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Sample records for sulfide contaminated brine

  1. Electrochemical corrosion studies of the TStE 355 fine-grained structural steel in sulfide containing brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farvaque-Bera, A.M.; Berg, H. von.

    1994-04-01

    Previous corrosion studies have shown that the unalloyed fine-grained steel TStE 355 (Material No. 1.0566) is a promising material for the manufacturing of long-lived high-level waste (HLW) containers that could act as a barrier in a rock-salt repository. Considering this fact, further electrochemical corrosion tests were performed in order to determine the influence of sulfide ions (1 -200 ppm), present as salt impurities in disposal relevant NaCl-brine (T = 55 -90 C), on the corrosion behaviour of this steel grade. For comparison, tests were carried out in the sulfide-free brine, too. (orig.) [de

  2. Noncondensable hydrogen sulfide incineration with brine scrubbing air emissions control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, W.B.; Goddard, C.B.; McClain, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the technical and institutional feasibility of incinerating hydrogen sulfide (H2S) contained in geothermal noncondensable gases, and the use of geothermal brine for sulfur dioxide scrubbing and absorption as an Air Emissions Control System (AECS), for geothermal power plant, that have been documented through engineering analysis in the Phase I grant study funded through the California Department of Health Services (DOHS), Hazardous Materials Reduction Grant Program and hosted by California Energy Company (CECI). Grant funding for Phase II now has been approved to proceed with the project through the pilot plant design phase. This innovative AECS does not necessitate the use of hazardous materials or produce hazardous wastes. Cost savings were documented compared to injection pump operation or conventional AECS without the use of hazardous materials. The phase II project is to design, improve, research and develop a source reduction demonstration pilot plant geothermal noncondensable H2S incineration AECS

  3. Carbonate and carbon isotopic evolution of groundwater contaminated by produced water brine with hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atekwana, Eliot A.; Seeger, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    The major ionic and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations and the stable carbon isotope composition of DIC (δ"1"3C_D_I_C) were measured in a freshwater aquifer contaminated by produced water brine with petroleum hydrocarbons. Our aim was to determine the effects of produced water brine contamination on the carbonate evolution of groundwater. The groundwater was characterized by three distinct anion facies: HCO_3"−-rich, SO_4"2"−-rich and Cl"−-rich. The HCO_3"−-rich groundwater is undergoing closed system carbonate evolution from soil CO_2_(_g_) and weathering of aquifer carbonates. The SO_4"2"−-rich groundwater evolves from gypsum induced dedolomitization and pyrite oxidation. The Cl"−-rich groundwater is contaminated by produced water brine and undergoes common ion induced carbonate precipitation. The δ"1"3C_D_I_C of the HCO_3"−-rich groundwater was controlled by nearly equal contribution of carbon from soil CO_2_(_g_) and the aquifer carbonates, such that the δ"1"3C of carbon added to the groundwater was −11.6‰. In the SO_4"2"−-rich groundwater, gypsum induced dedolomitization increased the "1"3C such that the δ"1"3C of carbon added to the groundwater was −9.4‰. In the produced water brine contaminated Cl"−-rich groundwater, common ion induced precipitation of calcite depleted the "1"3C such that the δ"1"3C of carbon added to the groundwater was −12.7‰. The results of this study demonstrate that produced water brine contamination of fresh groundwater in carbonate aquifers alters the carbonate and carbon isotopic evolution. - Highlights: • We studied carbonate and δ"1"3C evolution in groundwater contaminated by produced water brine. • Multiple processes affect the carbonate and δ"1"3C evolution of the groundwater. • The processes are carbonate weathering, dedolomitization and common ion induce calcite precipitation. • The δ"1"3C added to DIC was −11.6‰ for weathering, −9.4‰ for dedolomitization

  4. Assessment of Contaminated Brine Fate and Transport in MB139 at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Systems Analysis and Research Dept.; Malama, Bwalya [Sandia National Lab., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Performance Assessment Dept.

    2014-07-01

    Following the radionuclide release event of February 14, 2014 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), actinide contamination has been found on the walls and floor in Panel 7 as a result of a release in Room 7 of Panel 7. It has been proposed to decontaminate Panel 7 at the WIPP by washing contaminated surfaces in the underground with fresh water. A cost-effective cleanup of this contamination would allow for a timely return to waste disposal operations at WIPP. It is expected that the fresh water used to decontaminate Panel 7 will flow as contaminated brine down into the porosity of the materials under the floor – the run-of-mine (ROM) salt above Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and MB139 itself – where its fate will be controlled by the hydraulic and transport properties of MB139. Due to the structural dip of MB139, it is unlikely that this brine would migrate northward towards the Waste-Handling Shaft sump. A few strategically placed shallow small-diameter observation boreholes straddling MB139 would allow for monitoring the flow and fate of this brine after decontamination. Additionally, given that flow through the compacted ROM salt floor and in MB139 would occur under unsaturated (or two-phase) conditions, there is a need to measure the unsaturated flow properties of crushed WIPP salt and salt from the disturbed rock zone (DRZ).

  5. Effects of brine contamination from energy development on wetland macroinvertebrate community structure in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M.; Borgreen, Michael J.; Ray, Andrew M.

    2018-01-01

    Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America support macroinvertebrate communities that are integral to local food webs and important to breeding waterfowl. Macroinvertebrates in PPR wetlands are primarily generalists and well adapted to within and among year changes in water permanence and salinity. The Williston Basin, a major source of U.S. energy production, underlies the southwest portion of the PPR. Development of oil and gas results in the coproduction of large volumes of highly saline, sodium chloride dominated water (brine) and the introduction of brine can alter wetland salinity. To assess potential effects of brine contamination on macroinvertebrate communities, 155 PPR wetlands spanning a range of hydroperiods and salinities were sampled between 2014 and 2016. Brine contamination was documented in 34 wetlands with contaminated wetlands having significantly higher chloride concentrations, specific conductance and percent dominant taxa, and significantly lower taxonomic richness, Shannon diversity, and Pielou evenness scores compared to uncontaminated wetlands. Non-metric multidimensional scaling found significant correlations between several water quality parameters and macroinvertebrate communities. Chloride concentration and specific conductance, which can be elevated in naturally saline wetlands, but are also associated with brine contamination, had the strongest correlations. Five wetland groups were identified from cluster analysis with many of the highly contaminated wetlands located in a single cluster. Low or moderately contaminated wetlands were distributed among the remaining clusters and had macroinvertebrate communities similar to uncontaminated wetlands. While aggregate changes in macroinvertebrate community structure were observed with brine contamination, systematic changes were not evident, likely due to the strong and potentially confounding influence of hydroperiod and natural salinity. Therefore, despite the observed

  6. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older

  7. Remediation of Cd-contaminated soil around metal sulfide mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinzhe; Hu, Xuefeng; Kang, Zhanjun; Luo, Fan

    2017-04-01

    The mines of metal sulfides are widely distributed in the southwestern part of Zhejiang Province, Southeast China. The activities of mining, however, often lead to the severe pollution of heavy metals in soils, especially Cd contamination. According to our field investigations, the spatial distribution of Cd-contaminated soils is highly consistent with the presence of metal sulfide mines in the areas, further proving that the mining activities are responsible for Cd accumulation in the soils. To study the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils, a paddy field nearby large sulfide mines, with soil pH 6 and Cd more than 1.56 mg kg-1, five times higher than the national recommended threshold, was selected. Plastic boards were deeply inserted into soil to separate the field and make experimental plots, with each plot being 4 m×4 m. Six treatments, TK01˜TK06, were designed to study the effects of different experimental materials on remediating Cd-contaminated soils. The treatment of TK01 was the addition of 100 kg zeolites to the plot; TK02, 100 kg apatites; TK03, 100 kg humid manure; TK04, 50 kg zeolites + 50 kg apatites; TK05, 50 kg zeolites + 50 kg humid manure; TK06 was blank control (CK). One month after the treatments, soil samples at the plots were collected to study the possible change of chemical forms of Cd in the soils. The results indicated that these treatments reduced the content of available Cd in the soils effectively, by a decreasing sequence of TK04 (33%) > TK02 (25%) > TK01 (23%) > TK05 (22%) > TK03 (15%), on the basis of CK. Correspondingly, the treatments also reduced the content of Cd in rice grains significantly, by a similar decreasing sequence of TK04 (83%) > TK02 (77%) > TK05 (63%) > TK01 (47%) > TK03 (27%). The content of Cd in the rice grains was 0.071 mg kg-1, 0.094 mg kg-1, 0.159 mg kg-1, 0.22 mg kg-1 and 0.306 mg kg-1, respectively, compared with CK, 0.418 mg kg-1. This experiment suggested that the reduction of available Cd in the soils is

  8. Strontium isotope detection of brine contamination in the East Poplar oil field, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Brine contamination of groundwater in the East Poplar oil field was first documented in the mid-1980s by the U.S. Geological Survey by using hydrochemistry, with an emphasis on chloride (Cl) and total dissolved solids concentrations. Supply wells for the City of Poplar are located downgradient from the oil field, are completed in the same shallow aquifers that are documented as contaminated, and therefore are potentially at risk of being contaminated. In cooperation with the Office of Environmental Protection of the Fort Peck Tribes, groundwater samples were collected in 2009 and 2010 from supply wells, monitor wells, and the Poplar River for analyses of major and trace elements, including strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic compositions. The ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 (87Sr/86Sr) is used extensively as a natural tracer in groundwater to detect mixing among waters from different sources and to study the effects of water/rock interaction. On a plot of the reciprocal strontium concentration against the 87Sr/86Sr ratio, mixtures of two end members will produce a linear array. Using this plotting method, data for samples from most of the wells, including the City of Poplar wells, define an array with reciprocal strontium values ranging from 0.08 to 4.15 and 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70811 to 0.70828. This array is composed of a brine end member with an average 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70822, strontium concentrations in excess of 12.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride concentrations exceeding 8,000 mg/L mixing with uncontaminated water similar to that in USGS06-08 with 18.0 mg/L chloride, 0.24 mg/L strontium, and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70811. The position of samples from the City of Poplar public-water supply wells within this array indicates that brine contamination has reached all three wells. Outliers from this array are EPU-4G (groundwater from the Cretaceous Judith River Formation), brine samples from disposal wells (Huber 5-D and EPU 1-D

  9. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon and brine contaminated topsoil : annual report (1992-93)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study which examined the remediation of hydrocarbon and brine contaminated topsoil in a field-based bioreactor at a gas processing plant in Nevis, Alberta during 1992 and 1993. The hydrocarbon and brine contaminated topsoil was placed in the Bio-Reactor and treated for eleven months. Four treatments were applied to eight Bio-Reactor cells: (1) ambient temperature/no forced aeration, (2) ambient temperature/forced aeration, (3) optimum temperature/no forced aeration and (4) optimum temperature/forced aeration. The ninth cell was filled with 30 cm contaminated topsoil and maintained under optimum temperature/forced aeration. The contaminated topsoil was kept moist throughout the experiment by an automatic irrigation system. The contaminated topsoil in the heated cells lost 40 per cent of its original hydrocarbon content in one year; the soil in the non-heated cells lost between 25 and 29 per cent in the same period. Results showed that the Bio-Reactor offered an inexpensive means for promoting a natural process for degrading organic compounds by microorganisms in soil. Equally important, it is capable of handling the large volumes of waste produced by the oil and gas industry. 64 refs., 35 tabs., 46 figs

  10. Delineation of brine contamination in and near the East Poplar oil field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana, 2004-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamke, Joanna N.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    The extent of brine contamination in the shallow aquifers in and near the East Poplar oil field is as much as 17.9 square miles and appears to be present throughout the entire saturated zone in contaminated areas. The brine contamination affects 15–37 billion gallons of groundwater. Brine contamination in the shallow aquifers east of the Poplar River generally moves to the southwest toward the river and then southward in the Poplar River valley. The likely source of brine contamination in the shallow aquifers is brine that is produced with crude oil in the East Poplar oil field study area. Brine contamination has not only affected the water quality from privately owned wells in and near the East Poplar oil field, but also the city of Poplar’s public water-supply wells. Three water-quality types characterize water in the shallow aquifers; a fourth water-quality type in the study area characterizes the brine. Type 1 is uncontaminated water that is suitable for most domestic purposes and typically contains sodium bicarbonate and sodium/magnesium sulfate as the dominant ions. Type 2 is moderately contaminated water that is suitable for some domestic purposes, but not used for drinking water, and typically contains sodium and chloride as the dominant ions. Type 3 is considerably contaminated water that is unsuitable for any domestic purpose and always contains sodium and chloride as the dominant ions. Type 3 quality of water in the shallow aquifers is similar to Type 4, which is the brine that is produced with crude oil. Electromagnetic apparent conductivity data were collected in the 106 square-mile area and used to determine extent of brine contamination. These data were collected and interpreted in conjunction with water-quality data collected through 2009 to delineate brine plumes in the shallow aquifers. Monitoring wells subsequently were drilled in some areas without existing water wells to confirm most of the delineated brine plumes; however, several possible

  11. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater by in-situ stimulating biogenic precipitation of iron sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Kunfu; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun; Ma, Teng; Liu, Yaqing; Su, Chunli; Zhu, Yapeng; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2017-02-01

    Severe health problems due to elevated arsenic (As) in groundwater have made it urgent to develop cost-effective technologies for As removal. This field experimental study tested the feasibility of in-situ As immobilization via As incorporation into newly formed biogenic Fe(II) sulfides in a typical As-affected strongly reducing aquifer at the central part of Datong Basin, China. After periodic supply of FeSO 4 into the aquifer for 25 d to stimulate microbial sulfate reduction, dissolved sulfide concentrations increased during the experiment, but the supplied Fe(II) reacted quickly with sulfide to form Fe(II)-sulfides existing majorly as mackinawite as well as a small amount of pyrite-like minerals in sediments, thereby restricting sulfide build-up in groundwater. After the completion of field experiment, groundwater As concentration decreased from an initial average value of 593 μg/L to 159 μg/L, with an overall As removal rate of 73%, and it further declined to 136 μg/L adding the removal rate up to 77% in 30 d after the experiment. The arsenite/As total ratio gradually increased over time, making arsenite to be the predominant species in groundwater residual As. The good correlations between dissolved Fe(II), sulfide and As concentrations, the increased abundance of As in newly-formed Fe sulfides as well as the reactive-transport modeling results all indicate that As could have been adsorbed onto and co-precipitated with Fe(II)-sulfide coatings once microbial sulfate reduction was stimulated after FeSO 4 supply. Under the strongly reducing conditions, sulfide may facilitate arsenate reduction into arsenite and promote As incorporation into pyrite or arsenopyrite. Therefore, the major mechanisms for the in-situ As-contaminated groundwater remediation can be As surface-adsorption on and co-precipitation with Fe(II) sulfides produced during the experimental period. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A GIS-based vulnerability assessment of brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in eastern Sheridan County, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M; Chesley-Preston, Tara L; Thamke, Joanna N

    2014-02-15

    Water (brine) co-produced with oil in the Williston Basin is some of the most saline in the nation. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), characterized by glacial sediments and numerous wetlands, covers the northern and eastern portion of the Williston Basin. Sheridan County, Montana, lies within the PPR and has a documented history of brine contamination. Surface water and shallow groundwater in the PPR are saline and sulfate dominated while the deeper brines are much more saline and chloride dominated. A Contamination Index (CI), defined as the ratio of chloride concentration to specific conductance in a water sample, was developed by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology to delineate the magnitude of brine contamination in Sheridan County. Values >0.035 indicate contamination. Recently, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a county level geographic information system (GIS)-based vulnerability assessment of brine contamination to aquatic resources in the PPR of the Williston Basin based on the age and density of oil wells, number of wetlands, and stream length per county. To validate and better define this assessment, a similar approach was applied in eastern Sheridan County at a greater level of detail (the 2.59 km(2) Public Land Survey System section grid) and included surficial geology. Vulnerability assessment scores were calculated for the 780 modeled sections and these scores were divided into ten equal interval bins representing similar probabilities of contamination. Two surface water and two groundwater samples were collected from the section with the greatest acreage of Federal land in each bin. Nineteen of the forty water samples, and at least one water sample from seven of the ten selected sections, had CI values indicating contamination. Additionally, CI values generally increased with increasing vulnerability assessment score, with a stronger correlation for groundwater samples (R(2)=0.78) than surface water samples (R(2)=0.53). Copyright © 2013

  13. Pathways of sulfate and hydrogen sulfide transformations in a BTEX- contaminated groundwater system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Anneser, B.; Griebler, C.

    2010-01-01

    in complex environmental systems. As a result, compound specific stable isotope signatures in various sulfur species were determined in a tar-oil contaminated site and were linked to the microbial community distribution in the aquifer. The goal of the study was to reach an integrated understanding of sulfur...... intermediate during abiotic oxidation of hydrogen sulphide, with the latter formed during bacterial sulfate reduction. The formed elemental sulfur may be used by the specific microbial community found in this aquifer for the oxidation of organic contaminants such as toluene. In contrast, reoxidation...... of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate by molecular oxygen may affect sulfur cycling within the transition between the unsaturated and the saturated zones and therefore attenuate concentrations of contaminants in groundwater as well....

  14. Soil washing for brine removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyachamy, J.S.; Atalay, A.; Zaman, M.

    1992-01-01

    During the exploration for oil and thereafter, brine transfer lines get ruptured releasing the brine which contaminates the surrounding soil. The salinity level in brine is very high, sometimes approaching or exceeding that of sea water. Soils contaminated with brine are unproductive and unsuitable for plant growth. Several investigators have documented the pollution of surface water and groundwater due to brine disposal from oil and needed to clean up such sites. The objective of this study is to develop a soil washing technique that can be used to remove brine sites were collected and used in the study. This paper reports on results which indicate that soil washing using various surface active agents is effective in removing the brine

  15. Contaminant Characterization of Effluent from Pennsylvania Brine Treatment, Inc., Josephine Facility: Implications for Disposal of Oil and Gas Flowback Fluids from Brine Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PBT-Josephine Facility accepts only wastewater from the oil and gas industry. This report describes the concentrations of selected contaminants in the effluent water and compares the contaminant effluent concentrations to state and federal standards.

  16. THE WEATHERING OF A SULFIDE OREBODY: SPECIATION AND FATE OF SOME POTENTIAL CONTAMINANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra; Grosbois, Cecile; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Beny, Jean Michel; Foster, Andrea L.

    2010-07-16

    trace element distribution and relative abundance of the unweathered sulfides, this orebody still represents a significant reservoir of potential contaminants for the watershed, especially in the non-mining site, as a much greater proportion of sulfides is left to react and because of the lower porosity in this site.

  17. Contaminants of emerging concern in reverse osmosis brine concentrate from indirect/direct water reuse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeyn, Travis R; Harijanto, Wesley; Sandoval, Sofia; Delagah, Saied; Sharbatmaleki, Mohamadali

    2016-01-01

    Water shortage is becoming more common due to droughts and global population increases resulting in the increasing popularity of water reuse to create new water sources. Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems are popular in these applications since they can produce drinking water quality effluent. Unfortunately, RO systems have the drawback of generating concentrate streams that contain contaminants rejected by the membrane including chemicals of emerging concern (CECs). CECs are chemicals such as hormones, steroids, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products that are used for their intended purpose and then released into wastewater. CECs are believed to be detrimental to aquatic wildlife health and pose an unknown human health risk. This research gathered the existing knowledge on CEC presence in concentrate, available proven concentrate treatment methods, their CEC removal abilities, and current CEC regulations. It was found that 127 CECs have been measured in RO concentrate with 100 being detected at least once. The most potent treatment process available is UV/H2O2 as it offers the highest removal rates for the widest range of chemicals. The less expensive process of ozone/biologically activated carbon offers slightly lower removal abilities. This comprehensive report will provide the groundwork for better understanding, regulating and treating concentrate stream CECs.

  18. Metagenome-based metabolic reconstruction reveals the ecophysiological function of Epsilonproteobacteria in a hydrocarbon-contaminated sulfidic aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hardy Keller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The population genome of an uncultured bacterium assigned to the Campylobacterales (Epsilonproteobacteria was reconstructed from a metagenome dataset obtained by whole-genome shotgun pyrosequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from a sulfate-reducing, m-xylene-mineralizing enrichment culture isolated from groundwater of a benzene-contaminated sulfidic aquifer. The identical epsilonproteobacterial phylotype has previously been detected in toluene- or benzene-mineralizing, sulfate-reducing consortia enriched from the same site. Previous stable isotope probing experiments with 13C6-labeled benzene suggested that this phylotype assimilates benzene-derived carbon in a syntrophic benzene-mineralizing consortium that uses sulfate as terminal electron acceptor. However, the type of energy metabolism and the ecophysiological function of this epsilonproteobacterium within aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and in the sulfidic aquifer are poorly understood.Annotation of the epsilonproteobacterial population genome suggests that the bacterium plays a key role in sulfur cycling as indicated by the presence of a sqr gene encoding a sulfide quinone oxidoreductase and psr genes encoding a polysulfide reductase. It may gain energy by using sulfide or hydrogen/formate as electron donors. Polysulfide, fumarate, as well as oxygen are potential electron acceptors. Auto- or mixotrophic carbon metabolism seems plausible since a complete reductive citric acid cycle was detected. Thus the bacterium can thrive in pristine groundwater as well as in hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers. In hydrocarbon-contaminated sulfidic habitats, the epsilonproteobacterium may generate energy by coupling the oxidation of hydrogen or formate and highly abundant sulfide with the reduction of fumarate and/or polysulfide, accompanied by efficient assimilation of acetate produced during fermentation or incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons. The highly efficient assimilation of acetate was

  19. Metagenome-Based Metabolic Reconstruction Reveals the Ecophysiological Function of Epsilonproteobacteria in a Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Sulfidic Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Andreas H; Schleinitz, Kathleen M; Starke, Robert; Bertilsson, Stefan; Vogt, Carsten; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The population genome of an uncultured bacterium assigned to the Campylobacterales (Epsilonproteobacteria) was reconstructed from a metagenome dataset obtained by whole-genome shotgun pyrosequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from a sulfate-reducing, m-xylene-mineralizing enrichment culture isolated from groundwater of a benzene-contaminated sulfidic aquifer. The identical epsilonproteobacterial phylotype has previously been detected in toluene- or benzene-mineralizing, sulfate-reducing consortia enriched from the same site. Previous stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments with (13)C6-labeled benzene suggested that this phylotype assimilates benzene-derived carbon in a syntrophic benzene-mineralizing consortium that uses sulfate as terminal electron acceptor. However, the type of energy metabolism and the ecophysiological function of this epsilonproteobacterium within aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and in the sulfidic aquifer are poorly understood. Annotation of the epsilonproteobacterial population genome suggests that the bacterium plays a key role in sulfur cycling as indicated by the presence of an sqr gene encoding a sulfide quinone oxidoreductase and psr genes encoding a polysulfide reductase. It may gain energy by using sulfide or hydrogen/formate as electron donors. Polysulfide, fumarate, as well as oxygen are potential electron acceptors. Auto- or mixotrophic carbon metabolism seems plausible since a complete reductive citric acid cycle was detected. Thus the bacterium can thrive in pristine groundwater as well as in hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers. In hydrocarbon-contaminated sulfidic habitats, the epsilonproteobacterium may generate energy by coupling the oxidation of hydrogen or formate and highly abundant sulfide with the reduction of fumarate and/or polysulfide, accompanied by efficient assimilation of acetate produced during fermentation or incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons. The highly efficient assimilation of acetate was recently

  20. Source and Fate of Inorganic Soil Contamination Around the Abandoned Phillips Sulfide Mine Hudson Highlands New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Gilchrist; A Gates; E Elzinga; M Gorring; z Szabo

    2011-12-31

    The abandoned Phillips sulfide mine in the critical Highlands watershed in New York has been shown to produce strongly acidic mine drainage (AMD) with anomalous metal contaminants in first-order streams that exceeded local water standards by up to several orders of magnitude (Gilchrist et al., 2009). The metal-sulfide-rich tailings also produce contaminated soils with pH < 4, organic matter < 2.5% and trace metals sequestered in soil oxides. A geochemical transect to test worst-case soil contamination showed that Cr, Co and Ni correlated positively with Mn, (r = 0.72, r = 0.89, r = 0.80, respectively), suggesting Mn-oxide sequestration and that Cu and Pb correlated with Fe (r = 0.76, r = 0.83, respectively), suggesting sequestration in goethite. Ubiquitous, yellow coating on the mine wastes, including jarosite and goethite, is a carrier of the metals. Geochemical and {mu}-SXRF analyses determined Cu to be the major soil contaminant, {mu}-SXRF also demonstrated that the heterogeneous nature of the soil chemistry at the micro-meter scale is self-similar to those in the bulk soil samples. Generally metals decreased, with some fluctuations, rapidly downslope through suspension of fines and dissolution in AMD leaving the area of substantial contamination << 0.5 km from the source.

  1. Heavy metal contamination in sand and sediments near to disposal site of reject brine from desalination plant, Arabian Gulf: Assessment of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahri, Fatimh

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in environment may cause series potential risk in the living system. This study was carried out to investigate heavy metal contamination in sand samples and sediments along the beach near to disposal site of reject brine from Alkhobar desalination plant, which is one of the oldest and largest reverse osmosis desalination plants in eastern Saudi Arabia, Arabian Gulf. Fourteen heavy metals (U, Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, Sr, Rb, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, As, and Zr) were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDX). The obtained data revealed that the concentrations of these metals were higher than the values in sediment and soil for other studies in Arabian Gulf. Furthermore, the mean values of Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, As, Sr, and Zr concentrations in sand and sediments were higher than the geochemical background values in shale. The contamination factor (CF), modified degree of contamination (mC d ) and pollution load index (PLI) were assessed. According to contamination factors (CF > 1), the results showed elevated levels of Cu, Cr, Mn, Zr, and As in all samples. The highest value of contamination factor was found for As. Based on PLI (PLI > 1), the values of all sampling sites indicate a localized pollution in the study area. Current study could be useful as baseline data for heavy metals in sand and sediments nearby a desalination plant.

  2. Laboratory evaluation of the hydrogen sulfide gas treatment approach for remediation of chromate-, uranium(VI)-, and nitrate-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.; Baechler, M.A.; Beck, M.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    Bench-scale soil treatment tests were conducted as part of an effort to develop and implement an in situ chemical treatment approach to the remediation of metal and radionuclide contaminated soils through the use of reactive gases. In general, > 90% immobilization of chromium and > 50% immobilization of uranium was achieved. Leach test results indicate that the treatment process is irreversible for chromium but partially reversible for uranium indicates that immobilization for this contaminant is more readily achieved in organic rich soils. This observation is ascribed to the reducing nature of organic matter. Additional tests were also conducted with soils contaminated to the 5,000 ppm level with nitrate. Nitrate was not found to interfere significantly with treatment of the contaminants. Nitrite was observed in the leachate samples obtained from tests with an organic-rich soil containing clay, however. Leachate chemistries suggested that no other significantly hazardous byproducts were generated by the treatment process and that soil alteration effects were minimal. Test results also suggest that treatment effectiveness is somewhat lower in very dry soils but still able to immobilize chromium and uranium to an acceptable degree. Results of these testing activities indicate that the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the gas mixture is not a limited factor in treatment as long as a sufficient volume of the mixture is delivered to the soil to achieve a mole ratio of hydrogen sulfide to contaminant of at least 10

  3. Investigations of the transport behavior of contaminants in fresh water/brine systems under consideration of density differences; Untersuchungen zum Transportverhalten von Schadstoffen in Suess- / Salzwassersystemen unter Beruecksichtigung von Dichteunterschieden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, Juergen; Weyand, Torben; Mayer, Kim-Marisa

    2016-10-15

    This report contains a compilation of national and international experience gathered as part of a research project sponsored by the BMUB concerning the aspect of the transport behaviour of contaminants in freshwater/brine systems with consideration of density and viscosity differences. The fundamentals of modelling density-dependent flows are presented and a series of examples of the application with different codes and their uses with reference to real sites is described. Besides an overview of test cases for the verification of these codes, the further development of the instruments available to GRS and test calculations regarding their implementation are presented.

  4. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  5. Selenium Sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium sulfide, an anti-infective agent, relieves itching and flaking of the scalp and removes the dry, ... Selenium sulfide comes in a lotion and is usually applied as a shampoo. As a shampoo, selenium ...

  6. Os and S isotope studies of ultramafic rocks in the Duke Island Complex, Alaska: variable degrees of crustal contamination of magmas in an arc setting and implications for Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifter, Eric C.; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi

    2016-10-01

    The Duke Island Complex is one of the several "Ural-Alaskan" intrusions of Cretaceous age that occur along the coast of SE Alaska. Significant quantities of magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization are locally found in the complex, primarily within olivine clinopyroxenites. Sulfide mineralization is Ni-poor, consistent with petrologic evidence which indicates that sulfide saturation was reached after extensive olivine crystallization. Olivine clinopyroxenites were intruded by magmas that produced sulfide-poor, adcumulate dunites. As part of a study to investigate the potential for Ni-rich sulfide mineralization in association with the dunites, a Re-Os and S isotope study of the dunites, as well as sulfide mineralization in the olivine clinopyroxenites, was initiated. Importantly, recent drilling in the complex identified the presence of sulfidic and carbonaceous country rocks that may have been involved in the contamination of magmas and generation of sulfide mineralization. γOs (110 Ma) values of two sulfidic country rocks are 1022 and 2011. δ34S values of the country rocks range from -2.6 to -16.1 ‰. 187Os/188Os ratios of sulfide minerals in the mineralization hosted by olivine clinopyroxenites are variable and high, with γOs (110 Ma) values between 151 and 2059. Extensive interaction with Re-rich sedimentary country rocks is indicated. In contrast, γOs (110 Ma) values of the dunites are significantly lower, ranging between 2 and 16. 187Os/188Os ratios increase with decreasing Os concentration. This inverse relation is similar to that shown by ultramafic rocks from several arc settings, as well as altered abyssal dunites and peridotites. The relation may be indicative of magma derivation from a sub-arc mantle that had experienced metasomatism via slab-derived fluids. Alternatively, the relation may be indicative of minor contamination of magma by crustal rocks with low Os concentrations but high 187Os/188Os ratios. A third alternative is that the low Os

  7. Application of a long-lasting colloidal substrate with pH and hydrogen sulfide control capabilities to remediate TCE-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Y T; Chen, S C; Chien, C C; Chen, C C; Kao, C M

    2015-03-02

    A long-lasting emulsified colloidal substrate (LECS) was developed for continuous carbon and nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) release to remediate trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater under reductive dechlorinating conditions. The developed LECS contained nZVI, vegetable oil, surfactants (Simple Green™ and lecithin), molasses, lactate, and minerals. An emulsification study was performed to evaluate the globule droplet size and stability of LECS. The results show that a stable oil-in-water emulsion with uniformly small droplets (0.7 μm) was produced, which could continuously release the primary substrates. The emulsified solution could serve as the dispensing agent, and nZVI particles (with diameter 100-200 nm) were distributed in the emulsion evenly without aggregation. Microcosm results showed that the LECS caused a rapid increase in the total organic carbon concentration (up to 488 mg/L), and reductive dechlorination of TCE was significantly enhanced. Up to 99% of TCE (with initial concentration of 7.4 mg/L) was removed after 130 days of operation. Acidification was prevented by the production of hydroxide ion by the oxidation of nZVI. The formation of iron sulfide reduced the odor from produced hydrogen sulfide. Microbial analyses reveal that dechlorinating bacteria existed in soils, which might contribute to TCE dechlorination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Results for the Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) Brine Processing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Howard, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The recent Brine Processing Test compared the NASA Forward Osmosis Brine Dewatering (FOBD), Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB). This paper reports the results of the BEB. The BEB was operated at 70 deg C and a base pressure of 12 torr. The BEB was operated in a batch mode, and processed 0.4L of brine per batch. Two different brine feeds were tested, a chromic acid-urine brine and a chromic acid-urine-hygiene mix brine. The chromic acid-urine brine, known as the ISS Alternate Pretreatment Brine, had an average processing rate of 95 mL/hr with a specific power of 5kWhr/L. The complete results of these tests will be reported within this paper.

  9. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Paul John; Miller, Bruce G.; Wincek, Ronald T.; Decker, Glenn E.; Johnson, David K.

    2009-04-07

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  10. Vertical distributions and speciation of dissolved rare earth elements in the anoxic brines of Bannock Basin, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Millero, Frank J.; Byrne, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Vertical distributions of dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) are presented for the anoxic, highly sulfidic brines of Bannock Basin in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. REE concentrations at the seawater-brine interface are the highest ever recorded in the water column of an anoxic basin and

  11. Microbial oxidation of soluble sulfide in produced water from the Bakkeen Sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevertz, D.; Zimmerman, S. [Agouron Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Jenneman, G.E. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The presence of soluble sulfide in produced water results in problems for the petroleum industry due to its toxicity, odor, corrosive nature, and potential for wellbore plugging. Sulfide oxidation by indigenous nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) present in brine collected from wells at the Coleville Unit (CVU) in Saskatchewan, Canada, was investigated. Sulfide oxidation took place readily when nitrate and phosphate were added to brine enrichment cultures, resulting in a decrease in sulfide levels of 99-165 ppm to nondetectable levels (< 3.3 ppm). Produced water collected from a number of producing wells was screened to determine the time required for complete sulfide oxidation, in order to select candidate wells for treatment. Three wells were chosen, based on sulfide removal in 48 hours or less. These wells were treated down the backside of the annulus with a solution containing 10 mM KNO{sub 3} and 100 {mu}M NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. Following a 24- to 72-hour shut-in, reductions in pretreatment sulfide levels of greater than 90% were observed for two of the wells, as well as sustained sulfide reductions of 50% for at least two days following startup. NRB populations in the produced brine were observed to increase significantly following treatment, but no significant increases in sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. These results demonstrate the technical feasibility of stimulating indigenous populations of NRB to remediate and control sulfide in produced brine.

  12. Variable sulfur isotope composition of sulfides provide evidence for multiple sources of contamination in the Rustenburg Layered Suite, Bushveld Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Nivea; Penniston-Dorland, Sarah; Farquhar, James; Mathez, Edmond A.

    2018-06-01

    The Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS) of the Bushveld Complex (BC) is famous for its platinum group element (PGE) ore, which is hosted in sulfides. The source of sulfur necessary to generate this type of mineralization is inferred to be the host rock of the intrusion. The RLS has a sulfur isotopic signature that indicates the presence of Archean surface-derived material (Δ33 S ≠ 0) in the magma. This signature, with an average value of Δ33 S = 0.112 ± 0.024 ‰, deviates from the expected Δ33 S value of the mantle of 0 ± 0.008 ‰. Previous work suggested that this signature is uniform throughout the RLS, which contrasts with radiogenic isotopes which vary throughout the igneous stratigraphy of the RLS. In this study, samples from key intervals within the igneous stratigraphy were analyzed, showing that Δ33 S values vary in the same stratigraphic levels as Sr and Nd isotopes. However, the variation is not consistent; in some levels there is a positive correlation and in others a negative correlation. This observation suggests that in some cases distinct magma pulses contained assimilated sulfur from different sources. Textural analysis shows no evidence for late addition of sulfur. These results also suggest that it is unlikely that large-scale assimilation and/or efficient mixing of host rock material in a single magma chamber occurred during emplacement. The data do not uniquely identify the source of sulfur in the different layers of the RLS, but the variation in sulfur isotope composition and its relationship to radiogenic isotope data calls for a reevaluation of the models for the formation and evolution of the RLS, which has the potential to impact the knowledge of how PGE deposits form.

  13. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  14. Microbial control of hydrogen sulfide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, A.D.; Bhupathiraju, V.K.; Wofford, N.; McInerney, M.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A sulfide-resistant strain of Thiobacillus denitrificans, strain F, prevented the accumulation of sulfide by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans when both organisms were grown in liquid medium. The wild-type strain of T. denitrificans did not prevent the accumulation of sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans. Strain F also prevented the accumulation of sulfide by a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from an oil field brine. Fermentation balances showed that strain F stoichiometrically oxidized the sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans and the oil field brine enrichment to sulfate. The ability of a strain F to control sulfide production in an experimental system of cores and formation water from the Redfield, Iowa, natural gas storage facility was also investigated. A stable, sulfide-producing biofilm was established in two separate core systems, one of which was inoculated with strain F while the other core system (control) was treated in an identical manner, but was not inoculated with strain F. When formation water with 10 mM acetate and 5 mM nitrate was injected into both core systems, the effluent sulfide concentrations in the control core system ranged from 200 to 460 {mu}M. In the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were lower, ranging from 70 to 110 {mu}M. In order to determine whether strain F could control sulfide production under optimal conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria, the electron donor was changed to lactate and inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphate sources) were added to the formation water. When nutrient-supplemented formation water with 3.1 mM lactate and 10 mM nitrate was used, the effluent sulfide concentrations of the control core system initially increased to about 3,800 {mu}M, and then decreased to about 1,100 {mu}M after 5 weeks. However, in the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were much lower, 160 to 330 {mu}M.

  15. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Case, J.B.; Deshler, R.M.; Drez, P.E.; Myers, J.; Tyburski, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) Phase II Report is an interim report which updates the data released in the BSEP Phase I Report. Direct measurements and observations of the brine that seeps into the WIPP repository excavations were continued through the period between August 1986 and July 1987. That data is included in Appendix A, which extends the observation period for some locations to approximately 900 days. Brine observations at 87 locations are presented in this report. Although WIPP underground workings are considered ''dry,'' small amounts of brine are present. Part of that brine migrates into the repository in response to pressure gradients at essentially isothermal conditions. The data presented in this report is a continuation of moisture content studies of the WIPP facility horizon that were initiated in 1982, as soon as underground drifts began to be excavated. Brine seepages are manifested by salt efflorescences, moist areas, and fluid accumulations in drillholes. 35 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs

  16. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when formic acid (FA) was used as the hole scavenger (i.e., electron donor) and the initial FA to nitrate molar ratio (IFNR) was 5.6. Increasing the NaCl level in the synthetic brine slowed the nitrate reduction rate without affecting by-product selectivity of ammonium and gaseous N species (e.g., N(2), N(2)O). In a non-modified IX brine, nitrate removal was greatly inhibited owing to the presence of sulfate, which competed with nitrate for active surface sites on P90 and induced aggregation of P90 nanoparticles. After removing sulfate through barium sulfate precipitation, nitrate was effectively reduced; approximately 3.6 × 10(24) photons were required to reduce each mole of nitrate to 83% N Gases and 17% NH(4)(+). To make optimum use of FA and control the residual FA level in treated brine, the IFNR was varied. High IFNRs (e.g., 4, 5.6) were found to be more efficient for nitrate reduction but left higher residual FA in brine. IX column tests were performed to investigate the impact of residual FA for brine reuse. The residual FA in the brine did not significantly affect the nitrate removal capacity of IX resins, and formate contamination of treated water could be eliminated by rinsing with one bed volume of fresh brine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bead Evaporator for Complete Water and Salt Recovery from Brine, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A microgravity-compatible Brine Evaporation and Mineralization System (BEMS) is proposed for 100% water recovery from highly contaminated wastewater as well as water...

  18. Cost-effective bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine through deliberate bicarbonate incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Huang, Bin; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2015-05-15

    Bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine is desired to minimize its environmental impacts, but faces common challenges, i.e., enriching sufficient salt-tolerant denitrifying bacteria and stabilizing brine salinity and alkalinity for stable brine biotreatment and economically removing undesired organics derived in biotreatment. Incorporation of 0.25 M bicarbonate in 0.5 M chloride brine little affected resin regeneration but created a benign alkaline condition to favor bio-based brine regeneration. The first-quarter sulfate-mainly enriched spent brine (SB) was acidified with carbon source acetic acid for using CaCl2 at an efficiency >80% to remove sulfate. Residual Ca(2+) was limited below 2 mM by re-mixing the first-quarter and remained SB to favor denitrification. Under [Formula: see text] system buffered pH condition (8.3-8.8), nitrate was removed at 0.90 gN/L/d by hematite-enriched well-settled activated sludge (SVI 8.5 ml/g) and the biogenic alkalinity was retained as bicarbonate. The biogenic alkalinity met the need of alkalinity in removing residual Ca(2+) after sulfate removal and in CaCl2-induced CaCO3 flocculation to remove 63% of soluble organic carbon (SOC) in biotreated brine. Carbon-limited denitrification was also operated after activated sludge acclimation with sulfide to cut SOC formation during denitrification. Overall, this bicarbonate-incorporation approach, stabilizing the brine salinity and alkalinity for stable denitrification and economical removal of undesired SOC, suits long-term cost-effective brine bioregeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Technetium behavior in sulfide and ferrous iron solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Bondietti, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Pertechnetate oxyanion ( 99 TcO 4- ), a potentially mobile species in leachate from a breached radioactive waste repository, was removed from a brine solution by precipitation with sulfide, iron, and ferrous sulfide at environmental pH's. Maghemite (ν-Fe 2 O 3 ) and geothite (α-FeOOH) were the dominant minerals in the precipitate obtained from the TcO 4- -ferrous iron reaction. The observation of small particle size and poor crystallinity of the minerals formed in the presence of Tc suggested that the Tc was incorporated into the mineral structure after reduction to a lower valence state. Amorphous ferrous sulfide, an initial phase precipitating in the TcO 4- -ferrous iron-sulfide reaction, was transformed to goethite and hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) on aging. The black precipitate obtained from the TcO 4- -sulfide reaction was poorly crystallized technetium sulfide (Tc 2 S 7 ) which was insoluble in both acid and alkaline solution in the absence of strong oxidents. The results suggested that ferrous- and/or sulfide-bearing groundwaters and minerals in host rocks or backfill barriers could reduce the mobility of Tc through the formation of less-soluble Tc-bearing iron and/or sulfide minerals

  20. Understanding the kinetics of sulfate reduction in brines by hydrogen: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.

    1988-07-01

    Experiments were conducted with mixtures of hydrogen gas and each of PBB1 and PBB3 brines to examine the reduction kinetics of sulfate in high ionic strength solutions. Results from the experiments with brines showed that the kinetics of sulfate reduction is slower in high ionic strength solutions than the kinetics in low ionic strength solutions. However, the kinetic mechanism does not seem to alter the slow kinetics, but the addition of much larger quantities of sulfide, about 40 mM, does accelerate the reduction of sulfate. Since the proposed reaction mechanism for the reduction of sulfate by hydrogen gas involves the reaction of sulfide with sulfate, slow initial kinetics in the absence of sulfide is understandable, but also implies an unknown rate-limiting reaction. Precipitation of calcium sulfate(s) and calcium sulfide may limit the sulfide and sulfate concentrations to low values. The coexistence of anhydrite and oldhamite may indicate a part of the Ca-S-H 2 O that has not yet been investigated. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  2. SULFIDE MINERALS IN SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation processes of metal sulfides in sediments, especially iron sulfides, have been the subjects of intense scientific research because of linkages to the global biogeochemical cycles of iron, sulfur, carbon, and oxygen. Transition metal sulfides (e.g., NiS, CuS, ZnS, Cd...

  3. Possible Mars brines - Equilibrium and kinetic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, A. P.; Fanale, F. P.

    1986-01-01

    To determine the fate of postulated near surface brines on Mars, the rate of H2O mass loss from subsurface brines was calculated as a function of latitude, depth, regolith porosity, eutectic temperature, and pore size. A model for a chemically reasonable brine that could reproduce Martian radar results was developed, and the escape rate of H2O molecules from such a brine was estimated. It is suggested that the presence of a low-permeability duricrust may be required to preserve such a brine for reasonable periods, and to prevent detection of an extensive subsurface system by the Viking MAWD instrument.

  4. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Belski, D.S.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry

  5. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  6. Modeling gas and brine migration for assessing compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughn, P.; Butcher, B.; Helton, J.; Swift, P.

    1993-10-01

    At the request of the WIPP Project Integration Office (WPIO) of the DOE, the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has completed preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration away from the undisturbed repository. This paper contains descriptions of the numerical model and simulations, including model geometries and parameter values, and a summary of major conclusions from sensitivity analyses. Because significant transport of contaminants can only occur in a fluid (gas or brine) medium, two-phase flow modeling can provide an estimate of the distance to which contaminants can migrate. Migration of gas or brine beyond the RCRA ''disposal-unit boundary'' or the Standard's accessible environment constitutes a potential, but not certain, violation and may require additional evaluations of contaminant concentrations

  7. Concentrated Brine Treatment using New Energy in Coal Mine Evaporation Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Li, Jingfeng

    2017-12-01

    Recently, more and more coal mine water is being advanced treated and reused in China. The concentrated brine that results from advanced treatment methods can only be evaporated in an evaporation pond. Because of limited treatment capabilities and winter freezing, evaporation ponds often overflow, causing environment contamination. In this paper, based on analysis of brine water quality and economic-technical feasibility, we present a suitable treatment method for brine in evaporation ponds as electrodialysis using solar energy. In addition, we propose a new system to treat brine in coal mine evaporation ponds, which is powered by solar and wind. The operating efficiency of this treatment system proposed in this paper can meet the concentrated brine treatment demands in most coal mines in western mining areas of China and it places the photovoltaic power generation plates on the surface of the evaporation pond on a fixed floating island, which reduces any risk associated with land acquisition. This system can enhance brine treatment efficiency, requires a reduced evaporation pond area, increases the utilization of coal mine water, and minimizes the risk of environment contamination.

  8. Certain questions about analysis of natural gas disolved in brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezuka, M; Nakamura, M; Omi, K

    1983-01-01

    The composition of the gaseous phase of stratum brines is determined and the analysis technique is described. Ordinary analysis is performed with the assumptions that the contents of small components (excluding C02 and N2) are ignorably small and that the gas contains no 02. The determined concentrations of 02 and the proportional share of N2 are calculated from results of analysis as bound with pollutants. The high sensitivity of modern analytical methods makes it possible to identify quite small and trace concentrations of components, but corrections for air contamination may partially depreciate these results. Data are cited from gas chromatographic identifications of the components of gases disolved in the stratum brines of a Japanese deposit. C2H6 is established in all samples and C3H8 in two thirds of the samples, where H2 and helium were not detected anywhere. The concentrations of the gas phase on the whole in the brine were low. 02 falls into the samples in a water dissolved state; this demands the use of unconventional proportion of 02 to N2 (1 to 3.55), which is characteristic for air and a proportion of 1 to 2 which is characteristic for disolved air. With the conventional ordinary technique the consideration of the air contamination leads to a substantial underestimate of the N2 results. At the same time, the incorrect introduction of corrections for N2 has no effect on the heat creativity of the disolved gas.

  9. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program: 1988 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Case, J.B.; Crawley, M.E.; Deshler, R.M.; Drez, P.E.; Givens, C.A.; King, R.B.; Myers, J.; Pietz, J.M.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Tyburski, J.R.; Belski, D.S.; Niou, S.; Wallace, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1988. These activities, which are a continuation and update of studies that began in 1982 as part of the Site Validation Program, were formalized as the BSEP in 1985 to document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation, and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. Previous BSEP reports (Deal and Case, 1987; Deal and others, 1987) described the results of ongoing activities that monitor brine inflow into boreholes in the facility, moisture content of the Salado Formation, brine geochemistry, and brine weeps and crusts. The information provided in this report updates past work and describes progress made during the calendar year 1988. During 1988, BSEP activities focused on four major areas to describe and quantify brine activity: (1) monitoring of brine inflow parameters, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled upward from the underground drifts (upholes), downward from the underground drifts (downholes), and near-horizontal holes; (2) characterizing the brine, e.g., the geochemistry of the brine and the presence of bacteria and their possible interactions with experiments and operations; (3) characterizing formation properties associated with the occurrence of brine; e.g., determining the water content of various geologic units, examining these units in boreholes using a video camera system, and measuring their resistivity (conductivity); and (4) modeling to examine the interaction of salt deformation near the workings and brine seepage through the deforming salt. 77 refs., 48 figs., 32 tabs

  10. Purification of hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, U.

    1978-01-01

    A process is described for purifying a hydrogen sulfide gas stream containing carbon dioxide, comprising (a) passing the gas stream through a bed of solid hydrated lime to form calcium hydrosulfide and calcium carbonate and (b) regenerating hydrogen sulfide from said calcium hydrosulfide by reacting the calcium hydrosulfide with additional carbon dioxide. The process is especially applicable for use in a heavy water recovery process wherein deuterium is concentrated from a feed water containing carbon dioxide by absorption and stripping using hydrogen sulfide as a circulating medium, and the hydrogen sulfide absorbs a small quantity of carbon dioxide along with deuterium in each circulation

  11. Demonstration of EIC's copper sulfate process for removal of hydrogen sulfide and other trace contaminants from geothermal steam at turbine inlet temperatures and pressures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The results obtained during the operation of an integrated, one-tenth commercial scale pilot plant using EIC's copper sulfate process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and other contaminants from geothermal steam at turbine upstream conditions are discussed. The tests took place over a six month period at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Unit No. 7 at The Geysers Power Plant. These tests were the final phase of a development effort which included the laboratory research and engineering design work which led to the design of the pilot plant. Broadly, the objectives of operating the pilot plant were to confirm the preliminary design criteria which had been developed, and provide data for their revisions, if appropriate, in a plant which contained all the elements of a commercial process using equipment of a size sufficient to provide valid scale-up data. The test campaign was carried out in four phases: water testing; open circuit, i.e., non integrated scrubbing, liquid-solid separation and regeneration testing; closed circuit short term; and closed circuit long term testing.

  12. Origin of the yellow brine and the black brine in Sichuan Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongsheng

    1988-01-01

    The spring water, geothermal water and Cretaceous brine in the outer zone of the Sichuan Basin has the Craig relationship, and they are cycling waters. The brine in the inner zone is mainly metasedimentary water. A basic feature of them is poor in 2 H, but rich in 18 O. The δD-values of the yellow brine in Jurassic and Upper Triassic aquifer of continental facies varies from -62.25 to -22.4, and the δ 18 O-values are -6.72 - +6.02. The δD-values of the black brine in marine aquifer (T 2 ,T 1 ,P,C,O and so on) varies from -49 to -25.1, and the 18 O values are +3.89 - +6.14. The δD of yellow brine is similar to that of meteoric water, and the δD of the black brine is around that of crystallization water expelled from gypsum by anhydritization. Increases of salinity in Jurassic yellow brine result primarily from the evapotranspiration process. The salinity in Upper Triassic yellow brine in Aa sub-area originated from underlying rock salt which was leached by paleometeoric water. Triassic black brine derived from the mixing of the crystallization water leached from rock salt with the residual sea water after salt crystallization. In Zhigong, the composition of yellow brine has mainly been changed by the mixing of the yellow brine with the black brine. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  13. REFUSE OF FERMENTATION BRINES IN THE CUCUMBER PICKLING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The project evaluated on a commercial scale the technological and economic feasibility of recycling spent cucumber fermentation brine. Two brine treatment procedures, heat treatment and chemical treatment, were used. The results showed that brine recycling was practical on a comm...

  14. On the physico-chemical characteristics of brines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Analyses of the natural brines form the salt lakes, salt pans and the artificial brines obtained after the solar desalination of seawater respectively, showed wide differences in their physico-chemical characteristics. The natural brines are markEd...

  15. Solubility of Nd in brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili, F.I.; Symeopoulos, V.; Chen, J.F.; Choppin, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The solubility of Nd(III) has been measured at 23±3 C in a synthetic brine at pcH 6.4, 8.4, 10.4 and 12.4. The brine consisted predominantly of (Na+K)Cl and MgCl 2 with an ionic strength of 7.8 M (9.4 m) a solid compound of Nd(III) at each pcH was assigned from X-ray diffraction patterns. The log values of the experimental solubilities decrease fomr -3 at pcH 6.4 to -5.8 at pcH 8.4; at pcH 10.4 and 12.4 the solubility was below the detection limit of -7.5. The experimental solubility does not follow closely the variation with pcH estimated from modeling of the species in solution in equilibrium with the Nd solid using S.I.T. (orig.)

  16. Bioavailability and stability of mercury sulfide in Armuchee (USA) soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Su, Yi; Monts, David L.; Waggoner, Charles A.; Matta, Frank B.

    2007-01-01

    Because of the adverse effects of elemental mercury and mercury compounds upon human health, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is engaged in an on-going effort to monitor and remediate mercury-contaminated DOE sites. In order to more cost effectively implement those extensive remediation efforts, it is necessary to obtain an improved understanding of the role that mercury and mercury compounds play in the ecosystem. We have conducted pilot scale experiments to study the bioavailability of mercury sulfide in an Armuchee (eastern US ) soil. The effects of plants and incubation time on chemical stability and bioavailability of HgS under simulated conditions of the ecosystem have been examined, as has the dynamics of the dissolution of mercury sulfide by various extractants. The results show that mercury sulfide in contaminated Armuchee soil was still to some extent bioavailable to plants. After planting, soil mercury sulfide is more easily dissolved by both 4 M and 12 M nitric acid than pure mercury sulfide reagent. Dissolution kinetics of soil mercury sulfide and pure chemical reagent by nitric acid are different. Mercury release by EDTA from HgS-contaminated soil increased with time of reaction and soil mercury level. Chelating chemicals increase the solubility and bioavailability of mercury in HgS-contaminated soil. (authors)

  17. Salting by vacuum brine impregnation in nitrite-free lonza: effect on Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Serio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lonza is a traditional Italian meat product made from whole pork muscles, which is typically cured by dry salting. In this work, we study the effects of vacuum brine impregnation (VBI as an alternative salting method on the survival of Enterobacteriaceae, in presence and in absence of nitrites. In comparison with the traditional brining process, VBI contributed to reducing the Enterobacteriaceae population on product surface but induced contamination of the inner muscle tissues. Our results suggest that the species isolated became adapted to processing conditions, and salt tolerance was species- or straindependent. This result is of particular importance for future applications of VBI in lonza manufacturing.

  18. Salting by Vacuum Brine Impregnation in Nitrite-Free Lonza: Effect on Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Annalisa; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Rossi, Chiara; Pittia, Paola; Rosa, Marco Dalla; Paparella, Antonello

    2017-01-24

    Lonza is a traditional Italian meat product made from whole pork muscles, which is typically cured by dry salting. In this work, we study the effects of vacuum brine impregnation (VBI) as an alternative salting method on the survival of Enterobacteriaceae, in presence and in absence of nitrites. In comparison with the traditional brining process, VBI contributed to reducing the Enterobacteriaceae population on product surface but induced contamination of the inner muscle tissues. Our results suggest that the species isolated became adapted to processing conditions, and salt tolerance was species- or strain-dependent. This result is of particular importance for future applications of VBI in lonza manufacturing.

  19. Long-term brine migration through an engineered shaft seal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryar, D.G.; Beach, J.A.; Kelley, V.A.; Knowles, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    The shaft seal system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) must provide a barrier to the migration of fluids within the shafts to prevent the release of contaminants to the accessible environment. To investigate the performance of the shaft seal system, a set of fluid flow performance models was developed based upon the physical characteristics of the WIPP shaft seal system and the surrounding geologic media. This paper describes the results of a numerical model used to investigate the long-term potential for brine migration through the shaft seal system. Modeling results demonstrate that the WIPP shaft seal system will effectively limit brine migration within the repository shafts

  20. Mesostructured metal germanium sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLachlan, M.J.; Coombs, N.; Bedard, R.L.; White, S.; Thompson, L.K.; Ozin, G.A.

    1999-12-29

    A new class of mesostructured metal germanium sulfide materials has been prepared and characterized. The synthesis, via supramolecular assembly of well-defined germanium sulfide anionic cluster precursors and transition-metal cations in formamide, represents a new strategy for the formation of this class of solids. A variety of techniques were employed to examine the structure and composition of the materials. Structurally, the material is best described as a periodic mesostructured metal sulfide-based coordination framework akin to periodic hexagonal mesoporous silica, MCM-41. At the molecular scale, the materials strongly resemble microstructured metal germanium sulfides, in which the structure of the [Ge{sub 4}S{sub 10}]{sup 4{minus}} cluster building-blocks are intact and linked via {mu}-S-M-S bonds. Evidence for a metal-metal bond in mesostructured Cu/Ge{sub 4}S{sub 10} is also provided.

  1. Migration of brine inclusions in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Theories of the migration of brine inclusions in salt are interpreted as simple physical processes, and theories by Russian and U.S. workers are shown to yield the same results. The migration theory is used to predict threshold temperature gradients below which migration of brine inclusions should not occur. The predicted threshold gradients are compared with the temperature gradients expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. The theory of a threshold gradient helps explain the existence of brine inclusions in natural salt deposits

  2. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  3. Waste glass/metal interactions in brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W.; Pederson, L.R.; McVay, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Leaching studies of MCC 76-68 glass in synthetic brines high in NaCl were performed from 50 to 150 0 C and included interactive testing with ductile iron and titanium. Hydrolysis of the glass matrix was generally slower in saturated brines than in deionized water, due to a lower solubility of silica in the brines. Inclusion of ductile iron in the tests resulted in accelerated leach rates because irion-silica reactions occurred which reduced the silica saturation fraction. At 150 0 C, iron also accelerated the rate of crystalline reaction product formation which were primarily Fe-bearing sepiolite and talc. 16 references

  4. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide an easily scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by...

  5. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for extended missions. It is anticipated...

  6. Ice Control with Brine on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars

    traffic flow the spread rate of pure sodium chloride (and thus the environmental impact) in the pre-salting operations was cut back by more than one third. Compared to neighbouring counties the use of salt is less than fifty percent per square meter. In addition, supply of brine from two mixer...... of interpreting this information. The improvements gained by the county of Funen were mainly due to the use of technologies (brine spreading with nozzles) giving a more precise spread pattern than the traditional gritting of pre-wetted salt. Major challenges in the process have been to verify the higher quality...... of the nozzles spread pattern, to ensure maximum utilization of volume of brine carried by the spreading vehicles and to control the mixing of brine without getting stratification in the mixture. Moreover, of course, to ensure political approval of abandoning a well-served technology and to organize...

  7. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for future manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for such extended missions. Water...

  8. Distillation Brine Purification for Resource Recovery Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wastewater processing systems for space generate residual brine that contains water and salts that could be recovered to reduce life support consumables. The project...

  9. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide a scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by reverse...

  10. Jarosite dissolution rates in perchlorate brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legett, Carey; Pritchett, Brittany N.; Elwood Madden, Andrew S.; Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Elwood Madden, Megan E.

    2018-02-01

    Perchlorate salts and the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite have been detected at multiple locations on Mars by both landed instruments and orbiting spectrometers. Many perchlorate brines have eutectic temperatures bearing rocks and sediments may have been altered by perchlorate brines. Here we measured jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M sodium perchlorate brine as well as dilute water at 298 K to determine the effects of perchlorate anions on jarosite dissolution rates and potential reaction products. We developed a simple method for determining aqueous iron concentrations in high salinity perchlorate solutions using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry that eliminates the risk of rapid oxidation reactions during analyses. Jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M perchlorate brine determined by iron release rate (2.87 × 10-12 ±0.85 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) were slightly slower than the jarosite dissolution rate measured in ultrapure (18.2 MΩ cm-1) water (5.06 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) using identical methods. No additional secondary phases were observed in XRD analyses of the reaction products. The observed decrease in dissolution rate may be due to lower activity of water (ɑH2O = 0.9) in the 2 M NaClO4 brine compared with ultrapure water (ɑH2O = 1). This suggests that the perchlorate anion does not facilitate iron release, unlike chloride anions which accelerated Fe release rates in previously reported jarosite and hematite dissolution experiments. Since dissolution rates are slower in perchlorate-rich solutions, jarosite is expected to persist longer in perchlorate brines than in dilute waters or chloride-rich brines. Therefore, if perchlorate brines dominate aqueous fluids on the surface of Mars, jarosite may remain preserved over extended periods of time, despite active aqueous processes.

  11. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  12. Fate of Brine Applied to Unpaved Roads at a Radioactive Waste Subsurface Disposal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larry C. Hull; Carolyn W. Bishop

    2004-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl 2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl - might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl - in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl - concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl - concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl - was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl - remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl - in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface disposal area

  13. Diversity and distribution of eukaryotic microbes in and around a brine pool adjacent to the Thuwal cold seeps in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong

    2014-02-04

    A hypoxic/suboxic brine pool at a depth of about 850 m was discovered near the Thuwal cold seeps in the Red Sea. Filled with high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, such a brine pool might limit the spread of eukaryotic organisms. Here, we compared the communities of the eukaryotic microbes in a microbial mat, sediments and water samples distributed in 7 sites within and adjacent to the brine pool. Taxonomic classification of the pyrosequenced 18S rRNA amplicon reads showed that fungi highly similar to the species identified along the Arabic coast were almost ubiquitous in the water and sediment samples, supporting their wide distribution in various environments. The microbial mat displayed the highest species diversity and contained grazers and a considerable percentage of unclassified species. Phylogeny-based methods revealed novel lineages representing a majority of the reads from the interface between the sea water and brine pool. Phylogenetic relationships with more reference sequences suggest that the lineages were affiliated with novel Alveolata and Euglenozoa inhabiting the interface where chemosynthetic prokaryotes are highly proliferative due to the strong chemocline and halocline. The brine sediments harbored abundant species highly similar to invertebrate gregarine parasites identified in different oxygen-depleted sediments. Therefore, the present findings support the uniqueness of some microbial eukaryotic groups in this cold seep brine system. 2014 Wang, Zhang, Cao, Shek, Tian, Wong, Batang, Al-suwailem and Qian.

  14. Sulfide oxidation in a biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Dezhao, Liu; Hansen, Michael Jørgen

    Observed hydrogen sulfide uptake rates in a biofilter treating waste air from a pig farm were too high to be explained within conventional limits of sulfide solubility, diffusion in a biofilm and bacterial metabolism. Clone libraries of 16S and 18S rRNA genes from the biofilter found no sulfide...... higher hydrogen sulfide uptake followed by oxidation catalyzed by iron-containing enzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase in a process uncoupled from energy conservation....

  15. Sulfide oxidation in a biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Liu, Dezhao; Hansen, Michael Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Observed hydrogen sulfide uptake rates in a biofilter treating waste air from a pig farm were too high to be explained within conventional limits of sulfide solubility, diffusion in a biofilm and bacterial metabolism. Clone libraries of 16S and 18S rRNA genes from the biofilter found no sulfide...... higher hydrogen sulfide uptake followed by oxidation catalyzed by iron-containing enzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase in a process uncoupled from energy conservation....

  16. Titanocene sulfide chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 314, MAY 2016 (2016), s. 83-102 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/2368 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : titanocene sulfide chemistry * photolysis * titanocene hydrosulfides Ti-(SH)n Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 13.324, year: 2016

  17. Electron transfer to sulfides:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, Ana Belen; Antonello, Sabrina; Arevalo, Maria Carmen; Maran, Flavio

    2005-01-01

    The problem of characterizing the steps associated with the dissociative reduction of sulfides has been addressed. The electrochemical reduction of diphenylmethyl para-methoxyphenyl sulfide in N,N-dimethylformamide, on both glassy carbon and mercury electrodes, was chosen as a test system. The electrode process involves the slow heterogeneous outer-sphere electron transfer to the sulfide, the fast cleavage of the C-S bond, the reduction of the ensuing carbon radical, and the self-protonation triggered by the generation of the strong base Ph 2 CH - . The latter reaction is rather slow, in agreement with the large intrinsic barriers characterizing proton transfers between CH-acids and carbon bases. The dissociative reduction was studied in the presence of an exogenous acid. The results, obtained by convolution analysis, point to a stepwise DET mechanism in which the ET step is accompanied by rather large reorganization energy. Similar results were obtained on both electrode materials. Analysis of the heterogeneous electron transfer and associated C-S bond cleavage indicate that the reduction of this and other sulfides lies between the stepwise dissociative electron transfers leading to the formation of stiff π* radical anions and those going through the intermediacy of loose σ* radical anions

  18. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  19. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program: Phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Case, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    This interim report presents preliminary data obtained in the course of the WIPP Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program. The investigations focus on the brine present in the near-field environment around the WIPP underground workings. Although the WIPP underground workings are considered dry, small amounts of brine are present. This amount of brine is not unexpected in rocks of marine sedimentary origin. Part of that brine can and does migrate into the repository in response to pressure gradients, at essentially isothermal conditions. These small volumes of brine have little effect on the day-to-day operations, but are pervasive throughout the repository and may contribute enough moisture over a period of years to affect resaturation and repressurization after sealing and closure. Gas bubbles are observed in many of the brine occurrences. Gas is also known to exsolve from solution as the brine is poured from container to container. 68 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  20. The origin and isotopic composition of dissolved sulfide in groundwater from carbonate aquifers in Florida and Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rye, R.O.; Back, W.; Hanshaw, B.B.; Rightmire, C.T.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The delta 34 S values of dissolved sulfide and the sulfur isotope fractionations between dissolved sulfide and sulfate species in Floridan ground water generally correlate with dissolved sulfate concentrations which are related to flow patterns and residence time within the aquifer. The dissolved sulfide derives from the slow in situ biogenic reduction of sulfate dissolved from sedimentary gypsum in the aquifer. In areas where the water is oldest, the dissolved sulfide has apparently attained isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfate at the temperature of the system. This approach to equilibrium reflects an extremely slow reduction rate of the dissolved sulfate by bacteria; this slow rate probably results from very low concentrations of organic matter in the aquifer. In the reducing part of the Edwards aquifer, Texas, there is a general down-gradient increase in both dissolved sulfide and sulfate concentrations, but neither the delta 34 S values of sulfide nor the sulfide-sulfate isotope fractionation correlates with the ground-water flow pattern. The dissolved sulfide species appear to be derived primarily from biogenic reduction of sulfate ions whose source is gypsum dissolution although upgradient diffusion of H 2 S gas from deeper oil field brines may be important in places. (author)

  1. The impact of radioactivity of brine water on environment on the territory of the Caspian sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamedov, F.I.; Gurbanova, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    At the present, the problem of purification of the petroleum polluted areas is getting essential. The reason of that is the increased scope of work on oil producing and oil refining. Consequently, the risk of contamination of the environment increases. So far, experts have considered that hydrocarbons which are contained in composition of oil waste are most dangerous for environment. In the last decade were discovered tens of different metals, halogens and radioactive elements in the oil, the gas and the brine water.

  2. Impact of Iron Sulfide Transformation on Trichloroethylene Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most common and persistent groundwater contaminants encountered at hazardous waste sites around the world. A growing body of evidence indicates that iron sulfides play an important role in degrading TCE in natural environments and in enginee...

  3. Slumping of brine mounds : bounds on behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, J.R.; Duijn, van C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Two modifications of the approximate analysis of interface motion during two-fluid density-driven flows of De Josselin de Jong (Proc. Euromech., 143: 75–82, 1981) are applied to the slumping of finite two-dimensional and axisymmetric brine mounds. Both lead to simple similarity solutions. One

  4. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m 3 brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs

  5. Mercury contamination extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  6. O papel dos sulfetos volatilizados por acidificação no controle do potencial de biodisponibilidade de metais em sedimentos contaminados de um estuário tropical, no sudeste do Brasil The role of acid volatile sulfide in the control of potential metal bioavailability in contaminated sediments from a tropical estuary, southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Casare Nizoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of acid volatile sulfide (AVS and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM were combined in order to verify the ecological hazard of contaminated sediments from the Santos-Cubatão Estuarine System (SE Brazil, which is located in one of the most industrialized areas in the Latin America. Intertidal sediments from the Morrão River estuary were collected seasonally in short cores. The redox conditions, organic matter contents and grain-size were the main controlling factors on SEM distribution. However, clear relationships among these variables and AVS were not observed. The molar SEM/AVS ratios were frequently > 1 especially in the summer, suggesting major metal bioavailability hazard in this humid hot season.

  7. Approach to recover strategic metals from brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raber, E.; Harrar, J.; Gregg, D.

    1981-09-16

    The objective of the proposed research is to evaluate hypersaline brines from geothermal sources and salt domes as possible sources for some strategic metals. This research is suggested because several previous analyses of brine from geothermal wells in the Imperial Valley, California, and from Gulf Coast salt domes, indicate near commercial values for platinum as well as other metals (i.e., gold, silver). Extraction of the platinum should be technically feasible. A research program should include more complete systematic sampling and analysis for resource delineation, followed by bench-scale investigation of several potential extraction processes. This could be followed by engineering feasibility and design studies, for extraction of the metals either as a by-product of other operations or in a stand-alone process.

  8. Formation of brine channels in sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, Klaus; Thoms, Silke; Kutschan, Bernd

    2017-03-01

    Liquid salty micro-channels (brine) between growing ice platelets in sea ice are an important habitat for CO 2 -binding microalgaea with great impact on polar ecosystems. The structure formation of ice platelets is microscopically described and a phase field model is developed. The pattern formation during solidification of the two-dimensional interstitial liquid is considered by two coupled order parameters, the tetrahedricity as structure of ice and the salinity. The coupling and time evolution of these order parameters are described by a consistent set of three model parameters. They determine the velocity of the freezing process and the structure formation, the phase diagram, the super-cooling and super-heating region, and the specific heat. The model is used to calculate the short-time frozen micro-structures. The obtained morphological structure is compared with the vertical brine pore space obtained from X-ray computed tomography.

  9. Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from Unpaved Roads at the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larry Hull; Carolyn Bishop

    2004-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl 2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl - might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl - in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl - concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl - concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl - was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl - remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl - in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface disposal area

  10. Modeling of brine migration in halite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, H.; Fuller, M.E.; Gaffney, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    When canisters containing radwastes are emplaced in a repository the heat produced by the decaying radwaste will cause moderate thermal gradients to develop which will cause the brine present in a halite medium (salt deposits) to accumulate around the canister. Four different models of the migration process have been reviewed to determine their suitability as a working model. One model predicts that inclusions smaller than 0.1 mm dimension probably will not migrate. The other models do not consider size as a factor. Thermal diffusion (Soret effect) is considered insignificant in three models, while in the fourth model it is added to the concentration diffusion term. The following conclusions can be made: Temperature is the most significant parameter in all models and must be known as a function of time, and distance from the canister. All four models predict about the same migration velocity for it is a given set of conditions; for 100 0 C and 1 0 C/cm thermal gradient, it is 3.0, 4.8, 5.6 and 6.4 mm/y. Diffusion of ions through the brine inclusions is the rate controlling mechanism. The difference between the thermal gradients in the liquid and in the solid should always be considered and is a function of droplet shape. The model based upon work by Nernst is easiest to use, but it predicts the lowest migration rate. The maximum volume of pure brine accumulated at the canister surface would be less than 20-40 liters in 50 years, for a canister initial thermal power of 3.5 kW.Bitterns would migrate proportionately less volume. A computer code, BRINE, was developed to make these calculations by means of any of the four models

  11. Sulfide treatment to inhibit mercury adsorption onto activated carbon in carbon-in-pulp gold recovery circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touro, F.J.; Lipps, D.A.

    1988-03-29

    A process for treating a mercury-contaminated, precious metal-containing ore slurry is described comprising: (a) reacting sulfide anions in an aqueous ore slurry of a mercury and precious metal-containing carbonaceous ore, and (b) conducting a simultaneous cyanide leach and carbon-in-pulp adsorption of the precious metal from the carbonaceous ore in the sulfide-containing ore slurry.

  12. Evolution of hydrologic systems and brine geochemistry in a deforming salt medium: Data from WIPP brine seeps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Roggenthen, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) is a formalized continuation of studies that began in 1982 as part of the Site Validation Program. The program was established in 1985. The mission was to document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and the seepage of that brine into the WIPP excavations. This document focuses on the cumulative data obtained from the BSEP. The overall activities of the BSEP described and quantified the brine. It includes documentation and study of brine inflow into boreholes in the facility. The BSEP investigated the occurrence and development of brine weeps, crusts, and brine geochemistry. The presence of salt-tolerant bacteria in the workings was recorded and their possible interactions with experiments and operations, was assessed. The formation properties associated with the occurrence of brine was characterized. The determination of formation properties included the water content of various geologic units, direct examination of these units in boreholes using a video camera system, and measurement of electrical properties relatable to the brine contents. Modeling examined the interaction of salt deformation near the workings and the flow of brine through the deforming rocks. 34 refs

  13. The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (PSEP) at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Roggenthen, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Permian salt beds of the WIPP facility are virtually dry. The amount of water present in the rocks exposed in the excavations that is free to migrate under pressure gradients was estimated by heating salt samples to 95 degrees C and measuring weight loss. Clear balite contains about 0.22 weight percent water and the more argillaceous units average about 0.75 percent. Measurements made since 1984 as part of the Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) indicate that small amounts of this brine can migrate into the excavations and does accumulate in the underground environment. Brine seepage into drillholes monitored since thy were drilled show that brine seepage decreases with time and that many have dried up entirely. Weeping of brine from the walls of the repository excavations also decreases after two or more years. Chemical analyses of brines shows that they are sodium-chloride saturated and magnesium-rich

  14. OUT Success Stories: Chemical Treatments for Geothermal Brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, R.

    2000-01-01

    DOE research helped develop the large, untapped geothermal resource beneath the Salton Sea in California's Imperial Valley. The very hot brines under high pressure make them excellent for electric power production. The brines are very corrosive and contain high concentrations of dissolved silica. DOE worked with San Diego Gas and Electric Company to find a solution to the silica-scaling problem. This innovative brine treatment eliminated scaling and made possible the development of the Salton Sea geothermal resource

  15. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of sulfide mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main sulfide minerals organized by structure type

  16. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.

    2006-08-01

    The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of sulfide mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main sulfide minerals organized by

  17. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  18. Evaluation of Brine Processing Technologies for Spacecraft Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Hali L.; Flynn, Michael; Wisniewski, Richard; Lee, Jeffery; Jones, Harry; Delzeit, Lance; Shull, Sarah; Sargusingh, Miriam; Beeler, David; Howard, Jeanie; hide

    2015-01-01

    Brine drying systems may be used in spaceflight. There are several advantages to using brine processing technologies for long-duration human missions including a reduction in resupply requirements and achieving high water recovery ratios. The objective of this project was to evaluate four technologies for the drying of spacecraft water recycling system brine byproducts. The technologies tested were NASA's Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD), Paragon's Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), NASA's Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) System, and UMPQUA's Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the hardware using feed streams composed of brines similar to those generated on board the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. The brine formulations used for testing were the ISS Alternate Pretreatment and Solution 2 (Alt Pretreat). The brines were generated using the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator, which is a vapor compression distillation system that is used to simulate the function of the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Each system was evaluated based on the results from testing and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) calculations. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was also developed as a method to compare the different technologies based on customer and engineering requirements.

  19. Selective Recovery of Metals from Geothermal Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, Susanna [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bhamidi, Srinivas [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hornbostel, Marc [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nagar, Anoop [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Perea, Elisabeth [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of developing a new generation of highly selective low-cost ion-exchange resins based on metal-ion imprinted polymers for the separation of metals from geothermal fluids. Expansion of geothermal energy production over the entire U.S. will involve exploitation of low-to-medium temperature thermal waters. Creating value streams from the recovery of critical and near-critical metals from these thermal waters will encourage geothermal expansion. Selective extraction of metals from geothermal fluids is needed to design a cost-effective process for the recovery of lithium and manganese-two near-critical metals with well-known application in the growing lithium battery industry. We have prepared new lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymers in the form of beads by crosslinking polymerization of a metal polymerizable chelate, where the metal acts as a template. Upon leaching out the metal template, the crosslinked polymer is expected to leave cavities defined by the ligand functional group with enhanced selectivity for binding the template metal. We have demonstrated that lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymer beads can be used as selective solid sorbents for the extraction of lithium and manganese from brines. The polymers were tested both in batch extractions and packed bed lab-scale columns at temperatures of 45-100°C. Lithium-imprinted polymers were found to have Li+ adsorption capacity as high as 2.8 mg Li+/g polymer at 45°C. Manganese-imprinted polymers were found to have a Mn2+ adsorption capacity of more than 23 mg Mn2+/g polymer at 75°C. The Li+ extraction efficiency of the Li-imprinted polymer was found to be more that 95% when a brine containing 390 ppm Li+, 410 ppm Na+, and 390 ppm K+ was passed through a packed bed of the polymer in a lab-scale column at 45°C. In brines containing 360 ppm Li

  20. Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

    1981-07-01

    The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0) 3 ), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl 2 showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85 0 C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste

  1. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  2. Pressure-driven brine migration in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-01-01

    The traditional view is that salt is the ideal rock for isolation of nuclear waste because it is ''dry'' and probably ''impermeable.'' The existence of salt through geologic time is prima facie evidence of such properties. Experiments and experience at potential salt sites for geologic repositories have indicated that while porosity and permeability of salt are low, the salt may be saturated with brine. If this hypothesis is correct, then it is possible to have brine flow due to pressure differences within the salt. If there is pressure-driven brine migration in salt repositories then it is paramount to know the magnitude of such flow because inward brine flow would affect the corrosion rate of nuclear waste containers and outward brine flow might affect radionuclide transport rates. Brine exists in natural salt as inclusions in salt crystals and in grain boundaries. Brine inclusions in crystals move to nearby grain boundaries when subjected to a temperature gradient, because of temperature-dependent solubility of salt. Brine in grain boundaries moves under the influence of a pressure gradient. When salt is mined to create a waste repository, brine from grain boundaries will migrate into the rooms, tunnels and boreholes because these cavities are at atmospheric pressure. After a heat-emitting waste package is emplaced and backfilled, the heat will impose a temperature gradient in the surrounding salt that will cause inclusions in the nearby salt to migrate to grain boundaries within a few years, adding to the brine that was already present in the grain boundaries. The formulation of brine movement with salt as a thermoelastic porous medium, in the context of the continuum theory of mixtures, has been described. In this report we show the mathematical details and discuss the results predicted by this analysis

  3. Mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2002-01-01

    The mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide with iron was induced in a Fritsch P-6 planetary mill, using WC vial filled with argon and WC balls. Samples milled for specific intervals were analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Most of the reaction takes place during the first 10 min...... of milling and only FeS and Cu are found after 60 min. The main chemical process is accompanied by phase transformations of the sulfide phases as a result of milling. Djurleite partially transformed to chalcocite and a tetragonal copper sulfide phase before reduction. The cubic modification of FeS was formed...... first, transforming to hexagonal during the later stages of the process. The formation of off-stoichiometric phases and the release of some elemental sulfur by copper sulfide are also probable....

  4. Lanthanide complexes as luminogenic probes to measure sulfide levels in industrial samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, Megan K.; Ung, Phuc; Leaver, Franklin M.; Corbin, Teresa S.; Tuck, Kellie L.; Graham, Bim; Barrios, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    A series of lanthanide-based, azide-appended complexes were investigated as hydrogen sulfide-sensitive probes. Europium complex 1 and Tb complex 3 both displayed a sulfide-dependent increase in luminescence, while Tb complex 2 displayed a decrease in luminescence upon exposure to NaHS. The utility of the complexes for monitoring sulfide levels in industrial oil and water samples was investigated. Complex 3 provided a sensitive measure of sulfide levels in petrochemical water samples (detection limit ∼ 250 nM), while complex 1 was capable of monitoring μM levels of sulfide in partially refined crude oil. - Highlights: • Lanthanide–azide based sulfide sensors were synthesized and characterized. • The probes have excitation and emission profiles compatible with sulfide-contaminated samples from the petrochemical industry. • A terbium-based probe was used to measure the sulfide concentration in oil refinery wastewater. • A europium-based probe had compatibility with partially refined crude oil samples.

  5. Lanthanide complexes as luminogenic probes to measure sulfide levels in industrial samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorson, Megan K. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah College of Pharmacy, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Ung, Phuc [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Leaver, Franklin M. [Water & Energy Systems Technology, Inc., Kaysville, UT 84037 (United States); Corbin, Teresa S. [Quality Services Laboratory, Tesoro Refining and Marketing, Salt Lake City, UT 84103 (United States); Tuck, Kellie L., E-mail: kellie.tuck@monash.edu [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Graham, Bim, E-mail: bim.graham@monash.edu [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Barrios, Amy M., E-mail: amy.barrios@utah.edu [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah College of Pharmacy, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States)

    2015-10-08

    A series of lanthanide-based, azide-appended complexes were investigated as hydrogen sulfide-sensitive probes. Europium complex 1 and Tb complex 3 both displayed a sulfide-dependent increase in luminescence, while Tb complex 2 displayed a decrease in luminescence upon exposure to NaHS. The utility of the complexes for monitoring sulfide levels in industrial oil and water samples was investigated. Complex 3 provided a sensitive measure of sulfide levels in petrochemical water samples (detection limit ∼ 250 nM), while complex 1 was capable of monitoring μM levels of sulfide in partially refined crude oil. - Highlights: • Lanthanide–azide based sulfide sensors were synthesized and characterized. • The probes have excitation and emission profiles compatible with sulfide-contaminated samples from the petrochemical industry. • A terbium-based probe was used to measure the sulfide concentration in oil refinery wastewater. • A europium-based probe had compatibility with partially refined crude oil samples.

  6. LIGNOCELLULOSE NANOCOMPOSITE CONTAINING COPPER SULFIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchi Nenkova; Peter Velev; Mirela Dragnevska; Diyana Nikolova; Kiril Dimitrov

    2011-01-01

    Copper sulfide-containing lignocellulose nanocomposites with improved electroconductivity were obtained. Two methods for preparing the copper sulfide lignocellulose nanocomposites were developed. An optimization of the parameters for obtaining of the nanocomposites with respect to obtaining improved electroconductivity, economy, and lower quantities and concentration of copper and sulfur ions in waste waters was conducted. The mechanisms and schemes of delaying and subsequent connection of co...

  7. Domal salt brine migration experiments at Avery Island, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, W.B.; Gnirk, P.F.

    1981-01-01

    Three in-situ brine migration experiments were performed in domal salt in the Avery Island mine located in southwestern Louisiana. The primary measurements included temperature, moisture collection, and pre- and post-test permeability at the experimental sites. Experimental data are discussed and compared with calculations based on the single-crystal brine migration theory. Comparisons indicate reasonable agreement between experiment and theory

  8. Mantle helium in the Red Sea brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, J.E.; Weiss, R.F.; Craig, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that He isotope studies of terrestrial samples have shown the existence of two He components that are clearly distinct from atmospheric He. These are termed 'crustal' He and 'mantle' He; the latter was discovered as 'excess 3 He' in deep ocean water and attributed to a flux of primordial He from the mantle. Studies of the 3 He/ 4 He ratio in deep Pacific water and in He trapped in submarine basalt glasses showed that this 'mantle' component is characterised by ratios about ten times the atmospheric ratio and 100 times the ratio in 'crustal' He. Basalt glasses from other deep sea waters also showed similar ratios, and it is indicated that 'mantle' He in areas in which new lithosphere is being formed has a unique and uniform isotopic signature. Measurements of He and Ne are here reported that reveal additional information on the origin of Red Sea brines and their relationship to the Red Sea rifts. (U.K.)

  9. Radionuclide transport in sandstones with WIPP brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed, H.C.; Bazan, F.; Fontanilla, J.; Garrison, J.; Rego, J.; Winslow, A.M.

    1981-02-01

    Retardation factors (R) have been measured for the transport of 3 H, /sup 95m/Tc, and 85 Sr in WIPP brine using St. Peter, Berea, Kayenta, and San Felipe sandstone cores. If tritium is assumed to have R=1, /sup 95m/Tc has R=1.0 to 1.3 and therefore is essentially not retarded. Strontium-85 has R = 1.0 to 1.3 on St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta, but R=3 on San Felipe. This is attributed to sorption on the matrix material of San Felipe, which has 45 volume % matrix compared with 1 to 10 volume % for the others. Retardation factors (R/sub s/) for 85 Sr calculated from static sorption measurements are unity for all the sandstones. Therefore, the static and transport results for 85 Sr disagree in the case of San Felipe, but agree for St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta

  10. Evaporation Rates of Brine on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Chittenden, J.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    While Mars is now largely a dry and barren place, recent data have indicated that water has flowed at specific locations within the last approx. 10(exp 6) y. This had led to a resurgence of interest in theoretical and experimental work aimed at understanding the behavior of water on Mars. There are several means whereby the stability of liquid water on Mars could be increased, one being the presence solutes that would depress the freezing point. Salt water on Earth is about 0.5M NaCl, but laboratory experiments suggest that martian salt water is quite different. We recently began a program of laboratory measurements of the stability of liquid water, ice and ice-dust mixtures under martian conditions and here report measurements of the evaporation rate of 0.25M brine.

  11. Well bore Flow Treatment Used to Predict Radioactive Brine Releases to the Surface from Future Drilling Penetrations into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brien, D.G.O.; Stoelzel, D.M.; Hadgu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) mined geologic repository in southeastern New Mexico, USA.This site is designed for the permanent burial of transuranic radioactive waste generated by defense related activities.The waste produces gases when exposed to brine. This gas generation may result in increased pressures over time. Therefore, a future driller that unknowingly penetrates through the site may experience a blowout. This paper describes the methodology used to predict the resultant volumes of contaminated brine released

  12. Brine migration in hot-pressed polycrystalline sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggers, J.V.; Dayton, G.O.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes experiments designed to provide data on brine migration in polycrystalline salt. Polycrystalling samples of various grain sizes, density, and purity were prepared from several commercial-grade salts by hot-pressing. Three distinct experimental set-ups were used to place salt billets in an induced thermal gradient in contact with brine source. The test designs varied primarily in the way in which the thermal gradient was applied and monitored and the way in which brine migration was determined. All migration was in enclosed vessels which precluded visual observation of brine movement through the microstructure. Migration velocities were estimated either by the timed appearance of brine at the hot face of the sample, or by determination of the penetration distance of migration artifacts in the microstructure after tests of fixed duration. For various reasons both of these methods were subject to a large degree of error. Our results suggest, however, that the migration velocity in dense polycrystalline salt may be at least an order of magnitude greater than that suggested by single-crystal experiments. Microstructural analysis shows that brine prefers to migrate along paths of high crystalline activity such as grain and subgrain boundaries and is dispersed rather quickly in the microstructure. A series of tests were performed using various types of tracers in brine in order to flag migration paths and locate brine in the microstructure more decisively. These attempts failed and it appears that only the aqueous portion of the brine moves through the microstructure with the dissolved ions being lost and replaced rather quickly. This suggests the use of deuterium as a tracer in future work

  13. A Reaction Involving Oxygen and Metal Sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William D. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a procedure for oxygen generation by thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate in presence of manganese dioxide, reacted with various sulfides. Provides a table of sample product yields for various sulfides. (JM)

  14. Effect of oxygen co-injected with carbon dioxide on Gothic shale caprock–CO2brine interaction during geologic carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-09-01

    Co-injection of oxygen, a significant component in CO2 streams produced by the oxyfuel combustion process, can cause a significant alteration of the redox state in deep geologic formations during geologic carbon sequestration. The potential impact of co-injected oxygen on the interaction between synthetic CO2brine (0.1 M NaCl) and shale caprock (Gothic shale from the Aneth Unit in Utah) and mobilization of trace metals was investigated at ~ 10 MPa and ~ 75 °C. A range of relative volume percentages of O2 to CO2 (0, 1, 4 and 8%) were used in these experiments to address the effect of oxygen on shale–CO2brine interaction under various conditions. Major mineral phases in Gothic shale are quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and pyrite. During Gothic shale–CO2brine interaction in the presence of oxygen, pyrite oxidation occurred extensively and caused enhanced dissolution of calcite and dolomite. Pyrite oxidation and calcite dissolution subsequently resulted in the precipitation of Fe(III) oxides and gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). In the presence of oxygen, dissolved Mn and Ni were elevated because of oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The mobility of dissolved Ba was controlled by barite (BaSO4) precipitation in the presence of oxygen. Dissolved U in the experimental brines increased to ~ 8–14 μg/L, with concentrations being slightly higher in the absence of oxygen than in the presence of oxygen. Experimental and modeling results indicate the interaction between shale caprock and oxygen co-injected with CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration can exert significant impacts on brine pH, solubility of carbonate minerals, stability of sulfide minerals, and mobility of trace metals. The major impact of oxygen is most likely to occur in the zone near CO2 injection wells where impurity gases can accumulate. Finally, oxygen in CO2brine

  15. Sulfide-conducting solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinina, L.A.; Shirokova, G.I.; Murin, I.V.; Ushakova, Yu.N.; Fominykh, E.G.; Lyalina, M.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    Feasibility of sulfide transfer in phases on the basis of BaZrS 3 and MLn 2 S 4 ( M = Ca, Ba; Ln = La, Y, Tm, Nd, Sm, Pr) is considered. Solid solution regions on the basis of ternary compounds are determined. Systematic study of the phases is carried out making use of the methods of conductometry, emf in chemical concentration chains without/with transfer, potentiostatic chronoamperometry. Possible mechanism of defect formation during successive alloying of ternary sulfides by binary ones in suggested [ru

  16. Hydrogeochemical characterization and groundwater quality assessment in intruded coastal brine aquifers (Laizhou Bay, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Miao, Jinjie; Hu, Bill X; Liu, Hongwei; Zhang, Hanxiong; Ma, Zhen

    2017-09-01

    The aquifer in the coastal area of the Laizhou Bay is affected by salinization processes related to intense groundwater exploitation for brine resource and for agriculture irrigation during the last three decades. As a result, the dynamic balances among freshwater, brine, and seawater have been disturbed and the quality of groundwater has deteriorated. To fully understand the groundwater chemical distribution and evolution in the regional aquifers, hydrogeochemical and isotopic studies have been conducted based on the water samples from 102 observation wells. Groundwater levels and salinities in four monitoring wells are as well measured to inspect the general groundwater flow and chemical patterns and seasonal variations. Chemical components such as Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Sr 2+ , Cl - , SO 4 2- , HCO 3 - , NO 3 - , F - , and TDS during the same period are analyzed to explore geochemical evolution, water-rock interactions, sources of salt, nitrate, and fluoride pollution in fresh, brackish, saline, and brine waters. The decreased water levels without typical seasonal variation in the southeast of the study area confirm an over-exploitation of groundwater. The hydrogeochemical characteristics indicate fresh-saline-brine-saline transition pattern from inland to coast where evaporation is a vital factor to control the chemical evolution. The cation exchange processes are occurred at fresh-saline interfaces of mixtures along the hydraulic gradient. Meanwhile, isotopic data indicate that the brine in aquifers was either originated from older meteoric water with mineral dissolution and evaporation or repeatedly evaporation of retained seawater with fresher water recharge and mixing in geological time. Groundwater suitability for drinking is further evaluated according to water quality standard of China. Results reveal high risks of nitrate and fluoride contamination. The elevated nitrate concentration of 560 mg/L, which as high as 28 times of the standard content

  17. Nanostructured metal sulfides for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xianhong; Tan, Huiteng; Yan, Qingyu

    2014-08-01

    Advanced electrodes with a high energy density at high power are urgently needed for high-performance energy storage devices, including lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs), to fulfil the requirements of future electrochemical power sources for applications such as in hybrid electric/plug-in-hybrid (HEV/PHEV) vehicles. Metal sulfides with unique physical and chemical properties, as well as high specific capacity/capacitance, which are typically multiple times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials, are currently studied as promising electrode materials. However, the implementation of these sulfide electrodes in practical applications is hindered by their inferior rate performance and cycling stability. Nanostructures offering the advantages of high surface-to-volume ratios, favourable transport properties, and high freedom for the volume change upon ion insertion/extraction and other reactions, present an opportunity to build next-generation LIBs and SCs. Thus, the development of novel concepts in material research to achieve new nanostructures paves the way for improved electrochemical performance. Herein, we summarize recent advances in nanostructured metal sulfides, such as iron sulfides, copper sulfides, cobalt sulfides, nickel sulfides, manganese sulfides, molybdenum sulfides, tin sulfides, with zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensional morphologies for LIB and SC applications. In addition, the recently emerged concept of incorporating conductive matrices, especially graphene, with metal sulfide nanomaterials will also be highlighted. Finally, some remarks are made on the challenges and perspectives for the future development of metal sulfide-based LIB and SC devices.

  18. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  19. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S...

  20. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  1. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on elemental analysis of brines by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goueguel, Christian; Singh, Jagdish P; McIntyre, Dustin L; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2014-01-01

    Leakage of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) or resident fluids, such as brine, is a major concern associated with the injection of large volumes of CO2 into deep saline formations. Migration of brine could contaminate drinking water resources by increasing their salinity or endanger vegetation and animal life as well as human health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the detection of calcium and potassium in brine samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goals were to determine the suitability of the LIBS technique for in situ measurements of metal ion concentrations in NaCl-rich solution and to develop a chemical sensor that can provide the early detection of brine intrusion into formations used for domestic or agricultural water production. Several brine samples of NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-KCl were prepared at NaCl concentrations between 0.0 and 3.0 M. The effect of NaCl concentration on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for calcium (422.67 nm) and potassium (769.49 nm) emission lines was evaluated. Results show that, for a delay time of 300 ns and a gate width of 3 μs, the presence of and changes in NaCl concentration significantly affect the SBR and SNR for both emission lines. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0.0 to 3.0 M produced an increase in the SNR, whereas the SBR dropped continuously. The detection limits obtained for both elements were in the milligrams per liter range, suggesting that a NaCl-rich solution does not severely limit the ability of LIBS to detect trace amount of metal ions.

  2. Modelling CO2-Brine Interfacial Tension using Density Gradient Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Ruslan, Mohd Fuad Anwari Che

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a new modelling strategy to compute CO2-brine IFT based on DGT was proposed. In the proposed model, ion distribution across interface was accounted for by separating the interface to two sections

  3. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    25240, Erzurum, Turkey. Accepted 25 ... ripened soft cheese that is maturated in brine to develop the desired ... functions, salt exerts a number of important effects on cheese. ..... In: Fox PF (ed) Cheese: chemistry, physics and.

  4. determination of toxicity levels of some savannah plants using brine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    DETERMINATION OF TOXICITY LEVELS OF SOME SAVANNAH PLANTS. USING BRINE ... Adoum, O. A.. Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, P.M.B. 3011, Kano – Nigeria. ... 1000, 100, and 10 µg/ml, respectively.

  5. A network model for characterizing brine channels in sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieblappen, Ross M.; Kumar, Deip D.; Pauls, Scott D.; Obbard, Rachel W.

    2018-03-01

    The brine pore space in sea ice can form complex connected structures whose geometry is critical in the governance of important physical transport processes between the ocean, sea ice, and surface. Recent advances in three-dimensional imaging using X-ray micro-computed tomography have enabled the visualization and quantification of the brine network morphology and variability. Using imaging of first-year sea ice samples at in situ temperatures, we create a new mathematical network model to characterize the topology and connectivity of the brine channels. This model provides a statistical framework where we can characterize the pore networks via two parameters, depth and temperature, for use in dynamical sea ice models. Our approach advances the quantification of brine connectivity in sea ice, which can help investigations of bulk physical properties, such as fluid permeability, that are key in both global and regional sea ice models.

  6. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) project will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration for a lightweight, compact, affordable, regenerable and disposable...

  7. Brine treatment, smoking and storage techniques: their effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Food Technology in Africa ... Brine treatment, smoking and storage techniques: their effects on the microbial quality of smoked mackerel. ... off odour development, softening of the fish and positively affected personal preference.

  8. Monitoring of Miit glass solution interactions by brine analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassoon, R.E.; Gong, M.; Adel-Hadadi, M.; Brandys, M.; Barkatt, A.; Macedo, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of brine samples taken from borehole MIIT=8 at the WIPP site were carried out in order to study the leaching behavior of the brine in this system. The standard addition method was used with the analytical techniques of AA, DCP and ICP-MS to determine the concentration of the components in the brine. The changes in the concentration of the major components, Na, Mg and K can be explained by reactions of the brine with the rock salt walls of the borehole. From the data obtained for the other components no leaching of the SRL-Y glass discs in the test could be observed. It was however possible to determine an upper limit for leaching of the glass from isotope ratio studies made on Li which yielded a value for the leach rate of lithium from the glass of 0.117 g m -2 d -1

  9. Physiological characteristics of bacteria isolated from water brines within permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, V.; Rivkina, E.; Laurinavichuis, K.; Pecheritsina, S.; Gilichinsky, D.

    2004-01-01

    In the Arctic there are lenses of overcooled water brines (cryopegs) sandwiched within permafrost marine sediments 100 120 thousand years old. We have investigated the physiological properties of the pure cultures of anaerobic Clostridium sp. strain 14D1 and two strains of aerobic bacteria Psychrobacter sp. isolated from these cryopegs. The structural and physiological characteristics of new bacteria from water brines have shown their ability to survive and develop under harsh conditions, such as subzero temperatures and high salinity.

  10. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  11. STUDY OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lupascu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of the hydrogen sulfide removal from the underground water of the Hancesti town has been investigated. By oxygen bubbling through the water containing hydrogen sulfide, from the Hancesti well tube, sulfur is deposited in the porous structure of studied catalysts, which decreases their catalytic activity. Concomitantly, the process of adsorption / oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate take place. The kinetic research of the hydrogen sulfide removal from the Hancesti underground water, after its treatment by hydrogen peroxide, proves greater efficiency than in the case of modified carbonic adsorbents. As a result of used treatment, hydrogen sulfide is completely oxidized to sulfates

  12. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-02-01

    It has been proposed that the high level nuclear waste be buried deep underground in a suitable geologic formation. Natural salt deposits have been under active consideration as one of the geologic formations where a nuclear waste repository may be built in future. The salt deposits, however, are known to contain a small amount (about 0.5 vol.%) of water in the form of brine inclusions which are dispersed throughout the medium. The temperature gradients imposed by the heat generating nuclear waste will mobilize these brine inclusions. It is important to know the rate and the amount of brine accumulating at the waste packages to properly evaluate the performance of a nuclear waste repository. An extensive experimental investigation of the migration velocities of brine inclusions in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and in polycrystalline natural salt crystals has been conducted. The results show that in a salt repository the brine inclusions within a grain would move with the diffusion controlled velocities. The brine reaching a grain boundary may be swept across, if the thermal gradient is high enough. Grain boundaries in polycrystalline rock salt are apparently quite weak and open up due to drilling the hole for a waste canister and to the thermal stresses which accompany the thermal gradient produced by the heat generating waste. The enhanced porosity allows the water reaching the grain boundary to escape by a vapor transport process

  13. Brine: a computer program to compute brine migration adjacent to a nuclear waste canister in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, G.D.; Fuller, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a mathematical model used to predict brine migration toward a nuclear waste canister in a bedded salt repository. The mathematical model is implemented in a computer program called BRINE. The program is written in FORTRAN and executes in the batch mode on a CDC 7600. A description of the program input requirements and output available is included. Samples of input and output are given

  14. Measurement and modeling of CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Huang, Shengli; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    over climate change and energy security. This work is an experimental and modeling study of two fundamental properties in high pressure CO2–NaCl brine equilibrium, i.e., CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density. A literature review of the available data was presented first...

  15. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-09-01

    It has been proposed that high-level nuclear waste be disposed in a geologic repository. Natural-salt deposits, which are being considered for this purpose, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive-decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In this work, thermal gradient migration of both all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is non-linear.At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boundaries was observed. 35 figures, 3 tables

  16. Effects of brine migration on waste storage systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, E.S.; Nickell, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Processes which can lead to mobilization of brine adjacent to spent fuel or nuclear waste canisters and some of the thermomechanical consequences have been investigated. Velocities as high as 4 x 10 -7 m s -1 (13 m y -1 ) are calculated at the salt/canister boundary. As much as 40 liters of pure NaCl brine could accumulate around each canister during a 10-year storage period. Accumulations of bittern brines would probably be less, in the range of 2 to 5 liters. With 0.5% water, NaCl brine accumulation over a 10-year storage cycle around a spent fuel canister producing 0.6 kW of heat is expected to be less than 1 liter for centimeter-size inclusions and less than 0.5 liter for millimeter-size inclusions. For bittern brines, about 25 years would be required to accumulate 0.4 liter. The most serious mechanical consequence of brine migration would be the increased mobility of the waste canister due to pressure solution. In pressure solution enhanced deformation, the existence of a thin film of fluid either between grains or between media (such as between a canister and the salt) provides a pathway by which the salt can be redistributed leading to a marked increase in strain rates in wet rock relative to dry rock. In salt, intergranular water will probably form discontinuous layers rather than films so that they would dominate pressure solution. A mathematical model of pressure solution indicates that pressure solution will not lead to appreciable canister motions except possibly in fine grained rocks (less than 10 -4 m). In fine grained salts, details of the contact surface between the canister and the salt bed may lead to large pressure solution motions. A numerical model indicates that heat transfer in the brine layer surrounding a spent fuel canister is not conduction dominated but has a significant convective component

  17. Thermal gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level nuclear wastes repositories, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In the present work, thermal gradient migration of both all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boudaries was observed

  18. Formation of mercury sulfide from Hg(II)−thiolate complexes in natural organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain Manceau,; Cyprien Lemouchi,; Mironel Enescu,; Anne-Claire Gaillot,; Martine Lanson,; Valerie Magnin,; Pieter Glatzel,; Poulin, Brett; Ryan, Joseph N.; Aiken, George R.; Isabelle Gautier-Lunea,; Kathryn L. Nagy,

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury is the environmental form of neurotoxic mercury that is biomagnified in the food chain. Methylation rates are reduced when the metal is sequestered in crystalline mercury sulfides or bound to thiol groups in macromolecular natural organic matter. Mercury sulfide minerals are known to nucleate in anoxic zones, by reaction of the thiol-bound mercury with biogenic sulfide, but not in oxic environments. We present experimental evidence that mercury sulfide forms from thiol-bound mercury alone in aqueous dark systems in contact with air. The maximum amount of nanoparticulate mercury sulfide relative to thiol-bound mercury obtained by reacting dissolved mercury and soil organic matter matches that detected in the organic horizon of a contaminated soil situated downstream from Oak Ridge, TN, in the United States. The nearly identical ratios of the two forms of mercury in field and experimental systems suggest a common reaction mechanism for nucleating the mineral. We identified a chemical reaction mechanism that is thermodynamically favorable in which thiol-bound mercury polymerizes to mercury–sulfur clusters. The clusters form by elimination of sulfur from the thiol complexes via breaking of mercury–sulfur bonds as in an alkylation reaction. Addition of sulfide is not required. This nucleation mechanism provides one explanation for how mercury may be immobilized, and eventually sequestered, in oxygenated surface environments.

  19. LIGNOCELLULOSE NANOCOMPOSITE CONTAINING COPPER SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchi Nenkova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Copper sulfide-containing lignocellulose nanocomposites with improved electroconductivity were obtained. Two methods for preparing the copper sulfide lignocellulose nanocomposites were developed. An optimization of the parameters for obtaining of the nanocomposites with respect to obtaining improved electroconductivity, economy, and lower quantities and concentration of copper and sulfur ions in waste waters was conducted. The mechanisms and schemes of delaying and subsequent connection of copper sulfides in the lignocellulosic matrix were investigated. The modification with a system of 2 components: cupric sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4. 5H2O and sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (Na2S2O3.5H2O for wood fibers is preferred. Optimal parameters were established for the process: 40 % of the reduction system; hydromodule M=1:6; and ratio of cupric sulfate pentahydrate:sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate = 1:2. The coordinative connection of copper ions with oxygen atoms of cellulose OH groups and aromatic nucleus in lignin macromolecule was observed.

  20. Chemical dissolution of sulfide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Chemical dissolution treatments involving the use of aqua regia, 4 N HNO3, H2O2-ascorbic acid, oxalic acid, KClO3+HCl, and KClO3+HCl followed by 4 N HNO3 were applied to specimens of nine common sulfide minerals (galena, chalcopyrite, cinnabar, molybdenite, orpiment, pyrite, stibnite, sphalerite, and tetrahedrite) mixed individually with a clay loam soil. The resultant decrease in the total sulfur content of the mixture, as determined by using the Leco induction furnace, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of each chemical treatment. A combination of KClO3+HCl followed by 4 N HNO3 boiling gently for 20 min has been shown to be very effective in dissolving all the sulfide minerals. This treatment is recommended to dissolve metals residing in sulfide minerals admixed with secondary weathering products, as one step in a fractionation scheme whereby metals in soluble and adsorbed forms, and those associated with organic materials and secondary oxides, are first removed by other chemical extractants.

  1. Chemistry of glass corrosion in high saline brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.; Mueller, R.

    1990-01-01

    Corrosion data obtained in laboratory tests can be used for the performance assessment of nuclear waste glasses in a repository if the data are quantitatively described in the frame of a geochemical model. Experimental data were obtained for conventional pH values corrected for liquid junction, amorphous silica solubility and glass corrosion in concentrated salt brines. The data were interpreted with a geochemical model. The brine chemistry was described with the Pitzer formalism using a data base which allows calculation of brine compositions in equilibrium with salt minerals at temperatures up to 200C. In MgCl 2 dominated brines Mg silicates form and due to the consumption of Mg the pH decreases with proceeding reaction. A constant pH (about 4) and composition of alteration products is achieved, when the alkali release from the glass balances the Mg consumption. The low pH results in high release of rare earth elements REE (rare earth elements) and U from the glass. In the NaCl dominated brine MgCl 2 becomes exhausted by Mg silicate formation. As long as there is still Mg left in solution the pH decreases. After exhaustion of Mg the pH rises with the alkali release from the glass and analcime is formed

  2. Searching for brine on Mars using Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.

    2016-07-01

    In the last few years, water ice and perchlorate salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid solutions have been discovered at the surface and shallow subsurface of Mars. In addition to via melting of ice, perchlorate salts may also form liquid solutions by absorbing water vapor when the relative humidity is above a certain threshold in a process known as deliquescence. Formed either by melting or deliquescence, liquid solutions (brine) are the most likely way of liquid water activity on the Martian surface and in the shallow subsurface and are therefore important to understand the habitability of Mars. Using Raman spectroscopy, we provide reference spectra of various mixing states of liquid water, water ice and calcium perchlorate, all of which can occur during brine formation. We focus on the perchlorate symmetric stretching band and the O-H stretching vibrational band to distinguish brine from crystalline salt and water ice. We show that perchlorate brines can be identified by analyzing the peaks and their widths in the decomposed Raman spectra of the investigated samples. This serves as an important reference for future in-situ Raman spectrometers on Mars, such as those on the ExoMars and Mars 2020 rovers and can aid in the detection of brine formation on Mars. (Author)

  3. Stability of polyvinyl alcohol-coated biochar nanoparticles in brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Christopher, E-mail: cgriffith@utexas.edu; Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports on the dispersion stability of 150 nm polyvinyl alcohol coated biochar nanoparticles in brine water. Biochar is a renewable, carbon based material that is of significant interest for enhanced oil recovery operations primarily due to its wide ranging surface properties, low cost of synthesis, and low environmental toxicity. Nanoparticles used as stabilizing agents for foams (and emulsions) or in nanofluids have emerged as potential alternatives to surfactants for subsurface applications due to their improved stability at reservoir conditions. If, however, the particles are not properly designed, they are susceptible to aggregation because of the high salinity brines typical of oil and gas reservoirs. Attachment of polymers to the nanoparticle surface, through covalent bonds, provides steric stabilization, and is a necessary step. Our results show that as the graft density of polyvinyl alcohol increases, so too does the stability of nanoparticles in brine solutions. A maximum of 34 wt% of 50,000 Da polyvinyl alcohol was grafted to the particle surface, and the size of the particles was reduced from ~3500 nm (no coating) to 350 nm in brine. After 24 h, the particles had a size of ~500 nm, and after 48 h completely aggregated. 100,000 Da PVA coated at 24 wt% on the biochar particles were stable in brine for over 1 month with no change in mean particle size of ~330 nm.

  4. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in seagrasses ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses and thereby an important parameter in resilience of seagrass ecosystems. In contrast seegrasses colonize and grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to invasion of toxic gaseous sulfide. Remarkably little...... strategies of seagrasses to sustain sulfide intrusion. Using stable isotope tracing, scanning electron microscopy with x-ray analysis, tracing sulfur compounds combined with ecosystem parameters we found different spatial, intraspecific and interspecific strategies to cope with sulfidic sediments. 1...... not present in terrestrial plants at that level. Sulfide is not necessarily toxic but used as sulfur nutrition, presupposing healthy seagrass ecosystems that can support detoxification mechanisms. Presence or absence of those mechanisms determines susceptibility of seagrass ecosystems to sediment sulfide...

  5. Reactive Transport Modeling Investigation of High Dissolved Sulfide Concentrations in Sedimentary Basin Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M.; Mayer, U. K.; MacQuarrie, K. T. B.

    2017-12-01

    Water with total dissolved sulfide in excess of 1 mmol L-1is widely found in groundwater at intermediate depths in sedimentary basins, including regions of the Michigan basin in southeastern Ontario, Canada. Conversely, at deeper and shallower depths, relatively low total dissolved sulfide concentrations have been reported. The mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of these brackish sulfide-containing waters are not fully understood. Anaerobic microbial sulfate reduction is a common process resulting in the formation of high sulfide concentrations. Sulfate reduction rates depend on many factors including the concentration of sulfate, the abundance of organic substances, redox conditions, temperature, salinity and the species of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). A sedimentary basin-specific conceptual model considering the effect of salinity on the rate of sulfate reduction was developed and implemented in the reactive transport model MIN3P-THCm. Generic 2D basin-scale simulations were undertaken to provide a potential explanation for the dissolved sulfide distribution observed in the Michigan basin. The model is 440 km in the horizontal dimension and 4 km in depth, and contains fourteen sedimentary rock units including shales, sandstones, limestones, dolostone and evaporites. The main processes considered are non-isothermal density dependent flow, kinetically-controlled mineral dissolution/precipitation and its feedback on hydraulic properties, cation exchange, redox reactions, biogenic sulfate reduction, and hydromechanical coupling due to glaciation-deglaciation events. Two scenarios were investigated focusing on conditions during an interglacial period and the transient evolution during a glaciation-deglaciation cycle. Inter-glaciation simulations illustrate that the presence of high salinity brines strongly suppress biogenic sulfate reduction. The transient simulations show that glaciation-deglaciation cycles can have an impact on the maximum depth of

  6. Neutron diffraction investigations of the superionic conductors lithium sulfide and sodium sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altorfer, F.

    1990-03-01

    Statics and dynamics of the superionic conductors lithium sulfide and sodium sulfide were investigated using the following experimental methods: elastic scattering on sodium sulfide powder in the temperature range 20 - 1000 C, elastic scattering on a lithium sulfide single crystal in the temperature range 20 - 700 C, inelastic scattering on a 7 Li 2 S single crystal at 10 K. 34 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs

  7. Brine Migration in Heated Salt: Lessons Learned from Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Matteo, E. N.; Mills, M.

    2017-12-01

    We summarize several interesting brine migration related phenomena hinted at in field experiments from field testing related to salt radioactive waste repositories in Germany and the US. Past heater tests in salt have shown 1) thermal-hydrological-mechanical coupling is quite strong during both heating and cooling; 2) chemical composition of brine evolves during heating, and comprises a mix of several water sources; and 3) acid gas (HCl) generation has been observed during past heater tests and may have multiple mechanisms for formation. We present a heated brine migration test design, formulated with these complexities in mind. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  8. Sulfidation behavior of Fe20Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillis, Marina Fuser

    2001-01-01

    Alloys for use in high temperature environments rely on the formation of an oxide layer for their protection. Normally, these protective oxides are Cr 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 and, some times, SiO 2 . Many industrial gaseous environments contain sulfur. Sulfides, formed in the presence of sulfur are thermodynamically less stable, have lower melting points and deviate much more stoichiometrically, compared to the corresponding oxides. The mechanism of sulfidation of various metals is as yet not clear, in spite of the concerted efforts during the last decade. To help address this situation, the sulfidation behavior of Fe20Cr has been studied as a function of compositional modifications and surface state of the alloy. The alloys Fe20Cr, Fe20Cr0.7Y, Fe20Cr5Al and Fe20Cr5Al0.6Y were prepared and three sets of sulfidation tests were carried out. In the first set, the alloys were sulfidized at 700 deg C and 800 deg C for 10h. In the second set, the alloys were pre-oxidized at 1000 deg C and then sulfidized at 800 deg C for up to 45h. In the third set of tests, the initial stages of sulfidation of the alloys was studied. All the tests were carried out in a thermobalance, in flowing H 2 /2%H 2 S, and the sulfidation behavior determined as mass change per unit area. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to characterize the reaction products. The addition of Y and Al increased sulfidation resistance of Fe20Cr. The addition of Y altered the species that diffused predominantly during sulfide growth. It changed from predominant cationic diffusion to predominant anionic diffusion. The addition of Al caused an even greater increase in sulfidation resistance of Fe20Cr, with the parabolic rate constant decreasing by three orders of magnitude. Y addition to the FeCrAl alloy did not cause any appreciable alteration in sulfidation resistance. Pre-oxidation of the FeCrAl and FeCrAlY alloys resulted in an extended

  9. Microbially mediated barite dissolution in anoxic brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Bingjie; Akob, Denise M.; Dunlap, Darren; Renock, Devon

    2017-01-01

    Fluids injected into shale formations during hydraulic fracturing of black shale return with extraordinarily high total-dissolved-solids (TDS) and high concentrations of barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). Barite, BaSO_4, has been implicated as a possible source of Ba as well as a problematic mineral scale that forms on internal well surfaces, often in close association with radiobarite, (Ba,Ra)SO_4. The dissolution of barite by abiotic processes is well quantified. However, the identification of microbial communities in flowback and produced water necessitates the need to understand barite dissolution in the presence of bacteria. Therefore, we evaluated the rates and mechanisms of abiotic and microbially-mediated barite dissolution under anoxic and hypersaline conditions in the laboratory. Barite dissolution experiments were conducted with bacterial enrichment cultures established from produced water from Marcellus Shale wells located in northcentral Pennsylvania. These cultures were dominated by anaerobic halophilic bacteria from the genus Halanaerobium. Dissolved Ba was determined by ICP-OES and barite surfaces were investigated by SEM and AFM. Our results reveal that: 1) higher amounts of barium (up to ∼5 × ) are released from barite in the presence of Halanaerobium cultures compared to brine controls after 30 days of reaction, 2) etch pits that develop on the barite (001) surface in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is distinct from those that form during control experiments without bacteria, 3) etch pits that develop in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is similar to the morphology of etch pits formed in the presence of strong organic chelators, EDTA and DTPA, and 4) experiments using dialysis membranes to separate barite from bacteria suggest that direct contact between the two is not required in order to promote dissolution. These results suggest that Halanaerobium increase the rate of barite dissolution in anoxic

  10. Guidelines to Facilitate the Evaluation of Brines for Winter Roadway Maintenance Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    This document presents guidelines to facilitate the evaluation of brines for winter weather roadway maintenance applications in Texas. Brines are used in anti-icing applications which typically consist of placing liquid snow and ice control chemicals...

  11. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013

  12. Influence of mechanical activation on the Moessbauer spectra of the sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipka, J.; Miglierini, M.; Sitek, J.; Balaz, P.; Tkacova, K.

    1993-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction were used to identify changes of surface, structure and spectroscopic properties of sulfide minerals produced by mechanical activation. In the present study we report the results of chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2 ), pyrite (FeS 2 ), cinnabar (HgS), bornite (Cu 5 FeS 4 ) and zinc sulfide (ZnS). The influence of energy input to the mill and the nature of grinding environment have been investigated upon the Fe contamination of the materials. (orig.)

  13. Influence of mechanical activation on the Moessbauer spectra of the sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipka, J.; Miglierini, M.; Sitek, J. (Dept. of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Czechoslovakia)); Balaz, P.; Tkacova, K. (Mining Inst. of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice, Slovak Republic (Czechoslovakia))

    1993-04-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction were used to identify changes of surface, structure and spectroscopic properties of sulfide minerals produced by mechanical activation. In the present study we report the results of chalcopyrite (CuFeS[sub 2]), pyrite (FeS[sub 2]), cinnabar (HgS), bornite (Cu[sub 5]FeS[sub 4]) and zinc sulfide (ZnS). The influence of energy input to the mill and the nature of grinding environment have been investigated upon the Fe contamination of the materials. (orig.).

  14. Contaminant resorption during soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of soil washing to a specific site requires some basic research in how contaminants are bound. Much can be learned from sequential extraction methodology based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. This procedure uses a series of progressively more aggressive solvents to dissolve the principle phases that make up a soil, however, the published studies do not appear to consider the potential for a contaminant released from one type of site to resorb on another site during an extraction. This physical model assumes no ion exchange or adsorption at sites either previously occupied by other ions, or exposed by the dissolution. Therefore, to make engineering use of the sequential extraction data, the release of contamination must be evaluated relative to the effects of resorption. Time release studies were conducted to determine the optimum duration for extraction to maximize complete destruction of the target matrix fraction while minimizing contaminant resorption. Tests with and without a potassium brine present to inhibit cesium resorption indicated extraction efficiency could be enhanced by as much as a factor of ten using the brine

  15. Contaminant Permeation in the Ionomer-Membrane Water Processor (IWP) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Laura K.; Finger, Barry W.; Pasadilla, Patrick; Perry, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The Ionomer-membrane Water Processor (IWP) is a patented membrane-distillation based urine brine water recovery system. The unique properties of the IWP membrane pair limit contaminant permeation from the brine to the recovered water and purge gas. A paper study was conducted to predict volatile trace contaminant permeation in the IWP system. Testing of a large-scale IWP Engineering Development Unit (EDU) with urine brine pretreated with the International Space Station (ISS) pretreatment formulation was then conducted to collect air and water samples for quality analysis. Distillate water quality and purge air GC-MS results are presented and compared to predictions, along with implications for the IWP brine processing system.

  16. Detachment of particulate iron sulfide during shale-water interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, S.; Kreisserman, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing, a commonly used technique to extract oil and gas from shales, is controversial in part because of the threat it poses to water resources. The technique involves the injection into the subsurface of large amounts of fluid, which can become contaminated by fluid-rock interaction. The dissolution of pyrite is thought to be a primary pathway for the contamination of fracturing fluids with toxic elements, such as arsenic and lead. In this study, we use direct observations with atomic force microscopy to show that the dissolution of carbonate minerals in Eagle Ford shale leads to the physical detachment of embedded pyrite grains. To simulate the way fluid interacts with a fractured shale surface, we also reacted rock samples in a flow-through cell, and used environmental scanning electron microscopy to compare the surfaces before and after interaction with water. Crucially, our results show that the flux of particulate iron sulfide into the fluid may be orders of magnitude higher than the flux of pyrite from chemical dissolution. This result suggests that mechanical detachment of pyrite grains could be the dominant mode by which arsenic and other inorganic elements are mobilized in the subsurface. Thus, during hydraulic fracturing operations and in groundwater systems containing pyrite, the transport of many toxic species may be controlled by the transport of colloidal iron sulfide particles.

  17. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    Solar stills put into operation by taking known quantities of sea water of different salinities varying from 27.75-36.27 x 10 super(3) during April-May 1990, indicated fresh water yield of 55-68% (av. 64). The volumes of brine as well as those...

  18. Durability of concrete materials in high-magnesium brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S.; Burkes, J.P.

    1994-03-01

    Cement pastes and mortars representing 11 combinations of candidate concrete materials were cast in the laboratory and monitored for susceptibility to chemical deterioration in high-magnesium brine. Mixtures were selected to include materials included in the current leading candidate concrete for seals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some materials were included in the experimental matrix to answer questions that had arisen during study of the concrete used for construction of the liner of the WIPP waste-handling shaft. Mixture combinations compared Class C and Class F fly ashes, presence or absence of an expansive component, and presence or absence of salt as a mixture component. Experimental conditions exposed the pastes and mortars to extreme conditions, those being very high levels of Mg ion and an effectively unlimited supply of brine. All pastes and mortars showed deterioration with brine exposure. In general, mortars deteriorated more extensively than the corresponding pastes. Two-inch cube specimens of mortar were not uniformly deteriorated, but showed obvious zoning even after a year in the brine, with a relatively unreacted zone remaining at the center of each cube. Loss of calcium from the calcium hydroxide of paste/aggregate interfaces caused measurable strength loss in the reacted zone comprising the outer portion of every mortar specimen. The current candidate mass concrete for WIPP seals includes salt as an initial component, and has a relatively closed initial microstructure. Both of these features contribute to its suitability for use in large placements within the Salado Formation

  19. Brine transport in porous media self-similar solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. van Duijn (Hans); L.A. Peletier (Bert); R.J. Schotting (Ruud)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyze a model for brine transport in porous media, which includes a mass balance for the fluid, a mass balance for salt, Darcy's law and an equation of state, which relates the fluid density to the salt mass fraction. This model incorporates the effect of local volume

  20. Brine Shrimp Toxicity Evaluation Of Some Tanzanian Plants Used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants which are used by traditional healers in Tanzania have been evaluated to obtain preliminary data of their toxicity using the brine shrimps test. The results indicate that 9 out of 44 plant species whose extracts were tested exhibited high toxicity with LC50 values below 20μg/ml. These include Aloe lateritia Engl.

  1. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of brine salting, Chlorinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical preservatives can be used to reduce the overall microbial populations in fish and fish products. This study was set to determine the antimicrobial activities of brine salting, chlorinated solution, and Moringa oleifera plant extracts treatments on enteric bacteria in Rastrineobola argentea and Oreochromis niloticus fish ...

  2. Modeling the morphogenesis of brine channels in sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschan, B; Morawetz, K; Gemming, S

    2010-03-01

    Brine channels are formed in sea ice under certain constraints and represent a habitat of different microorganisms. The complex system depends on a number of various quantities as salinity, density, pH value, or temperature. Each quantity governs the process of brine channel formation. There exists a strong link between bulk salinity and the presence of brine drainage channels in growing ice with respect to both the horizontal and vertical planes. We develop a suitable phenomenological model for the formation of brine channels both referring to the Ginzburg-Landau theory of phase transitions as well as to the chemical basis of morphogenesis according to Turing. It is possible to conclude from the critical wave number on the size of the structure and the critical parameters. The theoretically deduced transition rates have the same magnitude as the experimental values. The model creates channels of similar size as observed experimentally. An extension of the model toward channels with different sizes is possible. The microstructure of ice determines the albedo feedback and plays therefore an important role for large-scale global circulation models.

  3. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    from 3.65 - 4.63 ppm. The definite volumes of seawater samples (3.7 litres) taken in stills for desalination correspond to 13.08 - 31.16 mg of net boron content. Analyses on the recovery of the total content of boron in brines as well as in the bitterns...

  4. [Experimental interaction of halophilic prokaryotes and opportunistic bacteria in brine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanova, E A; Nemtseva, N V

    2013-01-01

    Study the effect of extremely halophilic archaea and moderately halophilic bacteria on preservation of opportunistic bacteria in brine. 17 strains of moderately halophilic bacteria and 2 strains of extremely halophilic archaea were isolated from continental hypersaline lake Razval of Sol-Iletsk area of Orenburg Region. Identification of pure cultures of prokaryotes was carried out taking into account their phenotype properties and based on determination of 16S RNA gene sequence. The effect of halophilic prokaryote on elimination of Escherichia coli from brine was evaluated during co-cultivation. Antagonistic activity of cell extracts of the studied microorganisms was evaluated by photometric method. A more prolonged preservation of an E. coli strain in brine in the presence of live cells of extremely halophilic archaea Halorubrum tebenquichense and moderately halophilic bacteria Marinococcus halophilus was established. Extracts of cells of extremely halophilic archaea and moderately halophilic bacteria on the contrary displayed antagonistic activity. The protective effect of live cells of halophilic prokaryotes and antagonistic activity of their cell extracts change the period of conservation of opportunistic bacteria in brine that regulates inter-microbial interactions and changes the period of self-purification that reflects the sanitary condition of a hypersaline water body.

  5. A carbon inventory for Orca Basin brines and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, W.M.; Brooks, J.M.; Bernard, B.B.; Schwab, C.R.; Chung, H.; Parker, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Orca Basin, an intraslope depression at a depth of about 2400 m on the continental slope of the north-central Gulf of Mexico, contains an anoxic, hypersaline brine similar to composition to those reported in the Red Sea. Concentrations and stable carbon isotope compositions of various inorganic and organic carbon species have been determined on the brine and sediments in order to gain an understanding of the origin and cycling of carbon in this unique environment. ΣCO 2 in the brine (55 mg C/l) is about twice seawater with delta 13 C sub(PDB)=-16.4per thousand and Δ 14 C=-501per thousand. CH 4 has a concentration of 12 mg C/l and delta 13 C=-73.5per thousand. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon concentrations are seven times higher and have delta 13 C values several permil different than the overlying seawater, ΣCO 2 and CH 4 in the interstitial waters are considerably higher in concentrations and isotropically light than the overlying brine. Solution of near-surface salt deposits by seawater with subsequent microbial production and consumption of methane can be used to explain most of the data. (Auth.)

  6. Permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, L.O.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Shor, A.J.; Canonico, C.M.

    1982-06-01

    To investigate the movement of brine along grain boundaries in polycrystalline salt, measurements have been made of the radial flow of brine through the interface between cylindrical salt crystals under axial stresses to 140 bar and temperatures to 80 0 C. For constant conditions, the total flow of brine showed a linear dependence on the logarithm of time, and the reciprocal permeability increased linearly with time. Loss of salt from the interface by pressure solution effects was more than enough to account for the decrease in the apparent thickness of the interface (i.e., that which may be estimated for an interface of the same permeability formed by plane parallel surfaces). This apparent thickness, initially as large as 10 μm, decreased to as little as 0.2 μm with exposure to stress and flowing brine. It decreased quickly with sudden increases in axial stress and usually increased, though not reversibly, with decreases in stress. The rate of increase in the reciprocal permeability with time was roughly proportional to the stress and to the square of the hydraulic pressure drop. Assuming similar apparent thicknesses for the grain boundaries in polycrystalline salt, permeabilities are predicted that are quite consistent with the low values reported for stressed core specimens

  7. Sulfide toxicity kinetics of a uasb reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Paula Jr.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sulfide toxicity on kinetic parameters of anaerobic organic matter removal in a UASB (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor is presented. Two lab-scale UASB reactors (10.5 L were operated continuously during 12 months. The reactors were fed with synthetic wastes prepared daily using glucose, ammonium acetate, methanol and nutrient solution. One of the reactors also received increasing concentrations of sodium sulfide. For both reactors, the flow rate of 16 L.d-1 was held constant throughout the experiment, corresponding to a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 hours. The classic model for non-competitive sulfide inhibition was applied to the experimental data for determining the overall kinetic parameter of specific substrate utilization (q and the sulfide inhibition coefficient (Ki. The application of the kinetic parameters determined allows prediction of methanogenesis inhibition and thus the adoption of operating parameters to minimize sulfide toxicity in UASB reactors.

  8. 'Low-acid' sulfide oxidation using nitrate-enriched groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donn, Michael; Boxall, Naomi; Reid, Nathan; Meakin, Rebecca; Gray, David; Kaksonen, Anna; Robson, Thomas; Shiers, Denis

    2016-04-01

    where pH remains neutral. The "low-acid" oxidation of sulfides with nitrate as an electron acceptor has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale. In 90-day microcosm respirometry experiments, we exposed a mixture of pulverized quartz and pyrite -rich ore to natural, high-nitrate groundwater and inoculated the microcosms with a culture of aerobic and anaerobic nitrate-dependent iron and sulfur-oxidising microorganisms, which were enriched from ore, groundwater and activated waste water. Incubations were performed under both oxic and anoxic conditions, in addition to abiotic controls. Initial results show that oxidation of the sulfides under nitrate-rich and microbially enhanced conditions does produce less acid than the same material under oxic conditions, and to some degree can match the models as long as oxygen ingress can be controlled. These results are the focus of further research into how this process can be enhanced and whether it can be applied in the field. Nitrate-driven oxidation of sulfides could potentially be used as a new approach to reduce acid generation and leaching of contaminants from waste dumps, in a passive or actively managed process designed to deplete and/or ameliorate (i.e. through surface passivation) the mineralogical hazard. Developing our understanding of biological aspects of these processes may also allow testing of longer-term "bio-caps" for various tailings and dump materials.

  9. Origin, distribution, and movement of brine in the Permian Basin (U.S.A.). A model for displacement of connate brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bein, A.; Dutton, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Na-Cl, halite Ca-Cl, and gypsum Ca-Cl brines with salinities from 45 to >300 g/L are identified and mapped in four hydrostratigraphic units in the Permian Basin area beneath western Texas and Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico, providing spatial and lithologic constraints on the interpretation of the origin and movement of brine. Na-Cl brine is derived from meteoric water as young as 5-10 Ma that dissolved anhydrite and halite, whereas Ca-Cl brine is interpreted to be ancient, modified-connate Permian brine that now is mixing with, and being displaced by, the Na-Cl brine. Displacement fronts appear as broad mixing zones with no significant salinity gradients. Evolution of Ca-Cl brine composition from ideal evaporated sea water is attributed to dolomitization and syndepositional recycling of halite and bittern salts by intermittent influx of fresh water and sea water. Halite Ca-Cl brine in the evaporite section in the northern part of the basin differs from gypsum Ca-Cl brine in the south-central part in salinity and Na/Cl ratio and reflects segregation between halite- and gypsum-precipitating lagoons during the Permian. Ca-Cl brine moved downward through the evaporite section into the underlying Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian marine section that is now the deep-basin brine aquifer, mixing there with pre-existing sea water. Buoyancy-driven convection of brine dominated local flow for most of basin history, with regional advection governed by topographically related forces dominant only for the past 5 to 10 Ma. 71 refs., 11 figs

  10. Stratification and space-time variability of Red Sea hot brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monin, A S; Plakhin, E A

    1982-11-01

    The results of hydrophysical studies in Red Sea hot brines prefaced with historical information are presented. The CTD-recorder readings show stratification of the upper brine in the Atlantis II Deep into meter-scale layers, in agreement with laboratory findings. Repeated soundings with the AIST CTD meter of the upper brine interface in the Valdivia Deep recorded internal waves of 3 to 4-h periods. The observations show the different nature of brines in the four deeps studied and the lack of contact between the brine layers of the Chain and Discovery deeps.

  11. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references

  12. Contaminant immobilization via microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The aim of this study was to search the literature to identify biological techniques that could be applied to the restoration of contaminated groundwaters near uranium milling sites. Through bioremediation it was hypothesized that the hazardous heavy metals could be immobilized in a stable, low-solubility form, thereby halting their progress in the migrating groundwater. Three basic mechanisms were examined: reduction of heavy metals by microbially produced hydrogen sulfide; direct microbial mediated reduction; and biosorption

  13. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Borgia, Andrea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-06-13

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2), typically captured from stationary emission sources, into deep geologic formations to prevent its entry into the atmosphere. Active pilot facilities run by regional United States (US) carbon sequestration partnerships inject on the order of one million metric tonnes (mt) CO2 annually while the US electric power sector emits over 2000 million mt-CO2 annually. GCS is likely to play an increasing role in US carbon mitigation initiatives, but scaling up GCS poses several challenges. Injecting CO2 into sedimentary basins raises fluid pressure in the pore space, which is typically already occupied by naturally occurring, or native, brine. The resulting elevated pore pressures increase the likelihood of induced seismicity, of brine or CO2 escaping into potable groundwater resources, and of CO2 escaping into the atmosphere. Brine extraction is one method for pressure management, in which brine in the injection formation is brought to the surface through extraction wells. Removal of the brine makes room for the CO2 and decreases pressurization. Although the technology required for brine extraction is mature, this form of pressure management will only be applicable if there are cost-­effective and sustainable methods of disposing of the extracted brine. Brine extraction, treatment, and disposal may increase the already substantial capital, energy, and water demands of Carbon dioxide Capture and Sequestration (CCS). But, regionally specific brine management strategies may be able to treat the extracted water as a source of revenue, energy, and water to subsidize CCS costs, while minimizing environmental impacts. By this approach, value from the extracted water would be recovered before disposing of any resulting byproducts. Until a price is placed on carbon, we expect that utilities and other CO2 sources will be

  14. Corrosion of copper and authigenic sulfide mineral growth in hydrothermal bentonite experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, F.A., E-mail: floriec@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Earth and Environmental Sciences, MS J966, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Palaich, S.E.M. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Cheshire, M.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Earth and Environmental Sciences, MS J966, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Jové Colón, C.F. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The focus of this experimental work is to characterize interaction of bentonite with possible used-fuel waste container materials. Experiments were performed up to 300 °C at 150–160 bars for five to six weeks. Bentonite was saturated with a 1900 ppm K-Ca-Na-Cl-bearing water with Cu-foils. Copper rapidly degrades into chalcocite (CuS{sub 2}) and minor covellite (CuS) in the presence of H{sub 2}S. Chalcocite growth and corrosion pit depths were measured for four different experimental runs yielding corrosion rates between 8.8 and 116 μm/yr depending on duration of experiment, brine composition, and clay type (bentonite vs. Opalinus Clay). Results of this research show that although pit-corrosion is demonstrated on Cu substrates, experiments show that the reactions that ensue, and the formation of minerals that develop, are extraordinarily slow. This supports the use of Cu in nuclide-containment systems as a possible engineered barrier system material. - Highlights: • Experiments run at 300 °C and 150 bars for up to six weeks. • Copper degrades to chalcocite (CuS2) and minor covellite (CuS) in presence of H2S. • Corrosion rates between 8.8 and 116 μm/yr. • Rate dependent on experiment duration, brine composition, and clay type. • Sulfide corrosion products may inhibit further corrosion of copper.

  15. Simulation for estimation of hydrogen sulfide scavenger injection dose rate for treatment of crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Elshiekh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of hydrogen sulfide in the hydrocarbon fluids is a well known problem in many oil and gas fields. Hydrogen sulfide is an undesirable contaminant which presents many environmental and safety hazards. It is corrosive, malodorous, and toxic. Accordingly, a need has been long left in the industry to develop a process which can successfully remove hydrogen sulfide from the hydrocarbons or at least reduce its level during the production, storage or processing to a level that satisfies safety and product specification requirements. The common method used to remove or reduce the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the hydrocarbon production fluids is to inject the hydrogen sulfide scavenger into the hydrocarbon stream. One of the chemicals produced by the Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI is EPRI H2S scavenger. It is used in some of the Egyptian petroleum producing companies. The injection dose rate of H2S scavenger is usually determined by experimental lab tests and field trials. In this work, this injection dose rate is mathematically estimated by modeling and simulation of an oil producing field belonging to Petrobel Company in Egypt which uses EPRI H2S scavenger. Comparison between the calculated and practical values of injection dose rate emphasizes the real ability of the proposed equation.

  16. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  17. Salted herring brine as a coating or additive for herring (Clupea harengus) products — A source of natural antioxidants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertos, Irene; Gringer, Nina; Rico, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise herring brine and assess its use as natural antioxidant in herring preservation. Herring brines from different marinated products (brine from fillet-ripened spice-cured herring SC, traditional barrel-salted spice-cured herring TSp and brine from...

  18. Sulfidation/oxidation resistant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.; Tassen, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    The patent describes a nickel-base, high chromium alloy. It is characterized by excellent resistance to sulfidation and oxidation at elevated temperatures as high as 2000 degrees F. (1093 degrees C.) and higher, a stress-rupture life of about 200 hours or more at a temperature at least as high as 1800 degrees F. (990:0083 degrees C.) and under a stress of 2000 psi, good tensile strength and good ductility both at room and elevated temperature. The alloy consists essentially of about 27 to 35% chromium, about 2.5 to 5% aluminum, about 2.5 to about 6% iron, 0.5 to 2.5% columbium, up to 0.1% carbon, up to 1% each of titanium and zirconium, up to 0.05% cerium, up to 0.05% yttrium, up to 1% silicon, up to 1% manganese, and the balance nickel

  19. Gypsum and hydrohalite dynamics in sea ice brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin M.; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Day, Sarah J.; Kennedy, Hilary

    2017-09-01

    Mineral authigenesis from their dissolved sea salt matrix is an emergent feature of sea ice brines, fuelled by dramatic equilibrium solubility changes in the large sub-zero temperature range of this cryospheric system on the surface of high latitude oceans. The multi-electrolyte composition of seawater results in the potential for several minerals to precipitate in sea ice, each affecting the in-situ geochemical properties of the sea ice brine system, the habitat of sympagic biota. The solubility of two of these minerals, gypsum (CaSO4 ·2H2O) and hydrohalite (NaCl · 2H2O), was investigated in high ionic strength multi-electrolyte solutions at below-zero temperatures to examine their dissolution-precipitation dynamics in the sea ice brine system. The gypsum dynamics in sea ice were found to be highly dependent on the solubilities of mirabilite and hydrohalite between 0.2 and - 25.0 ° C. The hydrohalite solubility between - 14.3 and - 25.0 ° C exhibits a sharp change between undersaturated and supersaturated conditions, and, thus, distinct temperature fields of precipitation and dissolution in sea ice, with saturation occurring at - 22.9 ° C. The sharp changes in hydrohalite solubility at temperatures ⩽-22.9 °C result from the formation of an ice-hydrohalite aggregate, which alters the structural properties of brine inclusions in cold sea ice. Favourable conditions for gypsum precipitation in sea ice were determined to occur in the region of hydrohalite precipitation below - 22.9 ° C and in conditions of metastable mirabilite supersaturation above - 22.9 ° C (investigated at - 7.1 and - 8.2 ° C here) but gypsum is unlikely to persist once mirabilite forms at these warmer (>-22.9 °C) temperatures. The dynamics of hydrohalite in sea ice brines based on its experimental solubility were consistent with that derived from thermodynamic modelling (FREZCHEM code) but the gypsum dynamics derived from the code were inconsistent with that indicated by its

  20. Modelling CO2-Brine Interfacial Tension using Density Gradient Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Ruslan, Mohd Fuad Anwari Che

    2018-03-01

    Knowledge regarding carbon dioxide (CO2)-brine interfacial tension (IFT) is important for petroleum industry and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies. In petroleum industry, CO2-brine IFT is especially importance for CO2 – based enhanced oil recovery strategy as it affects phase behavior and fluid transport in porous media. CCS which involves storing CO2 in geological storage sites also requires understanding regarding CO2-brine IFT as this parameter affects CO2 quantity that could be securely stored in the storage site. Several methods have been used to compute CO2-brine interfacial tension. One of the methods employed is by using Density Gradient Theory (DGT) approach. In DGT model, IFT is computed based on the component density distribution across the interface. However, current model is only applicable for modelling low to medium ionic strength solution. This limitation is due to the model only considers the increase of IFT due to the changes of bulk phases properties and does not account for ion distribution at interface. In this study, a new modelling strategy to compute CO2-brine IFT based on DGT was proposed. In the proposed model, ion distribution across interface was accounted for by separating the interface to two sections. The saddle point of tangent plane distance where ( ) was defined as the boundary separating the two sections of the interface. Electrolyte is assumed to be present only in the second section which is connected to the bulk liquid phase side. Numerical simulations were performed using the proposed approach for single and mixed salt solutions for three salts (NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2), for temperature (298 K to 443 K), pressure (2 MPa to 70 MPa), and ionic strength (0.085 mol·kg-1 to 15 mol·kg-1). The simulation result shows that the tuned model was able to predict with good accuracy CO2-brine IFT for all studied cases. Comparison with current DGT model showed that the proposed approach yields better match with the experiment data

  1. Iron-sulfide crystals in probe deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming

    1998-01-01

    Iron-sulfides were observed in deposits collected on a probe inserted at the top of the furnace of a coal-fired power station in Denmark. The chemical composition of the iron-sulfides is equivalent to pyrrhotite (FeS). The pyrrhotites are present as crystals and, based on the shape of the crystals......: (1) impact of low viscous droplets of iron sulfide; and (2) sulfur diffusion. Previous research on the influence of pyrite on slagging focused on the decomposition of pyrite into pyrrhotite and especially on the oxidation stage of this product during impact on the heat transfer surfaces...

  2. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field...... as sulfate throughout the plant. We conclude that avoidance of sulfide exposure by reoxidation of sulfide in the rhizosphere or aerenchyma and tolerance of sulfide intrusion by incorporation of sulfur in the plant are likely major survival strategies of seagrasses in sulfidic sediments....

  3. Geochemical evolution of brines in the Salar of Uyuni, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, S.L.; Jones, B.F.; Risacher, F.

    1980-01-01

    Recent analyses of brines from the Salars of Uyuni and Coipasa have been compared with published data for Lakes Titicaca and Poopo to evaluate solute compositional trends in these remnants of two large Pleistocene lakes once connected by overflow from the N to the S of the Bolivian Altiplano. From Titicaca to Poopo the water shows an increase in Cl and N somewhat greater than the total solutes. Ca and SO4 increase to a lesser extent than total dissolved solids, and carbonate species are relatively constant. Between Poopo and Coipasa proportions of Ca, SO4 and CO3 continue to decrease. At Coipasa and Uyuni, the great salars frequently evaporate to halite saturation. Halite crystallization is accompanied by an increased K, Mg and SO4 in residual brines. - from Authors

  4. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  5. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent

    KAUST Repository

    Elbehery, Ali H. A.

    2016-12-03

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world’s largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  6. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...... in enhancing oil emulsion formation by increasing interactions between polar acids and brine solutions. The results propose the potential use of HPO42- ions in reservoirs having inactive mineral surfaces. The relative oil affinity of different ions including K+, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ (cations), and Cl-, SO42...... and thus reduces the interfacial viscoelasticity of the trapped oil. These results show significant correlation between oil emulsion formation and increased oil recovery. Copyright 2015; Society of Petroleum Engineers...

  7. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  8. Crossett Hydrogen Sulfide Air Sampling Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of the EPA’s hydrogen sulfide air monitoring conducted along Georgia Pacific’s wastewater treatment system and in surrounding Crossett, AR, neighborhoods in 2017.

  9. Inhibition of Weld Corrosion in Flowing Brines Containing Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Alawadhi, Khaled

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effectiveness of a typical oilfield corrosion inhibitor, which is considered to be a green inhibitor (non toxic to the environment) in controlling internal corrosion of welded X65 pipeline steel in brines saturated with carbon dioxide at one bar pressure, under dynamic flowing conditions, over a range of temperatures. Several experimental configurations were used ranging from a simple flat plate design to a novel rotating cylinder electrode, to all...

  10. Uranium, RADON and radon isotopes in selected brines of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, B.; Walencik, A.; Zipper, W.; Dorda, J.; Przylibski, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural radioactive isotopes were studied in nine different types of brines from four locations in Poland. Investigated brines are exploited from various geological structures composed of the rocks of different chemical and mineral composition as well as different age and depth. All investigated brines are used in balneotherapy (i.e. baths, inhalations, showers). The main goal of this study was to obtain some basic knowledge on the activity range of natural elements such as uranium, RADON and radon in different brine types in Poland and their variability depending on their location in certain geological structures. Activities of 234,238 U, 226,228 Ra and 222 Rn isotopes were measured with the use of two nuclear spectrometry techniques: liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 222 Rn vary from below 1 to 76.1±3.7 Bq/l, for the 226 Ra isotope from 0.19±0.01 to 85.5±0.4 Bq/l and for 228 Ra from below 0.03 to 2.17±0.09 Bq/l. For uranium isotopes, the concentrations are in the range from below 0.5 to 5.1±0.4 mBq/l for 238 U and from 1.6±0.4 to 45.6±2.0 mBq/l for 2 34U . The obtained results indicate high RADON activity concentrations corresponding to high mineralization of waters. (authors)

  11. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheeses made from pasteurized milk (65°C for 30 min) were ripened in 11, 14 and 17 g 100 ml-1 NaCl for 90 days at 7±1°C. Some physicochemical and biochemical analyses were carried out during storage time. The effects of brine concentrations on total solids, protein, ash, salt, pH, and WSN values were found to be ...

  12. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  13. Reverse osmosis brine for phosphorus recovery from source separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiujun; Wang, Guotian; Guan, Detian; Li, Jiuyi; Wang, Aimin; Li, Jin; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Zhongguo

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste streams has recently been recognized as a key step in the sustainable supply of this indispensable and non-renewable resource. The feasibility of using brine from a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane unit treating cooling water as a precipitant for P recovery from source separated urine was evaluated in the present study. P removal efficiency, process parameters and precipitate properties were investigated in batch and continuous flow experiments. More than 90% of P removal was obtained from both undiluted fresh and hydrolyzed urines by mixing with RO brine (1:1, v/v) at a pH over 9.0. Around 2.58 and 1.24 Kg of precipitates could be recovered from 1 m 3 hydrolyzed and fresh urine, respectively, and the precipitated solids contain 8.1-19.0% of P, 10.3-15.2% of Ca, 3.7-5.0% of Mg and 0.1-3.5% of ammonium nitrogen. Satisfactory P removal performance was also achieved in a continuous flow precipitation reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 3-6 h. RO brine could be considered as urinal and toilet flush water despite of a marginally higher precipitation tendency than tap water. This study provides a widely available, low - cost and efficient precipitant for P recovery in urban areas, which will make P recovery from urine more economically attractive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brine migration test - Asse salt mine, Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Wieczorek, K.; Feddersen, H.K.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.; Eckert, J.

    1988-03-01

    This document is the final report on the Cooperative German-American 'Brine Migration Tests' that were performed at the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), Columbus, Ohio, and the Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IfT), Braunschweig, of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen (GSF). Final test and equipment design as well as manufacturing and installation was carried out by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The tests were designed to simulate a nuclear waste repository to measure the effects of heat and gamma radiation on brine migration, salt decrepitation, disassociation of brine, and gases collected. The thermal mechanical behavior of salt, such as room closure, stresses and changes of the properties of salt are measured and compared with predicted behavior. The performance of an array of candidate waste package materials, test equipment and procedures under repository conditions will be evaluated with a view towards future in-depth testing of potential repository sites. (orig./RB)

  15. Fluid inclusion brine compositions from Palo Duro Basin salt sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The fluid inclusion analyses were done on salt samples from Lower San Andres Cycle 4 and 5. The stable isotope composition of the fluid inclusion brines was measured on duplicate samples taken from the same fluid inclusion brine for correlation of geochemical content with the stable isotopic content. The analyzed Palo Duro Basin salt fluid inclusions are predominantly one phase, i.e., the presence of a fluid only. However, many of the larger fluid inclusions do have a small vapor bubble. This liquid/vapor ratio is so high in these vapor-containing fluid inclusions that their behavior in a thermal gradient would be almost identical to that of all liquid inclusions. Closely associated with the fluid inclusions are cryptomelane where some fibers penetrate into halite host crystal. The fluid inclusions have a wide variability in content for those components that were analyzed, even within the same salt type. The fluid inclusion brines are also acidic, ranging from 3 to 6 as measured with pH test papers

  16. CO2/Brine transport into shallow aquifers along fault zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Elizabeth H; Newell, Dennis L; Viswanathan, Hari; Carey, J W; Zyvoloski, G; Pawar, Rajesh

    2013-01-02

    Unintended release of CO(2) from carbon sequestration reservoirs poses a well-recognized risk to groundwater quality. Research has largely focused on in situ CO(2)-induced pH depression and subsequent trace metal mobilization. In this paper we focus on a second mechanism: upward intrusion of displaced brine or brackish-water into a shallow aquifer as a result of CO(2) injection. Studies of two natural analog sites provide insights into physical and chemical mechanisms controlling both brackish water and CO(2) intrusion into shallow aquifers along fault zones. At the Chimayó, New Mexico site, shallow groundwater near the fault is enriched in CO(2) and, in some places, salinity is significantly elevated. In contrast, at the Springerville, Arizona site CO(2) is leaking upward through brine aquifers but does not appear to be increasing salinity in the shallow aquifer. Using multiphase transport simulations we show conditions under which significant CO(2) can be transported through deep brine aquifers into shallow layers. Only a subset of these conditions favor entrainment of salinity into the shallow aquifer: high aspect-ratio leakage pathways and viscous coupling between the fluid phases. Recognition of the conditions under which salinity is favored to be cotransported with CO(2) into shallow aquifers will be important in environmental risk assessments.

  17. Explanation for many of the unusual features of the massive sulfide deposits of the Iberian pyrite belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M.; Tornos, F.; Gaspar, O. C.

    2002-01-01

    Newly published fluid-inclusion data from quartz in stockwork veins beneath seven massive sulfide lenses in the Iberian pyrite belt suggest that the lenses were formed from fluids that on reaching the sea reversed buoyancy and ponded in basins. Sulfides quenched in the resulting brine pool would have settled to form a sulfide mud. This process provides a relatively efficient trapping mechanism for metal in the fluids and effectively excludes ambient seawater, accounting for the deposits tending to have the characteristics of large size, sheet-like form, absence of relict chimney structures, and a mineral content characterized by pyrite-arsenopyrite, and absence or scarcity of barite, marcasite, and Fe oxides. If total S was less than total metals in the stockwork fluids, some or all of the more soluble Zn and Pb could have been swept from the basin at the overflow, accounting for the variable but generally low Zn and Pb contents of the ores. The lack of sedimentary source for the high salinities implicates magmatic intrusions, possibly similar to those related to Sn-W mineralization.

  18. Air-water transfer of hydrogen sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yongsiri, C.; Vollertsen, J.; Rasmussen, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    The emissions process of hydrogen sulfide was studied to quantify air–water transfer of hydrogen sulfide in sewer networks. Hydrogen sulfide transfer across the air–water interface was investigated at different turbulence levels (expressed in terms of the Froude number) and pH using batch...... experiments. By means of the overall mass–transfer coefficient (KLa), the transfer coefficient of hydrogen sulfide (KLaH2S), referring to total sulfide, was correlated to that of oxygen (KLaO2) (i.e., the reaeration coefficient). Results demonstrate that both turbulence and pH in the water phase play...... a significant role for KLaH2S. An exponential expression is a suitable representation for the relationship between KLaH2S and the Froude number at all pH values studied (4.5 to 8.0). Because of the dissociation of hydrogen sulfide, KLaH2S increased with decreasing pH at a constant turbulence level. Relative...

  19. Effect of iron cation on geochemical trapping of CO2 in brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration using brines has emerged as a promising technology to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change due to its large storage capacity and favorable chemistries. However, the permanent storage (mineral trapping) of CO2 in brines takes significantly long periods of time as the formation and precipitation of carbonates is very slow .[1]. The main parameters reported to effect on mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines are brine composition, brine pH, system temperature and pressure.[2, 3]. It is suggested that the precipitation of mineral carbonates is mostly dependent on brine pH. Previous studies by the authors concluded that iron in natural brines causes pH instability, but it was not ascertained whether ferric iron or ferrous iron caused pH instability .[4]. Accordingly, the aim of this project is to study synthetic brines mimicking the major ions found in natural brines and including different concentrations of ferric and ferrous iron. Three brines were prepared, as follows: Brine 1 was prepared with ferric Fe3+ iron, Brine 2 prepared with ferrous Fe2+ iron and Brine 3 prepared with no iron. A series of pH stability studies and carbonation reactions were conducted using the above three brines. It is concluded that the ferrous iron causes pH instability, while ferric iron might promote carbonate precipitation. .1. Garcia, S., et al., Sequestration of non-pure carbon dioxide streams in iron oxyhydroxide-containing saline repositories. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2012. 7: p. 89-97. 2. Liu, Q. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Investigation of the pH effect of a typical host rock and buffer solution on CO 2 sequestration in synthetic brines. Fuel Processing Technology, 2010. 91(10): p. 1321-1329. 3. Liu, Q. and M.M. MarotoValer, Parameters affecting mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, 2011. 1(3): p. 211-222. 4. Druckenmiller, M.L. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Carbon

  20. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp ( Pandalus borealis )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, J.; Modberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced...... and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life...... of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora...

  1. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-09-12

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake south of 70°S in an ice-free area of Victoria Land, Antarctica. For the first time, we also imaged, by means of ground penetrating radar data, the existence of a pingo-like-feature (PLF) formed by the extrusion of brines, which has also been confirmed by borehole evidence. Those brines are fed by an underground talik external to the lake basin, enhancing the possibility of unexploited ecosystems that could find an analogue in Martian environments.

  2. Hydrogen sulfide can inhibit and enhance oxygenic photosynthesis in a cyanobacterium from sulfidic springs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatt, Judith M.; Haas, Sebastian; Yilmaz, Pelin; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    We used microsensors to investigate the combinatory effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and light on oxygenic photosynthesis in biofilms formed by a cyanobacterium from sulfidic springs. We found that photosynthesis was both positively and negatively affected by H2S: (i) H2S accelerated the recovery of

  3. Sulfide response analysis for sulfide control using a pS electrode in sulfate reducing bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villa Gomez, D.K.; Cassidy, J.; Keesman, K.J.; Sampaio, R.M.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2014-01-01

    Step changes in the organic loading rate (OLR) through variations in the influent chemical oxygen demand (CODin) concentration or in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at constant COD/SO4 2- ratio (0.67) were applied to create sulfide responses for the design of a sulfide control in sulfate reducing

  4. The technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Negmatov, Sh.I.; Barotov, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content. The research results on uranium extraction from the brine of Sasik-Kul Lake by means of sorption method were considered. The chemical composition of salt was determined. The process of uranium sorption was described and analyzed. The technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content was proposed.

  5. Pressure-induced brine migration in consolidated salt in a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes a mathematical model for brine migration through intact salt near a radioactive waste package emplaced in salt. Solutions indicate limited movement following ten years emplacement

  6. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake sou...

  7. Strontium isotope evidence on the history of oilfield brines, Mediterranean Coastal Plain, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starinsky, A.; Bielski, M.; Lazar, B.; Steinitz, G.; Raab, M.

    1983-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Sr in oil field brines from the Mediterranean Coastal Plain was determined in 18 drillholes. The brines are characterized by salinities ranging from 35 to 93 g/l (TDS), Sr from 28 to 350 mg/l, Sr/Ca molar ratios from 0.011 to 0.053 and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios from 0.7075 to 0.7090. E and A = 0.7081 +- 0.0004 (2σ). The brines are classified into two groups: (a) Mavqi'im group - brines with relatively high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, sampled from clastics, dolomites and anhydrites of Upper Miocene age. (b) Heletz group - brines with relatively low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, sampled from sandstones and dolomites of Lower Cretaceous age. Equations were derived to show the relations between 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of the brines and the processes through which they evolved. It is suggested that both groups of brines originated from Mediterranean evaporated seawater during the Messinian desiccation. The strontium isotope composition of the seawater is reflected in that of both groups of brines, the Mavqi'im group containing the original 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio. The Heletz group evolved later on, through exchange reactions of those primary brines with a carbonate sequence of Cretaceous age and consequently new 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios could have been developed. (author)

  8. Brine migrations in the Athabasca Basin platform, alteration and associated fluid-rock exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercadier, J.; Cathelineau, M.; Richard, A.; Boiron, M.Ch.; Cuney, M.; Milesi, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium deposits of Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada) are considered as the richest in the world. They result from massive percolation of basin brines in the underlying platform. The authors describe the brine movements and how structures and micro-fractures promoted this percolation until very important depths (hundreds of meters under the discordance), and their chemical modifications as they interacted with platform rocks, thus promoting the transformation of an initially sodic brine into a uranium-enriched calcic brine which is essential to the formation of discordance-type deposit

  9. Transient Kinetic Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide Oxidation Catalyzed by Human Sulfide Quinone Oxidoreductase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishanina, Tatiana V.; Yadav, Pramod K.; Ballou, David P.; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    The first step in the mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway is catalyzed by sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), which belongs to the family of flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases. During the catalytic cycle, the flavin cofactor is intermittently reduced by sulfide and oxidized by ubiquinone, linking H2S oxidation to the electron transfer chain and to energy metabolism. Human SQR can use multiple thiophilic acceptors, including sulfide, sulfite, and glutathione, to form as products, hydrodisulfide, thiosulfate, and glutathione persulfide, respectively. In this study, we have used transient kinetics to examine the mechanism of the flavin reductive half-reaction and have determined the redox potential of the bound flavin to be −123 ± 7 mV. We observe formation of an unusually intense charge-transfer (CT) complex when the enzyme is exposed to sulfide and unexpectedly, when it is exposed to sulfite. In the canonical reaction, sulfide serves as the sulfur donor and sulfite serves as the acceptor, forming thiosulfate. We show that thiosulfate is also formed when sulfide is added to the sulfite-induced CT intermediate, representing a new mechanism for thiosulfate formation. The CT complex is formed at a kinetically competent rate by reaction with sulfide but not with sulfite. Our study indicates that sulfide addition to the active site disulfide is preferred under normal turnover conditions. However, under pathological conditions when sulfite concentrations are high, sulfite could compete with sulfide for addition to the active site disulfide, leading to attenuation of SQR activity and to an alternate route for thiosulfate formation. PMID:26318450

  10. Transient Kinetic Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide Oxidation Catalyzed by Human Sulfide Quinone Oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishanina, Tatiana V; Yadav, Pramod K; Ballou, David P; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-10-09

    The first step in the mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway is catalyzed by sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), which belongs to the family of flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases. During the catalytic cycle, the flavin cofactor is intermittently reduced by sulfide and oxidized by ubiquinone, linking H2S oxidation to the electron transfer chain and to energy metabolism. Human SQR can use multiple thiophilic acceptors, including sulfide, sulfite, and glutathione, to form as products, hydrodisulfide, thiosulfate, and glutathione persulfide, respectively. In this study, we have used transient kinetics to examine the mechanism of the flavin reductive half-reaction and have determined the redox potential of the bound flavin to be -123 ± 7 mV. We observe formation of an unusually intense charge-transfer (CT) complex when the enzyme is exposed to sulfide and unexpectedly, when it is exposed to sulfite. In the canonical reaction, sulfide serves as the sulfur donor and sulfite serves as the acceptor, forming thiosulfate. We show that thiosulfate is also formed when sulfide is added to the sulfite-induced CT intermediate, representing a new mechanism for thiosulfate formation. The CT complex is formed at a kinetically competent rate by reaction with sulfide but not with sulfite. Our study indicates that sulfide addition to the active site disulfide is preferred under normal turnover conditions. However, under pathological conditions when sulfite concentrations are high, sulfite could compete with sulfide for addition to the active site disulfide, leading to attenuation of SQR activity and to an alternate route for thiosulfate formation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Experimental simulations of sulfide formation in the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretta, D S; Lodders, K; Fegley, B

    1997-07-18

    Sulfurization of meteoritic metal in H2S-H2 gas produced three different sulfides: monosulfide solid solution [(Fe,Ni)1-xS], pentlandite [(Fe,Ni)9-xS8], and a phosphorus-rich sulfide. The composition of the remnant metal was unchanged. These results are contrary to theoretical predictions that sulfide formation in the solar nebula produced troilite (FeS) and enriched the remaining metal in nickel. The experimental sulfides are chemically and morphologically similar to sulfide grains in the matrix of the Alais (class CI) carbonaceous chondrite, suggesting that these meteoritic sulfides may be condensates from the solar nebula.

  12. Sulfide Precipitation in Wastewater at Short Timescales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Bruno; van de Ven, Wilbert; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2017-01-01

    Abatement of sulfides in sewer systems using iron salts is a widely used strategy. When dosing at the end of a pumping main, the reaction kinetics of sulfide precipitation becomes important. Traditionally the reaction has been assumed to be rapid or even instantaneous. This work shows that this i......Abatement of sulfides in sewer systems using iron salts is a widely used strategy. When dosing at the end of a pumping main, the reaction kinetics of sulfide precipitation becomes important. Traditionally the reaction has been assumed to be rapid or even instantaneous. This work shows...... that this is not the case for sulfide precipitation by ferric iron. Instead, the reaction time was found to be on a timescale where it must be considered when performing end-of-pipe treatment. For real wastewaters at pH 7, a stoichiometric ratio around 14 mol Fe(II) (mol S(−II))−1 was obtained after 1.5 s, while the ratio...

  13. Calculated radiation doses from radionuclides brought to the surface if future drilling intercepts the WIPP repository and pressurized brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a scenario in which an exploratory borehole connects an underlying brine reservoir with the repository and results in saturation of the waste storage area. A subsequent borehole brings portions of this radionuclide contaminated brine to the surface. Radiation odses are calculated for time periods of 125, 400, and 1000 years after repository closing for the following: (1) external radiation doses for workers at the borehole location; (2) inhalation doses for workers at the borehole location; (3) external and inhalation doses for a resident located 360 meters downwind; (4) ingestion doses for the downwind resident from locally grown produce, milk, and meat; and (5) population doses from inhalation within a 50-mile radius. The probability of the various calculated doses occurring was estimated. Probability was included in the report because of a belief that probability considerations are useful in evaluating the acceptability of unlikely events and to encourage others to provide a more detailed evaluation using more sophisticated methodology. Since the probabilities presented in this report were calculated using a simple methodology, with some parameter values chosen arbitrarily, they should be considered as approximate examples, not accurate numbers. The reasonableness of the scenario and the significance of the results are also discussed

  14. TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tianfu

    2008-01-01

    Deep saline formations and oil and gas reservoirs often contain concentrated brine solutions of ionic strength greater than 1 (I > 1 M). Geochemical modeling, involving high ionic strength brines, is a challenge. In the original TOUGHREACT code (Xu et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2006), activity coefficients of charged aqueous species are computed using an extended Debye-Huckel (DH) equation and parameters derived by Helgeson et al. (1981). The DH model can deal with ionic strengths from dilute to moderately saline water (up to 6 molal for an NaCl-dominant solution). The equations implemented for the DH model are presented in Appendix A. During the course of the Yucca Mountain project, a Pitzer ion-interaction model was implemented into TOUGHREACT. This allows the application of this simulator to problems involving much more concentrated aqueous solutions, such as those involving geochemical processes in and around high-level nuclear waste repositories where fluid evaporation and/or boiling is expected to occur (Zhang et al., 2007). The Pitzer ion-interaction model, which we refer to as the Pitzer virial approach, and associated ion-interaction parameters have been applied successfully to study non-ideal concentrated aqueous solutions. The formulation of the Pitzer model is presented in Appendix B; detailed information can be founded in Zhang et al. (2007). For CO 2 geological sequestration, the Pitzer ion-interaction model for highly concentrated brines was incorporated into TOUGHREACT/ECO2N, then was tested and compared with a previously implemented extended Debye-Hueckel (DH) ion activity model. The comparison was made through a batch geochemical system using a Gulf Coast sandstone saline formation

  15. Armouring of well cement in H2S–CO2 saturated brine by calcite coating – Experiments and numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemet, Nicolas; Pironon, Jacques; Lagneau, Vincent; Saint-Marc, Jérémie

    2012-01-01

    The active acid gas (H 2 S–CO 2 mixture) injection operations in North America provide practical experience for the operators in charge of industrial scale CO 2 geological storage sites. Potential leakage via wells and their environmental impacts make well construction durability an issue for efficiency/safety of gas geological storage. In such operations, the well cement is in contact with reservoir brines and the injected gas, meaning that gas–water–solid chemical reactions may change the physical properties of the cement and its ability to confine the gas downhole. The cement-forming Calcium silicate hydrates carbonation (by CO 2 ) and ferrite sulfidation (by H 2 S) reactions are expected. The main objective of this study is to determine their consequences on cement mineralogy and transfer ability. Fifteen and 60 days duration batch experiments were performed in which well cement bars were immersed in brine itself caped by a H 2 S–CO 2 phase at 500 bar–120 °C. Scanning electron microscopy including observations/analyses and elemental mapping, mineralogical mapping by micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and water porosimetry were used to characterize the aged cement. Speciation by micro-Raman spectroscopy of brine trapped within synthetic fluid inclusions were also performed. The expected calcium silicate hydrates carbonation and ferrite sulfidation reactions were evidenced. Furthermore, armouring of the cement through the fast creation of a non-porous calcite coating, global porosity decrease of the cement (clogging) and mineral assemblage conservation were demonstrated. The low W/R ratio of the experimental system (allowing the cement to buffer the interstitial and external solution pH at basic values) and mixed species diffusion and chemical reactions are proposed to explain these features. This interpretation is confirmed by reactive transport modelling performed with the HYTEC code. The observed cement armouring, clogging and mineral

  16. Immiscibility of Fluid Phases at Magmatic-hydrothermal Transition: Formation of Various PGE-sulfide Mineralization for Layered Basic Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitova, L.; Borisenko, A.; Morgunov, K.; Zhukova, I.

    2007-12-01

    Fluid inclusions in quartz of the Merensky Reef (Bushveld Complex, South Africa) and the Chineisky Pluton (Transbaikal Region, Russia) were studied using cryometry, microthermometry, Raman-spectroscopy, LA ICP- MS, scanning electronic microscopy, gas-chromatography and isotopic methods. This allowed us to document some examples of fluid phase separation resulting in formation of different types of PGE-sulfide mineralization for layered basic intrusions. The results obtained show at least three generations of fluid separated from boiling residual alumosilicate intercumulus liquid of the Merensky Reef. The earliest fluid phase composed of homogenous high-dense methane and nitrogen gas mixture was identified in primary gas and co-existing anomalous fluid inclusions from symplectitic quartz. The next generation, heterophase fluid, composed of brines containing a free low-dense (mostly of carbon dioxide) gas phase, was observed in primary multiphase and coexisting gas-rich inclusions of miarolitic quartz crystals. The latest generation was also a heterophase fluid (low salinity water-salt solution and free low-dense methane gas phase) found in primary water-salt and syngenetic gas inclusions from peripheral zones of miarolitic quartz crystals. For the Chineisky Pluton reduced endocontact magmatogene fluids changed to oxidized low salinity hydrothermal fluids in exocontact zone. This resulted in formation of sulfide-PGE enrichment marginal zones of intrusion. The results obtained give us a possibility to suggest that: 1) Fluid phase separation is a typical feature of magmatogene fluids for layered basic intrusions. 2) Reduced fluids can extract and transport substantial PGE and sulfide concentrations. 3) Oxidation of reduced fluids is one of the most important geochemical barriers causing abundant PGE minerals and sulfides precipitation. This in turn results in both formation of PGE reefs or enriched contact zones of layered basic intrusions. This work was supported by

  17. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  18. Radiation chemistry of salt-mine brines and hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.H.; Walton, J.R.; Bronstein, H.R.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Certain aspects of the radiation chemistry of NaCl-saturated MgCl 2 solutions and MgCl 2 hydrates at temperatures in the range of 30 to 180 0 C were investigated through experiments. A principal objective was to establish the values for the yields of H 2 [G(H 2 )] and accompanying oxidants in the gamma-ray radiolysis of concentrated brines that might occur in waste repositories in salt. We concluded that G(H 2 ) from gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated, deaerated atmosphere above the solution is between 0.48 and 0.49 over most of the range 30 to 143 0 C. The yield is probably somewhat lower at the lower end of this range, averaging 0.44 at 30 to 45 0 C. Changes in the relative amounts of MgCl 2 and NaCl in the NaCl-saturated solutions have negligible effects on the yield. The yield of O 2 into the same atmosphere averages 0.13, independent of the temperature and brine composition, showing that only about 50% of the radiolytic oxidant that was formed along with the H 2 was present as O 2 . We did not identify the species that compose the remainder of the oxidant. We concluded that the yield of H 2 from a gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated atmosphere containing 5 to 8% air in He may be greater than the yield in deaerated systems by amounts ranging from 0% for temperatures of 73 to 85 0 C, to about 30 and 40% for temperatures in the ranges 100 to 143 0 C and 30 to 45 0 C, respectively. We did not establish the mechanism whereby the air affected the yields of H 2 and O 2 . The values found in this work for G(H 2 ) in deaerated systems are in approximate agreement with the value of 0.44 for the gamma-irradiation yield of H 2 in pure H 2 O at room temperature. They are also in agreement with the values predicted by extrapolation from the findings of previous researchers for the value for G(H 2 ) in 2 M NaCl solutions at room temperature

  19. Modeling of nonuniform corrosion in salt brines: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.

    1988-03-01

    A mechanistic approach to modeling nonuniform corrosion in brines is presented in this report. Equations are derived for completely describing the electrochemical environment within a localized corrosion cavity, and appropriate initial and boundary conditions are invoked to obtain a solvable system of equations. The initial and boundary conditions can be adjusted to simulate pitting, crevice corrosion, or stress corrosion cracking. Although no numerical results are presented, a numerical strategy for solving the equations is presented. The report focuses on the nonuniform corrosion behavior of mild steel; however, the modeling approach presented is expected to apply to a broad range of metallic materials. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Transport of Pb and Zn by carboxylate complexes in basinal ore fluids and related petroleum-field brines at 100°C: the influence of pH and oxygen fugacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Thomas H

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established through field observations, experiments, and chemical models that oxidation (redox state and pH exert a strong influence on the speciation of dissolved components and the solubility of minerals in hydrothermal fluids. log –pH diagrams were used to depict the influence of oxygen fugacity and pH on monocarboxylate- and dicarboxylate-transport of Pb and Zn in low-temperature (100°C hydrothermal ore fluids that are related to diagenetic processes in deep sedimentary basins, and allow a first-order comparison of Pb and Zn transport among proposed model fluids for Mississippi Valley-type (MVT and red-bed related base metal (RBRBM deposits in terms of their approximate pH and conditions. To construct these diagrams, total Pb and Zn concentrations and Pb and Zn speciation were calculated as a function of log and pH for a composite ore-brine with concentrations of major elements, total sulfur, and total carbonate that approximate the composition of MVT and RBRBM model ore fluids and modern basinal brines. In addition to acetate and malonate complexation, complexes involving the ligands Cl-, HS-, H2S, and OH- were included in the model of calculated total metal concentration and metal speciation. Also, in the model, Zn and Pb are competing with the common-rock forming metals Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, and Al for the same ligands. Calculated total Pb concentration and calculated total Zn concentration are constrained by galena and sphalerite solubility, respectively. Isopleths, in log –pH space, of the concentration of Pb and concentration of Zn in carboxylate (acetate + malonate complexes illustrate that the oxidized model fluids of T. H. Giordano (in Organic Acids in Geological Processes, ed. E. D. Pittman and M. D. Lewan, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994, pp. 319–354 and G. M. Anderson (Econ. Geol., 1975, 70, 937–942 are capable of transporting sufficient amounts of Pb (up to 10 ppm and Zn (up to 100 ppm in the form of carboxylate

  1. Sulfide gas effects on the power transmission lines; Efeito do gas sulfidrico nos componentes do sistema de transmissao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, Zehbour Panossian; Almeida, Neusvaldo Lira de

    1992-12-31

    Copper and its alloys when exposed in atmosphere contaminated with sulphur compounds present stains due to sulfidation. This sulfidation is markedly influenced by temperature and air relative humidity. In this works, results from tests with three years of exposition in atmospheres containing H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} are related; such results show that the use of these materials in regions with these contaminants must be done with restriction. Besides the high copper corrosion rates, corrosion products which form on this metal can cause serious problems to the electric contact. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Sulfide gas effects on the power transmission lines; Efeito do gas sulfidrico nos componentes do sistema de transmissao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, Zehbour Panossian; Almeida, Neusvaldo Lira de

    1993-12-31

    Copper and its alloys when exposed in atmosphere contaminated with sulphur compounds present stains due to sulfidation. This sulfidation is markedly influenced by temperature and air relative humidity. In this works, results from tests with three years of exposition in atmospheres containing H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} are related; such results show that the use of these materials in regions with these contaminants must be done with restriction. Besides the high copper corrosion rates, corrosion products which form on this metal can cause serious problems to the electric contact. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Protein removal from waste brines generated during ham salting through acidification and centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Maria del Rosario; Muñoz-Guerrero, Hernán; Alcaína-Miranda, Maria Isabel; Barat, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The salting step in food processes implies the production of large quantities of waste brines, having high organic load, high conductivity, and other pollutants with high oxygen demand. Direct disposal of the residual brine implies salinization of soil and eutrophication of water. Since most of the organic load of the waste brines comes from proteins leaked from the salted product, precipitation of dissolved proteins by acidification and removal by centrifugation is an operation to be used in waste brine cleaning. The aim of this study is optimizing the conditions for carrying out the separation of proteins from waste brines generated in the pork ham salting operation, by studying the influence of pH, centrifugal force, and centrifugation time. Models for determining the removal of proteins depending on the pH, centrifugal force, and time were obtained. The results showed a high efficacy of the proposed treatment for removing proteins, suggesting that this method could be used for waste brine protein removal. The best pH value to be used in an industrial process seems to be 3, while the obtained results indicate that almost 90% of the proteins from the brine can be removed by acidification followed by centrifugation. A further protein removal from the brine should have to be achieved using filtrating techniques, which efficiency could be highly improved as a consequence of the previous treatment through acidification and centrifugation. Waste brines from meat salting have high organic load and electrical conductivity. Proteins can be removed from the waste brine by acidification and centrifugation. The total protein removal can be up to 90% of the initial content of the waste brine. Protein removal is highly dependent on pH, centrifugation rate, and time. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Functional consortium for denitrifying sulfide removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Liu, Lihong; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2010-03-01

    Denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process simultaneously converts sulfide, nitrate, and chemical oxygen demand from industrial wastewaters to elemental sulfur, nitrogen gas, and carbon dioxide, respectively. This investigation utilizes a dilution-to-extinction approach at 10(-2) to 10(-6) dilutions to elucidate the correlation between the composition of the microbial community and the DSR performance. In the original suspension and in 10(-2) dilution, the strains Stenotrophomonas sp., Thauera sp., and Azoarcus sp. are the heterotrophic denitrifiers and the strains Paracoccus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. are the sulfide-oxidizing denitrifers. The 10(-4) dilution is identified as the functional consortium for the present DSR system, which comprises two functional strains, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain Paracoccus sp. At 10(-6) dilution, all DSR performance was lost. The functions of the constituent cells in the DSR granules were discussed based on data obtained using the dilution-to-extinction approach.

  5. Production and Preservation of Sulfide Layering in Mercury's Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukare, C.-E.; Parman, S. W.; Parmentier, E. M.; Anzures, B. A.

    2018-05-01

    Mercury's magma ocean (MMO) would have been sulfur-rich. At some point during MMO solidification, it likely became sulfide saturated. Here we present physiochemical models exploring sulfide layer formation and stability.

  6. Magmatic Hydrothermal Fluids: Experimental Constraints on the Role of Magmatic Sulfide Crystallization and Other Early Magmatic Processes in Moderating the Metal Content of Ore-Forming Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, P. M.; Candela, P. A.

    2006-05-01

    It has been recognized for some time that sulfide phases, although common in intermediate-felsic volcanic rocks, are not as common in their plutonic equivalents. That sulfide crystallization, or the lack thereof, is important in the protracted magmatic history of porphyry Cu and related systems is supported by the work of e.g., Rowins (2000). Candela and Holland (1986) suggested that sulfide crystallization could moderate the ore metal concentrations in porphyry environments. Experiments show clearly that Au and Cu can partition into Cl-bearing vapor and brine. This effect can be enhanced by S (Simon, this session). However, in some instances enhances this effect. That is, the partitioning of Au and Cu into vapor+brine is highly efficient (e.g. Simon et al. 2003; Frank et al 2003). This suggests that if sulfides do not sequester ore metals early during the history of a magma body from the melt, they will partition strongly into the volatile phases. Whether volatile release occurs in the porphyry ore environment, or at deeper levels upon magma rise, is a yet unsolved question. Little is known about deep release of volatiles (during magma transport at lower- to mid-crustal levels). Saturation of melts with a CO2-bearing fluid could happen at levels much deeper than those typical of ore formation. CO2 is released preferentially, so a high CO2 concentration in fluids in the porphyry ore environment argues against deep fluid release. Of course, this depends upon the specific processes of crystallization and fluid release, which may be complex. Our experiments on sulfides have concentrated on pyrrhotite and Iss. Our partitioning data for Po/melt exhibit wide variations from metal to metal: Cu (2600); Co (170); Au (140); Ni (100); Bi, Zn and Mn (2). These results suggest that crystallization of Po can contribute to variable ore metal ratios (e.g. Cu/Au). Other sulfides behave differently. If a melt is Iss (Cpy) saturated, then Cu will be buffered at a high value, and Au

  7. Water quality in the vicinity of Mosquito Creek Lake, Trumbull County, Ohio, in relation of the chemistry of locally occurring oil, natural gas, and brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, G.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Ryder, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe current water quality and the chemistry of oil, natural gas, and brine in the Mosquito Creek Lake area. Additionally, these data are used to characterize water quality in the Mosquito Creek Lake area in relation to past oil and natural gas well drilling and production. To meet the overall objective, several goals for this investigation were established. These include (1) collect water-quality and subsurface-gas data from shallow sediments and rock that can be used for future evaluation of possible effects of oil and natural gas well drilling and production on water supplies, (2) characterize current surface-water and ground-water quality as it relates to the natural occurrence and (or) release of oil, gas, and brine (3) sample and chemically characterize the oil in the shallow Mecca Oil Pool, gas from the Berea and Cussewago Sandstone aquifers, and the oil, gas, and brine from the Clinton sandstone, and (4) identify areas where aquifers are vulnerable to contamination from surface spills at oil and natural gas drilling and production sites

  8. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  9. Girdler-sulfide process physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuburg, H.J.; Atherley, J.F.; Walker, L.G.

    1977-05-01

    Physical properties of pure hydrogen sulfide and of gaseous and liquid solutions of the H 2 S-H 2 O system have been formulated. Tables for forty-nine different properties in the pressure and temperature range of interest to the Girdler-Sulfide (GS) process for heavy water production are given. All properties are presented in SI units. A computer program capable of calculating properties of the pure components as well as gaseous mixtures and liquid solutions at saturated and non-saturated conditions is included. (author)

  10. Reduction of acid rock drainage using steel slag in cover systems over sulfide rock waste piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Rodrigo Pereira; Leite, Adilson do Lago; Borghetti Soares, Anderson

    2015-04-01

    The extraction of gold, coal, nickel, uranium, copper and other earth-moving activities almost always leads to environmental damage. In metal and coal extraction, exposure of sulfide minerals to the atmosphere leads to generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) and in underground mining to acid mine drainage (AMD) due to contamination of infiltrating groundwater. This study proposes to develop a reactive cover system that inhibits infiltration of oxygen and also releases alkalinity to increase the pH of generated ARD and attenuate metal contaminants at the same time. The reactive cover system is constructed using steel slag, a waste product generated from steel industries. This study shows that this type of cover system has the potential to reduce some of the adverse effects of sulfide mine waste disposal on land. Geochemical and geotechnical characterization tests were carried out. Different proportions of sulfide mine waste and steel slag were studied in leachate extraction tests. The best proportion was 33% of steel slag in dry weight. Other tests were conducted as follows: soil consolidation, saturated permeability and soil water characteristic curve. The cover system was numerically modeled through unsaturated flux analysis using Vadose/w. The solution proposed is an oxygen transport barrier that allows rain water percolation to treat the ARD in the waste rock pile. The results showed that the waste pile slope is an important factor and the cover system must have 5 m thickness to achieve an acceptable effectiveness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Fermentation cover brine reformulation for cucumber processing with low salt to reduce bloater defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reformulation of calcium chloride cover brine for cucumber fermentation was explored as a mean to minimize the incidence of bloater defect. This study particularly focused on cover brine supplementation with calcium hydroxide, sodium chloride (NaCl), and acids to enhance buffer capacity, inhibit the...

  12. Brine Pockets in the Icy Shell on Europa: Distribution, Chemistry, and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, M. Yu; Shock, E. L.; Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    On Earth, sea ice is rich in brine, salt, and gas inclusions that form through capturing of seawater during ice formation. Cooling of the ice over time leads to sequential freezing of captured sea-water, precipitation of salts, exsolution of gases, and formation of brine channels and pockets. Distribution and composition of brines in sea ice depend on the rate of ice formation, vertical temperature gradient, and the age of the ice. With aging, the abundance of brine pockets decreases through downward migration. De- spite low temperatures and elevated salinities, brines in sea ice provide a habitat for photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms. On Europa, brine pockets and channels could exist in the icy shell that may be from a few km to a few tens of km thick and is probably underlain by a water ocean. If the icy shell is relatively thick, convection could develop, affecting the temperature pattern in the ice. To predict the distribution and chemistry of brine pockets in the icy shell we have combined numerical models of the temperature distribution within a convecting shell, a model for oceanic chemistry, and a model for freezing of Europan oceanic water. Possible effects of brine and gas inclusions on ice rheology and tectonics are discussed.

  13. Recovery of biomolecules from marinated herring (Clupea harengus) brine using ultrafiltration through ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Svendsen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Marinated herring processing brines, which are usually discarded, are rich in salt, protein, non-protein nitrogen, iron, fatty acids, antioxidant and even possess enzymatic activity. This study investigated the performance of ceramic ultrafiltration of two herring spice brines with a major focus...

  14. Corrosion and hydrogen permeation of A216 Grade WCA steel in hydrothermal magnesium-containing brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, J.H.; Frydrych, D.J.; Westerman, R.E.

    1988-03-01

    Corrosion rates determined at 1 month in 150/degree/C brine increased with magnesium concentration. The structure of the corrosion product, as determined by x-ray diffraction, depended upon the magnesium concentration. In brines with less than 10,000 ppM magnesium, the primary corrosion product had a spinel structure characteristic of magnetite or magnesioferrite. In brines containing magnesium concentrations greater than 20,000 ppM, the primary corrosion product had the amakinite structure characteristic of a complex iron-magnesium hydroxide. The high corrosion rates observed in brines containing high magnesium concentrations suggest that the corrosion products having the amakinite structure is less protective than corrosion products having the spinel structure. Corrosion rates in high-magnesium (inclusion) brine determined over a 6-month test duration were essentially constant. Hydrogen permeation rates observed in exposing mild steel to high-Mg/sup 2/plus// brine at 150/degree/C could be potentially damaging to a mild steel waste package container. The rate of hydrogen permeation was proportional to the brine flow rate in the autoclave. Thiourea additions to the brine increased the hydrogen permeation rate; sulfate and bromide ion additions did not. The maximum gaseous hydrogen pressure attainable is not known (based on 3Fe /plus/ 4H 2 O /plus/ Fe(sub 3)O /plus/ 4H 2 , would be /approximately/900 atmospheres), and the dependence of permeation rate on temperature is not known. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Geochemistry of Salado formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogeneous with respect to composition but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Water Recovery from Brine in the Short and Long Term: A KSC Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Melendez, Orlando; Anthony, Steve

    2014-01-01

    KSC has spent many years researching Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors as well as research encompassing:Alternate ammonia removal/Advanced oxidation. Brine purification technologies KSC-ISRU has built an electrolysis cell for the removal of acids in ISRU mining brines. Our goal is to combine all such technologies.

  18. Improving the performance of brine wells at Gulf Coast strategic petroleum reserve sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, L.B.; Quong, R. (eds.)

    1979-11-05

    At the request of the Department of Energy, field techniques were developed to evaluate and improve the injection of brine into wells at Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) sites. These wells are necessary for the disposal of saturated brine removed from salt domes where oil is being stored. The wells, which were accepting brine at 50 percent or less of their initial design rates, were impaired by saturated brine containing particulates that deposited on the sand face and in the geologic formation next to the wellbore. Corrosion of the brine-disposal pipelines and injection wells contributed to the impairment by adding significant amounts of particulates in the form of corrosion products. When tests were implemented at the SPR sites, it was found that the poor quality of injected brines was the primary cause of impaired injection; that granular-media filtration, when used with chemical pretreatment, is an effective method for removing particulates from hypersaline brine; that satisfactory injection-well performance can be attained with prefiltered brines; and that corrosion rates can be substantially reduced by oxygen-scavenging.

  19. Use of biogenic sulfide for ZnS precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, G.; Veeken, A.; Weijma, J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    A 600 ml continuously stirred tank reactor was used to assess the performance of a zinc sulfide precipitation process using a biogenic sulfide solution (the effluent of a sulfate-reducing bioreactor) as sulfide source. In all experiments, a proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm was used to

  20. The use of bacconcentrate Herobacterin in brine cheese technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Slyvka:

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article a comparative analysis of the use of the bacterial preparation Herobacterin and the starter RSF-742 (Chr. Hansen, Denmark in the technology of brine cheese was conducted. Herobacterin is a bacterial preparation created using bacteria Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactococcus garvieae, isolated from traditional Carpathian brine cheese brynza and identified using classical microbiological and modern molecular genetic methods (RAPD-PCR, RFLP-PCR, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The results of investigations of organoleptic, physico-chemical, syneretical and microbiological parameters of cheese brynza with use of preparation Herobacterin are presented in comparison with the starter RSF-742, which includes cultures: Lactococcus lactis subsp. сremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus. The use of Herobacterin has a positive effect on organoleptic, physico-chemical and microbiological parameters, all parameters complied with the requirements of DSTU 7065:2009. The level of survival of lactic acid bacteria in brynza during maturation and storage is high, which confirms the correctness of the selection of strains to preparation Herobakterin, which demonstrated good adaptability to the composition and properties of ewe's milk.

  1. Observations of brine plumes below melting Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Peterson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In sea ice, interconnected pockets and channels of brine are surrounded by fresh ice. Over time, brine is lost by gravity drainage and flushing. The timing of salt release and its interaction with the underlying water can impact subsequent sea ice melt. Turbulence measurements 1 m below melting sea ice north of Svalbard reveal anticorrelated heat and salt fluxes. From the observations, 131 salty plumes descending from the warm sea ice are identified, confirming previous observations from a Svalbard fjord. The plumes are likely triggered by oceanic heat through bottom melt. Calculated over a composite plume, oceanic heat and salt fluxes during the plumes account for 6 and 9 % of the total fluxes, respectively, while only lasting in total 0.5 % of the time. The observed salt flux accumulates to 7.6 kg m−2, indicating nearly full desalination of the ice. Bulk salinity reduction between two nearby ice cores agrees with accumulated salt fluxes to within a factor of 2. The increasing fraction of younger, more saline ice in the Arctic suggests an increase in desalination processes with the transition to the new Arctic.

  2. Observations of brine plumes below melting Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Algot K.

    2018-02-01

    In sea ice, interconnected pockets and channels of brine are surrounded by fresh ice. Over time, brine is lost by gravity drainage and flushing. The timing of salt release and its interaction with the underlying water can impact subsequent sea ice melt. Turbulence measurements 1 m below melting sea ice north of Svalbard reveal anticorrelated heat and salt fluxes. From the observations, 131 salty plumes descending from the warm sea ice are identified, confirming previous observations from a Svalbard fjord. The plumes are likely triggered by oceanic heat through bottom melt. Calculated over a composite plume, oceanic heat and salt fluxes during the plumes account for 6 and 9 % of the total fluxes, respectively, while only lasting in total 0.5 % of the time. The observed salt flux accumulates to 7.6 kg m-2, indicating nearly full desalination of the ice. Bulk salinity reduction between two nearby ice cores agrees with accumulated salt fluxes to within a factor of 2. The increasing fraction of younger, more saline ice in the Arctic suggests an increase in desalination processes with the transition to the new Arctic.

  3. Association between catastrophic paleovegetation changes during Devonian-Carboniferous boundary and the formation of giant massive sulfide deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menor-Salván, Cesar; Tornos, Fernando; Fernández-Remolar, David; Amils, Ricardo

    2010-11-01

    sulfide deposits formed where venting sulfur-poor but metal-rich hydrothermal brines flowed into a hydrogen sulfide-rich anoxic water column. The data presented strongly suggest that there was a temporal and causal relationship between the Devonian-Carboniferous geotectonic, climatic and biological crises and the formation of the giant volcano-sedimentary massive sulfide deposits of the southern Iberian Pyrite Belt.

  4. Acid and base recovery from brine solution using PVP intermediate-based bipolar membrane through water splitting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Krishnaveni; Murugappan, Minnoli; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2017-07-01

    Potable water has become a scarce resource in many countries. In fact, the world is not running out of water, but rather, the relatively fixed quantity is becoming too contaminated for many applications. Hence, the present work was designed to evaluate the desalination efficiency of resin and glass fiber-reinforced Polysulfone polymer-based monopolar and bipolar (BPM) ion exchange membranes (with polyvinyl pyrrolidone as the intermediate layer) on a real sample brine solution for 8 h duration. The prepared ion exchange membranes (IEMs) were characterized using FTIR, SEM, TGA, water absorption, and contact angle measurements. The BPM efficiency, electrical conductivity, salinity, sodium, and chloride ion concentration were evaluated for both prepared and commercial-based IEM systems. The current efficiency and energy consumption values obtained during BPMED process were found to be 45 % and 0.41 Wh for RPSu-PVP-based IEM system and 38 % and 1.60 Wh for PSDVB-based IEM system, respectively.

  5. Evolution of mineralizing brines in the east Tennessee Mississippi Valley-type ore field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, S.E.; Gesink, J.A.; Haynes, F.M. (Univ. of Michingan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1989-05-01

    The east Tennessee Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) ore field contains barite-fluorite and sphalterite deposits in a continuous paleoaquifer consisting of breccia zones in the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Knox Group. Paragenetic observations and fluid inclusion compositions in these deposits indicate that the Knox paleoaquifer was invaded first by Ca-rich brines (Ca:Na about 1) that deposited fluorite and barite, and later by Na-Ca brines (Ca:Na = 0.1 to 0.5) that deposited sphalerite. Geologic relation sindicate that these brines were derived from the southeast, in the area of the Middle Ordovician Servier foreland shale basin, and that imposed by fluorite solubility indicate further that all original connate water in the Sevier basin was required to deposit the estimated flourite reserves of the ore field.Thus, the later, sphalerite-depositing brines represent recycled meteoric water from the Sevier basin or connate brines from underlying (Cambrian) shales.

  6. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  7. Indoor tests to investigate the effect of brine depth on the performance of solar still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Marwah A.W.; Jabbar N. Khalifa, Abdul [Nahrain University, College of Engineering, Jadiriya, P.O. Box 64040, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Many experimental and numerical studies have been done on different configurations of solar stills to optimize the design by examining the effect of climatic, operational and design parameters on its performance. One of the most important of the operational parameters that has received a considerable attention in the literature is the brine depth. This paper reports indoor experimental investigations on the effect of brine depth on the productivity and efficiency of the solar stills at four different brine depths of 1.5, 2, 4 and 5.5 cm. Indoor tests were used by simulating the solar input by proper electric heaters located at the bottom of the still for heating the water contained in the basin of the still. The present study validated the decreasing trend in productivity with the increase of brine depth and showed that the still productivity could be influenced by the brine depth by up to 24%.

  8. Modeling Sulfides, pH and Hydrogen Sulfide Gas in the Sewers of San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Revilla, Nohemy; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2015-01-01

    An extensive measuring campaign targeted on sewer odor problems was undertaken in San Francisco. It was assessed whether a conceptual sewer process model could reproduce the measured concentrations of total sulfide in the wastewater and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere, and to which degree...... such simulations have potential for further improving odor and sulfide management. The campaign covered measurement of wastewater sulfide by grab sampling and diurnal sampling, and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere was logged. The tested model was based on the Wastewater Aerobic/Anaerobic Transformations in Sewers...... (WATS) sewer process concept, which never had been calibrated to such an extensive dataset. The study showed that the model was capable of reproducing the general levels of wastewater sulfide, wastewater pH, and sewer H2S gas. It could also reproduce the general variability of these parameters, albeit...

  9. Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C

    2010-04-01

    Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk.

  10. Reaction between Hydrogen Sulfide and Limestone Calcines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Trnka, Otakar; Čermák, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 10 (2002), s. 2392-2398 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072711; GA AV ČR IAA4072801 Keywords : hydrogen sulfide * limestone calcines * desulfurization Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.247, year: 2002

  11. Microaeration reduces hydrogen sulfide in biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although there are a variety of biological and chemical treatments for removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from biogas, all require some level of chemical or water inputs and maintenance. In practice, managing biogas H2S remains a significant challenge for agricultural digesters where labor and opera...

  12. Support Effect in Hydrodesulfurization over Ruthenium Sulfide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gulková, Daniela; Kaluža, Luděk; Vít, Zdeněk; Zdražil, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2009), s. 146-149 ISSN 1337-7027 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/06/0705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ruthenium sulfide * hydrodesulfurization * support effect Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  13. Monitoring sulfide and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Simple yet precise and accurate methods for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfide remain useful for the study of bacterial souring and corrosion. Test kits are available to measure sulfide in field samples. A more precise methylene blue sulfide assay for both field and laboratory studies is described here. Improved media, compared to that in API RP-38, for enumeration of SRB have been formulated. One of these, API-RST, contained cysteine (1.1 mM) as a reducing agent, which may be a confounding source of sulfide. While cysteine was required for rapid enumeration of SRB from environmental samples, the concentration of cysteine in medium could be reduced to 0.4 mM. It was also determined that elevated levels of yeast extract (>1 g/liter) could interfere with enumeration of SRB from environmental samples. The API-RST medium was modified to a RST-11 medium. Other changes in medium composition, in addition to reduction of cysteine, included reduction of the concentration of phosphate from 3.4 mM to 2.2 mM, reduction of the concentration of ferrous iron from 0.8 mM to 0.5 mM and preparation of a stock mineral solution to ease medium preparation. SRB from environmental samples could be enumerated in a week in this medium.

  14. Acid volatile sulfide (AVS)- a comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The review by Rickard and Morse (this volume) adequately summarizes our current understanding with respect to acid-volatile sulfides (AVS). At the same time, this review addresses some of the misunderstandings with regard to measurements and dynamics of this important sedimentary sulfur pool. In

  15. Carbon a support for sulfide catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, J.P.R.; Lensing, T.J.; Mercx, F.P.M.; Beer, de V.H.J.; Prins, R.

    1983-01-01

    Two types of carbon materials, carbon black composite and carbon covered alumina, were studied for-their use as support for sulfide catalysts. The following parameters were varied: type of carbon black, carbon coverage of the alumina and carbon pretreatment. Pore size distributions were determined

  16. Performance and life cycle environmental benefits of recycling spent ion exchange brines by catalytic treatment of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jong Kwon; Bergquist, Allison M; Jeong, Sangjo; Guest, Jeremy S; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2015-09-01

    Salt used to make brines for regeneration of ion exchange (IX) resins is the dominant economic and environmental liability of IX treatment systems for nitrate-contaminated drinking water sources. To reduce salt usage, the applicability and environmental benefits of using a catalytic reduction technology to treat nitrate in spent IX brines and enable their reuse for IX resin regeneration were evaluated. Hybrid IX/catalyst systems were designed and life cycle assessment of process consumables are used to set performance targets for the catalyst reactor. Nitrate reduction was measured in a typical spent brine (i.e., 5000 mg/L NO3(-) and 70,000 mg/L NaCl) using bimetallic Pd-In hydrogenation catalysts with variable Pd (0.2-2.5 wt%) and In (0.0125-0.25 wt%) loadings on pelletized activated carbon support (Pd-In/C). The highest activity of 50 mgNO3(-)/(min - g(Pd)) was obtained with a 0.5 wt%Pd-0.1 wt%In/C catalyst. Catalyst longevity was demonstrated by observing no decrease in catalyst activity over more than 60 days in a packed-bed reactor. Based on catalyst activity measured in batch and packed-bed reactors, environmental impacts of hybrid IX/catalyst systems were evaluated for both sequencing-batch and continuous-flow packed-bed reactor designs and environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid system were found to be 38-81% of those of conventional IX. Major environmental impact contributors other than salt consumption include Pd metal, hydrogen (electron donor), and carbon dioxide (pH buffer). Sensitivity of environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid reactor system to sulfate and bicarbonate anions indicate the hybrid system is more sustainable than conventional IX when influent water contains reuse cycles. The study showed that hybrid IX/catalyst reactor systems have potential to reduce resource consumption and improve environmental impacts associated with treating nitrate-contaminated water sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Inactivation of Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in brine-injected, gas-grilled steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchansky, John B; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Call, Jeffrey E; Schlosser, Wayne; Shaw, William; Bauer, Nathan; Latimer, Heejeong

    2011-07-01

    We quantified translocation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) and non-O157:H7 verocytotoxigenic E. coli (STEC) into beef subprimals after brine injection and subsequently monitored their viability after cooking steaks cut therefrom. Beef subprimals were inoculated on the lean side with ca. 6.0 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of rifampin-resistant ECOH or kanamycin-resistant STEC, and then passed once through an automatic brine-injector tenderizer, with the lean side facing upward. Brine solutions (9.9% ± 0.3% over fresh weight) consisted of 3.3% (wt/vol) of sodium tripolyphosphate and 3.3% (wt/vol) of sodium chloride, prepared both with (Lac(+), pH = 6.76) and without (Lac(-), pH = 8.02) a 25% (vol/vol) solution of a 60% potassium lactate-sodium diacetate syrup. For all samples injected with Lac(-) or Lac(+) brine, levels of ECOH or STEC recovered from the topmost 1 cm (i.e., segment 1) of a core sample obtained from tenderized subprimals ranged from ca. 4.7 to 6.3 log CFU/g; however, it was possible to recover ECOH or STEC from all six segments of all cores tested. Next, brine-injected steaks from tenderized subprimals were cooked on a commercial open-flame gas grill to internal endpoint temperatures of either 37.8 °C (100 °F), 48.8 °C (120 °F), 60 °C (140 °F), or 71.1 °C (160 °F). Regardless of brine formulation or temperature, cooking achieved reductions (expressed as log CFU per gram) of 0.3 to 4.1 of ECOH and 0.5 to 3.6 of STEC. However, fortuitous survivors were recovered even at 71.1 °C (160 °F) for ECOH and for STEC. Thus, ECOH and STEC behaved similarly, relative to translocation and thermal destruction: Tenderization via brine injection transferred both pathogens throughout subprimals and cooking highly contaminated, brine-injected steaks on a commercial gas grill at 71.1 °C (160 °F) did not kill all cells due, primarily, to nonuniform heating (i.e., cold spots) within the meat. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  18. Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, Carrie J.; Quach, Anh P.; Birnie, Dunbar P.; Ela, Wendell P.; Saez, Avelino E.; Zelinski, Brian J.; Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary Lynn L.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic

  19. Study on the sulfidation behavior of smithsonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dandan; Wen, Shuming; Deng, Jiushuai; Liu, Jian; Mao, Yingbo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Zeta potential showed that the pH IEP of smithsonite decreased from 7.7 to 6. • ICP test showed the gradual reduction of C S in the solution. • SEM showed that the mineral surface was partially changed to ZnS film. • XPS indicated that the presence of a characteristic signal peak of sulfur ions. - Abstract: Zinc extraction from low-grade mineral resources of oxidized zinc has recently become a focus of study. Sulfidation is an important process in oxidized ore flotation. In this study, the influence of sulfur ion adsorption on smithsonite surface was investigated with the use of zeta potential, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. Zeta potential measurements of sodium sulfide showed that sulfur ions were adsorbed onto the surface of pure smithsonite, as evidenced by the increased negative charge and the decrease in the pH IEP of smithsonite from 7.7 to 6 after sodium sulfide treatment. The ICP test revealed the gradual reduction in sulfur ion adsorption onto the surface of smithsonite in pulp sulfur. After 30 min of absorption, C S in the solution declined from 1000 × 10 −6 mol/L to 1.4 × 10 −6 mol/L. SEM results showed that the mineral surface was partially changed to ZnS film after sodium sulfide treatment, whereas EDS analysis results showed that 2% S is contained on the smithsonite surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated the presence of a characteristic signal peak of sulfur ions after sulfidation. Sulfur concentration increased to 11.89%, whereas oxygen concentration decreased from 42.31% to 13.74%. Sulfur ions were not only present during chemical adsorption, but were also incorporated into the crystal lattices of minerals by the exchange reaction between S 2− and CO 3 2− ions

  20. Nitrogen release from forest soils containing sulfide-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maileena Nieminen, Tiina; Merilä, Päivi; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa

    2014-05-01

    Soils containing sediments dominated by metal sulfides cause high acidity and release of heavy metals, when excavated or drained, as the aeration of these sediments causes formation of sulfuric acid. Consequent leaching of acidity and heavy metals can kill tree seedlings and animals such as fish, contaminate water, and corrode concrete and steel. These types of soils are called acid sulfate soils. Their metamorphic equivalents, such as sulfide rich black shales, pose a very similar risk of acidity and metal release to the environment. Until today the main focus in treatment of the acid sulfate soils has been to prevent acidification and metal toxicity to agricultural crop plants, and only limited attention has been paid to the environmental threat caused by the release of acidity and heavy metals to the surrounding water courses. Even less attention is paid on release of major nutrients, such as nitrogen, although these sediments are extremely rich in carbon and nitrogen and present a potentially high microbiological activity. In Europe, the largest cover of acid sulfate soils is found in coastal lowlands of Finland. Estimates of acid sulfate soils in agricultural use range from 1 300 to 3 000 km2, but the area in other land use classes, such as managed peatland forests, is presumably larger. In Finland, 49 500 km2 of peatlands have been drained for forestry, and most of these peatland forests will be at the regeneration stage within 10 to 30 years. As ditch network maintenance is often a prerequisite for a successful establishment of the following tree generation, the effects of maintenance operations on the quality of drainage water should be under special control in peatlands underlain by sulfide-bearing sediments. Therefore, identification of risk areas and effective prevention of acidity and metal release during drain maintenance related soil excavating are great challenges for forestry on coastal lowlands of Finland. The organic and inorganic nitrogen

  1. Quorum Quenching Bacillus sonorensis Isolated from Soya Sauce Fermentation Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v. L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation.

  2. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  3. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    on the major roads (150 km) in the municipality of North Funen from the winter 2007/8. The result has been a dramatically reduction in the number of traffic accidents on slippery roads during the winter season. From 7 and 5 accidents in the previous 2 winters to 1 accident in the winter 2007/8. Neighbouring...... municipalities had an increasing number of traffic accidents on slippery roads in the same period.......During the years 1996-2006, the former county of Funen, Denmark, gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine spread with nozzles as anti-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor traffic flow...

  4. In-situ fracture mapping using geotomography and brine tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Ramirez, A.L.; Lytle, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently assessing the capabilities of high resolution geophysical methods to characterize geologic sites for the disposal of high level nuclear waste. A successful experiment has recently been performed in which salt water tracers and high frequency electromagnetic waves were utilized to map rock mass fracture zones in-situ. Multiple cross-borehole EM transmissions were used to generate a tomographic image of the fractured rock region between two boreholes. The tomographs obtained correlate well with conventional wireline geophysical logs which can be used to infer the location of fractured zones in the rock mass. This indirect data suggests that the geotomography and brine tracer technique may have merit in mapping fractured zones between boreholes

  5. CO2/ brine substitution experiments at simulated reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerow, Juliane; Spangenberg, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Capillary properties of rocks affect the mobility of fluids in a reservoir. Therefore, the understanding of the capillary pressure behaviour is essential to assess the long-term behaviour of CO2 reservoirs. Beyond this, a calibration of the petrophysical properties on water saturation of reservoir rocks at simulated in situ conditions is crucial for a proper interpretation of field monitoring data. We present a set-up, which allows for the combined measurements of capillary pressure, electric resistivity, and elastic wave velocities under controlled reservoir conditions (pconf = 400 bar, ppore = 180 bar, T = 65 ° C) at different brine-CO2 saturations. The capillary properties of the samples are measured using the micropore membrane technique. The sample is jacketed with a Viton tube (thickness = 4 mm) and placed between two current electrode endcaps, which as well contain pore fluid ports and ultrasonic P and S wave transducers. Between the sample and the lower endcap the hydrophilic semi-permeable micro-pore membrane (pore size = 100 nm) is integrated. It is embedded into filter papers to establish a good capillary contact and to protect the highly sensitive membrane against mechanical damage under load. Two high-precision syringe pumps are used to displace a quantified volume of brine by CO2 and determine the corresponding sample saturation. The fluid displacement induces a pressure gradient along the sample, which corresponds to the capillary pressure at a particular sample saturation. It is measured with a differential pressure sensor in the range between 0 - 0.2 MPa. Drainage and imbibition cycles are performed to provide information on the efficiency of capillary trapping and to get a calibration of the petrophysical parameters of the sample.

  6. Viruses-to-mobile genetic elements skew in the deep Atlantis II brine pool sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Adel, Mustafa

    2016-09-06

    The central rift of the Red Sea has 25 brine pools with different physical and geochemical characteristics. Atlantis II (ATIID), Discovery Deeps (DD) and Chain Deep (CD) are characterized by high salinity, temperature and metal content. Several studies reported microbial communities in these brine pools, but few studies addressed the brine pool sediments. Therefore, sediment cores were collected from ATIID, DD, CD brine pools and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Sixteen different lithologic sediment sections were subjected to shotgun DNA pyrosequencing to generate 1.47 billion base pairs (1.47 × 109 bp). We generated sediment-specific reads and attempted to annotate all reads. We report the phylogenetic and biochemical uniqueness of the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. In contrary to all other sediment sections, bacteria dominate the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. This decrease in virus-to-bacteria ratio in selected sections and depth coincided with an overrepresentation of mobile genetic elements. Skewing in the composition of viruses-to-mobile genetic elements may uniquely contribute to the distinct microbial consortium in sediments in proximity to hydrothermally active vents of the Red Sea and possibly in their surroundings, through differential horizontal gene transfer.

  7. Distribution of Cathepsin D Activity between Lysosomes and a Soluble Fraction of Marinating Brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    This paper is the first ever to describe the phenomenon of bimodal distribution of cathepsin D in the lysosomal and soluble fractions of brine left after herring marinating. Up to 2 times higher cathepsin D activity was observed in the lysosome fraction. Activity of cathepsin D in brine increased according to the logarithmic function during low frequency-high power ultrasounds treatment or according to the linear function after multiple freezing-thawing of brine. Activity enhancement was achieved only in the brine devoid of lipids and suspension. Study results show also that measurement of lysosomal cathepsin D activity in the marinating brine requires also determining cathepsin E activity. Decreasing pore size of microfilter from 2.7 to 0.3 μm significantly reduced the lysosome content in the brine. The presence of lysosomes and the possibility of their separation as well as the likely release of cathepsins shall be considered during industrial application of the marinating brine, as new cathepsins preparations in fish and meat technology. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

    In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

  9. Migration rates of brine inclusions in single crystals of NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Rock-salt deposits have been considered as a possible medium for the permanent storage of high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuel. Brine inclusions present in natural salt can migrate toward the waste if the temperature and the temperature gradients in the vicinity of the radioactive waste are large enough. This migration is due to the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the salt-brine interface, ion diffusion through the brine droplet, and the precipitation of salt at the cold side of the salt brine interface. In order to quantify the problem, the migration rate of these brine inclusions must be estimated under various repository conditions. This paper estimates migration rates for all-liquid brine inclusions in single crystals of NaCl by utilizing recent data for brines and the model of Anthony and Cline [T.R. Anthony and H.E. Cline, J. Appl. Phys., 42, pp. 3380-387 (1971)]. The predictions are compared with experimentally measured migration rates. 4 figures, 6 tables

  10. Uranium mobility in non-oxidizing brines: field and experimental evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giblin, A.M.; Appleyard, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    The present distribution of U in the Wollaston Sediments in Saskatchewan can be related to the movement of brines as revealed in Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-metasomes. Experiments were conducted at 60 and 200 0 C under stringently non-oxidizing conditions using solvents ranging from distilled water to a Ca-Na-K brine formulated to simulate the major element composition of the Salton Sea geothermal brines. The experiments were conducted on natural pitchblende (UOsub(2.67)) and synthetic uraninite (UOsub(2.01)). Natural pitchblende was more strongly dissolved than the synthetic uraninite, and the synthetic Salton Sea brine was a more potent solvent than distilled water, 1:4 diluted Salton Sea brine, or pure NaCl brine. Within analytical limits of detection the dissolved U is present in the uranous (U 4+ ) state. The evidence demonstrates empirically the mechanism of dissolution of naturally occurring U minerals in reduced brines and describes a geological case where this appears to have happened. (author)

  11. U-Pb Dating of Calcite to Constrain Basinal Brine Flux Events: An Example from the Upper Midwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasbury, T.; Luczaj, J.

    2017-12-01

    Calcite forms in a variety of settings and can be the product of surface to deep basinal fluids. As such, this mineral can uniquely record details of the fluids responsible for its formation. The forms of calcium carbonates and their stratigraphic relationships from the thin section to the regional scale give important insights on pulses of fluids. A fundamental question is the age of such fluid pulses. While calcite excludes uranium (U) from its crystal structure, some is incorporated and depending on the U/Pb ratio, this provides an opportunity for radiometric dating. Calcite crystals of various sizes and crystal habits are found in Paleozoic carbonate rocks throughout the region from the western Michigan basin to the upper Mississippi valley. These are typically associated with Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) mineralization, including galena, sphalerite, and iron sulfides, but typically post-date the main MVT event. We have analyzed a variety of these calcites and find multiple generations of calcite, separated by tens of millions of years. The initial Pb isotope ratios are similar to the isotope ratios of nearby galena, strongly suggesting a genetic relationship. Our oldest ages are 200 Ma, and we find ages ranging into the Cenozoic. Based on the Paleozoic-hosted galena Pb-isotope isoscapes from the region, the fluids may have been sourced from both the Michigan and Illinois basins. An important and unanswered question is what would cause significant fluid movement out of the basins substantially after Appalachian orogenesis. Noble gas data from brines in the Michigan Basin have a mantle component and have been suggested to be responsible for recognized elevated temperatures across the basin (Ma et al., 2009). Multiple thermal events during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras may have an internal heat source related to reactivation of faults of the Keweenawan Rift system below the Michigan Basin. Perhaps a mantle heat source from below episodically fluxes into the

  12. Modeling brine inflow to Room Q: A numerical investigation of flow mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeze, G.A.; Christian-Frear, T.L.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-04-01

    A hydrologic modeling study was performed to gain insight into the flow mechanisms around Room Q. A summary of hydrologic and structural data and of predictive fluid flow models from Room Q are provided. Six years of measured data are available from the time of excavation. No brine accumulation in Room Q was measured in the first two years following excavation. However, there is considerable uncertainty associated with this early-time data due to inadequate sealing of the room. Brine may have been lost to evaporation or it may have flowed into newly created disturbed rock zone (DRZ) porosity resulting from excavation. Non-zero brine accumulation rates were measured from 2--5 years, but brine accumulation within the room dropped to zero after 5.5 years. A conceptual model for brine inflow to Room Q was developed which assumes far-field Darcy flow combined with an increasing DRZ pore volume. Numerical simulations employed TOUGH28W and used predictive DRZ porosity increase with time from SPECTROM-32 rock deformation simulations. Simulated brine inflow showed good agreement with measured brine accumulation rates for the first five years. Two important conclusions were drawn from the simulation results: (1) early-time brine inflow to the room can be reduced to zero if the DRZ pore volume increases with time, and (2) brine accumulation (inflow) rates from 2 to 5 years suggest a far-field permeability of 5 x 10 -22 m 2 with a bulk rock compressibility of 5.4 x 10 -12 Pa -1

  13. Weeks Island brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-12

    This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Weeks Island salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form or enlarge oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Weeks Island salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 27 nautical miles (32 statute miles) for Site A, or 41 nautical miles (47 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a sustained peak rate of 39 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and July 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of tthe brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model (US Dept. of Commerce, 1977a). Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish. (DMC)

  14. Threshold temperature gradient effect on migration of brine inclusions in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    Theories of the migration of brine inclusions in salt were interpreted as simple physical processes, and theories by Russian and US workers were shown to yield the same results. The migration theory was used to predict threshold temperature gradients below which migration of brine inclusions should not occur. The predicted threshold gradients were compared with the temperature gradients expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. The theory of threshold gradients helps explain the existence of brine inclusions in natural salt deposits

  15. Evaluation of the bioactivities of some Myanmar medicinal plants using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabai; Khin Khin Win Aung; Nwe Ni Thin; Kyi Shwe; Tin Myint Htwe

    2001-01-01

    For a variety of toxic substances, brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) are usually used as a simple bioassay method and it is also applied for natural product research. The brine shrimp larvae (nauplii) are obtained by natural hatching method from Artemia cysts. By using the larvae, the results from these experiments lead to the lethal dose, LD 50 values of extracts of selected medicinal plants. Activities of a broad range of plant extracts are manifested as toxicity to the brine shrimp. Screening results with six plant extracts are compared with pure caffeine. This method is rapid, reliable, inexpensive and convenient. (author)

  16. Deep brine recognition upstream the EBE syndicate. Geochemical and isotopic investigations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The authors report and discuss the results obtained after performing a drilling upstream the drinkable water harnessing field of a water supply syndicate in Alsace (Ensisheim, Bollwiller and surroundings), in order to confirm the existence of a deep brine source. This brine is diluted by recent waters. The first isotopic investigations do not allow the origin of this brine to be identified, but fractures due to some seismic events are suspected. The report presents the drilling and the various aspects of the chemical and isotopic studies (sampling, physico-chemical analysis, dating, identification of various isotopes)

  17. Ring Resonator for Detection of Melting Brine Under Shallow Subsurface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experimental evidence using Raman spectroscopy has shown that liquid brine may form below the shallow subsurface of Mars. A simpler experimental method to verify the presence of liquid brine or liquid water below Mars surface is needed. In this paper, a ring resonator is used to detect the phase change between frozen water and liquid water below a sandy soil that simulates the Mars surface. Experimental data shows that the ring resonator can detect the melting of thin layers of frozen brine or water up to 15 mm below the surface.

  18. Influence of reactive sulfide (AVS) and supplementary food on Ag, Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-S.; Lee, B.-G.; Yoo, H.; Koh, C.-H.; Luoma, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory bioassay determined the relative contribution of various pathways of Ag, Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata exposed to moderately contaminated sediments. Juvenile worms were exposed for 25 d to experimental sediments containing 5 different reactive sulfide (acid volatile sulfides, AVS) concentrations (1 to 30 ??mol g-1), but with constant Ag, Cd, and Zn concentrations of 0.1, 0.1 and 7 ??mol g-1, respectively. The sediments were supplemented with contaminated food (TetraMin??) containing 3 levels of Ag-Cd-Zn (uncontaminated, 1?? or 5??1 metal concentrations in the contaminated sediment). The results suggest that bioaccumulation of Ag, Cd and Zn in the worms occurred predominantly from ingestion of contaminated sediments and contaminated supplementary food. AVS or dissolved metals (in porewater and overlying water) had a minor effect on bioaccumulation of the 3 metals in most of the treatments. The contribution to uptake from the dissolved source was most important in the most oxic sediments, with maximum contributions of 8% for Ag, 30% for Cd and 20% for Zn bioaccumulation. Sediment bioassays where uncontaminated supplemental food is added could seriously underestimate metal exposures in an equilibrated system; N. arenaceodentata feeding on uncontaminated food would be exposed to 40-60% less metal than if the food source was equilibrated (as occurs in nature). Overall, the results show that pathways of metal exposure are dynamically linked in contaminated sediments and shift as external geochemical characteristics and internal biological attributes vary.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide concentration in Beaver Dam Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Concentration-time profiles calculated with LODIPS for various hypothetical releases of hydrogen sulfide from the heavy water extraction facility predict lethal conditions for swamp fish from releases as small as 568 kg discharged over a period of 30 minutes or from releases of 1818 kg discharged over a period of 6 hours or less. The necessary volatilization and oxidation coefficients for LODIPS were derived from field measurements following planned releases of H 2 S. Upsets in the operation of the wastewater strippers in the Girdler-Sulfide (GS) heavy water extraction facility in D Area have released significant amounts of dissolved H 2 S to Beaver Dam Creek. Because H 2 S is toxic to fish in concentrations as low as 1 mg/liter, the downstream environmental impact of H 2 S releases from D Area was evaluated

  20. Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guan-Guang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

    2013-12-17

    Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide prodrugs—a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqin Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is recognized as one of three gasotransmitters together with nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO. As a signaling molecule, H2S plays an important role in physiology and shows great potential in pharmaceutical applications. Along this line, there is a need for the development of H2S prodrugs for various reasons. In this review, we summarize different H2S prodrugs, their chemical properties, and some of their potential therapeutic applications.

  2. Hydrogen sulfide oxidation by a microbial consortium in a recirculation reactor system: sulfur formation under oxygen limitation and removal of phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Sergio; Velasco, Antonio; Muñoz, Ana; Cid, Juan; Revah, Sergio; Razo-Flores, Elías

    2004-02-01

    Wastewater from petroleum refining may contain a number of undesirable contaminants including sulfides, phenolic compounds, and ammonia. The concentrations of these compounds must be reduced to acceptable levels before discharge. Sulfur formation and the effect of selected phenolic compounds on the sulfide oxidation were studied in autotrophic aerobic cultures. A recirculation reactor system was implemented to improve the elemental sulfur recovery. The relation between oxygen and sulfide was determined calculating the O2/S2- loading rates (Q(O2)/Q(S)2- = Rmt), which adequately defined the operation conditions to control the sulfide oxidation. Sulfur-producing steady states were achieved at Rmt ranging from 0.5 to 1.5. The maximum sulfur formation occurred at Rmt of 0.5 where 85% of the total sulfur added to the reactor as sulfide was transformed to elemental sulfur and 90% of it was recovered from the bottom of the reactor. Sulfide was completely oxidized to sulfate (Rmt of 2) in a stirred tank reactor, even when a mixture of phenolic compounds was present in the medium. Microcosm experiments showed that carbon dioxide production increased in the presence of the phenols, suggesting that these compounds were oxidized and that they may have been used as carbon and energy source by heterotrophic microorganisms present in the consortium.

  3. Laboratory and field studies on an Indian strain of the brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The Tuticorin strain of the brine shrimp @iArtemia@@ was studied under both laboratory and field conditions. Studies on the survival of the nauplii at different temperatures and salinities revealed that the nauplii preferred a salinity of 35 ppt...

  4. Microbiology of the Red Sea (and other) deep-sea anoxic brine lakes

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Andre; Ngugi, David; Stingl, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    environments on Earth. After 50 years of research mostly driven by chemists, geophysicists and geologists, the microbiology of the brines has been receiving increased interest in the last decade. Recent molecular and cultivation-based studies have provided us

  5. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Pokhrel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’s method was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts in brine shrimps. Results: Among the nine bacterial strains tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial efficacy against Serratia marcescens, Escherarichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. None of the extracts were found significantly toxic to brine shrimps. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial activity and low brine shrimp toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts can provide new antibacterial compounds.

  6. Attempt to enrich of a new spontaneous fissioning nuclide by evaporation of natural brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamek, A.; Zhuravleva, E.L.; Constantinescu, M.; Constantinescu, o.; Chuburkov, Yu.T.

    1983-01-01

    The enrichment of the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide discovered in the Cheleken brine, was made by evaporation. The purpose of this work was the comparison of behaviour of the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide with that of the known elements in the formation processes of the high concentration brines. Spontaneous fission of the nuclide was measured by means of the counters for multiple emission of neutrons. It is shown that the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide was enriched as well as other trace elements (Hg, Tl, Bi and Pb) in a solution remained after the evaporation of the initial solution. The conclusion is drawn that from the sea water brines could be obtained by evaporation which are enriched in trace elements with an enrichment degree higher than the natural brines

  7. Enrichment of extremophilic exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells using Red Sea brine pools as inocula

    KAUST Repository

    Chehab, Noura A.; Ortiz-Madina, Juan F.; Katuri, Krishna; Rao, Hari Ananda; Amy, Gary L.; Logan, Bruce E.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    environments and can be used to startup MEC under thermophilic and hypersaline conditions. Bacteroides was enriched on the anode of the Valdivia MEC, but it was not detected in the open circuit voltage reactor seeded with the Valdivia brine pool.

  8. Genomic and Transcriptomic Evidence for Carbohydrate Consumption among Microorganisms in a Cold Seep Brine Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Weipeng; Ding, Wei; Yang, Bo; Tian, Renmao; Gu, Shuo; Luo, Haiwei; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    the Thuwal cold seep brine pool of the Red Sea. The recovered metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belong to six different phyla: Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Candidatus Cloacimonetes, Candidatus Marinimicrobia, Bathyarchaeota, and Thaumarchaeota

  9. Simultaneous removal of sulfide, nitrate and acetate: Kinetic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aijie; Liu Chunshuang; Ren Nanqi; Han Hongjun; Lee Duujong

    2010-01-01

    Biological removal of sulfide, nitrate and chemical oxygen demand (COD) simultaneously from industrial wastewaters to elementary sulfur (S 0 ), N 2 , and CO 2 , or named the denitrifying sulfide (DSR) process, is a cost effective and environmentally friendly treatment process for high strength sulfide and nitrate laden organic wastewater. Kinetic model for the DSR process was established for the first time on the basis of Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1). The DSR experiments were conducted at influent sulfide concentrations of 200-800 mg/L, whose results calibrate the model parameters. The model correlates well with the DSR process dynamics. By introducing the switch function and the inhibition function, the competition between autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrifiers is quantitatively described and the degree of inhibition of sulfide on heterotrophic denitrifiers is realized. The model output indicates that the DSR reactor can work well at 0.5 1000 mg/L influent sulfide, however, the DSR system will break down.

  10. Microaeration for hydrogen sulfide removal in UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Bartacek, Jan; Kolesarova, Nina; Jenicek, Pavel

    2014-11-01

    The removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas by microaeration was studied in Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors treating synthetic brewery wastewater. A fully anaerobic UASB reactor served as a control while air was dosed into a microaerobic UASB reactor (UMSB). After a year of operation, sulfur balance was described in both reactors. In UASB, sulfur was mainly presented in the effluent as sulfide (49%) and in biogas as hydrogen sulfide (34%). In UMSB, 74% of sulfur was detected in the effluent (41% being sulfide and 33% being elemental sulfur), 10% accumulated in headspace as elemental sulfur and 9% escaped in biogas as hydrogen sulfide. The efficiency of hydrogen sulfide removal in UMSB was on average 73%. Microaeration did not cause any decrease in COD removal or methanogenic activity in UMSB and the elemental sulfur produced by microaeration did not accumulate in granular sludge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduction of produced elementary sulfur in denitrifying sulfide removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Liu, Lihong; Chen, Chuan; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2011-05-01

    Denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) processes simultaneously convert sulfide, nitrate, and chemical oxygen demand from industrial wastewater into elemental sulfur, dinitrogen gas, and carbon dioxide, respectively. The failure of a DSR process is signaled by high concentrations of sulfide in reactor effluent. Conventionally, DSR reactor failure is blamed for overcompetition for heterotroph to autotroph communities. This study indicates that the elementary sulfur produced by oxidizing sulfide that is a recoverable resource from sulfide-laden wastewaters can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfur-reducing Methanobacterium sp. The Methanobacterium sp. was stimulated with excess organic carbon (acetate) when nitrite was completely consumed by heterotrophic denitrifiers. Adjusting hydraulic retention time of a DSR reactor when nitrite is completely consumed provides an additional control variable for maximizing DSR performance.

  12. Study on the sulfidation behavior of smithsonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dandan; Wen, Shuming, E-mail: shmwen@126.com; Deng, Jiushuai, E-mail: dengshuai689@163.com; Liu, Jian; Mao, Yingbo

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • Zeta potential showed that the pH{sub IEP} of smithsonite decreased from 7.7 to 6. • ICP test showed the gradual reduction of C{sub S} in the solution. • SEM showed that the mineral surface was partially changed to ZnS film. • XPS indicated that the presence of a characteristic signal peak of sulfur ions. - Abstract: Zinc extraction from low-grade mineral resources of oxidized zinc has recently become a focus of study. Sulfidation is an important process in oxidized ore flotation. In this study, the influence of sulfur ion adsorption on smithsonite surface was investigated with the use of zeta potential, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. Zeta potential measurements of sodium sulfide showed that sulfur ions were adsorbed onto the surface of pure smithsonite, as evidenced by the increased negative charge and the decrease in the pH{sub IEP} of smithsonite from 7.7 to 6 after sodium sulfide treatment. The ICP test revealed the gradual reduction in sulfur ion adsorption onto the surface of smithsonite in pulp sulfur. After 30 min of absorption, C{sub S} in the solution declined from 1000 × 10{sup −6} mol/L to 1.4 × 10{sup −6} mol/L. SEM results showed that the mineral surface was partially changed to ZnS film after sodium sulfide treatment, whereas EDS analysis results showed that 2% S is contained on the smithsonite surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated the presence of a characteristic signal peak of sulfur ions after sulfidation. Sulfur concentration increased to 11.89%, whereas oxygen concentration decreased from 42.31% to 13.74%. Sulfur ions were not only present during chemical adsorption, but were also incorporated into the crystal lattices of minerals by the exchange reaction between S{sup 2−} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ions.

  13. Self-oscillations in large storages of highly mineralized brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Tsiberkin, Kirill; Parshakova, Yanina

    2014-05-01

    One of the stages of the production process at large enrichment plants is settling of aqueous solutions in large technological storages. The present work is devoted to the modeling of hydrodynamic regimes of large storage of highly mineralized brines. The density of brines in these objects depends not only on the content of dissolved macrocomponents, but also on the concentration of fine particulate matter. This leads to the need to consider the dynamics of the suspended sediment under significant density stratification, which greatly complicates the problem. Because of that it is important to develop hydrodynamical models of these objects. A peculiarity of these systems is the possibility of self-oscillatory regimes the mechanism of which is as follows. In warm sunny days, with high solar insolation, the heating of the sediments and bottom water takes place. The bottom water warming and the decrease of its density give rise to flow. The slurry particles composing the sediments are involved in the flow. The heated particles entrained by the flow transfer the heat to the surrounding liquid and increase the absorption of the solar radiation in the volume, which leads to equalization of temperature and convective flow damping. After the particle settling on the bottom the process is repeated. We study the stability of equilibrium of the horizontal liquid layer containing heavy insoluble particles in the presence of evaporation from the free surface and solar radiation absorption by insoluble particles. The time-dependent solution of heat transfer problem is obtained and used for estimate of time of instability onset. It is found that for the layer of saturated brines of potassium chloride of the thickness about 10 m the time for instability onset is about one hour. By using analytical estimates based on the empirical model of turbulence by Prandtl we confirmed the time for the onset of instability and obtained the estimates for the period of self

  14. Modeling Episodic Ephemeral Brine Lake Evaporation and Salt Crystallization on the Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Harman, C. J.; Kipnis, E. L.; Bowen, B. B.

    2017-12-01

    Public concern about apparent reductions in the areal extent of the Bonneville Salt Flat (BSF) and perceived changes in inundation frequency has motivated renewed interest in the hydrologic and geochemical behavior of this salt playa. In this study, we develop a numerical modeling framework to simulate the relationship between hydrometeorologic variability, brine evaporation and salt crystallization processes on BSF. The BSF, locates in Utah, is the remnant of paleo-lake Bonneville, and is capped by up to 1 meter of salt deposition over a 100 km2 area. The BSF has two distinct hydrologic periods each year: a winter wet periods with standing surface brine and the summer dry periods when the brine is evaporated, exposing the surface salt crust. We develop a lumped non-linear dynamical models coupling conservation expressions from water, dissolved salt and thermal energy to investigate the seasonal and diurnal behavior of brine during the transition from standing brine to exposed salt at BSF. The lumped dynamic models capture important nonlinear and kinetic effects introduced by the high ionic concentration of the brine, including the pronounced effect of the depressed water activity coefficient on evaporation. The salt crystallization and dissolution rate is modeled as a kinetic process linearly proportional to the degree of supersaturation of brine. The model generates predictions of the brine temperature and the solute and solvent masses controlled by diurnal net radiation input and aerodynamic forcing. Two distinct mechanisms emerge as potential controls on salt production and dissolution: (1) evapo-concentration and (2) changes in solubility related to changes in brine temperature. Although the evaporation of water is responsible for ultimate disappearance of the brine each season ,variation in solubility is found to be the dominant control on diurnal cycles of salt precipitation and dissolution in the BSF case. Most salt is crystallized during nighttime, but the

  15. Meltability and Stretchability of White Brined Cheese: Effect of Emulsifier Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Abu-Alruz; Ayman S. Mazahreh; Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh; Amer A. Omari; Jihad M. Quasem

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study was based on the hypothesis that by adding low concentrations of emulsifier salts, may specifically act on the cross linking bonds of the protein matrix, to the original brine (storage medium) it would be possible to induce meltability and stretchability in white brined cheese. Approach: A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheese samples proved its validity and reliability to measure stre...

  16. Antagonism Between Osmophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Fumio; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Brine fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for long periods of time is essential to produce a good quality of shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce). It is well known that lactic acid fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria results in the depression of alcoholic fermentation by osmophilic yeasts, but the nature of the interaction between osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of shoyu has not been revealed. The inhibitory effect of osmophi...

  17. CONTACT ANGLE OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN WELDED TUFF WITH WATER AND BRINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Kalia

    2006-01-01

    A number of tests were performed to acquire contact angles between Yucca Mountain welded tuff from Topopah Springs Lower Lithophysal geologic unit and various brine solutions. The tests were performed on core disks received from Sample Management Facility (SMF), oven dried to a constant weight and the core disks vacuum saturated in: distilled water, J-13 water, calcium chloride brine and sodium chloride brine to constant weight. The contact angles were acquired from eight points on the surface of the core disks, four on rough surface, and four on polished surface. The contact angle was measured by placing a droplet of the test fluid, distilled water, J-13 water, calcium chloride brine and sodium chloride brine on the core disks. The objective of this test was to acquire contact angles as a potential input to estimating capillary forces in accumulated dust on the waste packages and drip shields slated for the proposed High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. It was noted that once the droplet contacts the test surface, it continues to spread hence the contact angle continues to decrease with elapsed time. The maximum observed angle was at time 0 or when the drop contacted the rock surface. The measured contact angle, in all cases has significant scatter. In general, the time zero contact angles for core disks saturated in sodium chloride brine were smaller than those saturated in calcium chloride brine, distilled water, and J-13 water. The contact angles for samples saturated in distilled water, J-13 water and calcium chloride brine at time zero were similar. There was slight difference between the observed contact angles for smooth and rough surface of the test samples. The contact angles for smooth surfaces were smaller than for the rough surfaces

  18. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed

  19. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  20. Nanostructured silver sulfide: synthesis of various forms and their application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovnikov, S. I.; Rempel, A. A.; Gusev, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    The results of experimental studies on nanostructured silver sulfide are analyzed and generalized. The influence of small particle size on nonstoichiometry of silver sulfide is discussed. Methods for the synthesis of various forms of nanostructured Ag2S including nanopowders, stable colloidal solutions, quantum dots, core–shell nanoparticles and heteronanostructures are described. The advantages and drawbacks of different synthetic procedures are analyzed. Main fields of application of nanostructured silver sulfide are considered. The bibliography includes 184 references.

  1. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal Republic of Germany: Quarterly brine migration data report, October--December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, J.L.; Kalia, H.N.; Coyle, A.J.

    1988-03-01

    The tenth brine migration data report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through December 1985. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report includes test data for 31 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. 3 refs., 118 figs., 93 tabs

  2. Quarterly brine migration data report, May-September 1983: Nuclear Waste Repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.N.; Eckert, J.L.

    1987-04-01

    The first quarterly brine migration data report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through September 1983. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report also includes test data for the first 4 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures, and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. The duration of the experiments will be approximately 2 years, ending in December 1985. 83 figs., 55 tabs

  3. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  4. Cryogenic formation of brine and sedimentary mirabilite in submergent coastal lake basins, Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasby, Stephen E.; Rod Smith, I.; Bell, Trevor; Forbes, Donald L.

    2013-06-01

    Two informally named basins (Mirabilite Basins 1 and 2) along a submergent coastline on Banks Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, host up to 1 m-thick accumulations of mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) underlying stratified water bodies with basal anoxic brines. Unlike isostatically uplifting coastlines that trap seawater in coastal basins, these basins formed from freshwater lakes that were transgressed by seawater. The depth of the sill that separates the basins from the sea is shallow (1.15 m), such that seasonal sea ice formation down to 1.6 m isolates the basins from open water exchange through the winter. Freezing of seawater excludes salts, generating dense brines that sink to the basin bottom. Progressive freezing increases salinity of residual brines to the point of mirabilite saturation, and as a result sedimentary deposits of mirabilite accumulate on the basin floors. Brine formation also leads to density stratification and bottom water anoxia. We propose a model whereby summer melt of the ice cover forms a temporary freshwater lens, and rather than mixing with the underlying brines, it is exchanged with seawater once the ice plug that separates the basins from the open sea melts. This permits progressive brine development and density stratification within the basins.

  5. Surface Complexation Modeling of Calcite Zeta Potential Measurement in Mixed Brines for Carbonate Wettability Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J.; Zeng, Y.; Biswal, S. L.; Hirasaki, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    We presents zeta potential measurements and surface complexation modeling (SCM) of synthetic calcite in various conditions. The systematic zeta potential measurement and the proposed SCM provide insight into the role of four potential determining cations (Mg2+, SO42- , Ca2+ and CO32-) and CO2 partial pressure in calcite surface charge formation and facilitate the revealing of calcite wettability alteration induced by brines with designed ionic composition ("smart water"). Brines with varying potential determining ions (PDI) concentration in two different CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) are investigated in experiments. Then, a double layer SCM is developed to model the zeta potential measurements. Moreover, we propose a definition for contribution of charged surface species and quantitatively analyze the variation of charged species contribution when changing brine composition. After showing our model can accurately predict calcite zeta potential in brines containing mixed PDIs, we apply it to predict zeta potential in ultra-low and pressurized CO2 environments for potential applications in carbonate enhanced oil recovery including miscible CO2 flooding and CO2 sequestration in carbonate reservoirs. Model prediction reveals that pure calcite surface will be positively charged in all investigated brines in pressurized CO2 environment (>1atm). Moreover, the sensitivity of calcite zeta potential to CO2 partial pressure in the various brine is found to be in the sequence of Na2CO3 > Na2SO4 > NaCl > MgCl2 > CaCl2 (Ionic strength=0.1M).

  6. Water Recovery from Brines to Further Close the Water Recovery Loop in Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin E.; Hanford, Anthony J.; Shull, Sarah A.; Carter, D. Layne

    2014-01-01

    Further closure of water recovery systems will be necessary for future long duration human exploration missions. NASA's Space Technology Roadmap for Human Health, Life Support and Habitation Systems specified a milestone to advance water management technologies during the 2015 to 2019 timeframe to achieve 98% H2O recovery from a mixed wastewater stream containing condensate, urine, hygiene, laundry, and water derived from waste. This goal can only be achieved by either reducing the amount of brines produced by a water recovery system or by recovering water from wastewater brines. NASA convened a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) on the topic of Water Recovery from Brines (WRB) that was held on January14-15th, 2014 at Johnson Space Center. Objectives of the TIM were to review systems and architectures that are sources of brines and the composition of brines they produce, review the state of the art in NASA technology development and perspectives from other industries, capture the challenges and difficulties in developing brine processing hardware, identify key figures of merit and requirements to focus technology development and evaluate candidate technologies, and identify other critical issues including microgravity sensitivity, and concepts of operation, safety. This paper represents an initial summary of findings from the workshop.

  7. Kinetics of radioisotope exchange between brine and rock in a geothermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, D.E.; Zukin, J.G.; Teh-Lung Ku

    1988-01-01

    A wide range of isotopes in the /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 232/Th decay chains was measured in geothermal brines collected from two production zones at 1898 and 3220 m in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well. High concentrations of radium, radon, and lead isotopes are generated and maintained by the input of these isotopes from solid phases into brine by both recoil and leaching processes, by the high chloride content of the brine which complexes radium and lead, and by the apparent absence of suitable unoccupied adsorption sites. In contrast, uranium, thorium, actinium, bismuth, and polonium isotopes all have low concentrations due to their efficient sorption from brine to rock. Measurements of short-lived isotopes in these decay series yield insights regarding the mechanisms controlling radioisotope exchange, and they permit estimation of rates of brine-rock interaction. For example, the /sup 228/Ac//sup 228/Ra activity ratio of 0.2 in brines indicates that the mean residence time of actinium in solution before sorption onto solid surfaces is less than 2.5 hours

  8. Origin and Evolution of Li-rich Brines at Clayton Valley, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, L. A.; Bradley, D. C.; Hynek, S. A.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is the key component in Li-ion batteries which are the primary energy storage for electric/hybrid cars and most electronics. Lithium is also an element of major importance on a global scale because of interest in increasing reliance on alternative energy sources. Lithium brines and pegmatites are the primary and secondary sources, respectively of all produced Li. The only Li-brine in the USA that is currently in production exists in Clayton Valley, NV. The groundwater brines at Clayton Valley are located in a closed basin with an average evaporation rate of 142 cm/yr. The brines are pumped from six aquifer units that are composed of varying amounts of volcanic ash, gravel, salt, tufa, and fine-grained sediments. Samples collected include spring water, fresh groundwater, groundwater brine, and meteoric water (snow). The brines are classified as Na-Cl waters and the springs and fresh groundwater have a mixed composition and are more dilute than the brines. The Li content of the waters in Clayton Valley ranges from less than 1 μg/L (snow) up to 406.9 mg/L in the lower ash aquifer system (one of six aquifers in the basin). The cold springs surrounding Clayton Valley have Li concentrations of about 1 mg/L. A hot spring located just east of Clayton Valley contains 1.6 mg/L Li. The Li concentration of the fresh groundwater is less than 1 mg/L. Hot groundwater collected in the basin contain 30-40 mg/L Li. Water collected from a geothermal drilling north of Silver Peak, NV, had water with 4.9 mg/L Li at a depth of >1000m. The δD and δ18O isotopic signatures of fresh groundwater and brine form an evaporation path that extends from the global meteoric water line toward the brine from the salt aquifer system (the most isotopically enriched brine with ave. δD = -3.5, ave. δ18O = -67.0). This suggests that mixing of inflow water with the salt aquifer brine could have played an important role in the evolution of the brines. Along with mixing, evaporation appears to

  9. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. Iron sulfide scales formation conditions. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzoni, P.; Burkart, A.L.; Garavaglia, R.N.

    1981-11-01

    An ASTM A 516 degree 60 carbon steel superficial protection technique submitted to a hydrogen-water sulfide corrosive medium at 2 MPa of pressure and 40-125 deg C forming on itself an iron sulfide layer was tested. Studies on pH influence, temperature, passivating mean characteristics and exposure time as well as the mechanical resistance of sulfide layers to erosion are included. (Author) [es

  10. Actinide Biocolloid Formation in Brine by Halophilic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-07-28

    We examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WFP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell Surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited volubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellulary as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  11. Actinide biocolloid formation in brine by halophilic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide

  12. Actinide Biocolloid Formation in Brine by Halophilic Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WFP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell Surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited volubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellulary as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide

  13. Actinide biocolloid formation in brine by halophilic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.B.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide

  14. 76 FR 64022 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Lifting of Administrative Stay for Hydrogen Sulfide. SUMMARY: EPA is announcing... (EPCRA) section 313 toxic chemical release reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical...

  15. GEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF CO₂-BRINE-ROCK INTERACTIONS OF THE KNOX GROUP IN THE ILLINOIS BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoksoulian, Lois; Berger, Peter; Freiburg, Jared; Butler, Shane; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    study suggests only limited potential for the release of United States Environmental Protection Agency regulated inorganic contaminants into potable water sources. Short-term core flood experiments further verify that the carbonate reactions occurring in Knox Group reservoir samples reach equilibrium rapidly. The core flood experiments also lend insight to pressure changes that may occur during CO₂ injection. The Maquoketa Shale experiments reveal that this rock is initially chemically reactive when in contact with CO₂ and brine. However, due to the conservative nature of silicate and clay reaction kinetics and the rapid equilibration of carbonate reactions that occur in the shale, these reactions would not present a significant risk to the competency of the shale as an effective seal rock.

  16. Iron sulfide crystal growth: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, E.J.

    1977-04-01

    Iron pyrite (FeS 2 ) is often found on trays and in heat exchangers in Girdler-Sulfide (G.S.) plants used to extract D 2 O from fresh water. A critical review of the literature was made to find: (i) what is known about FeS 2 crystal growth; (ii) which techniques could be used to study FeS 2 crystal growth experimentally; (iii) potential chemical additives that could be used in trace amounts to poison FeS 2 crystals and reduce their growth rate in G.S. plants. (author)

  17. Sulfide geochronlogy along the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Tao, C.; Li, H.; Liang, J.; Liao, S.

    2017-12-01

    Dragon Flag and Duanqiao hydrothermal field is located between the Indomed and Gallieni fracture zones in the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). Ten subsamples from active and inactive vents of Dragon Flag hydrothermal field and twenty-eight subsamples from Duanqiao hydrothermal field were dated using the 230Th/238U method. Four main episodes of hydrothermal activity of Duanqiao were determined according to the restricted results: 68.9-84.3, 43.9-48.4, 25.3-34.8, and 0.7-17.3 kyrs. Hydrothermal activity of Duanqiao probably started about 84.3 (±0.5) kyrs ago and ceased about 0.737 (±0.023) kyrs ago. And sulfide samples from the nearby Dragon Flag filed at the same time and the results show that the ages of most sulfides from Dragon Flag field range from 1.496(±0.176) to 5.416 (±0.116) kyrs with the oldest age estimated at 15.997 (±0.155) kyrs Münch et al. (2001) reconstructed the evolution history of Mt. Jourdanne hydrothermal field. The age dating results indicate activity in two episodes, at 70-40 and 27-13 kyrs. The hydrothermal activity in Dragon Flag field is much more recent than that of Duanqiao or Mt. Jourdanne fields. The massive sulfides are younger than the sulfides from other hydrothermal fields such as Rainbow, Sonne and Ashadze-2. All these results suggest that hydrothermal activity of Dragon Flag field is much more recent than that of Duanqiao or Mt. Jourdanne fields. Mt. Jourdanne is situated on an axial volcanic ridge which has both volcanic and tectonic activity. This is necessary to develop the heat source and pathways for the fluid convection, which enables the hydrothermal circulation. Hydrothermal activity in Dragon Flag Field is located next to the detachment fault termination. The detachment fault system provides a pathway for hydrothermal convection. Such style of heat source can contribute to continuous hydrothermal activity for over 1000 years. Duanqiao field is located near the central volcano and there is a hot

  18. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  19. Sorption of cesium and strontium from concentrated brines by backfill barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, C.D.

    1981-03-01

    The sorption of radionuclides from potentially intruding groundwater at a nuclear waste repository is a major chemical function of backfill barriers. In this study, various materials (including clays, zeolites and an inorganic ion exchanger) were screened for the sorption of the fission products cesium and strontium in concentrated brines. Representative brines A and B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed radioactive waste repository and test facility in bedded salt were used. Sorption properties were quantified using empirical distribution coefficients, k/sub d/. Of the materials examined, sodium titanate had the highest k/sub d/ for the sorption of Sr(II) in both brine A (k/sub d/ = 125 ml/g) and brine B(k/sub d/ = 500 to 600 ml/g). A mordenite-type zeolite was the most effective getter for Cs(I) in brine A (k/sub d = 27 ml/g), while illite yielded the highest k/sub d/ for Cs(I) in brine B (k/sub d/ = 115 ml/g). The relative merit of these k/sub d/ values is evaluated in terms of calculated estimates of breakthrough times for a backfill barrier containing the getter. Results show that a backfill mixture containing these getters is potentially an effective barrier to the migration of Sr(II) and Cs(I), although further study (especially for the sorption of cesium from brine A) is recommended. Initial mechanistic studies revealed competing ion effects which would support an ion exchange mechanism. K/sub d/'s were constant over a Sr(II) concentration range of 10 -11 to 10 -5 M and a Cs(I) concentration range of 10 -8 to 10 -5 M, supporting the choice of a linear sorption isotherm as a model for the results. Constant batch composition was shown to be attained within one week

  20. Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab Z. Abdallah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The central rift of the Red Sea contains 25 brine pools with different physicochemical conditions, dictating the diversity and abundance of the microbial community. Three of these pools, the Atlantis II, Kebrit and Discovery Deeps, are uniquely characterized by a high concentration of hydrocarbons. The brine-seawater interface, described as an anoxic-oxic (brine-seawater boundary, is characterized by a high methane concentration, thus favoring aerobic methane oxidation. The current study analyzed the aerobic free–living methane-oxidizing bacterial communities that potentially contribute to methane oxidation at the brine-seawater interfaces of the three aforementioned brine pools, using metagenomic pyrosequencing, 16S rRNA pyrotags and pmoA library constructs. The sequencing of 16S rRNA pyrotags revealed that these interfaces are characterized by high microbial community diversity. Signatures of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria were detected in the Atlantis II Interface (ATII-I and the Kebrit Deep Upper (KB-U and Lower (KB-L brine-seawater interfaces. Through phylogenetic analysis of pmoA, we further demonstrated that the ATII-I aerobic methanotroph community is highly diverse. We propose four ATII-I pmoA clusters. Most importantly, cluster 2 groups with marine methane seep methanotrophs, and cluster 4 represent a unique lineage of an uncultured bacterium with divergent alkane monooxygenases. Moreover, non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS based on the ordination of putative enzymes involved in methane metabolism showed that the Kebrit interface layers were distinct from the ATII-I and DD-I brine-seawater interfaces.

  1. Numerical studies of CO2 and brine leakage into a shallow aquifer through an open wellbore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingrui; Hu, Litang; Pan, Lehua; Zhang, Keni

    2018-03-01

    Industrial-scale geological storage of CO2 in saline aquifers may cause CO2 and brine leakage from abandoned wells into shallow fresh aquifers. This leakage problem involves the flow dynamics in both the wellbore and the storage reservoir. T2Well/ECO2N, a coupled wellbore-reservoir flow simulator, was used to analyze CO2 and brine leakage under different conditions with a hypothetical simulation model in water-CO2-brine systems. Parametric studies on CO2 and brine leakage, including the salinity, excess pore pressure (EPP) and initially dissolved CO2 mass fraction, are conducted to understand the mechanism of CO2 migration. The results show that brine leakage rates increase proportionally with EPP and inversely with the salinity when EPP varies from 0.5 to 1.5 MPa; however, there is no CO2 leakage into the shallow freshwater aquifer if EPP is less than 0.5 MPa. The dissolved CO2 mass fraction shows an important influence on the CO2 plume, as part of the dissolved CO2 becomes a free phase. Scenario simulation shows that the gas lifting effect will significantly increase the brine leakage rate into the shallow freshwater aquifer under the scenario of 3.89% dissolved CO2 mass fraction. The equivalent porous media (EPM) approach used to model the wellbore flow has been evaluated and results show that the EPM approach could either under- or over-estimate brine leakage rates under most scenarios. The discrepancies become more significant if a free CO2 phase evolves. Therefore, a model that can correctly describe the complex flow dynamics in the wellbore is necessary for investigating the leakage problems.

  2. Microbial selenium sulfide reduction for selenium recovery from wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, S.P.W.; Weijden, van der R.D.; Stams, A.J.M.; Cappellen, van P.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial reduction of selenium sulfide (SeS2) is a key step in a new treatment process to recover selenium from selenate and selenite streams. In this process, selenate is first reduced to selenite, and subsequently selenite is reduced by sulfide and precipitates from the solution as SeS2. The

  3. Recent findings on sinks for sulfide in gravity sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

    2006-01-01

    summarizes this newly obtained knowledge and emphasizes important implications of the findings. Model simulations of the in-sewer processes important for the sulfur cycle showed that sulfide oxidation in the wetted biofilm is typically the most important sink for dissolved sulfide in gravity sewers. However...

  4. Sulfidation of carbon-supported iron oxide catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramselaar, W.L.T.M.; Hadders, R.H.; Gerkema, E.; Beer, de V.H.J.; Oers, van E.M.; Kraan, van der A.M.

    1989-01-01

    The sulfidation of carbon-supported iron oxide catalysts was studied by means of in-situ Mössbauer spectroscopy at temperatures down to 4.2 K. The catalysts were dried in two different ways and then sulfided in a flow of 10% H2S in H2 at temperatures between 293 and 773 K. Thiophene

  5. State-of-the-art review of brine migration studies in salt. Technical memorandum report RSI-0075

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnirk, P.F.; Krause, W.B.; Fossum, A.F.

    1981-09-01

    This report provides a state-of-the-art review of brine migration studies in rock salt. Emphasis is placed on the review of literature relating to brine migration phenomena around nuclear waste canisters. This review includes experimental work which has been conducted in the laboratory and in the field. In addition to the literature review, some additional thoughts on brine migration are given and a series of laboratory experiments is proposed. The proposed laboratory experiments are designed to determine whether or not a relationship exists between brine migration and temperature, temperature gradient and stress in rock salt. 34 references, 9 figures, 3 tables

  6. The brine shrimp Artemia: adapted to critical life conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Gajardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to perceive forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions.At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism. The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress

  7. Influence of Water Salinity on Air Purification from Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leybovych L.I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of «sliding» water drop motion in the air flow was performed in software package FlowVision. The result of mathematical modeling of water motion in a droplet with diameter 100 microns at the «sliding» velocity of 15 m/s is shown. It is established that hydrogen sulfide oxidation occurs at the surface of phases contact. The schematic diagram of the experimental setup for studying air purification from hydrogen sulfide is shown. The results of the experimental research of hydrogen sulfide oxidation by tap and distilled water are presented. The dependence determining the share of hydrogen sulfide oxidized at the surface of phases contact from the dimensionless initial concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the air has been obtained.

  8. Sulindac Sulfide, but Not Sulindac Sulfone, Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Williams

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulindac sulfide, a metabolite of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID sulindac sulfoxide, is effective at reducing tumor burden in both familial adenomatous polyposis patients and in animals with colorectal cancer. Another sulindac sulfoxide metabolite, sulindac sulfone, has been reported to have antitumor properties without inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity. Here we report the effect of sulindac sulfone treatment on the growth of colorectal carcinoma cells. We observed that sulindac sulfide or sulfone treatment of HCA-7 cells led to inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production. Both sulindac sulfide and sulfone inhibited HCA-7 and HCT-116 cell growth in vitro. Sulindac sulfone had no effect on the growth of either HCA-7 or HCT-116 xenografts, whereas the sulfide derivative inhibited HCA-7 growth in vivo. Both sulindac sulfide and sulfone inhibited colon carcinoma cell growth and prostaglandin production in vitro, but sulindac sulfone had no effect on the growth of colon cancer cell xenografts in nude mice.

  9. Oxidation and Precipitation of Sulfide in Sewer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A. H.

    risks and corrosion of concrete and metals. Most of the problems relate to the buildup of hydrogen sulfide in the atmosphere of sewer networks. In this respect, the processes of the sulfur cycle are of fundamental importance in ultimately determining the extent of such problems. This study focused...... calibrated and validated against field data. In the extension to the WATS model, sulfur transformations were described by six processes: 1. Sulfide production taking place in the biofilm and sediments covering the permanently wetted sewer walls; 2. Biological sulfide oxidation in the permanently wetted...... to the sewer atmosphere, potentially resulting in concrete corrosion. The extended WATS model represents a major improvement over previously developed models for prediction of sulfide buildup in sewer networks. Compared to such models, the major processes governing sulfide buildup in sewer networks...

  10. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Amounts of Sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzegar, Mohsen [Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jabbari, Ali [K. N. Toosi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaeili, Majid [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    A method for the determination of trace amount of sulfide based on the addition reaction of sulfide with methyl green at pH 7.5 and 25 .deg. C is described. The reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in absorbance of the dyestuff at 637 nm by the initial rate and fixed time method. The calibration graph is linear in the range 30-1200 ppb. The theoretical limit of detection was 0.014 ppm. Seven replicate analysis of a sample solution containing 0.70 ppm sulfide gave a relative standard deviation of 1.5%. The interfering effects of various ions on sulfide determination have been reported and procedures for removal of interference have been described. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of sulfide in tap and wastewater samples.

  11. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Amounts of Sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzegar, Mohsen; Jabbari, Ali; Esmaeili, Majid

    2003-01-01

    A method for the determination of trace amount of sulfide based on the addition reaction of sulfide with methyl green at pH 7.5 and 25 .deg. C is described. The reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in absorbance of the dyestuff at 637 nm by the initial rate and fixed time method. The calibration graph is linear in the range 30-1200 ppb. The theoretical limit of detection was 0.014 ppm. Seven replicate analysis of a sample solution containing 0.70 ppm sulfide gave a relative standard deviation of 1.5%. The interfering effects of various ions on sulfide determination have been reported and procedures for removal of interference have been described. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of sulfide in tap and wastewater samples

  12. Characterization of mercury forms in contaminated floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, M.O.; Turner, R.R.; Henson, T.J.; Harris, L.A.; Melton, R.E.; Stevenson, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The chemical form or speciation of Hg in the floodplain soils of the East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge TN, a site contaminated from past industrial activity, was investigated. Hg speciation in the soils is an important factor in controlling the fate and effect of mercury at the site and in assessing human health and ecological risk. Application of 3 different sequential extraction speciation schemes indicated the Hg at the site was predominantly relatively insoluble mercuric sulfide or metallic Hg, though the relative proportions of each did not agree well between procedures. Application of x-ray and electron beam studies to site soils confirmed the presence of metacinnabar, a form of mercuric sulfide, the first known evidence of authigenic mercuric sulfide formation in soils

  13. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes

  14. Anoxic sulfide biooxidation using nitrite as electron acceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Zheng Ping; Cai Jing; Wu Donglei; Hu, Baolan; Li Jinye

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnology can be used to assess the well being of ecosystems, transform pollutants into benign substances, generate biodegradable materials from renewable sources, and develop environmentally safe manufacturing and disposal processes. Simultaneous elimination of sulfide and nitrite from synthetic wastewaters was investigated using a bioreactor. A laboratory scale anoxic sulfide-oxidizing (ASO) reactor was operated for 135 days to evaluate the potential for volumetric loading rates, effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and substrate concentration on the process performance. The maximal sulfide and nitrite removal rates were achieved to be 13.82 and 16.311 kg/(m 3 day), respectively, at 0.10 day HRT. The process can endure high sulfide concentrations, as the sulfide removal percentage always remained higher than 88.97% with influent concentration up to 1920 mg/L. Incomplete sulfide oxidation took place due to lower consumed nitrite to sulfide ratios of 0.93. It also tolerated high nitrite concentration up to 2265.25 mg/L. The potential achieved by decreasing HRT at fixed substrate concentration is higher than that by increasing substrate concentration at fixed HRT. The process can bear short HRT of 0.10 day but careful operation is needed. Nitrite conversion was more sensitive to HRT than sulfide conversion when HRT was decreased from 1.50 to 0.08 day. Stoichiometric analyses and results of batch experiments show that major part of sulfide (89-90%) was reduced by nitrite while some autooxidation (10-11%) was resulted from presence of small quantities of dissolved oxygen in the influent wastewater. There was ammonia amassing in considerably high amounts in the bioreactor when the influent nitrite concentration reached above 2265.25 mg/L. High ammonia concentrations (200-550 mg/L) in the bioreactor contributed towards the overall inhibition of the process. Present biotechnology exhibits practical value with a high potential for simultaneous removal of nitrite

  15. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  16. Near-field environment research at PNL relevant to brine migration phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, L.R.; Gray, W.J.; Hodges, F.N.

    1987-01-01

    Heat and radiation resulting from emplacement of a high level nuclear waste package in a repository in salt will cause physical and chemical changes in the host rock and any brines present. These changes may alter the performance of waste package materials. Gamma radiolysis decomposes water into hydrogen and oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and various other free radical and ionic species. Gamma ray irradiation of rock salt decomposes that salt to sodium metal colloids and neutral chlorine (unknown form), changing both its physical and chemical properties. Sodium metal will react, if contacted by water, to form sodium hydroxide plus hydrogen gas, while chlorine will react to form hydrochloric plus hypochlorous acids. If irradiated salts are completely dissolved, little impact on the chemical environment is expected because the acids and bases formed will neutralize each other. Heat from the waste package can alter the chemistry of the host rock. Changes in temperature can also alter the chemistry of brines by precipitation of phases with retrograde solubility, addition of more soluble salt components to the brine, and by reaction with clays and other impurities in the salt. Some of these reactions could be accompanied by significant shifts in the pH. In experiments to date, no important changes in chemistry have been observed when typical Permian Basin intrusion or inclusion brines were heated up to 150 0 C with no excess site-specific salt present. When excess salt was included, acidic shifts were noted, increasing with brine-salt interaction time and temperature

  17. Sorption-reagent treatment of brines produced by reverse osmosis unit for liquid radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, V. A.; Zheleznov, V. V.; Sergienko, V. I.; Chizhevsky, I. Yu

    2003-01-01

    The results of the pilot plant tests (2002-2003) of the sorption-reagent decontamination of high salinity radioactive waste (brines) remaining after the low-salinity liquid radioactive waste (LRW) treatment in the reverse-osmosis unit from long-lived radionuclides are presented. The sorption-reagent materials used in this work were developed in the Institute of Chemistry FEDRAS. They enable one to decontaminate brines with total salt content up to 50 g/l from long-lived radionuclides of Cs, Sr and Co. At joint application of the reverse-osmosis and sorption-reagent technologies total volume of solid radioactive waste (SRW) decreases up to 100-fold as compared to the technology of cementation of reverse osmosis brines. In this case total cost of LRW treatment and SRW disposal decreases more than 10-fold. Brines decontaminated from radionuclides are then diluted down to the ecologically safe total salts content in water to be disposed of. Tests were performed to compare the efficiency of technologies including evaporation of brines remaining after reverse osmosis process and their decontamination by means of the sorption-reagent method. It was shown that, as compared to evaporation, the sorption-reagent technology provides substantial advantages as in regard to radioactive waste total volume reduction as in view of total cost of the waste management

  18. Lithium recovery from salt lake brine by H2TiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitrakar, Ramesh; Makita, Yoji; Ooi, Kenta; Sonoda, Akinari

    2014-06-21

    The details of the ion exchange properties of layered H2TiO3, derived from the layered Li2TiO3 precursor upon treatment with HCl solution, with lithium ions in the salt lake brine (collected from Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia) are reported. The lithium adsorption rate is slow, requiring 1 d to attain equilibrium at room temperature. The adsorption of lithium ions by H2TiO3 follows the Langmuir model with an adsorptive capacity of 32.6 mg g(-1) (4.7 mmol g(-1)) at pH 6.5 from the brine containing NaHCO3 (NaHCO3 added to control the pH). The total amount of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium adsorbed from the brine was lithium ions from the brine containing competitive cations such as sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium in extremely large excess. The results indicate that the selectivity order Li(+) ≫ Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+) originates from a size effect. The H2TiO3 can be regenerated and reused for lithium exchange in the brine with an exchange capacity very similar to the original H2TiO3.

  19. Design calculations for a combined ventilation and brine injection experiment at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K.

    1993-07-01

    A combined ventilation and brine injection test is planned at the Grimsel Test Site. The objective of the experiment is to study the transport of liquid and gas in the vicinity of a ventilated drift in order to evaluate the impact of the drying process on the characterization of the rock matrix. The proposed test sequence includes a desaturation-resaturation cycle. In addition, brine and fresh water will be injected from a borehole as trace electrolytes in order to better track the propagation of the individual phases. Results of design calculations using the TOUGH2 code show that injection of brine may significantly influence the unsaturated flow behavior by changing the pressure and saturation distribution around the borehole. Transport velocity is predicted to be very slow, requiring several months for the brine to reach the draft wall. However, the presence of preferential flow paths may reduce travel time and alter brine content and saturation distribution so that certain sensors may respond earlier or not at all

  20. Subsurface transport of inorganic and organic solutes from experimental road spreading of oil-field brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, E.S.; Digel, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    A study designed to evaluate ground water quality changes resulting from spreading oil-field brine on roads for ice and dust control was conducted using a gravel roadbed that received weekly applications of brine eight times during the winter phase and 11 times during the summer phase of the study. A network of 11 monitoring wells and five pressure-vacuum lysimeters was installed to obtain ground water and soil water samples. Thirteen sets of water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for major ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds. Two sets of samples were taken prior to brine spreading, four sets during winter-phase spreading, five sets during summer-phase spreading, and two sets during the interim between the winter and summer phases. A brine plume delineated by elevated specific-conductance values and elevated chloride concentrations in ground water samples to exceed US EPA public drinking-water standards by two-fold during the winter phase and five-fold during the summer phase. No other major ions, trace metals, or volatile organic compounds exceeded the standards during the winter or summer phases. More than 99% dilution of the solutes in the brine occurred between the roadbed surface and the local ground water flow system. Further attenuation of calcium, sodium, potassium, and strontium resulted from adsorption, whereas further attenuation of benzene resulted from volatilization and adsorption

  1. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Bougouffa, Salim; Yang, J. K.; Lee, O. O.; Wang, Y.; Batang, Zenon B.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Qian, P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  2. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Li, Ling; Luo, Jiaqi; Hoke, Thomas; Ucar, Huseyin; Moyer, Bruce A; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-11-21

    We report a three-stage bench-scale column extraction process to selectively extract lithium chloride from geothermal brine. The goal of this research is to develop materials and processing technologies to improve the economics of lithium extraction and production from naturally occurring geothermal and other brines for energy storage applications. A novel sorbent, lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide chloride (LDH), is synthesized and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetric analysis. Each cycle of the column extraction process consists of three steps: (1) loading the sorbent with lithium chloride from brine; (2) intermediate washing to remove unwanted ions; (3) final washing for unloading the lithium chloride ions. Our experimental analysis of eluate vs feed concentrations of Li and competing ions demonstrates that our optimized sorbents can achieve a recovery efficiency of ∼91% and possess excellent Li apparent selectivity of 47.8 compared to Na ions and 212 compared to K ions, respectively in the brine. The present work demonstrates that LDH is an effective sorbent for selective extraction of lithium from brines, thus offering the possibility of effective application of lithium salts in lithium-ion batteries leading to a fundamental shift in the lithium supply chain.

  3. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Bougouffa, Salim

    2013-03-29

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  4. Geochemical evaluation of flowback brine from Marcellus gas wells in Pennsylvania, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszczak, Lara O.; Rose, Arthur W.; Kump, Lee R.

    2013-01-01

    Large quantities of highly saline brine flow from gas wells in the Marcellus Formation after hydraulic stimulation (“fracking”). This study assesses the composition of these flowback waters from the Marcellus shale in Pennsylvania, USA. Concentrations of most inorganic components of flowback water (Cl, Br, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Ra, Fe, Mn, total dissolved solids, and others) increase with time from a well after hydraulic stimulation. Based on results in several datasets reported here, the greatest concentration of Cl − in flowback water is 151,000 mg/L. For total Ra (combined 226 Ra and 228 Ra) in flowback, the highest level reported is 6540 pCi/L. Flowback waters from hydraulic fracturing of Marcellus wells resemble brines produced from conventional gas wells that tap into other Paleozoic formations in the region. The Br/Cl ratio and other parameters indicate that both types of brine formed by the evaporation of seawater followed by dolomitization, sulfate reduction and subsurface mixing with seawater and/or freshwater. Trends and relationships in brine composition indicate that (1) increased salt concentration in flowback is not mainly caused by dissolution of salt or other minerals in rock units, (2) the flowback waters represent a mixture of injection waters with highly concentrated in situ brines similar to those in the other formations, and (3) these waters contain concentrations of Ra and Ba that are commonly hundreds of times the US drinking water standards.

  5. Effects of gamma radiation on the survival and growth of brine shrimp, Artemia salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, D.W.; Davis, E.M.

    1976-01-01

    To determine the effects of gamma radiation on the survival and growth of brine shrimp, nauplii and adults were exposed to different doses of radiation and maintained at different salinities and temperatures. The LD 50 determination demonstrated that nauplii were thirty to forty times more sensitive than the adults and had a 25-day LD 50 of 450 rads. Radiation and salinity reduced survival of adult female brine shrimp more than the males. The interaction of salinity, 5 and 50 ppt, temperature, 10, 20 and 30 0 C, and radiation, 25 to 100 kilorads, decreased the survival of both male and female brine shrimp, with the males having the greater sensitivity. Brine shrimp nauplii irradiated with doses of 500 and 2,500 rads had accelerated growth and matured earlier than the controls. A test of the effect of crowding on growth showed that volume per individual was important, and a dose of 500 rads accelerated brine shrimp growth in all concentrations, with the greatest increase at 8 ml/nauplius

  6. Comparison of geochemical data obtained using four brine sampling methods at the SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test CO2 injection site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher; Thordsen, James J.; Manning, Michael A.; Cook, Paul J.; Trautz, Robert C.; Thomas, Burt; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a characterization well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, as part of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) Phase III Anthropogenic Test, which is an integrated carbon capture and storage project. In this study, formation water and gas samples were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using gas lift, electric submersible pump, U-tube, and a downhole vacuum sampler (VS) and subjected to both field and laboratory analyses. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, dissolved sulfide concentration, alkalinity, and pH; laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements, dissolved carbon, volatile fatty acids, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na–Ca–Cl-type brine with a salinity of about 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids. Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity. There was little gas in samples, and gas composition results were strongly influenced by sampling methods. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the VS and U-tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  7. The Archean komatiite-hosted, PGE-bearing Ni-Cu sulfide deposit at Vaara, eastern Finland: evidence for assimilation of external sulfur and post-depositional desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnunaho, J. P.; Hanski, E. J.; Bekker, A.; Halkoaho, T. A. A.; Hiebert, R. S.; Wing, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Archean komatiites host important resources of Ni, Cu, Co, and PGE, particularly in Western Australia and Canada. In Finland, several small, low-grade sulfide deposits have been found in komatiites, including the ca. 2.8 Ga Vaara deposit in the Archean Suomussalmi greenstone belt. It occurs in the central part of the serpentinized olivine cumulate zone of a komatiitic extrusive body and is composed of disseminated interstitial sulfides consisting of pyrite, pentlandite, millerite, violarite, and chalcopyrite accompanied by abundant magnetite. Although currently subeconomic, the mineralization is interesting due to the very high chalcophile element contents of the sulfide fraction (38 wt% Ni, 3.4 wt% Cu, 0.7 wt% Co, 22.4 ppm Pd, and 9.5 ppm Pt). The sulfides occur in relatively Cr-poor olivine cumulates suggesting involvement of a chromite-undersaturated magma. The parental magma was an Al-undepleted komatiite with an estimated MgO content of at least 24 wt%. In contrast to the common komatiite types in the eastern Finland greenstone belts, the Vaara rocks are moderately enriched in LREE relative to MREE, suggesting that crustal contamination played an important role in the genesis of the Vaara deposit. Multiple sulfur isotope data reveal considerable mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation both in country rock sedimentary sulfides (Δ33S ranges from -0.50 to +2.37 ‰) and in the Vaara mineralization (Δ33S ranges from +0.53 to +0.66 ‰), which provides strong evidence for incorporation of crustal sulfur. Extensive replacement of interstitial sulfides by magnetite and the presence of millerite- and violarite-bearing, pyrrhotite-free sulfide assemblages indicate significant post-magmatic, low-temperature hydrothermal oxidation of the primary magmatic pyrrhotite-pentlandite-chalcopyrite assemblages and associated sulfur loss that led to a significant upgrading of the original metal tenors of the Vaara deposit.

  8. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. Pressure influence on iron sulfide scales formation. Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, C.A.; Lires, O.A.; Rojo, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    In order to protect carbon steel towers and piping of Girlder sulfide (G.S.) experimental heavy water plants against corrosion produced by the action of aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulfide, a method, previously published, was developed. Carbon steel, exposed to saturated aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulfide, forms iron sulfide scales. In oxygen free solutions evolution of corrosion follows the sequence: mackinawite → cubic ferrous sulfide → troilite → pyrrotite → pyrite. Scales formed by pyrrotite-pyrite or pyrite are the most protective layers (these are obtained at 130 deg C, 2MPa, for periods of 14 days). Experiments, at 125 deg C and periods of 10-25 days, were performed in two different ways: 1- constant pressure operations at 0.5 and 1.1 MPa. 2- variable pressure operation between 0.3-1 MPa. In all cases pyrrotite-pyrite scales were obtained. (Author) [es

  9. Estimated radiation doses resulting if an exploratory borehole penetrates a pressurized brine reservoir assumed to exist below the WIPP repository horizon: a single hole scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, S.T.

    1982-03-01

    A radiation dose consequence analysis has been performed for a postulated scenario in which an exploratory gas or oil well-bore penetrates the repository and intercepts a brine reservoir in the Castile formation. The brine, corings and drilling mud are contained in a one acre holding pond on the surface. Upon the completion of drilling activities the dried holding pond area is reclaimed with a bulldozer to its original topographic conformation. The estimated radiation bone dose commitments to (1) a bulldozer operator, and (2) a member of a farm family 500 meters down wind are summarized for three penetration event times. The highest estimated 50 year bone dose commitment to an individual reclaiming the contaminated holding pond area was determined to be 590 mrem from the inhalation of CH-TRU wastes resuspended into the atmosphere at an event time of 100 years post-closure. A second dose model using a specific activity approach is developed in Appendix C for this same individual where an upper 50 year dose commitment of 450 mrem is calculated. Both of these derived estimates may be compared to the 5800 mrem to bone surfaces which may be expected from natural background radiation to an individual in the United States over a fifty year period

  10. Estimates of the solubilities of waste element radionuclides in waste isolation pilot plant brines: A report by the expert panel on the source term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Glenn T. Seaborg Inst. for Transactinium Science, Livermore, CA (United States); Bruton, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Dept.; Millero, F.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Chou, I.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Trauth, K.M.; Anderson, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Evaluation of the long-term performance of the WIPP includes estimation of the cumulative releases of radionuclide elements to the accessible environment. Nonradioactive lead is added because of the large quantity expected in WIPP wastes. To estimate the solubilities of these elements in WIPP brines, the Panel used the following approach. Existing thermodynamic data were used to identify the most likely aqueous species in solution through the construction of aqueous speciation diagrams. Existing thermodynamic data and expert judgment were used to identify potential solubility-limiting solid phases. Thermodynamic data were used to calculate the activities of the radionuclide aqueous species in equilibrium with each solid. Activity coefficients of the radionuclide-bearing aqueous species were estimated using Pitzer`s equations. These activity coefficients were then used to calculate the concentration of each radionuclide at the 0.1 and 0.9 fractiles. The 0.5 fractile was chosen to represent experimental data with activity coefficient corrections as described above. Expert judgment was used to develop the 0.0, 0.25, 0.75, and 1.0 fractiles by considering the sensitivity of solubility to the potential variability in the composition of brine and gas, and the extent of waste contaminants, and extending the probability distributions accordingly. The results were used in the 1991 and 1992 performance assessment calculations. 68 refs.

  11. Estimates of the solubilities of waste element radionuclides in waste isolation pilot plant brines: A report by the expert panel on the source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, D.E.; Bruton, C.J.; Trauth, K.M.; Anderson, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    Evaluation of the long-term performance of the WIPP includes estimation of the cumulative releases of radionuclide elements to the accessible environment. Nonradioactive lead is added because of the large quantity expected in WIPP wastes. To estimate the solubilities of these elements in WIPP brines, the Panel used the following approach. Existing thermodynamic data were used to identify the most likely aqueous species in solution through the construction of aqueous speciation diagrams. Existing thermodynamic data and expert judgment were used to identify potential solubility-limiting solid phases. Thermodynamic data were used to calculate the activities of the radionuclide aqueous species in equilibrium with each solid. Activity coefficients of the radionuclide-bearing aqueous species were estimated using Pitzer's equations. These activity coefficients were then used to calculate the concentration of each radionuclide at the 0.1 and 0.9 fractiles. The 0.5 fractile was chosen to represent experimental data with activity coefficient corrections as described above. Expert judgment was used to develop the 0.0, 0.25, 0.75, and 1.0 fractiles by considering the sensitivity of solubility to the potential variability in the composition of brine and gas, and the extent of waste contaminants, and extending the probability distributions accordingly. The results were used in the 1991 and 1992 performance assessment calculations. 68 refs

  12. Hydrogen sulfide corrosion of weld regions in API X52 steel; Corrosion por acido sulfhidrico de las regiones de soldadura en acero API X52

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas-Martinez, L.F [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Coahuila (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.arenas@uadec.edu.mx; Garcia-Cerecero, G. [Corporacion Mexicana de Investigacion en Materiales S.A. de C.V., Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The corrosion behavior of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) regions has been studied using potentiodynamic polarization and polarization resistance (LPR) techniques. Experiments were conducted in hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)-containing brine and in H{sub 2}S-free brine. Welds were made on API 5L X52 steel. Due to differences in their microstructure, chemical composition and residual stress level, weld regions exhibited different responses under H{sub 2}S corrosion. Base metal exhibited the highest corrosion rate (CR) and the most cathodic corrosion potential. [Spanish] Se estudio el comportamiento ante la corrosion de las regiones de soldadura de un cordon realizado por arco metalico con gas (GMAW) sobre un acero grado API X52 mediante las tecnicas de polarizacion potencio dinamica y resistencia a la polarizacion (LPR). Los experimentos se realizaron utilizando salmuera con 300 ppm de acido sulfhidrico (H{sub 2}S) y salmuera libre de H{sub 2}S como electrolitos. Debido a las diferencias en su microestructura, composicion quimica y el nivel de esfuerzos residuales, las regiones de soldadura mostraron diferentes respuestas a la corrosion por H{sub 2}S. El metal base exhibio la velocidad de corrosion (VC) mas alta y el potencial de corrosion mas catodico.

  13. Metabolism in the Uncultivated Giant Sulfide-Oxidizing Bacterium Thiomargarita Namibiensis Assayed Using a Redox-Sensitive Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.; Flood, B.; Ricci, E.

    2014-12-01

    The colorless sulfur bacteria are non-photosynthetic chemolithotrophs that live at interfaces between nitrate, or oxygen, and hydrogen sulfide. In sulfidic settings such as cold seeps and oxygen minimum zones, these bacteria are thought to constitute a critical node in the geochemical cycling of carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorous. Many of these bacteria remain uncultivated and their metabolisms and physiologies are incompletely understood. Thiomargarita namibiensis is the largest of these sulfur bacteria, with individual cells reaching millimetric diameters. Despite the current inability to maintain a Thiomargarita culture in the lab, their large size allows for individual cells to be followed in time course experiments. Here we report on the novel use of a tetrazolium-based dye that measures the flux of NADH production from catabolic pathways via a colorimetric response. Staining with this dye allows for metabolism to be detected, even in the absence of observable cell division. When coupled to microscopy, this approach also allows for metabolism in Thiomargaritato be differentiated from that of epibionts or contaminants in xenic samples. The results of our tetrazolium dye-based assay suggests that Thiomargarita is the most metabolically versatile under anoxic conditions where it appears capable of using acetate, succinate, formate, thiosulfate, citrate, thiotaurine, hydrogen sulfide, and perhaps hydrogen as electron donors. Under hypoxic conditions, staining results suggest the utilization of acetate, citrate, and hydrogen sulfide. Cells incubated under oxic conditions showed the weakest tetrazolium staining response, and then only to hydrogen sulfide and questionably succinate. These initial results using a redox sensitive dye suggest that Thiomargarita is most metabolically versatile under anaerobic and hypoxic conditions. The results of this assay can be further evaluated using molecular approaches such as transcriptomics, as well as provide cultivation

  14. Quantifying heavy metals sequestration by sulfate-reducing bacteria in an acid mine drainage-contaminated wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Moreau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation strategies that depend on bacterial sulfate reduction for heavy metals remediation harness the reactivity of these metals with biogenic aqueous sulfide. Quantitative knowledge of the degree to which specific toxic metals are partitioned into various sulfide, oxide, or other phases is important for predicting the long-term mobility of these metals under environmental conditions. Here we report the quantitative partitioning into sedimentary biogenic sulfides of a suite of metals and metalloids associated with acid mine drainage contamination of a natural estuarine wetland for over a century.

  15. Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide: management of hydrogen sulfide exposure victims (Preprint No. SA-5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1989-04-01

    National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S.A. has listed 73 industries with potential exposure to hydrogen sulphide. Though the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide is known to mankind since the beginning of seventeenth century the exact mode of its toxicity and effective therapeutic regimen remains unclear as yet. This paper presents current thoughts on the toxicity of this substance and a discussion on the role of various antidotes used in H 2 S poisoning. (autho r)

  16. Influence of radiolytic products on the chemistry of uranium VI in brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchini, J-F.; Reed, D.T.; Borkowski, M.; Rafalski, A.; Conca, J.

    2004-01-01

    In the near field of a salt repository of nuclear waste, ionizing radiations can strongly affect the chemistry of concentrated saline solutions. Radiolysis can locally modify the redox conditions, speciation, solubility and mobility of the actinide compounds. In the case of uranium VI, radiolytic products can not only reduce U(VI), but also react with uranium species. The net effect on the speciation of uranyl depends on the relative kinetics of the reactions and the buildup of molecular products in brine solutions. The most important molecular products in brines are expected to be hypochlorite ion, hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxide. Although U(VI) is expected not to be significantly affected by radiolysis, the combined effects of the major molecular radiolytic products on the chemistry of U(VI) in brines have not been experimentally established previously. (authors)

  17. Brine reuse in ion-exchange softening: salt discharge, hardness leakage, and capacity tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodman, Hunter R; Dvorak, Bruce I

    2012-06-01

    Ion-exchange water softening results in the discharge of excess sodium chloride to the aquatic environment during the regeneration cycle. In order to reduce sodium chloride use and subsequent discharge from ion-exchange processes, either brine reclaim operations can be implemented or salt application during regeneration can be reduced. Both result in tradeoffs related to loss of bed volumes treated per cycle and increased hardness leakage. An experimentally validated model was used to compare concurrent water softening operations at various salt application quantities with and without the direct reuse of waste brine for treated tap water of typical midwestern water quality. Both approaches were able to reduce salt use and subsequent discharge. Reducing salt use and discharge by lowering the salt application rate during regeneration consequently increased hardness leakage and decreased treatment capacity. Single or two tank brine recycling systems are capable of reducing salt use and discharge without increasing hardness leakage, although treatment capacity is reduced.

  18. In situ brine migration experiments at the Avery Island salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, W.B.; Van Sambeek, L.L.; Stickney, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    An in situ brine movement study was conducted at the Avery Island Salt Mine of the International Salt Company in southwestern Louisiana. The objective of the in situ experiments was to relate field measurements to previously determined laboratory and analytical results for the purpose of determining the rate and amount of brine movement through dome salt when subjected to heating. The heating in the experiments was provided by electrical heaters emplaced in the salt mine floor. An understanding of thermally induced brine movement is essential from the standpoint of identifying conditions which may influence the physical integrity of the nuclear waste canisters or impede the functional performance of the waste package system in a nuclear waste repository in geologic salt. 28 refs

  19. Brine migration resulting from pressure increases in a layered subsurface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Brine originating from the deep subsurface impairs parts of the freshwater resources in the North German Basin. Some of the deep porous formations (esp. Trias and Jurassic) exhibit considerable storage capacities for waste fluids (CO2, brine from oil production or cavern leaching), raising concerns among water providers that this type of deep subsurface utilization might impair drinking water supplies. On the one hand, overpressures induced by fluid injections and the geothermal gradient support brine migration from deep into shallow formations. On the other hand, the rising brine is denser than the surrounding less-saline formation waters and, therefore, tends to settle down. Aim of this work is to investigate the conditions under which pressurized formation brine from deep formations can reach shallow freshwater resources. Especially, the role of intermediate porous formations between the storage formation and the groundwater is studied. For this, complex thermohaline simulations using a coupled numerical process model are necessary and performed in this study, in which fluid density depends on fluid pressure, temperature and salt content and the governing partial differential equations are coupled. The model setup is 2D and contains a hypothetic series of aquifers and barriers, each with a thickness of 200 m. Formation pressure is increased at depths of about 2000 m in proximity to a salt wall and a permeable fault. The domain size reaches up to tens of kilometers horizontally to the salt wall. The fault connects the injection formation and the freshwater aquifer such that conditions can be considered as extremely favorable for induced brine migration (worst case scenarios). Brine, heat, and salt fluxes are quantified with reference to hydraulic permeabilities, storage capacities (in terms of domain size), initial salt and heat distribution, and operation pressures. The simulations reveal the development of a stagnation point in the fault region in each

  20. FIELD IMPLEMENTATION PLAN FOR A WILLISTON BASIN BRINE EXTRACTION AND STORAGE TEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamling, John; Klapperich, Ryan; Stepan, Daniel; Sorensen, James; Pekot, Lawrence; Peck, Wesley; Jacobson, Lonny; Bosshart, Nicholas; Hurley, John; Wilson, William; Kurz, Marc; Burnison, Shaughn; Salako, Olarinre; Musich, Mark; Botnen, Barry; Kalenze, Nicholas; Ayash, Scott; Ge, Jun; Jiang, Tao; Dalkhaa, Chantsalmaa; Oster, Benjamin; Peterson, Kyle; Feole, Ian; Gorecki, Charles; Steadman, Edward

    2016-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) successfully completed all technical work of Phase I, including development of a field implementation plan (FIP) for a brine extraction and storage test (BEST) in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin. This implementation plan was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as a proxy for managing formation pressure plumes and measuring/monitoring the movement of differential pressure and CO2 plumes in the subsurface for future saline CO2 storage projects. BEST comprises the demonstration and validation of active reservoir management (ARM) strategies and extracted brine treatment technologies. Two prospective commercial brine injection sites were evaluated for BEST to satisfy DOE’s goals. Ultimately, an active saltwater disposal (SWD) site, Johnsons Corner, was selected because it possesses an ideal combination of key factors making it uniquely suited to host BEST. This site is located in western North Dakota and operated by Nuverra Environmental Solutions (Nuverra), a national leader in brine handling, treatment, and injection. An integrated management approach was used to incorporate local and regional geologic characterization activities with geologic and simulation models, inform a monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) plan, and to conduct a risk assessment. This approach was used to design a FIP for an ARM schema and an extracted brine treatment technology test bed facility. The FIP leverages an existing pressure plume generated by two commercial SWD wells. These wells, in conjunction with a new brine extraction well, will be used to conduct the ARM schema. Results of these tests will be quantified based on their impact on the performance of the existing SWD wells and the surrounding reservoir system. Extracted brine will be injected into an underlying deep saline formation through a new injection well. The locations of proposed

  1. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege

    2015-02-26

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013 and found macrofauna present just above the brine–seawater interface (~1465 m). In particular, inactive sulfur chimneys had associated epifauna of sea anemones, sabellid type polychaetes, and hydroids, and infauna consisting of capitellid polychaetes, gastropods of the genus Laeviphitus (fam. Elachisinidae), and top snails of the family Cocculinidae. The deep Red Sea generally is regarded as extremely poor in benthos. We hypothesize that the periphery along the Kebrit holds increased biomass and biodiversity that are sustained by prokaryotes associated with the brine pool or co-occurring seeps.

  2. Azo dye decolorization assisted by chemical and biogenic sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prato-Garcia, Dorian [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Cervantes, Francisco J. [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la Presa de San José 2055, San Luis Potosí 78216 (Mexico); Buitrón, Germán, E-mail: gbuitronm@ii.unam.mx [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Azo dyes were reduced efficiently by chemical and biogenic sulfide. ► Biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide. ► There was no competition between dyes and sulfate for reducing equivalents. ► Aromatic amines barely affected the sulfate-reducing process. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of chemical and biogenic sulfide in decolorizing three sulfonated azo dyes and the robustness of a sulfate-reducing process for simultaneous decolorization and sulfate removal were evaluated. The results demonstrated that decolorization of azo dyes assisted by chemical sulfide and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) was effective. In the absence of AQDS, biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide for decolorizing the azo dyes. The performance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in attached-growth sequencing batch reactors suggested the absence of competition between the studied azo dyes and the sulfate-reducing process for the reducing equivalents. Additionally, the presence of chemical reduction by-products had an almost negligible effect on the sulfate removal rate, which was nearly constant (94%) after azo dye injection.

  3. Simultaneous removal of sulfide, nitrate and acetate: Kinetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Aijie, E-mail: waj0578@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin 150090 (China); Liu Chunshuang; Ren Nanqi; Han Hongjun [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin 150090 (China); Lee Duujong [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin 150090 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-15

    Biological removal of sulfide, nitrate and chemical oxygen demand (COD) simultaneously from industrial wastewaters to elementary sulfur (S{sup 0}), N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}, or named the denitrifying sulfide (DSR) process, is a cost effective and environmentally friendly treatment process for high strength sulfide and nitrate laden organic wastewater. Kinetic model for the DSR process was established for the first time on the basis of Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1). The DSR experiments were conducted at influent sulfide concentrations of 200-800 mg/L, whose results calibrate the model parameters. The model correlates well with the DSR process dynamics. By introducing the switch function and the inhibition function, the competition between autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrifiers is quantitatively described and the degree of inhibition of sulfide on heterotrophic denitrifiers is realized. The model output indicates that the DSR reactor can work well at 0.5 < C/S < 3.0 with influent sulfide concentration of 400-1000 mg/L. At >1000 mg/L influent sulfide, however, the DSR system will break down.

  4. Interactions among sulfide-oxidizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawski, R.

    1985-01-01

    The responses of different phototrophic bacteria in a competitive experimental system are studied, one in which primary factors such as H2S or light limited photometabolism. Two different types of bacteria shared one limited source of sulfide under specific conditions of light. The selection of a purple and a green sulfur bacteria and the cyanobacterium was based on their physiological similarity and also on the fact that they occur together in microbial mats. They all share anoxygenic photosynthesis, and are thus probably part of an evolutionary continuum of phototrophic organisms that runs from, strictly anaerobic physiology to the ability of some cyanobacteria to shift between anoxygenic bacterial style photosynthesis and the oxygenic kind typical of eukaryotes.

  5. Eelgrass fairy rings: sulfide as inhibiting agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Jens; Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald

    2014-01-01

    specifically, for the apparent die- off of eelgrass shoots on the inner side of the rings. The fairy rings were up to 15 m in diameter consisting of 0.3- to 1-m-wide zones of sea grass shoots at densities of up to 1,200 shoots m−2 and rooted in an up to 10-cm-thick sediment layer. On the outer side, shoots...... expanded over the bare chalk plates. On the inner side, shoots were smaller, had lower absolute and specific leaf growth, shoot density was lower and the sediment eroded leaving the bare chalk with scattered boulders behind. Sediment organic matter and nutrients and tissue nutrient contents were...... substantial invasion of sulfide from the sediment. neither the clonal growth pattern of eelgrass, sediment burial of shoots, hydrodynamic forcing nor nutrient limitation could explain the ring-shaped pattern. We conclude that the most likely explanation must be found in invasion of eelgrass shoots by toxic...

  6. On the pelletizing of sulfide molybdenite concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palant, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Investigation results are discussed on the process of pelletizing with the use of various binders (water, syrup, sulfite-alcoholic residue and bentonite) for flotation sulfide molybdenite concentrate (∼84 % MoS 2 ) of the Mongolian deposit. It is established that with the use of syrup rather strong pellets (>300 g/p) of desired size (2-3 mm) can be obtained at a binder flowrate of 1 kg per 100 kg of concentrate. The main advantage of using syrup instead of bentonite lies in the fact that in this instance no depletion of a molybdenum calcine obtained by oxidizing roasting of raw ore takes place due to syrup complete burning out. This affects positively subsequent hydrometallurgical conversion because of decreasing molybdenum losses with waste cakes [ru

  7. Modulated structure calculated for superconducting hydrogen sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Arnab; Tse, John S.; Yao, Yansun [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2017-09-11

    Compression of hydrogen sulfide using first principles metadynamics and molecular dynamics calculations revealed a modulated structure with high proton mobility which exhibits a diffraction pattern matching well with experiment. The structure consists of a sublattice of rectangular meandering SH{sup -} chains and molecular-like H{sub 3}S{sup +} stacked alternately in tetragonal and cubic slabs forming a long-period modulation. The novel structure offers a new perspective on the possible origin of the superconductivity at very high temperatures in which the conducting electrons in the SH chains are perturbed by the fluxional motions of the H{sub 3}S resulting in strong electron-phonon coupling. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide against Listeria monocytogenes in brine chilling solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, W B; Mills, E W; Cutter, C N

    2009-11-01

    Chilled brine solutions are used by the food industry to rapidly cool ready-to-eat meat products after cooking and before packaging. Chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) was investigated as an antimicrobial additive to eliminate Listeria monocytogenes. Several experiments were performed using brine solutions made of sodium chloride (NaCl) and calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) inoculated with L. monocytogenes and/or treated with 3 ppm of ClO(2). First, 10 and 20% CaCl(2) and NaCl solutions (pH 7.0) were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes to obtain approximately 7 log CFU/ml and incubated 8 h at 0 degrees C. The results demonstrated that L. monocytogenes survived in 10% CaCl(2), 10 and 20% NaCl, and pure water. L. monocytogenes levels were reduced approximately 1.2 log CFU/ml in 20% CaCl(2). Second, inoculated ( approximately 7 log CFU/ml) brine solutions (10 and 20% NaCl and 10% CaCl(2)) treated with 3 ppm of ClO(2) resulted in a approximately 4-log reduction of the pathogen within 90 s. The same was not observed in a solution of 20% CaCl(2); further investigation demonstrated that high levels of divalent cations interfere with the disinfectant. Spent brine solutions from hot dog and ham chilling were treated with ClO(2) at concentrations of 3 or 30 ppm. At these concentrations, ClO(2) did not reduce L. monocytogenes. Removal of divalent cations and organic material in brine solutions prior to disinfection with ClO(2) should be investigated to improve the efficacy of the compound against L. monocytogenes. The information from this study may be useful to processing establishments and researchers who are investigating antimicrobials in chilling brine solutions.

  9. Biological screening of chitosan derivatives using Artemia spp. (brine shrimp test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozaini Mohd Zohdi; Norimah Yusof; Asnah Hassan

    2006-01-01

    The present study reported on the screening of six selected chitosan derivatives using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the irradiation effects towards the compounds at 25 kGy were also studied. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, extracted from the exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects as well as walls of some bacteria and fungi. Brine shrimp test is employed for the screening of toxicity of chitosan derivatives. Toxicity test was carried out by adding different concentrations of tested samples to approximately 5 to 15 Artemia salina larvae. Biological activity using the brine shrimp bioassay was recorded as LC 50 i.e. lethal concentration that kills 50% of the larvae within 24 hours of contact with the samples. Compounds are considered toxic when the LC 50 value is lower than 1 mg/ml by brine shrimp bioassay and practically non-toxic when the value is larger. Of the samples tested, none were toxic to the brine shrimp (LC 50 > 1 mg/ml). The LC 50 values of all chitosan derivatives tested, control and irradiated at 25 kGy were above 1 mg/ml thus all tested samples are considered non-toxic. This study demonstrated that irradiation at 25 kGy showed no significant effects towards the toxicity of the chitosan derivatives. After irradiation, only NO-CMC exhibited marked decrease in LC 50 value, reduced by 3-fold from 34.96 mg/ml to 11.07 mg/ml while O-CMC (5.45 mg/ml to 5 mg/ml) showed no clear differences based on rough estimation. This study suggested that brine shrimp bioassay is a simple, reliable and convenient method that could provide useful clues of the relative toxic potential of the sample tested. (Author)

  10. Mechanism of hydrodenitrogenation on phosphides and sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, S Ted; Lee, Yong-Kul

    2005-02-17

    The mechanism of hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of 2-methylpiperidine was studied over a silica-supported nickel phosphide catalyst (Ni2P/SiO2, Ni/P = 1/2) and a commercial Ni-Mo-S/Al2O3 catalyst in a three-phase trickle-bed reactor operated at 3.1 MPa and 450-600 K. Analysis of the product distribution as a function of contact time indicated that the reaction proceeded in both cases predominantly by a substitution mechanism, with a smaller contribution of an elimination mechanism. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the 2-methylpiperidine indicated that at reaction conditions a piperidinium ion intermediate was formed on both the sulfide and the phosphide. It is concluded that the mechanism of HDN on nickel phosphide is very similar to that on sulfides. The mechanism on the nickel phosphide was also probed by comparing the reactivity of piperidine and several of its derivatives in the presence of 3000 ppm S. The relative elimination rates depended on the structure of the molecules, and followed the sequence: 4-methylpiperidine approximately piperidine > 3-methylpiperidine > 2,6-dimethylpiperidine > 2-methylpiperidine. [Chemical structure: see text] This order of reactivity was not dependent on the number of alpha-H or beta-H atoms in the molecules, ruling out their reaction through a single, simple mechanism. It is likely that the unhindered piperidine molecules reacted by an S(N)2 substitution process and the more hindered 2,6-dimethylpiperidine reacted by an E2 elimination process.

  11. New cyclic sulfides, garlicnins I2, M, N, and O, from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Ono, Masateru; Nishioka, Naho; Masuda, Fuka; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei

    2018-01-01

    One atypical thiolane-type sulfide, garlicnin I 2 (1), two 3,4-dimethylthiolane-type sulfides, garlicnins M (2) and N (3), and one thiabicyclic-type sulfide, garlicnin O (4), were isolated from the acetone extracts of Chinese garlic bulbs, Allium sativum and their structures were characterized. Hypothetical pathways for the production of the respective sulfides were discussed.

  12. Production and characterization of a functional Iranian white brined cheese by replacement of dairy fat with vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achachlouei, B Fathi; Hesari, J; Damirchi, S Azadmard; Peighambardoust, Sh; Esmaiili, M; Alijani, S

    2013-10-01

    Full-fat cheese usually contains high amounts of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, which may have negative health effects. In this study, full-fat white brined cheese, as a control sample, and experimental cheeses with olive and canola oils (T1, white brined cheese containing 50% canola oil, T2, white brined cheese containing 50% olive oil, T3, white brined cheese containing 100% canola oil and T4, white brined cheese containing 100% olive oil) were prepared from bovine milk. Physicochemical properties, lipolysis, proteolysis patterns and sensorial properties in the prepared samples were determined during 80 days of storage at 20-day intervals. Cheese incorporating vegetable oils showed lower amounts of saturated fatty acids and higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids compared with the full-fat cheese (control) samples. Moisture, pH, lipolysis value, as assessed by the acid-degree value, and proteolysis values (pH 4.6 SN/TN% and NPN/TN%) significantly (p titrable acidity decreased during 40 days of ripening but then increased slightly. Sensory properties of white brined cheese incorporating with vegetable oils were different from those of full-fat cheese samples. White brined cheese containing olive and canola oils (100% fat substitution) received better sensory scores compared to other samples. The results showed that it is possible to replace dairy fat with olive and canola oils, which can lead to produce a new healthy and functional white brined cheese.

  13. Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

  14. Handling the problem of the brine tubing bend on the basis of experiences gained during UGS - Mogilno construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zola, P.; Skwarczynski, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the article problems of brine tubing bending and bent string cutting methods in the well conditions has been described. Implementation of safety joint in the brine string as an alternative solution that eliminates the need of cutting has been presented as well. (authors)

  15. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNETIUM LEACHABILITY IN CEMENT STABILIZED BASIN 43 GROUNDWATER BRINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COOKE GA; DUNCAN JB; LOCKREM LL

    2008-01-01

    This report is an initial report on the laboratory effort executed under RPP-PLAN-33338, Test Plan for the Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This report delineates preliminary data obtained under subcontract 21065, release 30, from the RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences. The report is predicated on CLS RPT-816, Draft Report: Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This document will be revised on receipt of the final RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences report, which will contain data subjected to quality control and quality assurance criteria

  16. Brine transport studies in the bedded salt of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTigue, D.F.; Nowak, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Brine flow has been measured to unheated boreholes for periods of a few days and to heated holes for two years in the WIPP facility. It is suggested that Darcy flow may dominate the observed influx of brine. Exact solutions to a linearized model for one-dimensional, radial flow are evaluated for conditions approximating the field experiments. Flow rates of the correct order of magnitude are calculated for permeabilities in the range 10 -21 to 10 -20 m 2 (1 to 10 nanodarcy) for both the unheated and heated cases. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Antioxidant activities and functional properties of protein and peptide fractions isolated from salted herring brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taheri, Ali; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    In the present study proteins isolated from herring brine, which is a by-product of marinated herring production were evaluated for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Herring brine was collected from the local herring industry and proteins were precipitated by adjusting the p...... to delay iron catalyzed lipid oxidation in 5% fish oil in water emulsions and the 10–50kDa fraction was the best. These results show the potential of proteins and peptide fractions recovered from waste water from the herring industry as source of natural antioxidants for use in food products....

  18. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Blanco-Martin, Laura [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Molins, Sergi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone “Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures” (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  19. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco-Martin, Laura; Molins, Sergi; Trebotich, David; Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone ''Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures'' (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  20. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  1. Optimization of the superconducting phase of hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtyarenko, N. N.; Masur, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The electron and phonon spectra, as well as the densities of electron and phonon states of the SH3 phase and the stable orthorhombic structure of hydrogen sulfide SH2, are calculated for the pressure interval 100-225 GPa. It is found that the I4/ mmm phase can be responsible for the superconducting properties of metallic hydrogen sulfide along with the SH3 phase. Sequential stages for obtaining and conservation of the SH2 phase are proposed. The properties of two (SH2 and SH3) superconducting phases of hydrogen sulfide are compared.

  2. Process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide from hydrocarbon gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, I.

    1981-01-01

    A process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide from hydrocarbon gases utilizes iron oxide particles of unique chemical and physical properties. These particles have large surface area, and are comprised substantially of amorphous Fe 2 O 3 containing a crystalline phase of Fe 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 and combinations thereof. In scavenging hydrogen sulfide, the iron oxide particles are suspended in a liquid which enters into intimate mixing contact with hydrocarbon gases; the hydrogen sulfide is reacted at an exceptional rate and only acid-stable reaction products are formed. Thereafter, the sweetened hydrocarbon gases are collected

  3. Sulfidization of an aluminocobaltomolybdenum catalyst using the 35S radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isagulyants, G.V.; Greish, A.A.; Kogan, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    It has been established that in aluminocobaltomolybdenum catalyst sulfidized with elemental sulfur there are two types of sulfur, free and bound. The maximum amount of bound sulfur in ACM catalyst is 6.6 wt. %, which corresponds to practically complete sulfidation of the ACM catalyst. In the presence of hydrogen an equilibrium distribution of bound sulfur is achieved in a granule of ACM catalyst irrespective of the temperature of sulfidation. In a nitrogen atmosphere it is primarily the surface layers of the catalyst that are sulfured

  4. Sulfide Oxidation in the Anoxic Black-Sea Chemocline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB; FOSSING, H.; WIRSEN, CO

    1991-01-01

    per day, occurred in anoxic water at the top of the sulfide zone concurrent with the highest rates of dark CO2 assimilation. The main soluble oxidized products of sulfide were thiosulfate (68-82%) and sulfate. Indirect evidence was presented for the formation of elemental sulfur which accumulated...... that the measured H2S oxidation rates were 4-fold higher than could be explained by the downward flux of organic carbon and too high to balance the availability of electron acceptors such as oxidized iron or manganese. A nitrate maximum at the lower boundary of the O2 zone did not extend down to the sulfide zone....

  5. Thermoelectric properties of non-stoichiometric lanthanum sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, E.; Danielson, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    The lanthanum sulfides are promising candidate materials for high-efficiency thermoelectric applications at temperatures up to 1300 0 C. The nonstoichiometric lanthanum sulfides (LaS /SUB x/ , where 1.33 2 //rho/ can be chosen. The thermal conductivity remains approximately constant with stoichiometry, so a material with an optimum value of α 2 //rho/ should possess the optimum figure-of-merit. Data for the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of non-stoichiometric lanthanum sulfides is presented, together with structural properties of these materials

  6. Denitrifying sulfide removal process on high-salinity wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunshuang; Zhao, Chaocheng; Wang, Aijie; Guo, Yadong; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2015-08-01

    Denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process comprising both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers can simultaneously convert nitrate, sulfide, and acetate into nitrogen gas, elemental sulfur (S(0)), and carbon dioxide, respectively. Sulfide- and nitrate-laden wastewaters at 2-35 g/L NaCl were treated by DSR process. A C/N ratio of 3:1 was proposed to maintain high S(0) conversion rate. The granular sludge with a compact structure and smooth outer surface was formed. The microbial communities of DSR consortium via high-throughput sequencing method suggested that salinity shifts the predominating heterotrophic denitrifiers at 10 g/L NaCl.

  7. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal of Germany: Quarterly brine migration data report, July-September 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.N.; Eckert, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    The fifth brine migration data status report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through September 1984. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report also includes test data for the first 16 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures, and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. Annual reports have been prepared for the years 1983 and 1984, describing the test activities on a yearly basis (Rothfuchs et al., 1984, 1986). The duration of the experiments will be approximately 2 years, ending in December 1985. 2 refs., 118 figs., 91 tabs

  8. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  9. Remediation of Sulfidic Wastewater by Aeration in the Presence of Ultrasonic Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmad

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the aerial oxidation of sodium sulfide in the presence of ultrasonic vibration is investigated. Sulfide analysis was carried out by the methylene blue method. Sodium sulfide is oxidized to elemental sulfur in the presence of ultrasonic vibration. The influence of air flow rate, initial sodium sulfide concentration and ultrasonic vibration intensity on the oxidation of sodium sulfide was investigated. The rate law equation regarding the oxidation of sulfide was determined from the experimental data. The order of reaction with respect to sulfide and oxygen was found to be 0.36 and 0.67 respectively. The overall reaction followed nearly first order kinetics.

  10. Application of Biostimulation for Remediation of Sulfate-Contaminated Groundwater at a Mining Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Z.; Carroll, K. C.; Carreon, C.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing concern regarding sulfate contamination of groundwater. One innovative in-situ remediation option under investigation is biostimulation through addition of electron-donor amendments to enhance sulfate reduction. Two pilot-scale ethanol-injection tests were conducted at a former uranium mining site that is contaminated with sulfate and nitrate (with a lack of heavy metals), and for which there appears to be minimal natural attenuation of sulfate. The first test was a push-pull test that had a limited zone of influence, while the second test was a single-well injection test in which additional downgradient wells were monitored. For both tests, sulfate concentrations began to decline within a few weeks of injection, after nitrate concentrations were significantly reduced. Concomitantly, aqueous concentrations of manganese, iron, and hydrogen sulfide increased from background. Monitoring over many months revealed that the declines in sulfate concentration conformed to exponential decay, with first-order decay rates of approximately 0.01 /d. Analysis of sulfur stable isotope data indicated that the decrease in sulfate concentrations was microbially mediated. The results also indicated that sulfides formed during sulfate reduction may have undergone partial re-oxidation. This study illustrates the feasibility of using ethanol injection for remediation of sulfate-contaminated groundwater. However, re-oxidation of sulfides (both metal sulfide precipitates and hydrogen sulfide gas) is a potential issue of significance that would need to be addressed.

  11. In-situ remediation of brine impacted soils and groundwater using hydraulic fracturing, desalinization and recharge wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, C. [Wiebe Environmental Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Ratiu, I. [GeoGrid Environmental Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This conference presentation focused on the in-stu remediation of brine impacted soils and groundwater using hydraulic fracturing, desalinization and recharge wells. A former oil battery was established in the 1940s, decommissioned in the late 1960s with a reclamation certificate issued in 1972. The land owner reported poor vegetative growth in the former battery area. The purpose of the study was to investigate the cause of poor growth and delineate contaminants of concern and to remediate impacted soil and groundwater associated with the former battery site. The investigation involved agrological, geophysical and hydrogeological investigation into the extent of anthropogenic impacts as well as the development of remediation options and plans to deal with issues of concern. The presentation provided the results of the investigation, options identified, and discussed limitation on salt remediation and treatment of saline soils. Other topics included hydraulic fracturing, injection wells that were installed to re-circulate treated groundwater though the salt plume, desalinization processes, and next steps. figs.

  12. Reanalysis of the consequences of a beyond-design based brine intrusion in the Schachtanlage Asse II. Further development of the radio-ecological modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, Christian; Ustohalova, Veronika; Steinhoff, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    The reanalysis of the consequences of a beyond-design based brine intrusion in the Schachtanlage Asse includes the following chapters: (1) Scope and introduction. (2) Overview on the methodology. (3) Modeling of the transport in the overlying rock and radiation exposure: Modeling of the radionuclide migration in the overlying rock considering the solubility limits and different retention and retarding effects; description of the used model for the radiation exposure calculations, quality assurance of the model and the calculations. (4) Results and reanalysis for the scenario I (GRS scenario). (5) Radiation exposure considering the solubility limits and transport calculations (scenario II). (6) Possibilities of monitoring in the Asse environment. (7) Estimation of collective doses as a consequence of contaminated water release into the biosphere and use as drinking water. (8) Discussion of the radiation exposure calculations in the former study of GRS (2009).

  13. Environmental fate of Ra in cation-exchange regeneration brine waste disposed to septic tanks, New Jersey Coastal Plain, USA: migration to the water table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Jacobsen, Eric; Kraemer, Thomas F; Parsa, Bahman

    2010-01-01

    Fate of radium (Ra) in liquid regeneration brine wastes from water softeners disposed to septic tanks in the New Jersey Coastal Plain was studied. Before treatment, combined Ra ((226)Ra plus (228)Ra) concentrations (maximum, 1.54 Bq L(-1)) exceeded the 0.185 Bq L(-1) Maximum Contaminant Level in 4 of 10 studied domestic-well waters (median pH, 4.90). At the water table downgradient from leachfields, combined Ra concentrations were low (commonly 5.3, indicating sequestration; when pH was septic-tank effluents (maximum, 0.243 Bq L(-1))), indicating Ra mobilization from leachfield sediments. Confidence in quantification of Ra mass balance was reduced by study design limitations, including synoptic sampling of effluents and ground waters, and large uncertainties associated with analytical methods. The trend of Ra mobilization in acidic environments does match observations from regional water-quality assessments.

  14. Experimental alteration of R7T7 glass in salt brines at 90 deg C and 150 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godon, N.; Vernaz, E.; Gin, S.; Beaufort, D.; Thomassin, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    Static experiments have been developed to investigate the R7T7 glass corrosion in four natural salt brines (brines 1 and 3: pure halite, brines 2 and 4: high Mg, K fluid inclusions rich halite), at 90 deg C and 150 deg C with 0.7 cm -1 S/V ratio and at 11 different running times. Analysis of brines after alteration (pHmeter and ICP) added to a detailed study of the crystalline phases developed at the interface glass-brine (XRD,SEM and Microprobe), showed that the influence of the compositional difference is more important on the nature of the secondary phases formed than on the corrosion rate of the glass. After 91 days of alteration at 150 deg C stady states to be reached (after 40 days at 90 deg C). A long term experiment (1 year) is necessary to confirm this hypothesis. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Kinetic Effect on the Freezing of Ammonium-Sodium-Carbonate-Chloride Brines and Implications for Origin of Ceres' Bright Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyss, R. P.; Thomas, E. C.; Vu, T. H.; Johnson, P. V.; Choukroun, M.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface brines on Ceres containing natrite (Na2CO3) and smaller amounts of NH4Cl or NH4HCO3 have been proposed to reach the dwarf planet's surface from an internal reservoir, where the brines freeze and result in bright spots across Ceres. Kinetically frozen solutions containing the likely constituents of Ceres' subsurface brines (ammonium, sodium, carbonate, and chloride ions) were studied via infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy, where the flash-frozen mixtures were found to preferentially form ammonium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate, even in sodium-dominated solutions. Additionally, sodium chloride only formed when sodium or chloride (or both) were present in excess in the brine solutions. Raman spectroscopy was further employed to analyze the effect of vacuum exposure on these frozen brines over longer periods of time to simulate the surface conditions of Ceres.

  16. Enhanced sulfidation xanthate flotation of malachite using ammonium ions as activator

    OpenAIRE

    Dandan Wu; Wenhui Ma; Yingbo Mao; Jiushuai Deng; Shuming Wen

    2017-01-01

    In this study, ammonium ion was used to enhance the sulfidation flotation of malachite. The effect of ammonium ion on the sulfidation flotation of malachite was investigated using microflotation test, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, zeta potential measurements, and scanning electron microscope analysis (SEM). The results of microflotation test show that the addition of sodium sulfide and ammonium sulfate resulted in better sulfidation than the addition of sodium sulfide alone. The ...

  17. Instrument for Airborne Measurement of Carbonyl Sulfide, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to develop small, low power instrumentation for the real-time direct measurement of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) in the atmosphere, especially...

  18. New sulfide catalysts for the hydroliquefaction of coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, J.P.R.; Oers, van E.M.; Beer, de V.H.J.; Prins, R.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities for the preparation of new metal sulfide catalyst systems based on carbon carriers having favourable textural and surface properties have been explored, and attention has been given to the characterization (structure) and evaluation (hydrosulfurization activity) of these catalysts. Two

  19. Formation of Copper Sulfide Precipitate in Solid Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Yoshinao

    The growth rate of copper sulfide precipitates has been measured in low carbon steel samples such as Fe-0.3mass%Cu-0.03mass%S-0.1mass%C and Fe-0.1mass%Cu-0.01mass%S- 0.1mass%C. Heat-treatment of the samples was conducted at 1273, 1423 and 1573 K for 100 s - 14.4 ks for precipitation of copper sulfides and then the samples were observed by a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope to measure the diameter of copper sulfides precipitated in the samples. The growth rate of copper sulfide has been found to be well described by the Ostwald growth model, as follows: R\

  20. Optimization of biological sulfide removal in a CSTR bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosta, Aliakbar; Jahanmiri, Abdolhossein; Mowla, Dariush; Niazi, Ali; Sotoodeh, Hamidreza

    2012-08-01

    In this study, biological sulfide removal from natural gas in a continuous bioreactor is investigated for estimation of the optimal operational parameters. According to the carried out reactions, sulfide can be converted to elemental sulfur, sulfate, thiosulfate, and polysulfide, of which elemental sulfur is the desired product. A mathematical model is developed and was used for investigation of the effect of various parameters on elemental sulfur selectivity. The results of the simulation show that elemental sulfur selectivity is a function of dissolved oxygen, sulfide load, pH, and concentration of bacteria. Optimal parameter values are calculated for maximum elemental sulfur selectivity by using genetic algorithm as an adaptive heuristic search. In the optimal conditions, 87.76% of sulfide loaded to the bioreactor is converted to elemental sulfur.

  1. Methods for removing contaminant matter from a porous material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Avci, Recep [Bozeman, MT; Groenewold, Gary S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-11-16

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  2. The delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic food web: Why sea ice matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pucko, M.; Stern, Gary; Macdonald, Robie

    2015-01-01

    For decades sea ice has been perceived as a physical barrier for the loading of contaminants to the Arctic Ocean. We show that sea ice, in fact, facilitates the delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic marine food web through processes that: 1) are independent of contaminant physical......–chemical properties (e.g. 2–3-fold increase in exposure to brine-associated biota), and 2) depend on physical–chemical properties and, therefore, differentiate between contaminants (e.g. atmospheric loading of contaminants to melt ponds over the summer, and their subsequent leakage to the ocean). We estimate...... risk of increased exposures through melt pond loading and drainage due to the high ratio of melt pond water to seawater concentration (Melt pond Enrichment Factor, MEF), which ranges from 2 for dacthal to 10 for endosulfan I. Melt pond contaminant enrichment can be perceived as a hypothetical ‘pump...

  3. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  4. Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Fermentation Broths Containing SO21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, T. E.; Sonoff, Elisabeth P.; Splittstoesser, D. F.

    1971-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in fermentation broths containing up to 100 μg of SO2 per ml is described. The method involves the sparging of H2S from the broth into a cadmium hydroxide absorption solution, the formation of methylene blue from the absorbed sulfide, and the measuring of this color spectrophotometrically. The use of cadmium hydroxide instead of zinc acetate, the common absorbent, substantially reduced the interference of SO2 with the analysis. PMID:5111300

  5. Effect of gas field production and CO2 injection on brine flow and salt precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, D.; Tambach, T.J.; Hofstee, C.; Plug, W.J.; Maas, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports modeling of gas field produc-tion and CO2 injection from a theoretical reser-voir based on characteristics of the P18 gas field in the Dutch offshore, which consists of four geological deposits with different petrophysical properties. We especially focus on the brine flow during

  6. Construction of a cylindrical brine test room using a tunnel boring machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likar, V.F.; Burrington, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of a horizontal cylindrical brine test room at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The room was constructed in the bedded salt formation at a depth of 655 meters with a tunnel boring machine. The machine leasing, technical and operational management, parameters involved, and successful completion of this effort are included. 3 figs

  7. Grain Size Data from the Brine Disposal Program, Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are part of the Brine Disposal Program funded by NOAA in the US Gulf of Mexico, compiled by NOAA/CEAS and partially conducted by R. W. Hann of Texas A and...

  8. Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Rehab Z.

    2014-09-23

    Abdallah RZ, Adel M, Ouf A, Sayed A, Ghazy MA, Alam I, Essack M, Lafi FF, Bajic VB, El-Dorry H and Siam R (2014) Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface. Front. Microbiol. 5:487. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00487

  9. Autotrophic microbe metagenomes and metabolic pathways differentiate adjacent red sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong; Cao, Huiluo; Zhang, Guishan; Bougouffa, Salim; Lee, On On; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    In the Red Sea, two neighboring deep-sea brine pools, Atlantis II and Discovery, have been studied extensively, and the results have shown that the temperature and concentrations of metal and methane in Atlantis II have increased over the past

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Their Mixture in the Presence of Brine

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yafan; Nair, Arun Kumar Narayanan; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulation study of CO2, methane, and their mixture in the presence of brine over a broad range of temperature (311–473 K), pressure (up to about 100 MPa), and NaCl concentration (up to about 14 wt %). The general

  11. Review of the African distribution of the brine shrimp genus Artemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brine shrimp (genus Artemia) are small (8 to 12 mm long) cosmopolitan crustaceans (Anostraca) found predominately in hypersaline water bodies such as inland salt lakes and pans, coastal lagoons, and salt works at salinity levels above 40 g·ℓ-1. They have been extensively studied due to their high monetary value as ...

  12. Construction of a cylindrical brine test room using a tunnel boring machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likar, V.F.; Burrington, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of a horizontal cylindrical brine test room at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The room was constructed in the bedded salt formation at a depth of 655 meters with a tunnel boring machine. The machine leasing technical and operational management, parameters involved, and successful completion of this effort are included. 3 figs

  13. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, Amarisa; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Design of the Brine Evaporation Bag for Increased Water Recovery in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Anna L.; Delzeit, Lance D.

    2015-01-01

    The existing water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS) is limited to 75% reclamation; consequently, long duration space missions are currently unfeasible due to the large quantity of water necessary to sustain the crew. The Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) is a proposed system to supplement the existing water recovery system aboard the ISS that can to increase water recovery to 99%. The largest barrier to high water recovery is mineral scaling inside the water recovery equipment, which leads to equipment failure; therefore, some water must remain to keep the minerals dissolved. This waste stream is liquid brine containing salts, acids, organics, and water. The BEB is designed to recover this remaining water while protecting the equipment from scale. The BEB consists of a sealed bag containing a hydrophobic membrane that allows water vapor and gas to pass through. It is operated under vacuum, heated, and continuously filled with brine to boil away the water. The water vapor is recovered and the solids are contained inside the bag for disposal. The BEB can dry the brine to a solid block. Ongoing work includes improving the design of the BEB and the evaporator to prevent leaks, maximize the rate of water removal, and minimize energy use and weight. Additional testing will determine whether designs are heat- or mass-transfer limited and the optimal water recovery rate.

  15. Antioxidative low molecular weight compounds in marinated herring (Clupea harengus) salt brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Safafar, Hamed; du Mesnildot, Axelle

    2016-01-01

    salt brines contain LMWC holding ABTS-radical scavenging activity, reducing power and iron chelating activity. Generally, a strong correlation between TPC and ABTSradical scavenging was found. In contrast, reducing power and iron chelating activity seemed to be caused by peptides. Protein...

  16. Simulation of the high-pressure phase equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Guo, Tian-Min

    1996-01-01

    The major objectives of this work are: (1) extend the modified Patel-Teja (MPT) equation of state proposed for aqueous electrolyte systems (Zuo and Guo, 1991) to describe the liquid-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems through introducing an unconventional...

  17. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavourakis, Charlotte D.; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Muyzer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still

  18. Metagenomic Insights into the Uncultured Diversity and Physiology of Microbes in Four Hypersaline Soda Lake Brines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavourakis, C.D.; Ghai, R.; Rodriguez-valera, F.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Tringe, S.G.; Hugenholtz, P.; Muyzer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still

  19. Origin of brine in the Kangan gasfield: isotopic and hydrogeochemical approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, R.; Nadri, A.; Raeisi, E.; Kazemi, G.A.; Eggenkamp, H.G.M.; Montaseri, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Kangan Permo-Triassic brine aquifer and the overlying gas reservoir in the southern Iran are located in Kangan and Dalan Formations, consisting dominantly of limestone, dolomite, and to a lesser extent, shale and anhydrite. The gasfield, 2,900 m in depth and is exploited by 36 wells, some of

  20. Characterization of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Red Radish Brines during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Jing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Red radish (Raphanus L. pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5–19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15–30 µg/mL. 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2–92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206–220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  1. Experimental evaporation of hyperacid brines : Effects on chemical composition and chlorine isotope fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Eggenkamp, H. G.M.

    2018-01-01

    Hyperacid brines from active volcanic lakes are some of the chemically most complex aqueous solutions on Earth. Their compositions provide valuable insights into processes of elemental transfer from a magma body to the surface and interactions with solid rocks and the atmosphere. This paper

  2. Bacterial use of choline to tolerate salinity shifts in sea-ice brines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firth, E.; Carpenter, S. D.; Sørensen, H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria within the brine network of sea ice experience temperature-driven fluctuations in salinity on both short and long temporal scales, yet their means of osmoprotection against such fluctuations is poorly understood. One mechanism used to withstand the ion fluxes caused by salinity shifts, w...

  3. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavourakis, C. D.; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, F.; Sorokin, D. Y.; Tringe, S. G.; Hugenholtz, P.; Muyzer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, February (2016), č. článku 211. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soda lake brines * Nanohaloarchaea * Halobacteria * Bacteroidetes * hydrolytics * cellulase * chitinase * rhodopsin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  4. Hydrogen sulfide oxidation without oxygen - oxidation products and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossing, H.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation was studied in anoxic marine sediments-both in undisturbed sediment cores and in sediment slurries. The turn over of hydrogen sulfide was followed using 35 S-radiolabeled hydrogen sulfide which was injected into the sediment. However, isotope exchange reactions between the reduced sulfur compounds, in particular between elemental sulfur and hydrogen sulfide, influenced on the specific radioactivity of these pools. It was, therefore, not possible to measure the turn over rates of the reduced sulfur pools by the radiotracer technique but merely to use the radioisotope to demonstrate some of the oxidation products. Thiosulfate was one important intermediate in the anoxic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and was continuously turned over by reduction, oxidation and disproportionation. The author discusses the importance of isotope exchange and also presents the results from experiments in which both 35 S-radiolabeled elemental sulfur, radiolabeled hydrogen sulfide and radiolabeled thiosulfate were used to study the intermediates in the oxidative pathways of the sulfur cycle

  5. Laser cleaning of sulfide scale on compressor impeller blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Q.H.; Zhou, D.; Wang, Y.L.; Liu, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of sulfide layers and fluence values on the mechanism of laser cleaning were experimentally established. • The specimen surface with sulfide scale becomes slightly smoother than that before laser cleaning. • The mechanism of laser cleaning the sulfide scale of stainless steel is spallation without oxidization. • It would avoid chemical waste and dust pollution using a fiber laser instead of using nitric acids or sandblasting. - Abstract: Sulfide scale on the surface of a compressor impeller blade can considerably reduce the impeller performance and its service life. To prepare for subsequent remanufacturing, such as plasma spraying, it needs to be removed completely. In the corrosion process on an FV(520)B stainless steel, sulfide scale is divided into two layers because of different outward diffusion rates of Cr, Ni and Fe. In this paper, the cleaning threshold values of the upper and inner layers and the damage threshold value of the substrate were investigated using a pulsed fiber laser. To obtain experimental evidence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and 3D surface profilometry were employed to investigate the two kinds of sulfide layers on specimens before, during, and after laser cleaning.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide production from subgingival plaque samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic, A; Dahlén, G

    2015-10-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial anaerobe infection. Little is known about the dysbiotic microbiota and the role of bacterial metabolites in the disease process. It is suggested that the production of certain waste products in the proteolytic metabolism may work as markers for disease severity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas produced by degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. It is highly toxic and believed to have pro-inflammatory properties. We aimed to study H2S production from subgingival plaque samples in relation to disease severity in subjects with natural development of the disease, using a colorimetric method based on bismuth precipitation. In remote areas of northern Thailand, adults with poor oral hygiene habits and a natural development of periodontal disease were examined for their oral health status. H2S production was measured with the bismuth method and subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of 20 bacterial species with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. In total, 43 subjects were examined (age 40-60 years, mean PI 95 ± 6.6%). Fifty-six percent had moderate periodontal breakdown (CAL > 3  7 mm) on at least one site. Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were frequently detected. H2S production could not be correlated to periodontal disease severity (PPD or CAL at sampled sites) or to a specific bacterial composition. Site 21 had statistically lower production of H2S (p = 0.02) compared to 16 and 46. Betel nut chewers had statistically significant lower H2S production (p = 0.01) than non-chewers. Rapid detection and estimation of subgingival H2S production capacity was easily and reliably tested by the colorimetric bismuth sulfide precipitation method. H2S may be a valuable clinical marker for degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluid Evolution During Mineralization of Atashkuh Fluorite-Barite (±Sulfide Deposit, South of Delijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Moghaddasi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction More than 30 fluorite occurrences with approximately 1.35 million tons of reserves have been recognized in Iran (Ghorbani, 2013. The Atashkuh fluorite-barite (±sulfide deposit is one of four occurrences located south of the city of Delijan in Markazi province, about 80 km SE of Arak city. The Atashkuh deposit occurs between the central Iran structural zone on the north and the Sanandaj-Sirjan structural zone on the south. The geology of the area is dominated by folded and faulted Jurassic carbonates and shales (Thiele et al., 1968. The lower Jurassic shale and calcareous sandstone of the Shemshak Formation and the Middle to Upper Jurassic dolomite of the Badamu Formation are the main host rocks for the fluorite veins. In this study, 40 samples from fluorite veins and host rocks were collected, from which 25 thin sections and 8 doubly-polished thin sections were prepared. Micro-thermometric studies were conducted on primary fluid inclusions using the Linkam THM600 heating-freezing stage. In addition, 10 samples were analyzed by XRD. Results Fluid inclusion data indicate that the Atashkuh fluorite-barite (±sulfides veins were deposited as a result of mixing a primary multi-component Na-K(-Mg-Ca high-salinity brine (SH type inclusions with less saline calcium-rich connate water (LVHH type inclusions and pressure reduction of ore bearing fluids. Fluid inclusions containing halite in high-salinity brine, and hydrohalite in connate water show suggest a high-salinity brine and connate water before mixing. The main mineralization stage was followed by circulation of low temperature meteoric water, responsible for the late stage mineralization. The micro-thermometry results suggest that the main fluorite mineralization occurred at 250 °C and 150 Mpa pressure. Dolomitization and silicification are the main alteration types associated with the Atashkuh mineralization. The occurrence of chlorite, talc, illite and dolomitized host rock all

  8. Interplay of crystal fractionation, sulfide saturation and oxygen fugacity on the iron isotope composition of arc lavas: An example from the Marianas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, H. M.; Prytulak, J.; Woodhead, J. D.; Kelley, K. A.; Brounce, M.; Plank, T.

    2018-04-01

    Subduction zone systems are central to a multitude of processes from the evolution of the continental crust to the concentration of metals into economically viable deposits. The interplay between oxygen fugacity, sulfur saturation, fluid exsolution and fractionating mineral assemblages that gives rise to typical arc magma chemical signatures is, however, still poorly understood and novel geochemical approaches are required to make further progress. Here we examine a well-characterized suite of arc lavas from the Marianas (W. Pacific) for their stable Fe isotope composition. In agreement with previous work and mass balance considerations, contributions from sediments and/or fluids are shown to have negligible effect on Fe isotopes. Instead, we focus on disentangling processes occurring during basalt through dacite differentiation using a sample suite from the island of Anatahan. Anatahan whole rock Fe isotope compositions (δ57Fe) range from -0.05 ± 0.05 to 0.17 ± 0.03 (2 S.D.)‰. A fractionation model is constructed, where three distinct stages of differentiation are required to satisfy the combined major and trace element and isotopic observations. In particular, the sequestration of isotopically heavy Fe into magnetite and isotopically light Fe into sulfide melts yields important constraints. The data require that lavas are first undersaturated with respect to crystalline or molten sulfide, followed by the crystallisation of magnetite, which then triggers late sulfide saturation. The model demonstrates that the final stage of removal of liquid or crystalline sulfide can effectively sequester Cu (and presumably other chalcophiles) and that late stage exsolution of magmatic fluids or brines may not be required to do this, although these processes are not mutually exclusive. Finally, the new Fe isotope data are combined with previous Tl-Mo-V stable isotope determinations on the same samples. Importantly, the multi-valent transition metal stable isotope systems of

  9. Physiological behavior of hydrogen sulfide in rice plant. Part 5. Effect of hydrogen sulfide on respiration of rice roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okajima, H; Takagi, S

    1955-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of hydrogen sulfide on the respiration of rice plant roots were investigated using Warburg's manometory technique. Hydrogen sulfide inhibited not only aerobic respiration but anaerobic respiration process of roots. Inhibitory action of hydrogen sulfide and potassium cyanide on the respiration were apparently reversible, but the style of recovery reaction from inhibition was somewhat different in each case. Oxygen consumption of roots was increased by addition of ammonium salts, but the same effects were not recognized by the addition of any other salt examined (except nitrate salts). There was close relationship between respiration of roots and assimilation of nitrogen by roots. The increased oxygen uptake by addition of ammonium salt was also inhibited by hydrogen sulfide. The reactivation of this reaction occurred with the recovery of endogenous respiration of roots. 19 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Review of the impacts of leaking CO 2 gas and brine on groundwater quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bacon, Diana H.; Zheng, Liange; Kyle, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher F.

    2017-06-01

    This review paper provides a synthetic view of the existing knowledge and summarizes data and findings of the recent literature on the subject of the potential leaking of CO2 from the deep subsurface storage reservoirs and the effects on aquifer quality. New ideas and concepts are developed and insights are also provided. The objectives of this paper are to: 1) present and discuss potential risks for groundwater degradation due to CO2 gas and brine exposure; 2) identify the set of geochemical data required to assess and predict aquifer responses to CO2 and brine leakage. Specifically, this paper will discuss the following issues: 1) Aquifer responses (such as changes in aqueous phase/groundwater chemical composition; changes in solid phase chemistry and mineralogy; changes in the extent and rate of reactions and processes and possible establishment of a new network of reactions and processes affecting or controlling overall mobility of major, minor, and trace elements; development of conceptual and reduced order models (ROMs) to describe and predict aquifer responses); 2) The degree of impact such as significant or insignificant changes in pH and major, minor, and trace element release that depend on the following controlling variables; the effect of leaking plume characteristics (gas composition, pure CO2 and/or CO2 -CH4 -H2S mixtures and brine concentration and composition (trace metals); aquifer properties [such as initial aqueous phase conditions and mineralogy: minerals controlling sediments’ response (e.g., calcite, Si bearing minerals, etc.)]; overview of relevant hydrogeological and geochemical processes related to the impact of CO2 gas and brine on groundwater quality; the fate of the elements released from sediments or transported with brine (such as precipitation/incorporation into minerals (calcite and other minerals), adsorption, electron transfer reactions, the role of natural attenuation; whether or not the release of metals following exposure to

  11. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C.; Jensen, Heidi B.; Reeder, Richard J.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-01-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca–, Na–, Mg– and Fe–chloride brines and multi-component (Fe2 (SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ∼21°C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe–chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and

  12. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Their Mixture in the Presence of Brine

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yafan

    2017-10-03

    We perform molecular dynamics simulation study of CO2, methane, and their mixture in the presence of brine over a broad range of temperature (311–473 K), pressure (up to about 100 MPa), and NaCl concentration (up to about 14 wt %). The general decrease in the interfacial tension (IFT) values of the CH4–brine system with pressure and temperature is similar to that obtained for the corresponding CH4–water system. The IFT of methane and brine is a linearly increasing function of salt concentration, and the resulting slopes are dependent on the pressure. A similar behavior as methane is observed for such systems containing CO2 and CO2–CH4 mixture. The IFT of CO2 and brine increases linearly with increasing salt content; however, the resulting slopes are independent of pressure. The simulations show that the presence of CO2 decreases the IFT values of the CH4–water and CH4–brine systems, but the degree of reduction depends on the amount of CO2 in each sample, which is consistent with experimental evidence. These IFT values show a linear correlation with the amount of CO2, and the resulting slopes are dependent on the temperature and pressure. Furthermore, our results for the mole fractions of the different species in the CO2–CH4–water system at 323 K and 9 MPa are in agreement with those of experiments. The mole fractions of methane and CO2 in the water-rich phase decrease with increasing salt concentration, whereas that of H2O in the methane- or CO2-rich phases remains almost unaffected in all of the studied cases. Our results could be useful because of the importance of carbon dioxide sequestration and shale gas production.

  13. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C.; Jensen, Heidi B.; Reeder, Richard J.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-03-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multicomponent (Fe2(SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ∼21 °C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation

  14. Comparison of the Sr isotopic signatures in brines of the Canadian and Fennoscandian shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrel, Philippe; Casanova, Joel

    2005-01-01

    A synthesis of Sr isotope data from shallow and deep groundwaters, and brines from the Fennoscandian and Canadian Shields is presented. A salinity gradient is evident in the water with concentrations varying from approximately 1-75 g L -1 below 1500 m depth in the Fennoscandian Shield and from 10 up to 300 g L -1 below 650 m depth in the Canadian Shield. Strontium isotope ratios were measured to assess the origin of the salinity and evaluate the degree of water-rock interaction in the systems. In both shields, the Sr concentrations are enriched relative to Cl, defining a positive trend parallel to the seawater dilution line and indicative of Sr addition through weathering processes. The depth distribution for Sr concentration increases strongly with increasing depth in both shields although the variation in Sr-isotope composition does not mirror that of Sr concentrations. Strontium-isotope compositions are presented for surface waters, and groundwaters in several sites in the Fennoscandian and Canadian Shields. Numerous mixing lines can be drawn reflecting water-rock interaction. A series of calculated lines links the surface end-members (surface water and shallow groundwater) and the deep brines; these mixing lines define a range of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for the deep brines in different selected sites. All sites show a specific 87 Sr/ 86 Sr signature and the occurrence of large 87 Sr/ 86 Sr variations is site specific in both shields. In Canadian Shield brines, the Sr isotope ratios clearly highlight large water rock interaction that increases the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio from water that could have been of marine origin. In contrast to the Canadian Shield, groundwater does not occur in closed pockets in the Fennoscandian, and the well-constrained 87 Sr/ 86 Sr signatures in deep brines should correspond to a large, well-mixed and homogeneous water reservoir, whose Sr isotope signature results from water-rock interaction

  15. Thermal gradient brine inclusion migration in salt study: gas-liquid inclusions, preliminary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.; Machiels, A.J.

    1979-10-01

    Natural salt deposits contain small cubical inclusions of brine distributed through the salt. Temperature gradients, resulting from storing heat-generating wastes in the salt, can cause the inclusions to move through the salt. Prediction of the rate and amount of brine-inclusion migration is necessary for the evaluation of bedded or domed salts as possible media for waste repositories. Inclusions filled exclusively with liquid migrate up the temperature gradient towards the heat source. The solubility of salt in the brine inclusion increases with temperature. Consequently, salt dissolves into the inclusion across the hot surface and crystallizes out at the cold surface. Diffusion of salt within the liquid phase from the hot to the cold faces causes the inclusions to move in the opposite direction. In so doing, they change shape and eventually become rectangular parallelipipeds with a width (dimension perpendicular to the thermal gradient) much larger than the thickness (dimension in the direction of the thermal gradient). The inclusions may also contain a gas phase predominantly consisting of water vapor. These entities are termed two-phase or gas-liquid inclusions. The two-phase inclusions usually migrate down the temperature gradient away from the heat source remaining more-or-less cubical. A two-phase inclusion also forms when an all-liquid inclusion reaches the waste package; upon opening up at the salt-package interface, the brine partially evaporates and the inclusion reseals with some insoluble gas trapped inside. These gas-liquid inclusions proceed to move down the temperature gradient, in the opposite sense of the all-liquid inclusions. The gas-liquid inclusions phenomenon provides a pathway by which radionuclides leached from the wasteform by the brine can be transported away from the waste package and thus might have greater access to the biosphere

  16. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C; Rogers, A Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C; Jensen, Heidi B; Reeder, Richard J; Dyar, M Darby

    2018-03-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multi-component (Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO 3 ) brines at ∼21°C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation

  17. Disposal/recovery options for brine waters from oil and gas production in New York State. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Atkinson, J.F.; Bunn, M.D.; Hodge, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    Produced water from oil and gas operations, or brine as it is typically referred, may be characterized as being highly saline, with total dissolved solids greater than 100 g/L. If these bribes are disposed improperly there may be severe adverse environmental effects. Thus, it is important that brine be disposed using environmentally sound methods. Unfortunately, costs for the disposal of brine water are a significant burden to oil and gas producers in New York State. These costs and the relatively low market price of oil and natural gas have contributed to the decline in gas and oil production in New York State during the past 10 years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate new and existing options for brine disposal in New York State, examine the technical and economic merits of these options, and assess environmental impacts associated with each option. Two new disposal options investigated for New York State oil and gas producers included construction of a regional brine treatment facility to treat brine prior to discharge into a receiving water and a salt production facility that utilizes produced water as a feed stock. Both options are technically feasible; however, their economic viability depends on facility size and volume of brine treated.

  18. A review of theories on the origins of saline waters and brines in the Canadian Precambrian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottomley, D.J.

    1996-02-01

    Groundwater at depths greater that 500 m in the Canadian Precambrian Shield is typically saline with a sodium-calcium/chloride chemical composition. Brines with dissolved solid concentrations exceeding 100 g/L have been encountered in several deep mines (>1000 m) on the Shield. Theories on the origins of these deep saline waters and brines can be grouped into two general categories: (1) autochthonous (in situ) origins attributable to silicate mineral hydrolysis over geologic time scales, leaching of fluid inclusions or radiolysis effects, and (2) allochthonous (external) sources caused by the infiltration of brine of modified seawater origins in the geologic past. Although the chemical and isotopic compositions of these waters clearly reflect the effects of reaction between the water and their silicate host rocks, it is unlikely that the high chlorinity of the brines is in an autochthonous attribute. It is proposed that the compositions of these brines are most compatible with the Paleozoic residual brine hypothesis of Spencer (1987). This theory invokes deep infiltration of a high-density residual brine, formed by the evaporation of seawater during Devonian time, into underlying Precambrian basement rocks where subsequent chemical modifications occurred. (author) 39 refs., 2 figs

  19. Disposal/recovery options for brine waters from oil and gas production in New York State. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Atkinson, J.F.; Bunn, M.D.; Hodge, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    Produced water from oil and gas operations, or brine as it is typically referred, may be characterized as being highly saline, with total dissolved solids greater than 100 g/L. If these bribes are disposed improperly there may be severe adverse environmental effects. Thus, it is important that brine be disposed using environmentally sound methods. Unfortunately, costs for the disposal of brine water are a significant burden to oil and gas producers in New York State. These costs and the relatively low market price of oil and natural gas have contributed to the decline in gas and oil production in New York State during the past 10 years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate new and existing options for brine disposal in New York State, examine the technical and economic merits of these options, and assess environmental impacts associated with each option. Two new disposal options investigated for New York State oil and gas producers included construction of a regional brine treatment facility to treat brine prior to discharge into a receiving water and a salt production facility that utilizes produced water as a feed stock. Both options are technically feasible; however, their economic viability depends on facility size and volume of brine treated

  20. Thiosulfate leaching of gold from sulfide wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block-Bolten, A.; Torma, A.E.

    1986-07-01

    The kinetics of gold extraction from lead-zinc sulfide flotation tailings by thiosulfate leachants has been investigated. The order of reaction as well as the overall reaction rate constant were, with respect to thiosulfate concentration, calculated to be n=0.75 and k=1.05 x 10/sup -6/ mol/sup 1/4/ dm/sup 5/4/ min/sup -1/. The apparent activation energy was found to be ..delta..E/sub a/=48.53 kJ and the frequency factor A=7.5 x 10/sup 2/ mol dm/sup -3/ min/sup -1/. This activation energy value suggests chemical control of the reaction mechanism. Optimum leach temperature of 50/sup 0/C was established. Gold extractions as high as 99% have been realized in two step countercurrent leachings. Change in pH throughout the leaching process was found to be an excellent indicator for the progress of the extraction. A preliminary economic evaluation of the process is given.

  1. Luminescent sulfides of monovalent and trivalent cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The invention discloses a family of luminescent materials or phosphors having a rhombohedral crystal structure and consisting essentially of a mixed host sulfide of at least one monovalent host cation and at least one trivalent host cation, and containing, for each mole of phosphor, 0.0005 to 0.05 mole of at least one activating cation. The monovalent host cations may be Na, K or Rb and Cs. The trivalent host cations may be Gd, La, Lu, Sc and Y. The activating cations may be one or more of trivalent As, Bi, Ce, Dy, Er, Pr, Sb, Sm, Tb and Tm; divalent Lu, Mn, Pb and Sn; and monovalent Ag, Cu and Tl. The novel phosphors may be used in devices to convert electron-beam, ultraviolet or x-ray energy to light in the visible spectrum. Such energy conversion can be employed for example in fluoroscopic screens, and in viewing screens of cathode-ray tubes and other electron tubes

  2. Comparison of Carbon XANES Spectra from an Iron Sulfide from Comet Wild 2 with an Iron Sulfide Interplanetary Dust Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Sanford, S. A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Messenger, Nakamura K.; Jacobsen, C.

    2008-01-01

    Among one of the first particles removed from the aerogel collector from the Stardust sample return mission was an approx. 5 micron sized iron sulfide. The majority of the spectra from 5 different sections of this particle suggests the presence of aliphatic compounds. Due to the heat of capture in the aerogel we initially assumed these aliphatic compounds were not cometary but after comparing these results to a heated iron sulfide interplanetary dust particle (IDP) we believe our initial interpretation of these spectra was not correct. It has been suggested that ice coating on iron sulfides leads to aqueous alteration in IDP clusters which can then lead to the formation of complex organic compounds from unprocessed organics in the IDPs similar to unprocessed organics found in comets [1]. Iron sulfides have been demonstrated to not only transform halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons but also enhance the bonding of rubber to steel [2,3]. Bromfield and Coville (1997) demonstrated using Xray photoelectron spectroscopy that "the surface enhancement of segregated sulfur to the surface of sulfided precipitated iron catalysts facilitates the formation of a low-dimensional structure of extraordinary properties" [4]. It may be that the iron sulfide acts in some way to protect aliphatic compounds from alteration due to heat.

  3. Contamination shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, W.; Pecornik, D.

    1982-01-01

    An acrylate resin is presented as contamination protection coating for components and instruments in nuclear facilities and for spent fuel transport containers. The resin is evaporated or sublimated at 130 0 C and can thus be removed easily from the protected component. The radioactive particles entrained during evaporation are retained by suitable filters. (TK) [de

  4. Cotton contamination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Sluijs, MHJ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focusses on physical forms of contaminant including the presence, prevention and/or removal of foreign bodies, stickiness and seed-coat fragments rather than the type and quantity of chemical residues that might be present in cotton...

  5. Adsorption of sulfide ions on cerussite surfaces and implications for flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Qicheng; Wen, Shuming; Zhao, Wenjuan; Deng, Jiushuai; Xian, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new discussion on the lead sulfide species is introduced. • The Na_2S concentration determines cerussite sulfidization. • The activity of lead sulfide species also determines cerussite sulfidization. • Disulfide and polysulfide in lead sulfide species affect its activity. - Abstract: The adsorption of sulfide ions on cerussite surfaces and implications for flotation were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, micro-flotation tests, and surface adsorption experiments. The XPS analysis results indicated that lead sulfide species formed on the mineral surface after treatment by Na_2S, and the increase in the Na_2S concentration was beneficial for sulfidization. In addition to the content of lead sulfide species, its activity, which was determined by the proportion of sulfide, disulfide and polysulfide, also played an important role in cerussite sulfidization. Micro-flotation tests results demonstrated that insufficient or excessive addition of Na_2S in pulp solutions has detrimental effects on flotation performance, which was attributed to the dosage of Na_2S and the activity of lead sulfide species formed on the mineral surface. Surface adsorption experiments of sulfide ions determined the residual S concentrations in pulp solutions and provided a quantitative illustration for the inhibition of cerussite flotation by excessive sulfide ions. Moreover, it also revealed that sulfide ions in the pulp solution were transformed onto the mineral surface and formed lead sulfide species. These results showed that both of lead sulfide species and its activity acted as an important role in sulfidization flotation process of cerussite.

  6. Adsorption of sulfide ions on cerussite surfaces and implications for flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Qicheng [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Faculty of Land Resource Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Wen, Shuming, E-mail: fqckmust@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Faculty of Land Resource Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhao, Wenjuan [Kunming Metallurgical Research Institute, Kunming 650031 (China); Deng, Jiushuai; Xian, Yongjun [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Faculty of Land Resource Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new discussion on the lead sulfide species is introduced. • The Na{sub 2}S concentration determines cerussite sulfidization. • The activity of lead sulfide species also determines cerussite sulfidization. • Disulfide and polysulfide in lead sulfide species affect its activity. - Abstract: The adsorption of sulfide ions on cerussite surfaces and implications for flotation were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, micro-flotation tests, and surface adsorption experiments. The XPS analysis results indicated that lead sulfide species formed on the mineral surface after treatment by Na{sub 2}S, and the increase in the Na{sub 2}S concentration was beneficial for sulfidization. In addition to the content of lead sulfide species, its activity, which was determined by the proportion of sulfide, disulfide and polysulfide, also played an important role in cerussite sulfidization. Micro-flotation tests results demonstrated that insufficient or excessive addition of Na{sub 2}S in pulp solutions has detrimental effects on flotation performance, which was attributed to the dosage of Na{sub 2}S and the activity of lead sulfide species formed on the mineral surface. Surface adsorption experiments of sulfide ions determined the residual S concentrations in pulp solutions and provided a quantitative illustration for the inhibition of cerussite flotation by excessive sulfide ions. Moreover, it also revealed that sulfide ions in the pulp solution were transformed onto the mineral surface and formed lead sulfide species. These results showed that both of lead sulfide species and its activity acted as an important role in sulfidization flotation process of cerussite.

  7. Chemical and colloidal aspects of collectorless flotation behavior of sulfide and non-sulfide minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Sajjad; Mousavinezhad, Seyed Kamal; Gharabaghi, Mahdi

    2015-11-01

    Flotation has been widely used for separation of valuable minerals from gangues based on their surface characterizations and differences in hydrophobicity on mineral surfaces. As hydrophobicity of minerals widely differs from each other, their separation by flotation will become easier. Collectors are chemical materials which are supposed to make selectively valuable minerals hydrophobic. In addition, there are some minerals which based on their surface and structural features are intrinsically hydrophobic. However, their hydrophobicities are not strong enough to be floatable in the flotation cell without collectors such as sulfide minerals, coal, stibnite, and so forth. To float these minerals in a flotation cell, their hydrophobicity should be increased in specific conditions. Various parameters including pH, Eh, size distribution, mill types, mineral types, ore characterization, and type of reaction in flotation cells affect the hydrophobicity of minerals. Surface analysis results show that when sulfide minerals experience specific flotation conditions, the reactions on the surface of these minerals increase the amount of sulfur on the surface. These phenomenons improve the hydrophobicity of these minerals due to strong hydrophobic feature of sulfurs. Collectorless flotation reduces chemical material consumption amount, increases flotation selectivity (grade increases), and affects the equipment quantities; however, it can also have negative effects. Some minerals with poor surface floatability can be increased by adding some ions to the flotation system. Depressing undesirable minerals in flotation is another application of collectorless flotation.

  8. Silver sulfide nanoparticle assembly obtained by reacting an assembled silver nanoparticle template with hydrogen sulfide gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Nuhfer, Noel T; Moussa, Laura; Morris, Hannah R; Whitmore, Paul M

    2008-11-12

    A fast, simple procedure is described for obtaining an assembly of silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag(2)S NPs) on a glass substrate through reaction of a template of an assembled layer of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) gas. The Ag NP template was prepared by assembling a monolayer of spherical Ag NPs (mean diameter of 7.4 nm) on a polyethylenimine-treated glass substrate. Exposure to pure H(2)S for 10 min converted the Ag NPs of the template to Ag(2)S NPs. The resulting Ag(2)S NP assembly, which retains the template nanostructure and particle distribution, was characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning high resolution TEM, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Ag(2)S NPs have a crystal structure of monoclinic acanthite, and while they retained the spherical shape of the original Ag NPs, their mean particle size increased to 8.4 nm due to changes to the crystal structure when the Ag NPs are converted into Ag(2)S NPs. The measured optical absorption edge of the Ag(2)S NP assembly indicated an indirect interband transition with a band gap energy of 1.71 eV. The Ag(2)S NP assembly absorbed light with wavelengths below 725 nm, and the absorbance increased monotonically toward the UV region.

  9. Laboratory evaluation of the potential for in situ treatment of chromate-contaminated groundwater by chemical precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.; Beck, M.A.; Jurgensmeier, C.A.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of a series of small-scale batch tests performed to assess the effectiveness of chemical precipitation in the remediation of chromate-contaminated groundwater. These tests involved treatment of chromate solutions with ferrous and sulfide ions. In addition, tests were conducted that involved treatment of mixtures of chromate-contaminated groundwater and uncontaminated soil with the ferrous ion. A combination of ferrous sulfate and sodium sulfide was also tested in the groundwater treatment tests, since this approach has been shown to be an efficient method for treating electroplating wastewaters

  10. Experimental evaporation of hyperacid brines: Effects on chemical composition and chlorine isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Eggenkamp, H. G. M.

    2018-02-01

    Hyperacid brines from active volcanic lakes are some of the chemically most complex aqueous solutions on Earth. Their compositions provide valuable insights into processes of elemental transfer from a magma body to the surface and interactions with solid rocks and the atmosphere. This paper describes changes in chemical and δ37Cl signatures observed in a 1750 h isothermal evaporation experiment on hyperacid (pH 0.1) sulphate-chloride brine water from the active lake of Kawah Ijen volcano (Indonesia). Although gypsum was the only evaporite mineral identified in the evolving brine, decreasing Si concentrations may ultimately result in amorphous silica precipitation. Geochemical simulations predict the additional formation of elemental sulphur at lower water activities (aH2O ≤ 0.65) that were not reached in the experiment. Absence of other sulphates and halides despite the high load of dissolved elements (initial TDS ca. 100 g/kg) can be attributed to increased solubility of metals, promoted by extensive formation of complexes between the variety of cations and the major anions (HSO4-, Cl-, F-) present. Chlorine deviations from a conservative behaviour point to losses of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl(g)) and consequently an increase in Br/Cl ratios. Chlorine isotope fractionation that accompanied the escape of HCl(g) showed a marked change in sign and magnitude in the course of progressive evaporation of the brine. The calculated factor of fractionation between HCl(g) and dissolved Cl for the initial interval (before 500 h) is positive (1000lnαHCl(g)-Cldiss. = + 1.55 ± 0.49‰to + 3.37 ± 1.11‰), indicating that, at first, the escaping HCl(g) was isotopically heavier than the dissolved Cl remaining in the brine. Conversely, fractionation shifted to the opposite direction in the subsequent interval (1000lnαHCl(g)-Cldiss. = 5.67 ± 0.17‰to - 5.64 ± 0.08‰), in agreement with values reported in literature. It is proposed that Cl isotopic fractionation in

  11. Laboratory tests to determine the effect of Olkiluoto bounding brine water on buffer performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martikainen, J.; Schatz, T.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents a set of results from laboratory studies on the effect of bounding brine water exposure on buffer performance. In order to evaluate the effect of bounding brine water exposure on compacted bentonite buffer performance a series of experiments were conducted using swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity measurements as follows: Direct exposure measurements were performed on MX-80 bentonite samples encompassing a range of dry density values from 1334 to 1585 kg/m 3 . These samples were saturated directly with a 70 g/L solution composed of calcium and sodium chloride at a Ca 2+ /Na + mass ratio of 3:2. Direct exposure measurements were performed on IBECO RWC samples encompassing a range of dry density values from 1314 to 1564 kg/m 3 . These samples were saturated directly with a 68.45 g/L solution composed of calcium and sodium chloride at a Ca 2+ /Na + mass ratio of 3.2:2. A set of MX-80 and IBECO RWC samples encompassing a range of dry density values from 1018 to 1607 kg/m 3 were initially saturated with tap water followed by (indirect) exposure to a 68.45 g/L solution composed of calcium and sodium chloride at a Ca 2+ /Na + mass ratio of 3.2:2. Sample swelling pressures were continuously monitored and hydraulic conductivity measurements were performed at each constant swelling pressure condition. In some cases, exchangeable cation analyses were performed. The specific test results are summarized as follows: All of the measured swelling pressure values upon exposure to bounding brine water were lower than the corresponding values after saturation with tap water. The relative swelling pressure decrease for the IBECO RWC samples was approximately half of the corresponding decrease for the MX-80 samples. On exposure to bounding brine water, hydraulic conductivity values were increased at the lowest densities, for both the MX-80 and IBECO samples, while at higher densities hydraulic conductivity values were essentially equivalent, for both the

  12. Activation mechanism of ammonium ions on sulfidation of malachite (-201) surface by DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dandan; Mao, Yingbo; Deng, Jiushuai; Wen, Shuming

    2017-07-01

    The activation mechanism of ammonium ions on the sulfidation of malachite (-201) was determined by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Results of DFT calculations indicated that interlayer sulfidation occurs during the sulfidation process of malachite (-201). The absorption of both the ammonium ion and sulfide ion on the malachite (-201) surface is stronger than that of sulfur ion. After sulfidation was activated with ammonium ion, the Cu 3d orbital peak is closer to the Fermi level and characterized by a stronger peak value. Therefore, the addition of ammonium ions activated the sulfidation of malachite (-201), thereby improving the flotation performance.

  13. Komatiites and nickel sulfide ores of the Black Swan area, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. 3: Komatiite geochemistry, and implications for ore forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Stephen J.; Hill, Robin E. T.; Evans, Noreen J.

    2004-11-01

    The Black Swan komatiite sequence is a package of dominantly olivine-rich cumulates with lesser volumes of spinifex textured rocks, interpreted as a section through an extensive komatiite lava flow field. The sequence hosts a number of nickel sulfide orebodies, including the Silver Swan massive shoot and the Cygnet and Black Swan disseminated orebodies. A large body of whole rock analyses on komatiitic rocks from the Black Swan area has been filtered for metasomatic effects. With the exception of mobile elements such as Ca and alkalis, most samples retain residual igneous geochemistry, and can be modelled predominantly by fractionation and accumulation of olivine. Whole rock MgO FeO relationships imply a relatively restricted range of olivine compositions, more primitive than the olivine which would have been in equilibrium with the transporting komatiite lavas, and together with textural data indicate that much of the cumulus olivine in the sequence was transported. Flow top compositions show evidence for chromite saturation, but the cumulates are deficient in accumulated chromite. Chromite compositions are typical of those found in compound flow-facies komatiites, and are distinct from those in komatiitic dunite bodies. Incompatible trace element abundances show three superimposed influences: control by the relative proportion of olivine to liquid; a signature of crustal contamination and an overprint of metasomatic introduction of LREE, Zr and Th. This overprint is most evident in cumulates, and relatively insignificant in the spinifex rocks. Platinum and palladium behaved as incompatible elements and are negatively correlated with MgO. They show no evidence for wholesale depletion due to sulfide extraction, which was evidently restricted to specific lava tubes or pathways. The lack of correspondence between PGE depletion and contamination by siliceous material implies that contamination alone is insufficient to generate S-saturation and ore formation in the

  14. Cuprous sulfide as a film insulation for superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, G.R.; Uphoff, J.H.; Vecchio, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    The LCP test coil utilizes a conductor of forced-flow design having 486 strands of multifilametary Nb 3 Sn compacted in a stainless steel sheath. The impetus for the work reported here stemmed from the need for some form of insulation for those strands to prevent sintering during reaction and to reduce ac losses. The work reported here experimented with cuprous sulfide coatings at various coating rates and thicknesses. Two solenoids that were wound with cuprous sulfide-coated wires and heat-treated at 700 degrees C were found to demonstrate that the film is effective in providing turn-to-turn insulation for less than about 0.5V between turns. The sulfide layer provided a metal-semiconductor junction which became conducting at roughly 0.5V. Repeated cycling of the coil voltage in excess of that value produced no damage to the sulfide layer. The junction provided self-protection for the coil as long as the upper allowable current density in the sulfide was not exceeded. No training was apparent up to 6.4 T

  15. Sulfide Species Optical Monitoring by a Miniaturized Silicon Photomultiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Petralia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of water-soluble pollutants is receiving a growing interest from the scientific community. In this context, sulfide anion species S2− and HS− are particularly relevant since they can cause acute and chronic toxicity including neurological effects and at high concentrations, even death. In this study, a new strategy for fast and sensitive optical detection of sulfide species in water samples is described. The method uses an integrated silicon photomultiplier (SiPM device coupled with the appropriate analytical strategy applied in a plastic microchip with dried reagents on board. More specifically, all sulfide species (H2S, HS− and S2− in water samples are detected by the fluorescence signal emitted upon the reaction with N,N-dimethyl-phenylenediamine sulfate in the presence of Fe3+, leading to the formation of the fluorescent methylene blue (MB species. It has been proven that the system herein proposed is able to measure sulfide concentration in a linear range from 0–10 mg L−1 with a sensitivity value of about 6.7 µA mg−1 L and a detection limit of 0.5 mg L−1. A comparison with conventional UV-Vis detection method has been also carried out. Data show a very good linear correlation (R2 = 0.98093, proving the effectiveness of the method. Results pave the way toward the development of portable and low-cost device systems for water-soluble sulfide pollutants.

  16. Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of Uranium by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Kim F. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bi, Yuqiang [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Carpenter, Julian [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hyng, Sung Pil [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Rittmann, Bruce E. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Zhou, Chen [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Vannela, Raveender [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Davis, James A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    -based reductions of U(VI) occurred in parallel. The UO2 produced in presence of ferrous iron was poorly crystalline. At UM, laboratory-scale reactor studies were performed to assess the potential for the predominant abiotic reductants formed under sulfate reducing conditions (SRCs) to: (1) reduce U(VI) in contaminated groundwater sediments), and (2) inhibit the re-oxidation of U(IV) species, and in particular, uraninite (UO2(s)). Under SRCs, mackinawite and aqueous sulfide are the key reductants expected to form. To assess their potential for abiotic reduction of U(VI) species, a series of experiments were performed in which either FeS or S(-II) was added to solutions of U(VI), with the rates of conversion to U(IV) solids monitored as a function of pH, and carbonate and calcium concentration. In the presence of FeS and absence of oxygen or carbonate, U(IV) was completely reduced uraninite. S(-II) was also found to be an effective reductant of aqueous phase U(VI) species and produced uraninite, with the kinetics and extent of reduction depending on geochemical conditions. U(VI) reduction to uraninite was faster under higher S(-II) concentrations but was slowed by an increase in the dissolved Ca or carbonate concentration. Rapid reduction of U(VI) occurred at circumneutral pH but virtually no reduction occurred at pH 10.7. In general, dissolved Ca and carbonate slowed abiotic U(VI) reduction by forming stable Ca-U(VI)-carbonate soluble complexes that are resistant to reaction with aqueous sulfide. To investigate the stability of U(IV) against re-oxidation in the presence of iron sulfides by oxidants in simulated groundwater environments, and to develop a mechanistic understanding the controlling redox processes, continuously-mixed batch reactor (CMBR) and flow-through reactor (CMFR) studies were performed at UM. In these studies a series of experiments were conducted under various oxic groundwater conditions to examine the effectiveness of FeS as an oxygen

  17. Genesis of the Permian Kemozibayi sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusion in Altay, NW China: Evidence from zircon geochronology, Hf and O isotopes and mineral chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dongmei; Qin, Kezhang; Xue, Shengchao; Mao, Yajing; Evans, Noreen J.; Niu, Yanjie; Chen, Junlu

    2017-11-01

    The recently discovered Kemozibayi mafic-ultramafic intrusion and its associated magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide deposits are located at the southern margin of the Chinese Altai Mountain, Central Asian Orogenic Belt in north Xinjiang, NW China. The intrusion is composed of olivine websterite, norite, gabbro and diorite. Disseminated and net-textured Ni-Cu sulfide ores are hosted in the center of the gabbro. In this work, new zircon U-Pb ages, Hf-O isotopic and sulfide S isotopic data, and whole rock and mineral chemical analyses are combined in order to elucidate the characteristics of the mantle source, nature of subduction processes, degree of crustal contamination, geodynamic setting of bimodal magmatism in the region, and the metallogenic potential of economic Cu-Ni sulfide deposit at depth. SIMS zircon U-Pb dating of the gabbro yields Permian ages (278.3 ± 1.9 Ma), coeval with the Kalatongke Cu-Ni deposit and with Cu-Ni deposits in the Eastern Tianshan and Beishan areas. Several lines of evidence (positive εHf(t) from + 7.1 to + 13.3, Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 contents in clinopyroxene from olivine websterite, high whole rock TiO2 contents) suggest that the primary magma of the Kemozibayi intrusion was a calc-alkaline basaltic magma derived from depleted mantle, and that the degree of partial melting in the magma source was high. The evolution of the Kemozibayi mafic-ultramafic complex was strongly controlled by fractional crystallization and the crystallization sequence was olivine websterite, norite, and then gabbro. This is evidenced by whole rock Fe2O3 contents that are positively correlated with MgO and negatively correlated with Al2O3, CaO and Na2O, similar LREE enrichment and negative Nb, Ta, Hf anomalies in chondrite and primitive mantle-normalized patterns, and a decrease in total REE and trace elements contents and magnetite content from gabbro through to norite and olivine websterite. Varied and low εHf(t) (+ 7.1 to + 13.3) and high δ18O values (+ 6.4‰ to

  18. Simultaneous removal of sulfide, nitrate and acetate under denitrifying sulfide removal condition: Modeling and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xijun; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Aijie; Guo, Wanqian; Zhou, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Lee, Duu-Jong, E-mail: djlee@ntu.edu.tw [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Ren, Nanqi, E-mail: rnq@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Model evaluation applied to case study 1: (A-G) S{sup 2−}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}-N, NO{sub 2}{sup −}-N, and Ac{sup −}-C profiles under initial sulfide concentrations of 156.2 (A), 539 (B), 964 (C), 1490 (D), 342.7 (E), 718 (F), and 1140.7 (G) mg L{sup −1}. The solid line represents simulated result and scatter represents experimental result. -- Highlights: • This work developed a mathematical model for DSR process. • Kinetics of sulfur–nitrogen–carbon and interactions between denitrifiers were studied. • Kinetic parameters of the model were estimated via data fitting. • The model described kinetic behaviors of DSR processes over wide parametric range. -- Abstract: Simultaneous removal of sulfide (S{sup 2−}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}) and acetate (Ac{sup −}) under denitrifying sulfide removal process (DSR) is a novel biological wastewater treatment process. This work developed a mathematical model to describe the kinetic behavior of sulfur–nitrogen–carbon and interactions between autotrophic denitrifiers and heterotrophic denitrifiers. The kinetic parameters of the model were estimated via data fitting considering the effects of initial S{sup 2−} concentration, S{sup 2−}/NO{sub 3}{sup −}-N ratio and Ac{sup −}-C/NO{sub 3}{sup −}-N ratio. Simulation supported that the heterotrophic denitratation step (NO{sub 3}{sup −} reduction to NO{sub 2}{sup −}) was inhibited by S{sup 2−} compared with the denitritation step (NO{sub 2}{sup −} reduction to N{sub 2}). Also, the S{sup 2−} oxidation by autotrophic denitrifiers was shown two times lower in rate with NO{sub 2}{sup −} as electron acceptor than that with NO{sub 3}{sup −} as electron acceptor. NO{sub 3}{sup −} reduction by autotrophic denitrifiers occurs 3–10 times slower when S{sup 0} participates as final electron donor compared to the S{sup 2−}-driven pathway. Model simulation on continuous-flow DSR reactor suggested that the adjustment of

  19. Synchronized dynamics of bacterial niche-specific functions during biofilm development in a cold seep brine pool

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Weipeng; Wang, Yong; Bougouffa, Salim; Tian, Renmao; Cao, Huiluo; Li, Yongxin; Cai, Lin; Wong, Yue Him; Zhang, Gen; Zhou, Guowei; Zhang, Xixiang; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    in the brine biofilms were reconstructed. Despite rather small genome sizes, the deltaproteobacterium possessed enhanced polysaccharide fermentation pathways, whereas the epsilonproteobacterium was a versatile nitrogen reactor possessing nar, nap and nif gene

  20. The effect of stratigraphic dip on brine inflow and gas migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.W.; Larson, K.W.

    1996-02-01

    The natural dip of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), although regionally only about 111, has the potential to affect brine inflow and gas-migration distances due to buoyancy forces. Current models, including those in WIPP Performance Assessment calculations, assume a perfectly horizontal repository and stratigraphy. With the addition of buoyancy forces due to the dip, brine and gas flow patterns can be affected. Brine inflow may increase due to countercurrent flow, and gas may preferentially migrate up dip. This scoping study has used analytical and numerical modeling to evaluate the impact of the dip on brine inflow and gas-migration distances at the WIPP in one, two, and three dimensions. Sensitivities to interbed permeabilities, two-phase curves, gas-generation rates, and interbed fracturing were studied

  1. The effect of stratigraphic dip on brine inflow and gas migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Larson, K.W. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The natural dip of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), although regionally only about 111, has the potential to affect brine inflow and gas-migration distances due to buoyancy forces. Current models, including those in WIPP Performance Assessment calculations, assume a perfectly horizontal repository and stratigraphy. With the addition of buoyancy forces due to the dip, brine and gas flow patterns can be affected. Brine inflow may increase due to countercurrent flow, and gas may preferentially migrate up dip. This scoping study has used analytical and numerical modeling to evaluate the impact of the dip on brine inflow and gas-migration distances at the WIPP in one, two, and three dimensions. Sensitivities to interbed permeabilities, two-phase curves, gas-generation rates, and interbed fracturing were studied.

  2. Variations in isotopic compositions of chlorine in evaporation-controlled salt lake brines of Qaidam Basin, China

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Xiao, Ying-kai; Liu, Wei-guo; Zhou, Y.M.; Wang, Yun-hui; Shirodkar, P.V.

    The variations in the isotopic compositions of chlorine in evaporation-controlled saline lake brines were determined by using an improved procedure for precise measurement of chlorine isotopes based on Cs sub(2) Cl sup(+) ion by thermal ionization...

  3. Water recovery from brines and salt-saturated solutions: operability and thermodynamic efficiency considerations for desalination technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review provides an overview of desalination technologies and discusses the thermodynamic efficiencies and operational issues associated with the various technologies particularly with regard to high salinity streams. When water is recovered from a saline source, a brine conc...

  4. Generation of Chemical Commodities and Fertilizer from ISS and ISRU Water Brines Using Combined Ion Exchange and Electrodialysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal is to develop a next generation brine recovery and electrolysis grade potable water producing system for Environmental Control and Life Support System...

  5. Environmental impacts of oil and gas brine applications for dust and ice control in New York : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Transportation agencies are required to treat roads for dust and ice control to ensure adequate safety for travelers. This is commonly achieved through application of solid and liquid chemicals. These materials can be conventional rock salt, brine fr...

  6. Changes of washing water during debittering and the brine during storage of irradiated olive fruits (Olea Europea. 1.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2003-01-01

    Olive fruits (Olea Europea. var. Surrany) treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation were debittered in distilled water for 8 days and stored in brine for 12 months at room temperature. Total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and pH values were evaluated in washing wastewater 9 daily), and in brine (after 6 and 12 months). The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K in washing wastewater, and in brine throughout debittering and storage periods. Also, gamma irradiation had an effect on EC and pH values of washing wastewater and brine. (author)

  7. Changes of washing water during debittering and the brine during storage of irradiated olive fruits (Olea europea. L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Bachir, M.

    2001-01-01

    Olive fruits (Olea europea. var. Surrany) treated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation were debittered in distilled water for 8 days and stored in brine for 12 months at room temperature. Total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and pH values were evaluated in washing wastewater (daily), and in brine (after 6 and 12 months). The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K in washing wastewater, and in brine throughout debittering and storage periods. Also, gamma irradiation had an effect on EC and pH values of washing wastewater and brine [es

  8. Design and characterization of sulfide-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron for cadmium(II) removal from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dan; Zhou, Xiaoxin; Zhou, Jiasheng; Liu, Yuanli; Li, Yizhou; Yang, Kunlun; Lou, Zimo; Baig, Shams Ali; Wu, Donglei; Xu, Xinhua

    2018-06-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) has high removal efficiency and strong reductive ability to organic and inorganic contaminants, but concerns over its stability and dispersity limit its application. In this study, nZVI was modified with sulfide to enhance Cd(II) removal from aqueous solutions. TEM and SEM analyses showed that sulfide-modified nZVI (S-nZVI) had a core-shell structure of nano-sized spherical particles, and BET results proved that sulfide modification doubled the specific surface area from 26.04 to 50.34 m2 g-1 and inhibited the aggregation of nZVI. Mechanism analysis indicated that Cd(II) was immobilized through complexation and precipitation. Cd(II) removal rate on nZVI was only 32% in 2 h, while complete immobilization could be achieved in 15 min on S-nZVI, and S-nZVI with an optimal S/Fe molar ratio of 0.3 offered a cadmium removal capacity of about 150 mg g-1 at pH 7 and 303 K. The process of Cd(II) immobilization on S-nZVI was fitted well with pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the increase of temperature favored Cd(II) immobilization, suggesting an endothermic process. The presence of Mg2+ and Ca2+ hindered Cd(II) removal while Cu2+ did the opposite, which led to the order as Cu2+ > control > Mg2+ > Ca2+. The removal rate of 20 mg L-1 Cd(II) maintained a high level with the fluctuation of environmental conditions such as pH, ion strength and presence of HA. This study demonstrated that S-nZVI could be a promising adsorbent for Cd(II) immobilization from cadmium-contaminated water.

  9. Effects of temperature, temperature gradients, stress, and irradiation on migration of brine inclusions in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.H.

    1979-07-01

    Available experimental and theoretical information on brine migration in bedded salt are reviewed and analyzed. The effects of temperature, thermal gradients, stress, irradiation, and pressure in a salt repository are among the factors considered. The theoretical and experimental (with KCl) results of Anthony and Cline were used to correlate and explain the available data for rates of brine migration at temperatures up to 250 0 C in naturally occurring crystals of bedded salt from Lyons and Hutchinson, Kansas. Considerations of the effects of stressing crystals of bedded salt on the migratin properties of brine inclusions within the crystals led to the conclusion that the most probable effects are a small fractional increase in the solubility of the salt within the liquid and a concomitant and equal fractional increase in the rate of the thermal gradient-induced migration of the brine. The greatest uncertainty relative to the prediction of rates of migration of brine into a waste emplacement cavity in bedded salt is associated with questions concerning the effects of the grain boundaries (within the aggregates of single crystals which comprise a bedded salt deposit) on brine migration through the deposit. The results of some of the estimates of rates and total amounts of brine inflow to HLW and SURF waste packages emplaced in bedded salt were included to illustrate the inflow volumes which might occur in a repository. The results of the brine inflow estimates for 10-year-old HLW emplaced at 150 kW/acre indicated inflow rates starting at 0.7 liter/year and totaling 12 liters at 30 years after emplacement. The results of the estimates for 10-year-old PWR SURF emplaced at 60 kW/acre indicated a constant inflow of 0.035 liter/year for the first 35 years after emplacement

  10. Determination of nickel in chloralkali electrolysis brines by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry on a membrane filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, L.L.; Minzl, E.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry after ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) preconcentration is proposed for the determination of nickel in chloralkali electrolysis brines. The optimum conditions for the precipitation target tube, peak intensity, background, analysing crystal, counters and exposure time were investigated. The method was applied to chloralkali brines of evaporite salts (halite, sylvinite, carnallite and tachhydrite), sodium, potassium and magnesium salts, explored in Sergipe (Brazil), by Petrobras-Mineracao S.A.(Author) [pt

  11. Performance evaluation of a once-through multi-stage flash distillation system: Impact of brine heater fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, Hasan; Antar, Mohamed A.; Zubair, Syed M.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) system modeling involves a number of process variables. An estimation of all these process variables requires both analytical solutions and experimental/field analysis. However, the accurate estimate of variables related to the brine heater operation in a MSF system is very important for a reliable operation of the system. For example, steam operating conditions as well as the brine properties including fouling of the brine heater tubes have a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics of the brine heater, which in turn influence the distillate output from the system. In this study, the effect of various design as well as operating conditions on the performance ratio (PR), brine temperature and salinity as it leaves the last flash stage are investigated in a once-through system. Increasing the number of stages from 24 to 32 has a significant effect on the PR, it ranges between 79% (for ΔT = 1.5) and 327% (for ΔT = 2.3) for a top-brine temperature of 106 o C. This value increase as the top-brine temperature increases. Increasing the stage-to-stage temperature difference increases the water salinity as it leaves the final stage and reduces its temperature that would imply better energy utilization within the plant. Results show that brine side heat exchanger fouling has a significant effect in decreasing the overall heat transfer coefficient, which reduces the production rate as the fouling increases with time. A sensitivity analysis to identify the key parameters, which can have a significant influence on the desalination plant performance, is carried out in an attempt to contribute a better understanding and operation of MSF desalination processes.

  12. Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO 4 values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a few reference brines

  13. West Hackberry Brine Disposal Project pre-discharge characterization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. A three month sampling effort, February through April 1981, and previous investigations from the study area are integrated to establish baseline information for evaluation of impacts from brine disposal in the nearshore marine waters and from freshwater withdrawal from the coastal marsh of the Chenier Plain. January data are included for some tasks that sampled while testing and mobilizing their instruments prior to the February field effort. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, estuarine hydrology and hydrography, water and sediment quality, benthos, nekton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

  14. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Joanita; Gan, Han Ming; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the 6 months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of 6 months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  15. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanita eSulaiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the six months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun (WGS method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of six months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  16. Recovery Act: Molecular Simulation of Dissolved Inorganic Carbons for Underground Brine CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, William

    2012-11-30

    To further our understanding and develop the method for measuring the DICs under geological sequestration conditions, we studied the infrared spectra of DICs under high pressure and temperature conditions. First principles simulations of DICs in brine conditions were performed using a highly optimized ReaxFF-DIC forcefield. The thermodynamics stability of each species were determined using the 2PT method, and shown to be consistent with the Reax simulations. More importantly, we have presented the IR spectra of DIC in real brine conditions as a function of temperature and pressure. At near earth conditions, we find a breaking of the O-C-O bending modes into asymmetric and symmetric modes, separated by 100cm{sup -1} at 400K and 5 GPa. These results can now be used to calibrate FTIR laser measurements.

  17. In-Situ X-ray Tomography Study of Cement Exposed to CO2 Saturated Brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavez Panduro, E. A.; Torsæter, M.; Gawel, K.

    2017-01-01

    For successful CO2 storage in underground reservoirs, the potential problem of CO2 leakage needs to be addressed. A profoundly improved understanding of the behavior of fractured cement under realistic subsurface conditions including elevated temperature, high pressure and the presence of CO2...... saturated brine is required. Here, we report in situ X-ray micro computed tomography (μ-CT) studies visualizing the microstructural changes upon exposure of cured Portland cement with an artificially engineered leakage path (cavity) to CO2 saturated brine at high pressure. Carbonation of the bulk cement......, self-healing of the leakage path in the cement specimen, and leaching of CaCO3 were thus directly observed. The precipitation of CaCO3, which is of key importance as a possible healing mechanism of fractured cement, was found to be enhanced in confined regions having limited access to CO2...

  18. The Synthesis of Calcium Salt from Brine Water by Partial Evaporation and Chemical Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalasari, L. H.; Widowati, M. K.; Natasha, N. C.; Sulistiyono, E.; Prasetyo, A. B.

    2017-02-01

    In this study would be investigated the effects of partial evaporation and chemical precipitation in the formation of calcium salt from brine water resources. The chemical reagents used in the study was oxalate acid (C2H2O4), ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) with reagent concentration of 2 N, respectively. The procedure was 10 liters brine water evaporated until 20% volume and continued with filtration process to separate brine water filtrate from residue (salt). Salt resulted from evaporation process was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. Filtrate then was reacted with C2H2O4, (NH4)2CO3 and NH4OH reagents to get salt products in atmospheric condition and variation ratio volume brine water/chemicals (v/v) [10/1; 10/5; 10/10; 10/20; 10/30; 10:50; 20/1; 20/5; 20/10; 20/20; 20/30; 20:50]. The salt product than were filtered, dried, measured weights and finally characterized by SEM/EDS and XRD techniques. The result of experiment showed the chemical composition of brine water from Tirta Sanita, Bogor was 28.87% Na, 9.17% Mg, 2.94% Ca, 22.33% O, 0.71% Sr, 30.02% Cl, 1.51% Si, 1.23% K, 0.55% S, 1.31% Al. The chemical composition of salt resulted by partial evaporation was 53.02% Ca, 28.93%O, 9.50% Na, 2.10% Mg, 1.53% Sr, 1.20% Cl, 1.10% Si, 0.63% K, 0.40% S, 0.39% Al. The salt resulted by total evaporation was indicated namely as NaCl. Whereas salt resulted by partial evaporation was CaCO3 with a purity of 90 % from High Score Plus analysis. In the experiment by chemical precipitation was reported that the reagents of ammonium carbonate were more reactive for synthesizing calcium salt from brine water compared to reagents of oxalate acid and ammonium hydroxide. The salts precipitated by NH4OH, (NH4)2CO3, and H2C2O4 reagents were indicated as NaCl, CaCO3 and CaC2O4.H2O, respectively. The techniques of partial evaporation until 20% volume sample of brine water and

  19. The application of bioflocs technology to protect brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crab, R; Lambert, A; Defoirdt, T; Bossier, P; Verstraete, W

    2010-11-01

    To study the potential biocontrol activity of bioflocs technology. Glycerol-grown bioflocs were investigated for their antimicrobial and antipathogenic properties against the opportunistic pathogen Vibrio harveyi. The bioflocs did not produce growth-inhibitory substances. However, bioflocs and biofloc supernatants decreased quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence of V. harveyi. This suggested that the bioflocs had biocontrol activity against this pathogen because quorum sensing regulates virulence of vibrios towards different hosts. Interestingly, the addition of live bioflocs significantly increased the survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae challenged to V. harveyi. Bioflocs grown on glycerol as carbon source inhibit quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence in V. harveyi and protect brine shrimp larvae from vibriosis. The results presented in this study indicate that in addition to water quality control and in situ feed production, bioflocs technology could help in controlling bacterial infections within the aquaculture pond. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Microbiology of the Red Sea (and other) deep-sea anoxic brine lakes

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Andre

    2011-05-30

    Summary: The Red Sea harbours approximately 25 deep-sea anoxic brine pools. They constitute extremely unique and complex habitats with the conjugation of several extreme physicochemical parameters rendering them some of the most inhospitable environments on Earth. After 50 years of research mostly driven by chemists, geophysicists and geologists, the microbiology of the brines has been receiving increased interest in the last decade. Recent molecular and cultivation-based studies have provided us with a first glimpse on the enormous biodiversity of the local microbial communities, the identification of several new taxonomic groups, and the isolation of novel extremophiles that thrive in these environments. This review presents a general overview of these unusual biotopes and compares them with other similar environments in the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on their microbial ecology. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Chemistry and geothermometry of brine produced from the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J.M.; Fournier, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The December 29-30, 1985, flow test of the State 2-14 well, also known as the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, produced fluid from a depth of 1865-1877 m at a reservoir temperature of 305????5??C. Samples were collected at five different flashing pressures. The brines are Na-Ca-K-Cl-type waters with very high metal and low SO4 and HCO3 contents. Compositions of the flashed brines were normalized relative to the 25??C densities of the solutions, and an ionic charge balance was achieved by adjusting the Na concentration. Calculated Na/K geothermometer temperatures, using equations suggested by different investigators, range from 326?? to 364??C. The Mg/K2 method gives a temperature of about 350??C, Mg/Li2 about 282??, and Na/Li 395??-418??C. -from Authors

  2. Separation of platinum metals by theirs extraction as sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilipenko, A.T.; Ryabushko, O.P.; Ty Van Mak

    1978-01-01

    Separation of platinum metals by means of their sediment in the form of sulfides with subsequent extraction is studied. The optimum conditions of metal sulfide extraction are determined, the metal output dependence from acidness and aqueous phase composition and also the organic solvent nature are investigated. Ruthenium concentration was determined photometrically. Ruthenium sulfide is extracted by butyl spirit from 1-4 normal hydrochloric acid. The maximum extraction grade of 63% is reached in 3.2-normal acid. When the mixture of acetic and hydrochloric acids (2:1) is used for decomposition of ruthenium tiosalts, the grade of ruthenium extraction by amyl spirit or the mixture of anyl and butyl spirits (1:1) constitutes 100%

  3. Metal sulfide electrodes and energy storage devices thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Woodford, William Henry; Li, Zheng; Carter, W. Craig

    2017-02-28

    The present invention generally relates to energy storage devices, and to metal sulfide energy storage devices in particular. Some aspects of the invention relate to energy storage devices comprising at least one flowable electrode, wherein the flowable electrode comprises an electroactive metal sulfide material suspended and/or dissolved in a carrier fluid. In some embodiments, the flowable electrode further comprises a plurality of electronically conductive particles suspended and/or dissolved in the carrier fluid, wherein the electronically conductive particles form a percolating conductive network. An energy storage device comprising a flowable electrode comprising a metal sulfide electroactive material and a percolating conductive network may advantageously exhibit, upon reversible cycling, higher energy densities and specific capacities than conventional energy storage devices.

  4. Preparation of transition metal sulfide nanoparticles via hydrothermal route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei-Ling, P.; Chin-Hua, C.; Sarani Zakaria; Tze-Khong, L.; Mohd Ambar Yarmo; Nay-Ming, H.

    2010-01-01

    Nano sized copper sulfide, iron sulfide and molybdenum sulfide were successfully synthesised via a simple hydrothermal method. Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (Na 2 S 2 O 3 ·5H 2 O) and hydroxylamine sulfate ((H 3 NO) 2 ·H 2 SO 4 ) were used as the starting materials and reacted with the transition metal source at 200 degree Celsius for 90 min. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Spherical shape CuS and FeS 2 nanoparticles with high crystallinity were successfully produced. The transmission electron micrographs revealed the well-dispersibility of the produced nanoparticles. Scanning electron micrograph showed the MoS 2 nanoparticles possessed a spherical shape with sheet-like structure covering on the outer surface of the particles. (author)

  5. Conspicuous veils formed by vibrioid bacteria on sulfidic marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thar, Roland Matthias; Kühl, Michael

    2002-01-01

    , but the bacteria have so far not been isolated in pure culture, and a detailed characterization of their metabolism is still lacking. The bacteria are colorless, gram-negative, and vibrioid-shaped (1.3- to 2.5- by 4- to 10-µm) cells that multiply by binary division and contain several spherical inclusions of poly......We describe the morphology and behavior of a hitherto unknown bacterial species that forms conspicuous veils (typical dimensions, 30 by 30 mm) on sulfidic marine sediment. The new bacteria were enriched on complex sulfidic medium within a benthic gradient chamber in oxygen-sulfide countergradients......, forming a cohesive whitish veil at the oxic-anoxic interface. Bacteria attached to the veil kept rotating and adapted their stalk lengths dynamically to changing oxygen concentrations. The joint action of rotating bacteria on the veil induced a homogeneous water flow from the oxic water region toward...

  6. Study of radiation synovectomy using 188Re-sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gang; Li Peiyong; Jiang Xufeng; Zhang Liying; Wang Xuefeng; Sun Zhenming; Zhang Huan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the radiation synovectomy with 188 Re-sulfide. Methods: Thirty cases were divided into 2 groups, the group with hemophilia and the group with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients with joint synovitis were injected different doses of 188 Re-sulfide, 222 - 444 MBq intra-articular. MRI was taken before and 3 - 6 months after the radiation synovectomy to evaluate the treatment efficacy, and the symptoms were also evaluated. Results: MRI study showed that after the treatment the synovium became thiner and the edema was reduced in the lesioned joint. The symptoms were improved with the pain relieved and duration of intra-articular hemorrhage reduced. Conclusions: Radiation synovectomy using 188 Re-sulfide has effects on synovitis. It can be used clinically to improve the symptoms of joint synovitis and reduce the duration of intra-articular hemorrhage

  7. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE AT CARBON NANOTUBE MODIFIED ELECTRODES. (R830900)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) modified glassy carbon electrodes exhibiting a strong and stable electrocatalytic response towards sulfide are described. A substantial (400 mV) decrease in the overvoltage of the sulfide oxidation reaction (compared to ordinary carbon electrodes) is...

  8. Liquid interfacial water and brines in the upper surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehlmann, Diedrich

    2013-04-01

    Liquid interfacial water and brines in the upper surface of Mars Diedrich T.F. Möhlmann DLR Institut für Planetenforschung, Rutherfordstr. 2, D - 12489 Berlin, Germany dirk.moehlmann@dlr.de Interfacial water films and numerous brines are known to remain liquid at temperatures far below 0° C. The physical processes behind are described in some detail. Deliquescence, i.e. the liquefaction of hygroscopic salts at the threshold of a specific "Deliquescence Relative Humidity", is shown to be that process, which on present Mars supports the formation of stable interfacial water and bulk liquids in form of temporary brines on and in a salty upper surface of present Mars in a diurnally temporary and repetitive process. Temperature and relative humidity are the governing conditions for deliquescence (and the counterpart "efflorescence") to evolve. The current thermo-dynamical conditions on Mars support these processes to evolve on present Mars. The deliquescence-driven presence of liquid brines in the soil of the upper surface of Mars can expected to be followed by physical and chemical processes like "surface cementation", down-slope flows, and physical and chemical weathering processes. A remarkable and possibly also biologically relevant evolution towards internally interfacial water bearing structures of dendritic capillaries is related to their freezing - thawing driven formation. The internal walls of these network-pores or -tubes can be covered by films of interfacial water, providing that way possibly habitable crack-systems in soil and rock. These evolutionary processes of networks, driven by their tip-growth, can expected to be ongoing also at present.

  9. Coupled modelling of convergence, steel corrosion, gas production and brine flow in a rock salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.; Hirsekorn, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    This poster presents the global simulation of the behaviour of thick-walled steel containers piled up in a borehole in a rock salt repository. The simulation takes into account: the convergence by the creeping of rock salt, the backfill and waste compaction, the porosity dependent flow resistance, the anaerobic corrosion (iron to magnetite transformation, gas production, brine consumption, water consumption and salt precipitation) and pressure development. Mechanical influence of corrosion has not yet been taken into account in the integrated code LOPOS

  10. Measured and calculated closures of open and brine filled shafts and deep vertical boreholes in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; DeVries, K.L.; Schiermeister, D.M.; DeYonge, W.F.; Jones, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Shaft closure measurements are presented which are based on a rather unusual emplacement of very early time closure points. These data are in good agreement with calculations based on the prediction technique developed for underground rooms in salt using a complete stratigraphy. However, a simplified calculational mesh also gives good agreement, which permits this mesh to be used for parametric studies of long term closures of open and brine filled shafts and boreholes

  11. Measured and calculated closures of open and brine filled shafts and deep vertical boreholes in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; DeVries, K.L.; Schiermeister, D.M.; DeYonge, W.F.; Jones, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Shaft closure measurements are presented which are based on a rather unusual emplacement of very early time closure points. These data are in good agreement with calculations based on the prediction techniques developed for underground rooms in salt using a complete stratigraphy. However, a simplified calculational mesh also gives good agreement, which permits this mesh to be used for parametric studies of long term closures of open and brine filled shafts and boreholes

  12. A method for the specific detection of resident bacteria in brine shrimp larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yufeng; Defoirdt, Tom; Rekecki, Anamaria; De Schryver, Peter; Van den Broeck, Wim; Dong, Shuanglin; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Boon, Nico; Bossier, Peter

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we describe an easy but efficient method to specifically target the intestinal resident microbiota in brine shrimp larvae during DGGE analysis, hereby excluding the interference of both transient (luminal) bacteria and body surface bacteria. This effective technique has several advantages over alternative methods, with respect of ease of use and rapidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermodynamic modeling of phases equilibrium in aqueous systems to recover potassium chloride from natural brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruberlan Gomes da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical fertilizers, such as potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate and other chemical products like sodium hydroxide and soda ash are produced from electrolyte solutions or brines with a high content of soluble salts. Some of these products are manufactured by fractional crystallization, when several salts are separated as solid phases with high purity (>90%. Due to the large global demand for potassium fertilizers, a good knowledge about the compositions of salts and brines is helpful to design an effective process. A thermodynamic model based on Pitzer and Harvie's model was used to predict the composition of crystallized salts after water removal by forced evaporation and cooling from multicomponent solutions or brines. Initially, the salts’ solubilities in binary systems (NaCl–H2O, KCl–H2O and MgCl2–H2O and ternary system (KCl–MgCl2–H2O were calculated at 20 °C and compared with literature data. Next, the model was compared to our experimental data on the quinary system NaCl–KCl–MgCl2–CaCl2–H2O system at 20 °C. The Pitzer and Harvie's model represented well both the binary and ternary systems. Besides, for the quinary system the fit was good for brine densities up to 1350 kg/m3. The models were used to estimate the chemical composition of the solutions and salts produced by fractional crystallization and in association with material balance to respond to issues related to the production rates in a solar pond containing several salts dissolved, for instance, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2.

  14. Investigation of an innovative technology for oil-field brine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskovic, D; Dalmacija, B; Hain, Z; Karlovic, E; Maric, S; Uzelac, N [Inst. of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, V. Vlahovica 2 (YU)

    1989-01-01

    Various aspects of an innovative technology for oil field brine treatment were investigated on a laboratory scale. The both free and dispersed oily matter were separated by gravitation and sedimentation. Apart from the physico-chemical oil removal process, special attention was paid to different variants of improved microbiological treatment: dilution with fresh water and application of powdered activated carbon (PAC). Advanced treatment was carried out on granular biological activated carbon (GBAC). A technological scheme for complete treatment was proposed. (author).

  15. Choice of optimal working fluid for binary power plants at extremely low temperature brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    The geothermal energy development problems based on using binary power plants utilizing lowpotential geothermal resources are considered. It is shown that one of the possible ways of increasing the efficiency of heat utilization of geothermal brine in a wide temperature range is the use of multistage power systems with series-connected binary power plants based on incremental primary energy conversion. Some practically significant results of design-analytical investigations of physicochemical properties of various organic substances and their influence on the main parameters of the flowsheet and the technical and operational characteristics of heat-mechanical and heat-exchange equipment for binary power plant operating on extremely-low temperature geothermal brine (70°C) are presented. The calculation results of geothermal brine specific flow rate, capacity (net), and other operation characteristics of binary power plants with the capacity of 2.5 MW at using various organic substances are a practical interest. It is shown that the working fluid selection significantly influences on the parameters of the flowsheet and the operational characteristics of the binary power plant, and the problem of selection of working fluid is in the search for compromise based on the priorities in the field of efficiency, safety, and ecology criteria of a binary power plant. It is proposed in the investigations on the working fluid selection of the binary plant to use the plotting method of multiaxis complex diagrams of relative parameters and characteristic of binary power plants. Some examples of plotting and analyzing these diagrams intended to choose the working fluid provided that the efficiency of geothermal brine is taken as main priority.

  16. Formation of magmatic brine lenses via focussed fluid-flow beneath volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Andrey; Blundy, Jon; Melnik, Oleg; Sparks, Steve

    2018-03-01

    Many active or dormant volcanoes show regions of high electrical conductivity at depths of a few kilometres beneath the edifice. We explore the possibility that these regions represent lenses of high-salinity brine separated from a single-phase magmatic fluid containing H2O and NaCl. Since chloride-bearing fluids are highly conductive and have an exceptional capacity to transport metals, these regions can be an indication of an active hydrothermal ore-formation beneath volcanoes. To investigate this possibility we have performed hydrodynamic simulations of magma degassing into permeable rock. In our models the magma source is located at 7 km depth and the fluid salinity approximates that expected for fluids released from typical arc magmas. Our model differs from previous models of a similar process because it is (a) axisymmetric and (b) includes a static high-permeability pathway that links the magma source to the surface. This pathway simulates the presence of a volcanic conduit and/or plexus of feeder dykes that are typical of most volcanic systems. The presence of the conduit leads to a number of important hydrodynamic consequences, not observed in previous models. Importantly, we show that an annular brine lens capped by crystallised halite is likely to form above an actively degassing sub-volcanic magma body and can persist for more than 250 kyr after degassing ceases. Parametric analysis shows that brine lenses are more prevalent when the fluid is released at temperatures above the wet granite solidus, when magmatic fluid salinity is high, and when the high-permeability pathway is narrow. The calculated depth, form and electrical conductivity of our modelled system shares many features with published magnetotelluric images of volcano subsurfaces. The formation and persistence of sub-volcanic brine lenses has implications for geothermal systems and hydrothermal ore formation, although these features are not explored in the presented model.

  17. Vegetation successfully prevents oxidization of sulfide minerals in mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-07-15

    The oxidization of metal sulfide in tailings causes acid mine drainage. However, it remains unclear whether vegetation prevents the oxidization of metal sulfides. The oxidization characteristics and microbial indices of the tailings in the presence of various plant species were investigated to explore the effects of vegetation on the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. The pH, reducing sulfur, free iron oxides (Fed), chemical oxygen consumption (COC) and biological oxygen consumption (BOC) were measured. Key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiobacillus spp., Leptospirillum spp. and Thiobacillus spp.) were quantified using real-time PCR. The results indicate that vegetation growing on tailings can effectively prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. A higher pH and reducing-sulfur content and lower Fed were observed in the 0-30 cm depth interval in the presence of vegetation compared to bare tailings (BT). The COC gradually decreased with depth in all of the soil profiles; specifically, the COC rapidly decreased in the 10-20 cm interval in the presence of vegetation but gradually decreased in the BT profiles. Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanoides (CZ) profiles contained the highest BOC in the 10-20 cm interval. The abundance of key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the vegetated tailings were significantly lower than in the BT; in particular, IC was associated with the lowest iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial abundance. In conclusion, vegetation successfully prevented the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the tailings, and Imperata cylindrica is the most effective in reducing the number of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and helped to prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the long term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In Situ Local Contact Angle Measurement in a CO2-Brine-Sand System Using Microfocused X-ray CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Pengfei; Liu, Yu; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Shuyang; Jiang, Lanlan; Chen, Junlin; Song, Yongchen

    2017-04-11

    The wettability of porous media is of major interest in a broad range of natural and engineering applications. The wettability of a fluid on a solid surface is usually evaluated by the contact angle between them. While in situ local contact angle measurements are complicated by the topology of porous media, which can make it difficult to use traditional methods, recent advances in microfocused X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) and image processing techniques have made it possible to measure contact angles on the scale of the pore sizes in such media. However, the effects of ionic strength, CO 2 phase, and flow pattern (drainage or imbibition) on pore-scale contact angle distribution are still not clear and have not been reported in detail in previous studies. In this study, we employed a micro-CT scanner for in situ investigation of local contact angles in a CO 2 -brine-sand system under various conditions. The effects of ionic strength, CO 2 phase, and flow pattern on the local contact-angle distribution were examined in detail. The results showed that the local contact angles vary over a wide range as a result of the interaction of surface contaminants, roughness, pore topology, and capillarity. The wettability of a porous surface could thus slowly weaken with increasing ionic strength, and the average contact angle could significantly increase when gaseous CO 2 (gCO 2 ) turns into supercritical CO 2 (scCO 2 ). Contact angle hysteresis also occurred between drainage and imbibition procedures, and the hysteresis was more significant under gCO 2 condition.

  19. Partition behavior of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in oil-brine mixtures during thermal processing for fish canning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Fiore, Francesca; Della Medaglia, Dorotea; Ambrosino, Maria Luisa; Medina, Isabel

    2002-05-08

    The chemical modifications and partitioning toward the brine phase (5% salt) of major phenol compounds of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) were studied in a model system formed by sealed cans filled with oil-brine mixtures (5:1, v/v) simulating canned-in-oil food systems. Filled cans were processed in an industrial plant using two sterilization conditions commonly used during fish canning. The partitioning of phenolic compounds toward brine induced by thermal processing was studied by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the phenol fraction extracted from oils and brine. Hydroxytyrosol (1), tyrosol (2), and the complex phenolic compounds containing 1 and 2 (i.e., the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon 3, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon 4, and the oleuropein aglycon 6) decreased in the oily phase after sterilization with a marked partitioning toward the brine phase. The increase of the total amount of 1 and 2 after processing, as well as the presence of elenolic acid 7 released in brine, revealed the hydrolysis of the ester bond of hydrolyzable phenolic compounds 3, 4, and 6 during thermal processing. Both phenomena (partitioning toward the water phase and hydrolysis) contribute to explain the loss of phenolic compounds exhibited by EVOO used as filling medium in canned foods, as well as the protection of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-EVOO fish products.

  20. Strontium isotope systematics of mixing groundwater and oil-field brine at Goose Lake in northeastern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Preston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater, surface water, and soil in the Goose Lake oil field in northeastern Montana have been affected by Cl−-rich oil-field brines during long-term petroleum production. Ongoing multidisciplinary geochemical and geophysical studies have identified the degree and local extent of interaction between brine and groundwater. Fourteen samples representing groundwater, surface water, and brine were collected for Sr isotope analyses to evaluate the usefulness of 87Sr/86Sr in detecting small amounts of brine. Differences in Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr are optimal at this site for the experiment. Strontium concentrations range from 0.13 to 36.9 mg/L, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.71097 to 0.70828. The local brine has 168 mg/L Sr and a 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.70802. Mixing relationships are evident in the data set and illustrate the sensitivity of Sr in detecting small amounts of brine in groundwater. The location of data points on a Sr isotope-concentration plot is readily explained by an evaporation-mixing model. The model is supported by the variation in concentrations of most of the other solutes.