evaluation of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 sulfonamide derivatives for in vivo radiolabeling of erythrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Gheysens, Olivier; Akurathi, Vamsidhar; Chekol, Rufael; Dresselaers, Tom; Celen, Sofie; Koole, Michel; Dauwe, Dieter; Cleynhens, Bernard J; Claus, Piet; Janssens, Stefan; Verbruggen, Alfons M; Nuyts, Johan; Himmelreich, Uwe; Bormans, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, few PET tracers for in vivo labeling of red blood cells (RBCs) are available. In this study, we report the radiosynthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of 11C and 18F sulfonamide derivatives targeting carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), a metallo-enzyme expressed in RBCs, as potential blood pool tracers. A proof-of-concept in vivo imaging study was performed to demonstrate the feasibility to assess cardiac function and volumes using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated positron ...

  10. Efficient synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives on solid supports catalyzed using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo-Ordonez, Argelia; Moreno-Reyes, Christian; Olazaran-Santibanez, Fabian; Martinez-Hernandez, Sheila; Bocanegra-Garcia, Virgilio; Rivera, Gildardo [Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas, Reynosa (Mexico). Dep. de Farmacia y Quimica Medicinal

    2011-07-01

    In this work we report the synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives using a conventional procedure and with solid supports, such as silica gel, florisil, alumina, 4A molecular sieves, montmorillonite KSF, and montmorillonite K10 using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods. Our results show that solid supports have a catalytic activity in the formation of sulfonamide derivatives. We found that florisil, montmorillonite KSF, and K10 could be used as inexpensive alternative catalysts that are easily separated from the reaction media. Additionally, solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods were more efficient in reducing reaction time and in increasing yield. (author)

  11. Efficient synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives on solid supports catalyzed using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo-Ordonez, Argelia; Moreno-Reyes, Christian; Olazaran-Santibanez, Fabian; Martinez-Hernandez, Sheila; Bocanegra-Garcia, Virgilio; Rivera, Gildardo

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report the synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives using a conventional procedure and with solid supports, such as silica gel, florisil, alumina, 4A molecular sieves, montmorillonite KSF, and montmorillonite K10 using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods. Our results show that solid supports have a catalytic activity in the formation of sulfonamide derivatives. We found that florisil, montmorillonite KSF, and K10 could be used as inexpensive alternative catalysts that are easily separated from the reaction media. Additionally, solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods were more efficient in reducing reaction time and in increasing yield. (author)

  12. The role of the acidity of N-heteroaryl sulfonamides as inhibitors of bcl-2 family protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, B Barry; Miller-Moslin, Karen; Yusuff, Naeem; Perez, Lawrence; Doré, Michael; Joud, Carol; Michael, Walter; DiPietro, Lucian; van der Plas, Simon; McEwan, Michael; Lenoir, Francois; Hoe, Madelene; Karki, Rajesh; Springer, Clayton; Sullivan, John; Levine, Kymberly; Fiorilla, Catherine; Xie, Xiaoling; Kulathila, Raviraj; Herlihy, Kara; Porter, Dale; Visser, Michael

    2013-02-14

    Overexpression of the antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins is commonly associated with cancer cell survival and resistance to chemotherapeutics. Here, we describe the structure-based optimization of a series of N-heteroaryl sulfonamides that demonstrate potent mechanism-based cell death. The role of the acidic nature of the sulfonamide moiety as it relates to potency, solubility, and clearance is examined. This has led to the discovery of novel heterocyclic replacements for the acylsulfonamide core of ABT-737 and ABT-263.

  13. Quality systems in veterinary diagnostics laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Branco, Freitas Maia L M

    2007-01-01

    Quality assurance of services provided by veterinary diagnostics laboratories is a fundamental element promoted by international animal health organizations to establish trust, confidence and transparency needed for the trade of animals and their products at domestic and international levels. It requires, among other things, trained personnel, consistent and rigorous methodology, choice of suitable methods as well as appropriate calibration and traceability procedures. An important part of laboratory quality management is addressed by ISO/IEC 17025, which aims to facilitate cooperation among laboratories and their associated parties by assuring the generation of credible and consistent information derived from analytical results. Currently, according to OIE recommendation, veterinary diagnostics laboratories are only subject to voluntary compliance with standard ISO/IEC 17025; however, it is proposed here that OIE reference laboratories and collaboration centres strongly consider its adoption.

  14. Information prescriptions: A tool for veterinary practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Kogan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has become a major source of health information and has the potential to offer many benefits for both human and animal health. In order for impact to be positive, however, it is critical that users be able to access reliable, trustworthy information. Although more pet owners are using the Internet to research animal health information than ever before, there remains limited research surrounding their online activities or the ability to influence owners’ online search behaviors. The current study was designed to assess the online behaviors and perceptions of pet owners after receiving either general or topic-specific information prescriptions as part of their veterinary appointment. Results indicate that nearly 60% of clients accessed the suggested websites and nearly all of these clients reported positive feelings about this addition to their veterinary services. These results suggest that offering information prescriptions to clients can facilitate better online searches by clients and positively impact both animal health and client satisfaction.

  15. Financing and organisation of veterinary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, M; Barcos, L

    2012-08-01

    This paper analyses the different ways of financing official Veterinary Services (VS) and the effects of these choices on the performance of such Services. The links between governance, organisational effectiveness and financing arrangements are seen as particularly important. The paper comments on some of the advantages and disadvantages of financing VS with service fees, as compared to budget transfers from general government revenues. Evidence is presented on the considerable heterogeneity in the size of VS and on the impact of this heterogeneity on organisation and financing. The paper concludes with a stylised case study, which emphasises the importance of collaboration and the division of labour between the official and the private sector of the veterinary profession.

  16. Problems associated with veterinary dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Veterinarians have been radiographing animal skulls for many years, but sophisticated dentistry was not widely used until the 1970s. Elevated awareness of veterinary dental techniques has led to the need for producing accurate radiographic images of the teeth and periodontal structures. Many problems arise for the clinician who treats small animals who has, before this time, radiographed the skull of dogs and cats solely for the purpose of assessing neoplastic, infectious, or traumatic disease of the mandible, maxilla, or calvarium and now desires to perform dental radiography. This chapter will describe the advantages and disadvantages of some of the more common types of radiographic equipment and supplies, discuss extraoral and intraoral radiographic positioning and technique, identify anatomic landmarks and diagnostic features of intraoral radiography, and offer suggestions concerning the art of using dental radiography in veterinary practice

  17. Radiotherapy in veterinary medicine: beginnings and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R.; Andrade, Alexandre L.; Luvizoto, Maria C.R.; Piero, Juliana R.; Ciarlini, Luciana D.R.P.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a brief historical about the use of ionizing radiations in Veterinary Medicine, instructing the physical beginnings and techniques wrapped in the realization of the proceedings of radiotherapy in animals, illustrating some treated cases, highlighting the difficulties and pointing to the perspectives and importance of the acting of the medical physics in this kind of therapeutic still little used in the national scenery. (author)

  18. Veterinary Medicine Needs New Green Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis TOUTAIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Given that: (1 the worldwide consumption of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs used in food-producing animals will increase over the coming decades; (2 the prudent use of AMDs will not suffice to stem the rise in human antimicrobial resistance (AMR of animal origin; (3 alternatives to AMD use are not available or not implementable, there is an urgent need to develop novel AMDs for food-producing animals. This is not for animal health reasons, but to break the link between human and animal resistomes. In this review we establish the feasibility of developing for veterinary medicine new AMDs, termed green antibiotics, having minimal ecological impact on the animal commensal and environmental microbiomes.We first explain why animal and human commensal microbiota comprise a turnstile exchange, between the human and animal resistomes. We then outline the ideal physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a veterinary green antibiotic and conclude that they can be developed through a rational screening of currently used AMD classes. The ideal drug will be hydrophilic, of relatively low potency, slow clearance and small volume of distribution. It should be eliminated principally by the kidney as inactive metabolite(s. For oral administration, bioavailability can be enhanced by developing lipophilic pro-drugs. For parenteral administration, slow-release formulations of existing eco-friendly AMDs with a short elimination half-life can be developed. These new eco-friendly veterinary AMDs can be developed from currently used drug classes to provide alternative agents to those currently used in veterinary medicine and mitigate animal contributions to the human AMR problem.

  19. The responsibilities of veterinary educators in responding to emerging needs in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, R E W

    2009-08-01

    It is an unfortunate fact that not only has veterinary education failed to adapt in the face of likely future needs, but it has also failed to respond to societal changes that have already taken place and that have affected the requirements for veterinary services and veterinary capability. The responsibility is primarily that of educators, although vision and foresight require a co-ordinated approach involving national and international veterinary organisations. Once it is accepted by all parties that change is essential, the implementation will fail unless there is a unified programme involving the schools and colleges, the accrediting agencies, the licensing authorities, governments, the professional organisations and corporate veterinary medicine. All have a role to play, and any one can readily block progress. A unified approach is an absolute requirement. The developed countries must take a leading role, but the issues are global, and ways must be found to facilitate change in all parts of the world. Disease knows no boundaries, and any strategy is only as strong as its weakest link.

  20. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force recommendations for a veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena; Milne, Marjorie; Berendt, Mette; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Farqhuar, Robyn G; Fischer, Andrea; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Pakozdy, Akos; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A

    2015-08-28

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials for seizures, the parameters for MRI examination should allow the detection of subtle lesions which may not be obvious with existing techniques. In addition, there are several differentials for idiopathic epilepsy in humans, for example some focal cortical dysplasias, which may only apparent with special sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification of underlying causes of seizures not yet apparent in the veterinary literature.There is a need for a standardized veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol which will facilitate more detailed examination of areas susceptible to generating and perpetuating seizures, is cost efficient, simple to perform and can be adapted for both low and high field scanners. Standardisation of imaging will improve clinical communication and uniformity of case definition between research studies. A 6-7 sequence epilepsy-specific MRI protocol for veterinary patients is proposed and further advanced MR and functional imaging is reviewed.

  1. Prevalence of hazardous exposures in veterinary practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, P.; Schenker, M.B.; Green, R.; Samuels, S.

    1989-01-01

    All female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Exposure questions were based on previously implicated occupational hazards which included anesthetic gases, radiation, zoonoses, prostaglandins, vaccines, physical trauma, and pesticides. The response rate was 86% (462/537). We found that practice type and pregnancy status were major determinants of hazard exposure within the veterinary profession. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anesthetic gas (94%), X-ray (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rates of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). Potentially hazardous workplace practices or equipment were common. Forty-one percent of respondents who reported taking X-rays did not wear film badges, and 76% reported physically restraining animals for X-ray procedures. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents exposed to anesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rays, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures. Some potentially hazardous workplace exposures are common in veterinary practice, and measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects.

  2. Use of adenoviral vectors as veterinary vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, T B; Alves, P M; Aunins, J G; Carrondo, M J T

    2005-10-01

    Vaccines are the most effective and inexpensive prophylactic tool in veterinary medicine. Ideally, vaccines should induce a lifelong protective immunity against the target pathogen while not causing clinical or pathological signs of diseases in the vaccinated animals. However, such ideal vaccines are rare in the veterinary field. Many vaccines are either of limited effectiveness or have harmful side effects. In addition, there are still severe diseases with no effective vaccines. A very important criterion for an ideal vaccine in veterinary medicine is low cost; this is especially important in developing countries and even more so for poultry vaccination, where vaccines must sell for a few cents a dose. Traditional approaches include inactivated vaccines, attenuated live vaccines and subunit vaccines. Recently, genetic engineering has been applied to design new, improved vaccines. Adenovirus vectors are highly efficient for gene transfer in a broad spectrum of cell types and species. Moreover, adenoviruses often induce humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted foreign genes. Thus, adenoviruses have become a vector of choice for delivery and expression of foreign proteins for vaccination. Consequently, the market requirements for adenovirus vaccines are increasing, creating a need for production methodologies of concentrated vectors with warranted purity and efficacy. This review summarizes recent developments and approaches of adenovirus production and purification as the application of these vectors, including successes and failures in clinical applications to date.

  3. Prevalence of hazardous exposures in veterinary practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggins, P.; Schenker, M.B.; Green, R.; Samuels, S.

    1989-01-01

    All female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Exposure questions were based on previously implicated occupational hazards which included anesthetic gases, radiation, zoonoses, prostaglandins, vaccines, physical trauma, and pesticides. The response rate was 86% (462/537). We found that practice type and pregnancy status were major determinants of hazard exposure within the veterinary profession. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anesthetic gas (94%), X-ray (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rates of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). Potentially hazardous workplace practices or equipment were common. Forty-one percent of respondents who reported taking X-rays did not wear film badges, and 76% reported physically restraining animals for X-ray procedures. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents exposed to anesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rays, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures. Some potentially hazardous workplace exposures are common in veterinary practice, and measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects

  4. [Marketing in veterinary practice; a theoretical framework].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans, A J; Smidts, A

    1990-03-15

    An increase in the number of veterinarians, while at the same time the number of animals has remained constant, has resulted in growing competition. By extending the range of products and by enlarging the veterinarians' scope of activities this competition can be decreased. A marketing-orientation will be helpful in this respect. This article indicates in which way marketing concepts can be used in a veterinary practice. The services of the veterinarian will be looked at by means of the Abell approach. This focuses on the functions performed by the services and examines, per function performed, for whom this might be interesting and which alternatives there might be. Next the concept of market segmentation is filled in for a veterinary practice by means of a hypothetical example. The marketing mix (product, place, price, promotion and personnel) is given considerable attention. The last element of marketing in a veterinary practice that is discussed here is the marketing information system. In a next article the question will be answered how marketing-directed the Dutch veterinarian works nowadays. To find this out research has been done; 166 vets were interviewed by telephone for approximately 40 minutes each.

  5. Curriculum Redesign in Veterinary Medicine: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Kristin P; Macik, Maria L; Turner, Jacqueline S; Korich, Jodi A; Rogers, Kenita S; Fowler, Debra; Scallan, Elizabeth M; Keefe, Lisa M

    Curricular review is considered a necessary component for growth and enhancement of academic programs and requires time, energy, creativity, and persistence from both faculty and administration. At Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences (TAMU), the faculty and administration partnered with the university's Center for Teaching Excellence to create a faculty-driven, data-enhanced curricular redesign process. The 8-step process begins with the formation of a dedicated faculty curriculum design team to drive the redesign process and to support the college curriculum committee. The next steps include defining graduate outcomes and mapping the current curriculum to identify gaps and redundancies across the curriculum. Data are collected from internal and external stakeholders including veterinary students, faculty, alumni, and employers of graduates. Data collected through curriculum mapping and stakeholder engagement substantiate the curriculum redesign. The guidelines, supporting documents, and 8-step process developed at TAMU are provided to assist other veterinary schools in successful curricular redesign. This is the first of a two-part report that provides the background, context, and description of the process for charting the course for curricular change. The process involves defining expected learning outcomes for new graduates, conducting a curriculum mapping exercise, and collecting stakeholder data for curricular evaluation (steps 1-4). The second part of the report describes the development of rubrics that were applied to the graduate learning outcomes (steps 5-8) and engagement of faculty during the implementation phases of data-driven curriculum change.

  6. Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Carbonic Anhydrase: Transition Metal Ions and Spin-Labeled Sulfonamides*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, June S.; Mushak, Paul; Coleman, Joseph E.

    1970-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (esr) spectra of Cu(II) and Co(II) carbonic anhydrase, and a spin-labeled sulfonamide complex of the Zn(II) enzyme, are reported. The coordination geometry of Cu(II) bound in the enzyme appears to have approximately axial symmetry. Esr spectra of enzyme complexes with metal-binding anions also show axial symmetry and greater covalency, in the order ethoxzolamide cyanide complex suggests the presence of two, and probably three, equivalent nitrogen ligands from the protein. Esr spectra of the Co(II) enzyme and its complexes show two types of Co(II) environment, one typical of the native enzyme and the 1:1 CN- complex, and one typical of a 2:1 CN- complex. Co(II) in the 2:1 complex appears to be low-spin and probably has a coordination number of 5. Binding of a spin-labeled sulfonamide to the active center immobilizes the free radical. The similarity of the esr spectra of spin-labeled Zn(II) and Co(II) carbonic anhydrases suggests that the conformation at the active center is similar in the two metal derivatives. PMID:4320976

  7. Development and Characterization of Novel Films Based on Sulfonamide-Chitosan Derivatives for Potential Wound Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Maria Dragostin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop new films based on chitosan functionalized with sulfonamide drugs (sulfametoxydiazine, sulfadiazine, sulfadimetho-xine, sulfamethoxazol, sulfamerazine, sulfizoxazol in order to enhance the biological effects of chitosan. The morphology and physical properties of functionalized chitosan films as well the antioxidant effects of sulfonamide-chitosan derivatives were investigated. The chitosan-derivative films showed a rough surface and hydrophilic properties, which are very important features for their use as a wound dressing. The film based on chitosan-sulfisoxazol (CS-S6 showed the highest swelling ratio (197% and the highest biodegradation rate (63.04% in comparison to chitosan film for which the swelling ratio was 190% and biodegradation rate was only 10%. Referring to the antioxidant effects the most active was chitosan-sulfamerazine (CS-S5 which was 8.3 times more active than chitosan related to DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability. This compound showed also a good ferric reducing power and improved total antioxidant capacity.

  8. Rapid startup of thermophilic anaerobic digester to remove tetracycline and sulfonamides resistance genes from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qing-Peng; Bai, Yang; Liu, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Yan-Ru; Xiong, Wei-Ping; Ahmad, Kito; Fan, Chang-Zheng

    2018-01-15

    Spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) originating from sewage sludge is highlighted as an eminent health threat. This study established a thermophilic anaerobic digester using one-step startup strategy to quickly remove tetracycline and sulfonamides resistance genes from sewage sludge. At least 20days were saved in the startup period from mesophilic to thermophilic condition. Based on the results of 16S rDNA amplicons sequencing and predicted metagenomic method, the successful startup largely relied on the fast colonization of core thermophilic microbial population (e.g. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria). Microbial metabolic gene pathways for substrate degradation and methane production was also increased by one-step mode. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR approach revealed that most targeted tetracycline and sulfonamides resistance genes ARGs (sulI, tetA, tetO, tetX) were substantially removed during thermophilic digestion (removal efficiency>80%). Network analysis showed that the elimination of ARGs was attributed to the decline of their horizontal (intI1 item) and vertical (potential hosts) transfer-related elements under high-temperature. This research demonstrated that rapid startup thermophilic anaerobic digestion of wastewater solids would be a suitable technology for reducing quantities of various ARGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preliminary investigation on the occurrence of several sulfonamide antibiotics in the Haihe River Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. L.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Y. Z.; Liang, S. T.; Liu, C.; Wang, Z.

    2017-08-01

    Several samples collected from lakes, rivers and reservoirs in Haihe river basin of China were analyzed for 8 sulfonamide antibiotics by using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). All water samples were enriched with HLB extraction cartridges. The antibiotics were separated by gradient elution with methanol as the mobile phase adding 0.1% formic acid. The eluate was then analyzed by the mode of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.4-1.0 ng/L and 1.0-3.0 ng/L respectively. The method was used for the analysis of 13 samples from Haihe river basin in China. The results showed that sulfamethoxazole was present in all water samples with maximum concentration of 107.59 ng/L. Sulfadiazine was also frequently detected, concentrations ranging from 2.81 ng/L to 85.35 ng/L. Other sulfonamide antibiotics were not detected in most water samples, especially for those samples from drinking water resources.

  10. Spectroscopic characterization, antimicrobial activity, DFT computation and docking studies of sulfonamide Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudipa; Mandal, Santi M.; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Sinha, Chittaranjan

    2017-01-01

    Schiff bases synthesised from the condensation of 2-(hydroxy)naphthaldehyde and sulfonamides (sufathiazole (STZ), sulfapyridine (SPY), sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamerazine (SMZ) and sulfaguanidine (SGN)) are characterized by different spectroscopic data (FTIR, UV-Vis, Mass, NMR) and two of them, (E)-4-(((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylene)amino)-N-(thiazol-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (1a) and (E)-N-(diaminomethylene)-4-(((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylene)amino)benzenesulfonamide (1e) have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure determination. Antimicrobial activities of the Schiff bases have been evaluated against certified and resistant Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus facelis) and Gram negative (Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumonia) pathogens. Performance of Schiff base against the resistant pathogens are better than standard stain and MIC data lie 32-128 μg/ml while parent sulfonamides are effectively inactive (MIC >512 μg/ml). The DFT optimized structures of the Schiff bases have been used to accomplish molecular docking studies with DHPS (dihydropteroate synthase) protein structure (downloaded from Protein Data Bank) to establish the most preferred mode of interaction. ADMET filtration, Cytotoxicity (MTT assay) and haemolysis assay have been examined for evaluation of druglike character.

  11. Soil bacterial consortia and previous exposure enhance the biodegradation of sulfonamides from pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Espinoza, Marina; Reid, Brian J; Wexler, Margaret; Bond, Philip L

    2012-07-01

    Persistence or degradation of synthetic antibiotics in soil is crucial in assessing their environmental risks. Microbial catabolic activity in a sandy loamy soil with pig manure using 12C- and 14C-labelled sulfamethazine (SMZ) respirometry showed that SMZ was not readily degradable. But after 100 days, degradation in sulfadiazine-exposed manure was 9.2%, far greater than soil and organic manure (0.5% and 0.11%, respectively, p library from the treatment with highest degradation showed that most bacteria belonged to α, β and γ classes of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria. Proteobacteria (α, β and γ), Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes which were the most abundant classes on day 1 also decreased most following prolonged exposure. From the matrix showing the highest degradation rate, 17 SMZ-resistant isolates biodegraded low levels of 14C-labelled SMZ when each species was incubated separately (0.2-1.5%) but biodegradation was enhanced when the four isolates with the highest biodegradation were incubated in a consortium (Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas putida, Alcaligenes sp. and Aquamicrobium defluvium as per 16S rRNA gene sequencing), removing up to 7.8% of SMZ after 20 days. One of these species (B. licheniformis) was a known livestock and occasional human pathogen. Despite an environmental role of these species in sulfonamide bioremediation, the possibility of horizontal transfer of pathogenicity and resistance genes should caution against an indiscriminate use of these species as sulfonamide degraders.

  12. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  13. Implementation of Online Veterinary Hospital on Cloud Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chung, Yu-Fang; Huang, Yao-Min; Chen, Tao-Chieh; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Pet markets involve in great commercial possibilities, which boost thriving development of veterinary hospital businesses. The service tends to intensive competition and diversified channel environment. Information technology is integrated for developing the veterinary hospital cloud service platform. The platform contains not only pet medical services but veterinary hospital management and services. In the study, QR Code andcloud technology are applied to establish the veterinary hospital cloud service platform for pet search by labeling a pet's identification with QR Code. This technology can break the restriction on veterinary hospital inspection in different areas and allows veterinary hospitals receiving the medical records and information through the exclusive QR Code for more effective inspection. As an interactive platform, the veterinary hospital cloud service platform allows pet owners gaining the knowledge of pet diseases and healthcare. Moreover, pet owners can enquire and communicate with veterinarians through the platform. Also, veterinary hospitals can periodically send reminders of relevant points and introduce exclusive marketing information with the platform for promoting the service items and establishing individualized marketing. Consequently, veterinary hospitals can increase the profits by information share and create the best solution in such a competitive veterinary market with industry alliance.

  14. Thermodynamic aspects of solubility, solvation and partitioning processes of some sulfonamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlovich, German L., E-mail: glp@isc-ras.r [Department of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, Institute of Physiologically Active Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 153045 Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Ryzhakov, Alex M. [Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 153045 Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Strakhova, Nadezda N.; Kazachenko, Vladimir P. [Department of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, Institute of Physiologically Active Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Schaper, Klaus-Juergen [Research Center Borstel, Leibniz Center for Medicine and Biosciences, D-23845 Borstel (Germany); Raevsky, Oleg A. [Department of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, Institute of Physiologically Active Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The thermodynamic aspects of sublimation processes of some sulfonamides were studied by investigating the temperature dependence of vapor pressure using the transpiration method. {yields} Solubility processes of the compounds in water, phosphate buffer with pH 7.4 and n-octanol were investigated and corresponding thermodynamic functions were calculated as well. {yields} Thermodynamic characteristics of the sulfonamides solvation were evaluated. - Abstract: The thermodynamic aspects of sublimation processes of three sulfonamides with the general structures C{sub 6}H{sub 5}-SO{sub 2}NH-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-R (R = 4-NO{sub 2}) and 4-NH{sub 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-SO{sub 2}NH-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-R (R = 4-NO{sub 2}; 4-CN) were studied by investigating the temperature dependence of vapor pressure using the transpiration method. These data together with those obtained earlier for C{sub 6}H{sub 5}-SO{sub 2}NH-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-R (R = 4-Cl) and 4-NH{sub 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-SO{sub 2}NH-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-R (R = 4-Cl; 4-OMe; 4-C{sub 2}H{sub 5}) were analyzed and compared. A correlation was derived between sublimation Gibbs free energies and the sum of H-bond acceptor factors of the molecules. Solubility processes of the compounds in water, phosphate buffer with pH 7.4 and n-octanol (as phases modeling various drug delivery pathways) were investigated and corresponding thermodynamic functions were calculated as well. Thermodynamic characteristics of the sulfonamides solvation were evaluated. Also in this case a correlation between solubility/solvation Gibbs free energy values and the sum of H-bond acceptor factors was observed. For the sulfonamides with various substituents at para-position the processes of transfer from one solvent (water or buffer) to n-octanol were studied by a diagram method combined with analysis of enthalpic and entropic terms. Distinguishing between enthalpy and entropy, as is possible through the present approach, leads to the insight

  15. Sulfonamide inhibition studies of two β-carbonic anhydrases from the ascomycete fungus Sordaria macrospora, CAS1 and CAS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Daniela; Lehneck, Ronny; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2018-12-01

    The two β-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) recently cloned and purified from the ascomycete fungus Sordaria macrospora, CAS1 and CAS2, were investigated for their inhibition with a panel of 39 aromatic, heterocyclic, and aliphatic sulfonamides and one sulfamate, many of which are clinically used agents. CAS1 was efficiently inhibited by tosylamide, 3-fluorosulfanilamide, and 3-chlorosulfanilamide (K I s in the range of 43.2-79.6 nM), whereas acetazolamide, methazolamide, topiramate, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, and brinzolamide were medium potency inhibitors (K I s in the range of 360-445 nM). CAS2 was less sensitive to sulfonamide inhibitors. The best CAS2 inhibitors were 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide (the deacetylated acetazolamide precursor) and 4-hydroxymethyl-benzenesulfonamide, with K I s in the range of 48.1-92.5 nM. Acetazolamide, dorzolamide, ethoxzolamide, topiramate, sulpiride, indisulam, celecoxib, and sulthiame were medium potency CAS2 inhibitors (K I s of 143-857 nM). Many other sulfonamides showed affinities in the high micromolar range or were ineffective as CAS1/2 inhibitors. Small changes in the structure of the inhibitor led to important differences of the activity. As these enzymes may show applications for the removal of anthropically generated polluting gases, finding modulators of their activity may be crucial for designing environmental-friendly CO 2 capture processes.

  16. Accumulation of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Arable Soils Due to Repeated Application of Manure Containing Sulfadiazine ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Heuer, Holger; Solehati, Qodiah; Zimmerling, Ute; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael; Müller, Tanja; Focks, Andreas; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-01-01

    Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.

  17. Effects of corresponding and non-corresponding contaminants on the fate of sulfonamide and quinolone resistance genes in the Laizhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianwei; Na, Guangshui; Zhang, Linxiao; Lu, Zihao; Gao, Hui; Li, Ruijing; Jin, Shuaichen

    2018-03-01

    The environmental behaviors and migration patterns of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have attracted considerable research interest. However, there has been little research concerning the effects of corresponding and non-corresponding contaminants on the fate of ARGs in coastal environments. In the present study, the distribution of intI1, sul1, sul2, qnrS and aac(6')-Ib were analyzed in water and sediment samples of Laizhou Bay in the context of corresponding and non-corresponding contaminants. The abundance of intI1, sul1 and sul2 genes exhibited a clear decreasing trend extending from the inner estuary to the coastal area. Strong and positive correlations existed between sul1/sul2 and sulfonamide antibiotic residues in sediments, and between the abundances of intI1 and sul1/sul2. Statistical analyses indicated that non-corresponding contaminants were partially correlated with ARG abundances. These results suggest that non-corresponding contaminants may have direct or indirect influences on the abundances of ARGs and intI1 in the Laizhou Bay. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous determination of 17 sulfonamides and the potentiators ormetoprim and trimethoprim in salmon muscle by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Ross A; Burns, B Garth; van de Riet, Jeffrey M; North, David H; Darvesh, Rozina

    2007-01-01

    A simple, robust method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of 17 sulfonamides [sulfanilamide (SNL), sulfacetamide (SAA), sulfaguanidine (SGD), sulfapyridine (SPY), sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfamethoxazole (SOZ), sulfamoxole (SXL), sulfisoxazole (SXZ), sulfamethizole (SML), sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP), sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), sulfaquinoxaline (SQX), and sulfadimethoxine (SDM)] and 2 potentiators [ormetoprim (OMP) and trimethoprim (TMP)] in fish tissue has been developed. The analytes were extracted from homogenized fish tissue with water-acetonitrile (50 + 50). The extract was clarified by centrifugation and a portion defatted with hexane. The analytes were partitioned into chloroform and evaporated to dryness. The redissolved residue was applied to a C18 reversed-phase column with a water-acetonitrile (0.1% acetic acid) gradient. All of the compounds were completely separated and detected in <10 min at 30 degrees C using LC/MS/MS. Standard curves were linear over the range of 0.02 to 5 ng injected. The limit of detection varied from 0.1 ng/g for SMZ and OMP to 0.9 ng/g for SXL and SOZ. Recoveries varied from 100% for SDM, SOZ, and SQX and 85% for SMR, OMP, and TMP to approximately 30% for SAA. Relative standard deviations for repeat analysis varied from 4% for SMZ and SCP to 23% for SAA.

  19. Trace analysis of trimethoprim and sulfonamide, macrolide, quinolone, and tetracycline antibiotics in chlorinated drinking water using liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z.; Weinberg, H.S.; Meyer, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    A multirun analytical method has been developed and validated for trace determination of 24 antibiotics including 7 sulfonamides, 3 macrolides, 7 quinolones, 6 tetracyclines, and trimethoprim in chlorine-disinfected drinking water using a single solid-phase extraction method coupled to liquid chromatography with positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry detection. The analytes were extracted by a hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced resin and eluted with acidified methanol (0.1% formic acid), resulting in analyte recoveries generally above 90%. The limits of quantitation were mostly below 10 ng/L in drinking water. Since the concentrated sample matrix typically caused ion suppression during electrospray ionization, the method of standard addition was used for quantitation. Chlorine residuals in drinking water can react with some antibiotics, but ascorbic acid was found to be an effective chlorine quenching agent without affecting the analysis and stability of the antibiotics in water. A preliminary occurrence study using this method revealed the presence of some antibiotics in drinking waters, including sulfamethoxazole (3.0-3.4 ng/L), macrolides (1.4-4.9 ng/L), and quinolones (1.2-4.0 ng/L). ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  20. Disposable MoS2-Arrayed MALDI MS Chip for High-Throughput and Rapid Quantification of Sulfonamides in Multiple Real Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaju; Tang, Minmin; Liao, Qiaobo; Li, Zhoumin; Li, Hui; Xi, Kai; Tan, Li; Zhang, Mei; Xu, Danke; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-04-27

    In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, the development of a disposable MoS 2 -arrayed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) chip combined with an immunoaffinity enrichment method for high-throughput, rapid, and simultaneous quantitation of multiple sulfonamides (SAs). The disposable MALDI MS chip was designed and fabricated by MoS 2 array formation on a commercial indium tin oxide (ITO) glass slide. A series of SAs were analyzed, and clear deprotonated signals were obtained in negative-ion mode. Compared with MoS 2 -arrayed commercial steel plate, the prepared MALDI MS chip exhibited comparable LDI efficiency, providing a good alternative and disposable substrate for MALDI MS analysis. Furthermore, internal standard (IS) was previously deposited onto the MoS 2 array to simplify the experimental process for MALDI MS quantitation. 96 sample spots could be analyzed within 10 min in one single chip to perform quantitative analysis, recovery studies, and real foodstuff detection. Upon targeted extraction and enrichment by antibody conjugated magnetic beads, five SAs were quantitatively determined by the IS-first method with the linear range of 0.5-10 ng/mL ( R 2 > 0.990). Good recoveries and repeatability were obtained for spiked pork, egg, and milk samples. SAs in several real foodstuffs were successfully identified and quantified. The developed method may provide a promising tool for the routine analysis of antibiotic residues in real samples.

  1. Antibiotic prophylaxis in veterinary cancer chemotherapy: A review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, J L; Argyle, D J; Argyle, S A

    2018-06-12

    Bacterial infection following cancer chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in human and veterinary patients. Antimicrobial prophylaxis is controversial in the human oncology field, as any decreased incidence in bacterial infections is countered by patient adverse effects and increased antimicrobial resistance. Comprehensive guidelines exist to aid human oncologists in prescribing antimicrobial prophylaxis but similar recommendations are not available in veterinary literature. As the veterinarian's role in antimicrobial stewardship is increasingly emphasized, it is vital that veterinary oncologists implement appropriate antimicrobial use. By considering the available human and veterinary literature we present an overview of current clinical practices and are able to suggest recommendations for prophylactic antimicrobial use in veterinary cancer chemotherapy patients. © 2018 The Authors. Veterinary and Comparative Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sorption and biodegradation of sulfonamide antibiotics by activated sludge: experimental assessment using batch data obtained under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the adsorption, desorption, and biodegradation characteristics of sulfonamide antibiotics in the presence of activated sludge with and without being subjected to NaN(3) biocide. Batch experiments were conducted and the relative contributions of adsorption and biodegradation to the observed removal of sulfonamide antibiotics were determined. Three sulfonamide antibiotics including sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), which had been detected in the influent and the activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Taiwan, were selected for this study. Experimental results showed that the antibiotic compounds were removed via sorption and biodegradation by the activated sludge, though biodegradation was inhibited in the first 12 h possibly due to competitive inhibition of xenobiotic oxidation by readily biodegradable substances. The affinity of sulfonamides to sterilized sludge was in the order of SDM > SMM > SMX. The sulfonamides existed predominantly as anions at the study pH of 6.8, which resulted in a low level of adsorption to the activated sludge. The adsorption/desorption isotherms were of a linear form, as well described by the Freundlich isotherm with the n value approximating unity. The linear distribution coefficients (K(d)) were determined from batch equilibrium experiments with values of 28.6 ± 1.9, 55.7 ± 2.2, and 110.0 ± 4.6 mL/g for SMX, SMM, and SDM, respectively. SMX, SMM, and SDM desorb reversibly from the activated sludge leaving behind on the solids 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5.2% of the original sorption dose of 100 μg/L. The sorbed antibiotics can be introduced into the environment if no further treatments were employed to remove them from the biomass. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Educational programme on radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric, G.; Popovic, D.

    1992-01-01

    The education of radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists on the University of Belgrade is integrated both in regular graduate studies and in postgraduate studies. Within the graduate studies, students attend courses in physics and biophysics and in radiation hygiene. During postgraduate or specialistic veterinary medicine studies, veterinary medicine specialists expand their knowledge in radiation protection through a number of courses on radiation biophysics, radioecology, nuclear instrumentation and environmental protection. (author)

  4. THE APIPHYTOTHERAPY WITH PROACTIVATOR IN THE VETERINARY DERMATOLOGY AND SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    A. SICEANU; AGRIPINA SAPCALIU; I. RADOI; D. CONDUR; ELIZA CAUIA; CRENGUTA PAVEL

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this clinical study consisted in evaluation of the therapeutic effects of the propolis extract used in different disorders at company animals, thus being improved the palette of the apitherapeutical products used in veterinary purposes. The experiments were carried out on company animals (two experimental groups) during the 2007-2008 period, in the frame of the Veterinary Medicine Faculty – Bucharest and the University - Spiru Haret, at the veterinary departments: Parasi...

  5. Evidence-based integrative medicine in clinical veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raditic, Donna M; Bartges, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Integrative medicine is the combined use of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional or traditional Western medicine systems. The demand for integrative veterinary medicine is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. In veterinary clinical oncology, such research could be translated to human medicine, because veterinary patients with spontaneous tumors are valuable translational models for human cancers. An overview of specific herbs, botanics, dietary supplements, and acupuncture evaluated in dogs, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species both in vivo and in vitro is presented for their potential use as integrative therapies in veterinary clinical oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Veterinary Pharmaceutics: An Opportunity for Interprofessional Education in New Zealand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Arlene; Beard, Rebekah; Brightmore, Anna; Lu, Lisa W; McKay, Amelia; Mistry, Maadhuri; Owen, Kate; Swan, Emma; Young, Jessica

    2017-07-26

    Globally pharmacists are becoming increasingly involved in veterinary medicine; however, little is known about the level of interest for pharmacists playing a larger role in animal treatment in New Zealand. A key stakeholder in any progression of pharmacists becoming more involved in the practice of veterinary pharmacy is the veterinary profession. The aim of this study was to investigate views of veterinarians and veterinary students on the role of pharmacists supporting veterinarians with advice on animal medicines. Open interviews were conducted with veterinarians in Dunedin, New Zealand. Veterinary students at Massey University completed an online survey. Most veterinarians do not have regular communication with pharmacists regarding animal care, but believe it may be beneficial. In order to support veterinarians, pharmacists would need further education in veterinary medicine. Veterinary students believe there is opportunity for collaboration between professions provided that pharmacists have a better working knowledge of animal treatment. Most of the veterinary students surveyed perceive a gap in their knowledge concerning animal medicines, specifically pharmacology and compounding. While there is support for pharmacists contributing to veterinary medicine, particularly in the area of pharmaceutics, this is currently limited in New Zealand due to a lack of specialized education opportunities.

  7. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.

  8. Ethical principles for novel therapies in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, J W

    2016-02-01

    To present insights to aid decision-making about novel veterinary treatments from regulations concerning animal experimentation and human clinical medical trials. EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes and EU Regulation 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use were analysed, evaluated and "translated" into relevant principles for veterinary surgeons. A number of principles are relevant, relating to treatment expectations, thresholds and objectives; client consent; minimising harms; personnel; review committees; assessment and publication. These principles should assist veterinary surgeons to make good ethical decisions about novel treatments. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ferrè

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a “schema” that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application “schema” of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE. The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application “schema” that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community.

  10. Gamma rays application in veterinary immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulkhanov, R.U.; Butaev, M.K.; Mirzaev, B.Sh.; Ryasnyanskiy, I.V.; Yuldashev, R.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The process based on stimulated action of ionized radiation, change of quality of agricultural goods and row materials, biocides including bactericide action of ionized radiation are among the methods of radiation biotechnology, which can be applied in agriculture. We used the bactericide action of ionized radiation in technological process for creation of fundamentally new preparation possessed by by immunogenic properties and named as 'radio vaccine'. This term is well known and frequently used in scientific papers in the field of applied radiobiology. It is well known that physical (thermal) and chemical actions are used for preparation of vaccine for veterinary. It was noted that this process resulted in destruction of antigenic structure of bacteria cells, with are responsible for immunity creation. The possibility of virulence reduction at constant immunogenic properties of microorganism and keeping its antigenic structure can be achieved by using ionized radiation as one of the factor, which influences on bacteria. Taking into account the necessity of vaccine improvement and increase of quantity of associated vaccine one of the most important problems of veterinary science and particle is creation of vaccines of new generation which are characterized by the ability to form immunity against several diseases of agricultural animals. As a result of many-years investigations using gamma rays radiations in UzSRIV (laboratory of radiobiology) the radiation biotechnology of vaccine preparation was developed. These vaccines are necessary for practical application. Radiation biotechnology allows to prepare high-effective mono-, associated and polyvalent radio vaccines against widespread infection diseases of agricultural animals especially cubs (calves, lambs, young pigs). On the basis of developed radiation biotechnology there were prepared the following vaccines: 'Associated radio vaccine against colibacteriosis and salmonellosis of small horned cattle

  11. Whole-genome sequencing of veterinary pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronco, Troels

    -electrophoresis and single-locus sequencing has been widely used to characterize such types of veterinary pathogens. However, DNA sequencing techniques have become fast and cost effective in recent years and whole-genome sequencing data provide a much higher discriminative power and reproducibility than any...... genetic background. This indicates that dairy cows can be natural carriers of S. aureus subtypes that in certain cases lead to CM. A group of isolates that mostly belonged to ST151 carried three pathogenicity islands that were primarily found in this group. The prevalence of resistance genes was generally...

  12. 76 FR 80878 - Solicitation of Veterinary Shortage Situation Nominations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Gary Sherman; National Program Leader, Veterinary Science; National Institute of Food and... of Consultation 3. Rationale for Capping Nominations and State Allocation Method 4. State Allocation... adding section 1415A to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1997...

  13. 76 FR 5131 - Solicitation of Nomination of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Science; National Institute of Food and Agriculture; U.S. Department of Agriculture; STOP 2220; 1400... and State Allocation Method 4. State Allocation of Nominations 5. FY 2011 Shortage Situation..., Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1997 (NARETPA). This law established a new Veterinary Medicine Loan...

  14. 75 FR 52505 - Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary Diagnostic Services, and Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... plant and plant product export certification program operations, contact Mr. William E. Thomas, Director...; Birds or poultry, including zoo birds or poultry, receiving nonstandard housing, care, or handling to... diseases of livestock and poultry within the United States. Veterinary diagnostics is the work performed in...

  15. Role of the sulfonamide moiety of Ru(II) half-sandwich complexes in the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of 3,4-dihydroisoquinolines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matuška, O.; Zápal, J.; Hrdličková, R.; Mikoška, M.; Pecháček, J.; Vilhanová, B.; Václavík, Jiří; Kuzma, M.; Kačer, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 1 (2016), s. 215-222 ISSN 1878-5190 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ruthenium * asymmetric transfer hydrogenation * dihydroisoquinolines * sulfonamide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2016

  16. Changes in Veterinary Students' Attitudes Toward the Rural Environment and Rural Veterinary Practice: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Cary T; Woloschuk, Wayne; Hecker, Kent G

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of research regarding veterinary students' attitudes toward the rural environment and rural veterinary practice and how these attitudes might change over the course of a veterinary medicine program that includes rural clinical experience. Using a 23-item questionnaire, attitudes toward rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, opportunities for career and skill development in rural veterinary practice, and inter-professional teamwork in the rural environment were assessed at the beginning and completion of a four-year veterinary medicine program. Eighty-six students (74.4% female) were included in this Canadian study over a six-year period. Thirty-one participants (36.1%) were rural students. Overall, students' attitudes toward the rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, and inter-professional teamwork in rural veterinary practice all significantly decreased (pstudents, rural students had significantly higher rural lifestyle scores at both the beginning (pworking in a rural environment could influence students to exclude rural veterinary practice as a career choice. Rural clinical experiences designed to sustain or increase veterinary student interest in rural practice may not be sufficient to support positive rural attitudes. Given the demand for rural veterinary services in developed countries, the implications of this study may extend beyond Canada.

  17. Balancing knowledge and basic principles in veterinary parasitology - Competencies for future Danish veterinary graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang; Nejsum, Peter; Williams, Andrew R; Mejer, Helena

    2018-03-15

    Veterinary parasitology has always been considered to be relevant and interesting by the Danish veterinary students. Students have to acquaint themselves with many new, small creatures with complicated and varied life cycles and with intricate Latin names that are difficult to pronounce, as only a few parasites have Danish names. In our veterinary curriculum, zoology has disappeared as a discipline, and parasitology has gradually moved from the third year to the beginning of the second year, which implies that, for example, pathology and pharmacology are "unknown fields". The number of contact hours in veterinary parasitology has been gradually cut to 24 lectures (35 min each) and practical exercises (24 h), including 9 h on coprology. The course is taught and examined jointly with bacteriology and virology in a 8-week course. As a comprehensive course, it has become increasingly difficult to get students to acquire enough active knowledge of the most common parasites and an understanding of the basic principles in relation to, for example, transmission and control. Even though information is readily accessible through books and on-line resources, we still believe that a competent clinician should know a range of parasites by heart as an active resource for their work. The dilemma has been tackled (partly) by introducing a veterinary paraclinical refresher course of 18 h (half practicals and half lectures) in the fourth study year. The focus here is on host(herd)-oriented clinical and diagnostic parasitology. The students can also now select a One Health track for six months in which zoonotic parasites are obviously a relevant topic. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Ionic treatment for removal of sulfonamide and tetracycline classes of antibiotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Keun-Joo; Son, Hee-Jong; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Self-decomposition and removal of antibiotics by ionic treatment was evaluated in this study. Seven sulfonamide classes (SA) and seven tetracycline classes (TA) of antibiotic were selected for this purpose. According to this study, self-decomposition of SAs and TAs was slow, and a considerable amount of antibiotics still remained after 15 days. Ionic treatment was effective for removal of SAs and TAs, but organic interference was observed. When dissolved organic (DOC) was present in raw water, the removal performance of antibiotics generally deteriorated due to competition with organics. SAs and TAs, which were present in ionic form at neutral pH, were removed through ion exchange. Their removal efficiencies were closely related to their chemical structure. Antibiotics with stronger electronegativity were easier to remove by ionic treatment. Equilibrium equations for removal of SAs and TAs by ionic treatment were also presented

  19. Synthesis and in silico studies of novel sulfonamides having oxadiazole ring: As β-glucuronidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Muhammad; Baharudin, Mohd Syukri; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Selvaraj, Manikandan; Salar, Uzma; Alkadi, Khaled A A; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

    2017-04-01

    Novel sulfonamides having oxadiazole ring were synthesized by multistep reaction and evaluated to check in vitro β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity. Luckily, except compound 13, all compounds were found to demonstrate good inhibitory activity in the range of IC 50 =2.40±0.01-58.06±1.60μM when compared to the standard d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC 50 =48.4±1.25μM). Structure activity relationship was also presented. However, in order to ensure the SAR as well as the molecular interactions of compounds with the active site of enzyme, molecular docking studies on most active compounds 19, 16, 4 and 6 was carried out. All derivatives were fully characterized by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and EI-MS spectroscopic techniques. CHN analysis was also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Insights into functional-group-tolerant polymerization catalysis with phosphine-sulfonamide palladium (II) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Jian, Zhongbao

    2014-12-08

    Two series of cationic palladium(II) methyl complexes {[(2-MeOC6H4)2PC6H4SO2NHC6H3(2,6-R1,R2)]PdMe}2[A]2 (X1+-A: R1=R2=H: H1+-A; R1=R2=CH(CH3)2: DIPP1+-A; R1=H, R2=CF3: CF31+-A; A=BF4 or SbF6) and neutral palladium(II) methyl complexes {[(2-MeOC6H4)2PC6H4SO2NC6H3(2,6-R1,R2)]PdMe(L)} (X1-acetone: L=acetone; X1-dmso: L=dimethyl sulfoxide; X1-pyr: L=pyridine) chelated by a phosphine-sulfonamide were synthesized and fully characterized. Stoichiometric insertion of methyl acrylate (MA) into all complexes revealed that a 2,1 regiochemistry dominates in the first insertion of MA. Subsequently, for the cationic complexes X1+-A, β-H elimination from the 2,1-insertion product X2+-AMA-2,1 is overwhelmingly favored over a second MA insertion to yield two major products X4+-AMA-1,2 and X5+-AMA. By contrast, for the weakly coordinated neutral complexes X1-acetone and X1-dmso, a second MA insertion of the 2,1-insertion product X2MA-2,1 is faster than β-H elimination and gives X3MA as major products. For the strongly coordinated neutral complexes X1-pyr, no second MA insertion and no β-H elimination (except for DIPP2-pyrMA-2,1) were observed for the 2,1-insertion product X2-pyrMA-2,1. The cationic complexes X1+-A exhibited high catalytic activities for ethylene dimerization, affording butenes (C4) with a high selectivity of up to 97.7% (1-butene: 99.3%). Differences in activities and selectivities suggest that the phosphine-sulfonamide ligands remain coordinated to the metal center in a bidentate fashion in the catalytically active species. By comparison, the neutral complexes X1-acetone, X1-dmso, and X1-pyr showed very low activity towards ethylene to give traces of oligomers. DFT analyses taking into account the two possible coordination modes (O or N) of the sulfonamide ligand for the cationic system CF31+ suggested that the experimentally observed high activity in ethylene dimerization is the result of a facile first ethylene insertion into the O-coordinated PdMe isomer and

  1. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Bis-4,6-sulfonamidated 5,7-Dinitrobenzofuroxans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Galkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of bis-4,6-sulfonamidated 5,7-dinitrbenzofuroxans  7–11 had been synthesized and tested for antimicrobial activity. The structures of new sulfanilamide derivatives were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry (MALDITOF. The synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activity using the disk diffusion method against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus; the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis; the fungal strain Aspergillus niger; and the yeast-like pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Our results indicate that the compounds 7–11 exhibit potent antimicrobial activity. The stability of the compounds was evaluated by TG and DSC methods.

  2. Synthesis, Pharmacological Profile and Docking Studies of New Sulfonamides Designed as Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Karine da Costa Nunes

    Full Text Available Prior investigations showed that increased levels of cyclic AMP down-regulate lung inflammatory changes, stimulating the interest in phosphodiesterase (PDE4 as therapeutic target. Here, we described the synthesis, pharmacological profile and docking properties of a novel sulfonamide series (5 and 6a-k designed as PDE4 inhibitors. Compounds were screened for their selectivity against the four isoforms of human PDE4 using an IMAP fluorescence polarized protocol. The effect on allergen- or LPS-induced lung inflammation and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR was studied in A/J mice, while the xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia test was employed as a behavioral correlate of emesis in rodents. As compared to rolipram, the most promising screened compound, 6a (LASSBio-448 presented a better inhibitory index concerning PDE4D/PDE4A or PDE4D/PDE4B. Accordingly, docking analyses of the putative interactions of LASSBio-448 revealed similar poses in the active site of PDE4A and PDE4C, but slight unlike orientations in PDE4B and PDE4D. LASSBio-448 (100 mg/kg, oral, 1 h before provocation, inhibited allergen-induced eosinophil accumulation in BAL fluid and lung tissue samples. Under an interventional approach, LASSBio-448 reversed ongoing lung eosinophilic infiltration, mucus exacerbation, peribronchiolar fibrosis and AHR by allergen provocation, in a mechanism clearly associated with blockade of pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and eotaxin-2. LASSBio-448 (2.5 and 10 mg/kg also prevented inflammation and AHR induced by LPS. Finally, the sulfonamide derivative was shown to be less pro-emetic than rolipram and cilomilast in the assay employed. These findings suggest that LASSBio-448 is a new PDE4 inhibitor with marked potential to prevent and reverse pivotal pathological features of diseases characterized by lung inflammation, such as asthma.

  3. Electrochemical degradation of sulfonamides at BDD electrode: Kinetics, reaction pathway and eco-toxicity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabiańska, Aleksandra; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Stepnowski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Stolte, Stefan [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); UFT-Centre of Environmental Research and Sustainable Technology, University of Bremen, Leobener Straße UFT, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Siedlecka, Ewa Maria, E-mail: ewa.siedlecka@ug.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • SNs were electrochemically oxidized at BDD in one compartment reactor. • The efficiency of SN degradation was the highest in effluents from municipal WWTP. • The electro-degradation SNs based on oxidation but reduction was also possible. • Electrochemical oxidation of SNs led in some cases to mixtures toxic to L. minor. - Abstract: The investigation dealt with electrochemical oxidation of five sulfonamides (SNs): sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfamethazine (SMN) and sulfadimethoxine (SDM) in aqueous solution at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. All studied sulfonamides were degraded according to a pseudo first order kinetics. The structure of SNs had no significant effect on the values of pseudo first order rate constants. Increased degradation efficiency was observed in higher temperature and in acidic pH. Due to the presence of chlorine and nitrate SNs were more effectively oxidized from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents than from pure supporting electrolyte Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The intermediates identified by LC–MS and GC–MS analysis suggested that the hydroxyl radicals attack mainly the S-N bond, but also the aromatic ring systems (aniline, pyrimidine or triazole) of SNs. Finally, the toxicity of the SNs solutions and effluents after electrochemical treatment was assessed through the measurement of growth inhibition of green algae (Scenedesmus vacualatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor). Toxicity of SMR, STZ, SMN solutions before and after electrochemical oxidation and SDM solution after the process in L. minor test was observed. No significant toxicity of studied SNs was observed in algae test.

  4. Electrochemical degradation of sulfonamides at BDD electrode: Kinetics, reaction pathway and eco-toxicity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabiańska, Aleksandra; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan; Siedlecka, Ewa Maria

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SNs were electrochemically oxidized at BDD in one compartment reactor. • The efficiency of SN degradation was the highest in effluents from municipal WWTP. • The electro-degradation SNs based on oxidation but reduction was also possible. • Electrochemical oxidation of SNs led in some cases to mixtures toxic to L. minor. - Abstract: The investigation dealt with electrochemical oxidation of five sulfonamides (SNs): sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfamethazine (SMN) and sulfadimethoxine (SDM) in aqueous solution at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. All studied sulfonamides were degraded according to a pseudo first order kinetics. The structure of SNs had no significant effect on the values of pseudo first order rate constants. Increased degradation efficiency was observed in higher temperature and in acidic pH. Due to the presence of chlorine and nitrate SNs were more effectively oxidized from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents than from pure supporting electrolyte Na 2 SO 4 . The intermediates identified by LC–MS and GC–MS analysis suggested that the hydroxyl radicals attack mainly the S-N bond, but also the aromatic ring systems (aniline, pyrimidine or triazole) of SNs. Finally, the toxicity of the SNs solutions and effluents after electrochemical treatment was assessed through the measurement of growth inhibition of green algae (Scenedesmus vacualatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor). Toxicity of SMR, STZ, SMN solutions before and after electrochemical oxidation and SDM solution after the process in L. minor test was observed. No significant toxicity of studied SNs was observed in algae test

  5. Reconsidering the lecture in modern veterinary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Michelangelo; Lygo-Baker, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Those teaching in the higher-education environment are now increasingly meeting with larger cohorts of students. The result is additional pressure on the resources available and on the teacher and learners. Against this backdrop, discussions and reflections took place between a practitioner, within a UK veterinary school, and an educational researcher with extensive experience in observing teaching in veterinary medicine. The result was an examination of the lecture as a method of teaching to consider how to resolve identified challenges. The focus of much of the literature is on technical aspects of teaching and learning, reverting to a range of tips to resolve particular issues recognized in large-group settings. We suggest that while these tips are useful, they will only take a practitioner so far. To be able to make a genuine connection to learners and help them connect directly to the discipline, we need to take account of the emotional aspects of our role as teachers, without which, delivery of knowledge may be undermined.

  6. The preanalytic phase in veterinary clinical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean-Pierre; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Trumel, Cathy

    2015-03-01

    This article presents the general causes of preanalytic variability with a few examples showing specialists and practitioners that special and improved care should be given to this too often neglected phase. The preanalytic phase of clinical pathology includes all the steps from specimen collection to analysis. It is the phase where most laboratory errors occur in human, and probably also in veterinary clinical pathology. Numerous causes may affect the validity of the results, including technical factors, such as the choice of anticoagulant, the blood vessel sampled, and the duration and conditions of specimen handling. While the latter factors can be defined, influence of biologic and physiologic factors such as feeding and fasting, stress, and biologic and endocrine rhythms can often not be controlled. Nevertheless, as many factors as possible should at least be documented. The importance of the preanalytic phase is often not given the necessary attention, although the validity of the results and consequent clinical decision making and medical management of animal patients would likely be improved if the quality of specimens submitted to the laboratory was optimized. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. Preferential sampling in veterinary parasitological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cecconi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In parasitological surveillance of livestock, prevalence surveys are conducted on a sample of farms using several sampling designs. For example, opportunistic surveys or informative sampling designs are very common. Preferential sampling refers to any situation in which the spatial process and the sampling locations are not independent. Most examples of preferential sampling in the spatial statistics literature are in environmental statistics with focus on pollutant monitors, and it has been shown that, if preferential sampling is present and is not accounted for in the statistical modelling and data analysis, statistical inference can be misleading. In this paper, working in the context of veterinary parasitology, we propose and use geostatistical models to predict the continuous and spatially-varying risk of a parasite infection. Specifically, breaking with the common practice in veterinary parasitological surveillance to ignore preferential sampling even though informative or opportunistic samples are very common, we specify a two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model that adjusts for preferential sampling and we apply it to data on Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep farms in Campania region (Southern Italy in the years 2013-2014.

  8. Biosafety and biosecurity in veterinary laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Melissa R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brass, Van Hildren [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Here, with recent outbreaks of MERS-Cov, Anthrax, Nipah, and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, much emphasis has been placed on rapid identification of infectious agents globally. As a result, laboratories are building capacity, conducting more advanced and sophisticated research, increasing laboratory staff, and establishing collections of dangerous pathogens in an attempt to reduce the impact of infectious disease outbreaks and characterize disease causing agents. With this expansion, the global laboratory community has started to focus on laboratory biosafety and biosecurity to prevent the accidental and/or intent ional release o f these agents. Laboratory biosafety and biosecurity systems are used around the world to help mit igate the risks posed by dangerous pathogens in the laboratory. Veterinary laboratories carry unique responsibilities to workers and communities to safely and securely handle disease causing microorganisms. Many microorganisms studied in veterinary laboratories not only infect animals, but also have the potential to infect humans. This paper will discuss the fundamentals of laboratory biosafety and biosecurity.

  9. Views of professionalism: a veterinary institutional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, C; Whittlestone, K; May, S A

    2012-12-08

    In many western countries, there has been a marked change in the demographic profile of those entering the veterinary profession, with a shift from a predominantly male to a predominantly female intake. There have been parallel changes in society, with greater emphasis on human rights and work-life balance. It is, therefore, timely to consider what constitutes correct professional conduct for the profession, as there is the potential for problems to arise over the interpretation of 'professionalism' due to cultural and generational differences. A cross-section of staff and students within one veterinary institution were invited to take part in a survey exploring their prioritisation of 10 aspects of the professional role. A cluster analysis was performed, and four distinctly different profiles were established according to the views held by the cluster members. Cluster membership was found to significantly correlate to career stage, with altruism and social justice progressively giving way to professional autonomy and dominance. All four clusters in this educational environment prioritised technical and interpersonal competences above all other aspects of the professional role.

  10. 75 FR 31745 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Veterinary Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...] Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Veterinary Services Laboratories... collection associated with the National Veterinary Services Laboratories animal health diagnostic system...: For information on request forms associated with the National Veterinary Services Laboratories animal...

  11. 75 FR 57737 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Veterinary Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ...] Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Veterinary Services Laboratories... Service's intention to request approval of an information collection associated with National Veterinary...' Information Collection Coordinator, at (301) 851-2908. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Veterinary...

  12. 77 FR 77004 - Data Standards for Electronic Interstate Certificates of Veterinary Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ...] Data Standards for Electronic Interstate Certificates of Veterinary Inspection AGENCY: Animal and Plant... data standards required to generate an official interstate certificate of veterinary inspection (ICVI... interstate certificate of veterinary inspection (ICVI). The standards were developed with the National...

  13. 75 FR 65293 - Draft Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...] Draft Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for... Requirements for the Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH) has developed a draft guideline titled ``Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for Transfer of Data...

  14. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  15. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences Babesia caballi infection in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, ... control ticks by regular use of acaricide and timely treatment of affected horses in ... enlarged spleen and liver, pale kidney and oedema in lungs. Babesiosis is usually diagnosed by .... Journal of Animal and Plant.

  16. Comparing Tolerance of Ambiguity in Veterinary and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Jason; Hammond, Jennifer A; Roberts, Martin; Mattick, Karen

    Current guidelines suggest that educators in both medical and veterinary professions should do more to ensure that students can tolerate ambiguity. Designing curricula to achieve this requires the ability to measure and understand differences in ambiguity tolerance among and within professional groups. Although scales have been developed to measure tolerance of ambiguity in both medical and veterinary professions, no comparative studies have been reported. We compared the tolerance of ambiguity of medical and veterinary students, hypothesizing that veterinary students would have higher tolerance of ambiguity, given the greater patient diversity and less well-established evidence base underpinning practice. We conducted a secondary analysis of questionnaire data from first- to fourth-year medical and veterinary students. Tolerance of ambiguity scores were calculated and compared using the TAMSAD scale (29 items validated for the medical student population), the TAVS scale (27 items validated for the veterinary student population), and a scale comprising the 22 items common to both scales. Using the TAMSAD and TAVS scales, medical students had a significantly higher mean tolerance of ambiguity score than veterinary students (56.1 vs. 54.1, pambiguity than veterinary students, although this depends on the scale used.

  17. The role of veterinary medical librarians in teaching information literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelman, Andrea L; Viera, Ann R; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle A

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study seeks to determine the nature of the instruction librarians provide to veterinary medical students at all 28 United States veterinary colleges. A secondary goal of the study was to determine in what ways and to what extent librarians participated in other instructional activities at their colleges. Over half of the librarians formally taught in one or more courses, predominantly in the first two years of the veterinary curriculum. One presentation per course was most common. Over half of the librarians interviewed stated that evidence-based veterinary medicine was taught at their colleges, and about half of these librarians collaborated with veterinary faculty in this instruction. Many librarians participated in orientation for first-year veterinary students. The librarians also taught instructional sessions for residents, interns, faculty, graduate students, and practicing veterinarians. This study found that librarians teach information literacy skills both formally and informally, but, in general, instruction by librarians was not well integrated into the curriculum. This study advances several recommendations to help veterinary students develop information literacy skills. These include: encourage veterinary faculty and administrators to collaborate more closely with librarians, incorporate a broader array of information literacy skills into assignments, and add a literature evaluation course to the curriculum.

  18. Veterinary Immunology Committee Toolkit Workshop 2010: Progress and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Third Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC) Toolkit Workshop took place at the Ninth International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (IVIS) in Tokyo, Japan on August 18, 2020. The Workshop built on previous Toolkit Workshops and covered various aspects of reagent development, commercialisation an...

  19. Highlights of the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary immunologists have expanded understanding of the immune systems for our companion animals and developed new vaccines and therapeutics. This manuscript summarizes the highlights of the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto,...

  20. Status and role of radiobiology in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation history of radiobiology in University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Kosice from 1949 is presented. Scientific and pedagogic programs, role of veterinary physician as well as concept of radiobiology and cooperation are reviewed. Changes in Poecilia reticulata and Artemia franciscana after gamma radiation are presented.

  1. The status and role of radiobiology in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with history of the University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice as well as with the status and role of radiobiology in veterinary medicine. Some results of gamma irradiation of Pecilia reticulata are presented. Activity levels of cesium-137 in contaminated mushrooms gathered in Slovakia in 2001 are presented.

  2. A Theoretical Framework for Human and Veterinary Medical Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In their practice, physicians and veterinarians need to resort to an array of ethical competences. As a teaching topic, however, there is no accepted gold standard for human medical ethics, and veterinary medical ethics is not yet well established. This paper provides a reflection on the underlying aims of human and veterinary medical ethics…

  3. Quality documentation challenges for veterinary clinical pathology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchini, Federico; Freeman, Kathleen P

    2008-05-01

    An increasing number of veterinary laboratories worldwide have obtained or are seeking certification based on international standards, such as the International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission 17025. Compliance with any certification standard or quality management system requires quality documentation, an activity that may present several unique challenges in the case of veterinary laboratories. Research specifically addressing quality documentation is conspicuously absent in the veterinary literature. This article provides an overview of the quality system documentation needed to comply with a quality management system with an emphasis on preparing written standard operating procedures specific for veterinary laboratories. In addition, the quality documentation challenges that are unique to veterinary clinical pathology laboratories are critically evaluated against the existing quality standards and discussed with respect to possible solutions and/or recommended courses of action. Documentation challenges include the establishment of quality requirements for veterinary tests, the use or modification of human analytic methods for animal samples, the limited availability of quality control materials satisfactory for veterinary clinical pathology laboratories, the limited availability of veterinary proficiency programs, and the complications in establishing species-specific reference intervals.

  4. Some Observations on Veterinary Undergraduate Training in Surgical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittick, William G.

    1978-01-01

    The undergraduate surgery course of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, is described with focus on its experential method of teaching surgical techniques. Also discussed are the benefits of veterinary school cooperation with a large city Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA). (JMD)

  5. Emergency deployment of genetically engineered veterinary vaccines in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezanpour, Bahar; Foucauld, de Jean; Kortekaas, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    On the 9th of November 2015, preceding the World Veterinary Vaccine Congress, a workshop was held to discuss how veterinary vaccines can be deployed more rapidly to appropriately respond to future epizootics in Europe. Considering their potential and unprecedented suitability for surge

  6. Ethno-veterinary practices amongst livestock farmers in Ngamiland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the intervention of conventional veterinary medicine is pervasive in Toteng, and many livestock owners are resorting to it, there is evidence, however, of generalized ethno-veterinary knowledge used to treat and prevent livestock diseases. Local farmers and their herders in Ngamiland are not only knowledgeable ...

  7. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences Epiphyseal plate closure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Nigeria. 2. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University. Sokoto, Nigeria ... from three different small ruminant farms with birth record within Sokoto metropolis,. Nigeria. They were ... animals, one of which is the use of epiphyseal plate closure (Choi et al., ...

  8. Design and synthesis of novel sulfonamide-containing bradykinin hB2 receptor antagonists. 1. Synthesis and SAR of alpha,alpha-dimethylglycine sulfonamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattori, Daniela; Rossi, Cristina; Fincham, Christopher I; Berettoni, Marco; Calvani, Federico; Catrambone, Fernando; Felicetti, Patrizia; Gensini, Martina; Terracciano, Rosa; Altamura, Maria; Bressan, Alessandro; Giuliani, Sandro; Maggi, Carlo A; Meini, Stefania; Valenti, Claudio; Quartara, Laura

    2006-06-15

    We recently published the extensive in vivo pharmacological characterization of MEN 16132 (J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2005, 616-623; Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2005, 528, 7), a member of the sulfonamide-containing human B(2) receptor (hB(2)R) antagonists. Here we report, in detail, how this family of compounds was designed, synthesized, and optimized to provide a group of products with subnanomolar affinity for the hB(2)R and high in vivo potency after topical administration to the respiratory tract. The series was designed on the basis of indications from the X-ray structures of the key structural motifs A and B present in known antagonists and is characterized by the presence of an alpha,alpha-dialkyl amino acid. The first lead (17) of the series was submitted to extensive chemical work to elucidate the structural requirements to increase hB(2) receptor affinity and antagonist potency in bioassays expressing the human B(2) receptor (hB(2)R). The following structural features were selected: a 2,4-dimethylquinoline moiety and a piperazine linker acylated with a basic amino acid. The representative lead compound 68 inhibited the specific binding of [(3)H]BK to hB(2)R with a pKi of 9.4 and antagonized the BK-induced inositolphosphate (IP) accumulation in recombinant cell systems expressing the hB(2)R with a pA(2) of 9.1. Moreover, compound 68 when administered (300 nmol/kg) intratracheally in the anesthetized guinea pig, was able to significantly inhibit BK-induced bronchoconstriction for up to 120 min after its administration, while having a lower and shorter lasting effect on hypotension.

  9. Examining why ethics is taught to veterinary students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magalhães-Sant’Ana, Manuel; Lassen, Jesper; Millar, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Although it is widely agreed that veterinary students need to be introduced to ethics, there is limited empirical research investigating the reasons why veterinary ethics is being taught. This study presents the first extensive investigation into the reasons for teaching veterinary ethics...... and reports data collected in semi-structured interviews with educators involved in teaching undergraduate veterinary ethics at three European schools: the University of Copenhagen, the University of Nottingham, and the Technical University of Lisbon (curricular year 2010–2011). The content of the interview...... transcripts were analyzed using Toulmin's argumentative model. Ten objectives in teaching veterinary ethics were identified, which can be grouped into four overarching themes: ethical awareness, ethical knowledge, ethical skills, and individual and professional qualities. These objectives include recognizing...

  10. Evaluating veterinary practitioner perceptions of communication skills and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, M P; Cobb, M A; Tischler, V A; Robbé, I J; Dean, R S

    2017-03-25

    A survey was conducted among veterinary practitioners in the UK and the USA in 2012/2013. Thematic analysis was used to identify underlying reasons behind answers to questions about the importance of communication skills and the desire to participate in postgraduate communication skills training. Lack of training among more experienced veterinary surgeons, incomplete preparation of younger practitioners and differences in ability to communicate all contribute to gaps in communication competency. Barriers to participating in further communication training include time, cost and doubts in the ability of training to provide value. To help enhance communication ability, communication skills should be assessed in veterinary school applicants, and communication skills training should be more thoroughly integrated into veterinary curricula. Continuing education/professional development in communication should be part of all postgraduate education and should be targeted to learning style preferences and communication needs and challenges through an entire career in practice. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Development of irradiation technique on controlling food contamination residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bin; Xiong Shanbai; Xiong Guangquan; Cheng Wei; Chen Yuxia; Liao Tao; Li Xin; Lin Ruotai

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the researches of irradiation technology on controlling food mycotoxin, pesticide, veterinary drugs and fishery drugs residue was summarized. And the degradation rate, mechanism, products and toxicities of food contamination were expatiated. The free radical from irradiation attack the site of weaker bond, and the less or more toxic substances were produced, which lead to the degradation of the food contamination. The limitations and future application of irradiation technique on controlling food contamination were also analyzed. (authors)

  12. What is the veterinary professional identity? Preliminary findings from web-based continuing professional development in veterinary professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage-Chan, E; Maddison, J; May, S A

    2016-03-26

    Professionalism and professional skills are increasingly being incorporated into veterinary curricula; however, lack of clarity in defining veterinary professionalism presents a potential challenge for directing course outcomes that are of benefit to the veterinary professional. An online continuing education course in veterinary professionalism was designed to address a deficit in postgraduate support in this area; as part of this course, delegates of varying practice backgrounds participated in online discussions reflecting on the implications of professional skills for their clinical practice. The discussions surrounding the role of the veterinary professional and reflecting on strengths and weaknesses in professional skills were analysed using narrative methodology, which provided an understanding of the defining skills and attributes of the veterinary professional, from the perspectives of those involved (i.e. how vets understood their own career identity). The veterinary surgeon was understood to be an interprofessional team member, who makes clinical decisions in the face of competing stakeholder needs and works in a complex environment comprising multiple and diverse challenges (stress, high emotions, financial issues, work-life balance). It was identified that strategies for accepting fallibility, and those necessary for establishing reasonable expectations of professional behaviour and clinical ability, are poorly developed. British Veterinary Association.

  13. Genotoxic, Cytotoxic, Antigenotoxic, and Anticytotoxic Effects of Sulfonamide Chalcone Using the Ames Test and the Mouse Bone Marrow Micronucleus Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ribeiro E Silva

    Full Text Available Chalcones present several biological activities and sulfonamide chalcone derivatives have shown important biological applications, including antitumor activity. In this study, genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic activities of the sulfonamide chalcone N-{4-[3-(4-nitrophenylprop-2-enoyl]phenyl} benzenesulfonamide (CPN were assessed using the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation test (Ames test and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. The results showed that CPN caused a small increase in the number of histidine revertant colonies in S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, but not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The antimutagenicity test showed that CPN significantly decreased the number of His+ revertants in strain TA98 at all doses tested (p 0.05. Additionally, CPN co-administered with MMC significantly increased PCE/NCE ratio at all doses tested, demonstrating its anticytotoxic effect. In summary, CPN presented genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic properties.

  14. Inhibition of the α-carbonic anhydrase from Vibrio cholerae with amides and sulfonamides incorporating imidazole moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, Daniela; Angeli, Andrea; Pandolfi, Fabiana; Bortolami, Martina; Costi, Roberta; Di Santo, Roberto; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Ceruso, Mariangela; Del Prete, Sonia; Capasso, Clemente; Scipione, Luigi; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-12-01

    We discovered novel and selective sulfonamides/amides acting as inhibitors of the α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae (VchCA). This Gram-negative bacterium is the causative agent of cholera and colonises the upper small intestine where sodium bicarbonate is present at a high concentration. The secondary sulfonamides and amides investigated here were potent, low nanomolar VchCA inhibitors whereas their inhibition of the human cytosolic isoforms CA I and II was in the micromolar range or higher. The molecules represent an interesting lead for antibacterial agents with a possibly new mechanism of action, although their CA inhibition mechanism is unknown for the moment.

  15. Reduction in lipophilicity improved the solubility, plasma–protein binding, and permeability of tertiary sulfonamide RORc inverse agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauber, Benjamin P.; René, Olivier; de Leon Boenig, Gladys; Burton, Brenda; Deng, Yuzhong; Eidenschenk, Céline; Everett, Christine; Gobbi, Alberto; Hymowitz, Sarah G.; Johnson, Adam R.; La, Hank; Liimatta, Marya; Lockey, Peter; Norman, Maxine; Ouyang, Wenjun; Wang, Weiru; Wong, Harvey (Genentech); (Argenta)

    2014-08-01

    Using structure-based drug design principles, we identified opportunities to reduce the lipophilicity of our tertiary sulfonamide RORc inverse agonists. The new analogs possessed improved RORc cellular potencies with >77-fold selectivity for RORc over other nuclear receptors in our cell assay suite. The reduction in lipophilicity also led to an increased plasma–protein unbound fraction and improvements in cellular permeability and aqueous solubility.

  16. Prevalence of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Bacterial Isolates from Manured Agricultural Soils and Pig Slurry in the United Kingdom▿

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne-Bailey, K. G.; Gaze, W. H.; Kay, P.; Boxall, A. B. A.; Hawkey, P. M.; Wellington, E. M. H.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher...

  17. Rh(III)-catalyzed oxidative olefination of N-(1-naphthyl)sulfonamides using activated and unactivated alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuting; Gong, Xue; Zhao, Miao; Song, Guoyong; Deng, Jian; Li, Xingwei

    2011-11-04

    Rhodium(III)-catalyzed oxidative olefination of N-(1-naphthyl)sulfonamides has been achieved at the peri position. Three categories of olefins have been successfully applied. Activated olefins reacted to afford five-membered azacycles as a result of oxidative olefination-hydroamination. Unactivated olefins reacted to give the olefination product. 2-fold oxidative C-C and C-N coupling was achieved for allylbenzenes. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Veterinary clinical nutrition: success stories: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mike

    2016-08-01

    In this overview of success stories in veterinary clinical nutrition topics in cats and dogs reviewed include the dietary management of chronic kidney disease, dissolution of urinary tract uroliths by dietary modification, the recognition that taurine and L-carnitine deficiencies can cause dilated cardiomyopathy; that clinical signs associated with feline hyperthyroidism (caused by a benign adenoma) can be controlled by a low-iodine diet alone; that dietary management of canine osteoarthritis can also reduce non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug doses; and that disease-free intervals and survival times can be statistically longer in dogs with Stage III lymphoma managed with diet. As we discover more about nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics, and as we expand our basic understanding of idiopathic diseases we are bound to identify more nutritionally related causes, and be able to develop novel dietary strategies to manage disease processes, including the formulation of diets designed to alter gene expression to obtain beneficial clinical outcomes.

  19. Avoiding sexual harassment liability in veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, C A; Wilson, J F

    1996-05-15

    Harassment based on gender violates the rule of workplace equality established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and enforced by the EEOC. In 1986, the US Supreme Court, in Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson, established the criteria that must be met for a claim of hostile environment sexual harassment to be considered valid. Plaintiffs must show that they were subjected to conduct based on their gender, that it was unwelcome, and that it was severe and pervasive enough to alter their condition of employment, resulting in an abusive working environment. There have been few sexual harassment cases involving veterinary professionals, and it is our goal to help keep the number of filed actions to a minimum. The most effective way to avoid hostile environment sexual harassment claims is to confront the issue openly and to adopt a sexual harassment policy for the practice. When it comes to sexual harassment, an ounce of prevention is unquestionably worth a pound of cure.

  20. New alternatives in veterinary anthelminthic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo T. Cristina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Present paper proposes the presentation of antiparasitic boluses, veterinary use specific conditionings with importance in gastro intestinal helminth population control, as a modern alternative to the classic antihelmintic therapy. The active substances are released consecutive to: diffusion, osmotic procesess, to progressive erosion, or through electronic programmed devices. Anthelmintic boluses are classified upon the releasing system in: a anthelmintic sustained release systems: for albendazole (Proftril bolus, morantel tartrate (Paratect flex and bolus ivermectines (Enzec and Alzet, Ivomec SR Bolus, levamisole (Chronominthic bolus, oxfendazol (Synanthic multidose bolus fenbendazole (Panacur Bolus.b anthelmintic programmed periodic release systems: Intra Ruminal Pulse Release Electronic Device (I.R.P.R.E.D and Repidose (Autoworm, Oxfendazole Pulsed Release Bolus.

  1. Determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple, and environmentally friendly pretreatment method, ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction, was developed for the determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ionic liquid magnetic bar was prepared by inserting a stainless steel wire into the hollow of a hollow fiber and immobilizing ionic liquid in the micropores of the hollow fiber. In the extraction process, the ionic liquid magnetic bars were used to stir the mixture of sample and extraction solvent and enrich the sulfonamides in the mixture. After extraction, the analyte-adsorbed ionic liquid magnetic bars were readily isolated with a magnet from the extraction system. It is notable that the present method was environmentally friendly since water and only several microliters of ionic liquid were used in the whole extraction process. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including the type of ionic liquid, sample-to-extraction solvent ratio, the number of ionic liquid magnetic bars, extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring speed, pH of the extraction solvent, and desorption conditions. The recoveries were in the range of 73.25-103.85 % and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.84 %. The experiment results indicated that the present method was effective for the extraction of sulfonamides in high-fat content samples.

  2. Conformer-Specific IR Spectroscopy of Laser-Desorbed Sulfonamide Drugs: Tautomeric and Conformational Preferences of Sulfanilamide and its Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, Thomas; Seidel, Sebastian; Müller, Christian W.

    2017-06-01

    Molecules containing the sulfonamide group R^{1}-SO_2-NHR^{2} have a longstanding history as antimicrobial agents. Even though nowadays they are not commonly used in treating humans anymore, they continue to be studied as effective inhibitors of metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrases. These enzymes are important targets for a variety of diseases, such as, for instance, breast cancer, glaucoma, and obesity. Here we present the results of our laser desorption single-conformation UV and IR study of sulfanilamide (NH_2Ph-SO_2-NHR, R=H), a variety of singly substituted derivatives, and their monohydrated complexes. Depending on the substituent, the sulfonamide group can either adopt an amino or an imino tautomeric form. The form prevalent in the crystal is not necessarily also the tautomeric form we identified in the molecular beam after laser desorbing the sample. Furthermore, we explored the effect of complexation with a single water molecule on the tautomeric and conformational preferences of the sulfonamides. Our conformer-specific IR spectra in the NH and OH stretch region (3200-3750 \\wn) suggest that the intra- and intermolecular interactions governing the structures of the monomers and water complexes are surprisingly diverse. We have undertaken both Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) and Interacting Quantum Atoms (IQA) analyses of calculated electron densities to quantitatively characterize the nature and strengths of the intra- and intermolecular interactions prevalent in the monomer and water complex structures.

  3. Prevalence of sulfonamide resistance genes in bacterial isolates from manured agricultural soils and pig slurry in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne-Bailey, K G; Gaze, W H; Kay, P; Boxall, A B A; Hawkey, P M; Wellington, E M H

    2009-02-01

    The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher in isolates from pig slurry and postapplication soil than in those from preapplication soil. Of 531 isolates, 23% carried sul1, 18% sul2, and 9% sul3 only. Two percent of isolates contained all three sul genes. Class 1 and class 2 integrons were identified in 5% and 11.7%, respectively, of sul-positive isolates. In previous reports, sul1 was linked to class 1 integrons, but in this study only 8% of sul1-positive isolates carried the intI1 gene. Sulfonamide-resistant pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, Aerococcus spp., and Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified in slurry-amended soil and soil leachate, suggesting a potential environmental reservoir. Sulfonamide resistance in Psychrobacter, Enterococcus, and Bacillus spp. is reported for the first time, and this study also provides the first description of the genotypes sul1, sul2, and sul3 outside the Enterobacteriaceae and in the soil environment.

  4. Prevalence of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Bacterial Isolates from Manured Agricultural Soils and Pig Slurry in the United Kingdom▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne-Bailey, K. G.; Gaze, W. H.; Kay, P.; Boxall, A. B. A.; Hawkey, P. M.; Wellington, E. M. H.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher in isolates from pig slurry and postapplication soil than in those from preapplication soil. Of 531 isolates, 23% carried sul1, 18% sul2, and 9% sul3 only. Two percent of isolates contained all three sul genes. Class 1 and class 2 integrons were identified in 5% and 11.7%, respectively, of sul-positive isolates. In previous reports, sul1 was linked to class 1 integrons, but in this study only 8% of sul1-positive isolates carried the intI1 gene. Sulfonamide-resistant pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, Aerococcus spp., and Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified in slurry-amended soil and soil leachate, suggesting a potential environmental reservoir. Sulfonamide resistance in Psychrobacter, Enterococcus, and Bacillus spp. is reported for the first time, and this study also provides the first description of the genotypes sul1, sul2, and sul3 outside the Enterobacteriaceae and in the soil environment. PMID:19064898

  5. Occurrence and source analysis of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure, soil, vegetables and groundwater from organic vegetable bases, northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiangang; Zhou Qixing; Luo Yi

    2010-01-01

    The residue of antibiotics is becoming an intractable environmental problem in many organic vegetable bases. However, their residual levels and distribution are still obscure. This work systematically analyzed the occurrence and migration of typical veterinary antibiotics in organic vegetable bases, northern China. The results showed that there was no obvious geographical difference in antibiotic distribution between soil and manure. A simple migration model can be easy and quick to predict the accumulation of antibiotics in soil. Antibiotics were mainly taken up through water transport and passive absorption in vegetables. The distribution of antibiotics in a plant was in the sequence leaf > stem > root, and performed biological accumulation. The residues of antibiotics in all samples in winter were significantly higher than those in summer. Overall, this work can lay the foundation for understanding ecological risk of antibiotics and their potential adverse effects on human health by food chain. - The residues of typical veterinary antibiotics from manure were detected and migrated in soil, vegetables and groundwater of organic vegetable bases.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Australian veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardefeldt, L Y; Marenda, M; Crabb, H; Stevenson, M A; Gilkerson, J R; Billman-Jacobe, H; Browning, G F

    2018-04-01

    The national strategy for tackling antimicrobial resistance highlights the need for antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary practice and for surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility in veterinary pathogens. Diagnostic laboratories have an important role in facilitating both of these processes, but it is unclear whether data from veterinary diagnostic laboratories are similar enough to allow for compilation and if there is consistent promotion of appropriate antimicrobial use embedded in the approaches of different laboratories to susceptibility testing. A cross-sectional study of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and reporting procedures by Australian veterinary diagnostic laboratories was conducted in 2017 using an online questionnaire. All 18 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Australia completed the questionnaire. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion was the method predominantly used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and was used to evaluate 86% of all isolates, although two different protocols were used across the 18 laboratories (CLSI 15/18, CDS 3/18). Minimum inhibitory concentrations were never reported by 61% of laboratories. Common isolates were consistently reported on across all species, except for gram-negative isolates in pigs, for which there was some variation in the approach to reporting. There was considerable diversity in the panels of antimicrobials used for susceptibility testing on common isolates and no consistency was apparent between laboratories for any bacterial species. We recommend that nationally agreed and consistent antimicrobial panels for routine susceptibility testing should be developed and a uniform set of guidelines should be adopted by veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Australia. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Insights into functional-group-tolerant polymerization catalysis with phosphine-sulfonamide palladium(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Zhongbao; Falivene, Laura; Wucher, Philipp; Roesle, Philipp; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Göttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Mecking, Stefan

    2015-01-26

    Two series of cationic palladium(II) methyl complexes {[(2-MeOC6 H4 )2 PC6 H4 SO2 NHC6 H3 (2,6-R(1) ,R(2) )]PdMe}2 [A]2 ((X) 1(+) -A: R(1) =R(2) =H: (H) 1(+) -A; R(1) =R(2) =CH(CH3 )2 : (DIPP) 1(+) -A; R(1) =H, R(2) =CF3 : (CF3) 1(+) -A; A=BF4 or SbF6 ) and neutral palladium(II) methyl complexes {[(2-MeOC6 H4 )2 PC6 H4 SO2 NC6 H3 (2,6-R(1) ,R(2) )]PdMe(L)} ((X) 1-acetone: L=acetone; (X) 1-dmso: L=dimethyl sulfoxide; (X) 1-pyr: L=pyridine) chelated by a phosphine-sulfonamide were synthesized and fully characterized. Stoichiometric insertion of methyl acrylate (MA) into all complexes revealed that a 2,1 regiochemistry dominates in the first insertion of MA. Subsequently, for the cationic complexes (X) 1(+) -A, β-H elimination from the 2,1-insertion product (X) 2(+) -AMA-2,1 is overwhelmingly favored over a second MA insertion to yield two major products (X) 4(+) -AMA-1,2 and (X) 5(+) -AMA . By contrast, for the weakly coordinated neutral complexes (X) 1-acetone and (X) 1-dmso, a second MA insertion of the 2,1-insertion product (X) 2MA-2,1 is faster than β-H elimination and gives (X) 3MA as major products. For the strongly coordinated neutral complexes (X) 1-pyr, no second MA insertion and no β-H elimination (except for (DIPP) 2-pyrMA-2,1 ) were observed for the 2,1-insertion product (X) 2-pyrMA-2,1 . The cationic complexes (X) 1(+) -A exhibited high catalytic activities for ethylene dimerization, affording butenes (C4 ) with a high selectivity of up to 97.7 % (1-butene: 99.3 %). Differences in activities and selectivities suggest that the phosphine-sulfonamide ligands remain coordinated to the metal center in a bidentate fashion in the catalytically active species. By comparison, the neutral complexes (X) 1-acetone, (X) 1-dmso, and (X) 1-pyr showed very low activity towards ethylene to give traces of oligomers. DFT analyses taking into account the two possible coordination modes (O or N) of the sulfonamide ligand for the cationic system (CF3) 1(+) suggested

  8. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Dihydrobenzo[cd]indole-6-sulfonamide as TNF-alpha Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaobing; Zhang, Xiaoling; Tang, Bo; Liu, Hongbo; Shen, Qi; Liu, Ying; Lai, Luhua

    2018-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a pivotal role in inflammatory response. Dysregulation of TNF can lead to a variety of disastrous pathological effects, including auto-inflammatory diseases. Antibodies that directly targeting TNF-α have been proven effective in suppressing symptoms of these disorders. Compared to protein drugs, small molecule drugs are normally orally available and less expensive. Till now, peptide and small molecule TNF-α inhibitors are still in the early stage of development, and much more efforts should be made. In a previously study, we reported a TNF-α inhibitor, EJMC-1 with modest activity. Here, we optimized this compound by shape screen and rational design. In the first round, we screened commercial compound library for EJMC-1 analogs based on shape similarity. Out of the 68 compounds tested, 20 compounds showed better binding affinity than EJMC-1 in the SPR competitive binding assay. These 20 compounds were tested in cell assay and the most potent compound was 2-oxo-N-phenyl-1,2-dihydrobenzo[cd]indole-6-sulfonamide (S10) with an IC50 of 14 M, which was 2.2-fold stronger than EJMC-1. Based on the docking analysis of S10 and EJMC-1 binding with TNF-α, in the second round, we designed S10 analogues, purchased 7 of them and synthesized 7 new compounds. The best compound, 4e showed an IC50 value of 3 M in cell assay, which was 14-fold stronger than EJMC-1. 4e was among the most potent TNF-α organic compound inhibitors reported so far. Our study demonstrated that 2-oxo-N-phenyl-1,2-dihydrobenzo[cd]indole-6-sulfonamide analogues could be developed as potent TNF-α inhibitors. 4e can be further optimized for its activity and properties. Our study provides insights into designing small molecule inhibitors directly targeting TNF-α and for protein-protein interaction inhibitor design.

  9. Code of practice for radiation protection in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, J.; Fenton, D.; McGarry, A.; McAllister, H.; Skelly, C

    2002-11-01

    This Code of Practice updates the Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in Veterinary Radiology prepared by the Nuclear Energy Board in June 1989. The Code is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons to ensure that they, their employees and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of X-ray equipment and radioactive substances in the practice of veterinary medicine. It reflects the regulations as specified in the Radiological Protection Act, 1991, (Ionising Radiation) Order, 2000 (S.I. No. 125 of 2000)

  10. Veterinary pharmacovigilance in India: A need of hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rishi; Kalaiselvan, Vivekanandan; Verma, Ravendra; Kaur, Ismeet; Kumar, Pranay; Singh, G N

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary pharmacovigilance (PV) is important for the Medicine which are used for treating disease in animals. It becomes more important when these animals are further used for producing food. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have a direct impact on animals and indirect impact on human beings, for example, through milk products, other animal producing food products. Currently, PV program of India is playing a vital role in assessing the safety of medicines in Indian Population. The safety of medicine in animals can be assessed by veterinary PV. The research institutes involved in animal research and veterinary hospitals can be considered as ADR monitoring centers to assess the safety of medicines on animals.

  11. Radiation surveillance procedure during veterinary application of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaldeep; Bhaktivinayagam, A.; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotopes have found wide applications in the field of biomedical veterinary nuclear medicine and research. Radiation safety issues during internal administration of radioisotopes to laboratory animals, unlike human use, are far more challenging and requires stringent, well planned and an organized system of radiation protection in the animal house facility. In this paper, we discuss our experience during veterinary research experiments involving use, handling and administration of liquid sources of 131 I. With extensive radiation protection surveillance and application of practical and essential radiation safety and hygiene practices, the radiation exposure and contamination levels during the veterinary application of isotopes can be kept ALARA

  12. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuyu; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hammerum, Anette M; Porsbo, Lone J; Jensen, Lars B

    2010-07-30

    Sulfonamide resistance is very common in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3) in E. coli isolated from pigs and humans with a specific objective to assess the genetic diversity of plasmids involved in the mobility of sul genes. A total of 501 E. coli isolates from pig feces, pig carcasses and human stools were tested for their susceptibility to selected antimicrobial. Multiplex PCR was conducted to detect the presence of three sul genes among the sulfonamide-resistant E. coli isolates. Fifty-seven sulfonamide-resistant E. coli were selected based on presence of sul resistance genes and subjected to conjugation and/or transformation experiments. S1 nuclease digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to visualize and determine the size of plasmids. Plasmids carrying sul genes were characterized by PCR-based replicon typing to allow a comparison of the types of sul genes, the reservoir and plasmid present. A total of 109/501 isolates exhibited sulfonamide resistance. The relative prevalences of sul genes from the three reservoirs (pigs, pig carcasses and humans) were 65%, 45% and 12% for sul2, sul1, and sul3, respectively. Transfer of resistance through conjugation was observed in 42/57 isolates. Resistances to streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim were co-transferred in most strains. Class 1 integrons were present in 80% of sul1-carrying plasmids and 100% of sul3-carrying plasmids, but only in 5% of sul2-carrying plasmids. The sul plasmids ranged from 33 to 160-kb in size and belonged to nine different incompatibility (Inc) groups: FII, FIB, I1, FIA, B/O, FIC, N, HI1 and X1. IncFII was the dominant type in sul2-carrying plasmids (52%), while IncI1 was the most common type in sul1 and sul3-carrying plasmids (33% and 45%, respectively). Multireplicons were found associated with all three sul genes. Sul genes were distributed widely in E. coli isolated

  13. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammerum Anette M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is very common in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3 in E. coli isolated from pigs and humans with a specific objective to assess the genetic diversity of plasmids involved in the mobility of sul genes. Methods A total of 501 E. coli isolates from pig feces, pig carcasses and human stools were tested for their susceptibility to selected antimicrobial. Multiplex PCR was conducted to detect the presence of three sul genes among the sulfonamide-resistant E. coli isolates. Fifty-seven sulfonamide-resistant E. coli were selected based on presence of sul resistance genes and subjected to conjugation and/or transformation experiments. S1 nuclease digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to visualize and determine the size of plasmids. Plasmids carrying sul genes were characterized by PCR-based replicon typing to allow a comparison of the types of sul genes, the reservoir and plasmid present. Results A total of 109/501 isolates exhibited sulfonamide resistance. The relative prevalences of sul genes from the three reservoirs (pigs, pig carcasses and humans were 65%, 45% and 12% for sul2, sul1, and sul3, respectively. Transfer of resistance through conjugation was observed in 42/57 isolates. Resistances to streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim were co-transferred in most strains. Class 1 integrons were present in 80% of sul1-carrying plasmids and 100% of sul3-carrying plasmids, but only in 5% of sul2-carrying plasmids. The sul plasmids ranged from 33 to 160-kb in size and belonged to nine different incompatibility (Inc groups: FII, FIB, I1, FIA, B/O, FIC, N, HI1 and X1. IncFII was the dominant type in sul2-carrying plasmids (52%, while IncI1 was the most common type in sul1 and sul3-carrying plasmids (33% and 45%, respectively. Multireplicons were found associated with all three sul genes

  14. Dual-cloud point extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace sulfonamide antimicrobials in urine and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Chunyan; Niu, Zongliang; Li, Pengyao; Wang, Chunping; Li, Wanyu; Wen, Yingying

    2017-04-15

    Dual-cloud point extraction (dCPE) was successfully developed for simultaneous extraction of trace sulfonamides (SAs) including sulfamerazine (SMZ), sulfadoxin (SDX), sulfathiazole (STZ) in urine and water samples. Several parameters affecting the extraction were optimized, such as sample pH, concentration of Triton X-114, extraction temperature and time, centrifugation rate and time, back-extraction solution pH, back-extraction temperature and time, back-extraction centrifugation rate and time. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied for the SAs analysis. Under the optimum extraction and detection conditions, successful separation of the SAs was achieved within 9min, and excellent analytical performances were attained. Good linear relationships (R 2 ≥0.9990) between peak area and concentration for SMZ and STZ were optimized from 0.02 to 10μg/mL, for SDX from 0.01 to 10μg/mL. Detection limits of 3.0-6.2ng/mL were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 85 to 108% were determined with urine, lake and tap water spiked at 0.2, 0.5 and 1μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=6) of 1.5-7.7%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative tool to existing methods for analysing trace residues of SAs in urine and water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among veterinary staff and dogs in private veterinary clinics in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kanako; Saito, Mieko; Shimokubo, Natsumi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Maetani, Shigeki; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    To explore the prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in veterinary medical practices, MRSA carriage was tested among 96 veterinarians (Vets), 70 veterinary technicians (VTs) and 292 dogs with which they had contact at 71 private veterinary clinics (VCs) in Hokkaido, Japan. MRSA isolates were obtained from 22 Vets [22.9%] and 7 VTs [10%]. The prevalence of MRSA among Vets was as high as that found in an academic veterinary hospital in our previous study. In contrast, only two blood donor dogs and one dog with liver disease (1.0%, 3/292) yielded MRSA. All MRSA-positive dogs were reared or treated in different VCs, in each of which at least one veterinary staff member carrying MRSA worked. Sequence types (ST) identified by multilocus sequence typing, spa types, and SCCmec types for canine MRSA isolates (ST5-spa t002-SCCmec II [from two dogs] or ST30-spa t021-SCCmec IV [from a dog]) were concordant with those from veterinary staff members in the same clinics as the MRSA-positive dogs, with which they had potentially had contact. Most MRSA isolates from veterinary staff were the same genotype (SCCmec type II and spa type t002) as a major hospital-acquired MRSA clone in Japan. The remaining MRSA was the same genotypes as domestic and foreign community-associated MRSA. Measures against MRSA infection should be provided in private VCs. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ an...

  17. [The 1935 veterinary agreements of the League of the Nations: A vision of a united veterinary Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, S

    2018-01-01

    A group of leading veterinary experts engaged by the league of the Nations created three new Veterinary Conventions focusing at consequently controlling the import, export and transit of animals and animal products. The aim was on one hand to facilitate trade and on the other hand to make sure that livestock epidemic laws were respected. The outbreak of war prevented the laws from coming into effect. Nevertheless they became the basis for veterinary regulations of the World Trade Organisation and of the European Union.

  18. Fosfomycin: Uses and potentialities in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fosfomycin (FOS is a natural bactericidal broad-spectrum antibiotic which acts on proliferating bacteria by inhibiting cell wall and early murein/peptidoglycan synthesis. Bactericidal activity is evident against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and can also act synergistically with other antibiotics. Bacterial resistance to FOS may be natural or acquired. Other properties of this drug include inhibition of bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells, exopolysaccharide biofilm penetration, immunomodulatory effect, phagocytosis promotion and protection against the nephrotoxicity caused by other drugs. FOS has chemical characteristics not typically observed in organic phosphoric compounds and its molecular weight is almost the lowest of all the antimicrobials. It tends to form salts easily due to its acidic nature (disodium salt, for intravenous (IV, intramuscular (IM and subcutaneous (SC administration; calcium and trometamol salt: for oral (PO administration. FOS has a very low protein binding (<0.5% which, along with its low molecular weight and water solubility, contributes to its good diffusion into fluids (cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous and vitreous humor, interstitial fluid and tissues (placenta, bone, muscle, liver, kidney and skin/fat. In all species, important differences in the bioavailability have been found after administration in relation to the various derivatives of FOS salts. Pharmacokinetic profiles have been described in humans, chickens, rabbits, cows, dogs, horses and weaning piglets. The low toxicity and potential efficacy of FOS are the main factors that contribute to its use in humans and animals. Thus, it has been used to treat a broad variety of bacterial infections in humans, such as localized peritonitis, brain abscesses, severe soft tissue infections, cystitis and other conditions. In veterinary medicine, FOS is used to treat infectious diseases of broiler chickens and pigs. In broilers, it is administered for the

  19. Refractive index modulation in the polyurethane films containing diazo sulfonamide chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortyl, E. [Insitute of Organic and Polymer Technology, WrocIaw University of Technology, 50-384 WrocIaw (Poland); Kucharski, S. [Insitute of Organic and Polymer Technology, WrocIaw University of Technology, 50-384 WrocIaw (Poland)]. E-mail: stanislaw.kucharski@pwr.wroc.pl; Gotszalk, T. [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, WrocIaw University of Technology, 50-384 WrocIaw (Poland)

    2005-05-23

    The series of photochromic polyurethanes was obtained by modification of precursor polymers prepared from 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), hexamethylene 1,6-diisocyanate (HDI) or toluene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and N,N'-di-(2-hydroxyethyl) aniline. The precursor polymers were functionalized by an azo-coupling reaction to form the polymers with different degrees of functionalization and various heterocyclic sulfonamide groups. Ellipsometric measurements showed a decrease of the refractive index during illumination of thin polymer films with white light. The change of real part of the refractive index was in the range of 0.0033-0.0296 depending on the polymer kind and chromophore content. It was found that photocurrent was generated in the polymer films deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass plates. For the polyurethanes containing sulfathiazole groups in side chains the current density was up to 180 nA/cm{sup 2}. The formation of diffraction grating in the polymer films was easily achieved using linearly polarized laser light (532 nm) in a standard two beam coupling (TBC) system. The diffraction efficiency of the first diffraction beam was dependent on the chromophore content reaching ca. 12% for the derivatives of sulfamethoxazole.

  20. Synthesis and description of intermolecular interactions in new sulfonamide derivatives of tranexamic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Nadeem; Danish, Muhammad; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Khatoon, Sadia; Mustafa, Ghulam; Zolotarev, Pavel N.; Butt, Rabia Ayub; Şahin, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Tranexamic acid (4-aminomethyl-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid) was reacted with sulfonyl chlorides to produce structurally related four sulfonamide derivatives using simple and environmental friendly method to check out their three-dimensional behavior and van der Walls interactions. The molecules were crystallized in different possibilities, as it is/after alkylation at its O and N atoms/along with a co-molecule. All molecules were crystallized in monoclinic crystal system with space group P21/n, P21/c and P21/a. X-ray studies reveal that the molecules stabilized themselves by different kinds of hydrogen bonding interactions. The molecules are getting connected through O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form inversion dimers which are further connected through N-H⋯O interactions. The molecules in which N and O atoms were alkylated showed non-classical interaction and generated centro-symmetric R22(24) ring motif. The co-crystallized host and guest molecules are connected to each other via O-H⋯O interactions to generate different ring motifs. By means of the ToposPro software an analysis of the topologies of underlying nets that correspond to molecular packings and hydrogen-bonded networks in structures under consideration was carried out.

  1. The effect of miscellaneous oral dosage forms on the environmental pollution of sulfonamides in pig holdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Jessica; Zessel, Katrin; Schulz, Jochen; Finke, Jan Henrik; Müller-Goymann, Christel Charlotte; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Due to antibiotic treatment of humans and animals, the prevalence of bacterial resistances increases worldwide. Especially in livestock farming, large quantities of faeces contaminated with antibiotics pose a risk of the carryover of the active ingredient to the environment. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was the evaluation of the benefit of different oral dosage forms (powder, pellets, granula) in pigs concerning the environmental pollution of sulfadiazine. Two subtherapeutic dosages were evaluated in powder mixtures to gain information about their potential to pollute the pig barn. Furthermore, a new group of pigs was kept in the stable after powder feeding of another pig group to determine the possible absorption of environmentally distributed antibiotics. Pigs were orally treated with three dosage forms. Simultaneously, sedimentation and airborne dust were collected and plasma and urine levels were determined. All formulations result in comparable plasma and urine levels, but massive differences in environmental pollution (powder > pellets, granula). Pigs housing in a contaminated barn exhibit traces of sulfadiazine in plasma and urine. Using pharmaceutical formulations like pellets or granula, the environmental pollution of sulfonamides can significantly be diminished due to massive dust reduction during feeding.

  2. Synthesis of piperazine sulfonamide analogs as diabetic-II inhibitors and their molecular docking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Muhammad; Irshad, Maryam; Imran, Syahrul; Chigurupati, Sridevi; Selvaraj, Manikandan; Rahim, Fazal; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Nawaz, Faisal; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    Piperazine Sulfonamide analogs (1-19) have been synthesized, characterized by different spectroscopic techniques and evaluated for α-amylase Inhibition. Analogs 1-19 exhibited a varying degree of α-amylase inhibitory activity with IC 50 values ranging in between 1.571 ± 0.05 to 3.98 ± 0.397 μM when compared with the standard acarbose (IC 50  = 1.353 ± 0.232 μM). Compound 1, 2, 3 and 7 showed significant inhibitory effects with IC 50 value 2.348 ± 0.444, 2.064 ± 0.04, 1.571 ± 0.05 and 2.118 ± 0.204 μM, respectively better than the rest of the series. Structure activity relationships were established. Molecular docking studies were performed to understand the binding interaction of the compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Fate of sulfonamides, macrolides, and trimethoprim in different wastewater treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, Anke; McArdell, Christa S.; Joss, Adriano; Siegrist, Hansruedi; Giger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The elimination of sulfonamides, macrolides and trimethoprim from raw wastewater was investigated in several municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary treatment provided no significant elimination for the investigated substances. Similar eliminations were observed in the secondary treatment of two conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems and a fixed-bed reactor (FBR). Sulfamethoxazole, including the fraction present as N 4 -acetyl-sulfamethoxazole, was eliminated by approximately 60% in comparison to about 80% in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) independently of the solid retention time (SRT), indicating a positive correlation of the observed elimination to the organic substrate concentration. The elimination for macrolides and trimethoprim varied significantly between the different sampling campaigns in the two CAS systems and in the FBR. In the MBR, these analytes were eliminated up to 50% at SRT of 16 ± 2 and 33 ± 3 d. Trimethoprim, clarithromycin and dehydro-erythromycin showed a higher elimination of up to 90% at a SRT of 60-80 d indicating a correlation with reduced substrate loading (SL). Together with the high SRT, the SL may lead to an increased biodiversity of the active biomass, resulting in a broader range of degradation pathways available. Two investigated sand filters showed different elimination behavior. One led to a significant elimination of most macrolides (17-23%) and trimethoprim (74 ± 14%), while no elimination was observed in the other sand filter investigated

  4. A survey of perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides in indoor and outdoor air using passive air samplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoeib, M.; Harner, T. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada (Canada); Wilford, B.; Jones, K. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Environmental Science; Zhu, J. [Chemistry Research Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has recently emerged as a priority environmental pollutant due to its widespread detection in biological samples from remote regions including the Arctic and the Mid-North Pacific Ocean. Because PFOS is fairly involatile, it is hypothesized that its occurrence in remote regions is the result of atmospheric transport of more volatile precursor compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFASs). PFASs are used in variety of consumer products for water and oil resistance including surface treatments for fabric, upholstery, carpet, paper and leather. In a recent pilot study employing high volume air samples, indoor air concentrations of PFASs were approximately 100 times greater than outdoor levels. This is of significance because people typically spend about 90% of their time indoors 5 and this exposure may serve as an important uptake pathway. Indoor air also serves as a source of PFASs to the outside where PFASs are ultimately transported and distributed throughout the environment. The current study is intended to be a more comprehensive survey of indoor and outdoor air allowing more confident conclusions to be made. Passive air samplers comprised of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were used. These are quiet, non-intrusive samplers that operate without the aid of a pump or electricity. Air movement delivers chemical to the sampler which has a high retention capacity for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PUF disks samplers have been previously used successfully to monitor different classes of hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants POPs.

  5. South African Association of Veterinary Technologists : congress abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The following are abstracts of papers and posters presented at the 'Back to Basics Congress' of the South African Association of Veterinary Technologists (SAAVT, 15-16 September 2009, Batter Boys, Pretoria, South Africa.

  6. [The Swiss border veterinary service in the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluep, J

    2018-01-01

    The first animal disease act of Switzerland was released in 1872. Its revision in 1886 brought the basis for establishing a border veterinary inspection service. This service was first reporting to the federal Ministry of Agriculture; after 1914, the newly created Federal Veterinary Office became responsible for it. The border checks were first limited to live biungulate animals and horses; later on they were extended to meat and meat products and finally to venison and fishery products. At the beginning, part-time veterinarians with own practice were engaged. As the traffic increased, full time border veterinary inspectors joined the team; these were mainly active at the most important border posts (like Basel, St. Margrethen, Buchs, Chiasso, Geneva, more recently the international airports). The border veterinary inspection service, including the relevant instruction of the personnel, was (and is) financed with weight depending fees which included until 1966 a fee intended for financing the efforts to control livestocks epidemics.

  7. Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017) ... factors for porcine cysticercosis transmission and animal welfare in selected villages in Nyasa, Tanzania ... Thoracic radiographic anatomy in sheep · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  8. Risk Assessment Considerations for Veterinary Medicines in Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides a critical evaluation of prospective and retrospective risk assessment approaches for veterinary medicines in aquatic ecosystems and provides recommendations for possible alternative approaches for hazard characterization.

  9. 75 FR 15387 - Veterinary Feed Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ..., drug toxicity, drug residues, antimicrobial resistance, or other reasons may dictate that the use of a... relating to the distribution and use of VFD drugs and animal feeds containing such drugs. FDA is... existed for regulating the distribution of animal drugs, including drugs in animal feed: (1) Over-the...

  10. Evaluating veterinary practitioner perceptions of communication skills and training

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, M.P.; Cobb, M.A.; Tischler, Victoria; Robbé, I.J.; Dean, R.S.

    2017-01-01

    A survey was conducted among veterinary practitioners in the UK and the USA in 2012/2013. Thematic analysis was used to identify underlying reasons behind answers to questions about the importance of communication skills and the desire to participate in postgraduate communication skills training. Lack of training among more experienced veterinary surgeons, incomplete preparation of younger practitioners and differences in ability to communicate all contribute to gaps in communication competen...

  11. Importance of entomology in veterinary forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomological evidence is legal evidence in the form of insects or related artropodes, and a field of their study in the aim of medicocriminal applications and veterinary-medical forensic cases is forensic entomology. The most obvious and widely present fauna on the animal and human corpse in early stages of the decomposition process are insect larvae that use the corps as an important food source. The insects found on the corpse represent a significant source of information for determining the time of death, which is an evaluation of the post-morted interval. Additionally, by comparing fauna around the body with fauna found on the body one can obtain information if the corpse was moved after death. Often, insects found on the body point out that infestation by larvae started before death. That implicates animal abuse and defines its duration. Based on these elements, a forensic doctor can deduce which level of abuse is in question. Entomology is an expanding field and the more cases are being shown and the more researchers are being taught how to use insects as a way of proving responsibility, the more it will develop. It is becoming more common for entomological evidence to be case-breaking in the determination of post mortem intervals, in both early and late decomposition phase.

  12. Extremophiles and their application to veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Jane A

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Extremophiles are organisms that can grow and thrive in harsh conditions, e.g., extremes of temperature, pH, salinity, radiation, pressure and oxygen tension. Thermophilic, halophilic and radiation-resistant organisms are all microbes, some of which are able to withstand multiple extremes. Psychrophiles, or cold-loving organisms, include not only microbes, but fish that live in polar waters and animals that can withstand freezing. Extremophiles are structurally adapted at a molecular level to withstand these conditions. Thermophiles have particularly stable proteins and cell membranes, psychrophiles have flexible cellular proteins and membranes and/or antifreeze proteins, salt-resistant halophiles contain compatible solutes or high concentrations of inorganic ions, and acidophiles and alkaliphiles are able to pump ions to keep their internal pH close to neutrality. Their interest to veterinary medicine resides in their capacity to be pathogenic, and as sources of enzymes and other molecules for diagnostic and pharmaceutical purposes. In particular, thermostable DNA polymerases are a mainstay of PCR-based diagnostics.

  13. Diagnosis of mycotoxicoses in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Ksenija D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of mycotoxin presence in animal feed and the consequences that arise due to this, represent a great challenge for anyone encountering them. In the chain which includes studies from prevention to treatment, a very important place and a frequent source of confusion is the process of diagnosing diseases caused by mycotoxins. The aim of this paper is to present a long experience of the team of experts at the Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia in Belgrade, who follows this issue in terms of clinical manifestations of mycotoxicoses in different animal species, pathomorphological and pathohistological changes that characterize them, and laboratory analysis of feed which is the source of those biological hazards and natural contaminants. Based on the findings it could be concluded that mycotoxin contamination is common. Although these levels usually do not exceed the limits laid by the legislation, considering the cumulative effects and possible chronic exposure of animals to their harmful influence, appropriate and competent approach is necessary. Namely, even when direct losses, such as animals’ mortality, are not present, indirect losses, due to a drop of animal performances and production, as well as the occurrence of secondary infections, should not be neglected.

  14. History of veterinary public health in Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K L

    1991-12-01

    The geographic isolation of Australasia has played a significant role in preventing the introduction of exotic diseases or in limiting the spread of many diseases which entered after settlement. Some infections such as psoroptic mange, tuberculosis and brucellosis became widely dispersed and some were ultimately to require novel methods to curtail them, e.g. greater use of rail and road transportation to convey stock, improved methods to locate and muster livestock in bush terrain (helicopters), improved diagnostic tests and the introduction of effective methods for tracing diseases found at abattoirs to the farms of origin. From the 1860s to the 1880s, there were such high mortalities from anthrax in Australia that a business syndicate associated with the Pasteur Institute established a laboratory in Sydney to produce anthrax vaccine from 1890 to 1898. The two-dose vaccine developed by Pasteur was unable to compete with a single dose spore vaccine later pioneered locally by Gunn and McGarvie-Smith. The most important achievements in veterinary public health in Australasia have been the successful eradication of brucellosis, the virtual eradication of hydatid disease in New Zealand and Tasmania, the substantial progress made in the eradication of tuberculosis from all but small regions of Australasia, and the development of a commercial vaccine to prevent Q fever in humans.

  15. [Research reveals a market for a veterinary behaviour clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheer-Sheehy, Valerie; Endenburg, Nienke

    2009-11-01

    An enquiry into the requirement of a university veterinary behaviour clinic in The Netherlands revealed that there is a clear call for such a service. The specific demands and wishes of first line practicing veterinarians and companion animal owners were investigated. The research revealed that veterinarians are regular confronted with behaviour problems in companion animals and that they are willing to refer these cases to the University. They also expressed their need for access to continuing professional development opportunities in the field of veterinary behavioural medicine (which is something that most veterinary behaviour clinics associated with veterinary faculties provide). The demand from companion animal owners was also examined. It can be concluded that a large number of them had animals with behaviour problems and that they were willing to seek veterinary advice on these matters. In response to the above mentioned demands the University of Utrecht will open a veterinary behaviour clinic, providing high quality service for animals, their owners and the referring veterinarians. This service will be based on sound scientific practice and delivered by both veterinarians specialised in this field and recognised animal behaviour therapists.

  16. The conceptualisation of health and disease in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson Stefan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of health, as well as the concept of disease, is central in veterinary medicine. However, the definitions "health" and "disease" are not generally acknowledged by veterinarians. The aim of this study was to examine how the concepts "health" and "disease" are defined in veterinary textbooks. Methods Veterinary textbooks in several disciplines were investigated, but only textbooks with explicit definitions of the concepts were selected for examination. Results Eighty out of the 500 relevant books within veterinary medicine were written for non-veterinarians. Eight percent of the books had an explicit definition of health and/or disease. More frequently, textbooks written for non veterinarians did have definitions of health or disease, compared to textbooks written for professionals. A division of health definitions in five different categories was suggested, namely: 1. Health as normality, 2. Health as biological function, 3. Health as homeostasis, 4. Health as physical and psychological well-being and 5. Health as productivity including reproduction. Conclusion Few veterinary textbooks had any health or disease definition at all. Furthermore, explicit definitions of health stated by the authors seemed to have little impact on how health and disease are handled within the profession. Veterinary medicine would probably gain from theoretical discussions about health and disease.

  17. An Investigation into the Clinical Reasoning Development of Veterinary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinten, Claire E K; Cobb, Kate A; Freeman, Sarah L; Mossop, Liz H

    Clinical reasoning is a fundamental skill for veterinary clinicians and a competency required of graduates by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. However, it is unknown how veterinary students develop reasoning skills and where strengths and shortcomings of curricula lie. This research aimed to use the University of Nottingham School of Veterinary Medicine and Science (SVMS) as a case study to investigate the development of clinical reasoning among veterinary students. The analysis was framed in consideration of the taught, learned, and declared curricula. Sixteen staff and sixteen students from the SVMS participated separately in a total of four focus groups. In addition, five interviews were conducted with recent SVMS graduates. Audio transcriptions were used to conduct a thematic analysis. A content analysis was performed on all curriculum documentation. It was found that SVMS graduates feel they have a good level of reasoning ability, but they still experience a deficit in their reasoning capabilities when starting their first job. Overarching themes arising from the data suggest that a lack of responsibility for clinical decisions during the program and the embedded nature of the clinical reasoning skill within the curriculum could be restricting development. In addition, SVMS students would benefit from clinical reasoning training where factors influencing "real life" decisions (e.g., finances) are explored in more depth. Integrating these factors into the curriculum could lead to improved decision-making ability among SVMS graduates and better prepare students for the stressful transition to practice. These findings are likely to have implications for other veterinary curricula.

  18. The effectiveness of marketing concepts in veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molhoek, A W I; Endenburg, N

    2009-01-01

    What makes pet owners chose one veterinary practice and not another? This survey was performed to gain insight into what factors influence new clients' choice of veterinary practice, and consequently the most effective way to promote veterinary practices. To this end, a questionnaire was completed by 129 pet owners who became new clients of one of eight selected veterinary practices in January 2005 or later. All selected practices are members of the Dierenartsen Dienstgroep Domstad, Utrecht, The Netherlands. This survey showed word-of-mouth referral to be the most effective way to increase a practice client base: 32.8% of all respondents first heard of their practice of choice through a fellow pet owner. Other pet owners first 'heard' of their practice by passing the practice (17.2%), seeing an advertisement in the Yellow Pages (14.1%), visiting the veterinary practice website (13.3%), and looking in the phone book (10.9%). These information sources should be considered for promotional activities. However this is not the case for advertisements in newspapers or magazines: none of the respondents became acquainted with the practice through these media. Respondents primarily based their choice on personnel and product (the total package of services and its quality) and less on location, but many prospective clients also based their choice on promotional activities and prices. Because pet owners apparently take so many aspects into consideration when choosing a veterinary practice, the marketing orientation (focusing on the client with her/his wishes and problems) is crucial.

  19. Representations of the veterinary profession in nonfiction children's books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amass, Sandra F

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate how the veterinary profession is represented in nonfiction children's books and determine whether representations reflect the current veterinary profession or the demographics of the United States. Survey. Covers of 46 nonfiction children's books and contents of 45 nonfiction children's books. Book covers and book contents (images and text) were evaluated for representations of veterinarians and to identify settings, clients, technology and equipment, and animals portrayed. Book contents were additionally evaluated to identify specialties and career opportunities specifically mentioned in the text. Book covers predominantly portrayed veterinarians as Caucasian women who wore examination coats, worked alone in veterinary clinics, and cared for dogs without a client present. Book contents predominantly portrayed veterinarians as a Caucasian man or woman who wore an examination coat, worked as part of a team in a veterinary clinic, and helped clients care for dogs, cats, and exotic animals. Specialties and career opportunities in the veterinary profession were mentioned in the text of 29 of 45 (64.4%) books. Nonfiction children's book covers that focused on the veterinary profession portrayed a greater percentage of women than is currently found in the profession. Similarly, books portrayed a greater percentage of Caucasians than in the current or predicted US population. With the exception of Asians, books collectively represented lower or similar percentages of underrepresented minorities, compared with the US population. Veterinarians are encouraged to select books for individual children that portray veterinarians with whom the children can identify.

  20. Veterinary pharmacology: history, current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Fink-Gremmels, J; Toutain, P L

    2013-04-01

    Veterinary therapeutics, based on the art of Materia Medica, has been practised for countless centuries, but the science of veterinary pharmacology is of very recent origin. This review traces the contribution of Materia Medica to veterinary therapeutics from the Egyptian period through to the Age of Enlightenment. The first tentative steps in the development of the science of veterinary pharmacology were taken in the 18th century, but it was not until the mid 20th century that the science replaced the art of Materia Medica. This review traces the 20th century developments in veterinary pharmacology, with emphasis on the explosion of knowledge in the 35 year period to 2010. The range of factors which have influenced the current status of the discipline are reviewed. Future developments are considered from the perspectives of what might be regarded as desirable and those innovations that might be anticipated. We end with words of encouragement for young colleagues intent upon pursuing a career in veterinary pharmacology. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Optimizing biomedical science learning in a veterinary curriculum: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.

  2. The changing role of veterinary expertise in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Gareth; Donaldson, Andrew; Lowe, Philip; Power, Megan; Proctor, Amy; Wilkinson, Katy

    2011-07-12

    This paper analyses how the changing governance of animal health has impacted upon veterinary expertise and its role in providing public health benefits. It argues that the social sciences can play an important role in understanding the nature of these changes, but also that their ideas and methods are, in part, responsible for them. The paper begins by examining how veterinary expertise came to be crucial to the regulation of the food chain in the twentieth century. The relationship between the veterinary profession and the state proved mutually beneficial, allowing the state to address the problems of animal health, and the veterinary profession to become identified as central to public health and food supply. However, this relationship has been gradually eroded by the application of neoliberal management techniques to the governance of animal health. This paper traces the impact of these techniques that have caused widespread unease within and beyond the veterinary profession about the consequences for its role in maintaining the public good of animal health. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the development of the social sciences in relation to animal health could contribute more helpfully to further changes in veterinary expertise.

  3. Analysis of pirlimycin residues in beef muscle, milk and honey by a biotin-streptavidin-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food contamination caused by veterinary drug residues is a world-wide public health concern and requires continuous monitoring. In this paper, we describe a biotin–streptavidin-amplified ELISA (BA-ELISA) for detecting pirlimycin residues in beef, milk, and honey. The IC50 value of the BA-ELISA was...

  4. Establishment of the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP) and the current status of veterinary clinical pathology in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Brien, P.J.; Fournel-Fleury, C.; Bolliger, Adrian Marc

    2007-01-01

    congresses and a joint journal (with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology) for communication of scientific research and information; the College also maintains a website, a joint listserv, and a newsletter; 6) collaboration in training and continuing education with relevant colleges......After 5 years of development, the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP)was formally recognized and approved on July 4, 2007 by the European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS), the European regulatory body that oversees specialization in veterinary medicine and which has......; currently there are 18 resident trainingprograms inEurope; 3) administration of 3 annual board-certifying examinations thus far,with an overall pass rate of 70%; 4) European consensus criteria for assessing the continuing education of specialists every 5 ears; 5) organization of 8 annual scientific...

  5. Transport of veterinary antibiotics in overland flow following the application of slurry to arable land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Paul; Blackwell, Paul A; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2005-05-01

    The environment may be exposed to veterinary medicines administered to livestock due to the application of organic fertilisers to land. Slurry is often spread on to fields following the harvest of the previous crop. Despite recommendations to do so, the slurry may not be ploughed into the soil for some time. If precipitation occurs before incorporation then it is likely that the slurry and any antibiotic residues in the slurry will be transported towards surface waters in overland flow. This phenomenon has been investigated in a plot study and transport via 'tramlines' has been compared to that through crop stubble. Three veterinary antibiotics, from the tetracycline, sulphonamide and macrolide groups, were applied to the plots in pig slurry. Twenty four hours after the application the plots were irrigated. Following this the plots received natural rainfall. Sulphachloropyridazine was detected in runoff from the tramline plot at a peak concentration of 703.2 microgl(-1) and oxytetracycline at 71.7 microgl(-1). Peak concentrations from the plot that did not contain a tramline were lower at 415.5 and 32 microgl(-1), respectively. In contrast, tylosin was not detected at all. Mass losses of the compounds were also greater from the tramline plot due to greater runoff generation. These did not exceed 0.42% for sulphachloropyridazine and 0.07% for oxytetracycline however.

  6. Sample-based reporting of official national control of veterinary drug residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Hinge; Jensen, Louise Grønhøj Hørbye; Madsen, Helle L.

    assessment as well as risk management. The European Food Safety Authority has been assigned with the task to set up a system for data collection based on individual analytical results. A pilot project has been launched with participants from eleven Member States for parallel reporting of monitoring results...... from 2015 in aggregated form as well as individual analytical results using a standardised data model. The challenges that face the pilot participants include provisions for categorised sample information, specific method performance data, result evaluation and follow-up actions. Experience gained...

  7. Sulfonamide antibiotic removal and nitrogen recovery from synthetic urine by the combination of rotating advanced oxidation contactor and methylene urea synthesis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, S; Fujiwara, T; Ito, R; Funamizu, N

    2015-01-01

    The combination of nitrogen recovery and pharmaceutical removal processes for livestock urine treatment were investigated to suppress the discharge of pollutants and recover nitrogen as resources. We combined methylene urea synthesis from urea and adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of sulfonamide antibiotic using rotating advanced oxidation contactor (RAOC) contained for obtaining both safe fertilizer and reclaimed water. The methylene urea synthesis could recover urea in synthetic urine, however, almost all sulfonamide antibiotic was also incorporated, which is unfavorable from a safety aspect if the methylene urea is to be used as fertilizer. Conversely, RAOC could remove sulfonamide antibiotic without consuming urea. It was also confirmed that the methylene urea could be synthesized from synthetic urine treated by RAOC. Thus, we concluded that RAOC should be inserted prior to the nitrogen recovery process for effective treatment of urine and safe use of methylene urea as fertilizer.

  8. Continuous degradation of a mixture of sulfonamides by Trametes versicolor and identification of metabolites from sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E.; Jesús García-Galán, Ma.; Blánquez, Paqui; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Degradation of sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole by Trametes versicolor was evaluated. ► The role of laccase and cytochrome P450 was determined. ► Degradation metabolites were identified for sulfapyridine (8) and sulfathiazole (5). ► A mixture of three sulfonamides was degraded in a continuous fluidized bed reactor. - Abstract: In this study, we assessed the degradation of the sulfonamides sulfapyridine (SPY) and sulfathiazole (STZ) by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Complete degradation was accomplished in fungal cultures at initial pollutant concentrations of approximately 10 mg L −1 , although a longer period of time was needed to completely remove STZ in comparison to SPY. When cytochrome P450 inhibitors were added to the fungal cultures, STZ degradation was partially suppressed, while no additional effect was observed for SPY. Experiments with purified laccase and laccase mediators caused the removal of greater than 75% of each antibiotic. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqTOF-MS) analyses allowed the identification of a total of eight degradation intermediates of SPY in both the in vivo and the laccase experiments, being its desulfonated moiety the commonly detected product. For STZ, a total of five products were identified. A fluidized bed reactor with T. versicolor pellets degraded a mixture of sulfonamides (SPY, STZ and sulfamethazine, SMZ) by greater than 94% each at a hydraulic residence time of 72 h. Because wastewater contains many diverse pollutants, these results highlight the potential of T. versicolor as a bioremediation agent not only for the removal of antibiotics but also for the elimination of a wide range of contaminants.

  9. Continuous degradation of a mixture of sulfonamides by Trametes versicolor and identification of metabolites from sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Carlos E., E-mail: CarlosEsteban.Rodriguez@uab.cat [Unitat asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Contaminacion Ambiental, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Jose (Costa Rica); Jesus Garcia-Galan, Ma. [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Blanquez, Paqui [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Diaz-Cruz, M. Silvia [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Cientific i Tecnologic de la Universitat de Girona, C/Emili Grahit, 101 Edifici H2O, E-17003 Girona (Spain); Caminal, Gloria [Unitat asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Vicent, Teresa [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation of sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole by Trametes versicolor was evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of laccase and cytochrome P450 was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation metabolites were identified for sulfapyridine (8) and sulfathiazole (5). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mixture of three sulfonamides was degraded in a continuous fluidized bed reactor. - Abstract: In this study, we assessed the degradation of the sulfonamides sulfapyridine (SPY) and sulfathiazole (STZ) by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Complete degradation was accomplished in fungal cultures at initial pollutant concentrations of approximately 10 mg L{sup -1}, although a longer period of time was needed to completely remove STZ in comparison to SPY. When cytochrome P450 inhibitors were added to the fungal cultures, STZ degradation was partially suppressed, while no additional effect was observed for SPY. Experiments with purified laccase and laccase mediators caused the removal of greater than 75% of each antibiotic. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqTOF-MS) analyses allowed the identification of a total of eight degradation intermediates of SPY in both the in vivo and the laccase experiments, being its desulfonated moiety the commonly detected product. For STZ, a total of five products were identified. A fluidized bed reactor with T. versicolor pellets degraded a mixture of sulfonamides (SPY, STZ and sulfamethazine, SMZ) by greater than 94% each at a hydraulic residence time of 72 h. Because wastewater contains many diverse pollutants, these results highlight the potential of T. versicolor as a bioremediation agent not only for the removal of antibiotics but also for the elimination of a wide range of contaminants.

  10. Survey of pyrethroid, macrocyclic lactone and antibacterial residues in bulk milk tank from Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia C.A. Picinin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A survey of veterinary drug residues in bulk milk tank from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was carried out through a broad scope analysis. Here, 132 raw milk samples were collected at 45 dairy farms in Minas Gerais from August 2009 to February 2010, and analyzed for 42 analytes, comprising pyrethroids, macrocyclic lactones and antibacterials, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem mode and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Within all milk samples, at least one veterinary drug residue was identified in 40 milk samples (30.30% by confirmatory tests, whereas 16 samples (12.12% showed the presence of at least two residues. With regard to the Brazilian maximum residue levels, 11 milk samples (8.33% were non-compliant according to Brazilian Legislation. The veterinary drugs detected in the non-compliant milk samples include penicillin V (one sample, abamectin (one sample and cypermethrin (nine samples. Furthermore, the antibacterial screening methods failed to identify most of the positive samples that were detected by confirmatory tests, leading to a large discrepancy between the screening and confirmatory antimicrobial tests. Thus, the present study indicated that the veterinary drugs residues still represents a great concern for the milk production chain.

  11. Synthesis of some new heterocyclic compounds bearing a sulfonamide moiety and studying their combined anticancer effect with γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hossary, E.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In search for new cytotoxic agents with improved anticancer profile, some new halogen-containing quinoline and pyrimido[4,5-b]quinoline derivatives bearing a free sulfonamide moiety were synthesized. All the newly synthesized target compounds were subjected to in vitro anticancer screening against human breast cancer cell line (MCF7). The most potent compounds, as concluded from the in vitro anticancer screening, were selected to be evaluated again for their in vitro anticancer activity in combination with radiation. Also, the newly synthesized compounds were docked in the active site of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme

  12. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuyu, Wu; Dalsgaard, A.; Hammerum, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    isolates. Fifty-seven sulfonamide-resistant E. coli were selected based on presence of sul resistance genes and subjected to conjugation and/or transformation experiments. S1 nuclease digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to visualize and determine the size of plasmids. Plasmids...... and humans) were 65%, 45% and 12% for sul2, sul1, and sul3, respectively. Transfer of resistance through conjugation was observed in 42/57 isolates. Resistances to streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim were co-transferred in most strains. Class 1 integrons were present in 80% of sul1-carrying plasmids...

  13. A new sulfonamide resistance gene (sul3) in Escherichia coli is widespread in the pig population of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreten, Vincent; Boerlin, Patrick

    2003-03-01

    A new gene, sul3, which specifies a 263-amino-acid protein similar to a dihydropteroate synthase encoded by the 54-kb conjugative plasmid pVP440 from Escherichia coli was characterized. Expression of the cloned sul3 gene conferred resistance to sulfamethoxazole on E. coli. Two copies of the insertion element IS15Delta/26 flanked the region containing sul3. The sul3 gene was detected in one-third of the sulfonamide-resistant pathogenic E. coli isolates from pigs in Switzerland.

  14. A New Sulfonamide Resistance Gene (sul3) in Escherichia coli Is Widespread in the Pig Population of Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Perreten, Vincent; Boerlin, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    A new gene, sul3, which specifies a 263-amino-acid protein similar to a dihydropteroate synthase encoded by the 54-kb conjugative plasmid pVP440 from Escherichia coli was characterized. Expression of the cloned sul3 gene conferred resistance to sulfamethoxazole on E. coli. Two copies of the insertion element IS15Δ/26 flanked the region containing sul3. The sul3 gene was detected in one-third of the sulfonamide-resistant pathogenic E. coli isolates from pigs in Switzerland.

  15. The origin of enantioselectivity in the l-threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide catalyzed aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction: Effects of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Richmond

    2013-01-01

    l-Threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide 4 was identified as the most efficient catalyst to promote enantioselective aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reactions, affording the desired aza-MBH adducts with excellent enantioselectivities. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out to elucidate the origin of the observed enantioselectivity. The importance of the intramolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding interaction between the sulfonamide and enolate groups was identified to be crucial in inducing a high degree of stereochemical control in both the enolate addition to imine and the subsequent proton transfer step, affording aza-MBH reactions with excellent enantioselectivity. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. WAAVP/Pfizer award for excellence in teaching veterinary parasitology: teaching of veterinary parasitology--quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, J

    2000-02-29

    Some thoughts on training and recruitment of academic teachers and future trends in teaching veterinary parasitology are presented with emphasis on the European situation. It is underlined that research is an indispensable basis for academic teaching. Besides a broad scientific background of the teacher, motivation and teaching methods are also important. Many academic teachers do not receive formal training in teaching methods. In order to improve future education, training of staff members in teaching methods should be promoted. Quality control of teaching and research, already established in many schools, should generally be introduced. Teaching is mostly underestimated in relation to research. Therefore, more weight should be placed on the former both in selecting scientists for the career as academic teachers and in evaluating and ranking departments for their academic activities. In the future veterinary medicine will have to cope with profound changes in the society and the veterinary profession, and the progressing European unification will enhance trends for internationalizing teaching curricula. Therefore, veterinary medicine has to reconsider the teaching subjects and methods and to lay more emphasis on flexibility, skills of problem-solving and self-learning and on training for life-long learning. At present there is an ongoing discussion on the question how to teach veterinary medicine, including veterinary parasitology. There are various options, and some of them are discussed, namely, the disciplinary and the problem-based/organ-focussed approaches. It is concluded that for teaching of veterinary parasitology and related disciplines a combined disciplinary and problem-based approach offers the best chances for fulfilling the requirements of teaching for the future. In the curriculum of undergraduate teaching of veterinary medicine at least 70-90 h should be dedicated to veterinary parasitology using a disciplinary and taxonomic approach. Additional

  17. Clinically Prepared Veterinary Students: Enhancing Veterinary Student Hands-on Experiences and Supporting Hospital Caseload Using Shelter Medicine Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M. Shivley

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Referral-level medicine is important in the veterinary curriculum, however veterinary students also need a solid base knowledge of clinically relevant, routine surgical and diagnostic skills to be clinically prepared after graduation. Exposure to a referral-only, or primarily referral caseload, does not always provide veterinary students with the routine hands-on experiences and competencies expected by the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education, the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, the Australian Veterinary Boards Council, or prospective employers. The aim of this descriptive study was to assess how a shelter medicine program can fill the companion animal caseload gap and create the necessary hands-on experiences considered essential in the veterinary curriculum. Pedagogical frameworks, course curriculum and design, student experiences, and student assessments were described for three core curricular areas (surgery, medical days, population medicine of the Shelter Medicine Program at Mississippi State University. The shelter surgery experience provided a high-quality, high-volume spay/neuter environment where fourth-year students averaged 65 sterilization surgeries in two weeks and demonstrated a quantifiable decrease in surgical time. The shelter surgery experience added on average 9,000 small animal cases per year to the overall hospital caseload. Shelter medical days, where students provide veterinary care during on-site shelter visits, created opportunities for third-year students to directly interact with shelter animals by performing physical examinations and diagnostic testing, and to gain experience in developing treatment protocols and recommendations for commonly encountered problems. The shelter medical days experience averaged over 700 small animal cases per year and over 1,500 diagnostic procedures. Finally, students participated in 15 onsite shelter consultations where they obtained a working knowledge

  18. Clinically Prepared Veterinary Students: Enhancing Veterinary Student Hands-on Experiences and Supporting Hospital Caseload Using Shelter Medicine Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivley, Jacob M; Brookshire, Wilson C; Bushby, Philip A; Woodruff, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    Referral-level medicine is important in the veterinary curriculum, however veterinary students also need a solid base knowledge of clinically relevant, routine surgical and diagnostic skills to be clinically prepared after graduation. Exposure to a referral-only, or primarily referral caseload, does not always provide veterinary students with the routine hands-on experiences and competencies expected by the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education, the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, the Australian Veterinary Boards Council, or prospective employers. The aim of this descriptive study was to assess how a shelter medicine program can fill the companion animal caseload gap and create the necessary hands-on experiences considered essential in the veterinary curriculum. Pedagogical frameworks, course curriculum and design, student experiences, and student assessments were described for three core curricular areas (surgery, medical days, population medicine) of the Shelter Medicine Program at Mississippi State University. The shelter surgery experience provided a high-quality, high-volume spay/neuter environment where fourth-year students averaged 65 sterilization surgeries in two weeks and demonstrated a quantifiable decrease in surgical time. The shelter surgery experience added on average 9,000 small animal cases per year to the overall hospital caseload. Shelter medical days, where students provide veterinary care during on-site shelter visits, created opportunities for third-year students to directly interact with shelter animals by performing physical examinations and diagnostic testing, and to gain experience in developing treatment protocols and recommendations for commonly encountered problems. The shelter medical days experience averaged over 700 small animal cases per year and over 1,500 diagnostic procedures. Finally, students participated in 15 onsite shelter consultations where they obtained a working knowledge of biosecurity at a

  19. Reflections on the future of veterinary medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, Keith W

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Keith Prasse is a very distinguished leader in veterinary education. He started his career achieving his BS and DVM degrees from Iowa State University (ISU). He returned to ISU after a brief period in private practice in Illinois. His well-recognized career in veterinary pathology began with his MS and PhD degrees, followed by a five-year period of teaching at ISU. Dr. Prasse joined the faculty of the University of Georgia in 1972, and thus began a long-term partnership with Dr. Bob Duncan that is arguably the foundation of veterinary clinical pathology. The textbook they authored, Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, or "Duncan and Prasse" as it is known, remains the standard today, with later participation from Dr. Ed Mahaffey and most recently Dr. Ken Latimer. Dr. Prasse has mentored numerous graduate students and received many awards over his 23-year career in teaching, including the Norden Distinguished Teaching award twice, once at ISU and once at Georgia. His leadership as President of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists was greatly acknowledged and appreciated. Dr. Prasse's administrative service at the University of Georgia spanned 14 years, first as Associate Dean for Public Service and Outreach and later as Dean for eight years, during which time he served as President of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC). The growth of the College of Veterinary Medicine under Dean Prasse's visionary leadership was extraordinary. He led through difficult economic and political times, yet the college and its community continued to prosper. His legacy at the University of Georgia is indelible and perpetual. His outstanding leadership of the college was recognized by the Georgia Veterinary Medical Association in 2004, when he was given the Georgia Veterinarian of the Year award. Since his retirement from Georgia, Dr. Prasse has contributed greatly to the profession and to the AAVMC by leading the Foresight project

  20. Determination of 18 veterinary antibiotics in environmental water using high-performance liquid chromatography-q-orbitrap combined with on-line solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chansik; Ryu, Hong-Duck; Chung, Eu Gene; Kim, Yongseok

    2018-05-01

    The use of antibiotics and their occurrence in the environment have received significant attention in recent years owing to the generation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic residues in water near livestock farming areas should be monitored to establish effective strategies for reducing the use of veterinary antibiotics. However, environmental water contamination resulting from veterinary antibiotics has not been studied extensively. In this work, we developed an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of multiple classes of veterinary antibiotic residues in environmental water using on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Eighteen popular antibiotics (eight classes) were selected as target analytes based on veterinary antibiotics sales in South Korea in 2015. The developed method was validated by calibration-curve linearities, precisions, relative recoveries, and method detection limits (MDLs)/limits of quantification (LOQs) of the selected antibiotics, and applied to the analysis of environmental water samples (groundwater, river water, and wastewater-treatment-plant effluent). All calibration curves exhibited r 2  > 0.995 with MDLs ranging from 0.2 to 11.9 ng/L. Relative recoveries were between 50 and 150% with coefficients of variation below 20% for all analytes (spiked at 500 ng/L) in groundwater and river water samples. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of standard-spiked samples were lower than 7% for all antibiotics. The on-line SPE system eliminates human-based SPE errors and affords excellent method reproducibility. Amoxicillin, ampicillin, clopidol, fenbendazole, flumequine, lincomycin, sulfadiazine, and trimethoprim were detected in environmental water samples in concentrations ranging from 1.26 to 127.49 ng/L. The developed method is a reliable analytical technique for the potential routine monitoring of veterinary antibiotics