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Sample records for sulfatos insolubles contribucion

  1. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insoluble vs. soluble fiber; Fiber - soluble vs. insoluble ... There are 2 different types of fiber -- soluble and insoluble. Both ... water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. ...

  2. Potencial zeta de sulfatos de de bario y de estroncio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Delgado M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Por medio de la electroforesis se determinó las movilidades electroforéticas y los potenciales zeta del sulfato de bario a 25,0 °C como función de la fuerza iónica de NaCI, así como del Sulfato de estroncio en función de la fuerza iónica del cloruro de sodio y del pH. Se encontró que el amento de la fuerza iónica de NaCI causa un cambio del Potencial Zeta negativo del sulfato de estroncio a positivo con valor cero a aprox. 0,06 de fuerza iónica. El P.Z. del sulfato de estroncio es positivo a pH inferiores a aprox. 2,5 y negativo a pH superiores. El sulfato de bario presenta P.Z. negativas a fuerza iónicas de NaCI inferiores a aprox. 0.06 y PZ positivos a fuerzas iónicas mayores

  3. Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and turns to gel during digestion. ... and nutrient absorption from the stomach and intestine. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oat bran, ...

  4. Contenido de sulfato de calcio en un yeso. Problema interactivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Para resolver el problema de determinación cuantitativa de sulfato de calcio en un yeso o perlita yesada, se generan los datos de pesada de muestra sólida y el valor de la absorbancia de la alícuota de muestra disuelta. Primero deberá comprobarse que la muestra pesada, al ser disuelta en un volumen dado de agua desionizada, permite la solubilización completa de la sal sulfato de calcio (comparación de los productos de las concentraciones iónicas con el valor del producto de solubilidad).Si es...

  5. Sulfato de glucosamina: eficacia todavía en debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sanfélix Genovés

    2014-09-01

    Conclusiones: El sulfato de glucosamina no demostró ser más efectivo que placebo ni en la mejora de los síntomas ni en el retraso de la alteración estructural en la artrosis de cadera durante 24 semanas.

  6. Contribucion al control de motores de reluctancia autoconmutados

    OpenAIRE

    Perat Benavides, José Ignacio

    2006-01-01

    En esta tesis se hacen contribuciones al control de los motores de reluctancia autoconmutados (switched reluctance motors) de potencias comprendidas entre 0.25 y 10 kW. En primer lugar, después de una breve introducción histórica, se ubica al motor de reluctancia autoconmutado en el contexto de los accionamientos eléctricos y se analiza su constitución, modelo y principio de funcionamiento. A continuación se hace una relación de sus ventajas e inconvenientes, de sus principales aplicaciones c...

  7. Sulfato de glucosamina: eficacia todavía en debate

    OpenAIRE

    José Sanfélix Genovés; Gabriel Sanfélix Gimeno

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el grado en que la prótesis de cadera se pone por razones apro-pEvaluar la eficacia estructural, sintomática y funcional, del sulfato de glucosamina en la artrosis de cadera durante dos años. Método: Ensayo clínico aleatorio triple ciego en Pacientes atendidos en Atención Primaria en Holanda que reunieran los criterios clínicos de artrosis de cadera del American College of Rheumatology. Se excluyeron los pacientes con grado 4 en la escala de Kellgren-Lawrence y los recept...

  8. Comportamiento de un cemento portland resistente a los sulfatos frente al agua desionizada y a disoluciones de sulfato de sodio y de sulfato de magnesio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bermejo-Muñoz, M. Francisca

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    [es] En este trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de un cemento portland industrial resistente a los sulfatos cuando los lechos granulados —fabricados con dicho cemento, una vez hidratado y conservado durante 7 y 28 días en una cámara húmeda a 21 ± 2 °C y con una humedad relativa superior al 90%— se someten a la acción del agua desionizada, de una disolución de sulfato de sodio y de otra disolución de sulfato de magnesio habiendo determinado: a. la evolución de los contenidos de los iones Ca (II y SO4 (II en los dos primeros casos, y además Mg (II, en el tercero, en las disoluciones que han atravesado los lechos de cemento, así como la del pH y de la conductividad, b. la variación del contenido de los iones mencionados en los compuestos correspondientes del cemento de los lechos, una vez sometidos a la acción de las disoluciones agresivas, así como las modificaciones estructurales experimentadas, y c. las características estructurales de la nueva fase sólida formada en las fracciones recogidas de la disolución de sulfato de magnesio, que han atravesado los lechos de cemento. En estos trabajos se ha puesto de manifiesto que la cantidad de Ca(OH2 disuelta (extraída tanto por el agua desionizada, como por la disolución de sulfato de sodio, disminuye exponencialmente a medida que aumenta el volumen de estas disoluciones, que han atravesado los lechos de cemento, alcanzando un valor asintótico; este fenómeno influye en el avance de las reacciones de hidratación y en la degradación de los compuestos del cemento. En el caso de la disolución de sulfato de magnesio, se produce un intercambio entre los iones Ca (II del Ca(OH2 del cemento hidratado y el Mg (II de la disolución, el cual precipita como brucita en el lecho —llegando a colmatarlo en determinados casos— y en las fracciones de la disolución que han atravesado los lechos. La disolución del Ca(OH2

  9. Capacidad de adsorción de sulfato de un suelo forestal mediterráneo.

    OpenAIRE

    Quilchano, Consuelo; Gallardo, Juan F.

    2001-01-01

    En el presente estudio se ha evaluado la capacidad de adsorción de sulfato en un suelo forestal con vegetación mediterránea. El objetivo del trabajo es conocer la capacidad de adsorción de sulfato en cada uno de los horizontes del suelo, ya que se trata de un proceso responsable de la retención de este nutriente esencial (S) en el ecosistema, impidiendo su pérdida por lavado. La lixiviación de sulfato, además de reducir la fertilidad del suelo y generar problemas de contaminación en los ecosi...

  10. catena-Poly[tetrasodium [[cis-dioxido-trans-bis(sulfato-κOmolybdate(VI]-μ-sulfato-κ2O:O′

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Cline Schäffer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title compound, {Na4[MoVIO2(SO43]}n, were grown from a melt of MoO3 and Na2SO4 in Na2S2O7. In contrast to the structure of the isoformular K compound, K4[MoVIO2(SO43], with its monomeric anion, this sodium analogue contains a polymeric anion of the type {[MoVIO2(SO42-μ-(SO4]4−}n. The MoVI cations, surrounded by two tightly bonded O atoms and four O atoms of one bridging and two terminal sulfato ligands, form zigzag chains parallel to [100]. All four Na+ cations are situated between the anionic chains and have distorted octahedral coordination spheres.

  11. catena-Poly[tetrasodium [[cis-dioxidotrans-bis(sulfato-kappaO)molybdate(VI)]-my-sulfato-kappaO:O'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäffer, Susan Jeanne Cline; Berg, Rolf W.

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of the title compound, {Na4[MoVIO2(SO4)3]}n, were grown from a melt of MoO3 and Na2SO4 in Na2S2O7. In contrast to the structure of the isoformular K compound, K4[MoVIO2(SO4)3], with its monomeric anion, this sodium analogue contains a polymeric anion of the type {[MoVIO2(SO4)2--(S......)]4}n. The MoVI cations, surrounded by two tightly bonded O atoms and four O atoms of one bridging and two terminal sulfato ligands, form zigzag chains parallel to [100]. All four Na+ cations are situated between the anionic chains and have distorted octahedral coordination spheres....

  12. Potassium bis(μ-sulfato-1κO:2κO')bis[cis-dioxido-cis-bis(sulfato-κO)tungstate(VI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäffer, Susan Jeanne Cline; Berg, Rolf W.

    2005-01-01

    The title compound, K8[{WO2(SO4)2}2(μ-SO4)2], precipitated from a melt of tungsten trioxide and potassium sulfate in potassium disulfate. The W(VI) coordination sphere in the independent K4[WO2(SO4)3] moiety is completed by inversion symmetry, resulting in a dimer with two bridging sulfato ligands...

  13. Contribuciones al conocimiento de la flora de Asturias, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aedo, C.

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available We are progressing in our prolonged floristic work -v. ARGÜELLES & al. (1984, AEDO & al. (1989, LAÍNZ (1982. etc.-, regarding in one way or another the Cantabrian zone in the most traditional and ample sense. as the political or administrative views would seem secondary in the case. Of course we are not going to evaluate here our present contributions, so many and diversified in fact. What matters most is to go on working systematically and to publish everything as it has been done so far. Hieracium saliencianum de Retz, sp. nov.

    Llevamos adelante nuestro prolongado trabajo florístico - v. ARGÜELLES & al. (1984, AEDO & al. (1989, LAÍNZ (1982, etc.-, referente de uno u otro modo a la zona cantábrica en el sentido amplio y tradicional, ya que las consideraciones político-administrativas podrían parecer muy secundarías en el asunto. No haremos aquí balance de nuestras presentes contribuciones, harto nutridas, bien que de naturaleza diversa, claro está. Lo que importa es continuarlas de manera sistemática, publicándolas con todos los oportunos detalles, como hemos venido siempre haciéndolo. Hieracium saliencianum de Retz, sp. nov.

  14. Experimentos de química recreativa con sulfato de cobre pentahidratado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Heredia-Avalos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se proponen varias experiencias sencillas usando sales de sulfato de cobre pentahidratado. Todas ellas pueden realizarse en casa con utensilios de cocina y usando sustancias baratas, la mayoría de las cuales pueden encontrarse en un supermercado. Las experiencias propuestas permiten estudiar el proceso de cristalización del sulfato de cobre pentahidratado, reacciones de oxidación-reducción, de formación de precipitados e, incluso, reacciones de formación de complejos. Estas experiencias pretenden despertar el interés de los alumnos por la química.

  15. Determination of insoluble avian eggshell matrix proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Sedláková, Pavla; Lacinová, Kateřina; Pataridis, Statis; Eckhardt, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 397, č. 1 (2010), s. 205-214 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/0675; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : eggshell proteins * insoluble proteins * matrix proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.841, year: 2010

  16. Espectroscopía IR de sulfatos en clínkeres y cementos

    OpenAIRE

    de la Cruz, I.; Vázquez, T.; Fernández Peña, O.

    1986-01-01

    La espectroscopía infrarroja es una técnica de gran utilidad en la Química del Cemento. En el presente trabajo se aplica al estudio de numerosos sulfatos que pueden tener incidencia en el fenómeno de falso fraguado, y se estudian cualitativa y semicuantitativamente cuando forman parte del clinker o cemento portland.

  17. Challenges in measuring insoluble dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, D R

    2003-12-01

    Objectives of this review are to define criteria for evaluating insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) methods, discuss their relevance in meeting the nutritional needs of ruminants and herbivores, describe problems with empirical IDF methods, and assess their relative merits. The challenge for the researcher, nutritionist, and analyst is to select fiber methods that are relevant and reproducible. Without relevance, there is no reason to measure IDF, and without reproducibility, there is no value in doing so. Insoluble dietary fiber is a complex matrix of chemical components, and there are no primary standards that can be used to establish the validity of methods. Thus, the definition of fiber is crucial in determining method relevance. For ruminants and nonruminant herbivores, the appropriate physiological definition for selecting IDF methods may be as follows: the organic fraction of the diet that is indigestible or slowly digesting and occupies space in the gastrointestinal tract. Crude fiber does not match this definition, and its use should be abandoned. Acid detergent fiber does not measure all IDF but is useful when included with other dietary fiber methods to describe some feeds. Several current methods, including amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) and enzymatic-gravimetric methods, are relevant for measuring IDF. In a collaborative study, aNDF obtained a standard deviation of reproducibility (SD(R)) of 1.3%. Enzymatic-gravimetric methods of measuring IDF have been evaluated using too few feed materials to make statistically valid conclusions, but the SD(R)f IDF, for the few feeds evaluated, were similar to aNDF (0.9 to 2.4%). The enzymatic-chemical method of measuring IDF as the sum of insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides and lignin agrees with NDF, but the SDR of neutral sugar analysis using acid hydrolysis and chromatography is greater (3.2%) than other dietary fiber methods. Empirical methods--such as those used to measure IDF, although based on

  18. Diffusion of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Vykhodets, V B; Koester, U; Kondrat'ev, V V; Kesarev, A G; Hulsen, C; Kurennykh, T E

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides has been obtained for the temperature range of 900-1000A degrees C. There are no published data on the diffusion of insoluble impurities; these data are of current interest for the diffusion theory and nuclear technologies. Tracer atoms 13C have been introduced into oxides by means of ion implantation and the kinetics of their emission from the samples in the process of annealing in air has been analyzed. The measurements have been performed using the methods of nuclear microanalysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The diffusion activation energy is 2.7 eV and the carbon diffusion coefficient is about six orders of magnitude smaller than that for oxygen self-diffusion in the same systems. This result indicates the strong anomaly of the diffusion properties of carbon in oxides. As a result, zirconium oxides cannot be used in some nuclear technologies, in particular, as a material of sources for accelerators of short-lived carbon isotopes.

  19. Efeitos do sulfato de bário na cavidade pleural de ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Marsico, Giovanni Antonio; Haddad, Rui; Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo de Souza; Assis, Patrícia Gioia de; Martinelli Júnior, Ivam; Martins, Maria Das Graças

    2001-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do sulfato de bário na cavidade pleural de ratos. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados, experimentalmente, os efeitos do sulfato de bário a 100% na cavidade pleural de 43 ratos. Sob anestesia inalatória com éter, foi realizada injeção de contraste radiológico (1ml) na cavidade pleural direita após punção com agulha romba pela via subxifóide. Os ratos, divididos em três grupos, foram mortos em câmara fechada com éter, após 24h (13 ratos), 48h (16 ratos) e 21 dias (14 ratos), re...

  20. Lymph transport of soluble and insoluble plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schallberger, J.A.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Lebel, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The uptake and transport mechanisms of soluble [Pu(NO 3 ) 4 ] and insoluble (polydispersed PuO 2 ) plutonium were studied in afferent and efferent lymph from the popliteal lymph nodes of dogs after simulated-wound exposures. Lymph was partitioned into acellular and cellular fractions. Plutonium nitrate concentration was higher in the acellular fraction of both afferent lymph and efferent lymph than in the cellular fraction, whereas the polydispersed PuO 2 concentration was higher in the cellular fraction at the end of the collection period. Discontinuous-gel, isoelectric-focusing-gel, and cellulose acetate strip electrophoresis indicated that transferrin and albumin were the two principal proteins transporting plutonium in the acellular fraction of both afferent and efferent lymph

  1. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which is...

  2. Contribuciones Tomistas. Al estudio de las emociones y algunos de sus corolarios éticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamartine de Hollanda Cavalcanti Neto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio ofrece, desde una perspectiva teórica, una breve visión de conjunto de la concepción tomista sobre las emociones, su encaje en el ciclo de la vida consciente, su génesis, su clasificación, su encadenamiento y su dinamismo. Desarrolla consideraciones sobre las contribuciones que este referencial teórico puede aportar al estudio de las emociones y deduce algunos de sus principales corolarios éticos.

  3. Uso de bacterias sulfato-reductoras inmovilizadas para la precipitación de metales pesados

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, Mariana Soledad

    2006-01-01

    Los objetivos de la tesis son: utilizar bacterias sulfato-reductoras para la precipitación de metales pesados; caracterizar el crecimiento de bacterias del género Desulfovibrio en distintas condiciones de cultivo; caracterizar la precipitación de iones metálicos por bacterias del género Desulfovibrio en cultivos batch; caracterizar el crecimiento de bacterias del género Desulfovibrio inmovilizadas sobre diferentes soportes inerte; caracterizar la precipitación de iones metálicos con bacterias...

  4. Efeitos neurotóxicos de sulfato de magnésio intratecal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Ozdogan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os potenciais efeitos neurotóxicos em nível ultraestrutural desulfato de magnésio administrado por via intratecal em dose única ou múltipla. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado com 24 ratos Sprague-Dawley, peso médio entre 250 e 300 g. Apósjejum de 4 horas, os ratos receberam 10 mg.kg-1 de cloreto de xilazina por via intraperitoneale, em seguida, foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos. Grupo I (n = 8 recebeu 0,9% desoro fisiológico normal, Grupo II (n = 8 recebeu uma injeção de 0,02 mL de sulfato de magnésioa 15% por via intratecal e Grupo III (n = 8 recebeu 0,02 mL de sulfato de magnésio a 15% umavez por dia durante sete dias. As injeções foram aplicadas dentro de 0,40x50 milímetros daárea lombar. Após sete dias, os animais foram sacrificados sob anestesia com uma injeção deformaldeído a 10% na aorta e os tecidos foram fixados. A medula espinal foi, então, examinadae histopatologicamente avaliada sob microscópio eletrônico. O teste de Kruskal-Wallis foi usadopara avaliação estatística. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. RESULTADOS: Neurodegeneração significativa foi detectada nos ratos que receberam uma únicainjeção ou injeções repetidas de sulfato de magnésio, em comparação com o grupo controle. O escore na avaliação histopatológica desse grupo também foi alto. CONCLUSÃO: Com base no exame de microscopia eletrônica, descobrimos que a administraçãointratecal de sulfato de magnésio induziu neurodegeneração.

  5. Soluble or insoluble prussian blue for radiocesium and thallium poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F; Callen, Erin D

    2004-09-01

    To review the available English-language literature concerning the efficacy of soluble and insoluble Prussian blue used as a therapeutic agent in radiocesium and thallium poisoning. A thorough search of MEDLINE, Toxline, and EMBASE databases (1960s-August 2003) was performed. Search terms included Prussian blue, thallium, and radiocesium poisoning. Bibliographies of relevant papers were reviewed for additional citations. study selection AND DATA EXTRACTION: Reports and studies of human trials and cases, along with animal and relevant in vitro data, were sought. Data were categorized as insoluble and soluble Prussian blue and by thallium and radiocesium poisoning. The majority of evidence describing the efficacy of Prussian blue for radiocesium poisoning is based on the use of the insoluble form. In contrast, the majority of data supporting the efficacy of Prussian blue in thallium poisoning involves the use of the soluble form. Insoluble Prussian blue has recently been approved in the US for treatment of both thallium and radiocesium poisoning. While there is sufficient evidence that the insoluble form of Prussian blue is effective in radiocesium poisoning, there is a paucity of analogous data supporting its use in thallium poisoning. Whether the physicochemical differences between soluble and insoluble Prussian blue have any effect on outcomes in human poisoning is not known.

  6. Manufacturing method of nuclear fuel grains using insoluble tannin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Wataru; Hasegawa, Shin-ichi.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fuel materials such as uranium and thorium are brought into contact with insoluble tannin to adsorb the nuclear fuel materials to the insoluble tannin. If it is calcined, the insoluble tannin is eliminated by burning and only nuclear fuel materials are remained. In this case, the grain size of the insoluble tannin is determined to from 0.01 to 5mm, and the aqueous solution contains from 1 to 10% by weight of nuclear fuel materials. The insoluble tannin after adsorbing the nuclear fuel materials is dehydrated by compression, and then dried at a temperature of from a room temperature to 400degC, and the dried insoluble tannin is calcined in an oxidative atmosphere or an non-oxidative atmosphere of argon and nitrogen at a temperature of from 400 to 2,000degC. Since the grain size of the tannin is from 0.01 to 5mm, the nuclear fuels after the calcination are formed into grains with no worry of scattering of fine powders during manufacturing of pellets or packed-type nuclear fuels. In addition, since tannin is dried and calcined after dehydration by compression, the consumption of energy required for the manufacture can be reduced. (T.M.)

  7. Consideraciones sobre afectividad en las relaciones de enseñanza: las contribuciones de Vigotski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato de Oliveira Falabelo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tiene como objetivo presentar conclusiones de un estudio sobre la cuestión afectiva en una perspectiva inter-relacional con la cognición, como una misma unidad, que es la vida psíquica humana, lo que significa concebir que el afecto está presente y es constitutivo de toda y cualquier acción humana. Tiene como base teórica los estudios realizados por L. S. Vigotski. Echamos mano, aún, de las contribuciones de algunos de sus comentadores o interpretadores que tratan específicamente de este tema. El texto hace parte de los fundamentos teóricos de la Tesis de Doctorado sobre esta problemática, en contexto empírico, de clase, en un aula de educación de jóvenes y adultos.

  8. Sulfato de calcio: propiedades y aplicaciones clínicas Calcium sulfate: properties and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J López

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante más de cien años el sulfato de calcio se ha distinguido de otros biomateriales, por ser uno de los materiales aloplásticos más simples y que presenta la más larga historia clínica como material sintético. Entre sus principales propiedades destacan que es de fácil obtención, capacidad de osteoconducción, es totalmente absorbible, no provoca reacciones de inflamación o antigénicas, fácil modelado y fuerza de compresión semejante al tejido óseo. Todas éstas características son necesarias para ser usado como sustituto óseo. Sin embargo, diferencias en la morfología y estructura de sus cristales, la porosidad, propiedades mecánicas y en la constitución química del sulfato de calcio puede alterar significativamente sus propiedades biológicas. El objetivo de la presente revisión es conocer las propiedades del sulfato de calcio y sus diferentes aplicaciones clínicas como sustituto óseo en procedimientos regenerativos.For over 100 years, the calcium sulfate has stood out from other biomaterials, for being one of the simplest alloplastic materials and having the longest history as synthetic material. It is readily available, has osteoconductive properties, is completely absorbed, does not cause inflammation or antigenic reactions, can be modeled to defect, has compressive strength similar to bone tissue and can be used as a vehicle for in situ release of chemotherapeutic agents. All these features are required to be used as a bone substitute. However, differences in morphology, crystal structure, porosity, mechanical properties and chemical constitution of calcium sulfate can significantly alter its biological properties. The aim of this study was to determine through a review of the literature, the properties of calcium sulfate and its various clinical applications as bone substitute in regenerative procedures.

  9. Sulfatos en el cemento portland y su incidencia sobre el falso fraguado: Estado actual del conocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Cruz, Ignacio

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available A bibliographical study is carried out of the sulphates which may be present in the clinker and Portland cement, as likewise the effects of the aeration and temperature on the setting. This work is a prior phase of a wide experimental investigation carried out in the IETCC, on anomalies or setting and phenomena of "lumping" in Portland cement.

    Se realiza un estudio bibliográfico de los sulfatos que pueden estar presentes en el clínker y cemento portland, así como de los efectos de la aireación y temperatura sobre el fraguado. Este trabajo es la fase previa de una amplia investigación experimental realizada en el IETCC, sobre anomalías de fraguado y fenómenos de "aterronamiento" en el cemento portland.

  10. RELACIÓN ENTRE LA VÍA DE ADMINISTRACIÓN DEL SULFATO FERROSO Y LA EXPERIENCIA DE CARIES DENTAL EN NIÑOS DE 1 A 3 AÑOS. PUESTO DE SALUD SAN JOSÉ – CAYMA. AREQUIPA, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    ABARCA BENAVENTE, VICTORIA

    2016-01-01

    SULFATO FERROSO FARMACOCINÉTICA DEL HIERRO SUPLEMENTACIÓN PREVENTIVA CON HIERRO ADMINISTRACIÓN DE SULFATO FERROSO VÍA ORAL ADMINISTRACIÓN DE SULFATO FERROSO VÍA PLACENTARIA EFECTOS ADVERSOS DEL SULFATO FERROSO EFECTOS DEL SULFATO FERROSO SOBRE LAS PIEZAS DENTALES CARIES DENTAL COMPONENTES DE LA CARIES DENTAL FACTORES PREDISPONENTES DE LA CARIES DENTAL EVALUACIÓN DE RIESGO DE CARIES DENTAL ÍNDICE DE CARIES DENTAL ALTERACIONES DE LA ESTRUCTURA DEL DIENTE

  11. Estudo de equilíbrio de fases para sistemas aquosos bifásicos compostos por poli (etileno glicol) 6000, sulfato de cobre ou sulfato de zinco e água, em função da temperatura

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Marcelo Mendes de

    2007-01-01

    Neste trabalho foram determinados diagramas de equilíbrio para sistemas aquosos bifásicos compostos por poli (etileno glicol) (PEG) 6000 g.mol-1, sulfato de cobre ou sulfato de zinco e água, nas temperaturas de (5, 10, 35 e 45) ºC. Cada diagrama foi composto por cinco linhas de amarração. Na quantificação dos componentes das fases, os teores de sal e água foram obtidos, respectivamente, por medidas de absorção atômica e liofilização. O conteúdo de PEG foi calculado por diferença. Os efeitos d...

  12. Selection and production of insoluble xylan hydrolyzing enzyme by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-two strains of Thermomyces lanuginosus isolated from various sources in Thailand were divide into 4 groups based on the soluble xylan hydrolyzing (SXH) and insoluble xylan hydrolyzing (IXH) enzyme activities in the supernatant obtained from 5-day culture at 50°C in the liquid medium using corncob as substrate.

  13. Polymeric Nanosuspensions for Enhanced Dissolution of Water Insoluble Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Yadollahi, Roya; Vasilev, Krasimir; Prestidge, Clive A.; Simovic, Spomenka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to formulate and evaluate polymeric nanosuspensions containing three model water insoluble drugs, nifedipine (NIF), carbamazepine (CBZ), and ibuprofen (IBU) with various physicochemical properties. The nanosuspensions were prepared from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by a cosolvent technique with polyethylene glycol (PEG-300) and water as the cosolvents. Physicochemical and morphological characteristics of the nanosuspens...

  14. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Noah Daniel; Börjesson, Johan; Pedersen, Lars Saaby

    2013-01-01

    To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzym...

  15. Investigation of insoluble endogenous fractions of gastrointestinal tract by SRXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunova, V. A.; Zvereva, V. V.

    2005-05-01

    For the determination of the elemental composition of insoluble endogenous fractions from gastrointestinal tract by SRXRF (XRF experimental beam line, VEPP-3, INP SU RAS, Novosibirsk), an analytical method was developed for producing epithelial tissue in vivo. The metrological characteristics were determined using a number of international biological standards.

  16. Influencia que el tipo de conglomerante ejerce en la durabilidad de los hormigones trente a los sulfatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Paredes Gaibrois, Pablo G.

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available Not availableDentro de un amplio programa de investigación acerca de la durabilidad que poseen morteros y hormigones, el estudio de la resistencia que frente a los sulfatos confieren los conglomerantes más diversos a las obras realizadas con ellos ha ocupado un lugar muy destacado en los trabajos del Instituto Eduardo Torroja de la Construcción y del Cemento.

  17. MODIFICACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE UNA VERMICULITA COLOMBIANA CON ESPECIES DE TITANIO, ZIRCONIO Y SULFATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willinton Hernández

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa sobre  los resultados de la caracterización química, estructural y textural de una vermiculita de origen colombiano modificada con especies simples de Zr y Ti, y el sistema mixto Ti-Zr en relaciones atómicas nominales Zr/(Ti + Zr = 0,1 y 0,5.  Adicionalmente, se evaluó la incidencia de la presencia de sulfato sobre los sistemas mencionados bajo las relaciones nominales sulfato/metal 0, 0,25 y 0,35, incorporando el sulfato ya sea en la solución intercalante, o por impregnación vía húmeda sobre los sólidos modificados y calcinados.  Los resultados indican que cuando la sulfatación se lleva a cabo por intercalación, la naturaleza química de la solución intercalante afecta notoriamente la cantidad de metal incorporado, dependiendo de la relación sulfato/metal empleada.  De otro lado se estableció que, cuando se lleva a cabo la sulfatación por impregnación, las propiedades texturales, estructurales y morfológicas de los sólidos obtenidos se ven fuertemente afectadas y estan acompañadas de una fijación de azufre significativamente mayor que para los sólidos sulfatados por intercalación.

  18. Soybean lecithin: acetone insoluble residue fractionation and their volatile components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly, Saadia M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The acetone insoluble residue was isolated from soybean lecithin. This residue was solvent fractionated resulted in four fractions, namely, acetic acid soluble, acetic acid insoluble, benzene phase and benzene insoluble phase. Concerning phospholipid constitution of these four fractions, it was found that the first fraction contains PC, PE and PI in percentages of 56.0, 21.6 and 19.0 respectively. The 2nd fraction makes 39 % PC and 60 % CER, besides some traces of PE and PI. The benzene phase is mainly all PC with some traces of PE. The last fraction is 80.6 % CER and 20 % PC. The fatty acid composition of these four fractions besides soluble in acetone, crude and degummed soybean oil and total phospholipids was recorded. Generally, it was found that the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic. Volatile components of these samples except acetic acid insoluble were reported. Fourty nine compounds were separated. Thirty two components including aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and acids were identified. Aldehydes and ketones showed a changed through the seven samples. They increased by degumming.4,5-Dimethylelisoxazole had a strong lecithin like flavour, so it can be used as an indicator for the degumming process.2-Pentylfuran showed a significant decrease by degumming. Other compounds, such as esters and alcohols had no distinguish effect on the volatile products through process.El residuo insoluble en acetona fue aislado de la lecitina de soja. Este residuo fue fraccionado por solventes en cuatro fracciones: soluble en ácido acético, insoluble en ácido acético, fase benceno y fase insoluble en benceno. Concerniente a la constitución de los fosfolípidos de estas cuatro fracciones, se encontró que la primera fracción contiene PC, PE y PI en porcentajes del 56.0, 21.6 y 19.0 respectivamente. La segunda fracción tuvo 39 % PC y 60 % CER, junto a algunas trazas de PE y PI. La fase benceno est

  19. Devitrification of defense nuclear waste glasses: role of melt insolubles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curves have been determined for simulated nuclear waste glasses bounding the compositional range in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Formulations include all of the minor chemical elements such as ruthenium and chromium which have limited solubility in borosilicate glasses. Heterogeneous nucleation of spinel on ruthenium dioxide, and subsequent nucleation of acmite on spinel is the major devitrification path. Heterogeneous nucleation on melt insolubles causes more rapid growth of crystalline devitrification phases, than in glass free of melt insolubles. These studies point out the importance of simulating waste glass composition and processing as accurately as possible to obtain reliable estimates of glass performance. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  20. Selection and production of insoluble xylan hydrolyzing enzyme by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-03-07

    Mar 7, 2011 ... The effect of pH and temperature on the enzyme activity and stability of crude enzyme produced by T. lanuginosus THKU 56 were investigated. To study the effect of pH on activity, the reaction mixture of 0.5 ml of enzyme and 0.5 ml of 1% insoluble oat spelt xylan in 50 mM buffers with various pH values ...

  1. Symbiotic responses to insoluble phosphorus supply in common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the effect of insoluble phosphorus (IP) in hydroponic culture, two common bean varieties, that is, WAFA and REBIA were inoculated separately with three rhizobia strains (P.Tb.09, CIAT899 and P.OM.09) and were grown under mineral P (250 ìmol P (KH2PO4)) versus IP (250 ìmol P (Ca2HPO4)). Results ...

  2. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It is necessary to develop efficient methods to produce renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. One of the main challenges to the industrialization of lignocellulose conversion processes is the large amount of cellulase enzymes used for the hydrolysis of cellulose. One method for decreasing the amount of enzyme used is to recycle the enzymes. In this study, the recycle of enzymes associated with the insoluble solid fraction after the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated for pretreated corn stover under a variety of recycling conditions. Results It was found that a significant amount of cellulase activity could be recovered by recycling the insoluble biomass fraction, and the enzyme dosage could be decreased by 30% to achieve the same glucose yields under the most favorable conditions. Enzyme productivity (g glucose produced/g enzyme applied) increased between 30 and 50% by the recycling, depending on the reaction conditions. While increasing the amount of solids recycled increased process performance, the methods applicability was limited by its positive correlation with increasing total solids concentrations, reaction volumes, and lignin content of the insoluble residue. However, increasing amounts of lignin rich residue during the recycle did not negatively impact glucose yields. Conclusions To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme usage, and research should be continued for its industrial application. PMID:23336604

  3. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Noah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is necessary to develop efficient methods to produce renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. One of the main challenges to the industrialization of lignocellulose conversion processes is the large amount of cellulase enzymes used for the hydrolysis of cellulose. One method for decreasing the amount of enzyme used is to recycle the enzymes. In this study, the recycle of enzymes associated with the insoluble solid fraction after the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated for pretreated corn stover under a variety of recycling conditions. Results It was found that a significant amount of cellulase activity could be recovered by recycling the insoluble biomass fraction, and the enzyme dosage could be decreased by 30% to achieve the same glucose yields under the most favorable conditions. Enzyme productivity (g glucose produced/g enzyme applied increased between 30 and 50% by the recycling, depending on the reaction conditions. While increasing the amount of solids recycled increased process performance, the methods applicability was limited by its positive correlation with increasing total solids concentrations, reaction volumes, and lignin content of the insoluble residue. However, increasing amounts of lignin rich residue during the recycle did not negatively impact glucose yields. Conclusions To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme usage, and research should be continued for its industrial application.

  4. Consecuencias genéticas de igualar las contribuciones familiares en programas de conservación

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Molano, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    En poblaciones en riesgo de extinción, puede ser necesario establecer un programa de conservación ex situ que, desde el punto de vista genético, permita controlar su estructura reproductiva para minimizar los efectos de la consanguinidad y la deriva. En tales programas, a menudo se recomienda igualar las contribuciones familiares al grupo reproductor (estrategia CI) para maximizar el censo efectivo. Este procedimiento causa una relajación parcial de la selección natural, impidiendo su acción ...

  5. Comunidad virtual de discurso profasional geométrico: contribuciones de un proceso interactivo docente por internet

    OpenAIRE

    Bairral, Marcelo

    2002-01-01

    La naturaleza del pensamiento de los profesores es una área de considerable interés y la atención hacia la relevancia de la geometría como un importante componente formativo es un hecho en los planteamientos interesados en la formación inicial y continuada del profesorado. En el ámbito de la investigación cualitativa, presentaremos las contribuciones de un entorno virtual para el desarrollo crítico del contenido del conocimiento profesional del profesor de matemática. Específicamente, analiza...

  6. Physiological function of insoluble dietary fiber prepared from exploded oak wood (Quercus mongolica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Suk; Kim, Chang-Joon; Shin, Yong-Seung; Han, Dae-Yong; Han, Sang-Woo; Lim, Bu-Kug; Lee, Jong-Yoon; Rhee, Soon-Jae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Gon-Sup

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the production of insoluble dietary fiber using exploded and chemically treated oak wood (Quercus mongolica) and the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber in laboratory animals. To produce high quality insoluble dietary fiber, the steam explosion treatment was performed at 25 kgf/cm2 pressure for 6 minutes. In the chemical analysis of insoluble dietary fiber, exploded oak wood was pretreated by 1% sodium hydroxide solution. The insoluble dietary fiber contained 7.6% residual lignin and 61.7% of alpha-cellulose. In order to compare the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber with those of commercial insoluble dietary fiber, Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100 +/- 10 g were randomly assigned to one normal diet and five high cholesterol diets, containing 1% cholesterol. The high cholesterol diet groups were classified as the fiber-free diet (FF group), 5% commercial alpha-cellulose diet group (5C group), 10% commercial alpha-cellulose group (10C group), 5% insoluble dietary fiber group (5M group) and 10% insoluble dietary fiber group (10M group). Food intake, weight gain and food efficiency ratio in high cholesterol groups were significantly higher than those of the normal group, but there were no significant differences among the high cholesterol diet groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the weights of liver, kidney and small intestine in insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. Cecum weights in all insoluble dietary fiber groups were significantly higher than those of the FF group. There were no significant differences in the activities of the glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) among the insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. In conclusion, the prepared insoluble dietary fiber and the commercially available insoluble fiber showed the same physiological effects. Moreover, the preparation method for the insoluble dietary

  7. Tratamento da Eclâmpsia: Estudo Comparativo entre o Sulfato de Magnésio e a Fenitoína

    OpenAIRE

    Valadares Neto,João de Deus; Bertini,Anna Maria; Taborda,Wladimir Corrêa; Parente,Joaquim Vaz

    2000-01-01

    Objetivos: comparar a eficácia do sulfato de magnésio e da fenitoína no controle das convulsões em pacientes com eclâmpsia e avaliar os efeitos de sulfato de magnésio e da fenitoína sobre o prognóstico materno e perinatal em pacientes com eclâmpsia. Métodos: estudo prospectivo, randômico e controlado no qual foram analisados, de forma comparativa, os resultados obtidos no tratamento anticonvulsivante da eclâmpsia em 77 mulheres tratadas com sulfato de magnésio ou fenitoína. As drogas que cons...

  8. Development of Stable Solidification Method for Insoluble Ferrocyanides-13170

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikarashi, Yuki; Masud, Rana Syed; Mimura, Hitoshi [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba6-6-01-2, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Ishizaki, Eiji; Matsukura, Minoru [UNION SHOWA K.K. 17-20, Mita 2-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0073 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The development of stable solidification method of insoluble ferrocyanides sludge is an important subject for the safety decontamination in Fukushima NPP-1. By using the excellent immobilizing properties of zeolites such as gas trapping ability and self-sintering properties, the stable solidification of insoluble ferrocyanides was accomplished. The immobilization ratio of Cs for K{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O saturated with Cs{sup +} ions (Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O) was estimated to be less than 0.1% above 1,000 deg. C; the adsorbed Cs{sup +} ions are completely volatilized. In contrast, the novel stable solid form was produced by the press-sintering of the mixture of Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O and zeolites at higher temperature of 1,000 deg. C and 1,100 deg. C; Cs volatilization and cyanide release were completely depressed. The immobilization ratio of Cs, under the mixing conditions of Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O:CP= 1:1 and calcining temperature: 1,000 deg. C, was estimated to be nearly 100%. As for the kinds of zeolites, natural mordenite (NM), clinoptilolite (CP) and Chabazite tended to have higher immobilization ratio compared to zeolite A. This may be due to the difference in the phase transformation between natural zeolites and synthetic zeolite A. In the case of the composites (K{sub 2-X}Ni{sub X/2}[NiFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O loaded natural mordenite), relatively high immobilization ratio of Cs was also obtained. This method using zeolite matrices can be applied to the stable solidification of the solid wastes of insoluble ferrocyanides sludge. (authors)

  9. TRABAJO DOCENTE, ESCOLARIZACIÓN Y DESIGUALDADES SOCIALES: CONTRIBUCIONES Y DEBATES EN LA INVESTIGACIÓN EDUCATIVA EN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vassiliades

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo se propone realizar un análisis crítico y sistemático de la producción científica acerca de los vínculos entre trabajo docente, escolarización y desigualdades sociales en el período 1985-2015 en Argentina, con el objeto de examinar los principales debates conceptuales y teórico-metodológicos, como así también sus contribuciones para las discusiones actuales en el campo de la educación. Para ello, este trabajo reconstruye tres núcleos de debate: las contribuciones de la reformulación de los abordajes estructurales y del redireccionamiento de la mirada hacia los sujetos y las instituciones escolares; las discusiones surgidas de la incorporación de preocupaciones centradas en la heterogeneidad y el dinamismo de las identidades sociales; y los debates respecto del lugar de los contextos de pobreza en las instancias de formación y trabajo docente, ligados nuevas aproximaciones a los vínculos entre docencia, escolarización y desigualdad.

  10. Corrosão do aço carbono em meio sulfato na presença da bactéria Salmonella anatum

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva,R.C.B.; Pontes Filho,T.R.

    2008-01-01

    A presença de microorganismos em meios aquosos pode alterar significativamente a interface metal/meio, ou reagir diretamente com a superfície do metal. Assim, colaborando para a deterioração química do material metálico. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a corrosão do aço em meio sulfato na presença da bactéria Salmonella anatum. Para tal feito, foram conduzidos testes de imersão de amostras de aço carbono no meio sulfato, bem como, realizadas análises das amostras por microscopia eletr...

  11. Comparative toxicity and carcinogenicity of soluble and insoluble cobalt compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Mamta; Stout, Matthew D; Herbert, Ronald A; Dill, Jeffrey A; Baker, Gregory L; Hayden, Barry K; Roycroft, Joseph H; Bucher, John R; Hooth, Michelle J

    2015-07-03

    Occupational exposure to cobalt is of widespread concern due to its use in a variety of industrial processes and the occurrence of occupational disease. Due to the lack of toxicity and carcinogenicity data following exposure to cobalt, and questions regarding bioavailability following exposure to different forms of cobalt, the NTP conducted two chronic inhalation exposure studies in rats and mice, one on soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate, and a more recent study on insoluble cobalt metal. Herein, we compare and contrast the toxicity profiles following whole-body inhalation exposures to these two forms of cobalt. In general, both forms were genotoxic in the Salmonella T98 strain in the absence of effects on micronuclei. The major sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity in both chronic inhalation studies were the respiratory tract in rats and mice, and the adrenal gland in rats. In addition, there were distinct sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity noted following exposure to cobalt metal. In rats, carcinogenicity was observed in the blood, and pancreas, and toxicity was observed in the testes of rats and mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that both forms of cobalt, soluble and insoluble, appear to be multi-site rodent carcinogens following inhalation exposure. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Microbial degradation of water-insoluble organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of solubilization on biodegradation of water-insoluble organic compounds was investigated. The effect of particle size on solubilization and degradation of 4-chlorobiphenyl (4-CB) and naphthalene by a microbial mixture was determined. The concentration of soluble compound was determined using gas-liquid chromatography. The rates of solubilization were inversely related to particle size for both compounds. The rates of mineralization of 14 C-labeled palmitic acid, octadecane, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and Sevin (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) by microbial mixtures were determined by trapping the 14 CO 2 formed, and those rates were compared to solubilization rates determined by periodically filtering sterile MS amended with one of the compounds. Mineralization and colonization of the surface of 10 μg palmitic acid per 10 ml MS by Pseudomonas pseudoflava was determined by trapping 14 CO 2 and epifluorescence microscopy. Mineralization began before colonization and was initially exponential, but the rate then declined. The rate of mineralization at the end of the exponential phase approximated the rate of solubilization. The surface was completely covered about the time mineralization stopped. Unbound cells grew exponentially before colonization was detected; however, colonization of the surface was complete after the number of free cells stopped increasing. The data suggest that soluble palmitic acid is utilized before the insoluble phase but colonization is important in the mineralization of palmitic acid when solubilization becomes rate limiting

  13. Applicability of insoluble tannin to treatment of waste containing americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, T.; Usuda, S.

    1998-01-01

    The applicability of insoluble tannin adsorbent to the treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with americium has been investigated. Insoluble tannin is considered highly applicable because it consists of only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and so its volume can be easily reduced by incineration. This report describes measurements of the americium distribution coefficient in low concentration nitric acid. The americium distribution coefficients were found to decrease with increasing concentration of nitric acid and sodium nitrate, and with increasing temperature. At 25 C in 2.0 x 10 -3 M HNO 3 , the distribution coefficient was found to be 2000 ml g -1 . The adsorption capacity was determined by column experiments using europium as a simulant of americium, and found to be 7 x 10 -3 mmol g -1 -dried tannin in 0.01 M HNO 3 at 25 C, which corresponds to approximately 1.7 mg- 241 Am/g-adsorbent(dried). The prospect of applying the adsorbent to the treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with americium appears promising. (orig.)

  14. Oscillatory thermocapillary instability in liquid layer with insoluble surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allias, Razihan; Nasir, Mohd. Agos Salim; Kechil, Seripah Awang

    2017-11-01

    Oscillatory convective flow is undesirable because it can produce bubbles, striation and dendrites in the manufactured products. The ability to control the complex convective flow patterns is important in technological processes and fundamental science. One of the factors that can alter the dynamics of the surface tension of thin fluid film is the surface-active agents. In this work, the influence of the insoluble surface-active agents on thermocapillary convective instability in a liquid layer for non-deformable free surface is examined. Uniform temperature and uniform heat flux for the temperature condition at the bottom surface are considered. The linear stability analysis is used to assess the effects of elasticity number, Lewis number, Prandtl number and Biot number on the onset of oscillatory convection. The existence of insoluble surfactant stabilizes the fluid layer system. The system is more stable in the case of uniform temperature. The presence of surfactant and temperature setting at the bottom boundary can suppress the onset of oscillatory instability.

  15. EXPRESIÓN DE IDURONATO 2-SULFATO SULFATASA HUMANA RECOMBINANTE (IDShr EN Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Alberto Poutou

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue expresar la enzima humana iduronato 2-sulfato sulfatasa en la levadura metilotrófica Pichia pastoris. La deficiencia de esta enzima causa una enfermedad denominada Síndrome de Hunter. Siete clones fueron seleccionados por PCR (10, 28, 92, 94, 144, 149 y 153 al amplificar una banda de 826pb, indicativo de la presencia de la IDSh y de la orientación del fragmento. Diferentes medios de cultivo se emplearon en la fase de crecimiento (YPG, YPGli y BMGliY, la fase de inducción fue llevada a cabo cambiando el medio de crecimiento por BMMY. Una vez crecido en YPGli, los clones 10, 28, 144, 149 y 153 mostraron actividad IDS de 1.53, 2.95, 4.35, 4,07 y 4.15 nmol/h mg a las 24, 48, 72 y 120h de inducción respectivamente. El clon 28 produjo 4.21nmol/h mg al crecer en YPG; sólo los clones 92 y 94 produjeron mejores actividades cuando se crecieron en BMGliY; reportando 1.62 y 1.20nmol/mg h respectivamente. La producción de la IDShr se logró en fermentador de 1l, con medio salino (MBS-sF con el clon IDS28. El crecimiento se realizó en cultivo discontinuo utilizando glicerol (fuente de carbono y energía hasta obtener 12.08g/l de biomasa seca. Para el paso de inducción se utilizó un cultivo alimentado con metanol (<1% (v/v; este último sirvió como fuente de carbono y energía e indujo la expresión de IDShr actuando sobre el promotor nativo AOX1 presente en el constructo pPIC9- IDSh. La actividad específica osciló entre 25.4 y 29.36 nmol/mg h. Se destaca que el valor de referencia de nuestro laboratorio para la IDSh en plasma humano es 12.58 nmol/mg h.

  16. Solvent vapor annealing of an insoluble molecular semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Amassian, Aram

    2010-01-01

    Solvent vapor annealing has been proposed as a low-cost, highly versatile, and room-temperature alternative to thermal annealing of organic semiconductors and devices. In this article, we investigate the solvent vapor annealing process of a model insoluble molecular semiconductor thin film - pentacene on SiO 2 exposed to acetone vapor - using a combination of optical reflectance and two-dimensional grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements performed in situ, during processing. These measurements provide valuable and new insight into the solvent vapor annealing process; they demonstrate that solvent molecules interact mainly with the surface of the film to induce a solid-solid transition without noticeable swelling, dissolving or melting of the molecular material. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  18. Polymeric Nanosuspensions for Enhanced Dissolution of Water Insoluble Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Yadollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to formulate and evaluate polymeric nanosuspensions containing three model water insoluble drugs, nifedipine (NIF, carbamazepine (CBZ, and ibuprofen (IBU with various physicochemical properties. The nanosuspensions were prepared from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP by a cosolvent technique with polyethylene glycol (PEG-300 and water as the cosolvents. Physicochemical and morphological characteristics of the nanosuspensions (particle size, polydispersity index, and crystallinity have been correlated with the drug release behaviour. The effects of polymer, drug ratio on the physical, morphological, and dissolution characteristics of the drugs are reported. Drug release is significantly enhanced from the nanosuspensions; for example, the maximum NIF, IBU, and CBZ concentrations after 8-hour dissolution are increased approximately 37, 2, and 1.2 times, respectively, in comparison with the pure powdered drugs. Based on this solubilization enhancement performance, the nanosuspensions have potential for increasing the orally dosed bioavailability of NIF, IBU, and CBZ.

  19. Empleo de factores de conversión: obtención de sulfato de cobre a partir de cobre metal.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Es un ejercicio sencillo del empleo del factor gravimétrico en el que, a partir de una cantidad dada de cobre metálico, deberá obtenerse sulfato de cobre con un determinado rendimiento en el proceso.

  20. Insoluble glycogen, a metabolizable internal adsorbent, decreases the lethality of endotoxin shock in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sipka

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Insoluble glycogen is an enzymatically modified form of naturally occurring soluble glycogen with a great adsorbing capacity. It can be metabolized by phagocytes to glucose. In this study we used insoluble glycogen intravenously in the experimental endotoxin shock of rats. Wistar male rats were sensitized to endotoxin by Pb acetate. The survival of rats were compared in groups of animals endotoxin shock treated and non-treated with insoluble glycogen. Furthermore, we have determined in vitro the binding capacity of insoluble glycogen for endotoxin, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 and secretable phospholipase A2. Use of 10 mg/kg dose of insoluble glycogen could completely prevent the lethality of shock induced by LD50 quantity of endotoxin in rats. All animals treated survived. Insoluble glycogen is a form of ‘metabolizable internal adsorbents’. It can potentially be used for treatment of septic shock.

  1. La relación entre creatividad y expertise: contribuciones teóricas y empíricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso C. T. Galvao

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La creatividad y el expertise son temas que están recibiendo mayor atención de los inves­tigadores en distintos campos del conocimiento. Atributos personales asociados a la alta producción creativa, factores que favorecen el desarrollo, la expresión de la creatividad y el expertise, así como los procesos implicados en el desarrollo de la alta competencia y la creatividad, son temas que han sido objeto de numerosos estudios. El presente estudio pre­senta contribuciones teóricas y estudios empíricos acerca de la creatividad y el expertise. Se describen los elementos comunes para el desarrollo de la creatividad y el expertise, así como las características de los ambientes educativos que los promueven, los modelos teóricos y estudios empíricos.

  2. Métodos cuantitativos en las contribuciones a los simposios de la SEIEM en 2001-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelmi, Miguel R.; Lacasta, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Se toma como campo de observación las contribuciones a los simposios de la Sociedad Española de Investigación en Educación Matemática (SEIEM) en las que aparecen métodos cuantitativos. Se motiva la necesidad de un control previo a la recogida de datos y su tratamiento. Se justifica entonces la función que la ingeniería didáctica como método de investigación puede aquí cumplir. Asimismo, se realiza un análisis sistemático de una contribución de tipo experimental cuyo método privilegiado es cua...

  3. Determinação da Biodisponibilidade da Lisina Sulfato e Lisina HCl com Frangos de Corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neme Rafael

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a biodisponibilidade de duas fontes de lisina (lisina HCl e lisina sulfato, por intermédio de um ensaio de crescimento, foram alojados em um galpão de alvenaria com 56 boxes 840 pintos de corte machos com um dia de idade. Duas dietas basais foram formuladas para atender as exigências nutricionais das aves nas fases inicial e crescimento, deficientes apenas em lisina e suplementadas em 0,08; 0,16; e 0,24% pelas duas fontes de lisina. As variáveis avaliadas foram: ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, rendimento de carcaça, rendimento de perna, rendimento de peito, rendimento de filé e porcentagem de gordura abdominal. Com os dados obtidos foram estimadas equações de regressão linear múltipla e, usando os coeficientes de regressão destas, foi determinada a biodisponibilidade da lisina sulfato em relação a lisina HCl, padronizada como 100% disponível. As equações obtidas que melhor estimaram a biodisponibilidade das lisinas foram Y = 544,72 + 439,62 X1 + 475,84 X2, R² = 0,90, para ganho de peso de 01 a 21 dias de idade, Y = 1824,63 + 1469,18 X1 + 1381,33 X2, R² = 0,85, para ganho de peso de 01 a 42 dias de idade, Y = 1,9623 - 0,9043X1--1,0235 X2, R² = 0,83, para conversão alimentar de 01 a 21 dias de idade, Y = 0,3766 + 0,5320 X1 + 0,4986 X2, R² = 0,88, para peso de peito aos 42 dias de idade e Y = 0,2565 + 0,4685X1 + 0,4300 X2, R² = 0,92, para peso de filé de peito aos 42 dias de idade das aves. A biodisponibilidade média encontrada para a Lisina Sulfato foi de 100,19%, mostrando não haver diferença significativa na biodisponibilidade das lisinas testadas.

  4. Formation of insoluble particulates in a spray-dried F(ab')(2) fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassner, Peter; Adler, Michael; Lee, Geoffrey

    2014-04-01

    An F(ab')2 fragment of an IgG has been spray-dried on a bench-top machine to examine the presence of insoluble particulates in the redissolved powder product. Preliminary experiments showed that treatment of the F(ab')2 in aqueous solution in a water bath at 65°C for 1 h produced fragmentation and also insoluble particulates, but no alteration in soluble aggregates. On spray drying, there was, however, no fragmentation but rather formation of soluble aggregates and insoluble particulates. There is therefore a strong difference between isothermal heat-induced damage in solution and during spray drying. The insoluble particulates were detected using a particle counter as a number distribution that was converted to a weight distribution. Addition of trehalose to the liquid feed strongly reduced the formation of the insoluble particulates, indicating that these are insoluble aggregates of the protein and not particulate contamination from the spray dryer. Trehalose (100 mM) was required to suppress formation of the insoluble aggregates, whereas 10 mM was sufficient to prevent formation of soluble aggregates. The particle counter and also isoelectric focusing gave consistent detection of the insoluble particles, whereas photon correlation spectroscopy gave inconsistent results. Spray-drying of small volumes of liquid feed on the bench-top scale can be performed without introducing nonproteinaceous insoluble particulates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Eficácia do sulfato de aminosidine na leishmaniose visceral grave, resistente ao tratamento com antimonial pentavalente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleudson Castro

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de calazar grave resistente a dez cursos de antimonial petitavalente (glucantime à base de 20mg de Sb5/kg/dia, que respondeu favoravelmente ao sulfato de aminosidine intramuscular na dose de 20mg/kg/dia por 20 dias, repetido após 20 dias. O parasitismo esplénico passou de 50 parasitos por campo a 3 parasitos em 10 campos logo após a primeira série de sulfato de aminosidine, tornando-se negativo depois de sete meses. A melhora clínica foi imediata, com redução gradual da hepatoesplenomegalia, e desaparecimento 26 meses após. Neste período aumentou 13 kg. Após o uso de aminosidine a reação de Monténégro tornou-se positiva e as células mononucleares responderam quando estimuladas com antígenos de leishmânia.A grave kala-azar infection in a 14 years old boy is described. The leishmanial infection failed to respond to ten interrupted courses of glucantime of variable duration (14-56 days at a dose of 20mg Sb5/kg/day. However a favorable response ocurred to intramuscular aminosidine sulphate (20mg/kg/day for 20 days. This same regimen was repeated 20 days later. After the first treatment splenic puncture parasite density fell from 50 amastigotes per oil immersion field to 3 amastigotes in 10 fields. A further splenic puncture 7 months after treatment was negative. The marked hepatoesplenomegaly gradually resolved over 26 months follow up and he gained 13 kilogramas in weight. After aminosidine sulphate therapy his Montenegro reaction become positive and his lymphocytes responded to leishmania antigens.

  6. Soluble and insoluble signals sculpt osteogenesis in angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Ugo

    2010-01-01

    The basic tissue engineering paradigm is tissue induction and morphogenesis by combinatorial molecular protocols whereby soluble molecular signals are combined with insoluble signals or substrata. The insoluble signal acts as a three-dimensional scaffold for the initiation of de novo tissue induction and morphogenesis. The osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) supergene family, the bone morphogenetic/osteogenic proteins (BMPs/OPs) and, uniquely in the non-human primate Papio ursinus (P. ursinus), the three mammalian TGF-β isoforms induce bone formation as a recapitulation of embryonic development. In this paper, I discuss the pleiotropic activity of the BMPs/OPs in the non-human primate P. ursinus, the induction of bone by transitional uroepithelium, and the apparent redundancy of molecular signals initiating bone formation by induction including the three mammalian TGF-β isoforms. Amongst all mammals tested so far, the three mammalian TGF-β isoforms induce endochondral bone formation in the non-human primate P. ursinus only. Bone tissue engineering starts by erecting scaffolds of biomimetic biomaterial matrices that mimic the supramolecular assembly of the extracellular matrix of bone. The molecular scaffolding lies at the hearth of all tissue engineering strategies including the induction of bone formation. The novel concept of tissue engineering is the generation of newly formed bone by the implantation of “smart” intelligent biomimetic matrices that per se initiate the ripple-like cascade of bone differentiation by induction without exogenously applied BMPs/OPs of the TGF-β supergene family. A comprehensive digital iconographic material presents the modified tissue engineering paradigm whereby the induction of bone formation is initiated by intelligent smart biomimetic matrices that per se initiate the induction of bone formation without the exogenous application of the soluble osteogenic molecular signals

  7. A new method for the analysis of soluble and insoluble oxalate in pulp and paper matrices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Bruce

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel method has been developed for determining soluble and insoluble forms of oxalate in pulp and paper samples by ion chromatography. Methanesulphonic acid is used to dissolve insoluble oxalate, and total oxalate is then determined by ion...

  8. General introduction: recombinant protein production and purification of insoluble proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Saccardo, Paolo; Corchero, José Luis; Xu, Zhikun; García-Fruitós, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are synthesized in heterologous systems because of the impossibility to obtain satisfactory yields from natural sources. The production of soluble and functional recombinant proteins is among the main goals in the biotechnological field. In this context, it is important to point out that under stress conditions, protein folding machinery is saturated and this promotes protein misfolding and, consequently, protein aggregation. Thus, the selection of the optimal expression organism and the most appropriate growth conditions to minimize the formation of insoluble proteins should be done according to the protein characteristics and downstream requirements. Escherichia coli is the most popular recombinant protein expression system despite the great development achieved so far by eukaryotic expression systems. Besides, other prokaryotic expression systems, such as lactic acid bacteria and psychrophilic bacteria, are gaining interest in this field. However, it is worth mentioning that prokaryotic expression system poses, in many cases, severe restrictions for a successful heterologous protein production. Thus, eukaryotic systems such as mammalian cells, insect cells, yeast, filamentous fungus, and microalgae are an interesting alternative for the production of these difficult-to-express proteins.

  9. Conversion and Extraction of Insoluble Organic Materials in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    We endeavor to develop and implement methods in our laboratory to convert and extract insoluble organic materials (IOM) from low car-bon bearing meteorites (such as ordinary chondrites) and Precambrian terrestrial rocks for the purpose of determining IOM structure and prebiotic chemistries preserved in these types of samples. The general scheme of converting and extracting IOM in samples is summarized in Figure 1. First, powdered samples are solvent extracted in a micro-Soxhlet apparatus multiple times using solvents ranging from non-polar to polar (hexane - non-polar, dichloromethane - non-polar to polar, methanol - polar protic, and acetonitrile - polar aprotic). Second, solid residue from solvent extractions is processed using strong acids, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric, to dissolve minerals and isolate IOM. Third, the isolated IOM is subjected to both thermal (pyrolysis) and chemical (oxidation) degradation to release compounds from the macromolecular material. Finally, products from oxidation and pyrolysis are analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GCMS). We are working toward an integrated method and analysis scheme that will allow us to determine prebiotic chemistries in ordinary chondrites and Precambrian terrestrial rocks. Powerful techniques that we are including are stepwise, flash, and gradual pyrolysis and ruthenium tetroxide oxidation. More details of the integrated scheme will be presented.

  10. Preparation and characterization of sputtered Cu films containing insoluble Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalingam, T.; Lin, C.H.; Wang, L.T.; Chu, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Copper films containing various amounts of insoluble Nb (up to 24.7 at.%) were prepared by r.f. magnetron sputtering. The crystallography and microstructure of the films were investigated for as-deposited and annealed Cu(Nb) thin films. Cu(Nb) thin films are found to consist of non-equilibrium supersaturated solid solution of Nb in Cu with a nanocrystalline microstructure. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope analyses revealed a reduction in the grain sizes of the films with increasing Nb content in the films leading to a grain refinement. The electrical resistivity of as-deposited and annealed Cu(Nb) thin films is found to be low for an Nb content 2.7 at.%. Significant drops in the resistivity were observed for the high Nb contents after annealing at 530 deg. C which may be due to grain growth and formation of Nb-bearing phase in the film. Microhardness of the films was found to increase with the Nb concentration due to the combined effects of grain refinement and the solute strengthening of Nb

  11. Uptake kinetics of relatively insoluble particles by tracheobronchial lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Tracheobronchial lymph nodes accumulate a portion of material deposited in the deep lung following inhalation of relatively insoluble particles. Experiments involving a variety of compounds, inhaled singly or repeatedly, indicate that the kinetics of lymph node uptake are fairly independent of particle characteristics and mammalian species. The buildup per unit weight of nodal tissue compared with that of lung tissue, with time, can be represented by a linear logarithmic function. However, since the scatter in experimental points may be large at any given time after inhalation exposure, a number of different kinetic descriptions of uptake can be derived. The logarithmic pattern of accumulation can be approximated over an extended time range (several years) by use of a combination of first-order kinetics of loss from the lung and of buildup in lymph nodes, but it is recognized that the processes are much more complicated than this treatment would indicate. Clearance (loss) from the lymph nodes is not well defined, but this aspect is discussed in light of the kinetic models presented

  12. Physiochemical characterization of insoluble residues in California Sierra Nevada snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, Jessie; Axson, Jessica; Bondy, Amy; Craig, Rebecca; May, Nathaniel; Shen, Hongru; Weber, Michael; Warner, Katy; Pratt, Kerri; Ault, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The effects atmospheric aerosols have on cloud particle formation are dependent on both the aerosol physical and chemical characteristics. For instance, larger, irregular-shaped mineral dusts efficiently form cloud ice crystals, enhancing precipitation, whereas small, spherical pollution aerosols have the potential to form small cloud droplets that delay the autoconversion of cloudwater to precipitation. Thus, it is important to understand the physiochemical properties and sources of aerosols that influence cloud and precipitation formation. We present an in-depth analysis of the size, chemistry, and sources of soluble and insoluble residues found in snow collected at three locations in the California Sierra Nevada Mountains during the 2012/2013 winter season. For all sites, February snow samples contained high concentrations of regional pollutants such as ammonium nitrate and biomass burning species, while March snow samples were influenced by mineral dust. The snow at the lower elevation sites in closer proximity to the Central Valley of California were heavily influenced by agricultural and industrial emissions, whereas the highest elevation site was exposed to a mixture of Central Valley pollutants in addition to long-range transported dust from Asia and Africa. Further, air masses likely containing transported dust typically traveled over cloud top heights at the low elevation sites, but were incorporated into the cold (-28°C, on average) cloud tops more often at the highest elevation site, particularly in March, which we hypothesize led to enhanced ice crystal formation and thus the observation of dust in the snow collected at the ground. Overall, understanding the spatial and temporal dependence of aerosol sources is important for remote mountainous regions such as the Sierra Nevada where snowpack provides a steady, vital supply of water.

  13. Desempeño de morteros adicionados con metacaolín frente a la acción de sulfatos

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Agredo, Janneth; Mejía de Gutiérrez, Ruby; Gutiérrez, Constanza

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo reporta los resultados de la evaluación del desempeño de morteros adicionados con un meta-caolín (MK) de origen colombiano, al ser sometidos a la acción de sulfatos. Se elaboraron morteros de cemento adicionados con MK en proporciones de 0, 10, 20, 35 y 50% con respecto a la cantidad de cemento. El cemento utilizado contenía 11% de aluminato tricálcico. Después del tiempo de curado inicial, los especímenes fueron colo-cados en una solución de sulfato de sodio al 5% por un...

  14. Condutividade elétrica de vidros de boratos, silicatos e sílico-sulfatos de íons alcalinos.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Luis Ferreira Nascimento

    2000-01-01

    Vidros condutores à base de boratos, silicatos e sílico-sulfatos de íons de metais alcalinos foram preparados a partir da mistura apropriada de pós de óxidos, carbonatos e sulfatos, Eles foram produzidos a partir da fusão e resfriamento rápido em um forno de carbeto de silício de ate 1400ºC. Estes materiais foram analisados pelas técnicas de condutividade em corrente contínua (CC) e por Espectroscopia de Impedância (EI) nas caracterizações elétricas, por Difração de Raios X (DRX) para an...

  15. Adsorção de fosfato e sulfato em solos com cargas elétricas variáveis

    OpenAIRE

    Casagrande,J. C.; Alleoni,L. R. F.; Camargo,O. A.; Borges,M.

    2003-01-01

    As interações dos ânions fosfato e sulfato com os colóides do solo são expressivas, principalmente com óxidos e hidróxidos de ferro e alumínio, cujas cargas elétricas de superfície variam com o pH e com a força iônica do meio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a adsorção de fosfato e de sulfato em amostras superficiais e subsuperficiais de um Latossolo Vermelho acriférrico (LVwf), um Latossolo Amarelo ácrico (LAw) e um Nitossolo Vermelho eutroférrico (NVef) da região norte do estado de Sã...

  16. Soluble antioxidant compounds regenerate the antioxidants bound to insoluble parts of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Gökmen, Vural; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2013-10-30

    This study aimed to investigate the regeneration potential of antioxidant capacity of an insoluble food matrix. Investigations were performed in vitro with several food matrices rich in dietary fiber (DF) and bound antioxidants. After removal of the soluble fraction, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of the insoluble fraction was measured by the QUENCHER procedure using ABTS(•+) or DPPH(•) radicals. After measurement, the insoluble residue was washed out to remove the excess of radicals and treated with pure antioxidant solution or antioxidant-rich beverage to regenerate depleted antioxidants on the fiber. Results revealed that the antioxidant capacity of compounds chemically bound to the insoluble moiety could be reconstituted in the presence of other hydrogen-donating substances in the liquid phase. Regeneration efficiency was found to range between 21.5 and 154.3% depending on the type of insoluble food matrix and regeneration agent. Among the food matrices studied, cereal products were found to have slightly higher regeneration efficiency, whereas antioxidant-rich beverages were more effective than pure antioxidants as regeneration agents. Taking wheat bran as reference insoluble material, the regeneration abilities of beverages were in the following order: green tea > espresso coffee > black tea > instant coffee > orange juice > red wine. These results highlighted the possible physiological relevance of antioxidants bound to the insoluble food material in the gastrointestinal tract. During the digestion process they could react with the free radicals and at the same time they can be regenerated by other soluble antioxidant compounds present in the meal.

  17. Study of a nickel-copper filter for the future conditioning of insoluble residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoni, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.massoni@cea.fr

    2016-10-15

    This paper deals with the feasibility of a separate conditioning for insoluble residues coming from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The two possible conditioning routes considered for insoluble residues were (i) added with cladding hulls with the considered filter (route #1) or (ii) melted with a nickel copper alloy already studied (route #2). Only route #2 was dealt with in this study. In France, the current practice is to store insoluble residues in a water suspension. For the two conditioning routes described here, dry insoluble residues are required for safety with melted metals. A nickel-copper filter was developed that can serve for the two types of conditioning. A filtration test performed with molybdenum particles as insoluble residue surrogates was done. The particle-charged filter was sintered, and Mo particles were kept inside the filter. Thus an integrated flowsheet for the filtration and immobilization of insoluble residues was demonstrated. - Highlights: • The basics for an integrated flowsheet for the filtration and immobilization of insoluble residues were demonstrated. • The filter can serve as an immobilization matrix or can be added in another metal waste. • A theoretical calculation has shown that the conception of the filter should be done to avoid an excessive heat-up.

  18. Involvement of detergent-insoluble complexes in the intracellular transport of intestinal brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1995-01-01

    A number of transmembrane digestive enzymes of the porcine small intestinal brush border membrane were found to be partially Triton X-100-insoluble at 0 degree C and colocalized in gradient centrifugation experiments with the GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase in low-density, detergent-insoluble c......A number of transmembrane digestive enzymes of the porcine small intestinal brush border membrane were found to be partially Triton X-100-insoluble at 0 degree C and colocalized in gradient centrifugation experiments with the GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase in low-density, detergent......-insoluble complexes commonly known as glycolipid "rafts". Thus, aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), aminopeptidase A (EC 3.4.11.7), dipeptidyl peptidase IV (EC 3.4.14.5), and sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48-10) were 34-48% detergent-insoluble. Maltase-glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1.20) was markedly less detergent-insoluble (20......%), and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23-62) was essentially fully soluble in detergent. In radioactively labeled, mucosal explants, the newly synthesized brush border enzymes began to associate with detergent-insoluble complexes while still in their transient, high mannose-glycosylated form...

  19. Contribuciones al estudiode los anfibios y reptiles de Méxicodurante el siglo XVIII y la Ilustración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Casas Andreu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las bases de la herpetología moderna en general se establecieron en el siglo XVIII,particularmente durante la Ilustración y quienes hicieron la mayor contribución fueronfundamentalmente los naturalistas franceses. No obstante, en México se hicieron varias publicacionesde cierto relieve, en especial por los misioneros jesuitas y otros estudiosos de la Nueva España. Esinteresante mencionar que aun con la trascendencia de Linneo para la biología moderna, algunoshistoriadores de los anfibios y los reptiles señalan que por lo menos para la herpetofauna de Méxicoexistió una importante regresión, ya que era mucho mayor el conocimiento que había dejadoFrancisco Hernández en el siglo XVI. Las contribuciones de los autores de la escuela francesa comoBuffon y quienes lo sucedieron como Lacepéde y Daudin, fueron los grandes pilares de laherpetología o estudios de los anfibios y los reptiles de la manera en que la conocemos en laactualidad. Las bases establecidas en el siglo XVIII sirvieron para que con la apertura de México almundo a partir de su independencia, se entrara en una de las etapas de mayor relevancia para laherpetología del país.

  20. Adsorção de fosfato e sulfato em solos com cargas elétricas variáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Casagrande

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available As interações dos ânions fosfato e sulfato com os colóides do solo são expressivas, principalmente com óxidos e hidróxidos de ferro e alumínio, cujas cargas elétricas de superfície variam com o pH e com a força iônica do meio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a adsorção de fosfato e de sulfato em amostras superficiais e subsuperficiais de um Latossolo Vermelho acriférrico (LVwf, um Latossolo Amarelo ácrico (LAw e um Nitossolo Vermelho eutroférrico (NVef da região norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. A isoterma de Langmuir foi utilizada para obter a adsorção máxima de fosfato e sulfato pelos solos. Para simular a adsorção, utilizou-se o modelo tetraplanar. As adsorções dos ânions foram superiores nas amostras de subsuperfície, cujos teores de matéria orgânica eram menores. As adsorções máximas foram menores no LAw, que apresentou as menores concentrações de óxidos de Fe e Al. A adsorção de fosfato diminuiu com a elevação do pH até 5 ou 6; no entanto, em pH acima de 6 a adsorção aumentou. Para o sulfato, a adsorção diminuiu com a elevação do pH em toda a faixa estudada. Os potenciais elétricos superficiais obtidos pelo modelo tetraplanar não foram realísticos, embora ele tenha se mostrado abrangente quanto ao entendimento dos efeitos do pH e das concentrações de fosfato e sulfato em relação às variações dos potenciais, além de ser eficiente na simulação da adsorção dos ânions.

  1. Adsorption isotherms for cesium ions in seawater of insoluble cobalt and nickel ferrocyanide-impregnated fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amakai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Mai; Fujiwara, Kunio; Umeno, Daisuke; Saito, Kyoichi; Sugo, Takanobu

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt or nickel ferrocyanide was impregnated into an anion-exchange polymer chain grafted onto a commercially available 6-nylon fiber. First, ferrocyanide ions (Fe(CN) 6 4- ) were bound to the anion-exchange fiber. Second, the fiber was made to reach with cobalt or nickel ions to form insoluble cobalt or nickel ferrocyanide via precipitation. For comparison, a commercially available anion-exchange bead was used as a support for the impregnation of insoluble cobalt or nickel ferrocyanide. The contents of metal ferrocyanides impregnated onto the fiber were approximately half those impregnated onto the bead. Adsorption isotherms of insoluble cobalt or nickel ferro-cyanide-impregnated fiber and bead for cesium ions in seawater correlated well with a Langmuir-type isotherm. The saturation capacity for cesium ions in seawater per gram of insoluble metal ferrocyanides was almost identical between the fiber and the bead. (author)

  2. Real-time analysis of insoluble particles in glacial ice using single-particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Matthew; Zawadowicz, Maria A.; Das, Sarah B.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2017-11-01

    Insoluble aerosol particles trapped in glacial ice provide insight into past climates, but analysis requires information on climatically relevant particle properties, such as size, abundance, and internal mixing. We present a new analytical method using a time-of-flight single-particle mass spectrometer (SPMS) to determine the composition and size of insoluble particles in glacial ice over an aerodynamic size range of ˜ 0.2-3.0 µm diameter. Using samples from two Greenland ice cores, we developed a procedure to nebulize insoluble particles suspended in melted ice, evaporate condensed liquid from those particles, and transport them to the SPMS for analysis. We further determined size-dependent extraction and instrument transmission efficiencies to investigate the feasibility of determining particle-class-specific mass concentrations. We find SPMS can be used to provide constraints on the aerodynamic size, composition, and relative abundance of most insoluble particulate classes in ice core samples. We describe the importance of post-aqueous processing to particles, a process which occurs due to nebulization of aerosols from an aqueous suspension of originally soluble and insoluble aerosol components. This study represents an initial attempt to use SPMS as an emerging technique for the study of insoluble particulates in ice cores.

  3. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no

  4. Contribuciones a las técnicas no destructivas para evaluación y prueba de procesos y materiales basadas en radiaciones infrarrojas

    OpenAIRE

    González Fernández, Daniel Aquilino

    2006-01-01

    RESUMEN: La inspección térmica basada en radiación infrarroja provee medidas rápidas, sin contacto y desde una única posición. Su principio básico es el control y estimación de diferencias de temperaturas en una superficie. Conscientes de su aplicabilidad potencial en la evaluación no destructiva ni invasiva, se planteó como objetivo general el efectuar contribuciones al conocimiento y la técnica que, además, tuviesen visos de aplicación real. Ante la variedad de sistemas termográficos ex...

  5. Contribuciones del paradigma cultural latinoamericano a la comunicación para el desarrollo. Antecedentes, textos y contextos de una relación fecunda

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Martínez, Rafael Ángel; Universidad de Holguín “Oscar Lucero Moya”,; Portal Moreno, Rayza; Universidad de La Habana; Fonseca Valido, Rafael Ángel; Universidad de Oriente

    2016-01-01

    Durante la década de 1980 se produce una ruptura en la investigación comunicológica latinoamericana, cuyo resultado fue el nacimiento de un nuevo paradigma que se apropia y hace uso de una concepción antropológica de la cultura, desde la cual comienzan a abordarse los procesos comunicativos. Las contribuciones de este paradigma a la comunicación para el desarrollo, campo que en América Latina ya contaba con una larga tradición, han resultado particularmente significativas. A examinar y discut...

  6. Determinación de atropina sulfato y difenoxilato clorhidrato en reasec tabletas.: Validación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Porto Verdecia

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available El reasec es un antidiarreico cuyo efecto viene dado por la asociación de 2 principios activos, atropina sulfato y difenoxilato clorhidrato. La unión de ambos trae como resultado la inhibición del peristaltismo del tracto gastrointestinal que puede ser posible tanto a nivel central como local. De la literatura revisada para el caso del difenoxilato clorhidrato se escogió el método por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia por aprovechar la posibilidad de que se trataba del método propuesto en el registro de medicamentos para el estudio de estabilidad en la formulación de este principio activo. El método para la determinación de atropina sulfato se encuentra reportado en la USP 23 y el criterio de selección fue uno de los menos complejos en la cuantificación de esta. Teniendo en cuenta las regulaciones establecidas que aseguran el cumplimiento de las buenas prácticas de producción, el presente trabajo se propone la validación prospectiva de los métodos para la cuantificación de los principios activos componentes del reasec, por lo que se realizaron los estudios de especificidad, exactitud, precisión, linealidad y rango. En ambos casos se cumplieron con los requisitos establecidos a los métodos analíticos que se encuentran dentro de la categoría I por ser empleados para la cuantificación de los componentes activos de la formulación. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que ambos métodos analíticos son fiables por permitir la cuantificación de los 2 principios activos y cumplir además, con los requisitos establecidos para los parámetros evaluados dentro de la categoría a la que pertenecen cada uno.Reasec is an antidiarrheal whose effect lies in the association of two active principles: atropine sulphate and diphenoxilate chlorhydrate. Their union results in the inhibition of peristalsism of the gastrointestinal tract that may be possible at both local and central levels. From the reviewed literature on diphenoxilate

  7. Estudo terapêutico aberto com sulfato de aminosidine na leishmaniose mucosa causada for Leishmania (viannia braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A.S. Romero

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de setembro a novembro de 1994 foram tratados 21 pacientes com leishmaniose mucosa ativa, predominantemente adultos lavradores do sexo masculino, com sulfato de aminosidine intramuscular, I6mg/kg/dia por 20 dias. Treze pacientes eram virgens de tratamento e 8 haviam sido tratados sem sucesso com Glucantime®". O diagnóstico baseou-se inicialmente em crítêrios epidemiolôgicos, clínicos e nos resultados da intrademoireação de Montenegro e a imunofluorescência indireta para anticoipos séricos antileishmânia e durante o acompanhamento nos resultados dos estudos parasitológicos. Sessenta e sete por cento dos pacientes tiveram diagnóstico parasitológico confirmado sendo a inoculação do material de biópsia das lesões em hamsters o método mais sensível. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 12,6 meses. A adesão ao tratamento foi de 100%. Os efeitos colaterais foram dor no local da injeção (86%, proteinúria leve (24%, elevação do nível sérico de creatinina (5% e perda auditiva subclínica em um dos dois pacientes que realizaram audiometria. Obsevou-se cura clínica em 48% dos pacientes e a percentagem acumulada de recidiva foi de 29% (4/14pacientes durante o acompanhamento.

  8. Production and Cytotoxicity of Extracellular Insoluble and Droplets of Soluble Melanin by Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Madhusudhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3 strain with potential to synthesize both insoluble and soluble melanins was detected. Melanins are quite distinguished based on their solubility for varied biotechnological applications. The present investigation reveals the enhanced production of insoluble and soluble melanins in tyrosine medium by a single culture. Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3 was characterized by 16S rRNA gene analysis. An enhanced production of 5.29 g/L insoluble melanin was achieved in a submerged bioprocess following response surface methodology. Combined interactive effect of temperature (50°C, pH (8.5, tyrosine (2.0 g/L, and beef extract (0.5 g/L were found to be critical variables for enhanced production in central composite design analysis. An optimized indigenous slant culture system was an innovative approach for the successful production (264 mg/L of pure soluble melanin from the droplets formed on the surface of the culture. Both insoluble and soluble melanins were confirmed and characterized by Chemical, reactions, UV, FTIR, and TLC analysis. First time, cytotoxic study of melanin using brine shrimps was reported. Maximum cytotoxic activity of soluble melanin was Lc50-0.40 µg/mL and insoluble melanin was Lc50-0.80 µg/mL.

  9. EVALUACION DE SULFATO DE COBRE PENTAHIDRATADO EN EL CONTROL DE PATOLOGIAS DE FRUTALES Y VIDES Y EFECTO EN VINIFICACIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    Pino, Caros; Donoso, Eduardo; Torres, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Formulaciones convencionales de cobre se utilizan en altas dosis, generan impacto biótico en suelo y fitotoxicidad. En la Región del Maule entre 2011-13, se evaluó nueva formulación nacional de sulfato de cobre pentahidratado polvo soluble para el control de Fussicoccum sp y Pseudomonas syringae en Arándanos; Pseudomonas syringae en Cerezos y Kiwis; Venturia inaequalis en Manzanos, Spilocaea oleagina en Olivos; Uncinula necator, Botrytis cinerea y Pudrición ácida en Vides. Además se evaluó el...

  10. ADUBAÇÃO COM URÉIA E SULFATO DE AMÔNIO NO MILHO CULTIVADO SOB SISTEMA SEMEADURA DIRETA

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho Neto, André Mendes; Unesp/Jaboticabal; Coutinho, Edson Luiz Mendes; Unesp/Jaboticabal; Orioli Júnior, Valdeci; Unesp/Jaboticabal; Corá, José Eduardo; Unesp/Jaboticabal; Bueno, Célia Regina Paes; Unesp/Jaboticabal; Silva, Alysson Roberto Baizi e; Bunge Brasil

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de doses e fontes de nitrogênio nas concentrações foliares e na produtividade de grãos de milho, cultivado em sistema semeadura direta, num solo argiloso (Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico) com baixo teor de enxofre. As doses de N (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kg ha-1) foram aplicadas na forma de uréia e sulfato de amônio. A adubação nitrogenada aumentou significativamente as concentrações de N nas folhas e a produtividade de grãos de milho. Para ess...

  11. Application of insoluble tannin adsorbent to alpha aqueous waste treatment in NUCEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Tatsuro; Usuda, Shigekazu; Mineo, Hideaki; Nishizawa, Ichio; Takeshita, Isao

    1997-01-01

    The use of insoluble tannin adsorbent has been investigated as a means to reduce the volume of aqueous waste contaminated with americium. This work is aimed at reducing the volume of TRU waste generated within NUCEF where experiments related to back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are performed. Insoluble tannin adsorbent is a gelled material consisting of C, H and O which can be easily incinerated. The distribution coefficient and adsorption capacity of americium in insoluble tannin have been investigated and found to be 1000 ml/g in 0.02 M HNO 3 and 0.013 mmol/g-dried tannin, respectively. The prospect of applying the adsorbent to the treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with americium appears promising. (author)

  12. LA PERSPECTIVA HISTÓRICO-CULTURAL Y LA EDUCACIÓN ESPECIAL: CONTRIBUCIONES INICIALES Y DESARROLLOS ACTUALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertina Mitjáns Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal del artículo es destacar la significación de la perspectiva histórico-cultural del desarrollo humano para el diseño de estrategias educativas favorecedoras del aprendizaje escolar de niños y niñas con deficiencias. A partir de las contribuciones de Vygotsky, en ese campo, y de los aportes de la Teoría de la Subjetividad, elaborada a partir da la perspectiva histórico-cultural, se presentan principios que, en su configuración sistémica, pueden constituir una base sólida para la reestructuración de diversos aspectos del trabajo educativo en la Educación Especial. En la primera parte del artículo son discutidas algunas de las concepciones y conceptos desarrollados por Vygotsky en su obra "Fundamentos de Defectología". La fundamentación del carácter social de la deficiencia, los conceptos de defecto primario, defecto secundario y compensación, y la consideración del carácter creativo del aprendizaje y del desarrollo de las niñas y los niños deficientes. Se presentan las ideas centrales de la Teoría de la Subjetividad elaborada por González Rey, especialmente la concepción del aprendizaje escolar como un proceso de la subjetividad irreducible a habilidades y procesos intelectuales. Por último, se fundamentan tres implicaciones educacionales derivadas de la articulación de los dos sistemas conceptuales presentados: favorecer la creación de espacios comunicativos/relacionales que contribuyan a generar en el niño nuevas producciones de sentido sobre el aprendizaje y sobre la deficiencia, estimular en ellos el desarrollo de la condición de sujetos negada por las posiciones asistencialistas y paternalistas dominantes y el enfoque cualitativo, constructivo, singular, procesual e interactivo de los procesos de diagnóstico y de evaluación educacional.

  13. Nanocompósito de poliestireno reciclado, bentonita sódica e hemi-hidrato de sulfato de cálcio: obtenção e caracterização.

    OpenAIRE

    Messias dos Santos Machado

    2016-01-01

    Nesta Tese foram preparados, em solução, filmes híbridos de argila e poliestireno provenientes de copos descartáveis comercializados no mercado brasileiro, com acetato de etila e glicerol. Posteriormente, foi adicionado o Hemi-hidrato de sulfato de cálcio como carga de reforço. Tanto a argila quanto o glicerol, assim como o hemihidrato de sulfato de cálcio, foram utilizados nos percentuais relativos à massa do poliestireno fragmentado correspondendo a 1%,2%, 3%,4%, 5% e 7%. Dos filmes, nos pe...

  14. Influência da mistura de sulfato de amônio com uréia sobre a volatilização de nitrogênio amoniacal

    OpenAIRE

    G. C. Vitti; J. E. Tavares Jr.; P. H. C. Luz; J. L. Favarin; M. C. G. Costa

    2002-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da mistura de sulfato de amônio com uréia sobre a volatilização de nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3), realizou-se um experimento em laboratório climatizado do Departamento de Solos e Nutrição de Plantas (ESALQ/USP). Em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, foram utilizados cinco tratamentos com cinco repetições. Cada tratamento foi obtido pela mistura de uréia (330 mg) com sulfato de amônio (0, 75, 150, 225 e 300 mg). As misturas de fertilizantes foram ap...

  15. Glifosato aplicado com diferentes concentrações de uréia ou sulfato de amônio para dessecação de plantas daninhas

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Saul Jorge Pinto de; Dias,Ana Carolina Ribeiro; Damin,Virginia; Nicolai,Marcelo; Christoffoleti,Pedro Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia do herbicida glifosato, para a dessecação de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis) e outras plantas daninhas, quando combinado a diferentes concentrações de sulfato de amônio ou uréia. Foram conduzidos três experimentos com tratamentos semelhantes: dois em campo e um em casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos aplicados em campo foram: glifosato (360 g ha-1 de e.a.), isolado ou acrescido de quatro concentrações de sulfato de amônio (2...

  16. Usos do sulfato de magnésio em obstetrícia e em anestesia Usos del sulfato de magnesio en obstetricia y en anestesia Applications of Magnesium Sulfate in Obstetrics and Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O magnésio é um íon predominantemente intracelular. Seu efeito bloqueador do receptor NMDA lhe confere características analgésicas e sedativas. O objetivo desse artigo foi revisar a fisiologia, a farmacologia e a diminuição da concentração plasmática do magnésio, assim como algumas das suas aplicações em obstetrícia e em anestesia. CONTEÚDO: O magnésio é um cátion intracelular que possui múltiplas funções: é cofator de enzimas do metabolismo glicídico e de enzimas da degradação dos ácidos nucleicos, proteínas e ácidos graxos; regula a passagem de íons transmembrana e intervém na atividade de várias enzimas. O paciente em estado crítico apresenta tendência à hipomagnesemia e o tratamento consiste em corrigir a causa quando possível acompanhada da reposição do magnésio. Já foi demonstrada a redução da concentração alveolar m��nima (CAM dos agentes inalatórios em animais e do uso de opioides em humanos sob anestesia. CONCLUSÕES: O sulfato de magnésio vem sendo utilizado em obstetrícia com boa efetividade para inibição do trabalho de parto prematuro e para o tratamento das crises convulsivas associadas ao quadro de eclâmpsia. É um fármaco com potencial analgésico e sedativo que pode ser utilizado como coadjuvante durante a anestesia geral atenuando a resposta pressórica à intubação traqueal e diminuindo a necessidade de anestésicos.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El magnesio es un ión predominantemente intracelular. Su efecto bloqueador del receptor NMDA le confiere características analgésicas y sedativas. El objetivo de este artículo, fue revisar la fisiología, la farmacología y la disminución de la concentración plasmática del magnesio, como también de algunas de sus aplicaciones en obstetricia y en anestesia. CONTENIDO: El magnesio es un catión intracelular que posee múltiples funciones: es cofactor de enzimas del metabolismo glicídico y de enzimas de

  17. Estudo terapêutico aberto com sulfato de aminosidine na leishmaniose mucosa causada for Leishmania (viannia braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A.S. Romero

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de setembro a novembro de 1994 foram tratados 21 pacientes com leishmaniose mucosa ativa, predominantemente adultos lavradores do sexo masculino, com sulfato de aminosidine intramuscular, I6mg/kg/dia por 20 dias. Treze pacientes eram virgens de tratamento e 8 haviam sido tratados sem sucesso com Glucantime®". O diagnóstico baseou-se inicialmente em crítêrios epidemiolôgicos, clínicos e nos resultados da intrademoireação de Montenegro e a imunofluorescência indireta para anticoipos séricos antileishmânia e durante o acompanhamento nos resultados dos estudos parasitológicos. Sessenta e sete por cento dos pacientes tiveram diagnóstico parasitológico confirmado sendo a inoculação do material de biópsia das lesões em hamsters o método mais sensível. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 12,6 meses. A adesão ao tratamento foi de 100%. Os efeitos colaterais foram dor no local da injeção (86%, proteinúria leve (24%, elevação do nível sérico de creatinina (5% e perda auditiva subclínica em um dos dois pacientes que realizaram audiometria. Obsevou-se cura clínica em 48% dos pacientes e a percentagem acumulada de recidiva foi de 29% (4/14pacientes durante o acompanhamento.From September to November 1994, 21 patients with active mucosal leishmaniasis were treated with aminosidine sulphate I6mg/kg/day by intramuscular injection for 20 days. They were principally adult male agricultural workers. Thirteen patients had not received specific treatment and eight had failed to respond to Glucantime® therapy. Diagnosis was based on clinical and epidemiological observations, a search for the parasite, leishmanin skin sensitivity and indirect fluorescent antibody serological tests. Sixty seven percent of patients had Leishmania parasites isolated from inoculated hamsters or visualized in imprints or histopathological sections. The mean follow-up period was 12.6 months. All patients completed treatment. Side effects were

  18. EVALUACIÓN DE CAL, SULFATO E HIDROXICLORURO DE ALUMINIO EN LA COAGULACION-FLOCULACION DEL LIXIVIADO DEL RELLENO SANITARIO DE POZA RICA, VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se reporta el proceso de clarificación del lixiviado de un basurero de la Ciudad de Poza Rica de Hidalgo, Veracruz, con este fin se utilizó como coagulantes óxido de calcio, sulfato e hidroxicloruro de aluminio. El CaO no presentó capacidad floculante para el lixiviado tratado bajo ninguna de las condiciones ensayadas. El Al2(SO43 mostró buena actividad floculante al tratar el lixiviado obteniéndose 0.97 NTU en el índice de turbidez con 2250 ppm del sulfato de aluminio, por la elevada cantidad de floculante el proceso caro; por otra parte, la floculación de los sólidos suspendidos en el lixiviado se logró una mayor extensión empleando 1.5 ppm de Al2(OH5Cl2*5H2O obteniendo un índice de turbidez de 0.83 NTU, con pH de 7.63.

  19. INSOLUBLE HYDROPHOBIN COMPLEXES IN THE WALLS OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE AND OTHER FILAMENTOUS FUNGI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, OMH; FEKKES, MP; WOSTEN, HAB; WESSELS, JGH

    Two closely related cysteine-rich hydrophobic proteins, Sc3p and Sc4p, of the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are developmentally regulated and associated with the walls of aerial hyphae and fruit-body hyphae. They are present in the walls as hot-SDS-insoluble complexes which can be extracted

  20. Resolubilization of Protein from Water-Insoluble Phlorotannin-Protein Complexes upon Acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Anne M.; Blok, Annelies E.; Westphal, Adrie H.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    Marine phlorotannins (PhT) from Laminaria digitata might protect feed proteins from ruminal digestion by formation of insoluble non-covalent tannin-protein complexes at rumen pH (6-7). Formation and disintegration of PhT-protein complexes was studied with β-casein (random coil) and bovine serum

  1. Soluble Antioxidant Compounds Regenerate the Antioxidants Bound to Insoluble Parts of Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, E.E.; Gökmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the regeneration potential of antioxidant capacity of an insoluble food matrix. Investigations were performed in vitro with several food matrices rich in dietary fiber (DF) and bound antioxidants. After removal of the soluble fraction, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of

  2. Effects of Toasting Time on Digestive Hydrolysis of Soluble and Insoluble 00-Rapeseed Meal Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M.A.M.; Gruppen, Harry; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; Poel, van der Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Thermal damage to proteins can reduce their nutritional value. The effects of toasting time on the kinetics of hydrolysis, the resulting molecular weight distribution of 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) and the soluble and insoluble protein fractions separated from the RSM were studied. Hydrolysis was

  3. Field method for the determination of insoluble or total hexavalent chromium in workplace air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelwood, Kyle J; Drake, Pamela L; Ashley, Kevin; Marcy, Dale

    2004-09-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health method 7703 is a portable field procedure for the analysis of workplace air filter samples for hexavalent chromium (CrVI) content immediately after the samples are collected. The field method prescribes CrVI extraction from air filter samples with an ammonium sulfate/ammonium hydroxide extraction buffer using ultrasonic extraction (UE). Strong anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SAE-SPE) is then used to separate CrVI from trivalent chromium and other interferences. Portable spectrophotometric measurement of CrVI is then conducted using the 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) method. However, it has been found that the ammonium extraction buffer does not adequately bring insoluble CrVI compounds into solution during the UE process. Thus, it was deemed necessary to modify the field method so that it would provide acceptable recoveries for insoluble CrVI compounds. To this end, a more alkaline extraction solution--sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate buffer--was investigated. The modified procedure using the highly alkaline extraction solution was demonstrated to be compatible with SAE-SPE cartridges when determining insoluble CrVI in air filter samples. It was found that the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer was equally effective for complete dissolution of both insoluble and soluble forms of CrVI. Furthermore, the modified procedure met desired performance criteria established for air sampling and analytical methods.

  4. Investigation by phosphorus-32 isotope the capabilities of mushrooms to decompose insoluble phosphoric compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takhtobin, K.S.; Tashpulatov, D.T.; Shulman, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: One of global ecological problems of agriculture is the problem 'phosphatization' of soils. Only of 10% - 25% of phosphorus, introduced by the way fertilizers to acquire by plants, the other main part, as a result of chemical changes in soil, transforms in insoluble, hard-to-reach for plants forms. The study of possibility to extract the phosphorus from this insoluble forms is very important. Our investigations devoted to study of some strains of soil mushrooms which are capable to decompose insoluble phosphoric compounds, secreting an acids and enzymes. Soil mushrooms have symbiotic relationship with roots systems of plants and other microorganisms, they augment the contents of solvable phosphorus in soil, which is easy assimilate by plants. It increases efficiency of other kinds of fertilizers, keeping nitrogen, the potassium and as a whole leads to favourable, balanced composition of soil. In order to investigate quantitatively the capacity of different strains of soil mushrooms to canker insoluble forms of phosphorus we are introduce an isotope phosphorus-32 in such compound as Ca 3 (PO 4) 2. We are investigate by an isotope phosphorus-32 some characteristics of strains, in particular, the absorption capabilities of phosphorus-32 from Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 . It find out that the part of mushrooms absorbed phosphorus from Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , in particular, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium sp., Fusarium solani. (author)

  5. Secreted expression of Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucansucrase in Lactococcus lactis for the production of insoluble glucans

    Science.gov (United States)

    We expressed a glucansucrase, DsrI, from Leuconostoc mesenteroides that catalyzes formation of water-insoluble glucans from sucrose in Lactococcus lactis using a nisin-controlled gene expression system. Production of DsrI was optimized using several different background vectors, signal peptides, str...

  6. the role of soluble and insoluble fibers during fermentation of Chicory root pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, U.

    2014-01-01

     

    This thesis was aimed at understanding the in vitro fermentability of soluble and insoluble fibers in chicory root pulp (CRP). First, CRP and ensiled chicory root pulp (ECRP) were characterized for cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs). Both CRP and ECRP were rich

  7. Biochemical Composition and Assembly of Biosilica-associated Insoluble Organic Matrices from the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Pawolski, Damian; Milentyev, Alexander; Shevchenko, Anna; Scheffel, André; Poulsen, Nicole; Shevchenko, Andrej; Kröger, Nils

    2016-03-04

    The nano- and micropatterned biosilica cell walls of diatoms are remarkable examples of biological morphogenesis and possess highly interesting material properties. Only recently has it been demonstrated that biosilica-associated organic structures with specific nanopatterns (termed insoluble organic matrices) are general components of diatom biosilica. The model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana contains three types of insoluble organic matrices: chitin meshworks, organic microrings, and organic microplates, the latter being described in the present study for the first time. To date, little is known about the molecular composition, intracellular assembly, and biological functions of organic matrices. Here we have performed structural and functional analyses of the organic microrings and organic microplates from T. pseudonana. Proteomics analysis yielded seven proteins of unknown function (termed SiMat proteins) together with five known silica biomineralization proteins (four cingulins and one silaffin). The location of SiMat1-GFP in the insoluble organic microrings and the similarity of tyrosine- and lysine-rich functional domains identifies this protein as a new member of the cingulin protein family. Mass spectrometric analysis indicates that most of the lysine residues of cingulins and the other insoluble organic matrix proteins are post-translationally modified by short polyamine groups, which are known to enhance the silica formation activity of proteins. Studies with recombinant cingulins (rCinY2 and rCinW2) demonstrate that acidic conditions (pH 5.5) trigger the assembly of mixed cingulin aggregates that have silica formation activity. Our results suggest an important role for cingulins in the biogenesis of organic microrings and support the hypothesis that this type of insoluble organic matrix functions in biosilica morphogenesis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Oil-in-water Pickering emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles from the water-insoluble protein zein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Folter, J.W.J.; van Ruijven, M.W.M.; Velikov, K.

    2012-01-01

    Few fully natural and biocompatible materials are available for the effective particle-stabilization of emulsions since strict requirements, such as insolubility in both fluid phases and intermediate wettability, need to be met. In this paper, we demonstrate the first use of water-insoluble

  9. Choque refratário e óbito após intoxicação por sulfato ferroso Refractory shock and death by iron poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marith Graciano Berber

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever um caso de intoxicação por ferro em uma criança após ingestão acidental de sulfato ferroso. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Lactente de 11 meses de idade admitida após ingestão acidental de sulfato ferroso (dose desconhecida; apresentava diarréia, desidratação grave e torpor. Inicialmente, foram adotadas medidas para estabilização hemodinâmica, suporte ventilatório e terapia vasopressora. A dosagem de ferro sérico era de 259μmol/L, sendo iniciado desferoxamina. Apesar do tratamento, manteve quadro de instabilidade hemodinâmica, sem melhora após associação de adrenalina. Evoluiu para óbito 50 horas após admissão no hospital por choque refratário. COMENTÁRIOS: O sulfato ferroso é uma medicação amplamente utilizada em nosso meio e de fácil acesso às crianças nos domicílios. No caso descrito, apesar do diagnóstico precoce e dos cuidados prestados prontamente, não foi possível evitar grave evolução para choque refratário e óbito. Portanto, é importante prevenir a intoxicação e conhecer a evolução de uma intoxicação por ferro, uma vez que o tratamento nem sempre evita a má evolução.OBJECTIVE: To present a case of a child with iron intoxication due to an accidental ingestion of ferrous sulfate. CASE DESCRIPTION: An eleven-month-old child was admitted to the hospital after an accidental ingestion of ferrous sulfate, presenting diarrhea, severe dehydration and drowsiness. Initially, therapies for hemodynamic stabilization, ventilatory support and vasopressor drugs were adopted. Laboratory test revealed high serum iron level (259μmol/L and deferoxamine administration was started. Despite treatment, the child persisted with hemodynamic instability, without improvement after epinephrine infusion and died 50 hours after admission, due to refractory shock. COMMENTS: The ferrous sulfate is widely used and easily accessible for children in their homes. In this case report, despite prompt diagnosis and

  10. Ataque de matrizes cimentícias por sulfato de sódio:adições minerais como agentes mitigadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hoppe Filho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A degradação do concreto por sulfatos ocorre a partir de suas reações químicas com os compostos hidratados do cimento Portland e que, em estágios avançados, promovem a formação de produtos expansivos que geram a sua fissuração e desagregação. A utilização de adições minerais na composição, em substituição parcial ao cimento, provoca alterações microestruturais que interferem na porosidade da matriz hidratada e, principalmente, na distribuição e na interconectividade dos poros, influenciando no ingresso de água contaminada. No presente trabalho avaliou-se o potencial de mitigação do ataque por íons sulfato quando da inclusão de adições minerais na composição do material. A determinação da variação dimensional de barras de argamassa, conforme a NBR 13.583, foi utilizada para avaliar o potencial de mitigação do material ligante composto por cimento CP V - ARI (referência e minerais em substituição parcial a este, no teor de 10%, em massa, como sílica ativa, metacaulim, sílica de casca de arroz, fíler calcário e quartzoso, além de resíduo de cerâmica vermelha, com diferentes finuras. A argamassa de referência apresentou elevada expansão, bem como as que continham metacaulim, fíler calcário e resíduo de cerâmica vermelha, independentemente da distribuição granulométrica. A utilização de sílica ativa, sílica de casca de arroz ou fíler quartzoso na composição do material reduziu a expansão a valores aceitáveis, atribuindo resistência ao ataque por sulfatos às argamassas.

  11. Sulfato de bário versus carbonato de bário: um trágico equívoco de solubilidade

    OpenAIRE

    NEVES, Eduardo Almeida; NEVES, Regina Maria de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    Envenenamento seguido de morte de pessoas que ingeriram um sulfato de bário preparado em laboratório farmacêutico (em exames de Raios X), foram vítimas de produto contendo alguma porcentagem de carbonato de bário como contaminante. Tratamento por equilíbrio químico dos dados de solubilidade dos precipitados nas condições de acidez estomacal mostrou que a presença do carbonato de bário causa um aumento de solubilidade de 19200 vezes em íons de bário, em comparação com a esperada pelo sulfat...

  12. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of a New Tetranuclear Nickel(II Sulfato Complex Containing the Anionic Form of Di-2-Pyridyl Ketone Oxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Moushi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and crystal structure of a tetranuclear Ni(II sulfato cluster containing the anion of di-2-pyridyl ketone oxime, (py2CNO−, are reported. Treatment of NiSO4·6H2O with one equivalent of (py2CNOH and one equivalent of NEt3 in MeOH leads to the compound [Ni4{(py2CNO}4(SO42(MeOH4] (1 in moderate yield. The metal ions are linked together by two 3.2111 and two 2.1110 (Harris notation (py2CNO− ligands, as well as two 2.1100 SO42− ions to create a rare metallacrown-type (12-MC-4 ring. Strong H-bond intermolecular interactions in 1 lead to the formation of a 1D chain along the axis. Characteristic IR bands are discussed in terms of the known structure of 1.

  13. Fluorescência e teores de clorofilas em abacaxizeiro cv. pérola submetido a diferentes concentrações de sulfato de amônio

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,Darlene Ana de Paula; Portes,Tomás de Aquino; Stacciarini-Seraphin,Eliane; Teixeira,João Batista

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a análise da emissão da fluorescência da clorofila a e dos teores de clorofilas em plantas de Ananas comosus (L. Merril) cv pérola, cultivadas em casa de vegetação, submetidas a quatro concentrações de nitrogênio por adição ou não de sulfato de amônio, de acordo com os seguintes tratamentos: Tº= 0 T1/2 = 15; T1 = 30; e T2 = 60 mg/kg solo. As determinações de fluorescência mínima (F0), máxima (Fm), variável (Fv), terminal (Ft) e da eficiência fotoquímica ...

  14. Removal of metals and water-insoluble materials from desalter emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, S.K.; Mosby, J.F.; Treadman, J.E. II.

    1993-06-15

    A process for removing metals and insoluble materials from crude oil is described comprising the steps of: blending crude oil with water and desalting chemicals; charging the oil blend to a desalting chamber and passing it through an electrical field whereby agglomeration of suspended insoluble materials occurs and layers of clean oil, brine and oil-brine interface emulsion are formed; withdrawing the oil and brine; measuring the volume of the emulsion layer; withdrawing a portion of the emulsion layer; blending the withdrawn emulsion with up to 2 volumes of aromatic-rich hydrocarbon containing at least 20% aromatics by volume; maintaining the blend at a temperature of 100 to 300 F and a positive pressure; and subjecting the blend to a force of at least about 500 g, whereby oil free of at least 90% of suspended particulates and water results.

  15. An amperometric enzyme biosensor for real-time measurements of cellobiohydrolase activity on insoluble cellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Guilin, Ren; Tatsumi, Hirosuke

    2012-01-01

    An amperometric enzyme biosensor for continuous detection of cellobiose has been implemented as an enzyme assay for cellulases. We show that the initial kinetics for cellobiohydrolase I, Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei, acting on different types of cellulose substrates, semi-crystalline and amorphous......) and this provided experimental access to the transient kinetics of cellobiohydrolases acting on insoluble cellulose. The response from the CDH-biosensor during enzymatic hydrolysis was corrected for the specificity of PcCDH for the β-anomer of cello-oligosaccharides and the approach were validated against HPLC....... It is suggested that quantitative, real-time data on pure insoluble cellulose substrates will be useful in attempts to probe the molecular mechanism underlying enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose...

  16. Evaluación analítica para la determinación de sulfatos en aguas por método turbidimétrico modificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Severiche

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La meta de un análisis químico de aguas es generar resultados correctos y confiables, siendo la validación de ensayos uno de los aspectos más importantes para conseguir este propósito; además constituye un factor clave para la prestación de servicios analíticos. La determinación de ion sulfato en aguas es una de las metodologías analíticas más discutidas que se conoce en el ámbito científico técnico del análisis de aguas, principalmente, por las desventajas que presentan los métodos aceptados internacionalmente (gravimétrico, turbidimétrico y cromatográfico. En el presente estudio se hizo la evaluación del método analítico turbidimétrico, para la determinación de sulfatos en aguas; el objetivo de este trabajo fue incluir una modificación al método estandarizado y confirmar correctamente la aplicación del método modificado para el análisis de aguas. Se trabajaron muestras de diferentes tipos de agua: potable, residual, superficial, de pozo y de piscina, siguiéndose estrictamente los protocolos de validación. Se encontraron resultados satisfactorios en precisión y exactitud con el fin de emitir resultados confiables y reales de la muestra analizada.

  17. Determination of the rates of clearance of insoluble compounds of plutonium from the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, L.

    1974-04-01

    There are indications that the process of clearance of inhaled insoluble plutonium compounds from the lung may be represented by a model consisting of three exponential phases. A survey of published data on 'in vivo' and bioassay measurements made after 239 PuO 2 inhalation by men and dogs has been carried out, and the half times of the three exponential phases determined as approximately 1 day, 30 days and 500 days. (author)

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK SOIL HUMIN AND ITS ALKALINE-SOLUBLE AND ALKALINE-INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Cuilan; Gao, Shuqing; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Lichun; Zhang, Jinjing

    2015-01-01

    Humic substances are the major components of soil organic matter. Among the three humic substance components (humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin), humin is the most insoluble in aqueous solution at any pH value and, in turn, the least understood. Humin has poor solubility mainly because it is tightly bonded to inorganic soil colloids. By breaking the linkage between humin and inorganic soil colloids using inorganic or organic solvents, bulk humin can be partially soluble in alkali, enabling a...

  19. The use of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen to predict digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. agric. Res.10, 565-580. WAGNER, W.R., BRINKS, J,S., URICK, J.J., PAHNISH, O.F. &. RICHARDSON, G.V., 1984. A comparison of crossbred and straightbred cow-calfpairs. II. Biological efficiency ofthe cow- calf unit. J. Anim. Sct. 58, I160-1 170. The use of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen to predict digestibility of rumen.

  20. Involvement of detergent-insoluble complexes in the intracellular transport of intestinal brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1995-01-01

    was apparent after only 1 h of labeling, where aminopeptidase N, sucrase-isomaltase, and alkaline phosphatase together comprised 25-30% of the total labeled, detergent-insoluble proteins, showing that sorting of newly made brush border membrane proteins into the glycolipid "rafts" does take place...... intracellularly. I therefore propose that, in the enterocyte, the brush border enzymes are targeted directly from the trans-Golgi network toward the apical cell surface....

  1. Typical Insoluble Particles in Fog Water at Milešovka Observatory (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Stoyanova, V.; Bartůňková, Kristýna; Tesař, Miroslav; Shoumkova, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, 5-6 (2012), s. 1083-1091 ISSN 0033-4553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : Fog pollution * insoluble particles * meteorological conditions * sources of pollution Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.617, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/a404194u6138h65n/fulltext.pdf

  2. COPPER RESISTANT STRAIN CANDIDA TROPICALIS RomCu5 INTERACTION WITH SOLUBLE AND INSOLUBLE COPPER COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ie. P. Prekrasna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the study was interaction of Candida tropicalis RomCu5 isolated from highland Ecuador ecosystem with soluble and insoluble copper compounds. Strain C. tropicalis RomCu5 was cultured in a liquid medium of Hiss in the presence of soluble (copper citrate and CuCl2 and insoluble (CuO and CuCO3 copper compounds. The biomass growth was determined by change in optical density of culture liquid, composition of the gas phase was measured on gas chromatograph, redox potential and pH of the culture fluid was defined potentiometrically. The concentration of soluble copper compounds was determined colorimetrically. Maximal permissible concentration of Cu2+ for C. tropicalis RomCu5 was 30 000 ppm of Cu2+ in form of copper citrate and 500 ppm of Cu2+ in form of CuCl2. C. tropicalis was metabolically active at super high concentrations of Cu2+, despite the inhibitory effect of Cu2+. C. tropicalis immobilized Cu2+ in the form of copper citrate and CuCl2 by it accumulation in the biomass. Due to medium acidification C. tropicalis dissolved CuO and CuCO3. High resistance of C. tropicalis to Cu2+ and ability to interact with soluble and insoluble copper compounds makes it biotechnologically perspective.

  3. Improvement of thermostability and activity of Trichoderma reesei endo-xylanase Xyn III on insoluble substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Kaneko, Satoshi; Yaoi, Katsuro

    2016-09-01

    Trichoderma reesei Xyn III, an endo-β-1,4-xylanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10), is vital for the saccharification of xylans in plant biomass. However, its enzymatic thermostability and hydrolytic activity on insoluble substrates are low. To overcome these difficulties, the thermostability of Xyn III was improved using random mutagenesis and directed evolution, and its hydrolytic activity on insoluble substrates was improved by creating a chimeric protein. In the screening of thermostable Xyn III mutants from a random mutagenesis library, we identified two amino acid residues, Gln286 and Asn340, which are important for the thermostability of Xyn III. The Xyn III Gln286Ala/Asn340Tyr mutant showed xylanase activity even after heat treatment at 60 °C for 30 min or 50 °C for 96 h, indicating a dramatic enhancement in thermostability. In addition, we found that the addition of a xylan-binding domain (XBD) to the C-terminal of Xyn III improved its hydrolytic activity on insoluble xylan.

  4. Development of a research method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane factory and refinery products

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, quantitative research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to facilitate the determination of total insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar factory and refinery products. Several variables that affect starch solubilization were evaluated: 1) conductiv...

  5. Ligand-induced association of surface immunoglobulin with the detergent insoluble cytoskeleton may involve an 89K protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Woda, B.

    1986-01-01

    Membrane immunoglobulin of B-lymphocytes is thought to play an important role in antigen recognition and cellular activation. Binding of cross-linking ligands to surface immunoglobulin (SIg) on intact cells converts it to a detergent insoluble state, and this conversion is associated with the transmission of a mitogenic signal. Insolubilized membrane proteins may be solubilized by incubating the detergent insoluble cytoskeletons in buffers which convert F-actin to G-actin [(Buffer 1), 0.34M sucrose, 0.5mM ATP, 0.5mM Dithiothrietol and lmM EDTA]. Immunoprecipitation of SIg from the detergent soluble fraction of 35 S-methionine labeled non ligand treated rat B-cells results in the co-isolation of an 89K protein and a 44K protein, presumably actin. The 89K protein is not associated with the fraction of endogenous detergent insoluble SIg. On treatment of rat B cells with cross-linking ligand (anti-Ig) the 89K protein becomes detergent insoluble along with most of the SIg and co-isolates with SIg on immunoprecipitation of the detergent insoluble, buffer l solubilized fraction. The migration of the SIg-associated 89K protein from the detergent soluble fraction to the detergent insoluble fraction after ligand treatment, suggests that this protein might be involved in linking SIg to the underlying cytoskeleton and could be involved in the transmission of a mitogenic signal

  6. Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Vílchez, José L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that 38 samples, collected from different Spanish regions, were studied. The statistical tool we used was Principal Component Analysis (PC), in order to reduce the number of response variables. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a non-parametric test such as the Kruskal-Wallis test were also studied through the estimation of the p-value (probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to study possible relations between the concentration of both analytes and the rest of variables. We also compared LAS and insoluble soap behaviors. In addition, the results obtained for LAS (mean value) were compared with the limit value proposed by the future Directive entitled "Working Document on Sludge". According to the results, the mean obtained for soap and LAS was 26.49 g kg(-1) and 6.15 g kg(-1) respectively. It is worth noting that LAS mean was significantly higher than the limit value (2.6 g kg(-1)). In addition, LAS and soap concentrations depend largely on water hardness. However, only LAS concentration depends on treatment type.

  7. Dietary total and insoluble fiber intakes are inversely associated with prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-04-01

    Although experimental data suggest a potentially protective involvement of dietary fiber in prostate carcinogenesis, very few prospective studies have investigated the relation between dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk, and those have had inconsistent results. Our objective was to study the association between dietary fiber intake (overall, insoluble, soluble, and from different sources, such as cereals, vegetables, fruits, and legumes) and prostate cancer risk. Stratifications by excess weight status, insulin-like growth factors, and amount of alcohol intake were also considered. This prospective analysis included 3313 men from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort who completed at least 3 24-h dietary records. One hundred thirty-nine incident prostate cancers were diagnosed between 1994 and 2007 (median follow-up of 12.6 y). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk were characterized by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Prostate cancer risk was inversely associated with total dietary fiber intake (HR of quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; P = 0.001), insoluble (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.78; P = 0.001), and legume (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.95; P = 0.04) fiber intakes. In contrast, we found no association between prostate cancer risk and soluble (P = 0.1), cereal (P = 0.7), vegetable (P = 0.9), and fruit (P = 0.4) fiber intakes. In conclusion, dietary fiber intake (total, insoluble, and from legumes but not soluble or from cereals, vegetables, and fruits) was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, consistent with mechanistic data.

  8. Simulation study on insoluble granular corrosion products deposited in PWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xu; Zhou Tao; Ru Xiaolong; Lin Daping; Fang Xiaolu

    2014-01-01

    In the operation of reactor, such as fuel rods, reactor vessel internals etc. will be affected by corrosion erosion of high pressure coolant. It will produce many insoluble corrosion products. The FLUENT software is adopted to simulate insoluble granular corrosion products deposit distribution in the reactor core. The fluid phase uses the standard model to predict the flow field in the channel and forecast turbulence variation in the near-wall region. The insoluble granular corrosion products use DPM (Discrete Phase Model) to track the trajectory of the particles. The discrete phase model in FLUENT follows the Euler-Lagrange approach. The fluid phase is treated as a continuum by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, while the dispersed phase is solved by tracking a large number of particles through the calculated flow field. Through the study found, Corrosion products particles form high concentration area near the symmetry, and the entrance section of the corrosion products particles concentration is higher than export section. Corrosion products particles deposition attached on large area for the entrance of the cladding, this will change the core neutron flux distribution and the thermal conductivity of cladding material, and cause core axial offset anomaly (AOA). Corrosion products particles dot deposit in the outlet of cladding, which can lead to pitting phenomenon in a sheath. Pitting area will cause deterioration of heat transfer, destroy the cladding integrity. In view of the law of corrosion products deposition and corrosion characteristics of components in the reactor core. this paper proposes regular targeted local cleanup and other mitigation measures. (authors)

  9. VALIDACIÓN DE DOS MÉTODOS PARA LA DETERMINACIÓN DE ION AMONIO Y SULFATO INORGÁNICO COMO INDICADORES DE RIESGO DE LITIASIS RENAL EN ORINA

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Verónica Guillermina; Sobrero, María Silvina; Marsili, Nilda Raquel; Bonifasino, Rosina; Brissón, Cecilia; Pedro, Angela; Denner, Susana

    2017-01-01

    La evaluación metabólica del paciente litiásico implica la determinación de inhibidores y promotores de la litogénesis. Entre los últimos están el ion sulfato inorgánico y el ion amonio. El incremento en la excreción urinaria de sulfato contribuye a la formación de cálculos cálcicos, la de amonio los cálculos de estruvita y urato ácido de amonio. El objetivo del trabajo fue modificar y validar dos métodos analíticos tradicionales para su cuantificación. Para el primero modificó el método turb...

  10. Partitioning of metals between the aqueous phase and suspended insoluble material in fog droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Valeriana; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Mangani, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    This paper discusses the partitioning of metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) between the aqueous phase and the suspended insoluble material in fog samples collected in the Po Valley during two extensive fields campaigns. Metals represent on average 11% of the mass of suspended insoluble matter, while the main component is carbon (both organic carbon, OC = 35%, and black carbon, BC = 8%). The unaccounted suspended matter mass is very high, on average 46%, and is attributable to non metallic species, such as O and N and of Si. The principal metals in the insoluble suspended fraction are Fe and Al (2-5%), while the contributions of other metals (Na, Mg, Cu, Pb and Zn) are lower than 1%. Ca and K exhibited high blank values and could not be detected above blank detection limit threshold. The main components in the aqueous phase are NO3- (34%), WSOC (23%), SO4(2-) (18%) and NH4+ (19%), while trace metals and remaining cations and anions accounted for less than 1% of solute mass. The main dissolved trace metals in fog droplets are Zn, Al and Fe, while the main metallic cations are Na and Ca. Fe and Al are the only metals preferentially distributed in the suspended insoluble matter of fog droplets (partitioning ratio respectively 37% and 33%). All other metals are mostly dissolved in the aqueous phase (mean partitioning ratios of Mg, Pb, Zn, Cu and Na are 69%, 70%, 77%, 81% and 87%). These findings are in agreement with literature data on metal speciation in cloud and rain samples. The dependence of partitioning ratios on pH is investigated for the different metals, with only Al showing a clear partitioning ratio decrease with increasing pH. Conversely, the other metals show no dependence or a complex and highly variable behaviour. The partitioning ratio of iron (mean 37%) observed in the Po Valley fog samples is much higher than the water extractable iron in aerosol particles (typically 1-2 %): this fact can be explained by differences in the aerosol sources

  11. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine health effects resulting from inhalation of 90 Sr in relatively insoluble form. Beagle dogs were briefly exposed by inhalation to produce lung burdens of 90 Sr that ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi (4.4-3500 kBq)/kg body weight. Exposures to the higher concentrations of 90 Sr caused radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, typically resulting in death 90 Sr-exposed dogs were euthanized during the past year. One remaining exposed dog and one control dog are both 14 yr old and are being maintained for lifetime observation. (author)

  12. Pre-steady-state Kinetics for Hydrolysis of Insoluble Cellulose by Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Præstgaard, Eigil

    2012-01-01

    The transient kinetic behavior of enzyme reactions prior to the establishment of steady state is a major source of mechanistic information, yet this approach has not been utilized for cellulases acting on their natural substrate, insoluble cellulose. Here, we elucidate the pre-steady-state regime...... for the exo-acting cellulase Cel7A using amperometric biosensors and an explicit model for processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This analysis allows the identification of a pseudo-steady-state period and quantification of a processivity number as well as rate constants for the formation of a threaded enzyme...

  13. Resistencia química del hormigón. XIII.- Contribución al estudio del sistema: cemento P-450-Y hidratado-disolución de sulfato del sodio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagrera-Moreno, José Luis

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de un cemento portland industrial resistente al yeso (P-450-Y con un contenido calculado (Bogue nulo de C3A, del 10,8 % de C4AF y de 81,7 % de C3S + C2S, cuando se somete a la acción de una disolución de sulfato de sodio, con una concentración de 2,1 g/l de Na2SO4, < > 1,42 g/l de SO4 (II < > 1,48 X 102 moles/litro de SO4 (II, que atraviesa sendos lechos granulados fabricados con dicho cemento, una vez hidratado y curado a edades distintas, determinando: a La evolución del contenido de iones Ca (II y SO4 (II de las diversas fracciones recogidas de la disolución de sulfato de sodio, que ha atravesado los lechos de cemento, así como la del pH y de la conductividad. b La variación del contenido de los mencionados iones, que se encuentran formando compuestos, en el cemento de los lechos cuando se someten a la acción de la disolución de sulfato de sodio. c Las modificaciones estructurales experimentadas por los compuestos cristalinos del cemento hidratado de los lechos, sometidos a la acción de dicha disolución de sulfato de sodio.

  14. Uso do sulfato de magnésio venoso para tratamento da asma aguda grave da criança no pronto-socorro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Mara Baraky Bittar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A asma aguda grave é uma emergência médica que deve ser diagnosticada e tratada rapidamente. O tratamento inicial inclui broncodilatadores e corticosteróides sistêmicos. Em casos graves, com fraca resposta ao tratamento padrão, o sulfato de magnésio venoso surge como opção terapêutica. O objetivo deste artigo foi revisar a literatura sobre o uso do sulfato de magnésio venoso na asma aguda em crianças no pronto-socorro no que se refere a eficácia, indicação, dosagem, efeitos adversos e contraindicações. Realizada revisão narrativa por meio das Bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e Cochrane Database of Systmatic Reviews, entre 2000 e 2010. Utilizados os descritores: asthma, children, emergency, magnesium sulfate. Incluídos oito ensaios clínicos controlados, três meta-análises, um estudo retrospectivo, oito artigos de revisão e um estudo transversal. A eficácia do magnésio venoso em crianças foi observada por vários autores, com raros efeitos adversos. Seu uso foi indicado para os pacientes com asma aguda moderada e grave que não responderam ao tratamento inicial com broncodilatador e corticosteróide. As contraindicações em pediatria são poucas. Entre elas estão insuficiência renal e bloqueio atrioventricular. Existem poucos relatos da interação do magnésio com drogas de uso pediátrico. Apesar da segurança, na prática, o magnésio venoso é pouco usado na asma aguda em pediatria. Na maioria das vezes, é indicado tardiamente para impedir falência respiratória e internação na unidade de cuidados intensivos. Os estudos demonstram que o magnésio venoso é uma droga eficaz e segura na criança com asma aguda grave, porém o seu uso no pronto-socorro ainda é limitado.

  15. Contribuciones de las organizaciones del tercer sector a la inserción social y laboral de los jóvenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Richer

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En la última década, se ha producido en Venezuela un incremento espectacular en el número de ONGs que ejecutan programas sociales con financiamiento público. En la literatura, existe una lectura optimista de este fenómeno, que se asocia al desarrollo de la sociedad civil y del capital so- cial. Otros autores son más críticos frente a la identificación que se hace entreONGy “lo público no estatal”. Este trabajo intenta, a partir de las definiciones que dan algunos autores de la especificidad de las organizaciones del tercer sector o de la economía social, caracterizar las contribuciones de al- gunas ONGs venezolanas en el campo de la formación e inserción laboral de los jóvenes desertores de la educación formal. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación realizada en el período 1999-2000, y que consistió en el estudio de cinco casos de ONGs de capacitación, ubicadas en las ciudades de Maracaibo y Mérida.

  16. Contribuciones para la reflexión: Conflictos ambientales y territorio. En la búsqueda de una complementariedad teórico-conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Toledo López

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo procura dar cuenta de las contribuciones del enfoque geográfico en general y del concepto de “territorio”, en particular, en relación al estudio de los conflictos ambientales. Ello se realiza a través de un desarrollo teórico-conceptual que permite delimitar la esfera de significado de estos conceptos. Enunciando primeramente cómo son entendidos los conflictos ambientales desde la Ecología Política, luego se define el espacio, el espacio geográfico y el territorio, para luego ejercitar su interrelación. Se concluye que es posible encontrar fuertes puntos de diálogo entre el territorio en tanto concepto geográfico y el abordaje de los conflictos ambientales aquí desarrollado. Se considera por lo tanto que el análisis de la dinámica que adquiere el territorio constituye un punto de partida ineludible para la comprensión de la complejidad inherente a la conflictividad ambiental.

  17. Las políticas sociales de dependencia en España: contribuciones y consecuencias para los ancianos y sus cuidadores informales

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    Bibiana Escuredo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la evolución de la protección social de la dependencia en España desde la década de los noventa hasta el momento actual y se plantean las consecuencias de la falta de acuerdo político respecto a las medidas a implementar. Se analizan los elementos en los que se basan las políticas de dependencia, resaltando sus aspectos positivos y negativos, así como las consecuencias para los ancianos y sus cuidadores informales. También se pone de manifiesto cómo, ante la posibilidad de quiebra del papel de la familia en el cuidado de los dependientes, se están implementando políticas que tienen como objetivo reforzar el rol cuidador de la familia y que se enmarcan dentro de la denominada "Conciliación de la Vida Familiar y Laboral". Estas políticas, más allá de sus contribuciones positivas, implican también importantes costes personales y de oportunidad para los cuidadores informales.

  18. Comparative characteristics of the insoluble part of organic matter of sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuprin, P.N.; Sorokin, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    Comparative characteristics are presented for the composition of the insoluble part of organic matter (IOM) of sediments of offshore basins from different climate zones. The IOM of the Holocene sediments of the White Sea is characterized by a significant admixture which has a terrestrial (plant) origin. The IOM of the Holocene sediments of the Sidra gulf of the Mediterranean Sea, having a clearly planktonogenic origin is distinguished by significant acidity. The IOM of the middle Wurm deposits record admixture of compounds inherent to terrestrial vegetation. A similar composition of IOM can be associated partially with increase in the role of the terrigenous organic chemistry during the interglacial thawing, and partially with oxidation of the original organic matter. The insoluble part of concentrated and scattered differences in the organic matter of deep-sea Holocene sediments and late Miocene deposits of the Black Sea is characterized by sapropel composition and was formed through phytoplanktons. In this case greater degree of transformation of the IOM from the C /SUB org/ -enriched late Miocene deposits is found as compared to the IOM of the sapropel-like Holocene sediments.

  19. SUMO-2 and PIAS1 Modulate Insoluble Mutant Huntingtin Protein Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Gire O’Rourke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A key feature in Huntington disease (HD is the accumulation of mutant Huntingtin (HTT protein, which may be regulated by posttranslational modifications. Here, we define the primary sites of SUMO modification in the amino-terminal domain of HTT, show modification downstream of this domain, and demonstrate that HTT is modified by the stress-inducible SUMO-2. A systematic study of E3 SUMO ligases demonstrates that PIAS1 is an E3 SUMO ligase for both HTT SUMO-1 and SUMO-2 modification and that reduction of dPIAS in a mutant HTT Drosophila model is protective. SUMO-2 modification regulates accumulation of insoluble HTT in HeLa cells in a manner that mimics proteasome inhibition and can be modulated by overexpression and acute knockdown of PIAS1. Finally, the accumulation of SUMO-2-modified proteins in the insoluble fraction of HD postmortem striata implicates SUMO-2 modification in the age-related pathogenic accumulation of mutant HTT and other cellular proteins that occurs during HD progression.

  20. Neuromelanins of human brain have soluble and insoluble components with dolichols attached to the melanic structure.

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    Mireille Engelen

    Full Text Available Neuromelanins (NMs are neuronal pigments of melanic-lipidic type which accumulate during aging. They are involved in protective and degenerative mechanisms depending on the cellular context, however their structures are still poorly understood. NMs from nine human brain areas were analyzed in detail. Elemental analysis led to identification of three types of NM, while infrared spectroscopy showed that NMs from neurons of substantia nigra and locus coeruleus, which selectively degenerate in Parkinson's disease, have similar structure but different from NMs from brain regions not targeted by the disease. Synthetic melanins containing Fe and bovine serum albumin were prepared to model the natural product and help clarifying the structure of NMs. Extensive nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies showed the presence of dolichols both in the soluble and insoluble parts of NM. Diffusion measurements demonstrated that the dimethyl sulfoxide soluble components consist of oligomeric precursors with MWs in the range 1.4-52 kDa, while the insoluble part contains polymers of larger size but with a similar composition. These data suggest that the selective vulnerability of neurons of substantia nigra and locus coeruleus in Parkinson's disease might depend on the structure of the pigment. Moreover, they allow to propose a pathway for NM biosynthesis in human brain.

  1. Characterisation of detergent-insoluble membranes in pollen tubes of Nicotiana tabacum (L.

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    Alessandra Moscatelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollen tubes are the vehicle for sperm cell delivery to the embryo sac during fertilisation of Angiosperms. They provide an intriguing model for unravelling mechanisms of growing to extremes. The asymmetric distribution of lipids and proteins in the pollen tube plasma membrane modulates ion fluxes and actin dynamics and is maintained by a delicate equilibrium between exocytosis and endocytosis. The structural constraints regulating polarised secretion and asymmetric protein distribution on the plasma membrane are mostly unknown. To address this problem, we investigated whether ordered membrane microdomains, namely membrane rafts, might contribute to sperm cell delivery. Detergent insoluble membranes, rich in sterols and sphingolipids, were isolated from tobacco pollen tubes. MALDI TOF/MS analysis revealed that actin, prohibitins and proteins involved in methylation reactions and in phosphoinositide pattern regulation are specifically present in pollen tube detergent insoluble membranes. Tubulins, voltage-dependent anion channels and proteins involved in membrane trafficking and signalling were also present. This paper reports the first evidence of membrane rafts in Angiosperm pollen tubes, opening new perspectives on the coordination of signal transduction, cytoskeleton dynamics and polarised secretion.

  2. Expression of Insoluble Influenza Neuraminidase Type 1 (NA1 Protein in Tobacco

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    Teen Lee Pua

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The avian influenza virus, particularly H5N1 strain, is highly virulent to poultry and mankind. Several expression systems, like yeast, baculovirus and mammalian cells, have been adopted to produce vaccine candidate for this lethal disease. The present research aimed at developing a recombinant vaccine candidate, neuraminidase type 1 (NA1, for the Malaysia isolate of H5N1 in Nicotiana benthamiana. The NA1 gene was fused directly in-frame in cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV-based pEAQ-HT vector with C-terminal polyhistidine-tag incorporated to ease the subsequent purification step. The expression of the NA1 gene in tobacco was confirmed at RNA and protein levels at 6 days post-infiltration (Dpi. From the insoluble fraction of the protein, a recombinant glycosylated NA1 protein with a molecular weight of ~56 kDa was immunogenically detected by a specific anti-NA polyclonal antibody. We report for the first time the insolubility of the plant-made NA1 protein where a native sequence was used for its expression. This study signifies the necessity of the use of optimised sequences for expression work and provides great opportunity for the exploration of plant-manufactured NA1 protein as vaccine candidate.

  3. Use of Hydrophilic Insoluble Polymers in the Restoration of Metal-Contaminated Soils

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    Guiwei Qu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop cost-effective techniques that contribute to phytostabilization of severely metal-contaminated soils is a necessary task in environmental research. Hydrophilic insoluble polymers have been used for some time in diapers and other hygienic products and to increase the water-holding capacity of coarse-textured soils. These polymers contain groups, such as carboxyl groups, that are capable of forming bonds with metallic cations, thereby decreasing their bioavailability in soils. The use of polyacrylate polymers as soil amendments to restore metal-contaminated soils has been investigated in the Technical University of Lisbon since the late nineties. Plant growth and plant nutrients concentrations, extractable levels of metals in soil, and soil enzyme activities were used to monitor the improvement in soil quality following the application of these polymers. In contaminated soils, hydrophilic insoluble polymers can create microcosms that are rich in water and nutrients (counterions but only contain small concentrations of toxic elements; the conditions of these microenvironments are favorable to roots and microorganisms. In this paper we described the most relevant information available about this topic.

  4. Nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs using a novel spray-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafroth, Nina; Arpagaus, Cordin; Jadhav, Umesh Y; Makne, Sushil; Douroumis, Dennis

    2012-02-01

    In the current study nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs was conducted using a novel piezoelectric spray-drying approach. Cyclosporin A (CyA) and dexamethasone (DEX) were encapsulated in biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) grades of different molecular weights. Spray-drying studies carried out with the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 employed with piezoelectric driven actuator. The processing parameters including inlet temperature, spray mesh diameter, sample flow rate, spray rate, applied pressure and sample concentration were examined in order to optimize the particle size and the obtained yield. The process parameters and the solute concentration showed a profound effect on the particle engineering and the obtained product yield. The produced powder presented consistent and reproducible spherical particles with narrow particle size distribution. Cyclosporin was found to be molecularly dispersed while dexamethasone was in crystalline state within the PLGA nanoparticles. Further evaluation revealed excellent drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and production yield. In vitro studies demonstrated sustained release patterns for the active substances. This novel spray-drying process proved to be efficient for nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble active substances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Resistencia química del hormigón. XIV.- Contribución al estudio del sistema: Cemento P-450-Y hidratado-disolución de sulfato de magnesio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bermejo-Muñoz, M. Francisca

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de un cemento portland industrial resistente al yeso (P-450-Y con un contenido calculado (Bogue nulo de C3A, del 10,8 % de C4AF y de 81,7 % de C3S + C2S, cuando se somete a la acción de una disolución de sulfato de magnesio, con una concentración de 2,76 g/l de MgSO4.7 H2O < > 1,12 X 10-2 moles/litro de SO4 (II < > 1,12 X 10-2 moles/litro de Mg (II, que atraviesa sendos lechos granulados fabricados con dicho cemento, una vez hidratado y curado durante distintos períodos de tiempo, determinando: a La evolución del contenido de iones Ca (II, Mg (II y SO4 (II en las diversas fracciones recogidas de la disolución de sulfato de magnesio, que han atravesado los lechos de cemento, así como la del pH y de la conductividad. b La variación del contenido de los mencionados iones, que se encuentran formando compuestos, en el cemento de los lechos, cuando se someten a la acción de la mencionada disolución de sulfato de magnesio. c Las modificaciones estructurales experimentadas por los compuestos cristalinos del cemento hidratado de los lechos, sometidos a la acción de dicha disolución de sulfato de magnesio. d La identificación de los compuestos cristalinos de la nueva fase sólida formada en las diversas fracciones recogidas de la disolución de sulfato de magnesio, que atravesaron los lechos de cemento.

  6. É seguro não utilizar sulfato de magnésio nas pacientes com pré-eclâmpsia? Is it safe to withold magnesium sulfate in preeclamptic women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Lopes Ramos

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar a capacidade do sulfato de magnésio na prevenção da eclâmpsia em um grupo de gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia. Métodos: estudo caso-controle em 489 gestantes com o diagnóstico de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS internadas no HCPA no período de janeiro de 1990 a janeiro de 1997. Para a aferição dos dados, as gestantes foram divididas em dois grupos: as que fizeram uso de sulfato de magnésio (grupo I e as que não fizeram uso do sulfato de magnésio (grupo II. Todas as pacientes foram manejadas de acordo com o protocolo do Serviço de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia do HCPA para tratamento de gestantes com HAS. Foram aferidas as seguintes variáveis: idade materna, raça, número de convulsões, número de convulsões em gestantes com uso de sulfato de magnésio, tempo de uso de sulfato de magnésio antes e após o parto, mortalidade materna; necessidade de internação em UTI, necessidade de ventilação assistida, e tempo de internação após o parto. Os dados foram avaliados por meio do pacote estatístico Epi-Info 6.0 com análise multivariada. A principal medida foi o uso de sulfato de magnésio. Resultados: não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos de usuárias ou não de sulfato de magnésio quanto à idade materna, idade gestacional ou raça. As gestantes que receberam MgSO4 apresentaram médias de pressões diastólica e sistólica significativamente maiores. O grupo de usuárias de sulfato de magnésio teve maior tempo de internação hospitalar e mais necessidade de internação em UTI. A necessidade de uso de respirador artificial e o índice de morte materna foram semelhantes nos dois grupos. Vinte e duas pacientes das 353 gestantes apresentaram uma ou mais convulsões antes da internação. Seis gestantes (27,3% apresentaram um ou dois novos episódios de convulsão e nenhuma paciente apresentou três ou mais convulsões após o uso sulfato de MgSO4. Conclusões: os resultados do

  7. VANAM multi-compartment aerosol depletion test M2* with insoluble aerosol material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzleiter, T.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the experimental data of VANAM experiment M2'. It was performed with an insoluble aerosol material (SnO 2 ) like the previous experiment M2 but under a modified test procedure and with an improved instrumentation. The modified test procedure of M2' which led to more distinct results, should be chosen also for the subsequent VANAM tests with other aerosol materials. The most important results are: Significantly different aerosol depletion rates in a ''dry'' steam-air atmosphere (saturated or slightly superheated conditions) or in a ''wet'' atmosphere (supersaturated conditions, fog formation). Due to diverse depletion rates, local aerosol concentration differences within the multi-compartment containment geometry develop during the experiment, reaching two orders of magnitude. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Source attribution of insoluble light-absorbing particles in seasonal snow across northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Hegg, D. A.; Huang, J.; Fu, Q.

    2013-06-01

    Seasonal snow samples obtained at 46 sites in 6 provinces of China in January and February 2010 were analyzed for a suite of chemical species and these data are combined with previously determined concentrations of insoluble light-absorbing particles (ILAP), including all particles that absorb light in the 650-700 nm wavelength interval. The ILAP, together with 14 other analytes, are used as input to a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to explore the sources of ILAP in the snow. The PMF analysis for ILAP sources is augmented with backward trajectory cluster analysis and the geographic locations of major source areas for the three source types. The two analyses are consistent and indicate that three factors/sources were responsible for the measured light absorption of snow: a soil dust source, an industrial pollution source, and a biomass and / or biofuel burning source. Soil dust was the main source of the ILAP, accounting for ~53% of ILAP on average.

  9. [Soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber in raw and cooked legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, I M; González, E P; Romero, J G

    1998-06-01

    Soluble (SDF), Insoluble (IDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were analysed in 26 samples of the following legumes: Peas (Pisum sativum L) coated and uncoated; beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), beans (Vigna sinesis L), chick peas (Cicer arietinum L), lentils (Lens culinaris L) and pigeon peas (Cajanus indicus L) raw and cooked, purchased at wholesale level. The AOAC enzimatic-gravimetric method (1990) was used. The cooked grains were drained and dried before analysis. Values for TDF in the raw legumes were 13.6 and 28.9% in chick peas and white beans respectively. In processed grains, values varied from 16.1 and 27.0% in yellow peas uncoated and black beans respectively. As expected the values for IDF were greater in all samples than those for SDF.

  10. Lattice site occupation of insoluble impurity atoms in aluminium after implantation and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloska, M.K.

    1987-03-01

    Several elements, whose atoms are oversized and insoluble in aluminium, were implanted in aluminium single crystals at different temperatures. The substitutional fraction and the lattice site location were determined using the ion-channeling technique. The substitutional fractions obtained by in situ analyses are strongly dependent on the implantation temperature. At implantation and analysis temperatures below the temperature of stage III the substitutional fraction is significant larger than at temperatures above. With increasing heat of solution the substitutional fraction decreases for all implantation temperatures. The nonsubstitutional component consists of impurity atom-vacancy complexes. These complexes are formed in the cooling phase of the cascade. At temperatures above the temperature of stage III additional free mobile vacancies were captured by the impurity atoms. The capture radius is correlated with the heat of solution and the size mismatch energy. The results constitute for the first time an experimental confirmation of molecular dynamics calculations of cascade evolution. (orig./BHO)

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK SOIL HUMIN AND ITS ALKALINE-SOLUBLE AND ALKALINE-INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilan Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances are the major components of soil organic matter. Among the three humic substance components (humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin, humin is the most insoluble in aqueous solution at any pH value and, in turn, the least understood. Humin has poor solubility mainly because it is tightly bonded to inorganic soil colloids. By breaking the linkage between humin and inorganic soil colloids using inorganic or organic solvents, bulk humin can be partially soluble in alkali, enabling a better understanding of the structure and properties of humin. However, the structural relationship between bulk humin and its alkaline-soluble (AS and alkaline-insoluble (AIS fractions is still unknown. In this study, we isolated bulk humin from two soils of Northeast China by exhaustive extraction (25 to 28 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH + 0.1 mol L-1 Na4P2O7, followed by the traditional treatment with 10 % HF-HCl. The isolated bulk humin was then fractionated into AS-humin and AIS-humin by exhaustive extraction (12 to 15 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH. Elemental analysis and solid-state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize and compare the chemical structures of bulk humin and its corresponding fractions. The results showed that, regardless of soil types, bulk humin was the most aliphatic and most hydrophobic, AS-humin was the least aliphatic, and AIS-humin was the least alkylated among the three humic components. The results showed that bulk humin and its corresponding AS-humin and AIS-humin fractions are structurally differed from one another, implying that the functions of these humic components in the soil environment differed.

  12. A minichaperone-based fusion system for producing insoluble proteins in soluble stable forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapova, Olga A; Yurkova, Maria S; Fedorov, Alexey N

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a fusion system for reliable production of insoluble hydrophobic proteins in soluble stable forms. A carrier is thermophilic minichaperone, GroEL apical domain (GrAD), a 15 kDa monomer able to bind diverse protein substrates. The Met-less variant of GrAD has been made for further convenient use of Met-specific CNBr chemical cleavage, if desired. The Met-less GrAD retained stability and solubility of the original protein. Target polypeptides can be fused to either C-terminus or N-terminus of GrAD. The system has been tested with two unrelated insoluble proteins fused to the C-terminus of GrAD. One of the proteins was also fused to GrAD N-terminus. The fusions formed inclusion bodies at 25°C and above and were partly soluble only at lower expression temperatures. Most importantly, however, after denaturation in urea, all fusions without exception were completely renatured in soluble stable forms that safely survived freezing-thawing as well as lyophilization. All fusions for both tested target proteins retained solubility at high concentrations for days. Functional analysis revealed that a target protein may retain functionality in the fusion. Convenience features include potential thermostability of GrAD fusions, capacity for chemical and enzymatic cleavage of a target and His6 tag for purification. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Protective value of immune responses developed in goats vaccinated with insoluble proteins from Sarcoptes Scabiei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Tarigan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines developed from certain membrane proteins lining the lumen of arthropod’s gut have been demonstrated effective in the control of some arthropod ectoparasites. A similar approach could also be applied to Sarcoptes scabiei since this parasite also ingests its host immunoglobulins. To evaluate immune protection of the membrane proteins, insoluble mite proteins were fractionated by successive treatment in the solutions of 1.14 M NaCl, 2% SB 3-14 Zwitterion detergent, 6 M urea, 6 M guanidine-HCl and 5% SDS. Five groups of goats (6 or 7 goats per group were immunised respectively with the protein fractions. Vaccination was performed 6 times, each with a dosage of 250 μg proteins, and 3 week intervals between vaccination. Group 6 (7 goats received PBS and adjuvant only, and served as an unvaccinated control. One week after the last vaccination, all goats were challenged with 2000 live mites on the auricles. The development of lesions were examined at 1 day, 2 days, and then every week from week 1 to 8. All animals were bled and weighed every week, and at the end of the experiment, skin scrapings were collected to determine the mite burden. Antibody responses induced by vaccination and challenge were examined by ELISA and Western blotting. This experiment showed that vaccination with the insoluble-protein fractions resulted in the development of high level of specific antibodies but the responses did not have any protective value. The severity of lesions and mite burden in the vaccinated animals were not different from those in the unvaccinated control.

  14. Use of anionic denaturing detergents to purify insoluble proteins after overexpression

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    Schlager Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Many proteins form insoluble protein aggregates, called “inclusion bodies”, when overexpressed in E. coli. This is the biggest obstacle in biotechnology. Ever since the reversible denaturation of proteins by chaotropic agents such as urea or guanidinium hydrochloride had been shown, these compounds were predominantly used to dissolve inclusion bodies. Other denaturants exist but have received much less attention in protein purification. While the anionic, denaturing detergent sodiumdodecylsulphate (SDS is used extensively in analytical SDS-PAGE, it has rarely been used in preparative purification. Results Here we present a simple and versatile method to purify insoluble, hexahistidine-tagged proteins under denaturing conditions. It is based on dissolution of overexpressing bacterial cells in a buffer containing sodiumdodecylsulfate (SDS and whole-lysate denaturation of proteins. The excess of detergent is removed by cooling and centrifugation prior to affinity purification. Host- and overexpressed proteins do not co-precipitate with SDS and the residual concentration of detergent is compatible with affinity purification on Ni/NTA resin. We show that SDS can be replaced with another ionic detergent, Sarkosyl, during purification. Key advantages over denaturing purification in urea or guanidinium are speed, ease of use, low cost of denaturant and the compatibility of buffers with automated FPLC. Conclusion Ionic, denaturing detergents are useful in breaking the solubility barrier, a major obstacle in biotechnology. The method we present yields detergent-denatured protein. Methods to refold proteins from a detergent denatured state are known and therefore we propose that the procedure presented herein will be of general application in biotechnology.

  15. NBR1-mediated selective autophagy targets insoluble ubiquitinated protein aggregates in plant stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhou

    Full Text Available Plant autophagy plays an important role in delaying senescence, nutrient recycling, and stress responses. Functional analysis of plant autophagy has almost exclusively focused on the proteins required for the core process of autophagosome assembly, but little is known about the proteins involved in other important processes of autophagy, including autophagy cargo recognition and sequestration. In this study, we report functional genetic analysis of Arabidopsis NBR1, a homolog of mammalian autophagy cargo adaptors P62 and NBR1. We isolated two nbr1 knockout mutants and discovered that they displayed some but not all of the phenotypes of autophagy-deficient atg5 and atg7 mutants. Like ATG5 and ATG7, NBR1 is important for plant tolerance to heat, oxidative, salt, and drought stresses. The role of NBR1 in plant tolerance to these abiotic stresses is dependent on its interaction with ATG8. Unlike ATG5 and ATG7, however, NBR1 is dispensable in age- and darkness-induced senescence and in resistance to a necrotrophic pathogen. A selective role of NBR1 in plant responses to specific abiotic stresses suggest that plant autophagy in diverse biological processes operates through multiple cargo recognition and delivery systems. The compromised heat tolerance of atg5, atg7, and nbr1 mutants was associated with increased accumulation of insoluble, detergent-resistant proteins that were highly ubiquitinated under heat stress. NBR1, which contains an ubiquitin-binding domain, also accumulated to high levels with an increasing enrichment in the insoluble protein fraction in the autophagy-deficient mutants under heat stress. These results suggest that NBR1-mediated autophagy targets ubiquitinated protein aggregates most likely derived from denatured or otherwise damaged nonnative proteins generated under stress conditions.

  16. Spatial distribution and potential sources of trace metals in insoluble particles of snow from Urumqi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolan; Jiang, Fengqing; Wang, Shaoping; Turdi, Muyesser; Zhang, Zhaoyong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize trace elements in snow in urban-suburb gradient over Urumqi city, China. The spatial distribution patterns of 11 trace metals in insoluble particulate matters of snow were revealed by using 102 snow samples collected in and around urban areas of Urumqi, a city suffering from severe wintertime air pollution in China. Similar spatial distribution for Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Pb was found and their two significant high-value areas located in the west and east, respectively, and a high-value area in the south, which were correlated with factory emissions, traffic activities, and construction fugitive dust. The high-value areas of Cr, Ni, and V occurred in the northeast corner and along main traffic paths, which were linked to oil refinery and vehicular emissions. High value of Be presented in the west of the city. The high-value area of Co in the northeast could be related to local soil. Cd and U displayed relatively even spatial patterns in the urban area. In view of distance from the urban center, e.g., from the first circular belt to the fourth circular belt, except Be, V, Cd, and U, the contents of other metals generally decreased from the first circular belt to the forth circular belt, implying the effect of human activity clearly. Additionally, prevailing northwesterly winds and occasionally southeasterly winds in winter were associated with decreased, generally, concentrations of trace metal in snow from the urban center to the southern suburb along a northwest and southeast transect. The information on concentrations and spatial distributions of these metals in insoluble particles of snow in winter will be valuable for further environmental protection and planning.

  17. Contribuciones de la biblioteca universitaria a la internacionalización del campus: análisis sistemático de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Sánchez-Tarragó

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Los procesos de internacionalización universitaria constituyen respuesta adaptativa a un contexto mundial signado por la globalización, que implica, grosso modo, mayor interrelación política, económica y social entre países y regiones. En este contexto, es válido preguntarse cuál es el papel y las contribuciones de la biblioteca universitaria en los procesos de internacionalización del campus, teniendo en cuenta que, históricamente, su razón de ser ha sido servir de apoyo a la universidad en el desarrollo de sus funciones. Para encontrar respuestas se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura publicada en Ciencia de la información entre el 2005 y el 2015 y un análisis bibliométrico de esa producción científica. Se constató un crecimiento continuo de la investigación publicada, liderada por bibliotecarios de Estados Unidos, China y Canadá, que abordan diferentes aristas del trabajo bibliotecario que apoyan tanto la educación transnacional como la internacionalización ‘en casa’: servicios bibliotecarios para apoyar estudiantes y programas en el exterior, programas de alfabetización informacional, estudios sobre la influencia de las diferencias culturales y lingüísticas en la comunicación y los servicios, desarrollo de colecciones, entre otras. Se identificaron recomendaciones para la práctica bibliotecaria relacionadas con estrategias administrativas, de servicios, infraestructura, formación e investigación.

  18. Enzymatic Xylose Release from Pretreated Corn Bran Arabinoxylan: Differential Effects of Deacetylation and Deferuloylation on Insoluble and Soluble Substrate Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Viksø-Nielsen, Ander; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work enzymatic hydrolysis of arabinoxylan from pretreated corn bran (190 °C, 10 min) was evaluated by measuring the release of xylose and arabinose after treatment with a designed minimal mixture of monocomponent enzymes consisting of α-l-arabinofuranosidases, an endoxylanase......, and a β-xylosidase. The pretreatment divided the corn bran material 50:50 into soluble and insoluble fractions having A:X ratios of 0.66 and 0.40, respectively. Addition of acetyl xylan esterase to the monocomponent enzyme mixture almost doubled the xylose release from the insoluble substrate fraction...

  19. Uso diário e semanal de sulfato ferroso no tratamento de anemia em mulheres no período reprodutivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Maria do Carmo dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante um ensaio terapêutico randomizado e cego em 193 mulheres (15-45 anos de idade anêmicas (Hb<12mg/dl e "menstruantes", comparou-se a ação e a adesão ao tratamento com sulfato ferroso (60 mg de Fe elementar, administrado em doses diárias e semanais, em uma comunidade de baixa renda do Recife-PE. Após 12 semanas de tratamento, 150 mulheres chegaram ao final do ensaio, sendo 79 do esquema semanal e 71 do diário. As médias de Hb antes do tratamento foram, respectivamente, 10,52 g/dl (DP = 1,13 e 10,72 g/dl (DP = 0,92 para o esquema alternativo e convencional. Após a intervenção, as médias de Hb alcançaram 11,83 g/dl (DP = 0,97 no esquema semanal e 11,62 g/dl (DP = 1,39 no diário. Não houve significância estatística (p = 0,22 entre as diferenças de médias nos dois esquemas terapêuticos, embora o percentual de cura (48,1% tenha sido maior no tratamento semanal, quando comparado ao diário (36,6%. Conclui-se que o esquema de tratamento semanal teve a mesma eficácia do diário. A aceitação ao tratamento no primeiro mês foi melhor no esquema semanal, não havendo, entretanto, diferenças nos dois meses subseqüentes.

  20. Tratamento da Eclâmpsia: Estudo Comparativo entre o Sulfato de Magnésio e a Fenitoína Treatment of Eclampsia: Comparative Study on the Use of Magnesium Sulfate and Phenytoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Deus Valadares Neto

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: comparar a eficácia do sulfato de magnésio e da fenitoína no controle das convulsões em pacientes com eclâmpsia e avaliar os efeitos de sulfato de magnésio e da fenitoína sobre o prognóstico materno e perinatal em pacientes com eclâmpsia. Métodos: estudo prospectivo, randômico e controlado no qual foram analisados, de forma comparativa, os resultados obtidos no tratamento anticonvulsivante da eclâmpsia em 77 mulheres tratadas com sulfato de magnésio ou fenitoína. As drogas que constituíram os dois esquemas terapêuticos foram distribuídas, na proporção de um para um, em caixas numeradas aleatoriamente que apresentavam características semelhantes. À medida que cada paciente era admitida, uma caixa era aberta e o esquema nela contido administrado à paciente. Resultados: observou-se que, no grupo tratado com sulfato de magnésio, 19,5% das pacientes apresentaram recidiva de convulsões, ao passo que no grupo que usou fenitoína, 36,1% manifestaram novas crises (p0,05. Conclusões: o sulfato de magnésio mostrou-se mais eficaz que a fenitoína no controle e prevenção da recidiva de convulsões em pacientes com eclâmpsia, embora sua utilização esteja associada a maior prevalência materna de hemorragia pós-parto e desconforto respiratório neonatal. A fenitoína apresenta-se como droga alternativa para o tratamento de eclâmpsia nos casos em que houver contra-indicação ao uso do sulfato de magnésio.Purpose: to compare the efficiency between magnesium sulfate and phenytoin in the control of convulsions in patients with eclampsia and to evaluate the effects of magnesium sulfate and phenytoin on the maternal and perinatal prognosis in patients with eclampsia. Methods: this is a prospective, randomized and controlled study in which the results obtained with the use of anticonvulsive treatment in 77 women with eclampsia, treated with either magnesium sulfate or phenytoin, were analyzed comparatively. The drugs

  1. Custom fabrication of biomass containment devices using 3-D printing enables bacterial growth analyses with complex insoluble substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Cassandra E; Beri, Nina R; Gardner, Jeffrey G

    2016-11-01

    Physiological studies of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation are challenging for several reasons, one of which is the difficulty in obtaining a reproducibly accurate real-time measurement of bacterial growth using insoluble substrates. Current methods suffer from several problems including (i) high background noise due to the insoluble material interspersed with cells, (ii) high consumable and reagent cost and (iii) significant time delay between sampling and data acquisition. A customizable substrate and cell separation device would provide an option to study bacterial growth using optical density measurements. To test this hypothesis we used 3-D printing to create biomass containment devices that allow interaction between insoluble substrates and microbial cells but do not interfere with spectrophotometer measurements. Evaluation of materials available for 3-D printing indicated that UV-cured acrylic plastic was the best material, being superior to nylon or stainless steel when examined for heat tolerance, reactivity, and ability to be sterilized. Cost analysis of the 3-D printed devices indicated they are a competitive way to quantitate bacterial growth compared to viable cell counting or protein measurements, and experimental conditions were scalable over a 100-fold range. The presence of the devices did not alter growth phenotypes when using either soluble substrates or insoluble substrates. We applied biomass containment to characterize growth of Cellvibrio japonicus on authentic lignocellulose (non-pretreated corn stover), and found physiological evidence that xylan is a significant nutritional source despite an abundance of cellulose present. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel strategy to produce highly stable and transparent aqueous 'nanosolutions' of water-insoluble drug molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiexin; Zhang Zhibing; Le Yuan; Chen Jianfeng; Zhao Hong

    2011-01-01

    A surprisingly large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water-insoluble and, as a result, have poor oral bioavailability. To overcome insolubility, the drug particles are usually dispersed in a medium during product formation, but large particles that are formed may affect product performance and safety. Many techniques have been used to produce nanodispersions-dispersions with nanometre-scale dimensions-that have properties similar to solutions. However, making nanodispersions requires complex processing, and it is difficult to achieve stability over long periods. In this paper, we report a generic method for preparing drug nanoparticles with a combination of antisolvent precipitation in the presence of water-soluble matrices and spray-drying. The spray-dried powder composites (solid dispersion) are microspherical, highly stable and thus form transparent nanodispersions or so-called 'nanosolutions' of water-insoluble drug when simply added to water. Aqueous nanodispersions of silybin (a kind of water-insoluble drug for liver protection) with an average size of 25 nm produced with this approach display a 10 times faster dissolution rate than that of raw drug. This has great potential to offer a novel solution for innovative drugs of the future.

  3. Hydroxyl radical production by a heterogeneous Fenton reaction supported in insoluble tannin from bark of Pinus radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Romina; Contreras, David; Segura, Cristina; Schwederski, Brigitte; Kaim, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    Fenton reactions driven by dihydroxybenzenes (DHBs) have been used for pollutant removal via advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), but such systems have the disadvantage of DHB release into the aqueous phase. In this work, insoluble tannins from bark can be used to drive Fenton reactions and as a heterogeneous support. This avoids the release of DHBs into the aqueous phase and can be used for AOPs. The production of ·OH was investigated using a spin-trapping electron paramagnetic resonance technique (5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide/·OH) in the first minute of the reaction and a high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence technique (coumarin/7-hydroxycoumarin) for 20 min. The ·OH yield achieved using insoluble tannins from Pinus radiata bark was higher than that achieved using catechin to drive the Fenton reaction. The Fenton-like system driven by insoluble tannins achieved 92.6 ± 0.3 % degradation of atrazine in 30 min. The degradation kinetics of atrazine was linearly correlated with ·OH production. The increased reactivity in ·OH production and insolubility of the ligand are promising for the development of a new technique for degradation of pollutants in wastewater using heterogeneous Fenton systems.

  4. Comparative fermentation of insoluble carbohydrates in an in vitro human feces model spiked with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Anne; van Zanten, Gabriella C.; Jensen, Susanne L.

    2013-01-01

    by each insoluble carbohydrate resulting in a clear decrease in the ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Notably, all carbohydrates tested appeared to block the formation of the potentially harmful branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) fermentation products, but supported lactobacilli growth and increase...

  5. Overview of insoluble radioactive cesium particles emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Yukihiko

    2017-04-01

    In the early stage of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (F1NPS) accident, number of spot type contamination has been observed in computed autoradiography (Kashimura 2013, Shibata 2013, Satou 2014). It's means presence of radioactive particles, however, insoluble cesium particle was overlooked because cesium, which is dominant radioactive element in the accident, becomes ionized in the environment. Adachi et al. (2013) showed presence of cesium (Cs)-bearing particles within air dust sample collected at Tsukuba, 170 km south from the Fukushima site, in midnight of 14 to morning of 15 March 2011. These particles were micrometer order small particles and Cs was could be detectable as element using an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). However, other radioactive elements such as Co-60, Ru-103 and uranium, which were dominant element of radioactive particles delivered from Chernobyl accident, could not detected. Abe et al. (2014) employed a synchrotron radiation (SR)-micro(μ)-X-ray analysis to the Cs-bearing particles, and they were concluded that (1) contained elements derived from nuclear fission processes and from nuclear reactor and fuel materials; (2) were amorphous; (3) were highly oxidized; and (4) consisted of glassy spherules formed from a molten mixture of nuclear fuel and reactor material. In addition, Satou et al. (2016) and Yamaguchi et al. (2016) disclosed that silicate is main component of Cs-bearing particles. Satou et al. (2015) discovered two types of radioactive particles from soil samples collected in the vicinity of the F1NPS. These particles were remained in the natural environment more than four years, silicate is main component in common of each group particles. Group A particles were very similar to Cs-bearing particles reported by Adachi et al. except particle shape. On the other hand, group B is big particles found in north area from the F1NPS, and the strongest particles contained 20 kBq of Cs-137 within a particle

  6. Influência da mistura de sulfato de amônio com uréia sobre a volatilização de nitrogênio amoniacal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Vitti

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da mistura de sulfato de amônio com uréia sobre a volatilização de nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3, realizou-se um experimento em laboratório climatizado do Departamento de Solos e Nutrição de Plantas (ESALQ/USP. Em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, foram utilizados cinco tratamentos com cinco repetições. Cada tratamento foi obtido pela mistura de uréia (330 mg com sulfato de amônio (0, 75, 150, 225 e 300 mg. As misturas de fertilizantes foram aplicadas na superfície do solo (Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, textura média/arenosa contido em recipientes plásticos de 400 cm³. O N-NH3, volatilizado aos 3, 8, 15 e 23 dias da incubação, foi coletado em recipiente com ácido sulfúrico e indicador alaranjado de metila. Variáveis que influenciam a qualidade da mistura de fertilizantes, como higroscopicidade, granulometria e ângulo de repouso, também foram avaliadas. A volatilização do N-NH3 depende do pH do solo. A mistura de uréia (330 mg com sulfato de amônio (300 mg reduziu significativamente as perdas de N-NH3 sem afetar a qualidade da mistura em relação aos atributos físico-químicos avaliados, apresentando eficiência técnica e agronômica para o fim proposto.

  7. Measurement and computation of hydrodynamic coupling at an air/water interface with an insoluble monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsa, Amir H.; Lopez, Juan M.; Miraghaie, Reza

    2001-09-01

    The coupling between a bulk vortical flow and a surfactant-influenced air/water interface has been examined in a canonical flow geometry through experiments and computations. The flow in an annular region bounded by stationary inner and outer cylinders is driven by the constant rotation of the floor and the free surface is initially covered by a uniformly distributed insoluble monolayer. When driven slowly, this geometry is referred to as the deep-channel surface viscometer and the flow is essentially azimuthal. The only interfacial property that affects the flow in this regime is the surface shear viscosity, [mu]s, which is uniform on the surface due to the vanishingly small concentration gradient. However, when operated at higher Reynolds number, secondary flow drives the surfactant film towards the inner cylinder until the Marangoni stress balances the shear stress on the bulk fluid. In general, the flow can be influenced by the surface tension, [sigma], and the surface dilatational viscosity, [kappa]s, as well as [mu]s. However, because of the small capillary number of the present flow, the effects of surface tension gradients dominate the surface viscosities in the radial stress balance, and the effect of [mu]s can only come through the azimuthal stress. Vitamin K1 was chosen for this study since it forms a well-behaved insoluble monolayer on water and [mu]s is essentially zero in the range of concentration on the surface, c, encountered. Thus the effect of Marangoni elasticity on the interfacial stress could be isolated. The flow near the interface was measured in an optical channel using digital particle image velocimetry. Steady axisymmetric flow was observed at the nominal Reynolds number of 8500. A numerical model has been developed using the axisymmetric Navier Stokes equations to examine the details of the coupling between the bulk and the interface. The nonlinear equation of state, [sigma](c), for the vitamin K1 monolayer was measured and utilized in

  8. Remoción de sulfatos de drenajes ácidos de minería de carbón para producción de yeso sintético mediante el uso de un subproducto industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Londoño, Édgar Alberto

    2010-01-01

    El azufre está presente en diferentes minerales y rocas en la naturaleza y durante las labores mineras, se pueden producir drenajes ácidos de minería (DAM), especialmente cuando se encuentra en solución como ión sulfato (SO42-). Los DAM son una de las principales fuentes de contaminación relacionadas con la operación minera y su descarga a cuerpos de agua naturales debe cumplir con la legislación ambiental colombiana, la cual exige valores de pH entre 5 y 9 unidades. Para neutralizar el DAM g...

  9. Estudo da associação entre aptidão física relacionada à saúde e ritmo diurno de cortisol e sulfato de dehidroepiandrosterona em idosos

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Fabiane de Castro

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Distúrbios neuroendócrinos têm sido reconhecidos como manifestações de fragilidade no idoso. Alterações na capacidade física funcional também podem estar associadas com alterações no sistema endócrino. Estudos apontam relação inversa entre níveis de cortisol diurno com o desempenho físico em idosos. A elevação prolongada de níveis de cortisol salivar (Cs) e a redução excessiva das concentrações de Sulfato de Dehidroe...

  10. DETERMINACIÓN DE LA CINÉTICA DE CORROSIÓN EN LOS ACEROS INOXIDABLES SENSIBILIZADOS AISI 316 Y 430 INDUCIDOS POR BACTERIAS TERMÓFILAS SULFATO REDUCTORAS A 70 °C.

    OpenAIRE

    Zamudio Jaramillo, Jorge Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Para aislar la bacteria con la que se indujo la corrosión en los aceros AISI 316 y 430, se tomó una muestra de agua de los condensados de vapor de la Unidad Tejamaniles del campo geotermoeléctrico de los Azufres, Michoacán. Esta muestra fue inoculada en diversos medios de cultivo a 70°C, y seleccionar el medio de crecimiento adecuado. Posteriormente se aisló una colonia de bacterias sulfato reductoras. Se cortaron probetas de acero AISI 316 y 430 de 1 cm2 y se sensibilizaron...

  11. Daño pulmonar generado por sulfato ferroso y vitamina C en embriones de ratas y crías, y regeneración posnecrótica por Petroselinum sativum (perejil)

    OpenAIRE

    Troncoso, Luzmila; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Guija, Emilio; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Palomino, Felio; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Núñez, Marco; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Oliveira, Gisela; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Soberón, Mercedes; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Flores, Juana; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Identificar histológicamente la protección por el Petroselinum sativum (perejil) del tejido pulmonar, frente al daño por la ingesta de sulfato ferroso y vitamina C, en ratas madre, fetos y crías. Diseño: Analítico, experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Material biológico: Ratas hembras albinas en su primera, segunda o tercera semana de preñez, fetos y crías. Intervenciones: Se utilizó 36 ratas. Recibieron la misma...

  12. Water-Insoluble Photosensitizer Nanocolloids Stabilized by Supramolecular Interfacial Assembly towards Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yamei; Ma, Kai; Jiao, Tifeng; Xing, Ruirui; Shen, Guizhi; Yan, Xuehai

    2017-02-01

    Nanoengineering of hydrophobic photosensitizers (PSs) is a promising approach for improved tumor delivery and enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficiency. A variety of delivery carriers have been developed for tumor delivery of PSs through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. However, a high-performance PS delivery system with minimum use of carrier materials with excellent biocompatibility is highly appreciated. In this work, we utilized the spatiotemporal interfacial adhesion and assembly of supramolecular coordination to achieve the nanoengineering of water-insoluble photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6). The hydrophobic Ce6 nanoparticles are well stabilized in a aqueous medium by the interfacially-assembled film due to the coordination polymerization of tannic acid (TA) and ferric iron (Fe(III)). The resulting Ce6@TA-Fe(III) complex nanoparticles (referenced as Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs) significantly improves the drug loading content (~65%) and have an average size of 60 nm. The Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs are almost non-emissive as the aggregated states, but they can light up after intracellular internalization, which thus realizes low dark toxicity and excellent phototoxicity under laser irradiation. The Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs prolong blood circulation, promote tumor-selective accumulation of PSs, and enhanced antitumor efficacy in comparison to the free-carrier Ce6 in vivo evaluation.

  13. NMR characterization of lignins isolated from fruit and vegetable insoluble dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Mirko; Ralph, John

    2006-10-18

    Compositional information for lignins in food is rare and concentrated on cereal grains and brans. As lignins are suspected to have important health roles in the dietary fiber complex, the confusing current information derived from nonspecific lignin determination methods needs to be augmented by diagnostic structural studies. For this study, lignin fractions were isolated from kiwi, pear, rhubarb, and, for comparison, wheat bran insoluble dietary fiber. Clean pear and kiwi lignin isolates allowed for substantive structural profiling, but it is suggested that the significance of lignin in wheat has been overestimated by reliance on nonspecific analytical methods. Volume integration of NMR contours in two-dimensional (13)C-(1)H correlation spectra shows that pear and wheat lignins have comparable guaiacyl and syringyl contributions and that kiwi lignins are particularly guaiacyl-rich (approximately 94% guaiacyl) and suggest that rhubarb lignins, which could not be isolated from contaminating materials, are as syringyl-rich (approximately 96% syringyl) as lignins from any known natural or transgenic fiber source. Typical lignin structures, including those newly NMR-validated (glycerols, spirodienones, and dibenzodioxocins), and resinols implicated as possible mammalian lignan precursors in the gut are demonstrated via their NMR correlation spectra in the fruit and vegetable samples. A novel putative benzodioxane structure appears to be associated with the kiwi lignin. It is concluded that the fruits and vegetables examined contain authentic lignins and that the detailed structural analysis exposes limitations of currently accepted analytical methods.

  14. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged Beagle dogs. XIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Toxicity of relatively insoluble 144 Ce inhaled by 8 to 10.5 year-old Beagle dogs is being investigated to determine possible age-related differences in long-term biological responses. Forty-two dogs were exposed to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi 144 Ce/kg (81-2800 kBq/kg) body weight, and 12 control dogs were exposed to non-radioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. All 144 Ce-exposed and control dogs have died or were euthanized between 197 and 2726 days after the inhalation exposure. Prominent findings in the 144 Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 19 of the 23 dogs that died during the first 943 days after exposure, and neoplastic disease in 13 of the 20 dogs that died beyond 904 days after exposure. Pulmonary tumors were found in five of these dogs. In contrast to the study with young adult dogs, in which pulmonary hemangiosarcomas were one of the prominent findings, all of these tumors were carcinomas. 1 figure, 1 table

  15. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and effects of 144 Ce inhaled in fused aluminosilicate particles are being investigated in the beagle dog to assess the long-term biological consequences of release of relatively insoluble aerosol forms of 144 Ce that could occur in nuclear accidents. The effects resulting from the relatively protracted radiation dose patterns to the lung from this form of 144 Ce are being compared with effects of other radiation dose patterns to the lung. One hundred eleven dogs were exposed to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 0.0024 to 210 μCi/kg body weight and 15 control dogs were exposed to nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 65 144 Ce-exposed and 2 control dogs have died or were euthanized at 143 to 4578 days after inhalation of 144 Ce. Prominent findings in the 144 Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 17 dogs that died at early times and neoplastic disease in 39 of the 48 dogs that died 750 days or later. Observations are continuing on the 46 144 Ce-exposed and 13 control dogs remaining alive at this time, at least 3337 days after exposure

  16. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of relatively insoluble 144 Ce inhaled by 8- to 10.5-year-old beagle dogs is being investigated to provide information on possible age-related differences in the resulting long-term biological responses. Forty-two dogs were exposed, nose-only, to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight, and 12 control dogs were exposed to nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 38 144 Ce-exposed dogs and 10 control dogs have died or were euthanized between 197 and 2375 days after inhalation of the 144 Ce. Prominent findings in the 144 Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 19 dogs that died during the first 943 days post-exposure and neoplastic disease in seven of the 15 dogs. However, only one of these tumors killed the dog. No hemangiosarcomas have been observed in this study, although they were a prominent finding in immature or young adult dogs exposed to 144 Ce. Observations are continuing on the four surviving 144 Ce-exposed and two control dogs

  17. Structure of insoluble immune complexes as studied by spectroturbidimetry and dynamic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Burygin, Gennadii L.; Matora, Larisa Y.; Shchyogolev, Sergei Y.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2004-07-01

    We describe two variants of a method for determining the average composition of insoluble immune complex particles (IICP). The first variant is based on measuring the specific turbidity (the turbidity per unit mass concentration of the dispersed substance) and the average size of IICP determined from dynamic light scattering (DLS). In the second variant, the wavelength exponent (i.e., the slope of the logarithmic turbidity spectrum) is used in combination with specific turbidity measurements. Both variants allow the average biopolymer volume fraction to be determined in terms of the average refractive index of IICP. The method is exemplified by two experimental antigen+antibody systems: (i) lipopolysaccharide-protein complex (LPPC) of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245+rabbit anti-LPPC; and (ii) human IgG (hIgG)+sheep anti-hIgG. Our measurements by the two methods for both types of systems gave, on the average, the same result: the volume fraction of the IICP biopolymers is about 30%; accordingly, the volume fraction of buffer solvent is 70%.

  18. An Insoluble Benzoquinone-Based Organic Cathode for Use in Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhiqiang; Liu, Luojia; Zhao, Qing; Li, Fujun; Chen, Jun

    2017-10-02

    Application of organic electrode materials in rechargeable batteries has attracted great interest because such materials contain abundant carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen elements. However, organic electrodes are highly soluble in organic electrolytes. An organic electrode of 2,3,5,6-tetraphthalimido-1,4-benzoquinone (TPB) is reported in which rigid groups coordinate to a molecular benzoquinone skeleton. The material is insoluble in aprotic electrolyte, and demonstrates a high capacity retention of 91.4 % (204 mA h g -1 ) over 100 cycles at 0.2 C. The extended π-conjugation of the material contributes to enhancement of the electrochemical performance (155 mA h g -1 at 10 C). Moreover, density functional theory calculations suggest that favorable synergistic reactions between multiple carbonyl groups and lithium ions can enhance the initial lithium ion intercalation potential. The described approach may provide a novel entry to next-generation organic electrode materials with relevance to lithium-ion batteries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Novel films for drug delivery via the buccal mucosa using model soluble and insoluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianfar, Farnoosh; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Antonijevic, Milan D; Boateng, Joshua S

    2012-10-01

    Bioadhesive buccal films are innovative dosage forms with the ability to adhere to the mucosal surface and subsequently hydrate to release and deliver drugs across the buccal membrane. This study aims to formulate and characterize stable carrageenan (CAR) based buccal films with desirable drug loading capacity. The films were prepared using CAR, poloxamer (POL) 407, various grades of PEG (plasticizer) and loaded with paracetamol (PM) and indomethacin (IND) as model soluble and insoluble drugs, respectively. The films were characterized by texture analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), DSC, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and in vitro drug release studies. Optimized films were obtained from aqueous gels comprising 2.5% w/w κ-CAR 911, 4% w/w POL 407 and 6% w/w (PM) and 6.5% w/w (IND) of PEG 600 with maximum drug loading of 1.6% w/w and 0.8 % w/w for PM and IND, respectively. TGA showed residual water content of approximately 5% of films dry weight. DSC revealed a T(g) at 22.25 and 30.77°C for PM and IND, respectively, implying the presence of amorphous forms of both drugs which was confirmed by XRPD. Drug dissolution profiles in simulated saliva showed cumulative percent release of up to 45 and 57% of PM and IND, respectively, within 40 min of contact with dissolution medium simulating saliva.

  20. Influence of drug physicochemical properties on absorption of water insoluble drug nanosuspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Quan, Peng; Zhang, Yaqiong; Cheng, Jing; Liu, Jie; Cun, Dongmei; Xiang, Rongwu; Fang, Liang

    2014-01-02

    In order to investigate the influence of drug physicochemical properties on bioavailability of water insoluble drug nanosuspensions, five drug nanosuspensions were prepared using high pressure homogenization. These nanosuspensions were similar in particle size and same in stabilizer. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction analysis showed the crystalline state of the freeze dried nanocrystals did not change. In vitro dissolution test in fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) and in vivo bioavailability study in rats demonstrated that the nanosuspensions had higher dissolution rate and higher AUC0-t and the ratios of dissolvednano/dissolvedmicro in 120 min were well correlated with the ratios of AUC0-t nano/AUC0-t micro. Correlation analysis between drug physicochemical properties and AUC0-t nano was performed and four-grid interpolation method was employed for interpolation and smooth surface fitting to give a visible trend. The results revealed that drug with smaller melting point, logP value around 5 and polar surface area value in the range of 50-60 would gain higher AUC0-t nano and accordingly better absorption of its nanosuspension. Melting point, logP and polar surface area were factors that influence the absorption of drug nanosuspensions in this study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tumorigenic responses from single or repeated inhalation exposures to relatively insoluble aerosols of Ce-144

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    Human occupational or environmental inhalation exposures may involve repeated or chronic exposures, but most laboratory studies of inhaled radionuclides have involved single exposures. This study was designed to compare the biological effects of repeated inhalation exposures of dogs to a relatively insoluble form of 144 Ce with existing data for singly-exposed dogs that had the same cumulative dose to the lungs two years after exposure. To date, the biological effects observed in these repeatedly-exposed dogs have been substantially different from those seen in singly-exposed dogs, particularly during the first 5 years after the initial exposure. Although pulmonary hemangiosarcoma was the prominent biological effect seen in singly-exposed dogs between 2 and 4 years after exposure, no lung tumors were seen during the 5 years after the first of the repeated exposures. This response plus other clinical observations are discussed in relation to the patterns of dose rate and cumulative dose for the different exposure conditions. (H.K.)

  2. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged Beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The toxicity of relatively insoluble 144 Ce inhaled by 8- to 10.5-year old Beagle dogs is being investigated to provide possible age-related differences in long-term biological responses. Forty-two dogs were exposed, nose-only, to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight, and 12 control dogs were exposed to nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 39 144 Ce-exposed dogs and 10 control dogs have died or were euthanized between 197 and 2375 days after the inhalation exposure. Prominent findings in the 144 Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 19 of the 23 dogs that died during the first 943 days after exposure and neoplastic disease in nine of the 16 dogs that died beyond 943 days after exposure. Pulmonary tumors were found in four of these dogs. Observations are continuing on the three surviving 144 Ce-exposed and two control dogs

  3. An interspecies comparison of the biological effects of an inhaled, relatively insoluble beta emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, W.C.; Lundgren, D.L.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Mice, rats, Syrian hamsters, and beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to graded levels of 144 Ce in relatively insoluble forms to demonstrate species similarities and differences regarding patterns of deposition, fate, dosimetry, and dose-response relationships. All animals were serially evaluated to determine lung burdens, held for life-span observation, necropsied at death, and examined histopathologically to characterize the lesions present and to determine the cause of death. The primary malignant lung tumors observed in rodents were predominantly squamous-cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas, whereas those in dogs at earlier times were primarily hemangiosarcomas and those in dogs that died at later times were pulmonary carcinomas. The relationship between the incidence of lung cancer and absorbed beta dose to the lung differed among species. The results of modeling these data provide a better understanding of how the choice of species can influence the outcome of a life-span study. The data are used to estimate the risk of lung cancer in man from an inhaled beta-emitting radionuclide. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Trace metal occurrences in acid-insoluble residues of the Ordovician Galena Group, southeastern Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lively, R.S.; Mossler, J.H.; Morey, G.B. (Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, MN (United States)); Hauck, S.A. (Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.)

    1993-03-01

    Regional geochemical, studies on insoluble residues from Paleozoic carbonate rocks have become an integral part of the search for new Upper Mississippi Valley-type mineral deposits in the northern Midcontinent. The authors have extended these studies to southeastern Minnesota, an area well to the north of known lead-zinc deposits of commercial size and grade. In this region, a thin sequence of Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician strata unconformably overlies a complex Precambrian basement. More than 500 samples of limestone and dolomite from 40 drill holes and outcrops were analyzed for 29 related trace elements. Preliminary interpretations are based on the analysis of 380 samples of the Ordovician Galena Group from 37 localities. Results indicate that anomalous concentrations of Pb, Cu, zn, As, Cd, and Ni are confined to the southern half of the Galena subgroup area and extend less than 30 miles north of the Iowa border. The anomalous areas, as well as saddles between the, have a distinct northwest trend, coincident with structural features previously recognized in the Precambrian basement. The spatial relationships of the anomalies and the lack of direct correlation imply deposition from fluids moving north out of the main lead-zinc district along structural pathways. The lack of significant anomalies in the northern part of the subcrop area implies northwest weakening of the forces driving the metal-bearing fluids, as well as a decrease over distance in the absolute metal content of the migrating fluids.

  5. Removal of water-insoluble Sudan dyes by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiuyan; Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Wang, Jing; Jin, Ruofei; Lv, Hong

    2012-06-01

    Decolorization of water-insoluble Sudan dyes was studied with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which removed 66.8%, 43.4%, 56.0% and 33.7% Sudan I-IV in 104 h, respectively and reduced Sudan I to aniline and 1-amino-2-naphthol. Lactate was identified as the most efficient electron donor for Sudan I reduction. Improved reduction performance was obtained in the presence of higher lactate or biomass concentration. The correlation between specific reduction rate and initial Sudan I concentration could be described with Michaelis-Menten kinetics (V(max)=1.8 mg Sudan I mg cell(-1) h(-1) and K(m)=5.3 mg l(-1)). The addition of anthraquinone-2-sulfonate stimulated the reduction significantly whereas the presence of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone had little enhancing effect. The main azoreductase activity was found with membrane-bound proteins of MR-1 and no reduction occurred when Sudan I was incubated with cell extracts. These data indicated for the first time that Shewanella could reduce solid-phase Sudan dye particles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electron microscope analyses of insoluble components in acid rain, Guilin City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhang; Yu Hong, Cao

    During the period of 16-29 March 1988 four precipitation systems produced rainfall over Guilin City, China. This rain water had a mean pH of 4.16, which classifies it as acid rain. During each precipitation event samples of rain water were continously collected and filtered. Insoluble impurities were collected on filter paper and 66 samples prepared for electron microscope energy spectrometry analysis. The analytical results show a total of 12 elements present in the samples of rain water, viz. Ar, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Ni and Cr. For the samples as a whole, three major elements (Si, Al and Fe) accounted for about 86% of the average total weight of the 12 elements. Cluster analysis was used to group the analytical results for 115 individual analyses (on relatively coarse-grained sections of the samples) into 9 types of weight-percentage distributions. The cluster analysis showed that: (1) The majority of the weight distributions all belonged to one single type, which made up 75, 63, 65 and 75% of the separate analyses of the four precipitating systems respectively. This suggests that the four precipitating systems formed and eveloped in a similar synoptic situation. (2) Some special samples with characteristic, anomalous, weight distributions were identified from different precipitation systems. This suggests that different pollutant conditions prevailed in the sources and along the trajectories of these four systems.

  7. Genotoxic potential evaluation of a cosmetic insoluble substance by the micronuclei assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, N; Shah, V; Minko, T

    2011-01-01

    An optical brightener (OB) powder (INCI: sodium silicoaluminate (and) glycidoxypropyl trimethyloxysilane/PEI-250 cross fluorescent brightener 230 salt (and) polyvinylalcohol crosspolymer) that is used in cosmetic facial products was tested for its genotoxic potential using the micronuclei test (MNT). It is a solid dry powder with an average size of 5 microns that is insoluble but dispersible in water. This study describes the exposure of cell culture to positive controls with and without enzymatic activation and to the test compound in different concentrations. We evaluated three end points: microscopic observation and quantification of micronuclei formation, and cell viability and proliferation. Both positive controls induced significant changes that were observed under the microscope and quantified. Based on its chemical nature, it was not anticipated that the test substance will degrade under the conditions of the experiments. However, the test is required to make sure that when solublized, impurities that may be present, even at trace levels, will not induce a genotoxic effect. The test compound did not promote micronuclei formation or change the viability or proliferation rate of cells. During this study we faced challenges such as solubilization and correlating viability data to genotoxicity data. These are described in the body of the paper. We believe that with the emergence of the 7(th) European amendment that bans animal testing, sharing these data and the study protocol serves as a key in building the understanding of the utilization of in vitro studies in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

  8. Source attribution of insoluble light-absorbing particles in seasonal snow across northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal snow samples obtained at 46 sites in 6 provinces of China in January and February 2010 were analyzed for a suite of chemical species and these data are combined with previously determined concentrations of insoluble light-absorbing particles (ILAP, including all particles that absorb light in the 650–700 nm wavelength interval. The ILAP, together with 14 other analytes, are used as input to a positive matrix factorization (PMF receptor model to explore the sources of ILAP in the snow. The PMF analysis for ILAP sources is augmented with backward trajectory cluster analysis and the geographic locations of major source areas for the three source types. The two analyses are consistent and indicate that three factors/sources were responsible for the measured light absorption of snow: a soil dust source, an industrial pollution source, and a biomass and / or biofuel burning source. Soil dust was the main source of the ILAP, accounting for ~53% of ILAP on average.

  9. Contribuciones de la genética y la proteómica al estudio de la enfermedad de Chagas Genomic and proteomic contributions for Chagas disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa López-Ordóñez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Chagas representa uno de los problemas más importantes de salud pública en el continente americano. El conocimiento sobre el genoma y el proteoma de los agentes de esta infección es esencial para desarrollar herramientas precisas y eficaces a corto y largo plazo y prevenir la transmisión. En el presente documento se destacan los aportes que han permitido mejorar el diseño, la implementación y la eficacia de las actividades de vigilancia y control de la enfermedad. Se revisan la contribución de la información genómica o proteómica sobre la distribución geográfica de los vectores, y la diversidad y la dinámica poblacional, además de la identificación de poblaciones y especies blanco para control. Por otra parte, se analiza la forma en que el conocimiento del genoma del parásito ha contribuido al diagnóstico de la infección, el estudio de las poblaciones de Trypanosoma cruzi, el tratamiento farmacológico y la interacción del parásito con sus hospederos. Una revisión de estas contribuciones incluye los temas de investigación básica y aplicada más destacados para el futuro inmediato.Chagas disease represents one of the more significant public health problems in the Americas. Information regarding the genome and proteome of vectors and parasite, as well as their interactions, will be essential to develop specific and effective diagnostic and preventive tools. Advances that have contributed to the design, implementation, and efficacy of disease surveillance and control activities are reviewed. Genomic and proteomic information has contributed to a better understanding of vector distributions and dispersion, diversity, population dynamics, and control targets (populations and species. In addition, genomic and proteomic studies have impacted parasite diagnostics, Trypanosoma cruzi population dynamics, pharmacological treatment and knowledge of parasite-host interactions. Discussion of these contributions includes

  10. Efectos en ratas de los alcoholes de cera de abejas (D-002 sobre la colitis ulcerativa inducida por sulfato de dextrano y etanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Molina-Cuevas

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivos. Investigar los efectos del D-002, mezcla de seis alcoholes alifáticos primarios de alto peso molecular, obtenida de la cera de abejas (Apis mellifera, sobre la colitis ulcerativa (CU inflamatoria severa inducida por sulfato de dextrano (DSS y etanol en ratas (Ratus ratus. Materiales y métodos. Las ratas se distribuyeron aleatoriamente en seis grupos: un control cero al que no se provocó daño, y cinco a los que se les indujo la CU: un control negativo (vehículo, tres tratados con D-002 (25, 100 y 400 mg/kg y un control positivo con sulfazalacina (200 mg/kg (sustancia de referencia. Se cuantificaron las manifestaciones clínicas (variación del peso corporal, presencia de diarrea y de sangrado rectal, el puntaje de daño macroscópico e histológico, y la actividad de mieoloperoxidasa (MPO. Resultados. El tratamiento oral con D-002 (25, 100 y 400 mg/kg previno significativamente la disminución del peso corporal. La dosis de 400 mg/kg redujo la presencia de diarreas y sangrado rectal, aunque su comparación con el control negativo solo alcanzó significación estadística sobre las diarreas. El D-002 (25, 100 y 400 mg/kg redujo significativamente el puntaje de las lesiones macroscópicas (40,0; 43,3 y 47,2% de inhibición, respectivamente, el puntaje de daño histológico (31,5; 53,7 y 67,1% de inhibición, respectivamente y la actividad de MPO (73,2; 83,6 y 85,0% de inhibición, respectivamente, comparado con el grupo control negativo. La sulfazalacina redujo significativamente todas las variables estudiadas. Conclusiones. El D-002 (25, 100 y 400 mg/kg protegió significativamente la mucosa colónica en ratas con CU inflamatoria severa inducida por DSS y etanol.

  11. Efectos en ratas de los alcoholes de cera de abejas (D-002 sobre la colitis ulcerativa inducida por sulfato de dextrano y etanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Molina-Cuevas

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Investigar los efectos del D-002, mezcla de seis alcoholes alifáticos primarios de alto peso molecular, obtenida de la cera de abejas (Apis mellifera, sobre la colitis ulcerativa (CU inflamatoria severa inducida por sulfato de dextrano (DSS y etanol en ratas (Ratus ratus. Materiales y métodos. Las ratas se distribuyeron aleatoriamente en seis grupos: un control cero al que no se provocó daño, y cinco a los que se les indujo la CU: un control negativo (vehículo, tres tratados con D-002 (25, 100 y 400 mg/kg y un control positivo con sulfazalacina (200 mg/kg (sustancia de referencia. Se cuantificaron las manifestaciones clínicas (variación del peso corporal, presencia de diarrea y de sangrado rectal, el puntaje de daño macroscópico e histológico, y la actividad de mieoloperoxidasa (MPO. Resultados. El tratamiento oral con D-002 (25, 100 y 400 mg/kg previno significativamente la disminución del peso corporal. La dosis de 400 mg/kg redujo la presencia de diarreas y sangrado rectal, aunque su comparación con el control negativo solo alcanzó significación estadística sobre las diarreas. El D-002 (25, 100 y 400 mg/kg redujo significativamente el puntaje de las lesiones macroscópicas (40,0; 43,3 y 47,2% de inhibición, respectivamente, el puntaje de daño histológico (31,5; 53,7 y 67,1% de inhibición, respectivamente y la actividad de MPO (73,2; 83,6 y 85,0% de inhibición, respectivamente, comparado con el grupo control negativo. La sulfazalacina redujo significativamente todas las variables estudiadas. Conclusiones. El D-002 (25, 100 y 400 mg/kg protegió significativamente la mucosa colónica en ratas con CU inflamatoria severa inducida por DSS y etanol.

  12. Retenção de soluções de sulfatos por hidrogel de policrilamida = Retention of sulfhate solution by polierilamida hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedson Luis de Freitas Azevedo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de hidrogel na agricultura brasileira, principalmente na silvicultura e fruticultura, está cada dia mais consolidado pela capacidade que ele possui de armazenar e disponibilizar água para as plantas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a capacidade deretenção de solução nutritiva pelo hidrogel quando submetido em diferentes soluções nutritivas de diferentes fertilizantes. Este estudo foi realizado no laboratório do Centro Técnico de Irrigação da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Oexperimento constou de 26 tratamentos e 4 repetições, disposto em um esquema fatorial (5 x 5 mais um tratamento testemunha comum a todos os tratamentos, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os resultados mostraram que tanto as condutividades elétricas quanto as diferentes soluções de sulfatos interferiram na capacidade de retenção de solução nutritiva do hidrogel.The hydrogel use in the brazilian agriculture, mainly in the forestation, fruits field, and growth media, is being consolidated by its capacity of holding and release water (nutrient solution to plants. This work aimed to study the holding capacity of nutrient solutions by hydrogel when submitted into differents solutions from sulphates. This study was conducted out the Irrigation Technical Center of Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Paraná State. Itwas conducted in a 5 x 5 factorial way (with 26 treatments and 04 replications and the randomized design. It was used as treatments 05 fertilizers sulphates base (ferrous sulphate, ammonium sulphate, zinc sulphate, copper sulphate, and magnesium sulphate and 05 doses (0.4; 0.8; 1.2; 1.6, and 2.0 g to each 500 g of distilled water. The distilled water treatment and hydrogel were used as control treatment. The hydrogel was hydrated for 24 hours for a later measure of holding capacity of nutrient solution. We noticed that besidesthe electric conductivity of nutrient solution the

  13. Adubação da batatinha experiências com leucita, sulfato e cloreto de potássio Fertilizer experiments with potatoes sources of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são relatados os resultados obtidos em sete experiências de adubação da batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L., conduzidas em 1952-53 e 1953-54 em várias localidades do Estado de São Paulo, e nas quais foram comparadas três formas de potássio na presença de nitrogênio e fósforo. O efeito da adubação potássica foi praticamente nulo em três experiências. Em média das outras quatro a produção com NP foi de 6,66 t/ha e os aumentos provocados pela adição de 30, 60 e 90 kg/ha de K(20 foram respectivamente de 20, 23 e 27% com sulfato e cloreto de potássio aumentaram um pouco o tamanho dos tubérculos, ao passo que leucíta o diminuiu consideravelmente. A incidência de manchas internas ("chocolate" nos tubérculos não foi modificada pela adubação potássica.This paper presents the results obtained in seven experiments conducted in 1952-53 and 1953-54 at various localities of the State of São Paulo, in which three sources of potassium were tested in the presence of nitrogen and phosphorus. No response to potassium was observed in three of the experiments. Based on the average results from the other four trials the yield with NP was 6.66 tons per hectare and the increases due to additions of 30, 60 and 90 kilograms of K(20 per hectare were respectively of 20, 23 and 27% with sulphate of potassium and 12, 17 and 17% with potassium chloride; equal K(20 applications in the form of leucite did not modify the yields. While potassium sulphate and chloride incfeased a little the size of the tubers, leucite decreased it considerably. Potassium applications did not modify the incidence of internal brown spots.

  14. Vacuna fenol-insoluble contra la brucelosis humana: evaluacion del poder inmunogenico en cobayos Phenol insoluble extract vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in humans: evaluation in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bolpe

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Se examinó una vacuna diseñada para inmunizar al hombre, preparada con extracto de fenol insoluble, para determinar si protegía a cobayos contra el desafío con la cepa virulenta B. abortus 2308. Se incluyeron en el experimento las vacunas vivas atenuadas B. abortus cepa 19 y B. melitensis Rev. 1, para comparar los resultados. Se vacunaron 93 animales en cada grupo, que fueron subdivididos en subgrupos de 31 y se los desafió con 10(4, 10³ y 10² unidades formadoras de colonias de la cepa B. abortus 2308 virulenta. El análisis global de los resultados demostró una protección del 11.9% en animales vacunados con el extracto de fenol insoluble, 65% en los vacunados con B. abortus cepa 19 y 95% en el grupo que recibió vacuna B. melitensis Rev. 1.A phenol insoluble extract vaccine proposed to immunize men against brucellosis was tested for its ability in protecting guinea pigs against challenge with virulent Brucella abortus strain 2308. Living attenuated Brucella abortus strain 19 and B. melitensis Rev. 1 were included in the experiment for comparison. Ninety three animals were vaccinated in each group and subdivided in subgroups of 31 for challenge with 10(4,10³ and 10² colony forming units of virulent B. abortus 2308. A global analysis of the results showed protection of 11.9%, 65% and 95% in animals vaccinated with phenol insoluble extract, strain 19 and Rev. 1, respectively.

  15. Effect of insoluble calcium concentration on endogenous syneresis rate in rennet-coagulated bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2015-09-01

    0.96) with the loss tangent values of gels (indicating greater mobility), probably due to the loss of insoluble calcium phosphate crosslinking within micelles, which was significantly negatively correlated (r≥0.81) with the rate constant for endogenous syneresis. In the EDTA trial, with an increase in the EDTA concentration no maximum was observed in the rate constants related to proteolysis of κ-casein hairs or crosslinking of these activated sites. The rate constant for endogenous syneresis decreased at higher EDTA levels. The different rheological/modeling behavior in the EDTA trials was likely due to the very significant inhibition of rennet gelation induced by the use of EDTA, which also resulted in extremely long reaction times. Our modified Carlson model fit our experimental pH trial data very well, which indicates that the rennet gel system has the potential to synerese from the start; indeed this ability is an innate property of the casein micelle. Endogenous syneresis was enhanced by the loss of insoluble calcium phosphate crosslinking within casein micelles as this increased bond mobility within rennet gels. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Concordancia entre los métodos de flotación con sulfato de zinc y sedimentación centrífuga para el diagnóstico de parásitos intestinales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete de Jesus Inês

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El diagnóstico de infecciones parasitarias intestinales depende de la carga de parásitos, la densidad de la gravedad específica de los huevos/ooquistes/quistes de parásitos y de la densidad y viscosidad de los reactivos de flotación o sedimentación usados para procesar las heces. Objetivo. Evaluar la concordancia entre el método de flotación de sulfato de zinc y la sedimentación por centrifugación en la recuperación de helmintos y protozoos en muestras fecales de niños. Materiales y métodos. Las muestras fecales de 330 niños de las guarderías fueron evaluadas por las técnicas de flotación con sulfato de zinc y de sedimentación por centrifugación. Las frecuencias de detección de parásitos por cada método fueron determinadas y se evaluó la concordancia entre las técnicas de diagnóstico por el índice Kappa, con intervalos de confianza del 95%. Resultados. La flotación fecal con sulfato de zinc diagnosticó significativamente más casos de infección por Trichuris trichiura en comparación con la sedimentación por centrifugación (39/330; 11,8% versus 13/330; 3,9%, p<0,001, con un bajo acuerdo entre los métodos Kappa = 0,264 (95% IC, 0,102-0,427. Además, todas las muestras positivas para huevos de Enterobius vermicularis (n=5 y larvas de Strongyloides stercoralis (n=3 fueron diagnosticados solamente por sulfato de zinc. El método de flotación también detectó la mayor parte de las muestras positivas de Giardia duodenalis (74/83; 89,1% versus 67/83; 80,0%. En contraste, la sedimentación identificó con mayor frecuencia los protozoos Blastocystis spp. (38/46; 82,6% que el método ZS (33/46; 71,7%, aunque no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas, con un considerable acuerdo entre los métodos para la identificación de ambos parásitos, Kappa=0,697 (95% CI, 0,691-0,859 and Kappa=0,675 (95% CI, 0,537-0,801, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Este estudio mostró que la flotación centr

  17. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Merickel, B.S.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of age at exposure on the resulting patterns of deposition, retention, dosimetry and biological effects from a single inhalation exposure to a relatively insoluble form of a beta-emitting radionuclide with a relatively long physical half-life is being investigated. Immature Beagle dogs (3 months of age) have been exposed once, by inhalation, to an aerosol of 144 Ce incorporated in fused aluminosilicate particles. Eighteen of these dogs were serially sacrificed to study the patterns of deposition, retention and dosimetry and the remaining 49 dogs received graded initial lung burdens that ranged from 0.004 to 140 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight and are being observed over their life span for study of the resulting long-term biological effects. Five control dogs are also included in this study. To date, 13 of the 144 Ce-exposed dogs in the longevity study and none of the controls have died. Dogs with the highest initial lung burdens of 144 Ce died first (during the first 4 months) with radiation pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis and congestive heart failure. Pulmonary hemangiosarcoma was the primary finding in dogs that died at 1.5 to 2 years after exposure. Deaths beyond that time have primarily involved extrapulmonary hemangiosarcomas. One dog, 627B, with an initial lung burden of 24 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died during the past year at 2341 days after exposure with a widely disseminated hemangiosarcoma showing heavy involvement of the liver and skin. Observations are continuing on the surviving 36 144 Ce-exposed and five control dogs

  18. Time-dependent association between platelet-bound fibrinogen and the Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerschke, E.I.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies indicated a correlation between the formation of EDTA-resistant (irreversible) platelet-fibrinogen interactions and platelet cytoskeleton formation. The present study explored the direct association of membrane-bound fibrinogen with the Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeleton of aspirin-treated, gel-filtered platelets, activated but not aggregated with 20 mumol/L adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or 150 mU/mL human thrombin (THR) when bound fibrinogen had become resistant to dissociation by EDTA. Conversion of exogenous 125I-fibrinogen to fibrin was prevented by adding Gly-Pro-Arg and neutralizing THR with hirudin before initiating binding studies. After 60 minutes at 22 degrees C, the cytoskeleton of ADP-treated platelets contained 20% +/- 12% (mean +/- SD, n = 14) of membrane-bound 125I-fibrinogen, representing 10% to 50% of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding. The THR-activated cytoskeleton contained 45% +/- 15% of platelet bound fibrinogen, comprising 80% to 100% of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding. 125I-fibrinogen was not recovered with platelet cytoskeletons if binding was inhibited by the RGDS peptide, excess unlabeled fibrinogen, or disruption of the glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa complex by EDTA-treatment. Both development of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding and fibrinogen association with the cytoskeleton were time dependent and reached maxima 45 to 60 minutes after fibrinogen binding to stimulated platelets. Although a larger cytoskeleton formed after platelet stimulation with thrombin as compared with ADP, no change in cytoskeleton composition was noted with development of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding

  19. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Insoluble Dietary Fiber Isolated from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedericks, Claudine F; Jideani, Victoria A

    2015-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (BGN) is a widely cultivated legume with a rich nutritional profile, yet despite its many benefits it still remains underutilized. To highlight its potential value, 4 BGN varieties-brown, red, black eye, and brown eye were subjected to sequential enzymatic treatments followed by centrifugation to obtain the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) fraction. The IDFs were vacuum-dried and evaluated for color, hydration properties, fat absorption, polyphenolic compounds, neutral sugars, and uronic acids. An optimized white bread formulation was also determined using brown BGN-IDF in an optimal (IV) mixture design. Three mixture components constrained at lower and upper limits (water: 57% to 60%, yeast: 2.3% to 5.3%, and BGN-IDF: 7% to 10%) were evaluated for their effects on responses of specific loaf volume, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience of the loaves. All BGN-IDFs differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) across all color parameters. Polyphenols were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest in red and brown BGN-IDFs. Arabinose/galactose (31.04% to 37.12%), xylose (16.53% to 27.30%), and mannose (14.48% to 22.24%) were the major sugars identified. Swelling capacity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest for brown eye BGN-IDF (7.72 ± 0.49 mL/g). Water retention capacity ranged from 1.63 to 2.01 g water/g dry weight. Fat absorption for red BGN-IDF differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the best optimal white bread formulation enriched with brown BGN-IDF was established with numerical optimization at 59.5% water, 4.3% yeast, and 8.5% BGN-IDF. Overall positive physicochemical and functional properties were observed for BGN-IDFs, and it was shown that an optimal white bread enriched with BGN-IDF could be produced. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Hanika-Rebar, C.; Boecker, B.B.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and effects of 144 Ce inhaled in fused aluminosilicate particles are being investigated in the Beagle dog to assess the biological consequences of release of 144 Ce in a relatively insoluble form such as might occur in certain types of nuclear accidents. The toxicity of inhaled 144 Ce is also of general interest since it is representative of intermediate-lived beta-emitting radionuclides. Two major studies with young adult dogs (12 to 14 months of age at exposure) are involved: (1) a metabolism and dosimetry study in which 24 dogs were serially sacrificed over an extended period of time, and (2) a longevity study with two series of dogs. Series I contains 15 dogs exposed to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 11 to 210 μCi/kg body weight and three control dogs exposed to nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. Series II contains 96 dogs exposed to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 0.0024 to 66 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs exposed to nonradioactive, fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 51 dogs have died or were euthanized at 143 to 3280 days after inhalation of 144 Ce. The prominent findings were radiation pneumonitis in 17 dogs that died or were euthanized at 750 days or later. The cumulative radiation dose to the lung at time of death has ranged from 550 to 140,000 rads. Serial observations are continuing on the 60 survivors and 15 controls

  1. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged Beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The toxicity of relatively insoluble 144 Ce inhaled by 8- to 10.5-year-old dogs is being investigated to provide information on age-related differences in the response of dogs to lung burdens of this fission product. These data on aged dogs will be compared to the results of similar studies of dogs exposed at approximately 3 months or 12 to 14 months of age. Forty-two dogs were exposed, nose only, to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs were exposed to nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 37 dogs have died or were euthanized 197 to 2375 days after inhalation of 144 Ce. The prominent findings were radiation pneumonitis in 19 dogs that died at early times with cumulative doses to lung of 20 000 to 74 000 rads and neoplastic disease in six of 14 dogs that died 943 days after exposure or later. Pulmonary tumors were found in four of these dogs. However, only one of these tumors killed the dog. No hemangiosarcomas have been observed in this study. This result is in contrast to the results with immature or young adult dogs exposed to 144 Ce. The difference may be a dose-related phenomenon since dogs which developed hemangiosarconomas had greater initial lung burdens of 144 Ce. Aged dogs with similar burdens died at earlier times with radiation pneumonitis. Observations are continuing on the five surviving 144 Ce-exposed and four control dogs

  2. Effect of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber on embryo survival and sow performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria-Flores, J A; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C; Moser, R L; Webel, S K

    2008-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of soluble (SF) and insoluble (ISF) dietary fiber during gestation on embryo survival and sow performance. In Exp. 1, 43 gilts were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 experimental diets: a corn-soybean meal control (C; 1.16% SF, 9.98% ISF); a 30% oat bran high in SF (HS; 3.02% SF, 10.06% ISF); a 12% wheat straw diet high in ISF (HIS; 1.08% SF, 18.09% ISF); and a 21% soybean hull diet (HS + HIS; 2.46% SF, 24.55% ISF). Gilts were fed the experimental diets based on their initial BW to meet their daily nutrient requirements. At estrus, gilts were inseminated artificially 3 times using pooled semen. Reproductive tracts were harvested 32 d postmating (range = 28 to 35 d). Statistical analysis of data included the effects of diet with days of gestation as a covariate. There were no differences in ovulation rate among gilts fed the experimental diets (avg. = 14.1). Number of live embryos was less for HIS and HS + HIS gilts compared with C and HS (9.9 and 9.1 vs. 11.9 and 10.6, respectively; P effects of diet, parity group, genetic line, and season as well as their interactions. The inclusion of SF and ISF in gestation diets did not affect litter size. Sows fed the HS + HIS diet had a greater ADFI and lost less BW during lactation (P < 0.01) than sows fed C. Under the conditions of this study, feeding gestating sows increased levels of SF and ISF from d 2 after breeding to d 109 of gestation did not increase litter size.

  3. Effect of Grinding Methods on Structural, Physicochemical, and Functional Properties of Insoluble Dietary Fiber from Orange Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of grinding methods (regular laboratory milling, ultra centrifugal rotor milling, and ball milling on structural, physicochemical, and functional properties of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF fraction from orange peel. The results demonstrated that both ultra centrifugal milling and ball milling could effectively decrease average particle size of IDF fraction (81.40 μm and 19.63 μm, resp.. The matrix structure of IDF fraction was destroyed but FTIR structure had no major change after grinding. As particle size decreased, the bulk density and lightness of IDF fraction increased and a redistribution of fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. Furthermore, ball milled IDF fraction exhibited significantly higher capacity to retard glucose diffusion and inhibit α-amylase activity (35.09%. This work would give useful insight into effect of grinding methods on properties and functions of orange peel IDF in food industry.

  4. Increasing potassium (K release from K-containing minerals in the presence of insoluble phosphate by bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sarikhani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus and potassium are major essential macronutrients for biological growth and development. Application of soil microorganisms is one approach to enhance crop growth. Some bacteria are efficient in releasing K and solubilizing P from mineral sources but their behavior was not studied more in presence together. Materials and methods: In this study the ability of seven bacterial strains, including Pseudomonas putida P13, P. putida Tabriz, P. fluorescens Tabriz, P. fluorescens Chao, Pantoea agglomerans P5, Azotobacter sp. and Bacillus megaterium JK3 to release mineral K from muscovite and biotite with application of insoluble (Ca3(PO42 or soluble (Na2HPO4 P-sources was investigated. Nutrient Broth was used to prepare an overnight culture of bacteria to inoculate in Aleksandrov medium, which was used to study the dissolution of silicate minerals. It should be mentioned that Aleksandrov medium was used to determine the amount of released P from tricalcium phosphate (TCP while muscovite was added to the medium as a sole source of potassium. Concentration of P was determined spectrophotometrically by ammonium-vanadate-molybdate method and K was determined by flame photometry. Results: The insoluble P-source led to a significantly increased released K into assay medium (66%, and the net release of K from the biotite was significantly enhanced. Among bacterial strains, the highest mean of released K was observed with P. putida P13 which released more K (27% than the control. The amounts of released K from micas in the presence of insoluble and soluble phosphate by P. putida P13 were 8.25 and 4.87 mg/g, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Application of insoluble phosphate could increase K release from mica minerals. The enhanced releasing of mineral K might be attributed to the release of organic acids from the bacteria, a mechanism which plays a pivotal role in solubilizing phosphate from inorganic source of phosphate.

  5. Ratios of soluble and insoluble dietary fibers on satiety and energy intake in overweight pre- and postmenopausal women 1

    OpenAIRE

    Burton-Freeman, Britt; Liyanage, Dhanesh; Rahman, Sajida; Edirisinghe, Indika

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibers? properties impact different mechanisms involved in satiety and energy intake regulation and metabolic outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of fiber types and menopausal status on satiety and metabolic responses in overweight women. METHODS: In a randomized within-subjects design, 19 overweight/obese women [9 premenopausal and 10 postmenopausal] consumed 3 preloads that varied by fiber content and source: 1) 3:1 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (SF), 2) 1:3 ratio of sol...

  6. Determination of insoluble soap in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Vílchez, José L; Crovetto, Guillermo; Verge, Coral; de Ferrer, Juan A

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a new analytical procedure for determining insoluble Ca and Mg fatty acid salts (soaps) in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples. The number of analytical methodologies that focus in the determination of insoluble soap salts in different environmental compartments is very limited. In this work, we propose a methodology that involves a sample clean-up step with petroleum ether to remove soluble salts and a conversion of Ca and Mg insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetate salt and potassium carbonate, followed by the extraction of analytes from the samples using microwave-assisted extraction with methanol. An improved esterification procedure using 2,4-dibromoacetophenone before the liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection analysis also has been developed. The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two fatty acid Ca salts that are not commercial and are never detected in natural samples (C₁₃:₀ and C₁₇:₀). Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect because both standards have similar environmental behavior (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C₁₀:₀) to C₁₈:₀). We also studied the effect of the different variables on the clean-up, the conversion of Ca soap, and the extraction and derivatization procedures. The quantification limits found ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 mg/kg. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the development of a study on soap behavior in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples. © 2010 SETAC.

  7. Crosslinked hydrogels—a promising class of insoluble solid molecular dispersion carriers for enhancing the delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajun D. Sun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Water-insoluble materials containing amorphous solid dispersions (ASD are an emerging category of drug carriers which can effectively improve dissolution kinetics and kinetic solubility of poorly soluble drugs. ASDs based on water-insoluble crosslinked hydrogels have unique features in contrast to those based on conventional water-soluble and water-insoluble carriers. For example, solid molecular dispersions of poorly soluble drugs in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA can maintain a high level of supersaturation over a prolonged period of time via a feedback-controlled diffusion mechanism thus avoiding the initial surge of supersaturation followed by a sharp decline in drug concentration typically encountered with ASDs based on water-soluble polymers. The creation of both immediate- and controlled-release ASD dosage forms is also achievable with the PHEMA based hydrogels. So far, ASD systems based on glassy PHEMA have been shown to be very effective in retarding precipitation of amorphous drugs in the solid state to achieve a robust physical stability. This review summarizes recent research efforts in investigating the potential of developing crosslinked PHEMA hydrogels as a promising alternative to conventional water-soluble ASD carriers, and a related finding that the rate of supersaturation generation does affect the kinetic solubility profiles implications to hydrogel based ASDs.

  8. Decrease of insoluble glucan formation in Streptococcus mutans by co-cultivation with Enterococcus faecium T7 and glucanase addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shin-Hye; Kwak, So-Hyung; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hanh; Seo, Ye-Seul; Song, Chaeri; Mok, Il Kyoon; Kim, Doman

    2018-02-01

    To develop preventive canine oral health bio-materials consisting of probiotics and glucanase to reduce insoluble glucan and volatile sulfur compound formation. Co-cultivation of Enterococcus faecium T7 with Streptococcus mutans at inoculation ratio of 3:1 (v/v) resulted in 25% reduction in the growth of Streptococcus mutans. Amounts of soluble and insoluble glucans produced by S. mutans were decreased to 70 and 55%, respectively. Insoluble glucan was decreased from 0.6 µg/ml in S. mutans culture to 0.03 µg/ml in S. mutans co-cultivated with E. faecium T7 in the presence of Lipomyces starkeyi glucanase. Volatile sulfur compound, a main component of halitosis produced by Fusobacteria nucleatum, was decreased by co-cultivating F. nucleatum with E. faecium. E. faecium and glucanase can be combined as potentially active ingredients of oral care products for pets by reducing plaque-forming bacteria growth and their by-products that cause cavity and periodontal disease.

  9. Accumulation of solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble antioxidant phenolics in edible bean sprouts: implication of germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-You Gan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Edible bean sprouts are popular fresh vegetables widely recognized for their nutritional quality. However, while their antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble extracts has not been systematically evaluated. Methods: The antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble fractions of 12 cultivars of edible bean sprouts were evaluated, and relationships of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were also analyzed. Results: Sprouts demonstrated a wide range of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content, with lower but substantial antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in the solvent-insoluble fractions. Highest levels were found in the green mung bean sprout. Phenolic compounds, such as catechin, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were widely detected in these sprouts. Additionally, a positive correlation was discovered between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in these edible bean sprouts. Conclusions: Germination generally resulted in the accumulation of antioxidant phenolics in the most edible bean sprouts. Edible bean sprouts with high antioxidant phenolics can be valuable natural sources of dietary antioxidants for the prevention of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases.

  10. Immunoenzymatic detection of three kinds of 43,000-molecular-weight antigens by monoclonal antibodies in the insoluble fraction of Toxoplasma gondii.

    OpenAIRE

    Ogata, K; Kasahara, T; Shioiri-Nakano, K; Igarashi, I; Suzuki, M

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (TpM 3, TpM 6, and TpM 19) against Toxoplasma gondii insoluble antigens were produced by the hybridization of NS-1, a mouse myeloma cell line, with spleen cells from mice immunized with T. gondii insoluble antigens. TpM 3, TpM 6, and TpM 19 were characterized by the dye test, the latex agglutination test, two types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, using either T. gondii supernatant antigens or T. gondii insoluble antigens, and immunoperoxidase staining. TpM 3, TpM ...

  11. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanika-Rebar, C.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs (approx. = 3 months of age at exposure) have been exposed by inhalation to a relatively insoluble form of 144 Ce (in fused aluminosilicate particles) to compare the resulting patterns of metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects with those seen in dogs exposed at 12 and 14 months of age and at 8 to 10.5 years of age. Five blocks of longevity animals, each consisting of 10 exposed dogs and one control, are currently being studied. The initial lung burdens of the 144 Ce-exposed dogs range from 0.004 to 140 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight. Three dogs with initial lung burdens of 73 to 120 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died at 66 to 121 days after exposure with pulmonary injury and congestive heart failure. One dog with an initial lung burden of 140 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died at 91 days after exposure with severe radiation pneumonitis and minimal pulmonary fibrosis and another dog whose initial lung burden was 70 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died at 511 days after exposure with pulmonary injury that was mainly fibrotic in nature. Four dogs with initial lung burdens of 52 to 79 μCi/kg body weight had primary pulmonary hemangiosarcomas and died between 618 and 738 days, with cumulative average absorbed beta doses to lung of 23,000 to 31,000 rads. Two of these dogs, 1027S and 1024D, died within the past year. One dog with an initial lung burden of 28 μCi/kg body weight was euthanized at 1227 days after exposure with an hemangiosarcoma of the mediastinum. Within the past year, Dog 627S, with an initial lung burden of 48 μCi/kg body weight, died 1732 days after exposure with hemangiosarcoma primary in the liver or spleen. A dog with an initial lung burden of 12 μCi/kg body weight died from epilepsy at 1520 days after exposure. Serial observations are continuing on the surviving 37 exposed and five control dogs

  12. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on the biological effects of 90 Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs are being conducted to define the biological consequences of inhaling this radionuclide in a form which has a long retention time in the lung. One hundred and six dogs were exposed to a polydisperse aerosol (AMAD 1.4 to 2.8 μm and sigma/sub g/ 1.4 to 2.7) of fused aluminosilicate particles labeled with 90 Sr. Initial lung burdens ranged from 0.21 to 94 μCi 90 Sr per kilogram of body weight (μCi/kg). Eighteen control dogs were exposed to an aerosol of stable strontium in fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 34 dogs having initial lung burdens of 8.9 to 94 μCi 90 Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 33,000 to 96,000 rads have died from radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis between 159 and 2596 days after exposure. Twenty-nine dogs with initial lung burdens of 3.7 to 36 μCi 90 Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 13,000 to 68,000 rads have died from hemangiosarcomas in the lung, heart or mediastinum between 644 and 2565 days after exposure. In addition, one dog developed a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, another developed epidermoid carcinoma of the lung, another died of pneumonia while recovering from anesthesia, one dog died at 1821 days after exposure with an hemangiosarcoma of the spleen and two dogs developed squamous cell carcinomas in the nasal cavity. During the past year one dog was euthanized 2753 days after exposure (34,000 rads lung dose) as a result of an hemangiosarcoma which developed in a rib and spread widely. Another dog died 2830 days after exposure (35,000 rads lung dose) with a squamous cell carcinoma in the lung. An additional dog was euthanized 2636 days after exposure (12,000 rads lung dose) with widespread hemangiosarcoma of unknown origin. The remaining 36 exposed dogs and 18 controls are surviving at 1387 to 3168 days after exposure

  13. Process for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic liquid radioactive wastes to solid insoluble products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Gary S.; Brownell, Lloyd E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive wastes to a solid, relatively insoluble, thermally stable form is provided and comprises the steps of reacting powdered aluminum silicate clay, e.g., kaolin, bentonite, dickite, halloysite, pyrophyllite, etc., with the sodium nitrate-containing radioactive wastes which have a caustic concentration of about 3 to 7 M at a temperature of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to thereby entrap the dissolved radioactive salts in the aluminosilicate matrix. In one embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid waste, such as neutralized Purex-type waste, or salts or oxide produced by evaporation or calcination of these liquid wastes (e.g., anhydrous salt cake) is converted at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to the solid mineral form-cancrinite having an approximate chemical formula 2(NaAlSiO.sub.4) .sup.. xSalt.sup.. y H.sub.2 O with x = 0.52 and y = 0.68 when the entrapped salt is NaNO.sub.3. In another embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid is reacted with the powdered aluminum silicate clay at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C, the resulting reaction product is air dried eitheras loose powder or molded shapes (e.g., bricks) and then fired at a temperature of at least 600.degree. C to form the solid mineral form-nepheline which has the approximate chemical formula of NaAlSiO.sub.4. The leach rate of the entrapped radioactive salts with distilled water is reduced essentially to that of the aluminosilicate lattice which is very low, e.g., in the range of 10.sup.-.sup.2 to 10.sup.-.sup.4 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for cancrinite and 10.sup.-.sup.3 to 10.sup.-.sup.5 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for nepheline.

  14. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method for interfacial flows with insoluble surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofeng

    Interfacial flows, fluid flows involving two or more fluids that do not mix, are common in many natural and industrial processes such as rain drop formation, crude oil recovery, polymer blending, fuel spray formation, and so on. Surfactants (surface active substances) play an important role in such processes because they significantly change the interfacial dynamics. In this thesis, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method has been developed to numerically simulate interfacial flows with insoluble surfactants. The interface is captured using a coupled level set and volume of fluid method. To evolve the surfactant concentration, the method directly tracks the surfactant mass and the interfacial area. The surfactant concentration, which determines the local surface tension through an equation of state, is then computed as surfactant mass per interfacial area. By directly tracking the surfactant mass, the method conserves the surfactant mass exactly. To accurately approximate the interfacial area, the fluid interface is reconstructed using piecewise parabolas. The evolution of the level set function, volume fraction, interfacial area, and the surfactant mass is performed using an ALE approach. The fluid flow is governed by Stokes equations, which are solved using a finite element method. The surface forces are included in the momentum equation using a continuum surface stress formulation. To efficiently resolve the complex interfacial dynamics, interfacial regions of high surface curvature, and near contact regions between two interacting interfaces, the grid near the interface is adaptively refined. The method is extendible to axisymmetric and 3D spaces, and can be coupled with other flow solvers, such as Navier-Stokes and viscoelastic flow solvers, as well. The method has been applied to study the effect of surfactants on drop deformation and breakup in an extensional flow. Drop deformation results are compared with available experimental and theoretical

  15. Use of processed resistivity borehole imaging to assess the insoluble content of the massively bedded Preesall Halite NW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Andrew; Evans, David J.

    2013-04-01

    With the decline of the UK's remaining conventional reserves of natural gas and associated growth of imports, the lack of adequate storage capacity is a matter of concern for ensuring energy security year-round. In a number of countries, subsurface caverns for gas storage have been created by solution mining of massive halite deposits and similar storage facilities are likely to become an important part of the UK's energy infrastructure. Crucial to the economic viability of such facilities is the percentage of insoluble material within the halite intervals, which influences strongly the relationship between cavern sump and working volumes: successful development of these caverns is dependent upon maximising the efficiency of cavern design and construction. The purity of a massive halite sequence can only be assessed either by direct means (i.e. coring) or indirectly by downhole geophysical logs The use of conventional geophysical logs in subsurface exploration is well established but literature generally relies on a very low resolution tools with a typical vertical logging sample interval of 15 centimetres. This means that such tools provide, at best, a "blurred" view of the sedimentary successions penetrated by the borehole and that discrete narrow bands of insoluble material will not be identifiable or distinguishable from zones of "dirtier" halite with disseminated mud materials. In 2008, Halite-Energy Group (formerly Canatxx Gas Storage Ltd) drilled the Burrows Marsh #1 borehole and acquired resistivity borehole imaging (FMI) logs through the Triassic Preesall Halite in the Preesall Saltfield, NW England. In addition to near full circumferal imaging capability, rather than a single measurement per increment, FMI logs allows millimetre to centimetre scale imaging of sedimentary features, that is one to two orders of magnitude higher vertical resolution. After binary segmentation of the FMI images to achieve a simple halite-insoluble ("mud") separation these were

  16. Efecto del zinc aminoquelado y el sulfato de zinc en la incidencia de la infección respiratoria y la diarrea en niños preescolares de centros infantiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sánchez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El déficit de zinc es común en niños de poblaciones en desarrollo. La deficiencia de zinc altera el sistema inmunológico y la resistencia a las infecciones. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de dos compuestos de zinc en la prevención de la infección respiratoria y la diarrea agudas. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un ensayo comunitario triple ciego en 301 niños entre dos y cinco años de edad de centros infantiles de Medellín. Fueron seis conglomerados distribuidos aleatoriamente en tres grupos de intervención que recibieron zinc aminoquelado, sulfato de zinc y placebo durante cinco días de la semana a lo largo de 16 semanas. Se evaluaron diariamente los síntomas de infección respiratoria, diarrea aguda y efectos secundarios. Resultados. La incidencia de la infección respiratoria fue menor con el zinc aminoquelado (1,42 por 1.000 días-niño comparado con el sulfato de zinc (1,57 por 1.000 días-niño (RR=0,90, IC95%: 0,382 a 2,153, p=0,999 y con el placebo (3,3 por 1.000 días-niño (RR=0,43, IC95%: 0,196 a 0,950, p=0,049. La incidencia de diarrea aguda con el zinc aminoquelado (0,15 por 1.000 días-niño fue menor que con el sulfato de zinc (1,18 0,78 por 1.000 días-niño (RR=0,20, IC95%: 0,0043 a 1,662, p=0,361 y que la del grupo placebo (0,49 por 1.000 días-niño (RR=0,32, IC95%: 0,006 a 3,990, p=0,346. Conclusiones. El zinc aminoquelado tuvo mejor efecto en la disminución de la incidencia de la infección respiratoria y la diarrea agudas en niños preescolares comparado con los otros grupos de estudio. Identificador en clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01791608

  17. Eficacia del hierro aminoquelado en comparación con el sulfato ferroso como fortificante de un complemento alimentario en preescolares con deficiencia de hierro, Medellín, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylen Liseth Rojas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La disminución de los depósitos de hierro constituye el primer eslabón de la cadena conducente a la deficiencia de hierro, la carencia nutricional más prevalente y principal causa de anemia en todo el mundo, situación que puede prevenirse mediante la fortificación de alimentos. Objetivo. Comparar la eficacia del hierro aminoquelado con el sulfato ferroso como fortificante de un complemento alimentario en preescolares con deficiencia de hierro. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un ensayo clínico triple ciego con distribución aleatoria de grupos. Se analizaron 56 preescolares con deficiencia de hierro (ferritina menor de 24 ng/ml a los que se les dio diariamente 13 g de leche con 12,5 mg de hierro. Después de dos meses se midieron los niveles de hemoglobina, hematocrito y ferritina sérica. Resultados. En el grupo con sulfato ferroso la concentración de ferritina sérica aumentó de 18,8 a 24,1ng/ml, mientras que dicha variación fue de 18,4 a 29,7 ng/ml con el hierro aminoquelado, en ambos casos con diferencias significativas. El nivel de ferritina final difirió según el grupo de estudio, siendo mayor en el grupo con hierro aminoquelado (p=0,022. La hemoglobina y el hematocrito no variaron después de la intervención. Las reacciones adversas en el grupo con sulfato ferroso fueron de 35,7 %, en contraste con el 42,9 % en el grupo con hierro aminoquelado; cinco niños presentaron infección delas vías respiratorias, sin diferencias estadísticas. Conclusiones. Los dos compuestos aumentan los niveles de ferritina, siendo mayor el aumento entre quienes toman leche con hierro aminoquelado. No fue diferente la incidencia de reacciones adversas o de infecciones entre los grupos. Identificador en Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01412723 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i3.775

  18. Validación de un método cromatográco y determinación de sulfatos en productos de corrosión atmosférica del zinc expuesto en ambientes de SO2 y NO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Montoya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del SO2 y el NO2 en la corrosión atmosférica del zinc, determinando la presencia de sulfatos como productos principales de la corrosión atmosférica de dicho metal cuando se expone a este tipo de ambientes. Se emplearon como técnicas instrumentales la microscopía electrónica de barrido con microsonda de rayos X (SEM/EDX, para establecer la morfología y la determinación cualitativa elemental de los productos de corrosión, y la cromatografía de intercambio iónico (IC, para cuantificar los sulfatos. Antes de efectuar los análisis cromatográficos se evaluaron una serie de parámetros para validar el método y tener la certeza estadística de su utilidad en la cuantificación de sulfatos: selectividad, linealidad, precisión, exactitud, límite de cuantificación y límite de detección. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que cuando el metal se expone en un ambiente de SO2 y NO2, la formación de sulfatos tiene tendencia creciente con relación al tiempo de exposición, reflejándose un efecto sinérgico de ambos contaminantes sobre el proceso de formación de sulfatos en la superficie metálica, si se compara con los resultados obtenidos en atmósferas de sólo SO2.

  19. Effects of long-term soluble vs. insoluble dietary fiber intake on high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Isken, Frank; Klaus, Susanne; Osterhoff, Martin; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.; Weickert, Martin O.

    2010-01-01

    Although most of the proposed beneficial effects of fiber consumption have been attributed to viscous and gel-forming properties of soluble fiber, it is mainly insoluble cereal fiber and whole grains that are strongly associated with reduced diabetes risk in prospective cohort studies, indicating that other unknown mechanisms are likely to be involved.\\ud \\ud We performed a long-term study investigating potential protective effects of adding soluble guar fiber (10% w/w) vs. insoluble cereal f...

  20. Reconstrução do ligamento cruzado cranial em cães, associado ou não ao sulfato de condroitina Cranial cruciate ligament reconstruction in dogs associated or not to chondroitin sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Biasi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da reconstrução do ligamento cruzado cranial, associado ou não ao sulfato de condroitina, na evolução da osteoartrite induzida experimentalmente em cães. Vinte cães hígidos, sem raça definida, machos e fêmeas, com peso corpóreo entre 19 e 25kg, foram submetidos à desmotomia do ligamento cruzado cranial. Trinta dias após, foram separados em dois grupos de 10 animais. Um grupo foi submetido à reconstrução do ligamento cruzado com uso de aloenxerto de ligamento patelar congelado, o outro não. Trinta e um dias após a desmotomia, cada grupo foi dividido em dois subgrupos de cinco animais. Um recebeu sulfato de condroitina, o outro não. Os cães foram avaliados clínica e radiograficamente antes da desmotomia e aos 30, 60 e 90 dias após a desmotomia. No último momento foram realizados exames macro e microscópico. Nos cães submetidos somente à desmotomia e tratados com sulfato de condroitina houve redução na progressão das alterações ósseas, ao exame radiográfico. A reconstrução do ligamento cruzado cranial melhorou a função do membro e, quando associada ao sulfato de condroitina, houve melhor resposta. Não houve diferença entre os subgrupos quanto aos exames macro e microscópico.The effect of cranial cruciate ligament reconstruction, associated or not to chondroitin sulfate, on the evolution of experimentally induced osteoarthritis in dogs was studied. Twenty healthy mixed dogs, weighing between 19 and 25kg were submitted to cranial cruciate desmotomy. Thirty days later, the animals were divided into two groups with ten dogs each. One was submitted to cranial cruciate ligament reconstruction using frozen patellar tendon allograft and the other received no surgical treatment. Thirty one days after desmotomy, each group was divided into two subgroups with five animals each. One subgroup for each group received chondroitin sulfate and the other received no medical treatment. The dogs were

  1. Empleo de sulfato de magnesio como adyuvante durante anestesia general, en pacientes ASA I y II: Revisión sistemática y meta-análisis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Rubio, Laura

    2016-01-01

    El sulfato de magnesio cuenta con una serie de características que hacen de él un fármaco de utilidad en anestesiología. En el ámbito de la anestesia general, se ha propuesto su empleo intravenoso como fármaco adyuvante a partir de su efecto modulador de la respuesta hemodinámica al estrés (vasodilatador, antiarrítmico, inhibición de la liberación de catecolaminas), su efecto anestésico y analgésico (antagonista de los receptores tipo N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) a nivel de sistema nervioso cen...

  2. Hydrate promoting capabilities of some in water soluble and insoluble organics on the formation of methane gas hydrate; Action benefique de composes organique soluble ou insoluble dans l'eau sur la formation du methane hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooijer, M.M.; Heuvel, V.D.; Reuvers, M.; Deugd, R.M. de; Peters, C.J.; Swaan Arons, J. de [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria, Delft (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Sodium chloride (NaCl) has a strong pressure enhancing effect on the three-phase equilibrium liquid water - hydrate - vapour (L{sub w}-H-V) in the ternary system water + methane + sodium chloride (H{sub 2}O+CH{sub 4}+NaCl). Recently, however, it became apparent that certain in water soluble and insoluble organic components have the opposite effect on the equilibrium pressure of the three-phase equilibrium L{sub w}-H-V. Compared to the hydrate equilibrium pressure of the organic free system, pressure reductions as high as 80% have been observed. This contribution reports on experimental results of the competitive effect, on the equilibrium pressure of the three-phase equilibrium L{sub w}-H-V, of both NaCl and the organic component 1,3-dioxolane, which is soluble in water. Also the in water insoluble organics tetrahydropyran, cyclo-butanone, methyl-cyclohexane, fluoroform and tetrafluoromethane and their effects are considered. (authors)

  3. Efeito do sulfato de vanadil sobre o comprometimento metabólico muscular induzido pela imobilização de membro posterior de ratos Efecto del sulfato de vanadil sobre comprometimiento metabólico muscular inducido por la inmovilización del miembro posterior en ratones Effect of the vanadyl sulphate on the muscular metabolic compromising induced by immobilization of posterior limb of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borges Delfino

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do sulfato de vanadil (SV no perfil metabólico muscular de membro posterior imobilizado de ratos. Ratos Wistar foram divididos nos grupos (n = 6: controle (C, imobilizado em posição neutra do tornozelo (I, tratado com sulfato de vanadil (SV, 0,25mM, VO e imobilizado tratado com SV (I + SV durante sete dias. Após o período experimental, foram avaliadas as reservas de glicogênio (RG dos músculos sóleo (S, gastrocnêmio branco (GB e vermelho (GV, tibial anterior (TA e extensor longo dos dedos (ELD, além do peso do S e ELD. A análise estatística foi realizada pela ANOVA seguida pelo teste de Tukey (p La propuesta de este trabajo ha sido la de evaluar el efecto del sulfato de vanadil (SV en el perfil metabólico muscular de miembro posterior inmovilizado de ratones. Ratones Wistar fueron divididos en grupos (n = 6: control (C, inmovilizado en posición neutra de tobillo (I, tratado con sulfato de vanadil (SV, 0,25mM, VO e inmovilizado tratado con SV (I + SV durante 7 días. Después del periodo experimental, fueron evaluadas las reservas de glicógeno (RG de los músculos soleo (S, gastrocnemio blanco (GB y colorado (GV, tibial anterior (TA y extensor largo de los dedos (ELD, además del peso de S y ELD. El análisis estadístico fue realizado por ANOVA seguido del test de Tukey (p The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic performance of immobilized skeletal muscle in rats treated with vanadyl sulphate. Male Wistar rats were divided in groups (n = 6: control (C, immobilized (I, treated with vanadyl sulphate (VS, 0,25 mM and immobilized treated with vanadyl sulphate (I + VS during seven days. The concentration of vanadyl sulphate diluted in water was 0,25 mM. After experimental stage, the glycogen content (GC was evaluated in soleus (S, white gastrocnemius (WG, red gastrocnemius (RG, tibialis anterior (TA and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles, besides S and EDL weight. The

  4. Solvent optimization extraction of antioxidants from foxtail millet species' insoluble fibers and their free radical scavenging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangoura, Mohamed Lamine; Nsor-Atindana, John; Ming, Zhou Hui

    2013-11-15

    In this study, water and 80% of four organic solvents were employed to optimize the extraction of antioxidants from two species of foxtail millet's insoluble fibers under the same temperature, time, and solid/solvent ratio. The results showed that the acetone was able to extract the maximum amount of antioxidants (2.32 mg/g fiber for white specie and 3.86 mg/g fiber for yellow specie) followed by methanol and propanol from both samples. The neutral and the ethanol on the other hand extracted small amount of the antioxidants from the two fiber materials. While considerable level of Total Polyphenols Content (TPC) was recorded in both the water and the organic solvents' extracts, only traces of Total Flavonoid content (TFC) were observed in water, methanol and ethanol extracts. Propanol and acetone extracts was negative to the TFC test. The potency of both white and yellow foxtail millets' insoluble fibers antioxidant extracts was investigated using five different in vitro tests. It was realized that there was a variation in their capacities to quench DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals for the time running of 0-60 min. The samples from the yellow cereal exhibited high inhibition capacity against ABTS(+). No correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging capacities for DPPH and ABTS(+). In general, the yellow species contained more antioxidants in comparison with the white one and this accounted for its high antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The well-coordinated linkage between acidogenicity and aciduricity via insoluble glucans on the surface of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lihong; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Lux, Renate; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the principal cariogenic bacterium for dental caries. Despite the recognition of their importance for cariogenesis, the possible coordination among S. mutans’ main virulence factors, including glucan production, acidogenicity and aciduricity, has been less well studied. In the present study, using S. mutans strains with surface-displayed pH-sensitive pHluorin, we revealed sucrose availability- and Gtf functionality-dependent proton accumulation on S. mutans surface. Consistent with this, using a pH-sensitive dye, we demonstrated that both in vivo cell-produced and in vitro enzymatically synthesized insoluble glucans displayed proton-concentrating ability. Global transcriptomics revealed proton accumulation triggers the up-regulation of genes encoding functions involved in acid tolerance response in a glucan-dependent manner. Our data suggested that this proton enrichment around S. mutans could pre-condition the bacterium for acid-stress. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found S. mutans strains defective in glucan production were more acid sensitive. Our study revealed for the first time that insoluble glucans is likely an essential factor linking acidogenicity with aciduricity. The coordination of these key virulence factors could provide new insights on how S. mutans may have become a major cariogenic pathogen. PMID:26657939

  6. Improved sample treatment for the determination of insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Vílchez, J L; Crovetto, G; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A

    2010-09-15

    A new selective and sensitive method for the determination of insoluble fatty acid salts (soap) in sewage sludge samples is proposed. The method involves a clean up of sample with petroleum ether, the conversion of calcium and magnesium insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts, potassium salts extraction with methanol, and a derivatization procedure previous to the liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) analysis. Three different extraction techniques (Soxhlet, microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasounds) were compared and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was selected as appropriate for our purpose. This allowed to reduce the extraction time and solvent waste (50 mL of methanol in contrast with 250 mL for Soxhlet procedure). The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two standards (C(13:0) and C(17:0)) that are not commercials and neither of them has been detected in sewage sludge samples. Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect since both standards have similar environmental behaviour (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C(10:0)-C(18:0)). The method was successfully applied to samples from different sources and consequently, with different composition. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrodeoxygenation of water-insoluble bio-oil to alkanes using a highly dispersed Pd-Mo catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haohong; Dong, Juncai; Gu, Xianrui; Peng, Yung-Kang; Chen, Wenxing; Issariyakul, Titipong; Myers, William K; Li, Meng-Jung; Yi, Ni; Kilpatrick, Alexander F R; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xusheng; Ji, Shufang; Wang, Qian; Feng, Junting; Chen, Dongliang; Li, Yadong; Buffet, Jean-Charles; Liu, Haichao; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman; O'Hare, Dermot

    2017-09-19

    Bio-oil, produced by the destructive distillation of cheap and renewable lignocellulosic biomass, contains high energy density oligomers in the water-insoluble fraction that can be utilized for diesel and valuable fine chemicals productions. Here, we show an efficient hydrodeoxygenation catalyst that combines highly dispersed palladium and ultrafine molybdenum phosphate nanoparticles on silica. Using phenol as a model substrate this catalyst is 100% effective and 97.5% selective for hydrodeoxygenation to cyclohexane under mild conditions in a batch reaction; this catalyst also demonstrates regeneration ability in long-term continuous flow tests. Detailed investigations into the nature of the catalyst show that it combines hydrogenation activity of Pd and high density of both Brønsted and Lewis acid sites; we believe these are key features for efficient catalytic hydrodeoxygenation behavior. Using a wood and bark-derived feedstock, this catalyst performs hydrodeoxygenation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose-derived oligomers into liquid alkanes with high efficiency and yield.Bio-oil is a potential major source of renewable fuels and chemicals. Here, the authors report a palladium-molybdenum mixed catalyst for the selective hydrodeoxygenation of water-insoluble bio-oil to mixtures of alkanes with high carbon yield.

  8. Atmospheric deposition of beryllium in Central Europe: comparison of soluble and insoluble fractions in rime and snow across a pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohdalkova, Leona; Novak, Martin; Voldrichova, Petra; Prechova, Eva; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Erbanova, Lucie; Krachler, Michael; Komarek, Arnost; Mikova, Jitka

    2012-11-15

    Little is known about atmospheric input of beryllium (Be) into ecosystems, despite its highly toxic behavior. For three consecutive winters (2009-2011), we measured Be concentrations in horizontal deposition (rime) and vertical deposition (snow) at 10 remote mountain-top locations in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Beryllium was determined both in filtered waters, and in HF digests of insoluble particles. Across the sites, soluble Be concentrations in rime were 7 times higher, compared to snow (6.1 vs. 0.9ng·L(-1)). Rime scavenged the pollution-rich lower segments of clouds. The lowest Be concentrations were detected in the soluble fraction of snow. Across the sites, 34% of total Be deposition occurred in the form of soluble (bioavailable) Be, the rest were insoluble particles. Beryllium fluxes decreased in the order: vertical dry deposition insoluble>vertical dry deposition soluble>horizontal deposition soluble>vertical wet deposition insoluble>vertical wet deposition soluble>horizontal deposition insoluble. The average contributions of these Be forms to total deposition were 56, 21, 8, 7, 5 and 3%, respectively. Sites in the northeast were more Be-polluted than the rest of the country with sources of pollution in industrial Silesia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Efetividade de três esquemas com sulfato ferroso para tratamento de anemia em gestantes The effectiveness of three regimens using ferrous sulfate to treat anemia in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariani Impieri de Souza

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a efetividade de três esquemas de tratamento utilizando sulfato ferroso em gestantes anêmicas. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi desenvolvido no Centro de Atenção à Mulher do Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco, em Recife, no período de maio de 2000 a dezembro de 2001. Realizou-se um ensaio clínico, aleatório e cego do ponto de vista laboratorial, utilizando comprimidos de 300 mg de sulfato ferroso para administração de 60 mg de ferro elementar. As gestantes foram alocadas em três grupos de tratamento, conforme a freqüência de administração do ferro: uma vez por semana (n =48; duas vezes por semana (n =53; e uma vez ao dia (n =49. Foram comparadas as concentrações de hemoglobina, volume corpuscular médio e ferritina. RESULTADOS: Antes da intervenção, os grupos eram homogêneos e apresentaram as seguintes médias e desvios-padrão nas concentrações de hemoglobina: 10,2 ± 0,5 g/dL para o grupo que recebeu sulfato ferroso uma vez por semana; 10,2 ± 0,6 g/dL para o grupo que recebeu sulfato ferroso duas vezes por semana; e 10,1 ± 0,6 g/dL para o grupo que recebeu sulfato ferroso uma vez ao dia. As médias de volume corpuscular médio foram, respectivamente: 88,5 ± 5,0; 87,6 ± 5,9; e 88,7 ± 5,1 fL. As medianas de ferritina foram 30,2; 37,1; e 52,9 ng/mL. Houve 27% de cura no esquema de uma vez por semana, 34% no grupo tratado duas vezes por semana e 47% no tratamento diário. Houve fracasso terapêutico (hemoglobina OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of three regimens employing ferrous sulfate to treat pregnant women with anemia. METHODS: The study was carried out at the Women's Health Center of the Pernambuco Institute of Maternal and Child Health in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, from May 2000 to December 2001. A randomized clinical trial with blinded laboratory analysis was conducted. Iron (60 mg was administered as 300-mg ferrous sulfate tablets. The women were allocated to three treatment

  10. Endotoxin-free purification for the isolation of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus E2 protein from insoluble inclusion body aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahony Timothy J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein expression in Escherichia coli may result in the recombinant protein being expressed as insoluble inclusion bodies. In addition, proteins purified from E. coli contain endotoxins which need to be removed for in vivo applications. The structural protein, E2, from Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV is a major immunogenic determinant, and is an ideal candidate as a subunit vaccine. The E2 protein contains 17 cysteine residues creating difficulties in E. coli expression. In this report we outline a procedure for successfully producing soluble and endotoxin-free BVDV E2 protein from inclusion bodies (IB. Results The expression of a truncated form of BVDV-E2 protein (E2-T1 in E. coli resulted in predominantly aggregated insoluble IB. Solubilisation of E2-T1 with high purity and stability from IB aggregates was achieved using a strong reducing buffer containing 100 mM Dithiothreitol. Refolding by dialysis into 50 mM Tris (pH 7.0 containing 0.2% Igepal CA630 resulted in a soluble but aggregated protein solution. The novel application of a two-phase extraction of inclusion body preparations with Triton X-114 reduced endotoxin in solubilised E2-T1 to levels suitable for in vivo use without affecting protein yields. Dynamic light scattering analyses showed 37.5% of the protein was monomeric, the remaining comprised of soluble aggregates. Mice immunised with E2-T1 developed a high titre antibody response by ELISA. Western hybridisation analysis showed E2-T1 was recognised by sera from immunised mice and also by several BVDV-E2 polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Conclusion We have developed a procedure using E. coli to produce soluble E2-T1 protein from IB, and due to their insoluble nature we utilised a novel approach using Triton X-114 to efficiently remove endotoxin. The resultant protein is immunogenic and detectable by BVDV-E2 specific antibodies indicating its usefulness for diagnostic applications and as a subunit

  11. Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (SR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within

  12. Phase field study of interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization in a composite comprized of two mutually insoluble phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Liang [Ames Laboratory; Russell, Alan [Ames Laboratory

    2014-03-27

    The phase field approach is a powerful computational technique to simulate morphological and microstructural evolution at the mesoscale. Spheroidization is a frequently observed morphological change of mesoscale heterogeneous structures during annealing. In this study, we used the diffuse interface phase field method to investigate the interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization of cylindrical rod structures in a composite comprised of two mutually insoluble phases in a two-dimensional case. Perturbation of rod radius along a cylinder's axis has long been known to cause the necessary chemical potential gradient that drives spheroidization of the rod by Lord Rayleigh's instability theory. This theory indicates that a radius perturbation wavelength larger than the initial rod circumference would lead to cylindrical spheroidization. We investigated the effect of perturbation wavelength, interfacial energy, volume diffusion, phase composition, and interfacial percentage on the kinetics of spheroidization. The results match well with both the Rayleigh's instability criterion and experimental observations.

  13. Novel cross-linked alcohol-insoluble solid (CL-AIS) affinity gel from pea pod for pectinesterase purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Guan-Hui; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Chang, Hung-Min

    2005-10-05

    Alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS) from pea pod were cross-linked (CL-AIS) and used as an affinity gel matrix to isolate pectin esterases (PEs) from tendril shoots of chayote (TSC) and jelly fig achenes (JFA), and the results were compared with those isolated by ion-exchange chromatography with a commercial resin. CL-AIS gel matrix in a column displayed poor absorption and purification fold of PE; however, highly methoxylated CL-AIS (HM-CL-AIS), by exposing CL-AIS to methanolic sulfuric acid to increase the degree of esterification (DE) to 92%, facilitated the enzyme purification. The purified TSC PE and JFA PE by the HM-CL-AIS column were proofed as a single band on an SDS-PAGE gel, showing that the HM-CL-AIS column was a good matrix for purification of PE, either with alkaline isoelectric point (pI) (TSC PE) or with acidic pI (JFA PE).

  14. A multi-compartment model for slow bronchial clearance of insoluble particles - Extension of the ICRP human respiratory tract models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, R.; Hofmann, W.

    2006-01-01

    To incorporate the various mechanisms that are presently assumed to be responsible for the experimentally observed slow bronchial clearance into the HRTM, a multi-compartment model was developed to simulate the clearance of insoluble particles in the tracheobronchial tree of the human lung. The new model considers specific mass transfer paths that may play an important role for slow bronchial clearance. These include the accumulation of particulate mass in the peri-ciliary sol layer, phagocytosis of stored particles by airway macrophages and uptake of deposited mass by epithelial cells. Besides the gel layer representing fast mucociliary clearance, all cellular and non-cellular units involved in the slow clearance process are described by respective compartments that are connected by specific transfer rates. The gastrointestinal tract and lymph nodes are included into the model as final accumulation compartments, to which mass is transferred via the airway route and the transepithelial path. Predicted retention curves correspond well with previously published data. (authors)

  15. Study of the contamination of components of the marine environment by soluble and insoluble forms of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraizier, A.; Ancellin, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental contamination of various physical components and organisms of the marine environment was carried out using radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 51 Cr, 60 Co, 106 Ru and 59 Fe. The relationships between the physico-chemical states of the radionuclides, the variations in the environmental conditions, and the properties of the experimental samples were clarified. Marine organisms were more readily contaminated by the insoluble forms of 106 Ru and 59 Fe than by the soluble forms. It appears that the physiology of the marine organisms can have a bearing on the degree and evolution of the contamination whatever the physico-chemical state of the radionuclides may be, but in certain circumstances the contamination level is independent of the variations in environmental conditions and the related variations in the physiology of the organism. (author)

  16. A successful strategy for the recovering of active P21, an insoluble recombinant protein of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marlus Alves Dos; Teixeira, Francesco Brugnera; Moreira, Heline Hellen Teixeira; Rodrigues, Adele Aud; Machado, Fabrício Castro; Clemente, Tatiana Mordente; Brigido, Paula Cristina; Silva, Rebecca Tavares E.; Purcino, Cecílio; Gomes, Rafael Gonçalves Barbosa; Bahia, Diana; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Munte, Claudia Elisabeth; Horjales, Eduardo; da Silva, Claudio Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Structural studies of proteins normally require large quantities of pure material that can only be obtained through heterologous expression systems and recombinant technique. In these procedures, large amounts of expressed protein are often found in the insoluble fraction, making protein purification from the soluble fraction inefficient, laborious, and costly. Usually, protein refolding is avoided due to a lack of experimental assays that can validate correct folding and that can compare the conformational population to that of the soluble fraction. Herein, we propose a validation method using simple and rapid 1D 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra that can efficiently compare protein samples, including individual information of the environment of each proton in the structure.

  17. Magnesium sulphate and the development of the common bean cultivated in an Ultisol of Northeast Australia Sulfato de magnésio e o desenvolvimento do feijoeiro comum cultivado em um Ultissolo do Nordeste da Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Pereira de Oliveira

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium applications (MgS0(4.7H(20 to achieve 8 and 16 mmol c/cm3 of Mg (324 and 1284 kg of MgS0(4 ha-1 were made on one Ultisol from Australia Northeast to correct Mg deficiency in plants and to verify the optimum level of Mg to grow common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Magnesium was applied together with lime, N, K, Cu, Zn, B, and Mo as calcium carbonate, ammonium nitrate, potassium phosphate, cupric and zinc sulphate, boric acid and sodium molybdate respectively a month before planting and P as phosphoric acid at the planting. The pH reached the equilibrium after six weeks of incubation. Higher electrical conductivity (EC was observed in soil where Mg was applied to reach 8 mmol c/cm3 in the absence of common bean and 16 mmol c/cm3 when the plant was present. Higher plant height, leaf area, dry matter weight:leaf area ratio and nutrient concentrations were observed in plants cultivated in soils treated with Mg to reach 8 mmol c/cm3 and 16 mmol c/cm3 when the plant was present. The plant top P content was very low but N, Ca and Mg contents can be considered normal for the common bean.Aplicações de sulfato de magnésio (MgS0(4.7H(20 para atigir 8 e 16 mmol c/cm3 de Mg (324 e 1284 kg de MgS0(4 ha-1 foram realizadas em um solo Ultissolo com a finalidade de corrigir deficiências de Mg no feijoeiro e verificar o nível de Mg suficiente para cultivar o feijão comum (Phaseolus vugaris L. O magnésio foi aplicado junto com calcário, N, K, Cu, Zn, B e Mo, como carbonato de cálcio, nitrato de amônio, fosfato de potássio, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco, ácido bórico e molibidato de sódio respectivamente, um mês antes do plantio e o P como ácido fosfórico no plantio. O pH alcançou o equilíbrio após seis semanas de incubação. A condutividade elétrica mais alta (CE foi observada em solo onde o Mg foi aplicado para atingir 8 mmol c/cm3 na ausência e 16 mmol c/cm3 na presença do feijoeiro A altura das plantas , área foliar, rela

  18. Dessecação de plantas daninhas com glyphosate em mistura com ureia ou sulfato de amônio Weed desiccation with glyphosate mixed with urea or ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J.P. Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O glyphosate é um herbicida não-seletivo, sistêmico, usado para controle de plantas daninhas anuais e perenes em todo o mundo. A absorção da molécula do glyphosate ocorre pelos tecidos fotossinteticamente ativos das plantas, porém alguns fatores podem reduzir sua eficácia, como a morfologia e diversidade de espécies, chuva após aplicação, qualidade da água e misturas em tanque com outros defensivos, entre outros. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência da adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia em calda na eficácia do herbicida glyphosate para dessecação de plantas daninhas. Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em Piracicaba - SP, com aplicações de glyphosate (720 e 1.440 g ha-1 isolado ou combinado com duas doses de sulfato de amônio (7,5 e 15,0 g L-1 ou ureia (2,5 e 5,0 g L-1 sobre as plantas daninhas: apaga-fogo (Alternanthera tenella e capim-massambará (Sorghum halepense. Para a espécie menos suscetível ao herbicida (capim-massambará, a adição de fontes nitrogenadas à menor dose de glyphosate acelerou a morte das plantas, elevando os níveis de controle em até 7,3% na avaliação de 21 dias após aplicação (DAA dos tratamentos. Contudo, os efeitos não foram observados nas avaliações de controle, massa fresca e seca, conduzidas aos 28 DAA. A dose recomendada de glyphosate para cada espécie proporcionou controle satisfatório, sem a necessidade de adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia.Glyphosate is a non-selective systemic herbicide used to control annual and perennial weeds worldwide. Molecule absorption occurs through the plant's photosynthetically-active tissues; however, some factors might reduce its efficacy, such as morphology and specific diversity, rain after application, water quality and tank mixtures with other chemicals. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the influence of ammonium sulfate or urea addiction to spray tank on glyphosate efficacy for weed desiccation. Two trials were

  19. Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata = Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Perri Venturini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I(50;96h, o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1 e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas denim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água, equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado(DIC. A CL (I(50;96h estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I50;96h estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1 e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1.Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimatethe acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I50;96h, snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1 and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1, in triplicate and one control treatment in an

  20. Resistencia química del Hormigón. XXVIII. Contribución al estudio del sistema Cemento P-550-ARI hidratado-disolución de sulfato de sodio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagrera-Moreno, José L.

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, which is the following of the others, the performance of a portland cement of a high initial resistance (P-550-ARI —with a calculated content (Bogue of 39,2 - 25,7 - 9,9 - 12,0 and 6,9% of C3S - C2S - C3A - C4AF and CaSO4, respectively— is studied when it is submitted to the action of an sodium sulfate solution [2,1 g/l of Na2S04 < > 1,42 g/l of SO4 (II < > 1,48 X 10-2 moles/litre of SO4 (II] running across the beds of granulated cement, made with this hydrated cement cured during 7 or 28 days, determining: a The evolution of the content on ions Ca (II and SO4 (II on the taken diverse fractions of sodium sulfate solution which have run across those beds, so as this of the pH and of the conductivity, b the variation in the amount of these ions that are forming the correspondents compounds, in the hydrated cement from the beds that have been submitted before and after to the action of the sodium sulfate solution, and c the structural modifications undergone by the crystalline compounds of the hydrated cement from the beds submitted to the action of the sodium sulfate solution.

    En el presente trabajo, continuación de otros, se estudia el comportamiento de un cemento portland de alta resistencia inicial (P-550-ARI con unos contenidos calculados (Bogue de C3S, C2S, C3A, C3AF y CaS04 del 39,2 - 25,7 - 9,9 - 12,0 y 6,9%, respectivamente, cuando se somete a la acción de una disolución de sulfato de sodio [2,1 g/l de Na2SO4 <> 1,42 g/l de SO4 (II <> 1,48 X 10-2 moles/litro de SO4 (ll], que atraviesa sendos lechos granulados fabricados con dicho cemento hidratado y curado durante 7 y 28 días, determinando: a la evolución del contenido de iones Ca (II y SO4 (II en las diversas

  1. Farmacocinética da associação de glucosamina e sulfato de condroitina em humanos sadios do sexo masculino Pharmacokinetic profile of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate association in healthy male individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odaly Toffoletto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A osteoartrose é uma doença crônica das articulações que, uma vez instalada, leva seus portadores a uma incapacidade funcional progressiva. Como os proteocondroitins sulfato são os maiores constituintes das cartilagens, espera-se que com a ingestão de glucosamina e condroitina haja uma melhora das condições biológicas desse tecido. Uma vez que não temos conhecimento de estudo da farmacocinética da administração oral dessa associação em seres humanos, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliá-la utilizando a associação entre o sulfato de glucosamina (SG e o sulfato de condroitina (SC administrada a dois grupos de doze voluntários sadios do sexo masculino (grupo I uma cápsula de (500 mg SG; 400 mg SC e grupo II quatro cápsulas. Amostras de sangue foram retiradas a intervalos de tempo pré-definidos até 48 horas pós-dose. O SG e o SC foram dosados no plasma pelo método de DMMB (azul de 1,9,dimetildimetileno. A concentração máxima foi atingida em 2 horas (média ±SE; 0,893±0,093 µg/mL, grupo I e 2,222±0,313 µg/mL, grupo II. As áreas sob a curva até 48 horas foram de 10,803±0,965 µg-hr/mL e 38,776±2,981 µg-hr/mL, respectivamente para os grupos I e II. Os dois grupos apresentaram um segundo pico após 18 horas, indicando circulação êntero-hepática. Os nossos resultados indicam que essa associação é absorvida por via oral por mecanismo saturável, o que pode facilitar o seu uso em tratamentos clínicos.Osteoarthrosis is a chronic joint disease that, once patent, leads to a progressive functional disability. As proteochondroitin sulfates are the major contents of the cartilage, it is expected that the ingestion of glucosamine and chondroitin might improve the biological status of that tissue. As we could not find any studies on the pharmacokinetic profile of this association by oral administration route in human beings, the objective of this study was to evaluate it by using the association of glucosamine sulfate

  2. Self-Assembly of Charged Amphiphilic Diblock Copolymers with Insoluble Blocks of Decreasing Hydrophobicity: From Kinetically Frozen Colloids to Macrosurfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Jacquin; P Muller; H Cottet; O Theodoly

    2011-12-31

    We have investigated the self-assembly properties in aqueous solution of amphiphilic diblock copolymers with insoluble blocks of different hydrophobicity and demonstrated that the condition to obtain dynamic micelles is to design samples with insoluble blocks of low enough hydrophobicity. We focus here on results with new water-soluble amphiphilic diblock copolymers poly(diethyleneglycol ethylether acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), or PDEGA-b-PAA. The physical characteristics of PDEGA-b-PAA micelles at high ionization have been determined by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). We show that PDEGA-b-PAA samples form micelles at thermodynamic equilibrium. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) decrease strongly with ionic strength and temperature due to a solvent quality decrease for, respectively, the corona and the core. This behavior of reversible aggregation is remarkable as compared to the behavior of kinetically frozen aggregation that has been widely observed with samples of similar architecture and different hydrophobic blocks, for example, poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PS-b-PAA, and poly(butyl acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PBA-b-PAA. We have measured the interfacial tension between water and the homopolymers PDEGA and PBA at, respectively, 3 and 20 mN/m at room temperature, which permits one to estimate the energy cost to extract a unimer from a micelle. The results are consistent with a micelle association that is fast for PDEGA-b-PAA and kinetically frozen PBA-b-PAA. Hence, PDEGA-b-PAA samples form a new system of synthetic charged macrosurfactant with unique properties of fast dynamic association, tunable charge, and water solubility even at temperatures and NaCl concentrations as high as 65 C and 1 M.

  3. Selective uptake of palladium from high-level liquid wastes by hybrid microcapsules enclosed with insoluble ferrocyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Hitoshi; Sakakibara, Takashi; Yan, Wu; Niibori, Yuichi; Koyama, Shin-ichi; Ohnishi, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Fine crystalline powders of KCuFC were immobilized with alginate gel polymers by sol-gel methods. The uptake properties of KCuFC-microcapsules (KCuFC-MC) were examined by batch and column methods. The size of KCuFC-MC particle was estimated to be about 1 mm in diameter, and KCuFC powders were uniformly dispersed in KCuFC-MC particles. The uptake rate of Pd 2+ for KCuFC-MC was attained within 3 d, and the uptake of Pd 2+ was found to be independent of the temperature and coexisting HNO 3 concentration. As for the breakthrough properties of Pd 2+ through a column packed with KCuFC-MC, a breakpoint of 5% breakthrough was enhanced with lowering of flow rate and independent of coexisting HNO 3 concentration. The Pd 2+ ions were selectively adsorbed in the KCuFC crystal phase, while other metal ions such as Ru(NO) 3+ and ZrO 2+ were absorbed in the alginate phase. High uptake percentage of 98.6% was obtained by using the dissolved solutions of spent fuel from FBR-JOYO (119 GWd/t, JAEA). The alginate film enclosing KZnFC was further prepared by using the support of cellulose filter paper, where the Pd 2+ ions were selectively adsorbed on the KZnFC-MC film. The alginate film enclosing insoluble ferrocyanides are predicted for the selective separation of Pd 2+ as an ion-exchange filter. Thus, the microcapsules enclosing insoluble ferrocyanides are effective for the selective separation of Pd 2+ from high-level liquid waste (HLLW). (author)

  4. The formation of light absorbing insoluble organic compounds from the reaction of biomass burning precursors and Fe(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Avi; Lin, Peng; Bhaduri, Bhaskar; Laskin, Alexander; Rudich, Yinon

    2017-04-01

    Dust particles and volatile organic compounds from fuel or biomass burning are two major components that affect air quality in urban polluted areas. We characterized the products from the reaction of soluble Fe(III), a reactive transition metal originating from dust particles dissolution processes, with phenolic compounds , namely, guaiacol, syringol, catechol, o- and p- cresol that are known products of incomplete fuel and biomass combustion but also from other natural sources such as humic compounds degradation. We found that under acidic conditions comparable to those expected on a dust particle surface, phenolic compounds readily react with dissolved Fe(III), leading to the formation of insoluble polymeric compounds. We characterized the insoluble products by x-ray photoelectron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis and thermo-gravimetric analysis. We found that the major chromophores formed are oligomers (from dimers to pentamers) of the reaction precursors that efficiently absorb light between 300nm and 500nm. High variability of the mass absorption coefficient of the reaction products was observed with catechol and guaiacol showing high absorption at the 300-500nm range that is comparable to that of brown carbon (BrC) from biomass burning studies. The studied reaction is a potential source for the in-situ production of secondary BrC material under dark conditions. Our results suggest a reaction path for the formation of bio-available iron in coastal polluted areas where dust particles mix with biomass burning pollution plumes. Such mixing can occur, for instance in the coast of West Africa or North Africa during dust and biomass burning seasons

  5. Human alveolar macrophage responses to air pollution particulates are associated with insoluble components of coarse material, including particulate endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, J M; Becker, S

    2001-02-15

    Inhalation of particulate matter in the ambient air has been shown to cause pulmonary morbidity and exacerbate asthma. Alveolar macrophage (AM) are essential for effective removal of inhaled particles and microbes in the lower airways. While some particles minimally effect AM function others inhibit antimicrobial activity or cause cytokine and growth factor production leading to inflammation and tissue remodeling. This study has investigated the effects of water soluble (s) and insoluble (is) components of Chapel Hill, North Carolina ambient particulate matter in the size ranges 0.1-2.5 microm (PM2.5) and 2.5-10 microm (PM10) diameter, on human AM IL-6, TNFalpha, and MCP-1 cytokine production and host defense mechanisms including phagocytosis and oxidant production. Cytokines were found to be induced by isPM10 to a much higher extent (>50-fold) than sPM10, which in turn stimulated production better than isPM2.5, while sPM2.5 was inactive. Previous studies have indicated that endotoxin (ETOX) is a component of sPM10 responsible for cytokine production. Here, it is shown that inhibition of isPM10-induced cytokine production was partially achieved with polymyxin B and LPS-binding protein (LBP), but not with a metal chelator, implicating ETOX as a cytokine-inducing moiety also in isPM10. In addition to inducing cytokines, exposure to isPM10, but not the other PM fractions, also inhibited phagocytosis and oxidant generation in response to yeast. This inhibition was ETOX independent. The decrease in host defenses may be the result of apoptosis in the AM population, which was also found to be specifically caused by isPM10. These results show that the functional capacity of AM is selectively modulated by insoluble components of coarse PM, including the biocontaminant ETOX.

  6. Cytotoxicity of corrosion products of degradable Fe-based stents: relevance of pH and insoluble products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagali, Natalia S; Grillo, Claudia A; Puntarulo, Susana; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica A

    2015-04-01

    Fe-based biodegradable metallic materials (Fe-BMMs) have been proposed for cardiovascular applications and are expected to disappear via corrosion after an appropriate period. However, in vivo studies showed that Fe ions release leads to accumulation of orange and brownish insoluble products at the biomaterial/cell interface. As an additional consequence, sharp changes in pH may affect the biocompatibility of these materials. In the present work, the experimental protocols were designed with the aim of evaluating the relative importance that these factors have on biocompatibility evaluation of BMMs. Mitochondrial activity (MTT assay) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay on mammalian cells, exposed to 1-5 mM of added Fe3+ salt, were assessed and compared with results linked exclusively to pH effects. Soluble Fe concentration in culture medium and intracellular Fe content were also determined. The results showed that: (i) mitochondrial activity was affected by pH changes over the entire range of concentrations of added Fe3+ assayed, (ii) at the highest added Fe3+ concentrations (≥3 mM), precipitation was detected and the cells were able to incorporate the precipitate, that seems to be linked to cell damage, (iii) the extent of precipitation depends on the Fe/protein concentration ratio; and (iv) lipid peroxidation products were detected over the entire range of concentrations of added Fe3+. Hence, a new approach opens in the biocompatibility evaluation of Fe-based BMMs, since the cytotoxicity would not be solely a function of released (and soluble) ions but of the insoluble degradation product amount and the pH falling at the biomaterial/cell interface. The concentration of Fe-containing products at the interface depends on diffusional conditions in a very complex way that should be carefully analyzed in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Composición de la fibra alimentaria en el orujo de aceituna. Aminoácidos asociados a la fibra insoluble, soluble y total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiente, C.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Soluble sugars and dietary fibre were determined and the main components of the insoluble, soluble and total dietary fibre were analyzed. Aminoacids in both olive cake and fibre fractions were also studied. The results showed that olive cake fractions were also studied. The results showed that olive cake consists mainly of an alcohol insoluble residue that accounts for 77% of the dry matter (Klason lignin 37%, non-cellulosic polysaccharides 24%, cellulose 19% and protein 10%. Free sugars constitute 10% of the dry matter. Nearly 80% of all the amino acids in olive cake is associated with the insoluble dietary fibre fraction of these hydroxyproline and lysine are completely undigestible and methionine is the most available.

    Se determinó el contenido en azúcares solubles y fibra alimentaria del orujo de aceituna, analizándose los principales componentes de las fracciones de fibra insoluble, soluble y total. Asimismo, se realizó un análisis detallado de los aminoácidos no asociados a la fibra y de los presentes en cada fracción de la misma. Los resultados muestran que dicho subproducto está constituido fundamentalmente por un residuo insoluble en alcohol (77% que contiene principalmente lignina Klason (37%, polisacáridos no celulósicos (24%, celulosa (19%, y proteína (9%. Los azúcares libres constituyen el 10% en peso, de los cuales el 60% es sacarosa. Aproximadamente el 80% del total de aminoácidos del orujo están asociados a la fibra insoluble, encontrándose que algunos de ellos, como hidroxiprolina y Usina, estaban no disponibles en su totalidad, mientras que metionina era el más ampliamente solubilizado.

  8. Durabilidad del hormigón: Acción de disoluciones de sulfato de calcio y de sulfato de magnesio sobre un cemento Portland de alta resistencia inicial. Influencia de la adición de escorias y de cenizas volantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagrera-Moreno, José Luis

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available This article —included on a long time ICCET Investigation Program— studies the mechanical resistances variation, to flexure, of the 1 X 1 X 6 cm mortar samples (1:3 made with high initial resistance cement and with several slags addition (cement/slag = 85/15 - 65/35 - 40/60 and 30/70 with high furnace slag and a fly ash (with selected characteristies when they were submited after the cured period (1 day at 100% R.H. and 21 days inside filtered potable water to the action of the gypsum saturated solution, four magnesium sulphate solutions with the next concentrations (3.22 - 32.20 - 128.80 and 515.20 g/l of MgS044.7H20, gypsum saturated solution with 3.22 g/l MgS04.7H20 a gypsum saturated solution with 32.20 g/l MgSO4. 7H2O and, moreover, filtered potable water, during 56-90-180- 360 - 540 - 720 - 900 and 1080 days. The results obtained have produced a clasification accord to the mechanical behaviour to flexure of the cement n. ° 1 and the mixed cement n.° 1/slag and cement n.° 1/fly ash, front to the agressive solutions mentioned.

    En este artículo —que forma parte de un Proyecto de Investigación del ICCET, a largo plazo— se estudia la variación de las resistencias mecánicas, a flexotracción, de las probetas de mortero (1:3 de 1 X 1 X 6 cm hechas con un cemento portland de alta resistencia inicial y con sus mezclas (cemento/adición = 85/15 - 65/35 - 40/60 y 30/70, en peso con una escoria de horno alto y una ceniza volante (seleccionadas de entre diversas muestras por sus características cuando se someten después del período de curado (1 día en cámara húmeda y 21 días bajo agua potable filtrada a la acción de una disolución saturada de yeso, cuatro disoluciones de sulfato de magnesio con distintas concentraciones (3,22 - 32,20 - 128,80 y 515,20 g/l de MgSO4.7 H2O, una disolución saturada de yeso con 3,22 g/l de MgS04

  9. A transferrin-like GPI-linked iron-binding protein in detergent-insoluble noncaveolar microdomains at the apical surface of fetal intestinal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; van Deurs, B

    1995-01-01

    A GPI-anchored 80-kD protein was found to be the major component of detergent-insoluble complexes, prepared from fetal porcine small intestine, constituting about 25% of the total amount of protein. An antibody was raised to the 80-kD protein, and by immunogold electron microscopy of ultracryosec......A GPI-anchored 80-kD protein was found to be the major component of detergent-insoluble complexes, prepared from fetal porcine small intestine, constituting about 25% of the total amount of protein. An antibody was raised to the 80-kD protein, and by immunogold electron microscopy...

  10. Remoção de sulfato de águas residuárias industriais em reator anaeróbio de leito fixo operado em bateladas sequenciais Sulfate removal from industrial wastewaters in fixed film anaerobic sequential batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Sarti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o potencial de uso reator anaeróbio operado em bateladas seqüenciais com biomassa imobilizada (ASBBR, em escala piloto, no tratamento de água residuária industrial contendo elevadas concentrações de sulfato. O ASBBR, com volume total de 1.2 m³, foi preenchido com carvão mineral como meio suporte para imobilização da biomassa (leito fixo. Foram aplicadas cargas de 0,15; 0,30; 0,65; 1,30 e 1,90 kg SO4-2/ciclo (ou batelada com duração de 48 h, correspondendo, respectivamente, às concentrações de sulfato no afluente de 0,25; 0,50; 1,0; 2,0 e 3,0 gSO4-2.l-1. Utilizou-se etanol como doador de elétrons para a redução do sulfato. O reator foi operado à temperatura ambiente (29±8ºC, tendo sido obtidas eficiências médias na redução de sulfato entre 88 e 92% em 92 ciclos (275 dias. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que o uso de reatores ASBBR constitui-se em alternativa eficiente para a remoção de sulfatos de águas residuárias com características semelhantes às utilizadas neste trabalho.The potential use of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR in pilot-scale for the treatment of a sulfate-rich industrial wastewater was evaluated. The pilot 1.2 m³ ASBBR reactor was filled with mineral coal for biomass immobilization (fixed film. The sulfate loading rates applied were 0.15; 0.30; 0.65; 1.30 and 1.90 kg SO4-2/cycle (or batch. Each cycle lasted 48 h. The influent concentrations were, respectively, 0.25; 0.50; 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 gSO4-2.l-1. Ethanol was used as electron donor for sulfate reduction. The reactor operated at ambient temperature (29±8ºC, and the mean efficiencies of sulfate removal were in the range 88 to 92% in the 92 run cycles. The total operating period comprised 275 days. Based on the results obtained in this research, it could be concluded that the ASBBR can be an efficient alternative for the removal of sulfate from other industrial wastewaters with similar characteristics.

  11. Recorrência da Crise Convulsiva após Terapia Anticonvulsivante com Sulfato de Magnésio em Pacientes com Eclâmpsia Recurrence of Seizures after Anticonvulsant Therapy with Magnesium Sulfate in Patients with Eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Maria Ramos de Amorim

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: determinar a freqüência de recorrência das crises convulsivas após tratamento com sulfato de magnésio, avaliando o tratamento adotado e o prognóstico materno. Casuística e Métodos: analisaram-se todos os casos de eclâmpsia atendidos no IMIP entre janeiro de 1995 e junho de 1998. Sulfato de magnésio e oxigenoterapia foram administrados para todas as pacientes, interrompendo-se a gravidez após estabilização do quadro clínico. Determinou-se a freqüência de complicações maternas de acordo com a presença ou não de recorrência da crise convulsiva, utilizando-se o teste chi² de associação, a um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: doze pacientes apresentaram recorrência da eclâmpsia após sulfato de magnésio (10%, repetindo-se então metade da dose de ataque. Em 4 destas verificou-se nova recorrência, administrando-se então diazepam endovenoso. Depois do diazepam, uma paciente ainda teve crises repetidas, sendo então realizada infusão de fenitoína e, posteriormente, indução do coma barbitúrico (tionembutal. Essa paciente foi submetida a tomografia computadorizada, constatando-se hemorragia intracraniana. As complicações maternas foram significativamente mais freqüentes no grupo com recorrência: coma (16,7% versus 0,9%, acidose (50% versus 2,9%, edema agudo de pulmão (16,7% versus 2,9%, hemorragia cerebral (16,7% versus 0% e insuficiência renal aguda (16,7% versus 1,9%. Ocorreram 3 casos de morte materna no grupo com recorrência (25% e 2 no grupo sem recorrência (1,9%. Conclusões: a recorrência da crise convulsiva é pouco freqüente após uso do sulfato de magnésio (10%, porém associa-se a aumento da morbimortalidade materna, requerendo acompanhamento em UTI e realização de tomografia para exclusão de hemorragia cerebral.Purpose: to determine the frequency of recurrence of seizures after anticonvulsant therapy with magnesium sulfate and to evaluate treatment and maternal prognosis

  12. Understanding the physics of functional fibers in the gastrointestinal tract: an evidence-based approach to resolving enduring misconceptions about insoluble and soluble fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enduring misconceptions about the physical effects of fiber in the gut have led to misunderstandings about the health benefits attributable to insoluble and soluble fiber. This review will focus on isolated functional fibers (eg, fiber supplements) whose effects on clinical outcomes have been readil...

  13. ATP-binding cassette transporters are enriched in non-caveolar detergent-insoluble glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane domains (DIGs) in human multidrug-resistant cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinrichs, JWJ; Klappe, K; Hummel, [No Value; Kok, JW

    2004-01-01

    In this study we show that P-glycoprotein in multi-drug-resistant 2780AD human ovarian carcinoma cells and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 in multi-drug-resistant HT29(col) human colon carcinoma cells are predominantly located in Lubrol-based detergent-insoluble glycosphingolipid-enriched

  14. Performance of hemicellulolytic enzymes in culture supernatants from a wide range of fungi on insoluble wheat straw and corn fiber fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, van M.P.; Toth, K.; Schols, H.A.; Szakacs, G.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are a good source of hemicellulolytic enzymes for biomass degradation. Enzyme preparations were obtained as culture supernatants from 78 fungal isolates grown on wheat straw as carbon source. These enzyme preparations were utilized in the hydrolysis of insoluble wheat straw and

  15. Photo and thermochemical evolution of astrophysical ice analogues as a source for soluble and insoluble organic materials in Solar system minor bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marcellus, Pierre; Fresneau, Aurelien; Brunetto, Rosario; Danger, Gregoire; Duvernay, Fabrice; Meinert, Cornelia; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; Borondics, Ferenc; Chiavassa, Thierry; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Soluble and insoluble organic matter (IOM) is a key feature of primitive carbonaceous chondrites. We observe the formation of organic materials in the photothermochemical treatment of astrophysical ices in the laboratory. Starting from a low vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation dose on templates of astrophysical ices at 77 K, we obtain first a totally soluble form of organic matter at room temperature. Once this organic residue is formed, irradiating it further in vacuum results in the production of a thin altered dark crust on top of the initial soluble one. The whole residue is studied here by non-destructive methods inducing no alteration of samples, visible microscopy and mid-infrared (micro-)spectroscopy. After water extraction of the soluble part, an insoluble fraction remains on the sample holder which provides a largely different infrared spectrum when compared to the one of the soluble sample. Therefore, from the same VUV and thermal processing of initial simple ices, we produce first a soluble material from which a much larger irradiation dose leads to an insoluble one. Interestingly, this insoluble fraction shows some spectral similarities with natural samples of IOM extracted from two meteorites (Tagish Lake and Murchison), selected as examples of primitive materials. It suggests that the organic molecular diversity observed in meteorites may partly originate from the photo and thermal processing of interstellar/circum-stellar ices at the final stages of molecular cloud evolution towards the build-up of our Solar system.

  16. Origin of karst conduits in calcareous sandstone and carbonate-silicate rocks: Complex role of insoluble material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruthans, Jiri; Balak, Frantisek; Schweigstillova, Jana; Vojtisek, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Carbonate karst is best developed in high-grade limestones and majority of the studies is focused on these rocks. Features developed by dissolution of calcite cement in quartz sandstones and dissolution of various carbonate-silicate rocks are studied far less frequently. Unlike in common karst, the insoluble residuum has to be washed out after dissolution to create high-permeability conduits in these rocks. Aquifers in a Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (BCB), the most important hydrogeological basin in the Czech Republic, consist mainly of quartz and calcareous sandstones to siltstones. These rocks are intercalated by thin layers of calcite-cemented sandstone and low-grade limestone, the latter sometimes partly impregnated by a secondary silica. Results of tracer tests show a high flow velocity in some of the aquifers. Springs with flow rate up to 500 l/s and wells with yield up to 200 l/s occur in these rocks. Dissolution features in BCB were however not yet studied in detail. For identification and characterization of rocks prone to karstification, 350 cores were sampled mostly from boreholes but also from rock outcrops in several areas of BCB. Cores were taken from intervals where: (i) high carbonate content was expected, (ii) conduits and enlarged porosity was observed in rock outcrops or wells, (iii) inflows to boreholes were determined by well logging. Calcium carbonate content was determined by calcimetry in all cores. All cores were leached in hydrochloric acid to observe the degree of disintegration after removal of calcite, which was far dominating portion of total carbonate. Polished sections were prepared from selected cores and Ca, Si, Na, K, Al content was automatically mapped by microprobe to visualize the calcium, silica, feldspar and clay mineral distribution in cores. Conduits were photo documented in the field. Two types of sediments with distinct disintegration characteristics were observed: (i) In sandstone composed of quartz grains cemented by

  17. Variation of soluble and insoluble calcium in red rains related to dust sources and transport patterns from North Africa to northeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, A.; Alarcón, M.; Castillo, S.; Escudero, M.; GarcíA Orellana, J.; Masqué, P.; Querol, X.

    2007-03-01

    We use the chemical composition of African dust delivered by red rains at a rural site in northeastern Spain (Montseny, 41°46'N, 2°21'E) to describe its relationship with the possible provenance areas and the processes occurring during transport. To this end, we obtained the red rain insoluble composition for the major elements (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, P, Ti, and Na) in 30 filters, the 210Pb concentration in 23 filters, and the soluble cation concentrations (Na, K, Ca, and Mg) in 28 coincident red rain samples. These samples comprised most major events occurring at the site from 1983 to 2002. On the basis of back trajectories and satellite images, a distinction has been made between an eastern and western air mass flux with respect to 0° Greenwich for the analyzed samples. Principal component and ANOVA analyses between the two provenance groups have shown striking differences in the insoluble phase, with eastern samples being significantly richer in insoluble Ca, Mg, and Sr compared to western samples. Conversely, western samples had significantly higher concentrations of insoluble Al, Fe, K, V, and 210Pb than eastern samples. Therefore, in the insoluble phase, the ratios of various elements to Ca were significantly higher in western provenances. However, these differences disappeared when considering bulk Ca ratios (bulk Ca = insoluble + soluble Ca). Neither of the ratios Fe/Al and Ti/Fe showed significant differences. This lack of differences is interpreted in view of a similar carbonated lithology broadly underlying both areas. The difference in insoluble Ca with respect to total Ca between provenances (Cainsoluble/Catotal = 0.10 and 0.70 for western and eastern trajectories, respectively) is interpreted as a difference in calcite dissolution during transport. Evidence from 210Pb data and from the length of the back trajectories indicates that western trajectories covered a longer distance than the eastern ones; their higher soluble Ca could be due to (1) higher

  18. The expression of a xylanase targeted to ER-protein bodies provides a simple strategy to produce active insoluble enzyme polymers in tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immaculada Llop-Tous

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xylanases deserve particular attention due to their potential application in the feed, pulp bleaching and paper industries. We have developed here an efficient system for the production of an active xylanase in tobacco plants fused to a proline-rich domain (Zera of the maize storage protein γ-zein. Zera is a self-assembling domain able to form protein aggregates in vivo packed in newly formed endoplasmic reticulum-derived organelles known as protein bodies (PBs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tobacco leaves were transiently transformed with a binary vector containing the Zera-xylanase coding region, which was optimized for plant expression, under the control of the 35S CaMV promoter. The fusion protein was efficiently expressed and stored in dense PBs, resulting in yields of up to 9% of total protein. Zera-xylanase was post-translationally modified with high-mannose-type glycans. Xylanase fused to Zera was biologically active not only when solubilized from PBs but also in its insoluble form. The resistance of insoluble Zera-xylanase to trypsin digestion demonstrated that the correct folding of xylanase in PBs was not impaired by Zera oligomerization. The activity of insoluble Zera-xylanase was enhanced when substrate accessibility was facilitated by physical treatments such as ultrasound. Moreover, we found that the thermostability of the enzyme was improved when Zera was fused to the C-terminus of xylanase. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In the present work we have successfully produced an active insoluble aggregate of xylanase fused to Zera in plants. Zera-xylanase chimeric protein accumulates within ER-derived protein bodies as active aggregates that can easily be recovered by a simple density-based downstream process. The production of insoluble active Zera-xylanase protein in tobacco outlines the potential of Zera as a fusion partner for producing enzymes of biotechnological relevance. Zera-PBs could thus become efficient and low

  19. Atmospheric deposition of beryllium in Central Europe: Comparison of soluble and insoluble fractions in rime and snow across a pollution gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohdalkova, Leona; Novak, Martin; Voldrichova, Petra; Prechova, Eva; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Erbanova, Lucie; Krachler, Michael; Komarek, Arnost; Mikova, Jitka

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about atmospheric input of beryllium (Be) into ecosystems, despite its highly toxic behavior. For three consecutive winters (2009–2011), we measured Be concentrations in horizontal deposition (rime) and vertical deposition (snow) at 10 remote mountain-top locations in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Beryllium was determined both in filtered waters, and in HF digests of insoluble particles. Across the sites, soluble Be concentrations in rime were 7 times higher, compared to snow (6.1 vs. 0.9 ng·L −1 ). Rime scavenged the pollution-rich lower segments of clouds. The lowest Be concentrations were detected in the soluble fraction of snow. Across the sites, 34% of total Be deposition occurred in the form of soluble (bioavailable) Be, the rest were insoluble particles. Beryllium fluxes decreased in the order: vertical dry deposition insoluble > vertical dry deposition soluble > horizontal deposition soluble > vertical wet deposition insoluble > vertical wet deposition soluble > horizontal deposition insoluble. The average contributions of these Be forms to total deposition were 56, 21, 8, 7, 5 and 3%, respectively. Sites in the northeast were more Be-polluted than the rest of the country with sources of pollution in industrial Silesia. -- Highlights: ► We measured Be concentrations in rime and snow in the Czech Republic. ► Soluble Be concentrations in rime were 7 times higher than in snow. ► 34% of total Be deposition occurred in the form of soluble (bioavailable) Be. ► Dry-deposited fluxes dominated Be inputs. ► Soluble Be concentrations only rarely exceeded 30 ng·L −1 .

  20. Effects of long-term soluble vs. insoluble dietary fiber intake on high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isken, Frank; Klaus, Susanne; Osterhoff, Martin; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Weickert, Martin O

    2010-04-01

    Although most of the proposed beneficial effects of fiber consumption have been attributed to viscous and gel-forming properties of soluble fiber, it is mainly insoluble cereal fiber and whole grains that are strongly associated with reduced diabetes risk in prospective cohort studies, indicating that other unknown mechanisms are likely to be involved. We performed a long-term study investigating potential protective effects of adding soluble guar fiber (10% w/w) vs. insoluble cereal fiber (10% w/w) to an isoenergetic and macronutrient matched high-fat diet in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. After 45 weeks, mice fed soluble vs. insoluble fiber showed both significantly increased body weight (41.8+/-3.0 vs. 33.6+/-1.5 g, P=.03) and elevated markers of insulin resistance. In mice fed soluble fiber, energy loss via the feces was significantly lower and colonic fermentation with production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) was markedly increased. Gene expression analysis in white adipose tissue showed significantly increased levels of the fatty acid target G-protein coupled receptor-40 in soluble fiber-fed mice. Liver gene expression in the insoluble fiber group showed a pattern consistent with increased fatty acid oxidation. The present results show that soluble vs insoluble dietary fiber added to a high-fat, Western-style diet differently affected body weight and estimates of insulin sensitivity in obesity-prone mice. Soluble fiber intake with increased SCFA production significantly contributed to digested energy, thereby potentially outweighing the well known short-term beneficial effects of soluble fiber consumption. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rajabiyan Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. A total of 200 broilers (Ross 308, 10 days old, were randomly allotted to five experimental equal groups with four replicates of 10 chickens (five male and five female and fed with basal diet + ground wheat (without grit; basal diet + whole wheat (without grit and basal diet contain 1.5% grit of diet with sizes of 2, 3 and 4 mm. Growth performance (evaluated through weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio was determined on day 24 and 42. Also, carcass traits (relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, liver, heart, gizzard and intestine and intestine length were assessed on day 42. Weight gains and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in broilers added with grit 2 mm compared to the control group (p<0.05, whereas; carcass traits were not significantly altered. These data suggest that grit with size of 2 mm improve growth performance in broiler chickens.

  2. Water-insoluble sericin/β-cyclodextrin/PVA composite electrospun nanofibers as effective adsorbents towards methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Wang, Yong; Li, Xiang; Sun, Bolun; Jiang, Ziqiao; Wang, Ce

    2015-12-01

    A novel water-insoluble sericin/β-cyclodextrin/poly (vinyl alcohol) composite nanofiber adsorbent was prepared by electrospinning and followed by thermal crosslinking for removal of cationic dye methylene blue from aqueous solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solubility experiments confirmed that sericin and β-cyclodextrin were incorporated into the nanofibers and the crosslinking reaction occurred successfully. Kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics analysis were studied for adsorption of methylene blue. The adsorption process is better fitted with the pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities are 187.97, 229.89, and 261.10mg/g at the temperatures 293, 313 and 333 K, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters showed that methylene blue adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous. In addition, the fiber membrane adsorbent could be easily separated from dye solution and showed high recyclable removal efficiency. All these results suggest that crosslinked sericin/β-cyclodextrin/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite nanofibers could be potential recyclable adsorbents in dye wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro starch digestion and cake quality: impact of the ratio of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Im Kyung; Bae, In Young; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2014-02-01

    The influence of the ratio of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) on the in vitro starch digestion, predicted glycemic index (pGI), and the physicochemical properties of fiber-enriched cakes were evaluated. The hydration and pasting properties were affected by the ratio of SDF and IDF. According to the increase of IDF ratio (SDF ratio reduction) in 3 g fiber-enriched cakes, slowly digestible starch (SDS) contents increased, while the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) contents decreased. The pGI values were significantly different with control in 3 g fiber-enriched cake containing more than 50% IDF contents (pfiber-enriched cake samples were not significantly different by SDF and IDF ratio. With the exception of the SDF 100% cake, volume index, hardness, and color values of the fiber-enriched cakes increased according to reductions in the SDF ratio. The cakes containing 3 g of total dietary fiber (the same ratio of SDF and IDF) per serving were shown to have low pGI and acceptable quality attributes. Specially, total dietary fiber amount and IDF ratio are more effective than SDF ratio to lower the pGI value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison between the 2N and 4N HCl acid-insoluble ash methods for digestibility trials in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergero, D; Préfontaine, C; Miraglia, N; Peiretti, P G

    2009-12-01

    The digestibility of horse feeds and rations can be determined using different techniques such as calculations based on the chemical composition, in vivo or in vitro methods. The marker methods overcome difficulties like discomfort for the animals and longer experimental times encountered using the ingesta/egesta method. In field conditions, a natural indigestible marker like acid-insoluble ash (AIA), with no changes in the normal ration, could be a very useful tool for digestibility trials. A group of six standardbred horses was used in a set of seven apparent digestibility trials. The diets were based on a first-cut meadow hay added to three different cereals (barley for trials 1 and 2; oats for trials 3 and 5 and corn for trials 6 and 7), the hay : concentrate ratio being 60 : 40 or 70 : 30 on a dry matter basis. Feedstuffs and faeces were analysed to determine the AIA content, using 2N HCl or 4N HCl technique. No differences about AIA concentration were found between the two methods for means and accuracy in each diet. Digestion coefficients for each diet did not differ with AIA method, even if in some trials interfering factors consistently lowered the overall values. Consequently, the AIA 2N HCl can be considered the easier and cheaper method to state apparent digestibility in field conditions, and a good tool for digestibility trials in horses fed hay-based diets.

  5. Properties of black carbon and other insoluble light-absorbing particles in seasonal snow of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Wei; Wang, Xin; Wei, Hailun; Zhou, Yue; Shi, Jinsen; Hu, Zhiyuan; Jin, Hongchun; Chen, Quanliang

    2017-05-01

    A large field campaign was conducted and 284 snow samples were collected at 38 sites in Xinjiang Province and 6 sites in Qinghai Province across northwestern China from January to February 2012. A spectrophotometer combined with chemical analysis was used to measure the insoluble light-absorbing particles (ILAPs) and chemical components in seasonal snow. The results indicate that the cleanest snow was found in northeastern Xinjiang along the border of China, and it presented an estimated black carbon (CBCest) of approximately 5 ng g-1. The dirtiest snow presented a CBCest of approximately 450 ng g-1 near industrial cities in Xinjiang. Overall, the CBCest of most of the snow samples collected in this campaign was in the range of 10-150 ng g-1. Vertical variations in the snowpack ILAPs indicated a probable shift in emission sources with the progression of winter. An analysis of the fractional contributions to absorption implied that organic carbon (OC) dominated the 450 nm absorption in Qinghai, while the contributions from BC and OC were comparable in Xinjiang. Finally, a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was run to explore the sources of particulate light absorption, and the results indicated an optimal three-factor/source solution that included industrial pollution, biomass burning, and soil dust.

  6. Proteomic and biochemical basis for enhanced growth yield of Enterobacter sp. LCR1 on insoluble phosphate medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Rai, Lal Chand

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics and biochemical analyses were used to unravel the basis for higher growth yield of Enterobacter sp. LCR1 on insoluble phosphate medium compared to soluble. Proteomic analysis using 2-DE, MALDI-TOF/MS and LC-MS revealed the involvement of nine proteins. Down-regulation of fructose bisphosphate aldolase with decreased concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate indicated diminished glycolysis. However, up-regulation of phosphoglycerate mutase, increase in the activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase, 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase suggested induction of Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways. These pathways generate sufficient energy from gluconic acid, which is also used for biosynthesis as indicated by up-regulation of elongation factor Tu, elongation factor G and protein disulfide isomerase. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation resulting from organic acid oxidation leads to overexpressed manganese superoxide dismutase and increased activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. Thus the organism uses gluconate instead of glucose for energy, while alleviating extra ROS formation by oxidative defense enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Co-extraction of soluble and insoluble sugars from energy sorghum based on a hydrothermal hydrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiang; Tan, Xuesong; Zhuang, Xinshu; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Wen; Qi, Wei; Zhou, Guixiong; Luo, Yu; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-12-01

    A process for co-extraction of soluble and insoluble sugars from energy sorghum (ES) was developed based on hydrothermal hydrolysis (HH). Two series of ES were investigated: one (N) with a high biomass yield displayed a higher recalcitrance to sugar release, whereas the second (T) series was characterized by high sugar extraction. The highest total xylose recoveries of 87.2% and 98.7% were obtained for N-11 and T-106 under hydrolysis conditions of 180°C for 50min and 180°C for 30min, respectively. Moreover, the T series displayed higher enzymatic digestibility (ED) than the N series. The high degree of branching (arabinose/xylose ratio) and acetyl groups in the hemicellulose chains of T-106 would be expected to accelerate sugar release during the HH process. In addition, negative correlations between ED and the lignin content, crystallinity index (CrI) and syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) lignin ratio were observed. Furthermore, finding ways to overcome the thickness of the cell wall and heterogeneity of its chemical composition distribution would make cellulose more accessible to the enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Numerical simulation of heat-transfer and insoluble corrosion product deposition in lead-bismuth eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xu; Zhou Tao; Fang Xiaolu; Lin Daping; Ru Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    As the primary coolant of ADS (accelerator driven sub-critical system), the safety of reactor will be threatened and the lifetime of the reactor will be shortened by appearing of the tiny particles in LBE (lead-bismuth eutectic) alloy. To this end, numerical simulation with the code of FLUENT was used to research the deposition distribution of insoluble corrosion products in rectangular channel. The standard k-ε model was selected to predict the turbulence variation in the rectangular channel. The discrete phase model (DPM) was used to track the trajectory of the particles. It is found that the deposition efficiency is positively correlated with the temperature difference between the fluid and cold wall. The near wall region with a high concentration of particulate matter and low temperature is in favor of particulate matter deposition on the wall. At the same time, the high turbulence kinetic near wall region is not conducive to the deposition of particulate matter. A secondary flow phenomenon occurs under the influence of boundary wall, namely that there are eight symmetrical regions in the radial direction. (authors)

  9. [Soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber in cereals, products derived from their processing and cereal-based commercial products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, E; Rebolledo, M A

    1993-09-01

    In the following study, dietary fiber, insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF) and total (TDF) were determined in cereals and by-products and in commercial cereals products which are found in the national market and promoted as a source of fiber. The Prosky's enzimatic-gravimetric method was used. Results were expressed as g/100g wet basis. Total dietary fiber in cereals and by-products showed a range from 1.18% (poshed rice) to 89.10% (corn bran). For the commercial cereal products, the TDF values varied from 3.73% (rice-sesame cookies) to 34.96% (Breakfast cereal named All Bran). The FDI values always were greater than the SDF values. Based on this fact, FDI values were compared with NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber) values reported in the scientific literature and in the Venezuelan Food Composition Tables using a regression analysis. FDI values were always greater than NDF values and the correlation factor (r) was high and statistical significance to P < 0.05 for both food groups in study.

  10. Stability analysis of rimming flow inside a horizontally rotating cylinder in the presence of an insoluble surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Tara Chand; Tiwari, Naveen

    2017-12-01

    Two-dimensional base state solutions for rimming flows and their stability analysis to small axial perturbations are analyzed numerically. A thin liquid film which is uniformly covered with an insoluble surfactant flows inside a counterclockwise rotating horizontal cylinder. In the present work, a mathematical model is obtained which consists of coupled thin film thickness and surfactant concentration evolution equations. The governing equations are obtained by simplifying the momentum and species transport equations using the thin-film approximation. The model equations include the effect of gravity, viscosity, capillarity, inertia, and Marangoni stress. The concentration gradients generated due to flow result in the surface tension gradient that generates the Marangoni stress near the interface region. The oscillations in the flow due to inertia are damped out by the Marangoni stress. It is observed that the Marangoni stress has stabilizing effect, whereas inertia and surface tension enhance the instability growth rate. In the presence of low diffusion of the surfactant or large value of the Péclet number, the Marangoni stress becomes more effective. The analytically obtained eigenvalues match well with the numerically computed eigenvalues in the absence of gravity.

  11. Purification of antibodies to bacterial antigens by an immunoadsorbent and a method to quantify their reaction with insoluble bacterial targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, H.L.; Minden, P.

    1979-01-01

    A combination of procedures was employed to develop a radioimmunoassay which quantified the binding of antibodies to antigens of either intact Propionibacterium acnes or to antigens of insoluble extracts derived from the bacteria. Reactive antibody populations were purified by use of bacterial immunoadsorbents which were prepared by coupling P. acnes to diethylaminoethyl cellulose. Binding of antibodies was detected with [ 125 I]staphylococcal protein A ([ 125 I]SpA) and optimal conditions for the assay defined by varying the amounts of antibodies, bacterial antigenic targets and [ 125 I]SpA. In antibody excess, 100% of available [ 125 I]SpA was bound by the target-antibody complexes. However, when antibody concentration was limiting, a linear relationship was demonstrated between per cent specific binding of[ 125 I]SpA and antibodies bound to bacterial targets. These results were achieved only with immunoadsorbent-purified antibody populations and not with hyperimmune sera or IgG. The radioimmunoassay detected subtle antigenic differences and similarities between P. acnes, P. acnes extracts and a variety of unrelated microorganisms. (Auth.)

  12. Evaluation of some natural water-insoluble cellulosic material as lost circulation control additives in water-based drilling fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Alsabagh

    2015-12-01

    In this work, three natural water-insoluble cellulosic materials; peanut hulls, bagasse and sawdust were investigated as lost circulation control materials. One hundred and eight different LCM samples made of various materials were tested with mud. The experiments were conducted in a permeability plugging apparatus (PPA at a differential pressure of 100 psi and 300 psi, using 10, 60 and 90 ceramic discs. The performance of each LCM sample was determined based on the amount of spurt loss and total fluid loss of the mud according to the American Petroleum Institute (API standard. The obtained results showed that, the amount of the fluid loss depends on the LCM material, concentration and size distribution, testing results show that, the peanut gives the best results among the bagasse and sawdust, especially fine size which exhibited better results in the filtration characteristics due to the better filling properties of this size. Peanut hulls, bagasse and sawdust show a slight effect on the rheological properties of the mud. The results were discussed on light of particle size distribution.

  13. Effect of type of fiber, site of fermentation, and method of analysis on digestibility of soluble and insoluble fiber in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Guamán, R; Carabaño, R; Gómez-Conde, M S; García, J

    2015-06-01

    The effect of type of fiber, site of fermentation, method for quantifying insoluble and soluble dietary fiber, and their correction for intestinal mucin on fiber digestibility were examined in rabbits. Three diets differing in soluble fiber were formulated (8.5% soluble fiber, on DM basis, in the low soluble fiber [LSF] diet; 10.2% in the medium soluble fiber [MSF] diet; and 14.5% in the high soluble fiber [HSF] diet). They were obtained by replacing half of the dehydrated alfalfa in the MSF diet with a mixture of beet and apple pulp (HSF diet) or with a mix of oat hulls and soybean protein (LSF diet). Thirty rabbits with ileal T-cannulas were used to determine ileal and fecal digestibility. Cecal digestibility was determined by difference between fecal and ileal digestibility. Insoluble fiber was measured as NDF, insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), and in vitro insoluble fiber, whereas soluble fiber was calculated as the difference between total dietary fiber (TDF) and NDF (TDF-NDF), IDF (TDF-IDF), and in vitro insoluble fiber (TDF-in vitro insoluble fiber). The intestinal mucin content was used to correct the TDF and soluble fiber digestibility. Ileal and fecal concentration of mucin increased from the LSF to the HSF diet group (P soluble fiber increased whereas cecal digestibility decreased (P fiber increased from the LSF to the HSF diet group (11.3 vs. 21.0%; P effect of fiber method, resulting in a higher fecal digestibility for rabbits fed the HSF diet compared with the MSF and LSF diet groups (P fiber (P soluble fiber digestibility was higher for the HSF than for the LSF diet group (43.6 vs. 14.5%;P fiber method did not affect it. Cecal soluble fiber digestibility decreased from the LSF to the HSF diet group (72.1 vs. 49.2%; P soluble fiber digestibility was measured using TDF-NDF (P soluble fiber digestibility whereas the selection of the fiber method has a minor relevance. The inclusion of sugar beet and apple pulp increased the amount of TDF fermented in the

  14. Abortion: The Insoluble Problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    14 Aug 1971 ... The literature on the pros and cons of therapeutic abortion must by now virtually fill an average- sized library. Every expert in every field has had his say, sometimes by invitation and sometimes unasked, yet we seem to be no nearer the answer than when we started. The legal boffins have put their case, the ...

  15. Resposta de culturas à aplicação de enxofre e a teores de sulfato num solo de textura arenosa sob plantio direto Crop responses for sulphur application and sulfate levels in a sandy soil under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo dos Santos Rheinheimer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A quantidade total de enxofre é menor em solos com baixos teores de argila e matéria orgânica e a disponibilidade de sulfato da camada superficial do solo às plantas é diminuída pela aplicação de calcário e de fertilizantes fosfatados em superfície no plantio direto. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de algumas culturas à aplicação de enxofre e os teores de sulfato num solo com textura superficial arenosa sob plantio direto. Um experimento em esquema de subparcelas em blocos ao acaso e com quatro repetições foi instalado a campo sobre um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico. Nas parcelas principais, foram adicionadas quatro doses de SO4-2 (0, 15, 30 e 60 kg ha-1. As subparcelas constituíram-se de duas rotações de culturas: uma com nabo/ milho+crotalária/ trigo e outra com soja/ canola/ milho+mucuna. Cada subparcela foi dividida em duas, sendo que, numa delas, não foi adicionado SO4-2 e na outra se adicionou o equivalente a 1/3 das doses iniciais, antes do segundo cultivo. Avaliaram-se os teores de SO4-2 em amostras de solo coletadas em diferentes camadas e a produção de matéria seca e de grãos e o teor de enxofre no tecido. As maiores doses de SO4-2 aplicadas propiciaram pequenos incrementos nos seus teores na camada 0-60 cm. Somente as culturas do nabo forrageiro e milho, quando sob irrigação, responderam à aplicação de SO4-2.The total sulfur amount is lower in soils with low contents of clay and organic matter, and the aplications of limestone and fosfate fertilizers on the surface in no-tillage have reduced the sulfur disponibility through plants on the superficial layer of the soil. This study was carried out to evaluate the sulphate dynamic and the crop responses to S-SO4-2 application. The experiment was carried out at field using a sandy surface soil (Tipic Hapludult, and was a trifactorial with complete randomized blocks and four replications. Four S-SO4-2 levels (0, 15, 20 and 60kg ha

  16. Avaliação por métodos in vitro e in vivo da biodisponibilidade de sulfato ferroso microencapsulado In vitro and in vivo evaluation of iron bioavailability from microencapsulated ferrous sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia Cocato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar, por métodos in vitro e in vivo, a biodisponibilidade de uma nova forma de sulfato ferroso microencapsulado (genericamente denominado Ferlim, desenvolvido para a fortificação de alimentos, comparando-a com a de ferro eletrolítico (Fe0. MÉTODOS: A avaliação da dialisabilidade in vitro utilizou como matriz leite em pó reconstituído. A avaliação in vivo, utilizando o método de recuperação de hemoglobina em leitões anêmicos, teve duração de 13 dias e os animais (n=23 foram agrupados de acordo com o produto do peso (kg x hemoglobina (g/dL. Como controle foi utilizado FeSO4.7H2O. RESULTADOS: As porcentagens médias de ferro dialisado foram 2,2 (desvio-padrão=0,1%, 3,4 (desvio-padrão=0,1% e 3,6 (desvio-padrão=0,0% para FeSO4.7H2O, Ferlim e Fe0, respectivamente (p0,05. As porcentagens de absorção do valor biológico relativo do FeSO4.7H2O foram de 94,2 (desvio-padrão=23,8% para o grupo Ferlim e de 79,7 (desvio-padrão=26,6% para o grupo Fe0, sem diferenças significantes (p>0,05. Em valores numéricos (p>0,05, o grupo Fe0 apresentou menor média de absorção (% valor biológico relativo de concentração de ferro total, de ferro heme e não-heme no fígado. CONCLUSÃO: A microencapsulação do sulfato ferroso com alginato mantém sua biodisponibilidade, caracterizando-se como boa alternativa para a fortificação de misturas sólidas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, by in vitro and in vivo methods, the bioavailability of a new microencapsulated ferrous sulfate (Ferlim developed for food fortification, and compare it with electrolytic iron (Fe0. METHODS: In vitro dialyzability assessment used reconstituted milk powder as matrix. In vivo assessment using the hemoglobin regeneration method in anemic piglets lasted for 13 days and the animals (n=23 were grouped according to the product of weight (kg x hemoglobin (g/dL. FeSO4.7H2O was used as control. RESULTS: The percentages of dialyzed iron were 2.2 (standard deviation=0

  17. Desarrollo tecnológico de sulfato de cinc 5 mg/mL infusión intravenosa Technological development of zinc sulphate 5 mg/mL intravenous infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Gato del Monte

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló una formulación de sulfato de cinc 5 mg/mL para infusión intravenosa que cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad de la USP 26, así como con el estudio de la estabilidad física, química, microbiológica y biológica de la solución, almacenada en envases de vidrio neutro de 5 mL de calidad hidrolítica I. El producto se expuso al calor por 90 días, y al calor y acción de la luz durante un período de 180 días, así como a vida de estante en condiciones normales de temperatura ambiente. Se comprobó la efectividad de los preservativos antimicrobianos presentes en la formulación. De los estudios realizados se determinó que la solución es estable por un período de más de 18 meses, almacenada a temperatura ambiente.A formulation of zinc sulphate 5 mg/mL for intravenous infusion was developed. It met the quality specifications of the USP 26, and it underwent the study of physical, chemical, microbiological and biological stability of the solution stored in neutral glass flasks of 5 ml of hydrolitic quality I. The product was exposed to heat for 90 days and to heat and the action of light for a period of 180 days, as well as to a shelf life under normal conditions of room temperature. It was proved the effectivity of the antimicrobial preservatives present in the formulation. According to the conducted studies, it was determined that the solution is stable for more than 18 months stored at room temperature.

  18. Localized corrosion of carbon steels due to sulfate-reducing bacteria. Development of a specific sensor; Corrosion localisee des aciers au carbone induite par des bacteries sulfato-reductrices. Developpement d'un capteur specifique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort Moros, N.

    2001-11-01

    This work concerns the microbiologically influenced corrosion of carbon steels in saline anaerobic media (3% of NaCl) containing sulfato-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio gabonensis, DSM 10636). In these media, extreme localised corrosion occurs by pitting under the bio-film covering the metallic substrate. A sensor with concentric electrodes was designed to initiate the phenomenon of bio-corrosion, recreating the favourable conditions for growth of a corrosion pit, and then measuring the corrosion current maintained by bacterial activity. The pit initiation was achieved through either of two methods. The electrochemical conditioning involved driving the potential difference between inner and outer electrodes to values corresponding to a galvanic corrosion that can be maintained by the bacterial metabolism. The mechanical process involved removal of a portion of the bio-film by scratching, yielding galvanic potential differences equivalent to that found by the conditioning technique. This protocol was found to be applicable to a bio-corrosion study on industrial site for the monitoring of the metallic structures deterioration (patent EN 00/06114, May 2000). Thereafter, a fundamental application uses the bio-corrosion sensor for Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), Electrochemical Noise Analysis (ENA) and current density cartography by the means of micro-electrodes. Thus, the EIS technique reveals the importance of the FeS corrosion products for initiation of bio-corrosion start on carbon steel. In addition, depending on the method used to create a pit, the ENA gives rise to supplementary processes (gaseous release) disturbing the bio-corrosion detection. The beginning of a bio-corrosion process on a clean surface surrounded with bio-film was confirmed by the current density cartography. These different results establish the sensor with concentric electrodes as an indispensable tool for bio-corrosion studies, both in the laboratory and on industrial sites

  19. Producción de anticuerpos policlonales IgG contra la proteina iduronato-2-sulfato sulfatasa y desarrollo de un sistema de detección para IDS humana recombinante.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Peña

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La enfermedad de Hunter es un trastorno lisosómico caracterizado por la deficiencia de la enzima iduronato-2-sulfato sulfatasa (IDS (EC 3.1.6.13. Esta enfermedad, al igual que muchos trastornos metabólicos, son patologías intratables mediante la terapéutica convencional; sin embargo, existe la posibilidad de ser tratada alternativamente mediante terapia génica o terapia de reemplazo enzimático. Objetivo. El Instituto de Errores Innatos del Metabolismo (IEIM ha desarrollado un sistema de expresión de sulfatasas para producir IDS humana recombinante (IDShr en Escherichia coli y Pichia pastoris, con resultados favorables. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue desarrollar un sistema de detección de IDS humana recombinante. Materiales y métodos. Para el efecto, se inmunizaron con IDS comercial de TKT (Cambridge, MA dos conejos de raza Nueva Zelanda blanca y los anticuerpos purificados a partir del suero se utilizaron en el desarrollo de una técnica semicuantitativa por dot-blot. Diferentes muestras de extractos crudos de fermentaciones con P. pastoris y E. coli se procesaron con el fin de poder determinar la presencia de la enzima. Resultados. Se demostró que los anticuerpos eran específicos en el reconocimiento de la IDS sin presentar reactividad cruzada con proteínas contaminantes de los extractos crudos. Conclusión. Por consiguiente, los anticuerpos se podrán usar en el desarrollo de una técnica ELISA tipo sandwich como método de detección y cuantificación de la enzima y en procesos de purificación de la misma mediante cromatografía de afinidad.

  20. Estimating chemical composition of atmospheric deposition fluxes from mineral insoluble particles deposition collected in the western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the mass flux of atmospheric insoluble deposition and to constrain regional models of dust simulation, a network of automatic deposition collectors (CARAGA has been installed throughout the western Mediterranean Basin. Weekly samples of the insoluble fraction of total atmospheric deposition were collected concurrently on filters at five sites including four on western Mediterranean islands (Frioul and Corsica, France; Mallorca, Spain; and Lampedusa, Italy and one in the southern French Alps (Le Casset, and a weighing and ignition protocol was applied in order to quantify their mineral fraction. Atmospheric deposition is both a strong source of nutrients and metals for marine ecosystems in this area. However, there are few data on trace-metal deposition in the literature, since their deposition measurement is difficult to perform. In order to obtain more information from CARAGA atmospheric deposition samples, this study aimed to test their relevance in estimating elemental fluxes in addition to total mass fluxes. The elemental chemical analysis of ashed CARAGA filter samples was based on an acid digestion and an elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES and mass spectrometry (MS in a clean room. The sampling and analytical protocols were tested to determine the elemental composition for mineral dust tracers (Al, Ca, K, Mg and Ti, nutrients (P and Fe and trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V and Zn from simulated wet deposition of dust analogues and traffic soot. The relative mass loss by dissolution in wet deposition was lower than 1 % for Al and Fe, and reached 13 % for P due to its larger solubility in water. For trace metals, this loss represented less than 3 % of the total mass concentration, except for Zn, Cu and Mn for which it could reach 10 %, especially in traffic soot. The chemical contamination during analysis was negligible for all the elements except for Cd

  1. The Relationships Between Insoluble Precipitation Residues, Clouds, and Precipitation Over California's Southern Sierra Nevada During Winter Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, Jessie M.; White, Allen B.; Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Ice formation in orographic mixed-phase clouds can enhance precipitation and depends on the type of aerosols that serve as ice nucleating particles (INP). The resulting precipitation from these clouds is a viable source of water, especially for regions such as the California Sierra Nevada. Thus, a better understanding of the sources of INP that impact orographic clouds is important for assessing water availability in California. This study presents a multi-site, multi-year analysis of single particle insoluble residues in precipitation samples that likely influenced cloud ice and precipitation formation above Yosemite National Park. Dust and biological particles represented the dominant fraction of the residues (64% on average). Cloud glaciation, determined using GOES satellite observations, not only depended on high cloud tops (greater than 6.2 km) and low temperatures (less than -26 C), but also on the composition of the dust and biological residues. The greatest prevalence of ice-phase clouds occurred in conjunction with biologically-rich residues and mineral dust rich in calcium, followed by iron and aluminosilicates. Dust and biological particles are known to be efficient INP, thus these residues are what likely influenced ice formation in clouds above the sites and subsequent precipitation quantities reaching the surface during events with similar meteorology. The goal of this study is to use precipitation chemistry information to gain a better understanding of the potential sources of INP in the south-central Sierra Nevada, where cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions are under-studied and where mixed-phase orographic clouds represent a key element in the generation of precipitation and thus the water supply in California.

  2. Homogenization-dependent responses of acid-soluble and acid-insoluble glycogen to exercise and refeeding in human muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Phillip D; Singh, Anish; Fournier, Paul A

    2009-12-01

    Muscle glycogen exists as acid-insoluble (AIG) and acid-soluble (ASG) forms, with AIG levels reported in most recent studies in humans to be the most responsive to exercise and refeeding. Because the muscle samples in these studies were not homogenized to extract glycogen, such homogenization-free protocols might have resulted in a suboptimal yield of ASG. Our goal, therefore, was to determine whether similar findings can be achieved using homogenized muscle samples by comparing the effect of exercise and refeeding on ASG and AIG levels. Eight male participants cycled for 60 minutes at 70% Vo(2peak) before ingesting 10.9 +/- 0.6 g carbohydrate per kilogram body mass over 24 hours. Muscle biopsies were taken before exercise and after 0, 2, and 24 hours of recovery. Using a homogenization-dependent protocol to extract glycogen, 77% to 91% of it was extracted as ASG, compared with 11% to 24% with a homogenization-free protocol. In response to exercise, muscle glycogen levels fell from 366 +/- 24 to 184 +/- 46 mmol/kg dry weight and returned to 232 +/- 32 and 503 +/- 59 mmol/kg dry weight after 2 and 24 hours, respectively. Acid-soluble glycogen but not AIG accounted for all the changes in total glycogen during exercise and refeeding when extracted using a homogenization-dependent protocol, but AIG was the most responsive fraction when extracted using a homogenization-free protocol. In conclusion, the patterns of response of ASG and AIG levels to changes in glycogen concentrations in human muscles are highly dependent on the protocol used to acid-extract glycogen, with the physiologic significance of the many previous studies on AIG and ASG being in need of revision.

  3. Fluoride toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine and insoluble calcium as a new standard of care in caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, J M; Cummins, D

    2013-01-01

    In spite of obvious achievements in prevention, caries remains a prevalent disease. Fluorides are effective by inhibiting enamel and dentin demineralization and enhancing remineralization, but have little or no influence on bacterial processes in dental plaque. Dental caries is a continuum of stages from reversible, early lesions to irreversible, pre-cavitated lesions and, ultimately, to cavities. Prevention should focus on strengthening protective and reducing pathological factors, and careful monitoring of the disease state. While fluoride and the mineral aspects of caries have been in focus for decades, new insights into the etiology of caries have generated novel concepts and approaches to its prevention and treatment. The observation that some plaque bacteria can produce alkali metabolites and, thus, raise pH or neutralize acid formed in plaque has long been known. Such pH rise factors are related to caries susceptibility. Nourishing the plaque with substrates that encourage alkali-producing reactions is a protective factor in the caries continuum. This article reviews the results of clinical studies with a novel toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and fluoride which have demonstrated superior remineralization of white spot enamel lesions and rehardening of root surface lesions, favorable effects on the de-/remineralization balance, as well as superior cavity prevention efficacy compared to toothpaste with fluoride alone. Studies have also confirmed formation of ammonia and elevated pH levels in subjects using the arginine-containing toothpaste. This novel toothpaste effectively combines the established effects of fluoride on de- and remineralization with reduction of caries-inducing pathological factors resulting from plaque metabolism.

  4. CCN activation experiments with adipic acid: effect of particle phase and adipic acid coatings on soluble and insoluble particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Hings

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Slightly soluble atmospherically relevant organic compounds may influence particle CCN activity and therefore cloud formation. Adipic acid is a frequently employed surrogate for such slightly soluble organic materials. The 11 published experimental studies on the CCN activity of adipic acid particles are not consistent with each other nor do they, in most cases, agree with the Köhler theory. The CCN activity of adipic acid aerosol particles was studied over a significantly wider range of conditions than in any previous single study. The work spans the conditions of the previous studies and also provides alternate methods for producing "wet" (deliquesced solution droplets and dry adipic acid particles without the need to produce them by atomization of aqueous solutions. The experiments suggest that the scatter in the previously published CCN measurements is most likely due to the difficulty of producing uncontaminated adipic acid particles by atomization of solutions and possibly also due to uncertainties in the calibration of the instruments. The CCN activation of the small (dm<150 nm initially dry particles is subject to a deliquescence barrier, while for the larger particles the activation follows the Köhler curve. Wet adipic acid particles follow the Köhler curve over the full range of particle diameters studied. In addition, the effect of adipic acid coatings on the CCN activity of both soluble and insoluble particles has also been studied. When a water-soluble core is coated by adipic acid, the CCN-hindering effect of particle phase is eliminated. An adipic acid coating on hydrophobic soot yields a CCN active particle. If the soot particle is relatively small (dcore≤102 nm, the CCN activity of the coated particles approaches the deliquescence line of adipic acid, suggesting that the total size of the particle determines CCN activation and the soot core acts as a scaffold.

  5. CCN activation experiments with adipic acid: effect of particle phase and adipic acid coatings on soluble and insoluble particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hings, S. S.; Wrobel, W. C.; Cross, E. S.; Worsnop, D. R.; Davidovits, P.; Onasch, T. B.

    2008-07-01

    Slightly soluble atmospherically relevant organic compounds may influence particle CCN activity and therefore cloud formation. Adipic acid is a frequently employed surrogate for such slightly soluble organic materials. The 11 published experimental studies on the CCN activity of adipic acid particles are not consistent with each other nor do they, in most cases, agree with the Köhler theory. The CCN activity of adipic acid aerosol particles was studied over a significantly wider range of conditions than in any previous single study. The work spans the conditions of the previous studies and also provides alternate methods for producing "wet" (deliquesced solution droplets) and dry adipic acid particles without the need to produce them by atomization of aqueous solutions. The experiments suggest that the scatter in the previously published CCN measurements is most likely due to the difficulty of producing uncontaminated adipic acid particles by atomization of solutions and possibly also due to uncertainties in the calibration of the instruments. The CCN activation of the small (dm<150 nm) initially dry particles is subject to a deliquescence barrier, while for the larger particles the activation follows the Köhler curve. Wet adipic acid particles follow the Köhler curve over the full range of particle diameters studied. In addition, the effect of adipic acid coatings on the CCN activity of both soluble and insoluble particles has also been studied. When a water-soluble core is coated by adipic acid, the CCN-hindering effect of particle phase is eliminated. An adipic acid coating on hydrophobic soot yields a CCN active particle. If the soot particle is relatively small (dcore≤102 nm), the CCN activity of the coated particles approaches the deliquescence line of adipic acid, suggesting that the total size of the particle determines CCN activation and the soot core acts as a scaffold.

  6. Comparative effects of inhaled relatively insoluble forms of 90Y, 144Ce, and 90Sr on canine peripheral lymphocyte function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.A.; Jones, R.K.; Snipes, M.B.; Lustgarten, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Dogs that have inhaled relatively insoluble forms of either alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides manifest a peripheral lymphopenia, the development and course of which depends on both total dose and dose rate. The remaining peripheral lymphocytes in dogs exposed to longer lived beta-emitting radionuclides showed a depressed function as measured by the ability to respond to plant mitogens in vitro. This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of dose rate on peripheral lymphocyte function by exposing dogs to aerosols of radionuclides with varied effective half-lives in the lung: 90 Y (2.6 days), 144 Ce (170 days), and 90 Sr (650 days). Three groups of four adult beagle dogs each were exposed by inhalation to 90 Y, 144 Ce, or 90 Sr in fused-clay particles. Two controls were matched with each group. Initial lung burdens and initial dose rates to the lung were 520 to 610 μCi/kg of body weight and 2200 to 2600 rads/day in the 90 Y group, 33 to 60 μCi/kg and 200 to 350 rads/day in the 144 Ce group, and 25 to 32 μCi/kg and 130 to 170 rads/day in the 90 Sr group. Hematologic parameters and lymphocyte function as measured by the ability of lymphocytes to respond to plant mitogen stimulation were evaluated on a weekly or biweekly basis for 8 weeks after exposure and on a monthly basis thereafter. The 90 Y-exposed dogs showed a marked lymphopenia within 1 week with a return to control levels by 20 weeks after exposure. The remaining peripheral lymphocytes, however, showed no functional changes in these dogs. Animals exposed to 144 Ce or 90 Sr developed a progressive and persisent lymphopenia and showed functional depression of the remaining lymphocytes as well. The relationships among dose pattern, lymphopenia, and lymphocyte-function depression are discussed

  7. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood among mayak facility workers who inhaled insoluble forms of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okladnikova, N. D.; Scott, B. R.; Tokarskaya, Z. B.; Zhuntova, G. V.; Khokhryakov, V. F.; Syrchikov, V. A.; Grigoryeva, E. S.

    2005-01-01

    A cytogenetic study was performed on 79 plutonium (Pu) workers chronically exposed to alpha radiation from inhaled, low-transportable (insoluble) compounds of airborne 239 Pu and to external gamma rays. Body burden estimates for 239 Pu ranged from 0 to 15.5 kBq. Chromosomal aberrations (CAs) (stable and unstable among peripheral blood lymphocytes and cumulative alpha radiation doses were evaluated ∼25 y after first contact with 239 Pu. For the cytogenetic analyses, a standard two-day peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique was applied. While alpha radiation doses continually increase up to the time of cytogenetic measurements, significant gamma ray exposures essentially ceased long before the time of measurement, so that alpha and gamma doses were not correlated. For the exposed workers, the mean 239 Pu body burden (estimate), evaluated at the time of the cytogenetic measurement, was 1.23 ± 0.26 kBq and the corresponding mean absorbed external gamma ray dose (estimate) to the total body was 0.076 ± 0.009 Gy. Single and multivariate regression analyses were performed on the CA data. Stable, unstable and total aberrations increased as the 239 Pu body burden increased over the range 0-4.5 kBq. However, above this range little additional increase was observed. CAs were weakly correlated with time since the first intake of 239 Pu. No relationship between chromatid aberrations and 239 Pu incorporation was found. Unstable (but not stable) aberrations were correlated with gamma radiation dose. No significant relationship of CA and smoking was found. (authors)

  8. Effect of maturity and processing on total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber contents of Indian green leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punna, Ramulu; Rao Paruchuri, Udayasekhara

    2004-11-01

    Vegetables are very important in the diet and provide minerals, vitamins, antioxidants and fiber. A beneficial role of dietary fiber in human nutrition is known but the data on the effect of maturity and processing of Indian vegetables on dietary fiber and its fractions are not available. Hence, the present study was undertaken to generate data on total (TDF), insoluble (IDF) and soluble (SDF) dietary fiber contents of green leafy vegetables (GLV) and to assess the effect of leaf maturity and cooking on these parameters. Sixteen GLV (namely, agathi, alternanthera, amaranth, basella, cabbage, colocasia, coriander, curry leaves, drumstick, fenugreek, hibiscus, mint, portulaca, rumex, spinach and tender tamarind leaves) were analysed for TDF, IDF and SDF by the enzymatic and gravimetric method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Among the GLV analysed, the TDF and IDF contents were the lowest (2.5 g% and 1.6 g%) in basella and were the highest (16.3 g% and 13.4 g%) in curry leaves. The SDF content ranged from 0.7 g% in spinach to 2.9 g% in curry leaves. The SDF as a percentage of the TDF ranged from 11.3% in tender tamarind leaves to 36.0% in basella, but the majority of GLV had around 25% of the TDF as SDF. Significant (P species and intra-species in TDF, IDF and SDF contents of all the GLV. As the leaf matured from tender to mature and to coarse stage, the TDF and IDF contents of amaranth, basella, hibiscus, rumex and spinach increased significantly (P < 0.05), The SDF content significantly (P < 0.05) increased from tender to mature stage in all five GLV, but there was no further increase from mature to coarse stage except in rumex, where a significant (P < 0.01) increase (25%) was observed. Processing/cooking of GLV had no significant effect on their TDF, IDF and SDF contents.

  9. Resistencia química del hormigón. XXIX.—Contribución al estudio del sistema Cemento P-550-ARI hidratado-disolución de sulfato de magnesio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar-Tébar, Demetrio

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available In this Work, which is the following of the others, the performance of a portland cement of a high initial resistance (P-550-ARI —with a calculated content (Bogue of 39.2 – 25.7 – 9.9 - 12.0 and 6.9% of C3S - C2S - C3A - C4AF and CaSO4 (II, respectively— is studied when it is submitted to the action of an magnesium sulfate solution [2.76 g/l of MgSO4.7 H2O <> 1.12 X 10-2 moles/litre of SO4 (II <> 1,12 X 10-2 moles/litre of Mg (II] running across the beds of granulated cement, made with this hydrated cement cured during 7 and 28 days, determining: a the evolution of the content on ions Ca (II, Mg (II and SO4 (II on the taken diverse fractions of magnesium sulfate solution which have run across those beds, so as this of the pH and the conductivity. b the variation in the amount of these ions that are forming the correspondents compounds, in the hydrated cement from the beds that have been submitted before and after to the action of the magnesium sulfate solution, c the structural modifications undergone by the crystalline compounds of the hydrated cement from the beds submitted to the action of the magnesium sulfate solution, and d the chemical and structural characteristics of the new solid phase formed on the magnesium sulfate solution which have run across the beds of cement.

    En el presente trabajo, continuación de otros, se estudia el comportamiento de un cemento portland de alta resistencia inicial (P-550-ARI con unos contenidos calculados (Bogue de C3S, C2S, C3A, C4AF y CaSO4 del 39,2 - 25,7 - 9,9 - 12,0 y 6,9%, respectivamente, cuando se somete a la acción de una disolución de sulfato de magnesio [2,76 g/l de MgSO4.7H2 O < > 1,12 X 10-2 moles/litro de SO4 (II < > 1,12 X 10-2 moles/litro de Mg

  10. Uso do sulfato de magnésio por via venosa e nebulização para o tratamento da asma aguda na emergência Use of the intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate for the treatment of the acute asthma in the emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Tem sido mostrado que o sulfato de magnésio apresenta benefícios em adultos e crianças asmáticos, com fraca resposta aos agentes beta-agonistas e corticóides sistêmicos no departamento de emergência. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão não sistemática acerca do tratamento da asma aguda com sulfato de magnésio por via venosa e nebulização na emergência. CONTEÚDO: As primeiras investigações que demonstraram benefício no uso do sulfato de magnésio na asma são de 1938. Os efeitos do sulfato de magnésio podem ser mediados através da ação antagonista do cálcio ou através da função de co-fator em sistemas enzimáticos envolvendo o fluxo iônico através da membrana celular. Foi realizada uma revisão de literatura através da base de dados MedLine nos últimos seis anos (2000 a 2006 e incluídos os artigos publicados na língua inglesa, através do cruzamento dos unitermos asma e sulfato de magnésio. CONCLUSÕES: A administração de rotina do sulfato de magnésio por via venosa e nebulização em pacientes com asma aguda grave que se apresentam no serviço de emergência não é recomendado; entretanto, como um tratamento adjuvante obtém-se algum benefício.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Magnesium sulfate has been shown to benefit asthmatic children and adults with poor responses to initial beta-agonist therapy and systemic corticoids in the emergency department. The aim of this study was to realize a no systematic review about the treatment of the acute asthma with intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate in the emergence. CONTENTS: The first investigations that demonstrate the benefit in the use of the magnesium sulfate in asthma date to 1938. The effects of magnesium sulfate may be mediated through its action as a calcium antagonist or through its function as a cofactor in enzyme systems involving ion flux across cell membranes. We realized a literature review using Med

  11. Facile Coordination-Precipitation Route to Insoluble Metal Roussin's Black Salts for NIR-Responsive Release of NO for Anti-Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijuan; He, Qianjun; Lei, Minyi; Xiong, Liwei; Shi, Kun; Tan, Liwei; Jin, Zhaokui; Wang, Tianfu; Qian, Zhiyong

    2017-10-25

    A facile and general coordination-precipitation method is developed to synthesize insoluble metal Roussin's black salts (Me-RBSs) as a new type of NIR-responsive NORMs. The weak-field ligand coordination of metal + -RBS - brings a NIR absorption effect of Me-RBSs, and further gives rise to the NIR adsorption-dependent NIR-responsive NO release profile. Intratumoral NIR-responsive release of NO effectively inhibits the growth and metastasis of the metastatic breast cancer. Aqueous insolubility of Me-RBSs ensures lower cytotoxicity and higher thermostability compared with traditional soluble RBSs. This work establishes a new class of NIR-sensitive NO donors, and may spark new inspiration for designing intelligent gas-releasing molecules.

  12. Potent inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the acid production and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of Streptococcus mutans GS5 in the presence of sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Daijo; Ogawa, Takaaki; Miyake, Minoru; Hasui, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Izumori, Ken; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    We examined and compared the inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the growth, acid production, and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of GS5, a bacterial strain of Streptococcus mutans, with those of xylitol, D-psicose, L-psicose and L-tagatose. GS5 was cultured for 12h in a medium containing 10% (w/v) of xylitol, D-psicose, L-psicose, D-tagatose or L-tagatose, and the inhibitory effect of GS5 growth was assessed. Each sugar showed different inhibitory effects on GS5. Both D-tagatose and xylitol significantly inhibited the acid production and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of GS5 in the presence of 1% (w/v) sucrose. However, the inhibitory effect of acid production by D-tagatose was significantly stronger than that of xylitol in presence of sucrose.

  13. Avaliação radiológica e artroscópica e histologia da membrana sinovial do joelho de cães tratados com associação de sulfato de condroitina e hialuronato de sódio, após doença articular degenerativa induzida experimentalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias S. S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a associação de hialuronato de sódio e sulfato de condroitina no tratamento da doença articular degenerativa (DAD em cães. Dez cães sem raça definida foram submetidos à secção artroscópica do ligamento cruzado cranial visando o desenvolvimento da DAD. Após 21 dias, foi substituído cirurgicamente o ligamento cruzado cranial em todos os animais e iniciado o tratamento com associação de hialuronato de sódio e sulfato de condroitina em cinco cães, sendo os remanescentes utilizados como grupo-controle. Avaliações artroscópica e radiológica do membro posterior esquerdo foram realizadas antes da secção do ligamento, no dia da sua substituição e 90 dias após a cirurgia. Histologicamente, o efeito da associação de hialuronato de sódio e sulfato de condroitina foi mais evidente na membrana sinovial, observando-se regeneração da camada íntima e diminuição da infiltração linfoplasmocitária na sub-íntima. Artroscópica e macroscopicamente não houve prevenção das lesões cartilaginosas decorrentes da DAD.

  14. Altas diluições dinamizadas de nitrato de cálcio e sulfato de potássio no manejo de tripes, míldio e rendimento de cebola em sistema orgânico de produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antonio de Souza Gonçalves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos com substâncias ultradiluídas também têm sido realizados como estratégia de manejo fitossanitário para sistemas orgânicos de produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de altas diluições dinamizadas de nitrato de cálcio e sulfato de potássio sobre a incidência e danos do tripes Thrips tabaci, severidade do mildio Peronospora destructor e rendimento de cebola em sistema de produção orgânico. O estudo foi conduzido na Estação Experimental de Ituporanga/Epagri, SC, em dois experimentos distintos durante três anos para altas diluições de sulfato de potássio, entre 2011 a 2013, e para nitrato de cálcio, entre 2013 a 2015. Os tratamentos foram altas diluições de nitrato de cálcio e sulfato de potássio em pulverizações foliares nas diluições 6, 12 e 30CH (CH, escala de diluição centesimal hahnemanniana, além de testemunha sem aplicação. O delineamento experimental foi casualizado em blocos com quatro repetições. A incidência e danos de tripes, índice de clorofila, severidade de míldio e rendimento de cebola não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos.

  15. Changes in Gut Microbial Ecology and Immunological Responses of Mice Fed the Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L. that was Fermented or Not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Hamajima, Chisato; Takahashi, Fuka; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon; Uyeno, Yutaka

    2017-09-27

    We aimed to investigate the effects of feeding fermented Brassica rapa L. on ecological and immunological changes in the mouse gut using in vitro cultivation tests and in vivo experiments in normal mice. In the preliminary in vitro study, two B. rapa L. products from different fermentation periods (one d [SF] or six months [LF]) were evaluated along with non-fermented vegetables (NF). Among the components of each product, the insoluble fraction resulted in the most prominent change such as a relative increase in butyrate production during a cultivation inoculated with mouse cecum contents. Based on this result, the boiled water-insoluble fractions of B. rapa L. (SF, LF, and NF samples) were selected as test materials for the subsequent in vivo experiment. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups and fed either a control diet (CON) or control diet plus one of the insoluble fractions for two weeks. The NF and LF groups had higher relative populations of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii than the CON group. Therefore, colonic butyrate concentrations were higher in the NF and LF groups than in the CON group. The oral administration of B. rapa L. extract induced immune regulatory effects, even when mice were fed NF and SF, but not LF, as assessed by an increase in regulatory T cell numbers. Our results indicate that feeding a purified insoluble fraction from B. rapa L. affects enteric short-chain fatty acid production and immunological responses in the mouse gut in a similar manner, regardless of the fermentation status.

  16. Combinational effects of hexane insoluble fraction of Ficus septica Burm. F. and doxorubicin chemotherapy on T47D breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Hermawan, Adam; Putri, Dyaningtyas Dewi Pamungkas; Novika, Anindya; Meiyanto, Edy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of n-hexane insoluble fraction (HIF) of Ficus septica leaves in combination with doxorubicin on cytotoxicity, cell cycle and apoptosis induction of breast cancer T47D cell lines. Methods: The in vitro drugs-stimulated cytotoxic effects were determined using MTT assay. Analysis of cell cycle distribution was performed using flowcytometer and the data was analyzed using ModFit LT 3.0 program. Apoptosis assay was carried out by double staining method using e...

  17. Preparation of free, soluble conjugate, and insoluble-bound phenolic compounds from peels of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and evaluation of antioxidant activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Zhang, Huilin; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2012-02-01

    The soluble phenolic compounds of rambutan peels (RP) were extracted by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and the operating parameters were optimized. The optimal conditions obtained were ethanol concentration of 80.85%, extraction time of 58.39 s, and the ratio of liquid to solid of 24.51:1. The soluble phenolic content by MAE was 213.76 mg GAE/g DW. The free, soluble conjugate, and insoluble-boaund phenolic compounds were prepared by alkaline hydrolysis, and the contents of 3 fractions were 185.12, 27.98 and 9.37 mg GAE/g DW, respectively. The contents of syringic acid and p-coumaric acid were high in the free fraction, showing 16.86 and 19.44 mg/g DW, and the soluble conjugate and insoluble-bound phenolics were mainly composed of gallic acid and caffeic acid. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of 3 fractions were evaluated in 5 model systems. Results indicated that the free fraction had high antioxidant activities, compared with the soluble conjugate and insoluble-bound fractions. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Rice husk bio-oil upgrading by means of phase separation and the production of esters from the water phase, and novolac resins from the insoluble phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Junming; Jiang, Jianchun; Lv, Wei; Dai, Weidi; Sun, Yunjuan [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF; National Engineering Lab, For Biomass Chemical Utilization; Key and Open Lab. on Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Nanjing 210042 (China)

    2010-07-15

    A new method of utilization of original bio-oil was developed in this paper. The procedure chosen was based on the fractionation of the bio-oils with water into water soluble and insoluble fractions. After oxidizing the aldehydes to acids by hydrogen peroxide, water soluble fraction was used to obtain upgraded bio-oil (light oil) with ethanol through reactive rectification. The yield of light oil was 20.6% (account to original bio-oil) and the components of upgraded bio-oil were characterized by HPLC and FT-IR. The analysis showed that the main components were ethyl acetate, ethyl formate, methyl acetate and methyl formate. Using water insoluble fractions as starting materials in synthesis of novolac resins was also studied. The water insoluble fraction was used as a substitute of phenol at different ratio to prepare novolac resins. Main properties of obtained resin such as cure time and soft point were characterized. The novolac property of resins was determined by DSC. (author)

  19. 31P NMR characterization and efficiency of new types of water-insoluble phosphate fertilizers to supply plant-available phosphorus in diverse soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erro, Javier; Baigorri, Roberto; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2011-03-09

    Hydroponic plant experiments demonstrated the efficiency of a type of humic acid-based water-insoluble phosphate fertilizers, named rhizosphere controlled fertilizers (RCF), to supply available phosphorus (P) to different plant species. This effect was well correlated to the root release of specific organic acids. In this context, the aims of this study are (i) to study the chemical nature of RCF using solid-state (31)P NMR and (ii) to evaluate the real efficiency of RCF matrix as a source of P for wheat plants cultivated in an alkaline and acid soil in comparison with traditional water-soluble (simple superphosphate, SSP) and water-insoluble (dicalcium phosphate, DCP) P fertilizers. The (31)P NMR study revealed the formation of multimetal (double and triple, MgZn and/or MgZnCa) phosphates associated with chelating groups of the humic acid through the formation of metal bridges. With regard to P fertilizer efficiency, the results obtained show that the RCF matrix produced higher plant yields than SSP in both types of soil, with DCP and the water-insoluble fraction from the RCF matrix (WI) exhibiting the best results in the alkaline soil. By contrast, in the acid soil, DCP showed very low efficiency, WI performed on a par with SSP, and RCF exhibited the highest efficiency, thus suggesting a protector effect of humic acid from soil fixation.

  20. Acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular containers: influence of aromatic walls on their function as solubilizing excipients for insoluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ben; Isaacs, Lyle

    2014-11-26

    We studied the influence of the aromatic sidewalls on the ability of acyclic CB[n]-type molecular containers (1a-1e) to act as solubilizing agents for 19 insoluble drugs including the developmental anticancer agent PBS-1086. All five containers exhibit good water solubility and weak self-association (Ks ≤ 624 M(-1)). We constructed phase solubility diagrams to extract Krel and Ka values for the container·drug complexes. The acyclic CB[n]-type containers generally display significantly higher Ka values than HP-β-CD toward drugs. Containers 1a-1e bind the steroidal ring system and aromatic moieties of insoluble drugs. Compound 1b displays highest affinity toward most of the drugs studied. Containers 1a and 1b are broadly applicable and can be used to formulate a wider variety of insoluble drugs than was previously possible with cyclodextrin technology. For drugs that are solubilized by both HP-β-CD and 1a-1e, lower concentrations of 1a-1e are required to achieve identical [drug].

  1. INFLUENCE OF THE COMPOSITION OF PHOSPHATE ROCK ON THE AMOUNT OF WATER-INSOLUBLE PHOSPHATE IMPURITIES IN SEMI-HYDRATE PHOSPHOGYPSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Kybartiene

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a chemical and mineral composition of phosphate rock and phosphogypsum was investigated in order to identify which impurities of phosphate rock prevent natural phosphates from decomposing in full during the production of phosphoric acid and increase the amount of water-insoluble phosphate impurities in phosphogypsum. The analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRF, X-ray fluorescence (XRD, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS and granulometry was carried out. The results showed that phosphate rocks (Kovdor and Kirovsk apatites and the semi-hydrate phosphogypsums differ by their chemical composition. The apatites and phosphogypsums differ in the amount of the major components, as well as other components (MgO, Al2O3, SrO, BaO, ZrO2, Ln2O3. In phosphate rock, Ln2O3 can be found in the composition of the mineral monazite. The SEM-EDS analysis revealed that the minerals of the apatite group and monazite form aggregate crystals. Monazite dissolves in sulphuric and phosphoric acids very marginal, therefore it prevents the apatites from full decomposition, thus influencing the quantity of insoluble phosphates in semi-hydrate phosphogypsum. The higher is the amount of minerals containing Ln2O3 in phosphate rock, the more water-insoluble phosphates remain in phosphogypsum. It was found that influence of Ln2O3 impurity is significant higher than influence of particles size of apatite.

  2. Small intestinal goblet cell proliferation induced by ingestion of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber is characterized by an increase in sialylated mucins in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Shingo; Takemura, Naoki; Sonoyama, Kei; Morita, Akio; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Aoe, Seiichiro; Morita, Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    The study aimed to examine the effects of insoluble and soluble fibers on mucin sialylation and sulfation in the small intestine. First, diets containing soluble [konjac mannan (KM), psyllium, or guar gum; 50 g/kg) or insoluble (polystyrene foam, wheat bran, or cornhusk; 80 g/kg) fiber were fed to rats for 13 d. The fiber-fed groups had more goblet cells in the ileum than the fiber-free control group. High-iron diamine/alcian blue staining showed more sialylated mucin-producing cells in the fiber-fed groups than in the control, whereas sulfated mucin-producing cells were fewer (insoluble fibers) or unchanged (soluble fibers). Second, feeding KM (50 g/kg) and beet fiber (BF) (80 g/kg) diets for 7 d yielded a higher ileum Siat4C expression than the control, but Gal3ST2 and Gal3ST4 expression was comparable. Luminal mucin content correlated with sialic acid (r = 0.96; P soluble fibers are characterized by increases in sialylated mucin production.

  3. Occurrence of major whey proteins in the pH 4.6 insoluble protein fraction from UHT-treated milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzano, Rosa; Manzo, Carla; Nicolai, Maria Adalgisa; Addeo, Francesco

    2012-08-15

    A clear picture of the protein rearrangement in milk following UHT-treatment was drawn by a comparative analysis of the pH 4.6 soluble protein fraction (SPF) and the pH 4.6 insoluble protein fraction (IPF) recovered from raw and UHT-treated milk samples. The two protein fractions were analyzed by mono- or bidimensional gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions, and protein bands were identified by specific immunostaining. Results showed that bovine serum albumin, β-lactoglobulin, and, to a lesser extent, α-lactalbumin coprecipitated with caseins in UHT-treated milk samples at pH 4.6. These proteins were almost exclusively involved in high molecular weight aggregates held together by disulfide bonds. Partition of α-lactalbumin and bovine serum albumin in the protein fractions obtained upon acidification of milk at pH 4.6 was evaluated by competitive immunoassays. The ELISA-based results suggested the possibility of using pH 4.6 insoluble α-lactalbumin and bovine serum albumin, in addition to pH 4.6 insoluble β-lactoglobulin, as indicators of the intensity of the heat treatment applied to milk.

  4. Utilización de sulfato de calcio hemihidratado como material de relleno y barrera en un alveolo post-exodoncia: Una observación clínica, tomográfica e histológica comparativa a 4 meses antes de la colocación de implantes

    OpenAIRE

    López,J; Alarcón,M; Sacsaquispe,S

    2014-01-01

    Evaluar y comparar de forma clínica, tomográfica e histológica el proceso de reparación ósea y la conservación del reborde alveolar en dos alveolos post-extracción de paredes intactas, con y sin la utilización de un material sustituto óseo regenerativo a base de sulfato de calcio hemihidratado como relleno y barrera, antes de la colocación de implantes a cuatro meses.

  5. Efeito do sulfato de cobre e de zinco no controle da populaçao de fungos e bactérias do solo que causam intemperismo em arenitos de prédios históricos na Lapa (PR)

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Claudemira Vieira Gusmao; Carvalho, Francisco José Pereira de Campos, 1955-; Krieger, Nadia, 1952-

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Estuda o efeito dos sulfatos de cobre e de zinco no controle da população de fungos e bactérias que causam intemperismo em arenitos de prédios históricos em Lapa (PR). Os objetivos específicos propostos foram identificar nos monumentos zonas de intemperismo; caracterizar a rocha por métodos físicos; identificar por métodos microbiológicos e por fotomicrografias os fungos e as bactérias heterotúpicos na rocha que potencialmente podem contribuir com o intemperismo; levantar as caracterí...

  6. Efecto neuroprotector del Lepidium meyenii, ecotipo negro (maca negra) en ratas crías frente al daño cerebral inducido por la ingesta de sulfato ferroso y vitamina C durante la gestación de las ratas madre

    OpenAIRE

    Troncoso, Luzmila; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Guija, Emilio; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Palomino, Felio; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Soberón, Mercedes; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Oliveira, Gisela; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Núñez, Marco; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Flores, Juana; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Acuña, Sheresnarda; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Terrazas, Carmen; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto neuroprotector del Lepidium meyenii, ecotipo negro en ratas crías por ingesta de sulfato ferroso y vitamina C (SFC) durante la gestación de ratas madre. Diseño: Experimental, analítico. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición. Material biológico: Lepidium meyenii, ecotipo negro (maca negra: MN), ratas. Intervenciones: Se distribuyeron 30 ratas albinas de dos meses de edad, en tres grupos. Tratamiento en los últimos 7 días de gestación: grupo ...

  7. The hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effects of Cholazol H, a chemically functionalized insoluble fiber with bile acid sequestrant properties in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; Romano, C; Liang, J; Nicolosi, R J

    1998-08-01

    Cholazol H (Alpha-Beta Technology, Worcester, MA), a chemically functionalized, insoluble dietary fiber with bile acid sequestrant properties, was studied in 30 male F1 B Golden Syrian hamsters for its effect on plasma lipid concentrations and early atherogenesis in experiment 1. In experiment 2, 30 male Golden Syrian hamsters were studied for the effects on plasma lipids and fecal excretion of bile acids. In experiment 1, three groups of 10 hamsters each were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 5% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, hamsters were continued on the diet with either 0% drug (hypercholesterolemic diet [HCD]), 0.5% cholestyramine (CSTY), or 0.5% Cholazol H for 8 weeks. Fasting plasma lipids were measured at weeks 6, 10, and 14, and early atherosclerosis (fatty streak formation) was measured at week 14. Relative to HCD, CSTY and Cholazol H significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol (TC) (-37%, P coconut oil and 0.05% cholesterol and either 0% drug HCD, 0.5% CSTY, or 0.5% Cholazol H for 4 weeks. Fasting plasma lipids were measured at weeks 2 and 4, and fecal bile acids were measured at week 4. Both Cholazol H and CSTY were equally effective in significantly lowering plasma TC (-16%, P < .003, and -13%, P < .01, respectively) and nonHDL-C (-22%, P < .004, and -18%, P < .02, respectively), with no significant effect on HDL-C and TG relative to HCD. Cholazol H and CSTY produced a significantly greater concentration of fecal total bile acids (39%, P < .001, and 28%, P < .002, respectively) relative to HCD. Also, there was a 48% (P < .002) and 65% (P < .001) greater fecal concentration of cholic acid (CA) for Cholazol H-treated hamsters compared with HCD- and CSTY-treated hamsters, respectively. Cholazol H also significantly increased fecal concentration of deoxycholic acid (DCA; 56%, P < .02) compared with HCD. In summary, Cholazol H is as effective as CSTY for prevention of diet

  8. Distress Response to the Failure to an Insoluble Anagrams Task: Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Strategies in Binge Drinking Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Poncin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion regulation refers to the attempt to influence the latency, magnitude, and duration of an emotion, and to modify the experiential, behavioral, or physiological components of the emotional response. In situations of personal failure, individuals, and in particular those who present a tendency to self-focus, may experience intense emotional distress. Individuals who lack proper adaptive emotion regulation strategies may engage in activities leading to immediate pleasure, such as alcohol drinking, in order to escape the self-relevance of emotional experiences. This self-awareness theory of drinking has been shown explain relapses in self-focused alcohol-dependent individuals in situations of personal failure, after detoxification. Such relapses support the existence of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in alcohol dependence. As binge drinking may be considered as an early stage of alcohol-use-disorder, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between emotional distress, self-regulation and self-consciousness in binge drinkers (BD.Methods: Fifty-five students (32 BD and 23 controls completed different questionnaires related to the self (self-consciousness and self-regulation questionnaires and were exposed to a situation of self-failure (insoluble anagrams.Results: The distress induced by the anagrams task was more related to self-blame, ruminations and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in BD than in controls. Emotional distress was related to less positive refocusing, refocusing on planning, and adaptive emotion regulation strategies among the control group with less public self-consciousness. Emotional distress was related to more positive refocusing, positive reappraisal, refocusing on planning, and adaptive emotion regulation strategies among control participants with higher public self-consciousness. Low self-conscious BD who experienced anagram distress used less acceptance and less refocusing on

  9. Distress Response to the Failure to an Insoluble Anagrams Task: Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Strategies in Binge Drinking Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncin, Marie; Vermeulen, Nicolas; de Timary, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Background: Emotion regulation refers to the attempt to influence the latency, magnitude, and duration of an emotion, and to modify the experiential, behavioral, or physiological components of the emotional response. In situations of personal failure, individuals, and in particular those who present a tendency to self-focus, may experience intense emotional distress. Individuals who lack proper adaptive emotion regulation strategies may engage in activities leading to immediate pleasure, such as alcohol drinking, in order to escape the self-relevance of emotional experiences. This self-awareness theory of drinking has been shown explain relapses in self-focused alcohol-dependent individuals in situations of personal failure, after detoxification. Such relapses support the existence of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in alcohol dependence. As binge drinking may be considered as an early stage of alcohol-use-disorder, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between emotional distress, self-regulation and self-consciousness in binge drinkers (BD). Methods: Fifty-five students (32 BD and 23 controls) completed different questionnaires related to the self (self-consciousness and self-regulation questionnaires) and were exposed to a situation of self-failure (insoluble anagrams). Results: The distress induced by the anagrams task was more related to self-blame, ruminations and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in BD than in controls. Emotional distress was related to less positive refocusing, refocusing on planning, and adaptive emotion regulation strategies among the control group with less public self-consciousness. Emotional distress was related to more positive refocusing, positive reappraisal, refocusing on planning, and adaptive emotion regulation strategies among control participants with higher public self-consciousness. Low self-conscious BD who experienced anagram distress used less acceptance and less refocusing on planning

  10. Soluble and insoluble dietary fibre intake and risk factors for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in middle-aged adults: the AWHS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Franco, Belén; León Latre, Montserrat; Andrés Esteban, Eva María; Ordovás, José María; Casasnovas, José Antonio; Peñalvo, José Luis

    2014-12-01

    The Westernization of the Mediterranean lifestyle has led to a modification of certain dietary habits such as a decrease in the consumption of dietary fibre-rich foods. The impact of these changes on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been studied over the last few years and the effect of the different sources of fibre on cardiovascular risk parameters and coronary heart disease (CHD) continues to create controversy. To evaluate the association between the source of dietary fibre and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and other cardiovascular risk factors in a Spanish working population. The study was carried out in a sample of 1592 Spanish workers free of CVD (40-55 years old) within the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS) cohort. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical and biochemical data were collected. Fibre intake was assessed by means of a validated 136-items semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined by using the modified National Cholesterol Education Programme - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP- ATP III) definition. After adjusting for possible confounding factors, we found an inverse association between insoluble fibre intake and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B100 and ratio TG/HDL. Soluble fibre was inversely associated with triglycerides and apolipoprotein B100. Furthermore, prevalence of MetS was found to be lower (OR 0.62, 95% CI: 0.40-0.96) in those participants in the highest quartile of insoluble fibre intake. A higher intake of insoluble fibre could play an important role in the control and management of hypertension, lipid profile and MetS. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. SULPHUR AVAILABILITY IN BRAZILIAN SOILS: AVAILABLE SULPHATE-SULPHUR EVALUATION BY CHEMICAL EXTRACTANTS DISPONIBILIDADE DE ENXOFRE EM SOLOS BRASILEIROS: AVALIAÇÃO DO ENXOFRE-SULFATO DISPONÍVEL POR EXTRATORES QUÍMICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurípedes Malavolta

    2007-09-01

    ,0319% e de argila entre 8 e 60%. Avaliou-se o S-SO4= disponível por 4 extratores químicos, Ca(H2PO4 2.H2O-500 ppm P em ácido acético 2,0 N, NH4OAc 0,5 N em ácido acético 0,25 N, CaCl2 0,15% e HCl 0,05 M. Os solos foram submetidos a 2 cultivos sucessivos com milho (Zea mays L. com os tratamentos: 3 doses de gesso (0, 20 e 40 ppm S, na ausência e presença de calagem. Dentre os extratores estudados, Ca(H2PO4-500 ppm P em ácido acético 2,0 N apresentou o melhor desempenho tanto em termos operacionais quanto na correlação com a absorção de enxofre pelo milho. O extrator HCl 0,01M revelou-se inadequado por não se terem obtido extratos límpidos para a determinação turbidimétrica de S-SO4=. Os níveis críticos de S-SO4= nos solos foram: a Ca(H2PO42.H2O-500 ppm P em ácido acético 2,0 N: 11 ppm; b NH4OAc 0,5 N em ácido acético 0,25 N: 17 ppm; c CaCl2 0,15%: 19 ppm. Os níveis críticos de S-SO4= disponíveis são superestimados quando avaliados pela absorção relativa de enxofre. A determinação turbidimétrica de S-SO4= apresenta pequena sensibilidade em baixas concentrações de sulfatos nos solos. Sugere-se o refinamento das técnicas de determinação analítica de sulfatos em solos, incluindo várias relações solo/solução de extratores.

  12. Efeitos neurotóxicos de sulfato de magnésio intratecal Efectos neurotóxicos de sulfuro de magnesio intratecal Neurotoxic effects of intrathecal magnesium sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Ozdogan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os potenciais efeitos neurotóxicos em nível ultraestrutural desulfato de magnésio administrado por via intratecal em dose única ou múltipla. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado com 24 ratos Sprague-Dawley, peso médio entre 250 e 300 g. Apósjejum de 4 horas, os ratos receberam 10 mg.kg-1 de cloreto de xilazina por via intraperitoneale, em seguida, foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos. Grupo I (n = 8 recebeu 0,9% desoro fisiológico normal, Grupo II (n = 8 recebeu uma injeção de 0,02 mL de sulfato de magnésioa 15% por via intratecal e Grupo III (n = 8 recebeu 0,02 mL de sulfato de magnésio a 15% umavez por dia durante sete dias. As injeções foram aplicadas dentro de 0,40x50 milímetros daárea lombar. Após sete dias, os animais foram sacrificados sob anestesia com uma injeção deformaldeído a 10% na aorta e os tecidos foram fixados. A medula espinal foi, então, examinadae histopatologicamente avaliada sob microscópio eletrônico. O teste de Kruskal-Wallis foi usadopara avaliação estatística. Um valor de p JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Evaluar los potenciales efectos neurotóxicos en nivel ultraestructural de sulfuro de magnesio administrado por vía intratecal en dosis única o múltiple. MÉTODOS: Estudio realizado con 24 ratones Spraque-Dawley, con un peso promedio entre los 250 y los 300 g. Después del ayuno de 4 horas, los ratones recibieron 10 mg.kg-1 de cloruro de xilazina por vía intraperitoneal y enseguida fueron divididos aleatoriamente en tres grupos. El grupo I (n = 8 recibió 0,9% de suero fisiológico normal, Grupo II (n = 8 recibió una inyección de 0,02 mL de sulfuro de magnesio al 15% por vía intratecal y Grupo III (n = 8 recibió 0,02 mL de sulfuro de magnesio al 15% una vez por día durante siete días. Las inyecciones fueron aplicadas dentro de 0,40x50 milímetros del área lumbar. Después de siete días, los animales fueron sacrificados con anestesia con una inyecci

  13. Understanding the Physics of Functional Fibers in the Gastrointestinal Tract: An Evidence-Based Approach to Resolving Enduring Misconceptions about Insoluble and Soluble Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRorie, Johnson W; McKeown, Nicola M

    2017-02-01

    Enduring misconceptions about the physical effects of fiber in the gut have led to misunderstandings about the health benefits attributable to insoluble and soluble fiber. This review will focus on isolated functional fibers (eg, fiber supplements) whose effects on clinical outcomes have been readily assessed in well-controlled clinical studies. This review will also focus on three health benefits (cholesterol lowering, improved glycemic control, and normalizing stool form [constipation and diarrhea]) for which reproducible evidence of clinical efficacy has been published. In the small bowel, clinically meaningful health benefits (eg, cholesterol lowering and improved glycemic control) are highly correlated with the viscosity of soluble fibers: high viscosity fibers (eg, gel-forming fibers such as b-glucan, psyllium, and raw guar gum) exhibit a significant effect on cholesterol lowering and improved glycemic control, whereas nonviscous soluble fibers (eg, inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and wheat dextrin) and insoluble fibers (eg, wheat bran) do not provide these viscosity-dependent health benefits. In the large bowel, there are only two mechanisms that drive a laxative effect: large/coarse insoluble fiber particles (eg, wheat bran) mechanically irritate the gut mucosa stimulating water and mucous secretion, and the high water-holding capacity of gel-forming soluble fiber (eg, psyllium) resists dehydration. Both mechanisms require that the fiber resist fermentation and remain relatively intact throughout the large bowel (ie, the fiber must be present in stool), and both mechanisms lead to increased stool water content, resulting in bulky/soft/easy-to-pass stools. Soluble fermentable fibers (eg, inulin, fructooligosaccharide, and wheat dextrin) do not provide a laxative effect, and some fibers can be constipating (eg, wheat dextrin and fine/smooth insoluble wheat bran particles). When making recommendations for a fiber supplement, it is essential to recognize which

  14. Enhancement of Oxygen Reduction and Mitigation of Ionomer Dry-Out Using Insoluble Heteropoly Acids in Intermediate Temperature Polymer-Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Stassi; Irene Gatto; Ada Saccà; Vincenzo Baglio; Antonino S. Aricò

    2015-01-01

    The use of Cs 0.5 H 0.5 PW 12 O 40 insoluble salt as a superacid promoter in the catalyst layer of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been investigated. An increase of performance has been recorded at intermediate temperatures (110–130 °C) and under low relative humidity (R.H.). The promoter appears to mitigate the ionomer dry-out effects in the catalytic layer and produces an increase of the extent of the catalyst-electrolyte interface as demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry ...

  15. Effect of type of fiber, site of fermentation, and method of analysis on digestibility of soluble and insoluble fiber in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Abad Guamán, Rodrigo Medardo; Carabaño Luengo, Rosa Maria; Goméz Conde, María Soledad; Garcia Alonso, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The effect of type of fiber, site of fermetation, method for quantifying insoluble and soluble dietary fiber, and their correction for intestinal mucin on fiber digestibility were examined in rabbits. Three diets differing in soluble fiber were formulated (8.5% soluble fiber, on DM basis, in the low soluble fiber [LSF] diet; 10.2% in the medium soluble fiber [MSF] diet; and 14.5% in the high soluble fiber [HSF] diet). They were obtained by replacing half of the dehydrated alfalfa in the MSF d...

  16. Determinación del porcentaje de humedad, solubles e insolubles en agua de la fibra de Carludovica Palmata (paja toquilla)

    OpenAIRE

    López, Luis M.; Sarmiento, Andrés P.; Fajardo, Jorge I.; Valarezo, Luis E.; Zuluaga Gallego, Robin

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta la determinación de humedad, elementos solubles e insolubles en agua de la fibra de Carludovica palmata (paja toquilla). Para realizar estos ensayos se utilizan las normas ASTM E871-82, ASTM D1110-84 y ASTM D1107-96. Con la finalidad de determinar su uso pontencial como refuerzo en materiales compuestos y la influencia en la resistencia mecánica. El porcentaje de humedad de la fibra analizada corresponde al 5,33% de su peso. El porcentaj...

  17. Randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1450 ppm fluoride over two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Zhong, Yisi; Jiang, Xianjun; Hu Deyu; Mateo, Luis R; Morrison, Boyce M; Zhang, Yun-Po

    2015-01-01

    A double blind, randomized, unsupervised, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted on over 5,500 children in Sichuan Province, China. This clinical trial compared the anti-caries efficacy of two test dentifrices to that of a control dentifrice. The test dentifrices contained 1.5% arginine, 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP), and an insoluble calcium compound (either dicalcium phosphate or calcium carbonate). The positive control dentifrice contained 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride (NaF), in a silica base. The children were randomly assigned one of the toothpastes, and children residing in the same household were assigned the same dentifrice to use at home, twice a day. Three calibrated dentists examined the children at baseline, as well as after one and two years of product use. After one year of product use, there were no statistically significant differences among the three groups with respect to decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) or to decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS). After two years of product use, subjects in the two test groups using the dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP, and an insoluble calcium compound had a statistically significant reduction in DMFT increments of 20.5% and in DMFS increments of 19.6% when compared to subjects in the group using the positive control dentifrice. After two years, there were no statistically significant differences with respect to DMFT or DMFS between the two groups using the dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP, and an insoluble calcium compound. The use of the two test dentifrices demonstrated significant reductions in decayed, missing, and filled teeth and surfaces, however there was no statistically significant different between the two test dentifrices clinically after two years of using the toothpastes. The results of this two-year clinical investigation support the conclusion that dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine

  18. Un supercemento portland resistente a los sulfatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soria Santamaría, F.

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available Not availableSe expone a continuación un breve resumen de la fabricación de un cemento PAS, según la nomenclatura que fija el Pliego Vigente para la Recepción de Conglomerantes en Obras de Carácter Oficial. Con más extensión, hacemos referencia a la Monografía núm. 230 del I.E.T.C.C.

  19. Community contributions to a FHU team work Las contribuciones de la comunidad para el trabajo del equipo de un PSF As contribuições da comunidade para o trabalho da equipe de um PSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Sanches Marin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of people participating in the construction of new health models, this study aimed to characterize and analyze contributions brought by community to health actions carried out in a Family Health Unit. It is a documentary analysis based on the records of 24 monthly meetings between the team and community. After reading the records, subject was divided into four themes: material and human resources, availability to secondary level health services, community adherence to the unit activities, health promotion and disease prevention. Discussions opened a wide perspective on health and stimulated co-responsibility, stronger links and information exchanging. Nevertheless, there is a need to improve community effective participation in the co-management of the health system.Considerando la relevancia de la participación de la población en la construcción de nuevos modelos de salud, el presente estudio propone caracterizar y analizar las contribuciones de la participación de la comunidad en las acciones de salud de una Unidad de Salud de la Familia. Se trata de un estudio de análisis documentario, basado en actas de 24 reuniones mensuales del equipo con la comunidad. Después de la lectura de los registros, los asuntos fueran clasificados en cuatro temáticas: recursos materiales y humanos, accesos a los servicios de salud de nivel secundario, adherencia de la comunidad a las actividades ofrecidas por la unidad y promoción de la salud y prevención de enfermedades. Verificó-se que las discusiones destacaron una visión íntegra de la salud e hicieron posible la co-responsabilidad, fortalecimiento del vínculo y cambio de información. Todavía es necesario avanzar para obtener la efectiva participación de la comunidad en la co-gestión del sistema de salud.Considerando a relevância da participação popular na construção de novos modelos de saúde, o presente estudo propõe-se a verificar as contribuições dessa

  20. La perspectiva histórico-cultural y la educación especial: contribuciones iniciales y desarrollos actuales ( HISTORICAL – CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE AND THE SPECIAL EDUCATION: EARLY CONTRIBUTIONS AND CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS

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    Mitjáns Martínez Albertina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El objetivo principal del artículo es destacar la significación de la perspectiva histórico-cultural del desarrollo humano para el diseño de estrategias educativas favorecedoras del aprendizaje escolar de niños y niñas con deficiencias. A partir de las contribuciones de Vygotsky, en ese campo, y de los aportes de la Teoría de la Subjetividad, elaborada a partir da la perspectiva histórico-cultural, se presentan principios que, en su configuración sistémica, pueden constituir una base sólida para la reestructuración de diversos aspectos del trabajo educativo en la Educación Especial. En la primera parte del artículo son discutidas algunas de las concepciones y conceptos desarrollados por Vygotsky en su obra “Fundamentos de Defectología”. La fundamentación del carácter social de la deficiencia, los conceptos de defecto primario, defecto secundario y compensación, y la consideración del carácter creativo del aprendizaje y del desarrollo de las niñas y los niños deficientes. Se presentan las ideas centrales de la Teoría de la Subjetividad elaborada por González Rey, especialmente la concepción del aprendizaje escolar como un proceso de la subjetividad irreducible a habilidades y procesos intelectuales. Por último, se fundamentan tres implicaciones educacionales derivadas de la articulación de los dos sistemas conceptuales presentados: favorecer la creación de espacios comunicativos/relacionales que contribuyan a generar en el niño nuevas producciones de sentido sobre el aprendizaje y sobre la deficiencia, estimular en ellos el desarrollo de la condición de sujetos negada por las posiciones asistencialistas y paternalistas dominantes y el enfoque cualitativo, constructivo, singular, procesual e interactivo de los procesos de diagnóstico y de evaluación educacional.Abstract:The main proposal of this paper is to discuss the significance of historical–cultural approach in human development for the designing

  1. Contribuciones del factor general y de los factores específicos en la relación entre inteligencia y rendimiento escolar Contributions of the general and the specific factors for the intelligence and school achievement relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro S. Almeida

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    En este artículo se pretende analizar en qué medida, factores más específicos de la cognición, asociados a contenido verbal, numérico o figurativo, complementan un factor más general de raciocinio en la predicción del rendimiento escolar de los alumnos, al inicio y final de la adolescencia. A una muestra de estudiantes portugueses (n=4.899 entre el 5º y el 12º año de escolaridad, se le aplicó una Batería de Pruebas de Raciocinio en sus tres versiones. El rendimiento escolar de los alumnos se estimó en base a sus clasificaciones en Lengua Portuguesa y Matemáticas. El modelo de ecuaciones estructurales mostró un mayor impacto del factor general (inteligencia fluida-inductiva asociado a todas las pruebas de la BPR en la predicción del rendimiento escolar, observándose que esa significación disminuía progresivamente a lo largo de la escolaridad. Por otro lado, elementos específicos de cada prueba entraron en un segundo modelo, especialmente, en el grupo de los alumnos más jóvenes (5º y 6º año. Entre el 7º y el 9º año las contribuciones específicas de las pruebas se refieren, sobre todo, a la prueba de raciocinio verbal (la prueba de raciocinio numérico aparece también en el 9º año. Así, aún reconociendo la relevancia del factor g en la explicación del rendimiento académico, componentes cognitivos específicos pueden también contribuir para asociar inteligencia y realización académica.

    Palabras clave: Inteligencia, factor g, factores específicos, Gf-Gc, rendimiento académico.

    This paper aims to analyse the extent to which factors more specific cognition, content associated with verbal, numerical or figurative, complement a reasoning general factor in predicting students´ academic achievement at the beginning and the end of adolescence. Taking a Portuguese students sample (n=4,899 from 5th to 12th grades, the reasoning tests battery (BPR – Bateria de Provas de Raciocínio was administrated

  2. The population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB from Cikaniki, Botol Mountain, and Ciptarasa Area, and the ability of PSB to solubilize insoluble P in solid pikovskaya medium

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    SULIASIH

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB were collected from plant rhizosphere at Cikaniki (1100 m asl., soil at Botol Mountain (1000, 1500, and 1800 m asl., and Ciptarasa (600, 1000, and 1500 m asl., area at Gunung Halimun National Park (GHNP. The soil ware collected randomly from 3 areas and taken from 0-15 cm depth in the plants rhizosphere at Cikaniki and forest floor soil in Gunung Botol and Ciptarasa. The result showed that the difference of elevation area, soil pH, forest vegetation, and microbial habitat (rhizosphere and forest floor were not the inhabitation factors of the biodiversity of PSB and their ability to solubilize insoluble phosphate, but the inhabitation factors on the growth of the PSB population. The highest population of PSB at GHNP was founded in the plant rhizosphere of Altingia exelsa Norona and Schima wallichii (Dc. Korth (107sel/g soil at Cikaniki and in the forest floor soil (108sel/g soil at Botol Mountain (1000 m asl.. Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Bacillus megaterium, and Chromobacterium sp. dominated Cikaniki, Botol Mountain and Ciptarasa area. Those isolates could solubilize insoluble phosphate on solid Pikovskaya medium with the range of diameter is 1.5-2.5 cm.

  3. Can insoluble polysaccharide concentration in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms predict early childhood caries? A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisotto, T M; Stipp, R; Rodrigues, L K A; Mattos-Graner, R O; Costa, L S; Nobre-Dos-Santos, M

    2015-08-01

    Insoluble polysaccharide (IP) has been associated with caries prevalence in young children. However, the power of IP to predict ECC needs to be demonstrated. To assess the relationships between early childhood caries (ECC) and extracellular insoluble polysaccharides (IP) in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms. Visible plaque on maxillary incisors was recorded, followed by caries diagnosis in 65 preschoolers (3-4 years) at baseline and after 1 year. Plaque was collected for mutans streptococci (MS), total microorganism (TM) and lactobacilli (LB) enumerations in selective media, as well as for IP analysis, which was later assessed by colorimetry. Sugar/sucrose exposure was assessed by a diet chart. Positive correlations were found among the prevalence of caries and MS, TM, LB, solid sucrose and visible dental plaque. Additionally, children with IP concentrations in dental plaque higher than 2.36 μg/mg (odds ratio-OR=6.8), with visible plaque on maxillary incisors (OR=4.3), harbouring LB (OR=13) and exposed to solid sugar more than twice/day (OR=5) showed higher risk of developing caries (pplaque and cariogenic microorganisms could predict caries development, partially explaining the ECC pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of luminescence properties of insoluble mineral grains extracted from the Greenland Summit GRIP ice core, and their potential for luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepper, Kenneth.; Siggaard-Andersen, M.-L.Marie-Louise; Larsen, N.A.Niels Agersnap; Hammer, C.U.Claus U.; McKeever, S.W.S.Stephen W.S.

    2001-01-01

    We describe several optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of insoluble mineral grains extracted from the Greenland summit GRIP ice core in order to examine the potential of these techniques for age determination of these materials. Since the dust grains examined in this work were exposed to natural and artificial light at many stages prior to luminescence analysis, the purpose of the experiments reported herein was not to make age determinations, but rather to evaluate the general suitability of dust grains extracted from ice cores for luminescence dating. The measurements indicate that the fine-grained dust has a wide dynamic dose response range, with limited saturation effects being seen until absorbed doses of ∼1000 Gy. Furthermore, the sample's TL and OSL signals were stable over the time intervals evaluated in this study and readily susceptible to bleaching by exposure to sunlight. These three properties form a stable base for the development of luminescence dating procedures for insoluble mineral grains recovered from ice cores. The experiments demonstrate that such procedures can be carried out on sample masses of less than 1 mg

  5. Structural elucidation of a water-insoluble glucan produced by a glucosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans 6715 by chemical and instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of a water-insoluble polysaccharide produced by the glucosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans 6715 has been elucidated through the use of periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, dextranase digestion, concanavalin A binding studies, methylation followed by methanolysis, reductive cleavage and gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic analysis, carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance and fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy. These studies show that the water-insoluble glucan is comprised of 67% α-(1-3) linkages in a contiguous backbone with the remaining 33% existing as α-(1-6) linkages possibly as linear residues extending from α-(1-6) branch points. 14% of the residues exist as branch points and the ratio of linear extending α-(1-3) residues in the backbone to linear extending α-(1-6) residues in the side chain was found to be 5:2. Dextranase digestion and Smith degradation both gave rise to a high molecular weight fraction which is only α-(1-3) linked. In addition, the average length of the side chains was shown to not exceed 3 residues

  6. Estudo comparativo entre antlmoniato de meglumina, isotianato de pentamidina e sulfato de aminosidine, no tratamento de lesões cutâneas primárias causadas por Leishmania (viannia braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalmo Correia

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comparar a eficácia, a tolerabilidade e a toxicidade do antimoniato de meglumina, do sulfato de aminosidine e do isotianato depentamidine no tratamento de lesões cutâneas primárias causadas por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis foi realizado um estudo de campo, aberto, randomizado, na área endêmica de Cone de Pedra-Bahia. De outubro de 1992 a janeiro de 1993, foram tratados 46 pacientes, distribuídos em três grupos dois de 15 e um de 16 pacientes. Todos os pacientes realizaram exames clínico, parasitológico, histopatológico e imunológico, como critério diagnóstico. Todos os pacientes foram tratados pela via intramuscular. O Grupo 1 recebeu pentamidina na dose de 4mg/k.g/dia, em dias alternados, no total de 8 aplicações; o Grupo 2 aminosidine na dose de 20mg/k.g/dia, por 20 dias; o Grupo 3, meglumina na dose de 10mg/kg/dia, por 20 dias. Definiu-se como falha terapêutica a permanência de lesões ulceradas, após quatro meses de tratamento. Ocorreram cinco casos de falha terapêutica assim distribuídos: dois casos no Grupo 1, um caso no Grupo 2 e dois no Grupo 3, ao final do primeiro ano de seguimento. Na avaliação após 3 anos foram revistos 15 pacientes, 5 em cada Grupo; exceto um do Grupo 3, todos continuaram curados. Não houve diferença estatística entre os resultados dos três esquemas utilizados.With the aim of comparing the therapeutic efficacy, tolerability and toxicity of meglumine antimoniate, aminosidine sulphate andpentamidine isethionate, a field study was conducted on randomized treatment of patients with primary cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, in Cone de Pedra, BA, from October 1992 up to January 1993- Forty six patients were treated and distributed into three groups, two with 15 and one with 16 subjects. All patients were submitted to clinical examination, histopatological and immunological investigations, as diagnostic criterium. All patients were

  7. Produção de betacianina em erva-de-jacaré cultivada in vitro com diferentes concentrações de sulfato de cobre Betacyanin production in alligator weed, grown in vitro, with different concentrations of copper sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janieli Cristina Perotti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A manipulação da concentração dos microelementos no meio de cultura representa uma boa estratégia para aumentar a produção de metabólitos secundários em cultura de tecidos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo demonstrar a influência do sulfato de cobre na produção de betacianina e na multiplicação de plantas de Alternanthera philoxeroides (erva-de-jacaré cultivadas in vitro. Segmentos nodais, obtidos de plantas pré-estabelecidas e após três subcultivos, foram inoculados em meio MS, com diferentes concentrações de CuSO4 (0; 25; 75; 125; 175; 200µM. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis concentrações de CuSO4 e cinco repetições representadas por um frasco contendo quatro explantes. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância, à regressão polinomial e a análises de correlação entre as variáveis morfológicas e a produção de betacianina. Concentrações acima de 75µM diminuíram a altura das plantas, o número de brotos e gemas e o crescimento radicular, enquanto que, na concentração de 125µM, houve a maior produção de massa fresca. A produção de betacianina aumentou 60% em relação ao controle com 175µM de CuSO4. Ocorreu crescimento das plantas em todas as concentrações de CuSO4 testadas, com exceção de 200µM, sendo esta considerada tóxica.The manipulation of concentration of trace elements in the culture medium represents a good strategy to increase the production of secondary metabolites in tissue culture. This study aimed to demonstrate the influence of copper sulphate in the production of betacyanin and the multiplication of plants of Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed cultured in vitro. Nodal segments, obtained from plants pre-stablished and after three subcultures, were inoculated in basic MS with different concentrations of CuSO4 (0, 25, 75, 125, 175, 200µM. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, polynomial regression and

  8. Efeitos dos glicosaminoglicanos e sulfato de condroitina A sobre a cartilagem articular normal e com doença articular degenerativa em cães Glycosaminoglycans and chondroitin sulphate "A" effects on normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.T. Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos precursores dos glicosaminoglicanos (GAG e do sulfato de condroitina A (SC sobre a histomorfometria da cartilagem articular normal ou de cartilagem de cães com doença articular degenerativa (DAD experimental. Os grupos experimentais constituíram-se de animais com articulação direita normal, que não foi submetida a procedimento cirúrgico, e com articulação esquerda osteoartrótica e que foi submetida à intervenção cirúrgica. Os grupos foram subdivididos em animais com articulação não tratada e tratada, portanto: normais (N (n=5, NGAG (n=5 e NSC (n=4; e osteoartróticos (O (n=5, OGAG (n=5 e OSC (n=4. Secções de cartilagens do fêmur, da tíbia e da patela foram utilizadas neste estudo. Nos normais (N, NGAG e NSC, não se encontraram lesões que caracterizassem a DAD, embora tenha havido diminuição na celularidade nos de NGAG e NSC, em relação a N. Foram observadas alterações em graus variáveis entre os grupos osteoartróticos. Houve redução acentuada dos condrócitos no grupo O em comparação aos normais enquanto os grupos osteoartróticos tratados apresentaram celularidade semelhante aos normais tratados. Estes resultados foram confirmados pela análise do índice de proporção (IP, que se mostrou elevado em O, indicando menor síntese de proteoglicanos. Não houve diferença significativa entre os IPs dos grupos osteoartróticos tratados (OGAG, OSC apesar do comportamento distinto do OSC ao assemelhar-se aos grupos N e NSC. Estes resultados sugeriram que o SC agiu na cartilagem osteoartrótica de maneira mais eficaz, reduzindo a perda de proteoglicanos e estimulando a viabilidade celular e a atividade metabólica.The effects of precursors of glycosaminoglycans (GAG and chondroitin sulphate A (CS on the histomorphometry of normal articular cartilage and with experimental degenerative joint disease (DJD in dogs were evaluated. The groups were constituted as follows: normal joints were not

  9. Digestive and functional properties of a partially hydrolyzed cassava solid waste with high insoluble fiber concentration Propriedades funcionais-digestivas do concentrado de fibra alimentar obtido de mandioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorivaldo da Silva Raupp

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Starch factories generate large amounts of cassava solid waste. A small amount is utilized for animal feed but most of it is discharged with deleterious effects to the envirounment. A edible food with a high content of insoluble dietary fiber (60.9%, named "partially hidrolyzed cassava waste" (PHCW, was prepared from industrial cassava solid waste by an enzymatic process. PHCW or wheat bran (WB were fed to model rats and both promoted digestive function effects, but PHCW produced the greatest effect. The insoluble fiber constituent from PHCW (and not the soluble fiber, promoted the greatest fecal bulking, fecal weight and defecation frequency in rats, as compared to WB. Such results indicate that the partially hydrolyzed cassava waste presents digestive function properties which allow it to be used as an adequate source of insoluble dietary fiber in the formulation of functional food for human nutrition.As fecularias e polvilheiras produzem grandes quantidades de bagaço de mandioca. A proposta dessa pesquisa consistiu determinar, em ratos modelo, a propriedade funcional-digestiva do produto alimentício bagaço de mandioca hidrolisado (BMH, um concentrado de fibra alimentar (60,9%, peso seco que foi obtido a partir do bagaço de mandioca da polvilheira e através de processo de hidrólise enzimática. O BMH produziu efeitos fisiológicos no trato digestivo dos ratos modelos mais acentuados que os efeitos produzidos pelo farelo de trigo (FT. Foram os componentes insolúveis da fibra alimentar do BMH, e não a fração solúvel, os que mais contribuíram para o maior volume e peso das fezes e, por conseguinte, para o maior número de defecações. Por isso, o BMH pode ser usado como fonte alternativa de fibra alimentar para a formulação de alimentos, principalmente os consumidos por indivíduos com a finalidade de regular ou manter normal a funcionalidade digestiva.

  10. Fluorescência e teores de clorofilas em abacaxizeiro cv. pérola submetido a diferentes concentrações de sulfato de amônio Fluorescence and levels of chlorophyll in pineapple plants cv. perola submitted to different concentration of ammonium sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene Ana de Paula Vieira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a análise da emissão da fluorescência da clorofila a e dos teores de clorofilas em plantas de Ananas comosus (L. Merril cv pérola, cultivadas em casa de vegetação, submetidas a quatro concentrações de nitrogênio por adição ou não de sulfato de amônio, de acordo com os seguintes tratamentos: Tº= 0 T1/2 = 15; T1 = 30; e T2 = 60 mg/kg solo. As determinações de fluorescência mínima (F0, máxima (Fm, variável (Fv, terminal (Ft e da eficiência fotoquímica máxima (Fv/Fm de folhas adaptadas ao escuro foram realizadas ao longo do dia, aos cinco dias após a segunda aplicação de sulfato de amônio, efetuada 120 dias após o transplantio. A adição de sulfato de amônio afetou a fluorescência variável e a máxima, mas não afetou a fluorescência mínima, a terminal nem a eficiência fotoquímica. Houve diferenças significativas entre os valores das variáveis da fluorescência ao longo do dia em que foram feitas as leituras. Houve diferenças nos teores de clorofilas foliares, em função das concentrações de sulfato de amônio aplicadas, com aumento para clorofila a e para a relação clorofila a/b, mas não para clorofila b.The present research aimed to analyze chlorophyll a fluorescence emission as well as chlorophyll levels in Ananas comosus (L. Merril cv Pérola grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to four concentration of nitrogen, through addition or not of ammonium sulphate according to the following treatments: Tº= 0.000; T1/2 = 0.015; T1 =0.030; and T2 = 0.060 g/kg soil. Determinations of minimum (F0, maximum (Fm, variable (Fv, and terminal (Ft fluorescence and maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm of dark-adapted leaves were carried out during the day, five days after the second application of ammonium sulphate, carried out 120 days after the transplant. The results showed that the addition of ammonium sulphate affected variable and maximum fluorescence, but not

  11. Effect of surfactant species and electrophoretic medium composition on the electrophoretic behavior of neutral and water-insoluble linear synthetic polymers in nonaqueous capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Nao; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    We have recently demonstrated the separation of neutral and water-insoluble linear synthetic polymers in nonaqueous capillary zone electrophoresis (NACZE) using a cationic surfactant of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). In this study, eight ionic surfactants were investigated for the separation of four synthetic polymers (polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylates, polybutadiene, and polycarbonate); only three surfactants (CTAC, dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide, and sodium dodecylsulfate) caused their separation. The order of the interaction between the polymers and the surfactants depended on both the surfactant species and the composition of the electrophoretic medium. Their investigation revealed that the separation is majorly affected by the hydrophobic interactions between the polymers and the ionic surfactants. In addition, the electrophoretic behavior of polycarbonate suggested that electrostatic interaction also affects the selectivity of the polymers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Investigation of Rheological Impacts on the Defense Waste Processing Facility's Sludge Slurry Feed as Insoluble Solids and Wash Endpoints are Adjusted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, T. L.; Howard, S.J.; Lee, M.C.; Galloway, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently pursuing an aggressive program to empty its High Level Waste (HLW) tanks and immobilize its radioactive waste into a durable borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To create a batch of feed for the DWPF, several tanks of radioactive sludge slurry are combined into one of the million gallon (i.e. 3.79 E06 liters) feed tanks for DWPF. Once these sludge slurries are combined, the soluble sodium and weight percent total solids are adjusted by a 'washing' process. The 'washing' process involves diluting the soluble sodium of the sludge slurry with inhibited water (0.015 M NaOH and 0.015 M NaNO 2 ) and allowing the sludge slurry to settle into two layers. The two layers in the tank consist of a clear supernate on top and a layer of settled sludge solids on the bottom. The clear supernate layer is then decanted to another hold tank. This 'washing' process is repeated until the desired wash endpoint (i.e. sodium concentration in the supernate) and weight percent total solids are achieved. A final washed batch of feed consists of approximately 500,000 gallons (i.e. 1.89 E06 liters). DWPF has already processed three batches of feed and is currently processing a fourth. Prior to processing a batch of feed in the DWPF, it must be well characterized. Samples of the prepared feed batch are sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for this characterization. As a part of the SRNL characterization for the fourth batch, rheology measurements were performed. Measurements were performed at different weight percent insoluble solids loadings to mimic potential facility processing scenarios (i.e. mixing/pumping of concentrated sludge slurry). In order to determine the influence of the soluble Na on the rheological properties of the sample, the supernate of the 'as received' sample was adjusted from 1 M soluble Na to 0.5 M soluble Na by using a lab scale version of the 'washing' process. Rheology

  13. Determination of the refractive index of insoluble organic extracts from atmospheric aerosol over the visible wavelength range using optical tweezers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Shepherd

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical trapping combined with Mie spectroscopy is a new technique used to record the refractive index of insoluble organic material extracted from atmospheric aerosol samples over a wide wavelength range. The refractive index of the insoluble organic extracts was shown to follow a Cauchy equation between 460 and 700 nm for organic aerosol extracts collected from urban (London and remote (Antarctica locations. Cauchy coefficients for the remote sample were for the Austral summer and gave the Cauchy coefficients of A  =  1.467 and B  =  1000 nm2 with a real refractive index of 1.489 at a wavelength of 589 nm. Cauchy coefficients for the urban samples varied with season, with extracts collected during summer having Cauchy coefficients of A  =  1.465  ±  0.005 and B  =  4625  ±  1200 nm2 with a representative real refractive index of 1.478 at a wavelength of 589 nm, whilst samples extracted during autumn had larger Cauchy coefficients of A  =  1.505 and B  =  600 nm2 with a representative real refractive index of 1.522 at a wavelength of 589 nm. The refractive index of absorbing aerosol was also recorded. The absorption Ångström exponent was determined for woodsmoke and humic acid aerosol extract. Typical values of the Cauchy coefficient for the woodsmoke aerosol extract were A  =  1.541  ±  0.03 and B  =  14 800  ±  2900 nm2, resulting in a real refractive index of 1.584  ±  0.007 at a wavelength of 589 nm and an absorption Ångström exponent of 8.0. The measured values of refractive index compare well with previous monochromatic or very small wavelength range measurements of refractive index. In general, the real component of the refractive index increases from remote to urban to woodsmoke. A one-dimensional radiative-transfer calculation of the top-of-the-atmosphere albedo was applied to model an atmosphere

  14. An alkaline one-pot reaction to synthesize luminescent Eu-BTC MOF nanorods, highly pure and water-insoluble, under room conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Velazquez, D. Y., E-mail: dyolotzin@correo.azc.uam.mx; Alejandre-Zuniga, B. Y.; Loera-Serna, S.; Ortiz, E. M. [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería (Mexico); Morales-Ramirez, A. de J. [CIITEC IPN, Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Mexico); Garfias-Garcia, E. [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería (Mexico); Garcia-Murillo, A. [CIITEC IPN, Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Física (Mexico)

    2016-12-15

    The increasing demand for optoelectronic devices requires the development of luminescent materials with high luminescence efficiency and low energy demands, and the metalorganic frameworks (MOFs) with lanthanides ions offer great potential in this area. The metalorganic materials provide properties of flexibility, low density, low-cost methods of synthesis, and insolubility in water, which gives them an advantage over traditional phosphors. In this study, a benzenetricarboxylate ligand (BTC) with a Eu{sup 3+} MOF was synthesized, and its structural and luminescent properties were measured. The metalorganic compound was generated in a one-pot reaction from europium nitrate and trimesic acid precursors. Through characterization by X-ray diffraction powder, infrared spectroscopy, SEM structural characterization, and luminescent spectroscopy, the formation of Europium benzenetricarboxylate (Eu-BTC) MOF nanorods was tested and the calculated value was in the range of 30–60 nm. A red luminescent emission with high intensity was observed for all the procedures.

  15. Performance of hemicellulolytic enzymes in culture supernatants from a wide range of fungi on insoluble wheat straw and corn fiber fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gool, M P; Toth, K; Schols, H A; Szakacs, G; Gruppen, H

    2012-06-01

    Filamentous fungi are a good source of hemicellulolytic enzymes for biomass degradation. Enzyme preparations were obtained as culture supernatants from 78 fungal isolates grown on wheat straw as carbon source. These enzyme preparations were utilized in the hydrolysis of insoluble wheat straw and corn fiber xylan rich fractions. Up to 14% of the carbohydrates in wheat straw and 34% of those in corn fiber were hydrolyzed. The degree of hydrolysis by the enzymes depended on the origin of the fungal isolate and on the complexity of the substrate to be degraded. Penicillium, Trichoderma or Aspergillus species, and some non-identified fungi proved to be the best producers of hemicellulolytic enzymes for degradation of xylan rich materials. This study proves that the choice for an enzyme preparation to efficiently degrade a natural xylan rich substrate, is dependent on the xylan characteristics and could not be estimated by using model substrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of Oxygen Reduction and Mitigation of Ionomer Dry-Out Using Insoluble Heteropoly Acids in Intermediate Temperature Polymer-Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Stassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of Cs0.5H0.5PW12O40 insoluble salt as a superacid promoter in the catalyst layer of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC has been investigated. An increase of performance has been recorded at intermediate temperatures (110–130 °C and under low relative humidity (R.H.. The promoter appears to mitigate the ionomer dry-out effects in the catalytic layer and produces an increase of the extent of the catalyst-electrolyte interface as demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry analysis. These effects are also corroborated by a significant decrease of polarization resistance at intermediate temperatures. Such characteristics have been demonstrated for a conventional membrane-electrode assembly based on a Pt-Co alloy and a Nafion 115 membrane.

  17. Production of a low calorie mandarin juice by enzymatic conversion of constituent sugars to oligosaccharides and prevention of insoluble glucan formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hanh; Cho, Jae-Young; Seo, Ye-Seul; Woo, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hwa-Kyoung; Kim, Ghahyun J; Jhon, Deok-Young; Kim, Doman

    2015-03-01

    Over 99% of sucrose in mandarin juice (57.1 g/l in original juice to 428.4 g/l in concentrated juice) was enzymatically converted to glucooligosaccharides using 3 U dextransucrase/ml prepared from Leuconostoc mesenteroides at 28 °C. The oligosaccharide synthesis yields were 51 and 47% for the original and the concentrated mandarin juice, respectively. The degree of polymerization of oligosaccharides in the enzyme-modified juice was 2-7. Calories in the original and modified mandarin juice were 433 and 301 kcal/l (30.5% reduction). Compared with the original juice, the enzyme-modified juice showed 82% decrease of insoluble glucan formation by mutansucrase from Streptococcus mutans. A sensory evaluation of the juices revealed that the original and modified mandarin juices had sweetness values of 4.5 and 4.9 and the same values for overall acceptability.

  18. Degradation of bioabsorbable Mg-based alloys: Assessment of the effects of insoluble corrosion products and joint effects of alloying components on mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, Claudia A.; Alvarez, Florencia [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), CCT La Plata-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica A., E-mail: mmele@inifta.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), CCT La Plata-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 1 esq. 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the processes occurring at the bioabsorbable metallic biomaterial/cell interfaces that may lead to toxicity. A critical analysis of the results obtained when degradable metal disks (pure Mg and rare earth-containing alloys (ZEK100 alloys)) are in direct contact with cell culture and those obtained with indirect methods such as the use of metal salts and extracts was made. Viability was assessed by Acridine Orange dye, neutral red and clonogenic assays. The effects of concentration of corrosion products and possible joint effects of the binary and ternary combinations of La, Zn and Mg ions, as constituents of ZEK alloys, were evaluated on a mammalian cell culture. In all cases more detrimental effects were found for pure Mg than for the alloys. Experiments with disks showed that gradual alterations in pH and in the amount of corrosion products were better tolerated by cells and resulted in higher viability than abrupt changes. In addition, viability was dependent on the distance from the source of ions. Experiments with extracts showed that the effect of insoluble degradation products was highly detrimental. Indirect tests with Zn ions revealed that harmful effects may be found at concentrations ≥ 150 μM and at ≥ 100 μM in mixtures with Mg. These mixtures lead to more deleterious effects than single ions. Results highlight the need to develop a battery of tests to evaluate the biocompatibility of bioabsorbable biomaterials. - Highlights: • A metal disk setup is better in simulating in vivo situations than extracts and salts. • The biodegradation process and cell metabolism were interdependent. • Zn (100 μM) and Mg (8.2 × 10{sup 3} μM) mixtures are more toxic than single Zn or Mg. • Insoluble degradation products of Mg showed high negative effect on cell viability.

  19. Degradation of bioabsorbable Mg-based alloys: Assessment of the effects of insoluble corrosion products and joint effects of alloying components on mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, Claudia A.; Alvarez, Florencia; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica A.

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the processes occurring at the bioabsorbable metallic biomaterial/cell interfaces that may lead to toxicity. A critical analysis of the results obtained when degradable metal disks (pure Mg and rare earth-containing alloys (ZEK100 alloys)) are in direct contact with cell culture and those obtained with indirect methods such as the use of metal salts and extracts was made. Viability was assessed by Acridine Orange dye, neutral red and clonogenic assays. The effects of concentration of corrosion products and possible joint effects of the binary and ternary combinations of La, Zn and Mg ions, as constituents of ZEK alloys, were evaluated on a mammalian cell culture. In all cases more detrimental effects were found for pure Mg than for the alloys. Experiments with disks showed that gradual alterations in pH and in the amount of corrosion products were better tolerated by cells and resulted in higher viability than abrupt changes. In addition, viability was dependent on the distance from the source of ions. Experiments with extracts showed that the effect of insoluble degradation products was highly detrimental. Indirect tests with Zn ions revealed that harmful effects may be found at concentrations ≥ 150 μM and at ≥ 100 μM in mixtures with Mg. These mixtures lead to more deleterious effects than single ions. Results highlight the need to develop a battery of tests to evaluate the biocompatibility of bioabsorbable biomaterials. - Highlights: • A metal disk setup is better in simulating in vivo situations than extracts and salts. • The biodegradation process and cell metabolism were interdependent. • Zn (100 μM) and Mg (8.2 × 10 3 μM) mixtures are more toxic than single Zn or Mg. • Insoluble degradation products of Mg showed high negative effect on cell viability.

  20. Water-insoluble fractions of botanical foods lower blood ethanol levels in rats by physically maintaining the ethanol solution after ethanol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Oshima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have analyzed the functions of foods and dietary constituents in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. However, few studies have reported the function of dietary fibers in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. Objective: We assessed the effects of botanical foods that contain dietary fibers on alcohol metabolism. Methods: The ability of the water-insoluble fraction (WIF of 18 kinds of botanical foods to maintain 15% (v/v ethanol solution was examined using easily handled filtration. A simple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC in F344 rats 4 h after the ingestion of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol following dosage of 2.5% (w/v WIF of the experimental botanical foods. Furthermore, the supernatant (6.3 Brix; water-soluble fraction and precipitate (WIF of tomato, with a strong ethanol-maintaining ability, were obtained and BEC and the residual gastric ethanol in rats were determined 2 h after the administration of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol and the individuals fractions. Results: The filtered volumes of dropped ethanol solutions containing all the botanical foods tested except green peas were decreased compared with the ethanol solution without WIF (control. There was a significant correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC. There was no significant difference in the residual gastric ethanol between controls and the supernatant group; however, it was increased significantly in the WIF group than in controls or the supernatant group. Consistent with this, BEC reached a similar level in controls and the supernatant group but significantly decreased in the WIF group compared with controls or the supernatant group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that WIFs of botanical foods, which are mostly water-insoluble dietary fibers, possess the ability to absorb ethanol-containing solutions, and this ability correlates

  1. Cu-Zn isotope constraints on the provenance of air pollution in Central Europe: Using soluble and insoluble particles in snow and rime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Martin; Sipkova, Adela; Chrastny, Vladislav; Stepanova, Marketa; Voldrichova, Petra; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Prechova, Eva; Blaha, Vladimir; Curik, Jan; Farkas, Juraj; Erbanova, Lucie; Bohdalkova, Leona; Pasava, Jan; Mikova, Jitka; Komarek, Arnost; Krachler, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) isotope ratios can be used to fingerprint sources and dispersion pathways of pollutants in the environment. Little is known, however, about the potential of δ 65 Cu and δ 66 Zn values in liquid and solid forms of atmospheric deposition to distinguish between geogenic, industrial, local and remote sources of these potentially toxic base metals. Here we present Cu-Zn deposition fluxes at 10 mountain-top sites in the Czech Republic, a region affected by extremely high industrial emission rates 25 years ago. Additionally, we monitored isotope composition of Cu and Zn in vertical and horizontal atmospheric deposition at two sites. We compared δ 65 Cu and δ 66 Zn values in snow and rime, extracted by diluted HNO 3 and concentrated HF. Cu and Zn isotope signatures of industrial pollution sources were also determined. Cu and Zn deposition fluxes at all study sites were minute. The mean δ 65 Cu value of atmospheric deposition (-0.07‰) was higher than the mean δ 65 Cu value of pollution sources (-1.17‰). The variability in δ 65 Cu values of atmospheric deposition was lower, compared to the pollution sources. The mean δ 66 Zn value of atmospheric deposition (-0.09‰) was slightly higher than the mean δ 66 Zn value of pollution sources (-0.23‰). The variability in δ 66 Zn values of atmospheric deposition was indistinguishable from that of pollution sources. The largest isotope differences (0.35‰) were observed between the insoluble and soluble fractions of atmospheric deposition. These differences may result from different sources of Cu/Zn for each fraction. The difference in isotope composition of soluble and insoluble particles appears to be a promising tool for pollution provenance studies in Central Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin functionalized calcium carbonate microparticles as a potential carrier for enhancing oral delivery of water-insoluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihua; Zhu, Wufu; Lin, Qisi; Han, Jin; Jiang, Liqun; Zhang, Yanzhuo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to demonstrate that a novel hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin functionalized calcium carbonate (HP-β-CD/CC) based amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) can be used to increase the solubility and oral bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs. Irbesartan (IRB) was selected as a model compound and loaded into the nanoporous HP-β-CD/CC matrix using an immersion method. The IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC formulation was characterized by various analytical techniques, such as specific surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Analyses with PXRD and DSC confirmed that IRB was fully converted into the amorphous form in the nanopores of HP-β-CD/CC. From the solubility and dissolution tests, it was observed that the aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC were increased significantly compared with those of pure IRB and IRB-loaded mesoporous silica. Likewise, the IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC formulation exhibited better absorption compared with that of the commercially available IRB capsules in beagle dogs. The mean peak plasma concentration (C max) and the area under the mean plasma concentration-time curve (AUC[0→48]) of IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC were 1.56- and 1.52-fold higher than that of the commercial product, respectively. Furthermore, the IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC formulation exhibited excellent stability against re-crystallization. These results clearly demonstrate that HP-β-CD/CC based porous ASD is a promising formulation approach to improve the aqueous solubility and the in vivo absorption performance of a water-insoluble compound like IRB.

  3. Micro-solid phase extraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes from aqueous solutions using water-insoluble β-cyclodextrin polymer as sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojavan, Saeed; Yazdanpanah, Mina

    2017-11-24

    Water-insoluble β-cyclodextrin polymer was synthesized by chemical cross-linking using epichlorohydrin (EPI) as a cross-linker agent. The produced water-insoluble polymer was used as a sorbent for the micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) from water samples. The μ-SPE device consisted of a sealed tea bag envelope containing 15mg of sorbent. For the evaluation of the extraction efficiency, parameters such as extraction and desorption time, desorption solvent and salt concentration were investigated. At an extraction time of 30min in the course of the extraction process, analytes were extracted from a 10mL aqueous sample solution. The analytes were desorbed by ultrasonication in 200μL of acetonitrile for 20min. Analysis of the analytes was done by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) system. The enrichment factor (EF) was found to be in the range 23.0-45.4 (EF max =50.0). The method provided linearity ranges of between 0.5 and 500.0ng/mL (depending on the analytes), with good coefficients of determination (r 2 ) ranging between 0.997 and 0.999 under optimized conditions. Detection limits for BTEX were in the range of between 0.15 and 0.60ng/mL, while corresponding recoveries were in the range of 46.0-90.0%. The relative standard deviation of the method for the analytes at 100.0ng/mL concentration level ranged from 5.5 to 11.2% (n=5). The proposed method was concluded to be a cost effective and environmentally-friendly extraction technique with ease of operation and minimal usage of organic solvent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin functionalized calcium carbonate microparticles as a potential carrier for enhancing oral delivery of water-insoluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lihua Zhang,1 Wufu Zhu,2 Qisi Lin,1 Jin Han,1 Liqun Jiang,1 Yanzhuo Zhang1,3 1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The objective of the present study was to demonstrate that a novel hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin functionalized calcium carbonate (HP-β-CD/CC based amorphous solid dispersion (ASD can be used to increase the solubility and oral bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs. Irbesartan (IRB was selected as a model compound and loaded into the nanoporous HP-β-CD/CC matrix using an immersion method. The IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC formulation was characterized by various analytical techniques, such as specific surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, dynamic light scattering (DLS, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Analyses with PXRD and DSC confirmed that IRB was fully converted into the amorphous form in the nanopores of HP-β-CD/CC. From the solubility and dissolution tests, it was observed that the aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC were increased significantly compared with those of pure IRB and IRB-loaded mesoporous silica. Likewise, the IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC formulation exhibited better absorption compared with that of the commercially available IRB capsules in beagle dogs. The mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax and the area under the mean plasma concentration–time curve (AUC[0→48] of IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC were 1.56- and 1.52-fold higher than that of the commercial product, respectively. Furthermore, the IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC formulation exhibited excellent stability against re-crystallization. These results clearly

  5. COMPOSIÇÃO MINERAL DE GRÃOS DE TRIGO SUBMETIDOS A DOSES DE SULFATO DE AMÔNIO E TRINEXAPAC-ETIL MINERAL COMPOSITION OF WHEAT GRAINS SUBJECTED TO AMMONIUM SULFATE AND TRINEXAPAC-ETHYL RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Monnerat

    2010-10-01

    Roman,serif;">A composição mineral de grãos é importante para a definição da qualidade nutricional do alimento e qualidade fisiológica das sementes, devendo ser considerada no estabelecimento dos níveis adequados de adubação. Neste contexto, objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar o efeito de doses de sulfato de amônio (SA e de trinexapac-etil, na composição mineral de grãos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pioneiro. O experimento foi desenvolvido em Viçosa (MG, no período de junho a outubro de 2006. Os tratamentos foram cinco doses de SA (150 kg ha-1, 300 kg ha-1, 450 kg ha-1, 600 kg ha-1 e 750 kg ha-1, combinadas com quatro doses de trinexapac-etil (0 g ha-1; 62,5 g ha-1; 125 g ha-1; e 187,5 g ha-1. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As doses de SA aumentaram as concentrações de N-total (proteína, Ca, S, Cu e Zn e diminuíram as concentrações de P, K e Mn (acima de 457 kg ha-1de SA. Os teores de Mg e Fe não foram influenciados pelas doses de SA. O trinexapac-etil promoveu aumento de N-total, P e Mn e redução de Ca. Os teores de K, S, Cu, Zn, Mg e Fe não foram influenciados pelo redutor. Concluiu-se que a aplicação de SA melhora a qualidade nutricional de grãos, enquanto a utilização do redutor de crescimento trinexapac-etil não influencia na composição mineral dos mesmos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Triticum aestivum L.; nutrição; redutor de crescimento.

    Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3615 Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (Pomacea canaliculata - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3615

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Antonio Pitelli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I(50;96h, o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1 e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água, equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC. A CL (I(50;96h estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I50;96h estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1 e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1.Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimate the acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I50;96h, snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1 and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1, in triplicate and one control treatment in an

  6. Glifosato aplicado com diferentes concentrações de uréia ou sulfato de amônio para dessecação de plantas daninhas Glyphosate applied with different concentrations of urea or ammonium sulfate for weed desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Jorge Pinto de Carvalho

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia do herbicida glifosato, para a dessecação de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis e outras plantas daninhas, quando combinado a diferentes concentrações de sulfato de amônio ou uréia. Foram conduzidos três experimentos com tratamentos semelhantes: dois em campo e um em casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos aplicados em campo foram: glifosato (360 g ha-1 de e.a., isolado ou acrescido de quatro concentrações de sulfato de amônio (2,5, 5, 10 e 20 g L-1 ou uréia (1,5, 3, 6 e 12 g L-1; glifosato a 720 g ha-1 de e.a., aplicado isoladamente; e testemunha sem aplicação. Em casa de vegetação, para o controle específico da trapoeraba, as doses de glifosato foram elevadas para 720 (isolado e nas combinações e 1.440 g ha-1 de e.a. A adição de sulfato de amônio à calda do glifosato elevou o controle das plantas daninhas em campo, para as concentrações com até 10 g L-1. O herbicida glifosato não foi eficaz no controle da trapoeraba, em nenhumas das doses usadas. A adição de uréia não promoveu incrementos de controle em condição de campo; porém, para concentrações de até 6 g L-1, melhorou o controle da trapoeraba, na avaliação conduzida aos 28 dias após aplicação.This work was developed with the objective of evaluating glyphosate efficacy for Bengal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis and other weeds desiccation, when combined to different concentrations of ammonium sulfate or urea. Three experiments were carried out with similar treatments: two in field conditions and one in greenhouse. Treatments applied in field conditions were: glyphosate at 360 g ha-1 a.e., isolated or combined to four concentrations of ammonium sulfate (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 g L-1 or urea (1.5, 3, 6, and 12 g L-1; glyphosate at 720 g ha-1 a.e., applied isolately; and checks without application. In greenhouse, for the specific control on Bengal dayflower, glyphosate rates were increased to

  7. Effect of additives on adsorption and desorption behavior of xylanase on acid-insoluble lignin from corn stover and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanfei; Ge, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zongping; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-06-01

    The competitive adsorption between cellulases and additives on lignin in the hydrolysis of lignocelluloses has been confirmed, whereas the effect of additives on the interaction between xylanase and lignin is not clear. In this work, the effects of additives, poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, poly(ethylene glycol) 6000, Tween 20, and Tween 80, on the xylanase adsorption/desorption onto/from acid-insoluble lignin from corn stover (CS-lignin) and wheat straw (WS-lignin) were investigated. The results indicated that the additives could adsorb onto isolated lignin and reduce the xylanase adsorption onto lignin. Compared to CS-lignin, more additives could adsorb onto WS-lignin, making less xylanase adsorbed onto WS-lignin. In addition, the additives could enhance desorption of xylanase from lignin, which might be due to the competitive adsorption between xylanase and additives on lignin. The released xylanase from lignin still exhibited hydrolytic capacity in the hydrolysis of isolated xylan and xylan in corn stover. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Defined drug release from 3D-printed composite tablets consisting of drug-loaded polyvinylalcohol and a water-soluble or water-insoluble polymer filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Tatsuaki; Nagata, Noriko; Hayashi, Naomi; Ogawa, Emi; Fukushige, Kaori; Sakai, Norihito; Ozeki, Tetsuya

    2018-05-30

    3D-printed tablets are a promising new approach for personalized medicine. In this study, we fabricated composite tablets consisting of two components, a drug and a filler, by using a fused deposition modeling-type 3D printer. Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) polymer containing calcein (a model drug) was used as the drug component and PVA or polylactic acid (PLA) polymer without drug was used as the water-soluble or water-insoluble filler, respectively. Various kinds of drug-PVA/PVA and drug-PVA/PLA composite tablets were designed, and the 3D-printed tablets exhibited good formability. The surface area of the exposed drug component is highly correlated with the initial drug release rate. Composite tablets with an exposed top and a bottom covered with a PLA layer were fabricated. These tablets showed zero-order drug release by maintaining the surface area of the exposed drug component during drug dissolution. In contrast, the drug release profile varied for tablets whose exposed surface area changed. Composite tablets with different drug release lag times were prepared by changing the thickness of the PVA filler coating the drug component. These results which used PVA and PLA filler will provide useful information for preparing the tablets with multi-components and tailor-made tablets with defined drug release profiles using 3D printers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Degradation of bioabsorbable Mg-based alloys: Assessment of the effects of insoluble corrosion products and joint effects of alloying components on mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Claudia A; Alvarez, Florencia; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica A

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the processes occurring at the bioabsorbable metallic biomaterial/cell interfaces that may lead to toxicity. A critical analysis of the results obtained when degradable metal disks (pure Mg and rare earth-containing alloys (ZEK100 alloys)) are in direct contact with cell culture and those obtained with indirect methods such as the use of metal salts and extracts was made. Viability was assessed by Acridine Orange dye, neutral red and clonogenic assays. The effects of concentration of corrosion products and possible joint effects of the binary and ternary combinations of La, Zn and Mg ions, as constituents of ZEK alloys, were evaluated on a mammalian cell culture. In all cases more detrimental effects were found for pure Mg than for the alloys. Experiments with disks showed that gradual alterations in pH and in the amount of corrosion products were better tolerated by cells and resulted in higher viability than abrupt changes. In addition, viability was dependent on the distance from the source of ions. Experiments with extracts showed that the effect of insoluble degradation products was highly detrimental. Indirect tests with Zn ions revealed that harmful effects may be found at concentrations ≥ 150 μM and at ≥ 100 μM in mixtures with Mg. These mixtures lead to more deleterious effects than single ions. Results highlight the need to develop a battery of tests to evaluate the biocompatibility of bioabsorbable biomaterials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Immobilization of bioactive fibroblast growth factor-2 into cubic proteinous microcrystals (Bombyx mori cypovirus polyhedra) that are insoluble in a physiological cellular environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hajime; Shukunami, Chisa; Furuyama, Akiko; Notsu, Hiroyuki; Nishizaki, Yuriko; Hiraki, Yuji

    2007-06-08

    The supramolecular architecture of the extracellular matrix and the disposition of its specific accessory molecules give rise to variable heterotopic signaling cues for single cells. Here we have described the successful occlusion of human fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) into the cubic inclusion bodies (FGF-2 polyhedra) of the Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV). The polyhedra are proteinous cubic crystals of several microns in size that are insoluble in the extracellular milieu. Purified FGF-2 polyhedra were found to stimulate proliferation and phosphorylation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase in cultured fibroblasts. Moreover, cellular responses were blocked by a synthetic inhibitor of the FGF signaling pathway, SU5402, suggesting that FGF-2 polyhedra indeed act through FGF receptors. Furthermore, FGF-2 polyhedra retained potent growth stimulatory properties even after desiccation. We have demonstrated that BmCPV polyhedra microcrystals that occlude extracellular signaling proteins are a novel and versatile tool that can be employed to analyze cellular behavior at the single cell level.

  11. Correlation between culture medium pH, extracellular proteinase activity, and cell growth of Candida albicans in insoluble stratum corneum-supplemented media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, R; Matsuda, K; Ko, I J; Ogawa, H

    1989-01-01

    Candida albicans produces a major extracellular proteinase whose activities are observed only in weakly acidic pH. However, in affected lesions, a variety of pH conditions exist, including neutral pH. To verify the pathological importance of the extracellular proteinase, the correlation between culture medium pH, extracellular proteinase activity, and cell growth of C. albicans was followed for 3 weeks with unbuffered and insoluble stratum corneum-supplemented liquid media. Each medium pH, initially adjusted within a range of pH 3-7 by the addition of sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid solution, was acidified, and a subsequent high proteolytic activity and rapid fungal growth were observed. After full fungal growth, neutralization of each medium to pH 7 and reduction of proteinase activity occurred. Results from a glucose addition experiment suggest that acidification of each medium was produced by the acid formation from glucose and neutralization by the exhaustion of glucose and increase of ammonia from denatured stratum corneum. These data suggest that extracellular proteinase from C. albicans could act as a virulence factor under a wide range of pH conditions by the acidification of the environmental pH close to the organism.

  12. Influence of elastase-induced emphysema and the inhalation of an irritant aerosol on deposition and retention of an inhaled insoluble aerosol in Fischer-344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, E.G.; Mokler, B.V.; Jones, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema and the inhalation of an irritant aerosol (Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant similar to those used in a number of pressurized consumer products) on pulmonary deposition and retention of an insoluble test aerosol, 59 FE-labeled Fe 2 O 3 . Untreated rats or rats pretreated by intratracheal in stillation with elastase were exposed to an aerosol of 59 Fe-labeled Fe 2 O 3 either 18 hr or 7 days after exposure to aerosslized Triton X-100 which was administered in doses of 20, 100, or 200 μg/g of lung. Rats pretreated with elastase had significantly lower pulmonary deposition of 59 Fe than the untreated controls (p 2 O 3 was unaffected by pretreatment with Triton X-100. Elastase treatment alone had no effect on retention of Fe 2 O 3 . Triton X-100 administered 18 hr prior to exposure of rats to Fe 2 O 3 aerosol resulted in dose-related increases in whole-body retention of 59 Fe. When rats were exposed to Triton X-100 7 days before exposure to Fe 2 O 3 , increased retention of 59 Fe was noted only in those treated at the highest Triton X-100 dose level (200 μg/g). 20 references, 5 tables

  13. Short term (14 days) consumption of insoluble wheat bran fibre-containing breakfast cereals improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function in a dose dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-04-22

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  14. Short Term (14 Days Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Dye

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29 completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort. Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches. In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  15. Combinational effects of hexane insoluble fraction of Ficus septica Burm. F. and doxorubicin chemotherapy on T47D breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Hermawan, Adam; Putri, Dyaningtyas Dewi Pamungkas; Novika, Anindya; Meiyanto, Edy; Kawaichi, Masashi

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of n-hexane insoluble fraction (HIF) of Ficus septica leaves in combination with doxorubicin on cytotoxicity, cell cycle and apoptosis induction of breast cancer T47D cell lines. The in vitro drugs-stimulated cytotoxic effects were determined using MTT assay. Analysis of cell cycle distribution was performed using flowcytometer and the data was analyzed using ModFit LT 3.0 program. Apoptosis assay was carried out by double staining method using ethydium bromide-acridin orange. The expression of cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) on T47D cell lines was identified using immunocytochemistry. The combination exhibited higher inhibitory effect on cell growth than the single treatment of doxorubicin in T47D cells. In addition, combination of doxorubicin and HIF increased the incidence of cells undergoing apoptosis. HIF could improve doxorubicin cytotoxic effect by changing the accumulation of cell cycle phase from G2/M to G1 phase. The combination also exhibited upregulation of cleaved-PARP in T47D cells. Based on this results, HIF is potential to be developed as co-chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, the molecular mechanism need to be explored further.

  16. Alteration by lung lavage of the biological effects from inhalation of a relatively insoluble form of 144Ce by beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    The efficacy of lung lavage to remove a relatively insoluble form of 144 Ce from the lung as a means to prevent or alter serious biological effects was evaluated in 21 Beagle dogs. The dogs were divided into five groups. Eight dogs (Group 1) were treated with a series of ten lung lavages between day 2 and day 56 after exposure to 144 Ce. Three dogs (Group 2) were treated with 20 lung lavages from day 2 to day 82 after exposure to 144 Ce. The third group consisted of four dogs and was exposed to 144 Ce but was not treated. Four dogs (Group 4) were given ten lung lavages as in Group 1 but were not exposed to 144 Ce. Two dogs (Group 5) were given 20 lung lavages like the Group 2 dogs but were not exposed to 144 Ce. All but one of the exposed untreated dogs died between 209 to 240 days after inhalation exposure with radiation pneumonitis. The remaining dog died 1072 days after inhalation exposure with a pulmonary carcinoma. All of the treated dogs (Groups 1 and 2) have died except for one dog. Two dogs died with radiation pneumonitis at 170 and 296 days after 144 Ce exposure. The remaining dogs died from 815 to 1773 days after exposure with malignant tumors. The unexposed treated dogs are all alive. Lung lavage appeared to prolong life in the treated dogs and most dogs died with neoplasia rather than with any acute or chronic inflammatory disease

  17. Insoluble Dietary Fiber from Pear Pomace Can Prevent High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats Mainly by Improving the Structure of the Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shimin; Cui, Xingtian; Guo, Mingzhang; Tian, Yiling; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun; Zhang, Yuxing

    2017-04-28

    Supplement of dietary fibers (DF) is regarded as one of the most effective way to prevent and relieve chronic diseases caused by long-term intake of a high-fat diet in the current society. The health benefits of soluble dietary fibers (SDF) have been widely researched and applied, whereas the insoluble dietary fibers (IDF), which represent a higher proportion in plant food, were mistakenly thought to have effects only in fecal bulking. In this article, we proved the anti-obesity and glucose homeostasis improvement effects of IDF from pear pomace at first, and then the mechanisms responsible for these effects were analyzed. The preliminary study by real-time PCR and ELISA showed that this kind of IDF caused more changes in the gut microbiota compared with in satiety hormone or in hepatic metabolism. Further analysis of the gut microbiota by high-throughput amplicon sequencing showed IDF from pear pomace obviously improved the structure of the gut microbiota. Specifically, it promoted the growth of Bacteroidetes and inhibited the growth of Firmicutes. These results are coincident with previous hypothesis that the ratio of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes is negatively related with obesity. In conclusion, our results demonstrated IDF from pear pomace could prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats mainly by improving the structure of the gut microbiota.

  18. Comment on Kokkola et al. (2008) - Comparisons with analytical solutions from Khvorostyanov and Curry (2007) on the critical droplet radii and supersaturations of CCN with insoluble fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvorostyanov, V. I.; Curry, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    Analytical solutions for the critical radii rcr and supersaturations scr of the cloud condensation nuclei with insoluble fractions were derived by Khvorostyanov and Curry (2007, hereafter KC07). Similar solutions were found later by Kokkola et al. (2008, hereafter Kok08); however, Kok08 used the approximation of an ideal dilute solution, while KC07 used more accurate assumptions that account for nonideality of solutions. Kok08 found a large discrepancy with KC07 in the critical supersaturations. Various possible reasons of this are analyzed. It is shown that the major discrepancy was caused by a simple mistake in Kok08 in the equation for the critical supersaturation: erroneous ''plus'' sign between the Kelvin and Raoult terms instead of correct ''minus'' sign. If this mistake is corrected, the equations from Kok08 mostly repeat the equations from KC07, except that Kok08 use the dilute solution approximation. If the mistake in Kok08 is corrected, then the differences in the critical radii and supersaturations do not exceed 16-18%, which characterizes the possible errors of an ideal diluted solution approximation. If the Kok08 scheme is corrected and applied to a nonideal solution, then the difference with KC07 does not exceed 0.4-1%.

  19. n-Hexane Insoluble Fraction of Plantago lanceolata Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Mice by Inhibiting Cyclooxygenase-2 and Reducing Chemokines Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrudin, Nanang; Dwi Astuti, Eny; Sulistyawati, Rini; Santosa, Djoko; Susandarini, Ratna; Nurrochmad, Arief; Wahyuono, Subagus

    2017-03-13

    Inflammation is involved in the progression of many disorders, such as tumors, arthritis, gastritis, and atherosclerosis. Thus, the development of new agents targeting inflammation is still challenging. Medicinal plants have been used traditionally to treat various diseases including inflammation. A previous study has indicated that dichloromethane extract of P. lanceolata leaves exerts anti-inflammatory activity in an in vitro model. Here, we examined the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of a n -hexane insoluble fraction of P. lanceolata leaves dichloromethane extract (HIFPL). We first evaluated its potency to reduce paw edema induced by carrageenan, and the expression of the proinflammatory enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, in mice. The efficacy of HIFPL to inhibit COX-2 was also evaluated in an in vitro enzymatic assay. We further studied the effect of HIFPL on leukocytes migration in mice induced by thioglycollate. The level of chemokines facilitating the migration of leukocytes was also measured. We found that HIFPL (40, 80, 160 mg/kg) demonstrated anti-inflammatory activities in mice. The HIFPL reduced the volume of paw edema and COX-2 expression. However, HIFPL acts as an unselective COX-2 inhibitor as it inhibited COX-1 with a slightly higher potency. Interestingly, HIFPL strongly inhibited leukocyte migration by reducing the level of chemokines, Interleukine-8 (IL-8) and Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1).

  1. Efeitos da aplicação de uréia e de sulfato de amônio nas características agronômicas e propriedades tecnológicas da fibra do algodoeiro Effects of urea and ammonium sulfate applications on the characteristics and tecnological properties of cotton fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Paulieri Sabino

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados referentes às características agronômicas e propriedades tecnológicas da fibra do algodoeiro, obtidos em dezesseis experimentos de campo, no Estado de São Paulo, entre os anos agrícolas de 1984/85 e 1986/87, nos quais se verificou o efeito da aplicação de adubos nitrogenados. Utilizaram-se a uréia e o sulfato de amônio no sulco de semeadura e, em cobertura, nas doses de 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 kg/ha de N, obedecendo ao esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com quatro repetições distribuídas em blocos ao acaso. Demonstrou-se que em solos continuamente adubados, nos quais a reação da planta a N é alta em termos de produtividade, os efeitos da adubação podem estender-se às características agronômicas (pesos dos capulhos e de sementes e às propriedades tecnológicas da fibra do algodoeiro (comprimento, uniformidade de comprimento, índice Micronaire, maturidade e resistência intrínseca. De modo geral, o sulfato de amônio e a uréia tiveram comportamento semelhante.The agronomic characteristics and technological properties of the cotton 'IAC 20' in response to urea and ammonium sulfate applications were evaluated. These evaluations were made in three years, involving sixteen field plots. Rates of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kg/ha of N were used in a factorial design 2 x 5, with four replications in randomized blocks. In continuously fertilized soil, where the reaction to nitrogen is high in terms of productivity, it was demonstrated that the fertilization with ammonium sulfate and urea improved the agronomic characteristics (boll weight and seed weight and tecnological properties of cotton fibers (length, length uniformity, Micronaire index, maturity and strength fiber. In the present study, the behavior of the ammonium sulfate and urea was similar.

  2. Adherence and side effects of three ferrous sulfate treatment regimens on anemic pregnant women in clinical trials Adesão e efeitos colaterais em ensaio clínico comparando três esquemas de tratamento com sulfato ferroso em gestantes anêmicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariani Impieri de Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze adherence and side effects of three iron supplement regimens (ferrous sulfate on anemic pregnant women. The clinical trial involved 150 women between the 16th and 20th gestational weeks, at low obstetric risk and with hemoglobin concentration of between 8.0 and 11.0g/dL. Treatment was provided by ferrous sulfate with 60mg of elemental iron during 16 (± 1 weeks, in three regimens: single tablet a week (n = 48; single tablet twice a week (n = 53 or single tablet a day (n = 49. The outcomes were adherence, assessed through interviews and by counting tablets, and side effects, according to patient information. The adherence showed a declining trend (92%, 83% and 71%; p = 0.010 and the side effects revealed a growing trend (40%, 45% and 71%; p = 0.002 as the dosage increased. Diarrhea and epigastric pain were significantly associated with the dose administered (p = 0.002. These results suggest that in anemic pregnant women, complaints are directly proportional and the compliance is inversely proportional to the amount of medicinal iron.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a adesão e os efeitos colaterais de três esquemas de suplementação com sulfato ferroso em gestantes anêmicas. O ensaio clínico incluiu 150 mulheres entre a 16ª e 20ª semanas de gestação, de baixo risco obstétrico e com concentração de hemoglobina entre 8,0 e 11,0g/dL. A intervenção foi realizada com 60mg de ferro elementar, durante 16 (±1 semanas, em três esquemas: uma drágea semanal (n = 48; uma drágea duas vezes por semana (n = 53 ou uma drágea diariamente (n = 49. Os desfechos foram adesão, verificada por entrevista e contagem das drágeas, e efeitos colaterais auto-relatados pelas pacientes. A adesão apresentou tendência declinante (92%, 83% e 71%; p = 0,010 e os efeitos colaterais, ascendente (40%, 45% e 71%; p = 0,002 com o aumento da dose prescrita. Diarréia e dor epigástrica estiveram significativamente

  3. In-cloud and below-cloud scavenging analysis of sulfate in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brasil Análise dos processos de remoção de sulfato dentro e abaixo de nuvem na região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. T. Gonçalves

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP is one of the largest urban centers in the world. The significant atmospheric concentrations of ozone, inhalable particles and other pollutants in the MASP raise serious air-quality concerns. In this study, we consider gases, particulate matter (PM and cloud processes, with a focus on sulfate chemistry. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System mesoscale numerical model was used in conjunction with detailed scavenging models to compare varying PM mass spectra and size distributions. Field data were collected during the July 1989-May 1990 and February-October 2000 campaigns. Adjusted-urban and rural spectra seem to fit better with observed results which improved the scavenging numerical modeling. Correlations between modeled and observed concentrations were better when the model included rural and adjusted-urban spectra, suggesting locally dominant below-cloud scavenging. Spatial variability analysis and numerical modeling also revealed that the varying sulfate rainwater concentrations indicate below-cloud removal process dominance.A região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (RMSP é uma das maiores aglomerados urbanos do mundo. Significativas concentrações atmosféricas de ozônio, partículas inaláveis e outros poluentes na RMSP aumentam seriamente a qualidade do ar. Neste estudo, nos consideramos os gases, material particulado (PM e processos formadores de nuvens com foco na química do sulfato. O modelo numérico de mesoscala RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System foi usado, em conjunto a um modelo detalhado de remoção, para comparar diferentes espectros do PM e distribuições de tamanho. Dados observados foram coletados durante os meses de Julho de 1989 a maio de 1990 e entre fevereiro e outubro de 2000. Espectros urbano-ajustado e rural parecem ter melhor ajuste aos dados observados com conseqüente avanço na modelagem numérica dos processos de remoção. Correlações entre concentra

  4. Levantamento da concentração de enxofre em capins e de sulfato inorgânico sérico em bovinos criados em fazendas no estado de São Paulo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i3.5715

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    Clara Satsuki Mori

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em duas etapas. A primeira avaliou a influência de crescentes quantidades de enxofre (S dietético sobre a concentração de sulfato inorgânico sérico (SIS, utilizando-se 14 garrotes para tal. Na posterior, foram estudados os teores de enxofre e proteína bruta (PB nos capins do gênero Brachiaria sp., em 12 fazendas de diferentes áreas do Estado de São Paulo, nas estações seca e chuvosa, e de SIS em 20 bovinos de cada propriedade que não fossem suplementados com nenhuma fonte dietética de enxofre. Tanto na primeira quanto na segunda etapa, foram encontrados alto (r = 0,958 e médio (r = 0,478 coeficientes de correlação entre os teores de enxofre nos capins (EC e de SIS. Na segunda etapa, também existiu alta correlação positiva (r = 0,806 entre o EC e PB; os teores de enxofre e PB nos capins e de SIS nos bovinos foram maiores no período chuvoso que no seco. Tomando por base o requerimento dietético de enxofre para bovinos (0,20% MS, foi calculado, de acordo com a regressão obtida no primeiro experimento, o valor correspondente de SIS (0,91 mMol L-1. Levando-se em conta esses dois valores, 75% dos capins (0,12 ± 0,03 e 83,3% de SIS (0,53 ± 0,20 encontravam-se abaixo dos níveis recomendados, o que demonstra a existência de carência de enxofre nos rebanhos paulistas não-suplementados com este macroelemento. A concentração sérica de sulfato inorgânico pode ser utilizada para predizer o “status” de enxofre em bovinos.

  5. Remoção de etanol e benzeno em reator anaeróbio horizontal de leito fixo na presença de sulfato Ethanol and benzene removal in a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass reactor in the presence of sulfate

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    Eduardo Bosco Mattos Cattony

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Reator anaeróbio horizontal de leito fixo (RAHLF, preenchido com espumas de poliuretano, foi usado para tratar benzeno em solução etanólica, sob condições sulfetogênicas. Benzeno foi adicionado em concentração inicial de 2,0 mg.l-1, seguido de aumentos que variaram até 10 mg.l-1. O etanol foi adicionado em concentrações de 170 mg.l-1 a 980 mg.l-1. Soluções de sulfato ferroso e sulfato de sódio foram usadas, nas concentrações de 91 e 550 mg.l-1, respectivamente. O reator foi operado a 30 (± 2 ºC com tempo de detenção hidráulica de 12 h. A remoção da matéria orgânica foi próxima a 90% com taxa máxima de degradação de benzeno de 0,07 mg benzeno.mg-1SSV.d-1. O presente trabalho corrobora os dados obtidos por Cattony et al (2005, na medida em que torna mais consistente a proposta do uso de unidades compactas de RAHLF, para a biorremediação in situ de compostos aromáticos.In this study it is reported the operation of a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass (HAIB reactor under sulfate-reducing condition which was also exposed to different amounts of ethanol and benzene. The HAIB reactor comprised of an immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam and ferrous and sodium sulfate solutions were used (91 and 550 mg.l-1, respectively, to promote a sulfate-reducing environment. Benzene was added at an initial concentration of 2.0 mg.l-1 followed by an increased to 9 e 10 mg.l-1, respectively. Ethanol was added at an initial concentration of 170 mg.l-1 followed by an increased range of 960 mg.l-1. The reactor was operated at 30 (± 2 ºC with hydraulic detention time of 12 h. Organic matter removal efficiency of 90% with a maximum benzene degradation rate of 0.07 mg benzene.mg-1VSS.d-1. Thus, this work corroborate the data obtained for Cattony et al (2005 and also demonstrate that compact units of HAIB reactors, under sulfate reducing conditions, are a potential alternative for in situ aromatic compounds bioremediation.

  6. The electrodeposition of insoluble hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P.Gregers

    1961-01-01

    . The results are in agreement with calculations based on the diffusion layer concept. The addition of inert salts such as Ba(NO3)2 or KNO3 causes a substantial decrease in the deposition rate. Most experiments have been performed with platinum cathodes, but silver and gold are equally applicable. Alcohol...

  7. Apparent digestibility of wheat bran and extruded flax in horses determined from the total collection of feces and acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, M; Miraglia, N; Peiretti, P G; Bergero, D

    2012-02-01

    Several studies have reported data on comparisons between two methods: the total collection of feces and the internal markers method. The aim of this study was to assess the apparent digestibility of two concentrates and to compare the apparent digestion coefficients using the total collection of feces and acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as the internal marker method. In 2009, six adult geldings aged between 3 and 11 years, with an average weight per trial of 543, 540 and 542 kg, respectively, were used to determine the apparent digestibility by means of three in vivo digestibility trials on hay, hay plus wheat bran (60 : 40) and hay plus extruded flax (80 : 20). Feces were collected over a 6-day period with a previous 14-day adaptation period. The three digestibility trials were carried out to determine the digestion coefficients of the three diets and, indirectly, of the two concentrates. The digestion coefficients of the diets were determined for the dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy, whereas the apparent digestion coefficients of the same parameters were calculated for wheat bran and extruded flax, by calculating the difference from the previous results. The data were analyzed using the Student t-test for paired samples. The digestion coefficients obtained were similar when the total collection of feces and the AIA method were used. Higher data variability, confirmed by a greater standard deviation, was observed using the AIA method to estimate the apparent digestion coefficients. It can be concluded that the use of AIA as an internal marker in digestibility trials on average leads to values similar to those obtained with the total collection of feces and can therefore be considered a less-expensive method to determine apparent digestion coefficients. Nevertheless, the total collection of feces should still be considered the best choice to determine the digestibility of some specific feedstuffs.

  8. Supplementation with an insoluble fiber obtained from carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.) rich in polyphenols prevents dyslipidemia in rabbits through SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Ballesteros, Sandra; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Pérez-Olleros, Lourdes; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Lahera, Vicente; de Las Heras, Natalia

    2017-12-22

    To investigate the mechanism implicated in the effect of an insoluble fiber (obtained from carob pod) rich in polyphenols (IFCP) in lipid metabolism in the liver. Male New Zealand rabbits were fed with the following diets for 8 weeks: control diet (CT group), dyslipidemic diet supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil (DL group) and dyslipidemic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil plus 3% IFCP (DL + IFCP group). Dyslipidemic diet with IFCP was able to reduce development of mixed dyslipidemia, liver relative weight and collagen I protein expression compared to DL rabbits. Analyses of the main enzymes implicated in cholesterol and triglycerides metabolism revealed that IFCP increased hepatic concentration of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) and cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily a, polypeptide 1C (CYP7A1) (82.34, 114.42%, respectively) as well as protein expression of LDL receptor (42.48%) in DL rabbits. Importantly, IFCP also increased hepatic lipase (HL) levels (91.43%) and decreased glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1C (SREBP1c) liver expression levels (20.38 and 41.20%, respectively). Finally, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α) hepatic expression increased in DL + IFCP group compared with DL (159.81 and 48.00%, respectively). These findings show that IFCP is able to abrogate the deleterious effects of hepatic dyslipidemia by modulating SIRT1 and PGC-1α pathways.

  9. Both ubiquitin ligases FBXW8 and PARK2 are sequestrated into insolubility by ATXN2 PolyQ expansions, but only FBXW8 expression is dysregulated.

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    Melanie Vanessa Halbach

    Full Text Available The involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS in the course of various age-associated neurodegenerative diseases is well established. The single RING finger type E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase PARK2 is mutated in a Parkinson's disease (PD variant and was found to interact with ATXN2, a protein where polyglutamine expansions cause Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2 or increase the risk for Levodopa-responsive PD and for the motor neuron disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. We previously reported evidence for a transcriptional induction of the multi-subunit RING finger Skp1/Cul/F-box (SCF type E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex component FBXW8 in global microarray profiling of ATXN2-expansion mouse cerebellum and demonstrated its role for ATXN2 degradation in vitro. Now, we documented co-localization in vitro and co-immunoprecipitations both in vitro and in vivo, which indicate associations of FBXW8 with ATXN2 and PARK2. Both FBXW8 and PARK2 proteins are driven into insolubility by expanded ATXN2. Whereas the FBXW8 transcript upregulation by ATXN2- expansion was confirmed also in qPCR of skin fibroblasts and blood samples of SCA2 patients, a FBXW8 expression dysregulation was not observed in ATXN2-deficient mice, nor was a PARK2 transcript dysregulation observed in any samples. Jointly, all available data suggest that the degradation of wildtype and mutant ATXN2 is dependent on FBXW8, and that ATXN2 accumulation selectively modulates FBXW8 levels, while PARK2 might act indirectly through FBXW8. The effects of ATXN2-expansions on FBXW8 expression in peripheral tissues like blood may become useful for clinical diagnostics.

  10. In vitro synergism of a water insoluble fraction of Uncaria tomentosa combined with fluconazole and terbinafine against resistant non-Candida albicans isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Renata Cougo; Carvalho, Anderson Ramos; Lana, Aline Jacobi Dalla; Kaiser, Samuel; Pippi, Bruna; Fuentefria, Alexandre Meneghello; Ortega, George González

    2017-12-01

    Uncaria tomentosa D.C. (Rubiaceae) has several biological activities, including activity against resistant Candida strains. The synergistic interaction with terbinafine or fluconazole can be an important alternative to overcome this resistance. The potential synergy between a water insoluble fraction (WIF) from Uncaria tomentosa bark and the antifungals terbinafine (TRB) and fluconazole (FLZ) against non-Candida albicans resistant strains was investigated. TRB and FLZ, alone and combined with WIF, were tested by the checkerboard procedure using the micro-dilution technique against seven isolates of Candida glabrata and C. krusei. The molecular interactions occurring outside the cell wall were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The checkerboard inhibitory assay demonstrated synergy for WIF:TRB and WIF:FLZ combinations, respectively. The best synergistic cell damage was demonstrated unequivocally for the associations of WIF and TRB (1.95:4.0 μg/mL) and WIF and FLZ (1.95:8.0 μg/mL). The comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the antifungal alone, and in combination with WIF, allows recognizing clear differences in 3000, 1600, 1400, and 700-800 cm -1 bands. Additionally, modifications on TRB and FLZ thermograms were clearly noticed after their combination with WIF. DSC and infrared analysis demonstrated intermolecular interactions between WIF and either TRB or FLZ. Hence, quite likely the synergistic effect is related to interaction events occurring outside the cell wall between antifungal and cat's claw proanthocyanidins. A direct action on the cell wall is suggested, without connection with the ABC efflux pump mechanism.

  11. Comment on "Comparisons with analytical solutions from Khvorostyanov and Curry (2007) on the critical droplet radii and supersaturations of CCN with insoluble fractions" by Kokkola et al. (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvorostyanov, V. I.; Curry, J. A.

    2009-08-01

    Analytical solutions for the critical radii and supersaturations of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with insoluble fractions were derived by Khvorostyanov and Curry (2007, hereafter KC07). These solutions generalize Köhler's solutions for an arbitrary soluble fraction of CCN, and have two limiting cases: large soluble fraction (Köhler's original solution); and a new "low soluble fraction" limit. Similar solutions were found subsequently by Kokkola et al. (2008, hereafter Kok08); however, Kok08 used the approximation of an ideal and dilute solution, while KC07 used more accurate assumptions that account for nonideality of solutions. Kok08 found a large discrepancy with KC07 in the critical supersaturations. It is shown that the major discrepancy with KC07 found in Kok08 was caused by the simple mistake in Kok08, where comparison was made not with the general solution from KC07, but with the Köhler's solution or with some unknown quantity, not even with the "low soluble fraction" limit. If general solutions from the two works are compared, the equations from Kok08 mostly repeat the equations from KC07, except that Kok08 use the ideal dilute solution approximation. If the mistake in Kok08 is corrected, then the differences in the critical radii and supersaturations do not exceed 16-18%, which characterizes the errors of the ideal dilute solution approximation. If the Kok08 scheme is modified following KC07 to account for the non-ideality of solution, then the difference with KC07 does not exceed 0.4-1%.

  12. Tween 40 pretreatment of unwashed water-insoluble solids of reed straw and corn stover pretreated with liquid hot water to obtain high concentrations of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Li, Xuezhi; Yang, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2013-11-09

    Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment is an effective and environmentally friendly method to produce bioethanol with lignocellulosic materials. In our previous study, high ethanol concentration and ethanol yield were obtained from water-insoluble solids (WIS) of reed straw and corn stover pretreated with LHW by using fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF). However, high cellulase loading and the large amount of wash water possibly limit the practical application of LHW pretreatment. To decrease cellulase loading and the amount of wash water, we performed Tween 40 pretreatment before WIS was subjected to bioethanol fermentation. Results showed that the optimum conditions of Tween 40 pretreatment were as follows: Tween 40 concentration of 1.5%, WIS-to-Tween 40 ratio of 1:10 (w/v), and pretreatment time of 1 hour at ambient temperature. After Tween 40 pretreatment, cellulase loading could be greatly reduced. After Tween 40 pretreatment, the residual liquid could be recycled for utilization but slightly affected ethanol concentration and yield. The unwashed WIS could obtain a high ethanol concentration of 56.28 g/L (reed straw) and 52.26 g/L (corn stover) by Tween 40 pretreatment using fed-batch S-SSF. Ethanol yield reached a maximum of 69.1% (reed straw) and 71.1% (corn stover). Tween 40 pretreatment was a very effective and less costly method with unwashed WIS. This pretreatment could greatly reduce cellulase loading and save wash water. Higher ethanol concentration was obtained almost without reducing ethanol yield.

  13. Organic sulfur oxidation to sulfate in soil samples for total sulfur determination by turbidimetry Oxidação do enxofre orgânico a sulfato em amostras de solo para determinação de enxofre total por turbidimetria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssandra Luiza Rodrigues Molina Rossete

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur in the soil occurs in two basic forms, organic and inorganic S. The organic form accounts for 95 % of S in most soils. The effectiveness of organic S to oxidate to sulfate was evaluated for total S determination in soil samples by wet (acid and dry-ash (alkaline oxidation methods. To evaluate the wet method and the possible use as a reference when evaluating the dry method proposed here, a reference standard from the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST was used (Montana Soil - NIST 2710. The dry-ash oxidation process with alkaline oxidizing agents is one of the simplest oxidation methods of organic S to the sulfate form and was compared with the wet process. The objective of the study was to develop a dry method that would be easy to apply and allow the complete conversion of organic S to sulfate in soil samples and later detection by turbidimetry. The effectiveness of organic S oxidation to sulfate was evaluated by means of three alkaline oxidation mixtures: NaHCO3 + Ag2O, Eschka mixture (17 % Na2CO3, 66 % MgO, and 17 % K2CO3, and NaHCO3 + CuO. The procedure to quantify the sulfate concentration was based on the reaction with barium chloride and turbidimetric detection. Sulfur quantification in the standard sample by the wet method proved adequate, precise and accurate. It should also be pointed out that no significant differences were found (95 % reliability between the wet and dry processes (NaHCO3 and Ag2O oxidation mixture in six different Brazilian soils. The proposed dry method can therefore be used in the preparation of soil samples for total S determination.O S no solo pode ocorrer como S-orgânico e S-inorgânico, sendo a forma orgânica responsável por 95 % do S na maioria dos solos. A eficiência da oxidação do S-orgânico a sulfato, na determinação de S-total em amostras de solo, foi avaliada com o emprego de métodos de oxidação por via úmida (ácida e via seca (alcalina. Com o propósito de

  14. Detergent Insoluble Proteins and Inclusion Body-Like Structures Immunoreactive for PRKDC/DNA-PK/DNA-PKcs, FTL, NNT, and AIFM1 in the Amygdala of Cognitively Impaired Elderly Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Jozsef; Chen, Jing; Katsumata, Yuriko; Fardo, David W; Wang, Wang-Xia; Artiushin, Sergey; Price, Douglas; Anderson, Sonya; Patel, Ela; Zhu, Haining; Nelson, Peter T

    2018-01-01

    Misfolded protein in the amygdala is a neuropathologic feature of Alzheimer disease and many other neurodegenerative disorders. We examined extracts from human amygdala (snap-frozen at autopsy) to investigate whether novel and as yet uncharacterized misfolded proteins would be detectable. Polypeptides from the detergent-insoluble, urea-soluble protein fractions of amygdala were interrogated using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Among the detergent-insoluble proteins identified in amygdala of demented subjects but not controls were Tau, TDP-43, Aβ, α-synuclein, and ApoE. Additional detergent-insoluble proteins from demented subjects in the high-molecular weight portion of SDS gels included NNT, TNIK, PRKDC (DNA-PK, or DNA-PKcs), ferritin light chain (FTL), AIFM1, SYT11, STX1B, EAA1, COL25A1, M4K4, CLH1, SQSTM, SYNJ1, C3, and C4. In follow-up immunohistochemical experiments, NNT, TNIK, PRKDC, AIFM1, and FTL were observed in inclusion body-like structures in cognitively impaired subjects' amygdalae. Double-label immunofluorescence revealed that FTL and phospho-PRKDC immunoreactivity colocalized partially with TDP-43 and/or Tau inclusion bodies. Western blots showed high-molecular weight "smears", particularly for NNT and PRKDC. A preliminary genetic association study indicated that rare NNT, TNIK, and PRKDC gene variants had nominally significant association with Alzheimer-type dementia risk. In summary, novel detergent-insoluble proteins, with evidence of proteinaceous deposits, were found in amygdalae of elderly, cognitively impaired subjects. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adsorção de íons sulfato em ZrO2.nH2O preparado pelo método da precipitação convencional e da precipitação em solução homogênea Adsorption of sulfate ions in ZrO2.nH2O prepared by conventional precipitation and homogeneous solution methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Rodrigues

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa a preparação, caracterização e estudo da adsorção de íons sulfato em óxido de zircônio hidratado preparado pelos métodos da precipitação convencional e da precipitação em solução homogênea. Os materiais obtidos foram caracterizados por difração de raios X, análise termogravimétrica, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e análise de área superficial específica pelo método BET. Através da constante Q0, relacionada com a capacidade de adsorção máxima, observou-se que o ZrO2.nH2O/PSH possui maior capacidade de adsorção para íons sulfato que o ZrO2.nH2O/PC. Pelos resultados de ΔG, observou-se que os íons sulfato foram adsorvidos através de reações energeticamente favoráveis para toda a faixa de concentração estudada.This work reports the preparation, characterization and adsorption study of sulfate on hydrous zirconium oxides prepared by conventional and homogeneous solution precipitation methods. The materials prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and surface area measurements. Through the Q0 constant, related with the capacity of maximum adsorption, it was observed that the ZrO2.nH2O/PSH presented better adsorption capacity than ZrO2.nH2O/PC. By results of ΔG, it was observed that sulfate ions had been adsorbed through favorable reactions for all studied concentration ranges.

  16. A Combined Study Investigating the Insoluble and Soluble Organic Compounds in Category 3 Carbonaceous Itokawa Particles Recovered by the Hayabusa Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M.; Burton, A.; Clemett, S.; Fries, M.; Kebukawa, Y.

    2015-01-01

    At the 3rd International Announcement of Opportunity (AO), we have been approved for five Category 3 carbonaceous Itokawa particles (RA-QD02-0012, RA-QD02-0078, RB-CV-0029, RB-CV-0080 and RB-QD04-0052) recovered by the first Hayabusa mission of JAXA. In this investigation, we aim to provide a comprehensive study to characterize and account for the presence of carbon-bearing phases as suggested by the initial Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis carried out by JAXA at the curation facility, and to describe the mineralogical components of the particles. The insoluble organic content of Itokawa particle has been investigated with the use of micro-Raman spectroscopy by Kitajima and co-workers [1]. The Raman spectra of Itokawa particles show broad G- and D-bands typical of low temperature material which offers an interesting contrast to the high metamorphic grade (LL4-6) of the Itokawa parent body. Amino acid analysis has been conducted by Naraoka et al. [2] to study the soluble organic component of Itokawa particles, but since it was a preliminary study and thus did not have the opportunity to target on Category 3 carbonaceous particles, only terrestrial contaminants were identified. The investigation will be carried out in the following order prioritized according to the progressive damage the analytical techniques can induce: (1) micro-Raman spectrometry, (2) two-step laser mass spectrometry (micro-L2MS), (3) ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS), and optimally if we can recover the particles after wet chemistry analysis, we will mount the samples and perform (4) electron beam microscopy (SEM, electron back-scattered diffraction [EBSD]) and (5) carbon X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (C-XANES). We will begin the analytical procedures upon receiving the samples in September/October. This work will provide us with an understanding of the variety and origins of

  17. Effect of insoluble fiber supplementation applied at different ages on digestive organ weight and digestive enzymes of layer-strain poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokhana, J S; Parkinson, G; Frankel, T L

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study effects of dietary insoluble fiber (IF) on digestive enzyme function in layer poultry. In Experiment 1, 8 wk old pullets were fed a control diet (Group C) or a diet (Group IF) supplemented with 1% IF (Arbocel RC). After 5 wk, 6 pullets per group were killed and organ samples collected. The remaining pullets in Group C were divided into two groups: half were fed the control diet (Group C) and half were given the IF diet (Group C-IF). Similarly, half the pullets in Group IF continued on the IF diet (Group IF) and half on the control diet (Group IF-C). At 10 wk, organ samples were collected. BW at wk 5 (IF, 1364.8 g; C, 1342.9 g) and 10 wk (IF, 1678.1 g; IF-C, 1630.5 g; C-IF, 1617.1 g; C, 1580.4 g) were not different. At wk 5, the relative proventricular weight (0.41 g/100 g BW) and activities of pepsin (75.3 pepsin units/g proventriculus/min) and pancreatic general proteolytic activity (GP) (122.9 μmol tyrosine produced/g tissue) were greater (P liver and gizzard of Group IF were heavier (P < 0.05) than other treatments; activities of pepsin, GP, trypsin and chymotrypsin of IF pullets were significantly greater than other treatments as was mRNA expression for pepsinogens A (25.9 vs. 22.9) and C (13.1 vs. 10.8). In Experiment 2, 19 wk old hens were fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.8% IF (Arbocel RC) for 12 wk. Final BW after 12 wk was not different (IF, 1919.4 g; C, 1902.1 g). Pancreatic GP activity was greater (P < 0.05) in Group IF hens than Group C at wk 12 (122.2 vs. 97.0 μmol tyrosine released/min/g tissue)) as was relative gizzard weight (1.32 vs 1.10 g/100 g BW). The significantly improved digestive organ weights and enzyme activities in IF pullets may contribute to an improvement in feed utilization. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Aprendizagem da liderança: contribuições do internato em enfermagem para a formação do estudante El aprendizaje del liderazgo: las contribuciones de prácticas de enfermería para la formación de los estudiantes Leadership learning: contributions from nursing internship for student in training

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    Vanessa Mesquita Ramos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos: analisar o entendimento dos internos de Enfermagem sobre liderança; verificar as dificuldades encontradas pelos acadêmicos em desempenhar atividades de liderança; conhecer as contribuições do internato em Enfermagem para os estudantes na construção da competência em liderança. A pesquisa é de natureza exploratória e descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa, desenvolvida com os estudantes de Enfermagem do último semestre do curso, em uma amostra de 10 alunos. A coleta dos dados foi obtida através de um grupo focal durante o mês de agosto/2008. Os resultados foram expostos em forma de categorias dos discursos. As informações evidenciaram o conhecimento possuído pelos participantes acerca da liderança; a importância desta aprendizagem na formação dos enfermeiros; o destaque de competências essenciais para a atuação do enfermeiro-líder; as dificuldades encontradas nas atividades de liderança durante a graduação e as contribuições do internato no último ano para a aprendizagem de liderança.Este estudio tiene como objetivo: analizar la comprensión de los internos en enfermería sobre liderazgo; verificar las dificultades encontradas por los estudiantes en desempeñar las actividades de liderazgo, conocer las contribuciones de las prácticas de enfermería para los alumnos en la construcción de competencias en liderazgo. La investigación es exploratoria y descriptiva, con abordaje cualitativa, desarrollada con académicos de enfermería del último semestre, en una muestra de 10 estudiantes. Los resultados se muestran en forma de categorías de discurso. Las informaciones muestran el conocimiento de los participantes sobre el liderazgo, la importancia del aprendizaje en la formación de los enfermeros, destacando las competencias básicas para la actuación del enfermero líder; las dificultades encontradas en las actividades de liderazgo durante la graduación y las contribuciones

  19. Evaluación del molibdato y nitrato sobre bacterias sulfato-reductoras asociadas a procesos de corrosión en sistemas industriales Evaluation of molybdate and nitrate on sulphate-reducing bacteria related to corrosion processes in industrial systems

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    J. R. Torrado Rincón

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la cinética de crecimiento de bacterias sulfato-reductoras (BSR y la biotransformación de sulfato a sulfuro de hidrógeno bajo condiciones de laboratorio, para establecer el efecto inhibitorio de sales de molibdato y nitrato de sodio. Los microorganismos estudiados fueron aislados del agua de producción contenida en un sistema de transporte de gas natural, donde se encontraban relacionados con procesos de corrosión influenciada microbiológicamente. Con 5 mM de molibdato se obtuvo una reducción de células libres a niveles no detectables y de seis órdenes de magnitud en las biopelículas, con una disminución del sulfuro de alrededor del 100%. Con 75 mM de nitrato se observó una reducción de cuatro y dos órdenes de magnitud en las células libres y en las adheridas en forma de biopelículas, respectivamente, con una disminución del sulfuro de alrededor del 80%. La reducción de la tasa de corrosión observada sustenta la posibilidad de emplear estas sales como biocidas no convencionales no contaminantes del medio ambiente, para el control y mitigación efectiva de los procesos de biocorrosión interna de tanques de almacenamiento y de líneas de transporte en sistemas industriales de gas natural y petróleo.The sulfate-reducing bacteria growth kinetics and the biotransformation of sulfate into hydrogen sulfide were studied under laboratory conditions, using batch and continuous assays to determine the effect of molybdate and nitrate as metabolic inhibitors. The microorganisms were isolated from water coming from a natural gas dehydration plant, where they were associated with Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC processes, and later cultured in planktonic and sessile states. The addition of 5 mM molybdate showed a growth reduction to levels of non - detectable floating cells and a six order of magnitude reduction in biofilms, concomitant with a sulfide decrease of around 100% in all cultures inhibited by this

  20. 15N-labeled nitrogen from green manure and ammonium sulfate utilization by the sugarcane ratoon Aproveitamento do nitrogênio-15 da adubação verde e do sulfato de amônio pela soqueira da cana-de-açúcar

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    Edmilson José Ambrosano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Legumes as green manure are alternative sources of nitrogen (N for crops and can supplement or even replace mineral nitrogen fertilization due to their potential for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF. The utilization of nitrogen by sugarcane (Saccharum spp. fertilized with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. and ammonium sulfate (AS was evaluated using the 15N tracer technique. N was added at the rate of 196 and 70 kg ha-1 as 15Nlabeled sunn hemp green manure (SH and as ammonium sulfate (AS, respectively. Treatments were: (i Control; (ii AS15N; (iii SH15N + AS; (iv SH15N; and (v AS15N + SH. Sugarcane was cultivated for five years and was harvested three times. 15N recovery was evaluated in the two first harvests. In the sum of the three harvests, the highest stalk yields were obtained with a combination of green manure and inorganic N fertilizer; however, in the second cutting the yields were higher where SH was used than in plots with AS. The recovery of N by the first two consecutive harvests accounted for 19 to 21% of the N applied as leguminous green manure and 46 to 49% of the N applied as AS. The amounts of inorganic N, derived from both N sources, present in the 0-0.4 m layer of soil in the first season after N application and were below 1 kg ha-1.Leguminosas, como adubo verde, são fontes alternativas de nitrogênio para as culturas e podem complementar ou mesmo substituir a adubação mineral nitrogenada, devido ao seu potencial de fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN. A utilização do nitrogênio pela cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. fertilizada com crotalária (Crotalaria juncea L. e sulfato de amônio (SA foi avaliada utilizando a técnica de traçador 15N. As quantidades equivalentes a 196 e 70 kg de N por hectare foram adicionados como adubo verde crotalária júncea (CJ e como o sulfato de amônio (SA, respectivamente, nos seguintes tratamentos: (i controle; (ii SA15N; (iii CJ15N + SA; (iv CJ15N; e (v SA15N + CJ. A cana

  1. Effects of chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate on chondrocytes and extracellular matrix of articular cartilage in dogs with degenerative joint disease Efeitos do sulfato de condroitina e do hialuronato de sódio nos condrócitos e na matriz extracelular na cartilagem articular de cães com doença articular degenerativa

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    G. Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Samples of articular cartilage of femur, tibia and patella of 15 dogs with experimentally induced degenerative joint disease (DJD were microscopically analyzed. Animals were distributed into three groups (n=5: the control group received no medication; the second group was treated with chondroitin sulfate and the third received sodium hyaluronate. Samples were processed and stained with HE and toluidine blue for morphological evaluation. The metabolic and proliferative activity of the chondrocytes was evaluated by the measurement of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs after impregnation by silver nitrate. Significant differences were not observed (P>0.05 in the morphology among the groups, however, the group treated with sodium hyaluronate had a higher score suggesting a trend to a greater severity of the lesions. Significant differences were not observed (P>0.05 in the measurement of NORs, cells and NORs/cells among the groups. Although differences were not significant, sodium hyaluronate group showed higher NOR and cell counts which suggested an increase of the proliferation rate of chondrocytes. In addition, a higher NOR/cell ratio in the group treated with chondroitin sulfate suggested that this drug may have stimulated the metabolic activity of the chondrocytes, minimizing the lesions resulting from DJD.Foram utilizadas amostras de cartilagem articular do fêmur, tíbia e patela de 15 cães com doença articular degenerativa (DAD, induzida experimentalmente. Foram constituídos três grupos de cinco animais: grupo 1 - controle, não medicado; grupo 2 - tratado com sulfato de condroitina e grupo 3 - tratado com hialuronato de sódio. As amostras foram processadas e coradas pelas técnicas de HE e de azul de toluidina para avaliação das alterações morfológicas, e impregnadas pelo nitrato de prata para análise da atividade metabólica e/ou proliferativa dos condrócitos, por meio da visualização e quantificação de regiões organizadoras

  2. Técnica de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco no diagnóstico de helmintos gastrintestinais de gatos domésticos Zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation technique on the diagnosis of gastrointestinal helminthes of domestic cats

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    Letícia Mattos de Souza-Dantas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico coproparasitológico é o recurso laboratorial mais utilizado para detecção de infecções parasitárias gastrintestinais. A técnica de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco (FAUST et al., 1938 é técnica de eleição no diagnóstico de estruturas parasitárias leves, podendo também ser usada para detecção de estruturas pesadas. Para avaliar o desempenho dessa técnica no diagnóstico das helmintoses gastrintestinais de gatos domésticos, foram realizados exames coproparasitológicos de 13 gatos domésticos 15 dias antes de suas mortes. À necropsia, os helmintos adultos encontrados no tubo digestivo e fígado foram contados, fixados e identificados. A técnica utilizada mostrou-se capaz de recuperar ovos de todos os nematóides e trematódeos encontrados, mas não foi adequada para a recuperação de cestóides.Fecal examinations are the most commonly used laboratory tool for diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode parasitic infections. Zinc centrifugal floatation technique (FAUST et al., 1938 is not only considered to be efficient in detecting light parasitic structures, but it is also used for recovery of heavy structures. In order to evaluate the performance of that technique in the diagnosis of domestic cats' gastrointestinal helminthiasis, fecal examinations of 13 animals were carried out 15 days prior to the animals' deaths. At necropsy, adult gastrointestinal parasites found were collected, counted, fixed and identified. The studied technique was able to recover eggs from all detected nematodes and trematodes, but appeared inappropriate for recovery of cestode eggs.

  3. A prescrição semanal de sulfato ferroso pode ser altamente efetiva para reduzir níveis endêmicos de anemia na infância Long-term preventive mass prescription of weekly doses of iron sulfate may be highly effective to reduce endemic child anemia

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    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A anemia por deficiência de ferro em crianças é um dos maiores problemas nutricionais enfrentados pelos países em desenvolvimento. Estudos controlados indicam que doses intermitentes de sais de ferro podem ter eficácia semelhante à obtida com o esquema tradicional diário. O objetivo desse estudo é avaliar, em uma população onde a anemia na infância é endêmica, a efetividade da prescrição preventiva de doses semanais de sulfato ferroso a todas as crianças entre seis e 59 meses de idade por um período de seis meses. Crianças dos grupos controle e intervenção foram selecionadas a partir de uma amostra aleatória da população de crianças da cidade de São Paulo. Os pais das crianças do grupo intervenção receberam orientação nutricional e frascos de solução de sulfato ferroso com a instrução de ofertá-la aos filhos uma vez por semana até a próxima visita da equipe de pesquisa, que ocorreria em aproximadamente seis meses. Os pais das crianças do grupo controle receberam somente orientação nutricional. O efeito da intervenção foi avaliado por mudanças na concentração da hemoglobina e na prevalência de anemia. As comparações entre os dois grupos foram baseadas na "intenção-de-tratar" e todas as estimativas foram ajustadas para concentração inicial de hemoglobina, idade inicial, duração do seguimento e renda familiar. O ganho médio de hemoglobina devido à intervenção foi de 4,0 g/l e a queda na prevalência de anemia foi de mais de 50%. A intervenção foi particularmente eficiente em prevenir o declínio da concentração de hemoglobina durante os dois primeiros anos de vida. Esse estudo demonstra que, em condições similares àquelas que poderiam facilmente ser reproduzidas por programas regulares de saúde pública, a prescrição universal de doses semanais de sulfato ferroso reduz significativamente o risco de anemia na infância.Iron-deficiency anemia in children remains one of the most

  4. Carob pod insoluble fiber exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects in rabbits through sirtuin-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; Lahera, Vicente; de las Heras, Natalia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of an insoluble dietary fiber from carob pod (IFC) (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) in the diet) on alterations associated with atherosclerosis in rabbits with dyslipidemia. Male New Zealand rabbits (n = 30) were fed the following diets for 8 wk: 1) a control diet (SF412; Panlab) as a control group representing normal conditions; 2) a control supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil (DL) (SF302; Panlab) for 8 wk as a dyslipidemic group; and 3) a control containing 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil plus IFC (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) (DL+IFC) for 8 wk. IFC was administered in a pellet mixed with the DL diet. The DL-fed group developed mixed dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic lesions, which were associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protein expression in the aorta were reduced to 77% and 63% of the control group, respectively (P < 0.05), in these rabbits. Administration of IFC to DL-fed rabbits reduced the size of the aortic lesion significantly (DL, 15.2% and DL+IFC, 2.6%) and normalized acetylcholine-induced relaxation (maximal response: control, 89.3%; DL, 61.6%; DL+IFC, 87.1%; P < 0.05) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (DL, 52% and DL+IFC, 104% of the control group). IFC administration to DL-fed rabbits also reduced cluster of differentiation 36 (DL, 148% and DL+IFC, 104% of the control group; P < 0.05), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (DL, 141% and DL+IFC, 107% of the control group), tumor necrosis factor-α (DL, 166% and DL+IFC, 120% of the control group), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (DL, 153% and DL+IFC, 110% of the control group), transforming growth factor-β (DL, 173% and DL+IFC, 99% of the control group), and collagen I (DL, 157% and DL+IFC, 112% of the control group) in the aorta. These effects were accompanied by an enhancement of

  5. In-depth compositional analysis of water-soluble and -insoluble organic substances in fine (PM2.5) airborne particles using ultra-high-resolution 15T FT-ICR MS and GC×GC-TOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Hoon; Ryu, Jijeong; Jeon, Sodam; Seo, Jungju; Yang, Yung-Hun; Pack, Seung Pil; Choung, Sungwook; Jang, Kyoung-Soon

    2017-06-01

    Airborne particulate matter consisting of ionic species, salts, heavy metals and carbonaceous material is one of the most serious environmental pollutants owing to its impacts on the environment and human health. Although elemental and organic carbon compounds are known to be major components of aerosols, information on the elemental composition of particulate matter remains limited because of the broad range of compounds involved and the limits of analytical instruments. In this study, we investigated water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds in fine (PM 2.5 ) airborne particles collected during winter in Korea to better understand the elemental compositions and distributions of these compounds. To collect ultra-high-resolution mass profiles, we analyzed water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds, extracted with water and dichloromethane, respectively, using an ultra-high-resolution 15 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (15T FT-ICR) mass spectrometer in positive ion mode (via both electrospray ionization [ESI] and atmospheric pressure photoionization [APPI] for water-extracts and via APPI for dichloromethane-extracts). In conjunction with the FT-ICR mass spectrometry (MS) data, subsequent two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) data were used to identify potentially hazardous organic components, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This analysis provided information on the sources of ambient particles collected during winter season and partial evidence of contributions to the acidity of organic content in PM 2.5 particles. The compositional and structural features of water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds from PM 2.5 particles are important for understanding the potential impacts of aerosol-carried organic substances on human health and global ecosystems in future toxicological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contribuciones del abordaje histórico-cultural a la educación de alumnos autistas Contribuições da abordagem histórico-cultural na educação de alunos autistas Contributions of the cultural-historical approach to the education of autistic students

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    Sílvia Ester Orrú

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan el abordaje histórico-cultural de Vigotsky y sus contribuciones a la educación de alumnos autistas. Este artículo es resultado de una investigación-acción realizada a diez alumnos y sus profesores en una escuela especializada del interior de San Pablo, Brasil, en el periodo 2000 a 2006. Los resultados hablan acerca del papel mediador del profesor en la reconstitución y el progreso de la vivencia emocional del alumno y sobre la trascendencia de reacciones afectivas inmediatas para otras más duraderas. Se concluye que el abordaje histórico-cultural y la integración social favorecen significativamente el aprendizaje de los alumnos autistas.O presente trabalho apresenta a abordagem histórico-cultural de Vigotsky e suas contribuições para a educação de alunos com autismo. Este artigo é decorrente de uma pesquisa-ação realizada a dez alunos com autismo e seus professores numa escola especializada do interior do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, no período de 2000 a 2006. Os resultados dizem respeito ao papel mediador do professor na reconstituição e na melhora da vivência emocional do aluno para que ele transcenda das reações afetivas imediatas para outras mais duradouras. Conclui-se que a abordagem histórico-cultural e a integração social favorecem uma aprendizagem mais significativa para o aluno autista.This paper deals with Vigotsky´s cultural-historical approach and its contributions to the education of autistic students. This article is the result of a research-action carried out with ten autistic students and their teachers in a specialized school from the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the period 2000 to 2006. Results proved the teachers´ mediating role within the rebuilding and improvement of students' emotional experience and the significance of both immediate and more lasting affective reactions. As conclusions, it states that both the cultural-historical approach and social

  7. Influência das características das substâncias húmicas na eficiência da coagulação com sulfato de alumínio The influence of humic substances characteristics on the coagulation efficiency using aluminum sulfate

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    Sandro Xavier Campos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudada a influência das características das substâncias húmicas (SH, em especial a massa molar das moléculas, na eficiência da coagulação com o uso do sulfato de alumínio. Utilizando-se de água proveniente de poço profundo, foram preparadas quatro águas de estudo, todas com cor verdadeira de aproximadamente 100 uH. As SH foram extraídas de turfa e fracionadas em massas molares: i SH filtradas em membranas de 0,45 µm; ii SH filtradas em membranas de 0,45 µm e maiores que 100 kDa, iii SH com moléculas entre 30 e 100 kDa; iv SH com moléculas menores do que 30 kDa. Verificou-se que quanto maior a massa molar das SH maior foi a eficiência de remoção da cor aparente, com as menores dosagens de coagulante.O pH de coagulação ótimo, esteve entre 6,0 e 7,0, para todas as águas de estudo. Os estudos da porcentagem de ácido húmico (AH e ácido fúlvico (AF presentes em cada fração de diferente massa molar mostraram que quanto maior foi à porcentagem de AF presente, maior foi à dosagem de coagulante exigida para se obter os melhores resultados de remoção da cor aparente.The influence of the molecular weight of soil humic substances on the coagulation efficiency with aluminum sulfate was studied in this work. Four types of water were studied, with the same true color of approximately 100 HU, but prepared with different fractions of molecular weights: Water Type 1 (humic substances filtered in membrane of 0,45 µm; Water Type 2 (humic substances filtered in membrane of 0,45 µm and with molecular weight > 100 KDa; Water Type 3 (humic substances with molecular weight between 100 and 30 KDa; Water Type 4 (humic substances with molecular weight < 30 KDa. It was conclude that the higher the molecular weight of the molecules, the lower the coagulant dosages required for efficient coagulation, at the coagulation pH range 6 - 7. The types of water prepared with the fractions of humic substances containing higher

  8. Filtração direta com pré-floculação e coagulação com sulfato de alumínio e hidroxicloreto de alumínio: estudo com água de manancial eutrofizado Direct filtration with pre-flocculation and coagulation with aluminium sulfate and poly aluminium chloride: an eutrophicated water source case study

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    Ramon Lucas Dalsasso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados dados de um estudo sobre modificações em um sistema implantado de tratamento de água por filtração direta descendente, com o objetivo de melhorar o seu desempenho em função das características da água a ser tratada, caracterizada por baixa cor aparente e turbidez, porém com elevada concentração de fitoplâncton. Ensaios em jarteste precederam a realização de carreiras de filtração em sistema piloto, com ou sem pré-floculação em meio granular expandido. Foram testados sulfato de alumínio e hidróxicloreto de alumínio como coagulantes, e leitos filtrantes de antracito e areia ou apenas antracito. A adoção de um leito filtrante de maior granulometria, hidróxicloreto de alumínio e pré-floculação, reduziu o consumo de água de lavagem de 23,8% para 5,5%, resultando água filtrada com melhor qualidade em termos de cor aparente, turbidez e alumínio residual.This paper presents the results of a case study on the modifications applied in a direct descending filtration water treatment system. The objective was to improve its performance according to the source water quality, characterized by low turbidity and apparent color levels, but high concentration of phytoplankton. Jar test procedures preceded the tests conducted in a small scale experiment, with or without a pre-flocculation step in expanded granular media. Aluminium sulfate and poly aluminium chloride were both tested as coagulant elements, and anthracite and sand or only anthracite were tested as the filtering media. The use of a large grain size filtering media with a poly aluminium chloride pre-flocculation step caused the washwater volume to reduce from 23.8% to 5.5%. This resulted in a better water quality outcome measured in apparent color, turbidity and residual aluminium concentrations.

  9. Efeito do sulfato de magnésio sobre o índice de pulsatilidade das artérias uterinas, umbilical e cerebral média fetal de acordo com a persistência da incisura protodiastólica da artéria uterina na pré-eclâmpsia grave Effect of magnesium sulfate on pulsatility index of uterine, umbilical and fetal middle cerebral arteries according to the persistence of bilateral diastolic notch of uterine arteries in patients with severe preeclampsia

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    Alex Sandro Rolland Souza

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito do sulfato de magnésio sobre o índice de pulsatilidade (IP das artérias uterinas, umbilicais e cerebral média fetal, de acordo com a persistência ou não da incisura protodiastólica bilateral das artérias uterinas na pré-eclâmpsia grave. MÉTODOS: foi desenvolvido um estudo do tipo coorte, incluindo 40 gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia grave, das quais 23 apresentavam incisura protodiastólica bilateral e 17, incisura ausente/unilateral. As pacientes foram submetidas a doplervelocimetria antes e depois de 20 minutos da administração intravenosa de 6 g do sulfato de magnésio. O exame foi realizado com a paciente em posição semi-Fowler, obtendo-se os sonogramas durante a inatividade fetal, em períodos de apneia e ausência de contrações uterinas. Todos os exames foram realizados por dois pesquisadores, considerando a média como resultado final. A comparação dos IP antes e depois do sulfato de magnésio em cada grupo foi realizada pelo teste de Wilcoxon. A diferença das duas medidas (antes e depois do sulfato de magnésio foi comparada entre os grupos (incisura bilateral e incisura ausente/unilateral utilizando-se o teste de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: houve um aumento significativo da frequência cardíaca materna e uma diminuição da pressão arterial materna e da mediana dos IP das duas artérias uterinas e da artéria cerebral média fetal depois da utilização do sulfato de magnésio em ambos os grupos. Houve redução significativa do IP da artéria uterina esquerda e da artéria umbilical apenas no grupo com incisura protodiastólica unilateral/ausente. No entanto, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas em relação ao IP da artéria uterina direita e relação umbilical/cerebral antes e depois do sulfato de magnésio em cada grupo. Não se encontrou diferença entre os grupos, antes e depois do sulfato de magnésio, para nenhum dos desfechos estudados. CONCLUSÕES: após a administra

  10. Terapêutica com doses profiláticas de sulfato ferroso como medida de intervenção no combate à carência de ferro em crianças atendidas em unidades básicas de saúde Treatment with prophylactic doses of ferrous sulphate in the fight against iron deficiency in children attended in basis health units

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    Marco A. A. Torres

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se testar a terapêutica com doses profiláticas de sulfato ferroso no combate à anemia carencial ferropriva, em 620 crianças de 4 a 36 meses de idade, atendidas em duas unidades de saúde do Município de São Paulo, Brasil. As crianças foram submetidas a coleta de sangue para dosagem de hemoglobina. Em seguida, foi prescrito dosagem de 12 mg/dia de ferro elementar, por 30 dias. Observou-se que 25% dos menores de 6 meses apresentaram níveis de hemoglobina inferiores a 11,0 g/dl. As maiores ocorrências de anemia foram detectadas entre os 9 e 23 meses de idade (50,0%. Decorrido o prazo, apenas 37,4% das crianças com anemia e 52,4% das não anêmicas retornaram para reavaliação. Das 299 que foram reavaliadas, somente 157 (52,5% receberam a medicação corretamente. A freqüência de hemoglobinas inferiores a 9,5 g/dl caiu de 17,1% no início, para 8,1% ao final da intervenção. Por outro lado, o percentual de crianças com hemoglobinas superiores a 12,0 g/dl subiu de 13,4%, para 33,4%. As que receberam a suplementação férrica de forma correta registraram queda nos índices de anemia sensivelmente maior que a observada naquelas suplementadas de forma incorreta. Concluiu-se que a terapêutica com doses profiláticas de sulfato ferroso, apesar de se mostrar eficiente na recuperação dos níveis de hemoglobina, apresenta sérios entraves do ponto de vista operacional.The efficacy of medical prophylaxis in the fight against iron deficiency anemia in 620 children aged from four to thirty-six months, attended in two health units of the municipality of S. Paulo, Brazil, was tested. First, the children's blood was tested for hemoglobin level and eletrophoresis. Then they received daily doses of iron sulphate in the form of drops, corresponding to 12 mg/ day of elementary iron, over a 30-day period. Afterwaeds, they were asked to return for re-evaluation. Twenty-five percent of children under 6 months presented hemoglobin levels under

  11. Contribuciones al conocimiento de la flora de navarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALDA, Angel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuevos datos acerca de 58 táxones de plantas de interés, bien por su rareza en el terrirorio navarro o por la ampliación de área que suponen. De ellos, 12 se citan por primera vez para Navarra : Epilobium angustifolium, Fraxinus pennylvanica, Galinsoga quadriradiata, Gamochaeta falcata, Isatis tinctoria subsp. tinctoria, Ludwigia palustris, Lycopodeilla inundata, Pseudorchis albida, Ramonda myconi, Rynchospora alba, Rynchospora fusca y Spiranthes aestivalis

  12. Entorno empresarial: contribuciones de la legislación ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Silva, Danielly; Lima, Gustavo Ferreira da Costa

    2013-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2013v10n2p334A relação empresa-meio ambiente tem sido, ao longo da história, bastante conflitante. Entretanto, o fortalecimento do debate ambiental, pressões políticas, sociais e econômicas estão, cada vez mais, desencadeando uma mudança na conduta ambiental das empresas. Nesse contexto, o direito ambiental surge como um forte aliado para o alcance de uma nova conduta ambiental empresarial, através de seu papel inicial como regulador, até sua atuação como i...

  13. Infant mortality and prenatal care: contributions of the clinic in the light of Canguilhem and Foucault Mortalidad infantil y prenatal: contribuciones de la clínica bajo la perspectiva de Canguilhem y Foucault Mortalidade infantil e pré-natal: contribuições da clínica à luz de Canguilhem e Foucault

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    Paula Pereira de Figueiredo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This review study aimed to verify how studies conducted in Brazil have related infant mortality to prenatal care and to present contributions of the clinic in the light of Canguilhem and Foucault for qualification of the care. An integrative literature review was conducted from searches in the databases SciELO, LILACS, MEDLINE and BDENF for the period 2000 to 2009. The relationship between infant mortality and prenatal care is related to the insufficient number of consultations or to the quality of the care provided. Even when the number of and routine consultations in the prenatal care were adequate, avoidable deaths were present. For the qualification of prenatal care, it is suggested that the clinical knowledge and other elements that comprise the process of human living are considered, in order that the clinical view is enlarged and articulated to the technologies available in the health system and, together, they are able to contribute to the reduction of infant mortality in Brazil.Este estudio de revisión tuvo por objetivo verificar cómo investigaciones realizadas en Brasil relacionan la mortalidad infantil y el prenatal, y presentar contribuciones de la clínica bajo el marco teórico de Canguilhem y Foucault para la calificación de la asistencia. Se realizó una revisión integradora de la literatura a partir de búsquedas en las bases de datos SciELO, LILACS, MEDLINE y BDENF, en el período de 2000 a 2009. La relación entre la mortalidad infantil y el prenatal se refiere al número insuficiente de consultas o a la calidad de la atención prestada. Mismo cuando el número y la rutina de consultas en el prenatal fueron adecuadas, las muertes evitables estuvieron presentes. Para la calificación de la asistencia ofrecida, se sugiere que sean considerados el conocimiento clínico y los demás elementos componentes del proceso del vivir humano, con la intención de que la perspectiva clínica sea ampliada y articulada a las tecnolog

  14. Violência contra a mulher: contribuições e limitações do sistema de informação Violencia contra la mujer: contribuciones y limitaciones del sistema de información Woman abuse: contribuitions and shortcomings of the information system

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    Irene Okabe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem por objetivo apresentar um breve panorama do sistema de informação em saúde, no monitoramento da violência contra a mulher, analisando em que medida cada fonte de dados pode contribuir para o real dimensionamento do evento e subsidiar o processo de tomada de decisão. Neste sentido, o texto apresenta os avanços e contribuições de cada base de dados oficial existente no setor de saúde, bem como as limitações que ainda persistem pela pouca sensibilidade e especificidade destes sistemas no monitoramento da violência contra a mulher. Discute-se também a necessidade de estudos para o aprofundamento da questão e uma política de informação à luz de gênero para análise e intervenção nos determinantes da violência contra a mulher, dada à magnitude e a gravidade do problema, não só para as mulheres, mas para a sociedade como um todo.El artículo tiene por objetivo presentar un breve panorama del sistema de información en salud en la actividad de monitoreo de la violencia contra la mujer, analizando de que forma cada medida y fuente de datos puede contribuir para el real dimensionamiento del evento y subsidiar el proceso de la toma de decisiones. En ese sentido, el texto presenta los avances y contribuciones de cada base de datos oficiales existentes en el sector de la salud, así como las limitaciones que todavía persisten por la poca sensibilidad y especificidad de estos sistemas en el monitoreo de la violencia contra la mujer. Se discute, también, la necesidad de realizar otros estudios para profundizar la cuestión y la elaboración de una política de información relacionada al género, para análisis e intervención en los determinantes de la violencia contra la mujer, dada la magnitud y la gravedad del problema no solo para las mujeres como para la sociedad como un todo.The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the health information system in monitoring woman abuse by analyzing the extent to

  15. Ambiente hospitalar saudável e sustentável na perspectiva ecossistêmica: contribuições da enfermagem Ambiente hospitalario saludable y sustentable en la perspectiva ecosistémica: contribuciones de la enfermería Healthy and sustainable clinical environment in the ecossystemic perspective: contributions of the nursing area

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    Jacqueline Sallete Dei Svaldi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este texto propõe uma discussão sobre o ambiente hospitalar saudável e sustentável destacando-se as contribuições da enfermagem nesse processo. As bases filosóficas encontram-se ancoradas na teoria ecossistêmica que analisa as sensibilidades necessárias para entender a natureza e os elementos estruturantes do ambiente/espaço hospitalar. Enfatiza-se a força aglutinadora das Unidades Produtivas que, de maneira interdependente e inter-relacionada, devem buscar o espaço sustentável e saudável através da cooperação, flexibilidade e parceria dos elementos constituintes. Reitera-se que a realimentação constante do conhecimento, envolvendo de forma sistêmica todas as Unidades Produtivas, pode facilitar as atualizações necessárias para acompanhar as modificações e transformações do espaço e, assim, do próprio cosmos. Compreende-se que o profissional de enfermagem, ao favorecer a construção de inter-relações em um processo de interconexões, pode ser o agente de transformação e representar os nós conectivos que tecem a rede viva da organização do ambiente hospitalar, levando-o à sustentabilidade e a ser mais saudável.Se propone una reflexión del ambiente hospitalario saludable y sustentable destacando las contribuciones de la enfermería en este proceso. Las bases filosóficas se encuentran arraigadas en la teoría ecosistémica que analiza las sensibilidades necesarias para entender la naturaleza y los elementos de estructura del ambiente/espacio hospitalario. Enfatiza la fuerza aglutinadora de las Unidades Productivas que, de manera dependiente y relacionada entre si, deben buscar el espacio sustentable y saludable a través de la cooperación, flexibilidad y unión. Reitera el feedback constante del conocimiento, envolviendo sistémicamente todas las Unidades Productivas, puede posibilitar las actualizaciones necesarias para acompañar las transformaciones del espacio/cosmos. El profesional de enfermería, al

  16. Objetos virtuais de aprendizagem: contribuições para o processo de aprendizagem em saúde e enfermagem Objetos virtuales de aprendizaje: contribuciones para el proceso de aprendizaje en salud y enfermería Virtual learning objects: contributions to the learning process in health and nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Graziela Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evidenciar as contribuições da aplicação de Objetos Virtuais de Aprendizagem (OVAs para o processo de aprendizagem em saúde e enfermagem. MÉTODOS: Estudo de revisão sistemática realizada nas bases de dados PUBMED/MEDLINE, SCOPUS, CINAHL e ISI Web of Knowledge. Foram analisados 13 estudos, publicados no idioma inglês no período de 2004 a 2008. RESULTADOS: Predominaram as pesquisas sobre OVAs desenvolvidas com enfoque em pacientes (50%, estudantes (38,4% e profissionais de saúde (7,1%. Quanto aos níveis de evidência 30,8% dos estudos foram classificados como nível II e nível III-1, respectivamente e 30,4% de nível IV. CONCLUSÃO: Os OVAs contribuíram significativamente para o aumento do conhecimento e aprendizagem em pacientes, alunos e cuidadores, constituindo uma promissora perspectiva para educação em saúde e enfermagem.OBJETIVO: Evidenciar las contribuciones de la aplicación de Objetos Virtuales de Aprendizaje (OVAs para el proceso de aprendizaje en salud y enfermería. MÉTODOS: Estudio de revisión sistemática realizada en las bases de datos PUBMED/MEDLINE, SCOPUS, CINAHL e ISI Web of Knowledge. Fueron analizados 13 estudios, publicados en el idioma inglés en el período de 2004 a 2008. RESULTADOS: Predominaron las investigaciones sobre OVAs desarrolladas con enfoque en pacientes (50%, estudiantes (38,4% y profesionales de salud (7,1%. En cuanto a los niveles de evidencia el 30,8% de los estudios fueron clasificados como nivel II y nivel III-1, respectivamente y el 30,4% como nivel IV. CONCLUSIÓN: Los OVAs contribuyeron significativamente en el aumento del conocimiento y aprendizaje en pacientes, alumnos y cuidadores, constituyendo una prometedora perspectiva para la educación en salud y en enfermería.OBJECTIVE: To highlight the contributions of the application of Virtual Learning Objects (OVAs for the learning process in health and nursing. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using the databases of

  17. Representações sociais de profissionais de saúde sobre a hipertensão arterial: contribuições para a enfermagem Representaciones sociales de profesionales de salud sobre la hipertensión arterial: contribuciones para la enfermería Social representations of health professionals about arterial hypertension: contributions to nursing

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    Maria Enoia Dantas da Costa e Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A Hipertensão Arterial, como grave problema de Saúde Pública, apresenta dificuldades de controle, destacando-se a dimensão psicossocial. O estudo objetivou apreender as representações sociais dos profissionais de saúde sobre a doença e as medidas de controle e explorar aspectos psicossociais relacionados aos conhecimentos, posicionamentos e comportamentos destes profissionais. Estudo exploratório, realizado em um Centro de Saúde, com 19 profissionais cujos dados foram coletados em três grupos focais e processados pelo software Alceste 4.8. As manifestações e descrições explicativas evidenciaram conhecimento dos profissionais sobre as dificuldades relacionadas às mudanças no estilo de vida das mulheres hipertensas e fatores de risco que contribuem para o surgimento da doença. O conhecimento destes aspectos traz contribuições por desvendar as questões subjetivas, peculiares da Hipertensão Arterial.La Hipertensión Arterial, grave problema de Salud Pública, presenta dificultades de control destacándose la dimensión psicosocial. Así, este estudio tuvo como objetivos abarcar las representaciones sociales de los profesionales de salud sobre la Hipertensión Arterial y explorar aspectos psicosociales que influyen sus prácticas de control. Estudio exploratorio, de campo, llevado a cabo en Teresina-PI, con 19 profesionales, en un centro de salud. Los datos recolectados en tres grupos focales, organizados en "corpus" y procesados por el software Alceste 4.8. Las manifestaciones/descripciones explicativas evidenciaron el conocimiento de los profesionales sobre las dificultades relacionadas a los cambios en el estilo de vida de las hipertensas y factores de riesgo que contribuyen para el surgimiento de la enfermedad. El conocimiento de esos aspectos trae contribuciones por desvendar las cuestiones subjetivas peculiares a la Hipertensión Arterial.Arterial Hypertension, as a serious public health problem, presents difficulties to

  18. Tetrapotassium cis-dioxido-trans-bis(sulfato-kappa O)sulfato(kappa O-2,O ')molybdate(VI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäffer, Susan Jeanne Cline; Berg, Rolf W.

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, K-4[(MoO2)-O-VI(SO4)(3)], was precipitated from a melt of molybdenum(VI) oxide and potassium sulfate in potassium disulfate. The compound contains monomeric [(MoO2)-O-VI(SO4)(3)](4-) anions, with the Mo-VI atom, both oxide ligands, and the S atom and both ligating O atoms...... of the bidentate sulfate group lying on a crystallographic mirror plane. One of the potassium cations is nine-coordinate, while the other is eight-coordinate....

  19. Estudo controlado do uso endovenoso de sulfato de magnésio ou de salbutamol no tratamento precoce da crise de asma aguda grave em crianças Randomized clinical trial of intravenous magnesium sulfate versus salbutamol in the early management of severe acute asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Santana

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: estudar os efeitos da administração endovenosa de sulfato de magnésio (MgEV ou de salbutamol (SalbEV em crianças com crise de asma aguda. MÉTODOS: estudo randomizado, duplo-cego e controlado por placebo. Incluídas crianças maiores de 2 anos admitidas em sala de observação com crise de asma aguda grave (refratária a três nebulizações com beta-adrenérgicos. Após a admissão, recebiam tratamento convencional (oxigênio, corticóides, nebulizações com beta-adrenérgicos e eram alocadas a receber uma de três soluções indistinguíveis entre si: a MgEV (50 mg/kg; b SalbEV (20 µg/kg; ou c solução salina, que eram administradas em 20 minutos (1ml/kg/hora. Avaliações clínicas, dosagens de eletrólitos e gases arteriais foram registrados antes e 1 hora após a infusão das drogas. RESULTADOS: foram estudados 50 pacientes (+ 4,5 anos e 53% de meninas, sem diferenças significativas entre os 3 grupos. No grupo MgEV, observou-se redução da pressão arterial durante a infusão, que retornou ao normal 1 hora após, associado com aumento (p OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of intravenous magnesium sulfate and intravenous salbutamol in the treatment of severe asthma in children. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, including children above 2 years of age with severe acute asthma admitted to the observation ward of the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of Hospital São Lucas. All patients received conventional treatment (oxygen, corticoids, beta-adrenergics on admission, and later received one of the following solutions: a IVMg (50 mg/kg; b intravenous salbutamol (20 µg/kg; c saline solution (1 ml/kg/min. Clinical assessments, electrolyte concentration, and arterial blood gas analyses were recorded before intravenous infusion and one hour after that. RESULTS: Fifty patients participated in this study (of whom 53% were females, mean age = 4.5 years. There were no significant differences among the

  20. Caracterização cinética e termodinâmica de β-galactosidase de Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7082 fracionada com sulfato de amônio Kinetics and thermodynamic characterization of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7082 fractionated with ammonium sulphate

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    Renata Bemvenuti Heidtmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A β-galactosidase é uma enzima importante que atua na hidrólise da lactose, podendo ser empregada na obtenção de alimentos destinados a consumidores intolerantes a esse dissacarídeo. A levedura Kluyveromyces marxianus apresenta bom rendimento de crescimento, além de ser um micro-organismo seguro em aplicações industriais, e tem sido utilizada para produção da enzima por cultivo submerso. A β-galactosidase obtida foi fracionada com sulfato de amônio e caracterizada quanto a temperatura e pH ótimos, estabilidade térmica, valores D e z, e parâmetros cinéticos e termodinâmicos. A temperatura e pH ótimos foram de 45-50 °C e 7,0, respectivamente. A energia de ativação da reação enzimática foi de 9,8 kcal.mol-1 e da reação de desativação, 64,2 kcal.mol-1. Os valores de Km e Vmax obtidos foram de 3,7 mM e 99,0 U.mL-1, respectivamente. A energia livre de Gibbs reduziu com o aumento de temperatura, sendo a enzima mais estável a 30 °C (∆G* = 106,8 kJ.mol-1. A entalpia foi de 313,04 kJ.mol-1 e a entropia 0,68 kJ.mol-1.k-1. O valor D confirmou que a enzima foi mais estável em temperaturas próximas de 30 °C (D = 11.513,0 min e o valor z foi de 5,8 °C.β-galactosidase is an important enzyme that acts on lactose hydrolysis and can be used to obtain food for consumers intolerant to this disaccharide. The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus presents a good growth yield, is a safe microorganism for industrial applications and has been used for enzyme production using the submerged process. The β-galactosidase obtained was fractionated with ammonium sulphate and characterized with respect to its optimum temperature and pH, thermal stability and its D and z values, as well as its kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. The optimum temperature and pH were 45-50 °C and 7.0, respectively. The activation energy and the deactivation reaction of the enzymatic reaction were, respectively, 9.8 kcal.mol-1 and 64.2 kcal.mol-1. The Km and Vmax

  1. Influência do sulfato de bário nas características de cerâmica vermelha incorporada com resíduo oleoso inertizado Influence of barium sulfate on the characteristics of red ceramic incorporated with oily waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. N. Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A incorporação em cerâmicas de resíduos como borras resultantes da extração, transporte ou refino de petróleo evita seu lançamento no meio ambiente. Por outro lado, é importante avaliar as alterações tecnológicas causadas pela adição do resíduo, sobretudo, no caso de comprometer a qualidade do produto cerâmico. Neste trabalho estudou-se a microestrutura de um material cerâmico contendo 0, 10, 15 e 20% em peso de um resíduo denominado borra de petróleo encapsulada, queimado em temperaturas que variam de 850 a 1100 ºC. A microanálise do material foi realizada através de espectrometria por dispersão de energia (EDS de modo a complementar a análise topográfica feita por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, para possibilitar a identificação dos elementos químicos presentes, bem como partículas de segunda fase. Os resultados demonstraram que a adição desta borra de petróleo encapsulada provoca alterações tanto na composição química quanto na microestrutura do material cerâmico. Partículas de formato e características distintas das observadas na cerâmica sem adição de resíduo, principalmente partículas de sulfato de bário, foram mapeadas e sua influência discutida.The incorporation into ceramics of residues, such as oily wastes from extraction, transport and refining of petroleum is a way to avoid their disposal to the environment. On the other hand, it is important to evaluate the technological changes caused by the addition of the residue, mainly, in the case that it could compromise the quality of the ceramic product. In this work, the microstructure resulting from the incorporation with 0, 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of a residue, known as encapsulated petroleum waste, into a ceramic material that was fired at temperatures in the range of 850 to 1100 ºC, was investigated. The microanalysis of the material was performed by Energy Dispersed Spectroscopy (EDS to complement the topographic carried out by

  2. Consumo e digestibilidade do feno de capim-braquiária em bovinos de corte sob suplementação com mistura contendo sulfato de amônio, caseína e uréia Intake and digestibility of palisade grass hay by beef cattle supplemented with a mixture containing ammonium sulphate, casein and urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Gomes da Silva de Rezende

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes de dietas contendo feno de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG4 de baixa qualidade e de diferentes níveis protéicos. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: controle (somente feno e feno com adição crescente, via infusão ruminal, da mistura sulfato de amônio, caseína e uréia (0,5:1,0:4,5 de modo a elevar em +2, +4, +6 e +8% o nível de PB das dietas. Os dados foram analisados em delineamento quadrado latino, com cinco níveis de suplementação, cinco animais e cinco períodos. A adição de quantidades crescentes de nitrogênio não-protéico (NNP à dieta teve efeito quadrático sobre os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e extrato etéreo (EE. O maior consumo de MS foi observado com o nível de 10,5% PB. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de PB sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS, MO, FDN e EE. Houve efeito linear crescente sobre o coeficiente de digestibilidade da PB, que apresentou valores de 57,4; 66,9; 73,6; 77,3 e 81,7% nos níveis de PB de 6,3; 8,5; 10,5; 12,63 e 14,8%, respectivamente. O nível de 10,5% de PB foi o ponto crítico para a obtenção de resposta máxima para os consumos de MS (7,7 kg/dia e MO (7,2 kg/dia. A suplementação com compostos nitrogenados em quantidades que permitam elevar o nível protéico da dieta a 10,5% otimiza o uso de forragens de baixa qualidade.The intake and digestibilility of the nutrients of diets containing palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG4 hay of low quality and different protein levels were evaluated. The evaluated treatments were control (only hay and hay with crescent addition, by rumen infusion, of the mixture containing ammonium sulphate, casein end urea (0.5:1.0:4.5 in way to elevate in +2, +4, +6 and +8% the CP level in the diets. A Latin square experimental design with five levels supplementation, five animals and five periods was used. The

  3. Formação de mestres em enfermagem na Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina: contribuições sob a ótica de egressos Formación de maestros en enfermería en la Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina: contribuciones según la visión de los egresados Formation of masters in nursing at the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina: contributions under post graduates' view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina Souza Ramos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou conhecer as percepções de egressos do Curso de Mestrado em Enfermagem do Programa de Pós-graduação em Enfermagem da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina acerca das contribuições de sua formação para o trabalho profissional. Estudo de abordagem qualitativa, utilizou questionário aplicado a mestres em enfermagem egressos do curso (últimos 5 anos, totalizando 88 informantes. A análise apresentou elementos da ótica dos egressos quanto a uma avaliação geral do curso, quanto às contribuições do mesmo para a mudança no trabalho e quanto a avaliação média dos seus objetivos. O mestrado em enfermagem mostrou-se um espaço reconhecido e valorizado de construção e consolidação de um conhecimento inovador frente aos desafios que se impõem para uma nova configuração do fazer em saúde cotidianamente.El estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer las percepciones de los egresados de la Maestría en Enfermería de la Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina acerca de las contribuciones de su formación para el trabajo profesional. Estudio de aboerdage cualitativa, con la utilización de un cuestionario dirigido a los maestros egresados en los últimos cinco años, para un total de 88 informantes. El análisis presentó elementos en relación a evaluación general de la Maestría, así como de las contribuciones de la misma para el cambio en el trabajo y la evaluación de sus objetivos. La maestría en enfermería se presentó como un espacio reconocido y valorizado para la construcción y consolidación de conocimientos innovadores ante los desafíos para una nueva configuración del quehacer en salud.The objective of the study is to know the perceptions of graduates of the Masters Course in Nursing at the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina with its contributions on formation as regards to professional work. That was a study of qualitative approach, using a questionnaire applied to the egresses of master degree

  4. Modelos probabilísticos de los contenidos porcentuales de pérdida al fuego, residuo insoluble y SO3 de cementos P-350 fabricados en España

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    Salcedo Martínez, Fernando

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available Limits fixed in Codes for the chemical characteristics of cements have been established with semi-empirical methods, given the complexity of influencing phenomena, without correspondence between these values and the physico-chemical or mechanical properties as durability or strength. Knowledge of statistical distribution models allows to fix limits of acceptation or rejection, with criteria of frequencies, and dependence relationships among them. In order to propose distribution models for the percentage of Ignition Loss, Insoluble Residuum and SO3, the values of the variables on 255 samples analysed at the Instituto E. Torroja during 10 years, have been studied. Dependences among variables, defined by the correlation coefficients, have been studied as well. Sample values have been grouped in equally probable intervals and goodness of fit with Normal, Gamma and Log-Normal distributions was done by means of test X2. Finally, goodness of fit and agreement between upper fractals and maxima values in samples let us propose distribution models for each variable.Las limitaciones fijadas en las normas para las características químicas de los cementos han sido establecidas según métodos semi-empíricos, dada la complejidad de los fenómenos que influyen, sin que exista correspondencia entre estos valores y las propiedades físico-químicas y mecánicas como durabilidad y resistencia. El conocimiento de los modelos estadísticos de distribución de las características químicas permite establecer valores límites de aceptación o rechazo, según criterios frecuentistas, y las relaciones de dependencia existentes entre ellas. Con el fin de proponer modelos de distribución de los contenidos de Pérdida al Fuego, Residuo Insoluble y SO3 se ha hecho un estudio sobre los valores obtenidos de estas tres variables en análisis efectuados en el Instituto E. Torroja sobre 255 muestras de cemento durante 10 años. Se han estudiado las dependencias existentes

  5. Influence of insolubility of silver on the Hirshfeld surface analyses and magnetic behavior of La0.5Ca0.1Ag0.4MnO3 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felhi, H.; Smari, M.; Walha, I.; Dhahri, E.; Valente, M. A.; Bessais, L.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, we report a detail investigation on the effect of insolubility of Ag 40% doping on the structural and magnetic properties of LCMO-Ag compound prepared by solid-state reaction. The analysis of X-ray diffraction for our samples using Rietveld refinement showed that they crystallize in the orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group. We have shown that this compound has a secondary phase (Ag metallic phase). The detailed analyses of Hirshfeld surface and fingerprint plots provide insight into the nature of intermolecular interactions in the title compound. Magnetization measurements versus temperature at different magnetic fields have shown the presence of two magnetic transitions. This result was confirmed previously in the crystallographic study. This phase exhibits magnetic properties, which has a Curie temperature (Tc) which is lower than the Curie temperature of the FM-PM transition. The critical properties of perovskite manganite LCMO-Ag around of transition with Tc = 230 K is investigated through various techniques such as modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher method, and critical isotherm analysis. Moreover, the critical exponents also obeyed the single scaling equation of M(H, ɛ)|ɛ|-β = f±(H|ɛ|-(β+γ)). We find that the critical exponent for LCMO-Ag is close to that theoretically predicted for mean field tricritical model.

  6. A model for the influences of soluble and insoluble solids, and treated volume on the ultraviolet-C resistance of heat-stressed Salmonella enterica in simulated fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estilo, Emil Emmanuel C; Gabriel, Alonzo A

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of intrinsic juice characteristics namely insoluble solids (IS, 0-3 %w/v), and soluble solids (SS, 0-70 °Brix), and extrinsic process parameter treated volume (250-1000 mL) on the UV-C inactivation rates of heat-stressed Salmonella enterica in simulated fruit juices (SFJs). A Rotatable Central Composite Design of Experiment (CCRD) was used to determine combinations of the test variables, while Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to characterize and quantify the influences of the test variables on microbial inactivation. The heat-stressed cells exhibited log-linear UV-C inactivation behavior (R 2 0.952 to 0.999) in all CCRD combinations with D UV-C values ranging from 10.0 to 80.2 mJ/cm 2 . The D UV-C values obtained from the CCRD significantly fitted into a quadratic model (P < 0.0001). RSM results showed that individual linear (IS, SS, volume), individual quadratic (IS 2 and volume 2 ), and factor interactions (IS × volume and SS × volume) were found to significantly influence UV-C inactivation. Validation of the model in SFJs with combinations not included in the CCRD showed that the predictions were within acceptable error margins. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid-induced amelioration on impairment of memory learning in amyloid beta-infused rats relates to the decreases of amyloid beta and cholesterol levels in detergent-insoluble membrane fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michio; Hossain, Shahdat; Agdul, Haqu; Shido, Osamu

    2005-12-30

    We investigated the effects of dietary administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) on the levels of amyloid beta (A beta) peptide (1-40) and cholesterol in the nonionic detergent Triton 100 x-insoluble membrane fractions (DIFs) of the cerebral cortex and, also, on learning-related memory in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats infused with A beta peptide (1-40) into the cerebral ventricle. The infusion increased the levels of A beta peptide and cholesterol in the DIFs concurrently with a significant increase in reference memory errors (measured by eight-arm radial-maze tasks) compared with those of vehicle rats. Conversely, the dietary administration of DHA to AD-model rats decreased the levels of A beta peptide and cholesterol in the DIFs, with the decrease being more prominent in the DHA-administered rats. Regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between A beta peptide and each of cholesterol, palmitic acid and stearic acid, and between the number of reference memory errors and each of cholesterol, palmitic, stearic and oleic acid; moreover, a significant negative correlation was observed between the number of reference memory errors and the molar ratio of DHA to palmitic plus stearic acid. These results suggest that DHA-induced protection of memory deficits in AD-model rats is related to the interactions of cholesterol, palmitic acid or stearic acid with A beta peptides in DIFs where DHA ameliorates these interactions.

  8. Bambu como matéria-prima para papel: IV - Estudos sôbre o emprêgo de cinco espécies de Bambusa,na produção de celulose sulfato Bamboo as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry: IV - Study of Bambusa tuldoides, B. textilis, B. ventricosa, B. malingensis and B. dissimulator in the production of kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho, os autores dão continuidade aos estudos com que se procura determinar as características papeleiras das principais espécies de bambu com bom desenvolvimento nas condições ecológicas do Estado de São Paulo. Bambusa tuldoides, B. textilis, B. ventricosa, B. malingensis e B. dissimulator foram estudadas levando-se em consideração as seguintes variáveis: dimensões dos colmos, densidade básica, análise micrométrica das fibras, rendimento em celulose sulfato (Kraft e características físico-mecânicas das pastas produzidas. As densidades básicas médias calculadas para as espécies em estudo não apresentaram muita variação, com valores extremos de 0,62 e 0,78. Relativamente ao comprimento médio das fibras, as espécies de bambu estudadas mostraram ocupar uma posição intermediária entre as resinosas e as principais espécies arbóreas folhosas utilizadas pela indústria de papel. Os rendimentos médios em celulose sulfato, considerando cinco repetições, foram de 43,75% para B. textilis, 42,53% para B. tuldoides, 41,74% para B. ventricosa, 36,57% para B. dissimulator e 35,82% para B. malingensis, com número de permanganato variando de 18,37 a 17,03. Análise estatística dos dados de resistência do papel demonstrou que B. dissimulator, com exceção do índice de rasgo, apresentou maiores valores que as demais espécies em estudo.Five bamboo species, very similar in the agronomic features, were studied in the production of kraft pulp. All of them have culms with about 9 m in height, 4-5 cm in diameter and weight of 4-5 kg, growing very well in the soil and climate conditions of São Paulo State. Determinations of the basic density of culms and dimension of fibres were made. Chips were obtained mechanically and the cookings were made by the sulfate process at 160°C for l hour, using 14% Na(20 and 25% sul-phidity. Bambusa textilis and B. tuldoides which yielded, respectively 43.75% and 42.53% of

  9. Pesquisa acadêmica sobre humanização do parto no Brasil: tendências e contribuições Investigaciones académicas sobre Humanización del Parto en Brasil: tendencias y contribuciones Academic research studies on humanization of childbirth in Brazil: trends and contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lenho de Figueiredo Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Realizamos um levantamento das pesquisas acadêmicas brasileiras dos programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu acerca da humanização do parto e nascimento, de forma a identificar a distribuição temporal, regional, por abordagem metodológica e área de conhecimento, e analisar as contribuições desta produção acadêmica para a prática assistencial. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa exploratória e descritiva. Os dados foram coletados através dos resumos de teses e dissertações disponíveis em bases de dados de bibliotecas virtuais, BIREME e CAPES. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas 26 dissertações e 4 teses no período de 1987 a 2004. A maioria (20; 66,7% foi desenvolvida em programas de pós-graduação da região Sudeste. Mais da metade (16; 53,3% do total foi realizada em programas de pós-graduação de enfermagem. A metodologia qualitativa foi a mais utilizada (25; 80%. Os aspectos ético-políticos da assistência predominaram (20; 66,7% sobre os aspectos técnicos nas sínteses dos resultados e conclusões das pesquisas estudadas. CONCLUSÃO: As pesquisas de pós-graduação propõem mudança de paradigma técnico-científico, na formação profissional, na atitude profissional frente aos direitos humanos e sociais, e uma redefinição de papeis profissionais das enfermeiras e parteiras.OBJETIVOS: Fue realizado un levantamiento de las investigaciones académicas brasileñas de los programas de postgrado stricto sensu respecto a la humanización del parto y nacimiento, de forma a identificar la distribución temporal, regional, por abordaje metodológico y área del conocimiento, y analizar las contribuciones de esta producción académica para la práctica asistencial. MÉTODOS: Se trata de uma investigación exploratória y descriptiva. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de los resúmenes de tesis de maestría y de doctorado disponibles en las bases de datos de bibliotecas virtuales, BIREME y CAPES. RESULTADOS: Fueron

  10. Crystalline insoluble acid salts of tetravalent metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, G.; Bernasconi, M.G.; Casciola, M.; Costantino, U.

    1980-01-01

    The H + /NH 4 + ion-exchange and the ammonia uptake on γ-Ti(HPO 4 ) 2 .2H 2 O has been investigated. The first proton (3.63 meq/g) is completely exchanged at pH 4 .NH 4 PO 4 . H 2 O (inter-layer distance 11.2 A). From 50 to about 80% of exchange, the NH 4 + -uptake takes place at pH > 7, without appreciable change in the inter-layer distance. From 80 to 100% of exchange, there is, instead, a discontinuous change from 11.2 to 13.6 A and the phase γ-Ti(NH 4 PO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O is formed. Also the ammonia is taken up, at high rate, from aqueous solution with formation of half- and fully exchanged NH 4 + forms. Thus the use of γ-titanium phosphate in the removal of NH 3 or NH 4 + ions from waste solution, or in kidney machines, seems to be possible. The study of the potassium and ammonium forms showed that the structure of the layers of γ-titanium phosphate, as already found for α-zirconium phosphate, does not appreciably change during an ion-exchange process. (author)

  11. Acción del agua de mar sobre un cemento portland de alta resistencia inicial y sobre un cemento portland resistente a los sulfatos: influencia de la adición de escoria. Estudio de la concentración iónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar-Tébar, Demetrio

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    En este trabajo se estudia la variación del pH, así como la de la concentración de los iones Ca (II, Mg (II, SO4 (II y Cl (I del agua de mar artificial (ASTM D 1141-75, en donde las probetas de mortero (1 : 3 de 1 X 1 X 6 cm fabricadas con un cemento portland industrial de alta resistencia inicial (cemento 1, con un cemento portland industrial resistente a los sulfatos (cemento 2 y con las mezclas cemento (1 ó 2/escoria = 85/15, 65/35, 40/60 y 30/70 (en peso han estado sumergidas, durante 56 - 90 - 180 y 360 días, después del período de curado (1 día en cámara húmeda y 21 días en agua potable; así mismo se estudia la evolución del contenido de Ca (II, Mg (II y SO4 (II en la nueva fase sólida formada en el agua de mar artificial mencionada en donde han estado las probetas de mortero. En el agua de mar artificial se produce un aumento de la concentración de Ca (II y del valor del pH, una disminución de las cantidades de Mg (II, SO4 (II y Cl (I, así como la formación de una nueva fase sólida, que son función de las mezclas cemento/escoria utilizadas para elaborar las probetas de mortero y del tiempo de conservación-ataque. El contenido de Ca (II, que procede del Ca(0H2 disuelto del cemento hidratado, en el agua de mar artificial responde, prácticamente, a las cantidades calculadas a partir del Ca (II correspondientes al medio (agua de mar artificial en donde han estado las probetas fabricadas con los dos cementos estudiados, sin adición de escoria. La evolución de los contenidos de Ca (II y de Mg (II en el agua de mar artificial, en donde han estado las probetas, están íntimamente ligados, de tal modo que si la concentración de uno de ellos aumenta, la del otro disminuye y viceversa. Hay un sistema cemento/escoria - agua de mar artificial, para una mezcla determinada, en donde tiene lugar el equilibrio Ca (II que pasa a la disolución ⇌ Mg (II que

  12. Acción del agua de mar sobre un cemento portland de alta resistencia inicial, sobre un cemento portland resistente a los sulfatos y sobre un cemento portland: influencia de la adición de escoria. Estudio por DRX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar-Tébar, Demetrio

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    En este trabajo se estudia, por medio de difracción de rayos X, la evolución de las características estructurales de los compuestos cristalinos de la fracción enriquecida (cemento hidratado-atacado extraída de uno de los prismas de mortero (1:3 de 1 X 1 X 6 cm de cada una de las series de probetas fabricadas con tres cementos portland (alta resistencia inicial, cemento 1; resistente a los sulfatos, cemento 2, y normal, cemento 3 y con las mezclas cemento (1, 2 y 3/escoria = 85/15 - 65/35 - 40/60 y 30/70 (en peso, sometidas a la acción del agua de mar artificial (ASTM D 1141-75 durante 56-90-180 y 360 días, después del período de curado (1 día en cámara húmeda y 21 días bajo agua potable filtrada; del mismo modo, se estudia por DRX la composición estructural de la nueva fase sólida formada en el agua de mar artificial en donde han estado sumergidas las probetas de mortero. En los DRX de la nueva fase sólida se han identificado los picos de los compuestos cristalinos calcita, aragonito y brucita, de acuerdo con las condiciones del sistema y, de un modo especial, de las mezclas cemento/escoria utilizadas en la fabricación de las probetas de mortero. Los picos de la brucita, únicamente, se han identificado en la fase sólida formada en el agua de mar artificial en donde han estado sumergidas las probetas de mortero fabricadas con cualquiera de los cementos estudiados y con las mezclas de estos cementos con el 15% de escoria (en peso. En los DRX de la fracción enriquecida (cemento hidratado-atacado se han identificado, con intensidad variable, los picos de los compuestos cristalinos ettringita, brucita y calcita en todos los DRX y los picos de la sal de Friedel, yeso y portlandita en determinados DRX. En este trabajo, se ha puesto de manifiesto la influencia que ejerce la adición de escoria, así como el tiempo de conservación-ataque, en la formación y eliminación de los compuestos mencionados. [fr

  13. Influence of water-insoluble nonionic copolymer E(6)P(39)E(6) on the microstructure and self-aggregation dynamics of aqueous SDS solution-NMR and SANS investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prameela, G K S; Phani Kumar, B V N; Aswal, V K; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2013-10-28

    The influence of water-insoluble nonionic triblock copolymer PEO-PPO-PEO [poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)] i.e., E6P39E6 with molecular weight 2800, on the microstructure and self-aggregation dynamics of anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution (D2O) were investigated using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements. Variable concentration and temperature proton ((1)H), carbon ((13)C) NMR chemical shifts, (1)H self-diffusion coefficients, (1)H spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation rates data indicate that the higher hydrophobic nature of copolymer significantly influenced aggregation characteristics of SDS. The salient features of the NMR investigations include (i) the onset of mixed micelles at lower SDS concentrations (SDS free micelles at higher SDS concentrations (~30 mM), (ii) disintegration of copolymer-SDS mixed aggregate at moderate SDS concentrations (~10 mM) and still binding of a copolymer with SDS and (iii) preferential localization of the copolymer occurred at the SDS micelle surface. SANS investigations indicate prolate ellipsoidal shaped mixed aggregates with an increase in SDS aggregation number, while a contrasting behavior in the copolymer aggregation is observed. The aggregation features of SDS and the copolymer, the sizes of mixed aggregates and the degree of counterion dissociation (α) extracted from SANS data analysis corroborate reasonably well with those of (1)H NMR self-diffusion and sodium ((23)Na) spin-lattice relaxation data.

  14. The development and validation of a new technology, based upon 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and fluoride, for everyday use in the prevention and treatment of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, D

    2013-08-01

    This paper briefly discusses caries prevalence, the multi-factorial nature of caries etiology, caries risk and the role and efficacy of fluoride. The paper also highlights research on bacterial metabolism which provided understanding of the mouth's natural defenses against caries and the basis for the development of a new technology for the everyday prevention and treatment of caries. Finally, evidence that the technology complements and enhances the anti-caries efficacy of fluoride toothpaste is summarized. Global data show that dental caries is a prevalent disease, despite the successful introduction of fluoride. Caries experience depends on the balance between consumption of sugars and oral hygiene and the use of fluoride. Three scientific concepts are fundamental to new measures to detect, treat and monitor caries: (1) dental caries is a dynamic process, (2) dental caries is a continuum of stages from reversible, pre-clinical to irreversible, clinically detectable lesions, and (3) the caries process is a balance of pathological and protective factors that can be modulated to manage caries. Fluoride functions as a protective factor by arresting and reversing the caries process, but fluoride does not prevent pathological factors that initiate the process. A novel technology, based upon arginine and an insoluble calcium compound, has been identified which targets dental plaque to prevent initiation of the caries process by reducing pathological factors. As the mechanisms of action of arginine and fluoride are highly complementary, a new dentifrice, which combines arginine with fluoride, has been developed and clinically proven to provide superior caries prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line A204 lays down a highly insoluble matrix composed mainly of alpha 1 type-XI and alpha 2 type-V collagen chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleman, J P; Hartmann, D J; Ramirez, F; van der Rest, M

    1992-11-15

    The biosynthesis of collagen by the A204 cell line was examined using polyclonal antibodies raised against collagen type V and type XI. The study of the pepsin-digested collagen showed that it is composed mainly of alpha 1(XI) and alpha 2(V) collagen chains in an apparent 2:1 ratio, suggesting the formation of heterotypic molecules [alpha 1(XI)]2 alpha 2(V). The existence of this chain stoichiometry was further demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of the molecule with an antibody recognizing alpha 2(V) but not alpha 1(XI) collagen chains. Electron microscopy analyses of 24-h cultures showed that this matrix is composed of thin fibrils, that can be decorated with immunogold-labelled anti-(type-V collagen) IgG, but not with anti-(type-XI collagen) IgG. The collagen matrix laid down by A204 cells is highly insoluble. In the presence of beta-aminopropionitrile, an inhibitor of lysyl oxidase, only a small proportion of intact collagen could be extracted without proteolytic treatment. Immunoblotting of intact medium collagen from cultures performed in the presence of beta-aminopropionitrile showed four distinct bands with each antibody. The migration of the bands, stained with anti-(type-V collagen) IgG, had apparent molecular masses of 127, 149, 161 and 198 kDa (compared to globular standards) while the bands stained with anti-(type-XI collagen) IgG had apparent masses of 145, 182, 207 and 225 kDa. These data indicate that type-V and type-XI collagen chains can assemble in heterotypic isoforms. In this system, the synthesized isoforms are able to aggregate into a highly cohesive matrix and they undergo a proteolytic processing closely similar to that of other fibrillar collagens.

  16. Conditions promoting and restraining agronomic effectiveness of water-insoluble phosphate sources, in particular phosphate rock (PR): I. Indices of phosphate rock use opportunity (PRUOIS) and of phosphate rock suitability for direct use (PRSIDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borlan, Z.; Gavriluta, I.; Soare, M.; Stefanescu, D.; Alexandrescu, A.

    2002-01-01

    Several issues of phosphate rock (PR) use are discussed in this paper. Maize for green fodder (Zea mays L) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) were grown in 7 kg of dry soil and in small pots of 1.25 kg dry soil capacity, respectively, on several base unsaturated soils belonging to Hapludoll and Hapludalf soil groups. The amount of phosphate rock (PR) to apply was based on experimental data considering soil adsorbed acidity (Ah), humus content (H 2 ), cation exchange capacity (T), sum of exchangeable bases (SEB) and mobile (easily soluble) phosphate content (P A L) in the soil. The factors were combined in a rock phosphate use, opportunity index of the soil (PRUOIS): PRUOIS=(A h *H 2 *100)/SEB*10 0.0245*P AL Rock phosphate suitability for direct use was evaluated by means of the rate of PR-P dissolution (PRPRS) in a 0.6% ammonium heptamolybdate in 0.01M calcium chloride solution (ppm P) and by carbonate content (%CaCO 3 ) in PR. Both of these parameters combined provided a phosphate rock suitability index for direct use (PRSIDU): PRSIDU [ppmP/min]=PRPRS*(1-0.03*CaCO 3 ) Water insoluble P sources studied were PR from Kola-Russia, Morocco, Kneifiss-Siria, El Hassa-Jordan, Gafsa- Tunisia, North-Carolina (USA), and Arad-Israel. All PRs were compared with TSP applied at the same rate of P. Neither PRUOIS or PRSIDU considered separately could satisfactorily explain the variance of PR efficiency. An index obtained by multiplicative combination of PRUOIS x PRSIDU did correlate significantly with indices on the agronomic efficiency of PR. (author)

  17. Imobilização de nitrogênio da uréia e do sulfato de amônio aplicado em pré-semeadura ou cobertura na cultura de milho, no sistema plantio direto Nitrogen immobilization of urea and ammonium sulphate applied to maize before planting and as top-dressing in a no-till system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Alejandro Ruben Lara Cabezas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfato de amônio (SA e uréia (U marcados com 15N foram aplicados na cultura do milho, em sucessão à aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb., no sistema plantio direto, 43 dias antes e 31 dias depois da semeadura, na dose de 80 kg ha-1 de N, incorporados a 5-7 cm de profundidade, em sulcos espaçados de 0,8 m, nas entrelinhas do milho. O objetivo foi quantificar o N dos fertilizantes imobilizado no solo (15N-orgânico, no sulco de adubação, e o N-recuperado na planta nos estádios de 5-6 folhas, 11-12 folhas, florescimento e maturação fisiológica. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas das fontes U e SA, e as subparcelas, das épocas de aplicação de N. O experimento foi realizado em Latossolo Vermelho ácrico típico fase cerrado subcadocifólio, na Fazenda Floresta do Lobo-Pinusplan, em Uberlândia (MG. Na aplicação em pré-semeadura, a máxima imobilização foi observada aos 19 dias da aplicação do SA (13,3 kg ha-1 ou 16,6 % do N-aplicado e aos 40 dias da aplicação da U (13,7 kg ha-1 ou 17,1 % do N-aplicado. A maior quantidade de N fertilizante assimilado pela planta ocorreu entre os estádios de 5-6 e 11-12 folhas (44,1 e 23,4 % do N-SA e N-U, respectivamente. Na aplicação em cobertura, a imobilização do N-SA foi inferior a 3,5 % do N-aplicado, enquanto a imobilização do N-U foi de 9,9 kg ha-1 e 7,9 kg ha-1, respectivamente, nos estádios de 11-12 folhas e florescimento. Até o estádio de maturação fisiológica da cultura, 61,8 % do N-SA e 42,0 % do N-U foram recuperados pelo milho. Em média, nos estádios de 11-12 folhas e de florescimento, para cada kg de N-SA imobilizado, as plantas de milho recuperaram 8,0 e 16,7 kg ha-1 de N fertilizante em pré-semeadura e cobertura, respectivamente. Nos tratamentos com U, a média foi de 3,1 kg ha-1, independentemente da época de aplicação. As produtividades de grãos obtidas com

  18. Imobilização de nitrogênio da uréia e do sulfato de amônio aplicado em pré-semeadura ou cobertura na cultura de milho, no sistema plantio direto Nitrogen immobilization of urea and ammonium sulphate applied to maize before planting or top-dressing in a no-till system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Alejandro Ruben Lara Cabezas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available No segundo ano de estudo, sulfato de amônio (SA e uréia (U marcados com 15N foram aplicados na cultura do milho, em sucessão à aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schieb., no sistema plantio direto, 33 dias antes e 10 dias depois da semeadura, na dose de 80 kg ha-1 de N, incorporados a 5-7 cm de profundidade, em sulcos espaçados de 0,8 m, nas entrelinhas do milho. O objetivo foi quantificar o N dos fertilizantes imobilizado no solo (15N orgânico, no sulco de adubação, e o N recuperado na planta nos estádios de 4-5 folhas, 11-12 folhas, florescimento e colheita. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, efetuando-se a análise de variância em esquema fatorial 2 x 6 em pré-semeadura (duas fontes, U e SA, em seis épocas de amostragem e 2 x 3 (duas fontes em três épocas de amostragem em cobertura, com três repetições. O experimento foi realizado em Latossolo Vermelho ácrico típico fase Cerrado subcaducifólio, na Fazenda Floresta do Lobo - Pinusplan, em Uberlândia (MG. Na aplicação em pré-semeadura, a máxima imobilização foi observada aos 22 dias da aplicação do SA (9,1 kg ha-1 ou 11,4 % do N aplicado e aos 11 dias da aplicação da U (46,5 kg ha-1 ou 58,1 % do N aplicado. Até a colheita, a planta (parte aérea, grãos e raiz acumulou 66,0 e 47,9 kg ha-1 de N-SA e N-U, respectivamente, correspondendo à eficiência de absorção de 82,5 e 59,9 % do N aplicado. Na aplicação em cobertura, a imobilização do N fertilizante das duas fontes foi inferior a 12,5 % do N aplicado, em todas as fases de crescimento da planta, evidenciando que a biomassa do solo não concorreu com a planta pelo N fertilizante, sendo similar à quantificação realizada na safra 1999/2000. Na média das duas safras (1999/2001 e dos estádios de 11-12 folhas e florescimento, para cada kg de N fertilizante imobilizado, as plantas de milho absorveram 8,9 e 15,4 kg ha-1 de N-SA, em pré-semeadura e cobertura, respectivamente. Para N-U, esses

  19. Plant and soil intake by organic broilers reared in tree- or grass-covered plots as determined by means of n-alkanes and of acid-insoluble ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjanz, S; Germain, K; Juin, H; Jondreville, C

    2015-05-01

    Free-range birds such as organic broilers may ingest soil and plants during exploration. The estimation of such intakes is of great interest to quantify possible nutritional supplies and also to evaluate the risk of exposure to parasites or to environmental contaminants. Marker-based techniques are now available and would allow to quantify plant and, especially, soil intake in free-range birds, and this quantification was the aim of this study. Methodologically, the proportion of plants in diet intake was determined first using a method based on n-alkanes. Subsequently, the fraction of soil in the total intake was estimated with a second marker, acid-insoluble ash. This approach was carried out to estimate ingested amounts of plants and soil for five successive flocks of organic broilers, exploring grass-covered yards or those under trees, at two time points for each yard: 51 and 64 days of age. Each factor combination (yard type×period=flock number×age) was repeated on two different yards of 750 broilers each. The birds' plant intake varied widely, especially on grass-covered yards. The proportion of plant intake was significantly higher on grass-covered plots than under trees and was also affected, but to a lesser extent, by age or flock number. The ingestion of plants would generally not exceed 11 g of DM daily, except two extreme outliers of nearly 30 g. The daily plant intake under trees tended to be lower and never exceeded 7 g of DM. The amount of ingested plants increased significantly for spring flocks. It increased slightly but significantly with age. The proportion of ingested soil was significantly higher under trees than on grass-covered yards. Dry soil intake was generally low with not more than 3 g per day. Only in adverse conditions - that is, older birds exploring yards under trees in winter - soil intake reached the extreme value of nearly 5 g. Broilers on yards under trees ingested significantly more soil than on grass-covered yards with least

  20. Determinação da fibra alimentar insolúvel, solúvel e total de produtos derivados do milho Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber of corn products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Kolinski Callegaro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do milho é de grande importância na agricultura brasileira, com ampla distribuição do norte ao sul do país. O milho pode ser uma fonte significativa de fibra, dependendo da forma como é utilizado na alimentação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores de fibra alimentar insolúvel (FAI, solúvel (FAS e total (FAT de produtos derivados do milho. Determinou-se também os teores de umidade, resíduo mineral fixo, extrato etéreo e proteína bruta das amostras analisadas. Trabalhou-se com amostras de canjica, pipoca, farinha fina, farinha média e farinha pré-cozida. O método utilizado na determinação de fibra foi o de Prosky et al. Entre os produtos analisados observou-se que a pipoca apresentou o maior teor de FAT (média de 12,15% e a canjica o menor (média de 2,39 %. Em relação às farinhas, a fina e a média apresentaram teores de fibra semelhantes, enquanto as amostras de farinha pré-cozida apresentaram um teor um pouco mais baixo. Em todos os produtos analisados, a FAI correspondeu a mais de 90% da fibra total. Quanto aos demais constituintes avaliados, encontrou-se, neste trabalho, valores de acordo com os já disponíveis na literatura.Corn crop is of great importance to Brazilian agriculture, ranging from the north to the south of the country. Corn can be an important source of fiber, depending on the way it is used as food. The objective of this work was to evaluate the content of insoluble (IDF, soluble (SDF, and total (TDF dietary fiber of corn-derived products. The content of moisture, ash, lipids, and crude protein were also determined in the samples. We have worked with "canjica", popcorn, and meal (finely ground, medium ground, and pre-cooked. The PROSKY'S enzymic-gravimetric method was used to determine dietary fiber. Among the products analyzed, we have observed that the popcorn showed the greatest content of TDF (12.15%, and the "canjica" showed the smallest one (2.39%. Thin and medium corn meals

  1. Efeito da calagem e sulfato de amônio no algodão: II - Concentração de cátions e ânions na solução do solo e absorção de nutrientes pelas plantas Effect of liming and ammonium sulfate in cotton: II - Concentration of cations and anions in the soil solution and plant nutrient uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salvador Simoneti Foloni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available No sistema de semeadura direta, o calcário tem sido aplicado superficialmente para evitar o revolvimento do solo. Os ânions adicionados via adubação nitrogenada podem aumentar a solubilização de sais de cátions básicos do solo graças à formação de pares iônicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a dinâmica dos ânions NO3- e SO4(2- e dos cátions NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e K+ da solução do solo, bem como a absorção de nutrientes pelo algodoeiro submetido a distintas formas de aplicação de calcário e diferentes doses de sulfato de amônio em cobertura, cultivado com a presença de palha na superfície do solo. Utilizou-se um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura média que foi acomodado em vasos com 15,71 dm³. Plantas de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum foram cultivadas por 60 dias nas condições de calagem superficial sobre a palha, calagem incorporada a 0-20 cm de profundidade e ausência de correção do solo, com a aplicação de doses de sulfato de amônio equivalentes a 0, 50, 100 e 150 kg ha-1 de N em cobertura. Cápsulas porosas foram instaladas para amostragem e quantificação de nutrientes da solução do solo. A concentração de SO4(2- da solução do solo foi incrementada pela adubação nitrogenada, independentemente da forma de aplicação do calcário. A curto prazo, a nitrificação do NH4+ aplicado foi favorecida somente com a calagem incorporada, apesar de o N nítrico da solução do solo ter aumentado no final do cultivo do algodão até mesmo no solo não corrigido. As concentrações de Ca, Mg e K da solução do solo foram incrementadas pela adubação de cobertura. O ânion SO4(2- apresentou maior afinidade do que o NO3- na formação de pares iônicos com os cátions básicos da solução do solo. A adubação nitrogenada proporcionou maior eficiência na absorção de Ca e Mg pelo algodoeiro na condição de calagem incorporada.In no-tillage systems lime is applied on the soil surface to avoid

  2. Restore procedure to remove insoluble salts on murals paintings in the church of Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP) with accompaniment of portable EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence); Procedimento de restauro para remocao de sais insoluveis sobre pinturas murais na igreja da Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP) com acompanhamento por equipamento portatil de EDXRF (fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao em energia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Marcia [MRizzo Restauracoes - Laboratorio de Conservacao e Restauracao de Bens Culturais Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Parreira, Paulo Sergio, E-mail: appoloni@uel.b, E-mail: parreira@uel.b [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the proposition and application procedure for removal of insoluble salts, deposited on the surface of a wall painting in water-soluble, as well as the physical-chemical study with fluorescence X-ray in situ, that support and/or validated the restoration decision making

  3. Contributions of the nursing intervention in primary healthcare for the promotion of breastfeeding Contribuciones de la intervención de enfermería de cuidados de salud primarios para la promoción del amamantamiento materno Contributos da intervenção de enfermagem de cuidados de saúde primários para a promoção do aleitamento materno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Carvalho da Graça

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the contributions of the Primary Healthcare nursing interventions, with primiparae in the promotion of breastfeeding. This is a quasi-experimental, longitudinal study, with a sample consisting of 151 primiparae, who had less than 28 weeks of pregnancy, with the child living for at least six months after the birth, performed between 15 October 2007 and 29 February 2008. Almost all the women initiated breastfeeding, with a sharp decline verified in the prevalence at six months. The mean duration of breastfeeding was 123.8±68.9 days. The intervention that began in the prepartum and continued into the postpartum period, using various strategies (individual consultation, preparation courses for parenting/childbirth, and domicile visits and intervention contexts (health services and domicile had significant effects on the duration of breastfeeding, which was not verified in the prevalence.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar las contribuciones de las intervenciones de enfermeras de Cuidados de Salud Primarios, con primíparas, en la promoción del amamantamiento materno. Se trata de un estudio casi experimental, longitudinal, con una muestra de 151 primíparas, con menos de 28 semanas de embarazo entre 15 de Octubre de 2.007 y 29 de Febrero de 2.008, con hijos vivos después de seis meses del parto. La casi totalidad de las mujeres inició el amamantamiento materno, verificándose una quiebra acentuada de la prevalencia a los seis meses. La duración promedio del amamantamiento materno fue 123,8±68,9 días. La intervención se inició en el preparto y se prolongó para el posparto, con diversidad de estrategias (consulta individual, curso de preparación para la paternidad/parto, y visita domiciliaria y contextos de intervención (servicios de salud y domicilio tuvo efectos significativos en la duración del amamantamiento materno, lo que no fue verificando en la prevalencia.O presente estudo teve como objetivo

  4. SOBRE CORPORALIDADE E ESCOLARIZAÇÃO: CONTRIBUIÇÕES PARA A REORIENTAÇÃO DAS PRÁTICAS ESCOLARES DA DISCIPLINA DE EDUCAÇÃO FÍSICA ON CORPORALITY AND SCHOOLING: CONTRIBUTIONS FOR A REORIENTATION OF SCHOOL PRACTICES IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION SOBRE CORPORALIDAD Y ESCOLARIZACIÓN:CONTRIBUCIONES PARA LA REORIENTACIÓN DE LAS PRACTICAS ESCOLARES DE LA DISCIPLINA EDUCACIÓN FÍSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-12-01

    understanding of the corporal practices that considers elements beyond the corporal movement. Este artículo reúne contribuciones al debate sobre la constitución de directrices curriculares para lo enseño de Educación Física en la provincia de Paraná, Brasil. Después de presentado el contexto en lo cual se generó el texto – que resultó también de debates con profesores escolares de la provincia – si discute una concepción para la disciplina Educación Física en la escuela, espacio pedagógico en lo cual el cuerpo es protagonista. Se presenta entonces una serie de conceptos y argumentos en favor de la corporalidad con centro articulador de las clases de Educación Física que, por su vez, pueden ser organizadas en cuatro ejes: el cuerpo que brinca y aprende, potencial expresivo del cuerpo, desarrollo corporal y construcción de la salud, relación del cuerpo con el mundo del trabajo. Se argumenta, en correspondencia con el concepto de corporalidad presentado, por una comprensión más ancha de las practicas corporales que considere elementos mas allá del movimiento corporal.

  5. O modelo bioecológico: desvendando contribuições para a práxis da enfermagem diante da violência doméstica El modelo bioecológico: contribuciones a la divulgación de la praxis de enfermería relacionados con la violencia doméstica Bioecological model: unveiling contributions to the nursing practice within domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Maria da Silva Batista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um artigo de reflexão que teve o objetivo de discutir sobre os elementos do Modelo Bioecológico do Desenvolvimento Humano de Bronfenbrenner com a expectativa de encontrar contribuições para o conhecimento de enfermagem e sua práxis na interface com a violência doméstica. Compreender a complexidade do ser humano na perspectiva bioecológica possibilita o desenvolvimento de uma práxis transformadora no contexto da atuação da enfermeira diante da demanda de cuidados à pessoa que vivencia este tipo de violência. Considera-se que esta teoria sobre o desenvolvimento humano traz em sua estrutura elementos constituintes das inter-relações da pessoa e o ambiente ao seu entorno, como fatores determinantes na formação do indivíduo. Assim, ao se apropriar deste modelo, a enfermagem amplia o seu olhar sobre a multidimensionalidade humana, o que pode refletir no cuidado perante as situações de violência doméstica.Este es un artículo de reflexión que tuvo el propósito de discutir los elementos del modelo Bioecológico de Desarrollo Humano Bronfenbrenner, esperando encontrar las contribuciones al conocimiento y práctica de enfermería en su interface con la violencia doméstica. Comprender la complejidad de los seres humanos en la perspectiva bioecológica permite el desarrollo de una praxis transformadora en el marco de las acciones del enfermo frente a la demanda de atención a la persona que experimenta este tipo de violencia. Se considera que esta teoría sobre el desarrollo humano trae en su estructura elementos de relaciones interpersonales y el ambiente con su entorno, tales como factores determinantes en la formación del individuo. Así, la enfermería al apropiarse de este modelo amplía su mirada en el ser humano multidimensional, que puede reflexionar sobre su práctica frente a las situaciones de violencia doméstica.It is a reflection paper which objectified to discuss the elements of Bronfenbrenner

  6. Influência de diferentes teores de sólidos insolúveis suspensos nas características reológicas de sucos de abacaxi naturais e despectinizados Influence of different contents of insoluble suspended solidS on rheological characteristics of natural and despectinized pineapple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre José de Melo Queiroz

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, neste trabalho, a influência dos sólidos insolúveis suspensos nas características reológicas de sucos de abacaxi in natura e sucos tratados com enzima pectinolítica. Cada um dos dois tipos de suco foi estudado através de seis frações, divididas em quatro peneiradas, uma centrifugada e uma integral, representando seis teores de sólidos insolúveis suspensos. Os dados reométricos foram coletados através de um reômetro Haake rotovisco e os dados experimentais ajustados pelo modelo de Mizrahi-Berk. Das seis frações in natura, quatro apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico, uma caracterizou-se como newtoniana e outra como dilatante enquanto das seis frações tratadas enzimaticamente cinco apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e uma caracterizou-se como newtoniana. O teor de sólidos insolúveis suspensos mostrou-se o principal fator responsável pelo comportamento reológico dos sucos de abacaxi naturais e despectinizados.The influence of insoluble suspended solid contents in rheological characteristics of pineapple juice, both natural and treated with pectinolytic enzymes, was studied. Each type of juice was examined by six fractions, divided into four sievings, one centrifuged and the others whole, representing six contents of insoluble suspended solids. The rheometric data were collected by means of Haake rotovisco rheometer and the experimental data were adjusted by the Mizrahi-Berk model. In the natural material four fractions showed pseudoplastic behaviour, one characterized as newtonian and the others as dilatant, whereas in the enzyme treated material, five fractions presented pseudoplastic behaviour and one was characterized as newtonian. The insoluble suspended solid content was found to be the principal factor responsible for this rheological behaviour of natural and despectinized pineapple juices.

  7. PAULO FREIRE’S CONTRIBUTIONS TO CRITICAL PEDAGOGY: “EMANCIPATORY EDUCATION: THE INFLUENCE OF PAULO FREIRE ON THE GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP” OR “THE INFLUENCE OF PAULO FREIRE ON AN EDUCATION TOWARDS FREEDOM AND AUTONOMY” CONTRIBUCIONES DE PAULO FREIRE A LA PEDAGOGÍA CRÍTICA: “EDUCACIÓN EMANCIPATORIA: LA INFLUENCIA DE PAULO FREIRE EN LA CIUDADANÍA GLOBAL” O “LA INFLUENCIA DE PAULO FREIRE EN UNA EDUCACIÓN PARA LA LIBERTAD Y LA AUTONOMÍA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Freire

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on Paulo Freire’s contributions to a Critical Pedagogyabout the question “Emancipatory education: the influence of Paulo Freire on the globalcitizenship” or “The influence of Paulo Freire on an education towards freedom andautonomy”. I need to talk about these questions not just as word sentences, as sentenceswithout content, but as words/sentences, which may transform the World giving us areason to be in terms of politics, ethics, and philosophy. I would analyze the first questionis several parts, going back and for in order to demonstrate step by step that there isan ideological proposition embedded on this question that refuses a whole idea which iscoherent and important in the field of the true Critical Pedagogy, a freirean politicalethical-transformative perspective towards freedom and autonomy.Este artículo está centrado en las contribuciones de Paulo Freire a la PedagogíaCrítica sobre la cuestión “Educación emancipadora: la influencia de Paulo Freireen la ciudadanía global” o “La influencia de Paulo Freire en una educación para la libertady la autonomía”. Necesito hablar de estas cuestiones no sólo como meras palabras,como frases vacías de significado, sino como palabras/frases que pueden transformar elmundo dándonos una razón de ser en términos de política, ética y filosofía. Analizaré laprimera cuestión en diferentes partes, invirtiendo el orden de su enunciado para demostrarpaso a paso que hay una proposición ideológica inserta en esta cuestión que rechazaun todo coherente e importante en el ámbito de la verdadera Pedagogía Crítica, unaperspectiva freireana política-ética-transformadora para la libertad y la autonomía.

  8. Diversidad, música y competencia social y ciudadana: contribuciones de la experiencia musical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bermell Corral, M.ª Ángeles

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational legislation is obliged to ensure the curriculum is adapted to enable the full development of the necessary basic skills. Teachers have to differentiate pupils’ curricula according to their cognitive, cultural and social constraints, so that each individual can develop into a socially competent citizen. This article describes how musical experience is affordable, effective and motivating for pupils included classed as requiring “attention to diversity,” and how it can contribute to this group’s acquisition of social and civic competences. In attention to diversity, music in has a vital role in primary schools, boosting self-esteem, independence, initiative, and contributing to the development of essential social and civic skills considered essential for sociocultural development.La legislación educativa tiene la obligación de garantizar las adaptaciones curriculares necesarias para desarrollar al máximo las Competencias Básicas. El profesorado debe diferenciar el currículo de los educandos en función de sus limitaciones cognitivas, culturales y sociales, para que todos puedan convertirse en ciudadanos competentes socialmente. Este artículo muestra cómo la experiencia musical es accesible, efectiva y motivadora para el alumnado incluido en la atención a la diversidad, y cómo debido a ello podrá contribuir a la adquisición de la competencia social y ciudadana por este colectivo. Entonces, la Música en la atención a la diversidad en Primaria tiene un papel vital, puesto que además de incrementar la autoestima, la autonomía, la iniciativa personal, contribuirá al desarrollo de la competencia social y ciudadana considerada imprescindible para un adecuado desarrollo sociocultural.

  9. Nuevas contribuciones en el comportamiento cinegético de la Cueva de Amalda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yravedra Saínz de los Terreros, José

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Con frecuencia cuando en los yacimientos arqueológicos aparece fauna asociada a restos líticos, ésta suele interpretarse como la consecuencia de una actividad antrópica. Sin embargo dependiendo de la cronología de dichas asociaciones, los juicios de valor vertidos sobre ellas difieren, de manera que ante contextos del Pleistoceno Inferior o Medio se discute el grado de intervención que puedan tener cediendo un papel predominante a otros agentes como los carnívoros, restringiendo al ser humano a un segundo plano como carroñero. Por el contrario en contextos del Pleistoceno Superior y concretamente para el Paleolitico Superior es frecuente la asunción de vincular las acumulaciones osteologicas a la acción humana con independencia de que se realicen estudios tafonómicos. Ante esto la tafonomía se ha destacado como una ciencia imprescindible para la correcta comprensión de las concentraciones óseas, y por ello los yacimientos deben ser analizados desde este punto de vista. En este trabajo se plantea una revisión tafonómica de los macrovertebrados de la Cueva de Amalda, y la evidencias que ofrecen difieren notablemente de las interpretaciones iniciales de ALTUNA (1990, así como de las asunciones que interpretan este yacimiento como un cazadero de recursos de montaña.

  10. Contribuciones tecnicas para la medida de la contaminacion electromagnetica de microondas. Estudio en diversas poblaciones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura Garcia, Jaume

    La contaminacion ambiental por campos electromagneticos ha resultado ser en estos ultimos anos uno de los problemas mas acuciantes del panorama tecnologico y de salud publica. En el primero de los casos porque las inversiones realizadas son enormes y en el segundo porque cada vez es mayor el numero de articulos, "technical reports" e informes medicos que afirman la existencia de una cierta causalidad, aunque sea debil, entre los campos electromagneticos y ciertos cuadros sintomatologicos. En nuestro caso, hemos dedicado bastantes esfuerzos a investigar el llamado "sindrome de radiofrecuencia / microondas", denominado asi en la literatura cientifica por presentarse en operarios de estaciones de radar y en trabajadores de potentes emisoras de radio y television. En esta memoria presentamos un resumen del trabajo realizado durante los ultimos anos en la medida de la contaminacion electromagnetica ambiental asociado a las comunicaciones inalambricas. En ella se recogen los fundamentos fisicos y propiedades de las ondas electromagneticas, la tecnologia empleada en los sistemas de telefonia celular y los antecedentes relativos a la investigacion de la interaccion de las ondas electromagneticas con organismos vivos. Se desarrolla un procedimiento de medida que ha conducido a la elaboracion de los primeros "mapas de radiofrecuencia" similares, en el aspecto descriptivo, a los mapas de ruido desarrollados en el area de la contaminacion acustica. Por ultimo, se analiza la respuesta subjetiva de los residentes, personas que viven en el entorno de cobertura de las estaciones base de telefonia movil y que se ven sometidos a determinados niveles de radiacion electromagnetica, con el fin de situar este fenomeno al nivel que le corresponde en el ambito de la respuesta subjetiva ciudadana.

  11. Contribuciones a la automatización de diseños analógicos

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Orzaez, Jorge Jesús

    1996-01-01

    La automatización del diseño analógico ha experimentado en los últimos años, un notable avance. La popularidad alcanzada por los circuitos ASICs, y la constatación de que la mayor parte de ellos contiene una importante circuitería analógica, son las causa

  12. En torno a la cultura popular y los conceptos de cultura: Contribuciones a un debate permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz G. Viana, Luis

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available «Popular culture» is a confusing term and an elusive matter. Historians and anthropologists have been concerned with it for ages and know quite well the difficulties in characterizing what is or is not «popular culture» in any period of european history. On the other hand, the author suggests here that the «invention» of «popular culture» starts earlier than supposed, with the persecution of paganism. The aim of this paper is to show that discussion about «popular culture» is more related to the concept of «culture» than to the several meanings of the term «people».«Cultura popular» es un término confuso y un asunto difícil de aprehender. Historiadores y antropólogos se han visto afectados por ello durante mucho tiempo y conocen bien las dificultades que tiene el caracterizar lo que es o no «cultura popular» en uno u otro período de la historia de Europa. De otro lado, aquí se propone que la «invención» de la «cultura popular» comienza a producirse en nuestro ámbito mucho antes de lo que generalmente se viene suponiendo, con la persecución del paganismo. El propósito de este trabajo consiste en mostrar que la discusión sobre la «cultura popular» tiene más relación con el concepto de «cultura» que con los diferentes significados que demos a las palabras «popular» o «pueblo».

  13. INVESTIGACIÓN: COMPRENSIÓN DE LA TEORÍA DEL PERIODISMO (CONTRIBUCIONES COLOMBIANAS

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    Raúl Hernando Osorio Vargas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La historia del periodismo es un espacio de contactos y préstamos. Por ese motivo, la investigación en periodismo tiene una agenda amplia y compleja que abarca, entre otros, temas como: el proceso de producción periodística y su construcción del lenguaje a través de diferentes formas, estructuras y tiempos; metodología, epistemología e investigación cualitativa en periodismo; historia de los periodistas y del periodismo. Es decir, las múltiples relaciones del periodismo con la cultura, la memoria, las teorías sociales y el discurso, campos que han sido abordados e investigados en Iberoamérica. Sin embargo, la pregunta sobre nuestro etos profesional continúa siendo el eje transversal de la investigación, no solo en el continente americano, sino en el mundo. Es fundamental en nuestra existencia y en el análisis profundo de ese conjunto de características y modos de comportamiento que conforman el carácter y la identidad de nuestra profesión.

  14. Contribuciones al conocimiento de las Magnoliácea de Colombia, V

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    Lozano Contreras Gustavo

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available La consecución de material adicional de Magnoliaceae del sur de Colombia permite establecer dos nuevos taxa, ubicados en los géneros Dugandiodendron y Talauma, respectivamente.Al igual que Talauma dixonii Little y Dugandiodendron striatifolium (Little G. Lozano-c., conocidas de Esmeraldas, Ecuador, las nuevas especies reciben el nombre vernáculo de "Cucharillo". Como ocurre con otras magnoliáceas, la madera de estas especies es muy apreciada, por lo cual se les explota a pesar de la prohibición vigente en cuanto a tala; más aún, las especies que se describen están en peligro de extincion yes difícil obtener material completo de las mismas.  Los "cucharillos" han sido elementos importantes en la composición de la selva pluvial macrotérmica de la región tropical occidental ubicada en el Departamento de Nariño.

  15. CONTRIBUCION AL CONOCIMIENTO DEL GENERO CLADONIA (CLADONIACEAE-LIQUENES DE ARGENTINA Y REGIONES LIMITROFES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia I. Ferraro

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Cladonia subradiata (Vain. Sandst. se reporta como nueva para la Argentina y Paraguay, C.turgidior (Nyl. Ahti para la Argentina, y C.peziziform, es (With. Laundon para Paraguay. Cladonia ramulosa (With. Laundon y C.humilis (With. Laundon se reportan por primera vez para el norte de Argentina. Cinco especies de Cladonia son reconocidas ahora en la provincia de Corrientes. Se presenta una clave e ilustraciones.

  16. Contribuciones para el desarrollo de programas para talentosos dentro del centro educativo

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    Sheyla Blumen de Pardo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Un gran número de alumnos en nuestros centros educativos posee habilidades de aprendizaje extraordinarias y talentos especiales en tal grado que sus necesidades educativas no logran ser totalmente cubiertas en los programas escolares regulares. Los programas educativos para niños talentosos son una parte lógica y esencial de cualquier programa escolar que reconozca y respete las diferencias individuales entre sus alumnos. La filosofía que guía esta propuesta se basa en que: (1 el niño es un ser humano único que posee habilidades y necesidades educativas individualizadas y (2 es responsabilidad de nuestros centros educativos primero identificar estas necesidades y habilidades y luego proveer el tipo de experiencias educativas que tiendan a satisfacer las necesidades individuales y desarrollar las habilidades de cada niño al máximo de sus potencialidades. A number of students in our schools possess learning abilities and specialized talents to such degree that their educational needs cannot be met in a regular school program. Special educational programs for the gifted and talented are an essential part of any school program which recognizes and respects individual differences among its pupils. The philosophy which guides our proposal is based on the belief that: (1 each child is a unique human being who possesses individual educational needs and abilities; and (2 it is the responsibility of our schools, first to identify those needs and abilities and then, to provide the educational experiences for meeting individual needs and developing each child's abilities to the fullest degree.

  17. Contribuciones al conocimiento de la flora del País Vasco (VIII

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    Aizpuru, I., Aperribay, J.A., Garin, I., Garmendia, J., Olariaga, I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nueva entrega con datos de interés acerca de la distribución de 18 taxones de plantas raras en el País Vasco. A destacar el hallazgo de dos nuevas especies de árboles - Prunus padus L. y Ulmus laevis Pallas- para Gipuzkoa y la ampliación de área de Woodwardia radicans (L. Sm. hasta Navarra

  18. ARG (juegos de realidad alternativa. Contribuciones, limitaciones y potencialidades para la docencia universitaria

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    Teresa Piñeiro Otero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La ludificación de la educación ha representado una oportunidad para fomentar la interacción, la motivación y la participación del alumnado. Los ARG (las siglas inglesas de juegos de realidad alternativa ofrecen una nueva herramienta altamente inmersiva que puede implementarse en el logro de los objetivos docentes. Uno de sus puntos fuertes consiste en la suma de esfuerzos y recursos (la llamada inteligencia colectiva aplicada a la resolución de problemas. A esto se añade su combinación de plataformas en los entornos online y offline, lo que favorece el «realismo» de la experiencia. En este sentido, el presente trabajo pretende condensar las potencialidades, limitaciones y retos de los ARG al servicio de la educación universitaria. Basándose, a nivel metodológico, en la elaboración de un corpus teórico relevante y adecuado, analiza el potencial educativo de esta herramienta que, en ámbitos como el marketing o la comunicación corporativa ya ha despegado con éxito, pero que en el área educativa todavía no había sido abordada en profundidad. Recopila, además, ejemplos satisfactorios que se han desarrollado en diversas disciplinas académicas en otros países y que no resultan fácilmente localizables. Se concluye que, dados los antecedentes, potencialidades y análisis expuesto, debe valorarse la posibilidad de incorporar los juegos de realidad alternativa a la práctica de la docencia universitaria en el marco de una estrategia educativa que determine sus objetivos y sistema de evaluación más adecuado.

  19. Religiones de Origen Africana Cordialmente Discriminadas en Brasil: Contribuciones Interculturales Pluralistas

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    Jayme Weingartner Neto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El texto trata de religiones de origen africana en Brasil, de la historia a la persistencia de la intolerancia y discriminación. Por medio de pesquisas bibliográficas y documentales, está anclada en la "sociología de las ausencias" y postula una "ecología de los reconocimientos". Parte desde la violencia estructural de la esclavitud y destaca la invisibilidad relativa de las religiones afro, énfasis en el candomblé, una minoría según el sistema censitario y la ausencia de obras panorámicas. Señala algunos conflictos interculturales (sacrificio de animales, feriado, discurso del odio y concluye con perspectivas normativas pluralistas en el sentido de la igualdad racial.

  20. Acción colectiva y educación popular: Contribuciones para un conocimiento emancipatorio

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    Ricardo Delgado

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El texto recoge los planteamientos expuestos en el Congreso Internacional Vecindades y Fronteras en abril de 2010, en Bogotá. Acogiendo los referentes centrales expuestos por B. De Sousa en su empeño por renovar la teoría crítica y reinventar la emancipación social, el artículo presenta una reflexión acerca de la invención y actualización de un conocimiento emancipatorio desde la acción colectiva que emprenden los movimientos sociales en el contexto de América Latina. De igual manera, es de su interés destacar algunas relaciones y retos que se establecen entre los movimientos sociales y los procesos de educación popular, respecto a la necesidad de potenciar una pedagogía crítica de la traducción cultural que propicie el diálogo y el intercambio de una ecología de los saberes entre los movimientos sociales, las ONGs y los científicos sociales, generando espacios de aprendizaje colectivo que revitalicen las acciones sociales y las redes locales y globales de conocimiento orientado hacia la trasformación social.

  1. Contribuciones geográficas al desarrollo rural del Perú

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    Hildegardo Córdova Aguilar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Contributions to the Rural Development of PerúTraditionally, Geography is understood as an academic science which main function is toprovide basic knowledge about territories but of less use for practical means; that is why it has been associated to History and therefore the least interest given by the Latin American policy makers when designing educational programs.The objective of this paper is to show that geographers are significantly contributing tosustainable development issues in different geographical environments, be these urban and rural.To do this I will show an experience on sustainable rural development in the Sierra of Piura, as an example of the application of the geographic and environmental knowledge, sensitizing the rural people to their ecosystems’ potential and the strategies for action in front of climate change.In a preliminary study there were identified the structural problems that impede sustainable development by information workshops and awareness to the teachers and community and municipal leaders. In a second stage we are working with peasants of two different ecological zones to inform them of their potential in plant resources and the ways how they may take advantage to put them at the urban markets, thus increasing their economic assets. To do this, we propose to help them in searching for those markets and provide advice in order to get just prices for their products.It is too early to quantitatively talk on the results because plants have a production cycle that needs to be experimented before they are distributed to the final stakeholders. Of course, this research is interdisciplinary and the geographers’ participation is due to their fine knowledge of the ecosystems and places where the experience is being done.Tradicionalmente, la geografía es entendida como una ciencia académica que funciona bien proporcionando conocimientos básicos sobre los territorios, pero de poca aplicación práctica; de allí su asociación con la historia y el escaso interés que muestran los estrategas de políticas educativas en América Latina.El objetivo de este artículo es mostrar que los geógrafos vienen contribuyendo de manera muy significativa en temas de desarrollo sostenible en los diferentes ámbitos de los espacios geográficos, sean urbanos o rurales. Se tomará una experiencia de desarrollo rural aplicada a la sierra de Piura como muestra de la aplicación de los conocimientos geográficos ambientales, sensibilizando a las poblaciones rurales acerca de los potenciales de sus ecosistemas y de las estrategias de acción frente al cambio climático. En un primer estudio se identificaron los problemas estructurales que impiden el desarrollo sostenible con talleres de información y sensibilización dirigidos a los maestros y líderes comunales y municipales. En un segundo momento se viene trabajando con campesinos de dos zonas ecológicas distintas para informarles de sus potencialidades en recursos vegetales y de la forma cómo podrían aprovecharlos como complementode la agricultura e incrementar de esa manera sus ingresos económicos. También se buscarán mercados para los productos y se les asesorará en la comercialización buscando precios justos.Los resultados todavía no pueden cuantificarse porque las plantas tienen un ciclo productivo que necesita ser ensayado antes de distribuirlas a los usuarios. Por supuesto que el trabajo es interdisciplinario y la participación de los geógrafos está en el conocimiento fino que tienen del funcionamiento de los ecosistemas de los lugares de intervención

  2. CONTRIBUCIONES DE LOS TRABAJOS PRÁCTICOS EN LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DEL CONCEPTO SISTEMA NERVIOSO

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    Miguel Angel Martinez Parra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sin duda, el trabajo práctico y, en particular, la actividad de laboratorio constituyen un hecho diferencial propio de la enseñanza de las ciencias. En el presente trabajo, se tomó como punto focal la implementación de trabajos prácticos con el fin de apoyar la construcción del concepto sistema nervioso a partir de dos sesiones de clase y una práctica de laboratorio. Se tuvo en cuenta como punto de partida las ideas previas que presentaban los estudiantes en cuanto a las estructuras del sistema nervioso humano y a partir de estas ideas de realizo una teorización acerca del sistema nervioso comparado donde se abordaron diferentes grupos taxonómicos, la cual dio soporte a la realización del ejerció práctico el cual consistió en la disección de un encéfalo de ave.  Se evidencian aspectos favorables en la capacidad de establecer relaciones entre teoría y práctica, mediante la disección del encéfalo de un ave. El grueso de los estudiantes dio cuenta de las estructuras y funciones del sistema nervioso. Finalmente, se logró por medio de los trabajos prácticos contribuir a la construcción del concepto sistema nervioso de tal manera que los estudiantes lograban relacionar sus estructuras con el funcionamiento del cuerpo.

  3. Hábeas Corpus: contribuciones a la causa del estado de derecho

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    Norma Bouyssou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available La garantía del hábeas corpus despliega, con total humildad, razones para la permanente expansión de la libertad o bien para su contínuo resguardo. Su bajo perfil, sin embargo, es confundido con indiferencia en orden a su compromiso con la causa de la ciencia del derecho; ello se explica, por un lado, debido a la generalizada creencia que su reconocimiento expreso como derecho positivo -en los más altos niveles normativos-, es anticuerpo suficiente para puestas en peligro o atentados directos contra la autonomía personal a manos del Estado y, por el otro, lógicamente anclado en el predio precedente, en una suerte de desubicación contemporánea frente a un punto de partida de contención teorético (y en desuso del abuso del poder político, al que no obstante se le exigen soluciones con mayor intervención fáctica (y menos frenos en las relaciones sociales, aunque necesariamente adecuadas al orden anterior. Corresponde exponer la disconformidad con los pies en claves propias a la ciencia jurídica, sin hacer a un lado lo pragmático, método dual que se aplicará sobre la excursión que sigue, a la que se invita.

  4. Contribuciones al conocimiento de la flora del País Vasco, II

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    AIZPURU, I., APERRIBAY, J.A., ASEGINOLAZA, C., GARIN, F., VIVANT, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cuscuta scandens Brot. subsp. cesatiana (BERTOL. Soó, Fallopia sachalinensis (FRIEDERICH SCHMIDT PETROP. Ronse Decraene, Galium debile Desv., Geum hispidum Fries y Myosurus minimus L.; se combina, además, Apium graveolens L. subsp. butronensis (D. GOMEZ and G. MONTSERRAT I. AIZPURU, stat. nov.

  5. CONTRIBUCIONES DE LOS TRABAJOS PRÁCTICOS EN LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DEL CONCEPTO SISTEMA NERVIOSO

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Angel Martinez Parra; Maria Natalia Rangel Silva; Wilson Cepeda Benavides

    2015-01-01

    Sin duda, el trabajo práctico y, en particular, la actividad de laboratorio constituyen un hecho diferencial propio de la enseñanza de las ciencias. En el presente trabajo, se tomó como punto focal la implementación de trabajos prácticos con el fin de apoyar la construcción del concepto sistema nervioso a partir de dos sesiones de clase y una práctica de laboratorio. Se tuvo en cuenta como punto de partida las ideas previas que presentaban los estudiantes en cuanto a las estructuras del siste...

  6. Padres, profesores y pares: contribuciones para la autoestima y coping en los adolescentes

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    Catarina Pinheiro Mota

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En consonancia con la teoría del apego, la calidad de la relación con figuras significativas juegan un papel clave en el desarrollo psicosocial, contribuyendo, entre otras cosas, para el desarrollo de la autoestima y estrategias de coping. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la contribución diferencial de variables relacionales (incluidas las relaciones con los padres, pares y profesores en la predicción de la autoestima y coping en una muestra de 216 adolescentes, entre 14 y 16 años y de ambos sexos. El apego a los padres, las relaciones con los pares y con profesores revelaron diferentes configuraciones de las variables en la explicación de la autoestima y coping. La autoestima es positivamente predicha por la calidad de lazo emocional y negativamente por la inhibición de la exploración y la individualidad en la vinculación a los padres. El coping activo es positivamente predicho por la autoestima y la relación a los pares. Se observó un efecto positivo e indirecto de la calidad del lazo emocional en el coping activo a través de la autoestima y la relación a los pares. La relación con los pares parece ser mejorada por la calidad de la relación con los profesores. Los resultados serán discutidos en función de la teoría del apego y de acuerdo con una perspectiva ecológica del desarrollo.

  7. Contribuciones electrónicas a la Bruc 03 para la SMC

    OpenAIRE

    Santolaria Carceller, Javier

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es plasmar la labor desarrollada durante el año del departamento de tren de potencia de Ampeer Team. Por otro lado, ejecutar una serie de mejoras que tras el desarrollo de la competición Smart Moto Challenge Barcelona (SMC B) se vieron necesarias en vistas a la competición de Smart Moto Challenge Moscow (SMC M) que se realizará en octubre del 2015. Además, y con el afán de desarrollar una herramienta necesaria para los integrantes del equipo del siguiente año, otro...

  8. Contribuciones a la técnica de la prostatectomía suprapúbica

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    Fabio Murillo Rivera

    1949-01-01

    Full Text Available En el panorama quirúrgico de la Urología domina el problema de la obstrucción prostática y hacia él se han dirigido la mayoría de las inquietudes de todo cirujano que transita en este delicado campo; su máxima aspiración es rodear al paciente de las mejores condiciones para realizar el acto operatorio, proporcionar la mayor seguridad para su vida durante aquél, empleando la técnica más apropiada a su caso particular, darle un período postoperatorio cómodo y rápido, y por sobre todo, alcanzar resultados finales satisfactorios desde el punto de vista funcional. Así vemos que en transcurso evolutivo de la cirugía prostática han aparecido diversidad de técnicas y preceptos para lograr esta finalidad, no de otra manera hubiéramos conocido las ventajas de los métodos transuretrales, la vía perineal, la clásica suprapúbica en uno o en dos tiempos y posteriormente la técnica de la prostatectomía retropúbica de Terence Millin con las modificaciones aconsejadas por Oswald Lowsley.

  9. La diversidad sexual: contribuciones para pensar el vínculo de pareja

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Objetivos: El presente trabajo, se propone: - Delimitar diferentes aproximaciones al estudio de la sexualidad - Deslindar el impacto de las categorías de género e identidad en el abordaje teórico de la diversidad sexual. Metodología: Se realiza un análisis cualitativo de contenido bibliográfico que incluye, entre otras actividades: identificación de fuentes bibliográficas (primarias 15 y secundarias), sistematización de los datos relevados y análisis de los resultados.

  10. Contribuciones al conocimiento del género Phragmotheca Cuatr. (Bombacaceae-Quararibeae

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    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available The systematic position of Phragmotheca in the tribe quararibeae is discussed and a key for the Bombacaceae with simple or unifoliolate leaves occurring in northern South America is included. The diagnostic utility of some characters in the segregation of species in Phragmotheca, is reviewed and a diagnostic key is presented. Four new species and two new infraspecific taxa are described and illustrated: P.rubriflora, P.lemniscata, P.hydra, P.siderosa subsp. megacarpa and P. amazonica varo leticiana from Colombia and P.sidereotricha from Perú.Se comenta la posición sistemática de Phragmotheca en relación con la tribu Quararibeae y se incluye una clave para la separación de los géneros de bombacáceas de hoja entera o unifoliolada del norte de Suramérica. Se revisa la utilidad de algunos caracteres en la separación de las especies y se presenta una clave diagnóstica. Se describen e ilustran 4 nuevas especies y dos taxones infraespecíficos P. rubriflora, P. lemniscata, P. hydra, P. siderosa subsp. megacarpa, P. amazonica varo leticiana de Colombia y P. sidereotricha de Perú.

  11. Contribuciones de la formación en el área de materiales

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    Juan Manuel Vélez Restrepo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de reflexión sustenta que el conocimiento sobre materiales y su procesamiento son factores clave del desarrollo tecnológico e industrial. Se muestra la relación entre la dinámica de la innovación y la tecnología de materiales, evidenciada en las revoluciones industriales de los últimos siglos. Igualmente se plantea el reto que enfrenta el área del conocimiento en materiales ante la escasez de materia prima y la disminución del impacto ambiental derivado de la transformación y la deposición final. Esto ha generado la necesidad de fortalecer la formación científica y profesional en materiales para respaldar los sistemas productivos nacionales y generar valor agregado. Se presenta como evidencia la importancia estratégica de los materiales en diferentes países para el desarrollo tecnológico. Finalmente el fuerte incremento de programas de postgrado en el área de materiales en Colombia se discute frente al reducido número de programas de pregrado en Ingeniería de materiales.

  12. Contribucion al estudio del comportamiento osmolar bajo la influencia de las tecnicas de dialisis

    OpenAIRE

    Gamen Pardo, Angel Luis; Cebollada Muro, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    El mantenimiento de la constancia osmolar de los fluidos corporales depende del reconocimiento del desequilibrio osmolar y de su correccion modificando la ingestion de fluidos y solutos, y de su excrecion. Todo esto que ocurre en el hombre sano, no puede ser mantenido en el paciente con insuficiencia renal cronica en programa de hemodialisis, debido a la incapacidad para eliminar por via renal tanto agua como solutos, que se retienen en los compartimientos corporales. Este fallo de la excreci...

  13. EL USO DEL GLIFOSATO UNA CUESTION SOCIOCIENTÍFICA COMO CONTRIBUCION AL CUESTIONAMIENTO DE LA INFORMACION

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    Nidia Yaneth Torres Merchán

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo hace parte de una investigación más amplia, sobre los aportes que hacen las cuestiones socio científicas (CSC al fortalecimiento de las competencias críticas en estudiantes universitarios. En esta comunicación, presentamos  los resultados obtenidos a partir de la discusión de una CSC relacionada con el uso del glifosato en la erradicación de cultivos ilícitos, nos enfocaremos en el análisis que los estudiantes hacen frente a las  declaraciones  de distintos actores que discuten la problemática, los resultados señalan como ese tipo de situaciones contribuye abordar aspectos sociales, éticos, políticos y económicos en la formación de profesores de Ciencias Naturales y Educación Ambiental.

  14. Algunas contribuciones al debate sobre la clínica de las psicosis

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    Juan Manuel Rodríguez

    Full Text Available La clínica de las psicosis plantea la necesidad de establecer una modalidad de tratamiento diferente al tratamiento de las neurosis. Esta practica implica un trabajo multidisciplinario cercano y frecuente en donde se establecen algunas coordenadas fundamentales en el devenir del tratamiento. Asimismo, en el interior del grupo de trabajo se presentan algunos fenómenos similares a la dinámica propia del paciente psicotico, por ello se hace necesario considerar la locura del grupo como un factor dinámico del tratamiento. En este sentido es fundamental partir de la singularidad del paciente para desarrollar el modelo único en cada caso, en el cual la intervención es un elemento que pretende sostener aquello que falla en la dimensión delirante del paciente.

  15. Precariedad laboral en América Latina: contribuciones para un modelo para armar

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    Dasten Julián Vejar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre la precariedad se han extendido ampliamente en la actualidad de las ciencias sociales. Su presencia en las publicaciones científicas, investigaciones, congresos, y otros ámbitos ha tenido eco en los estudios acerca del trabajo. Esta situación permite que se planteen interrogantes sobre las definiciones y las particularidades que presenta la precariedad, como concepto y relación, en la investigación, la comprensión y el análisis de la realidad latinoamericana. Si se toma en cuenta que este debate tuvo su origen, principalmente, en países europeos como Francia y Alemania, se hace necesario problematizar su pertinencia en contextos y configuraciones sociales en los que la protección y el bienestar social no han sido garantías históricas de la política estatal y que tampoco se encuentran asociados a procesos de industrialización o modernidades tempranas. En este artículo se revisan algunas de las propuestas para el estudio y conceptualización de la precariedad laboral en América Latina, articulada a diversas lecturas de las transformaciones del trabajo en el siglo XXI. Se hace un examen general a las propuestas de Enrique de la Garza, Ricardo Antunes, Minor Mora Salas y Diego Piñeiro referentes a los cambios en el trabajo y al diálogo de este proceso con la precariedad laboral en América Latina. Se tiene en cuenta la diversidad de sus enfoques, sus contextos geográficos y temáticos de referencia para poner en tensión la precariedad laboral. A partir de ello, se genera una propuesta de sistematización y de diálogo entre estos diversos enfoques para identificar las condiciones que expresan la particularidad de la realidad social latinoamericana en relación con el fenómeno del trabajo. Se incorporan los debates con respecto a la informalidad, la marginalidad y el trabajo autónomo, así como la colonialidad, el racismo, el patriarcado, la esclavitud y el trabajo forzoso, para dar cuenta de los nudos temáticos que permiten integrar una visión multidimensional de la precariedad. Finalmente, se exponen algunas conclusiones para el estudio empírico de la precariedad laboral en los actuales contextos de neoliberalismo, globalización y diversificación de las formas del trabajo.

  16. Tetrapotassium cis-dioxido-trans-bis(sulfato-κOsulfato(κ2O,O′molybdate(VI

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    Rolf W. Berg

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, K4[MoVIO2(SO43], was precipitated from a melt of molybdenum(VI oxide and potassium sulfate in potassium disulfate. The compound contains monomeric [MoVIO2(SO43]4− anions, with the MoVI atom, both oxide ligands, and the S atom and both ligating O atoms of the bidentate sulfate group lying on a crystallographic mirror plane. One of the potassium cations is nine-coordinate, while the other is eight-coordinate.

  17. Radiation damage in calcium sulfate; Danos de radiacao em sulfato de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Antonio Roberto Pereira Leite

    1977-12-15

    We used the techniques of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) to study the free radicals produced by X-radiation in natural crystals of Gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}0). We observed the formation of four free radicals. The spectra of these radicals are overlapped, being separated by power and temperature variation measurements. Two radicals were univocal identified, as being of OH{sup +} and 0{sub 2}H{sup +}. We suggest the assignment of SO{sub 4}{sup -} and O{sub 2}{sup -} to two other radicals. From angular variation measurements, we determined the components of tensors {r_reversible}g and {r_reversible}A of the radicals OH{sup -} and O{sub 2}H{sup -}. (author)

  18. Octarubidium di-mu-sulfato-kappa O-4:O '-bis[cis-dioxido-cis-disulfatotungstate(VI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhl, Kenny; Berg, Rolf W.

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, Rb8[W2O4(SO4)6], was precipitated from a melt of tungsten(VI) oxide and rubidium sulfate in rubidium disulfate. The unit cell contains two discrete [{WVIO2(SO4)2}2([mu]-SO4)2]8- units connected by Rb-O coordination. The W atom is octahedrally surrounded by two oxide ligands, t...

  19. Sulfate reducing bacteria detection in gas pipelines; Deteccao de bacterias redutoras de sulfato em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutterbach, Marcia Teresa S.; Oliveira, Ana Lucia C. de; Cavalcanti, Eduardo H. de S. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Corrosao e Degradacao]. E-mails: marciasl@int.gov.br; analucia@int.gov.br; eduardoh@int.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    Microbiology induced corrosion (MIC) process associated with sulfate reducing bacteria (BRS) are one of the most important matter of concern for the oil and gas industry as 77% of failures have been attributed this sort of degradation. Corrosion products found present in gas transportation pipelines, the so-called 'black-powder' problem, are also a nuisance and source of economic losses for the gas industry. According to the literature, the incidence of black-powder can be ascribed to the metabolism of BRS that can be found in the gas environment. Integrity monitoring programs of gas pipelines adopt pigging as an important tool for internal corrosion monitoring. Solid residue such as the black-powder, collected by pigging, as well as the condensed, can be seen as a very valuable samples for microbiological analyses that can be used to detect and quantify bacteria related to the incidence of MIC processes. In the present work results concerning samples collected by pigging and condensed are presented. Small populations of viable BRS have been found in the pipeline. It can be seen that the inclusion of microbiological analyses of solid and liquid residues as a complementary action in the integrity monitoring programs adopted by gas transportation industry can be very helpful on the decision making concerning preventive and corrective actions to be taken in order to maintain the CIM processes under control. (author)

  20. Predicción computacional de la estructura terciaria de la iduronato 2-sulfato sulfatasa humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Sáenz

    2007-03-01

    Conclusión. Los valores de RMS y la correlación genotipo-fenotipo en los pacientes analizados sugieren el modelo puede usarse para predecir ciertos aspectos del comportamiento biológico de la enzima.

  1. Poly[diethylenetriammonium [aquadi-μ2-sulfato-sulfatolanthanum(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Rui Wang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {(C4H16N3[La(SO43(H2O]}n, the La atom adopts an irregular LaO9 coordination geometry, including one bonded water molecule. The three sulfate groups adopt both monodentate and bidentate coordination to the metal ions. Two of the sulfate groups serve as bridges in the (100 and (010 directions, yielding infinite sheets, whereas the third is pendant to one La3+ cation. The protonated organic species interacts with the layers by way of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, and O–H...O hydrogen bonds involving aqua ligands also occur.

  2. Soluble and insoluble pollutants in fog and rime water samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Stoyanova, V.; Chaloupecký, Pavel; Řezáčová, Daniela; Tsacheva, Ts.; Kupenova, T.; Marinov, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, Sp. Iss. 2 (2009), S123-S130 ISSN 1801-5395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1918; GA AV ČR 1QS200420562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : fog water * rime water * pollutant concentration Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  3. Comparing word and face recognition: an insoluble conundrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Ro Julia; Starrfelt, Randi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between face recognition and visual word recognition/reading has received increasing attention lately. A core question is whether face and word recognition rely on cognitive and cerebral processes that are largely independent, or rather processes that are distributed...... included, as a control, which makes designing experiments all the more challenging. Three main strategies have been used to overcome this problem, each of which has limitations: 1) Compare performances on typical tests of the three stimulus types (e.g., a Face Memory Test, an Object recognition test......). None of these methods, however, has provided measurements that enable direct comparison of performances across categories. We propose a simple framework for classifying tests of face, object, and word recognition according to the level of perceptual processing required to perform each test. Using...

  4. Michaelis - Menten equation for degradation of insoluble substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim

    2017-01-01

    . Such heterogeneous reactions are abundant both in vivo and in industrial application of enzymes but it is not clear whether traditional enzyme kinetic theory developed for homogeneous catalysis can be applied. Since the molar concentration of surface accessible sites (attack-sites) often is unknown for a solid......Kinetic studies of homogeneous enzyme reactions where both the substrate and enzyme are soluble have been well described by the Michaelis–Menten (MM) equation for more than a century. However, many reactions are taking place at the interface of a solid substrate and enzyme in solution...

  5. Characterization of insoluble organic matter of the Lokpanta oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional infrared (IR) spectroscopy was used to get quantitative information on the structure of the isolated kerogen of the Lokpanta oil shales in the Anambra basin. The kerogen was extracted from six shale samples collected from different geographical locations in the basin. Only about 1 to 14% of the kerogen ...

  6. New starch methodology to measure both soluble and insoluble starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch is a natural sugarcane juice impurity that greatly influences raw sugar quality and affects factory and refinery processing. Since the advent of the USDA Starch Research method, the mechanisms in which starch concentration and physical form affects sugar crop processing, conversion, and end-g...

  7. Mixed insoluble acidic salts of tetravalent metals Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakshooki, S.K.; Dehair, A.; Elmismary, Y.; Haraga, S.; Benfaid, N.; Benhamed, A.; Maiof, A.; Szirtes, L.

    1988-01-01

    Solid ZrOCl 2 x8H 2 O was added in a slow stream to a solution of phosphoric acid or to a solution of TiCl 4 in phosphoric acid to obtain granules of amorphous Zr(HPO 4 ) 2 xnH 2 O or Zr x Ti (1-x) (HPO 4 ) 2 xnH-2O (where x=0.95-0.80). It was found that the particle size of the resulting materials is very similar to that of ZrOCl 2 x8H 2 O, in such a way that it may be controlled indirectly. These materials are suitable for ion-exchange column operations. The relatively high gamma radiation doses of 60 Co source did not alter its exchange properties. pH-titrations were performed by an automatic titrimeter and the exchange capacities of alkali metal ions were determined by isotopic tracer technique. Other characterizations were made by usual chemical analysis and thermography. (author) 20 refs.; 4 figs

  8. Proteins of Insoluble Matrix of Avian (Gallus Gallus) Eggshell

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam; Sedláková, Pavla; Mikulíková, Kateřina

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-8 ISSN 0300-8207 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/1044; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : eggshell * avian proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.085, year: 2007

  9. The insoluble question of electric power in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottet, Eric; Lasserre, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    An economic dragon for the last twenty years or so, Vietnam is faced with a strongly growing demand for electric energy. Though the country is rich of many different resources necessary to producing electricity, most of them are available in limited quantities. According to forecasts for the 2030-2050 period, Vietnam's coal and natural gas resources will not be able to meet the national demand. Consequently, Hanoi's main goals are to develop and invest in hydroelectricity, renewable energies and a civil nuclear programme. For lack of rigorous planning, adequate financing and given the tensions in the South China Sea, Vietnam's electric energy production growth plan seems technically, financially and geo-politically unfeasible without the help of foreign actors, ultimately weakening the Party-State

  10. Avaliação do fluxo salivar total não estimulado, após o emprego do lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio associado ao hidróxido de cálcio em pacientes irradiados com carcinoma espinocelular da boca e orofaringe Total salivary non stimulated flow evaluation, after radiotherapy for patients with mouth and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma with the association of lauryl-dietylene-glycol-ether sodium sulphate and calcium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano M. Correia

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Avaliar quantitativamente o índice de fluxo salivar total não estimulado de pacientes portadores de carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe, após tratamento radioterápico, exclusivo, tratados com a associação de lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio e hidróxido de cálcio. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico não randomizado. Método: o fluxo salivar foi avaliado em 11 pacientes (n=11 em três fases: 1ª. durante sete semanas, quando foram submetidos à telecobaltoterapia na dose total de 7.000 cGy, sem utilização de medicamento para estimular a salivação; 2ª. em seguida, durante oito semanas após o tratamento radioterápico, quando os pacientes utilizaram a associação medicamentosa como estimulante da salivação; 3ª. finalmente, durante oito semanas após ter sido interrompido o tratamento com a associação de drogas. Resultados: os valores obtidos foram analisados com vistas a avaliação da eficácia da medicação utilizada para evitar a hipofunção salivar no período pós-radioterapia. Dos 11 pacientes, 10 apresentaram melhora significante dos índices de fluxo salivar com o uso da associação de drogas, em relação aos valores do período final do tratamento radioterápico, e mantiveram esses índices mesmo com a suspensão do medicamento. Conclusões: a associação de drogas foi eficaz no tratamento da hipofunção salivar, e proporcionou aumento do índice salivar total não estimulado em 10 dos 11 pacientes, sendo esse aumento mantido por dois meses após a interrupção do uso do medicamento.Introduction: Evaluation of quantitative non-stimulated salivary flow rate in 11 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma after exclusive radiation therapy, treated with the association of lauryl-diethylene-glycol-ether-sodium sulfate and calcium hydroxide. Study design: Prospective clinical no randomized. Method: salivary flow was evaluated in three phases: 1 during seven

  11. Modificações do método gravimétrico não enzimático para determinar fibra alimentar solúvel e insolúvel em frutos Modifications in the gravimetric non enzymatic method for determination of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonete Barbosa Guerra

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Modificações do tratamento da amostra e da seqüência operacional do método gravimétrico não enzimático foram realizadas, com vistas a simplificá-lo e permitir a quantificação das frações solúvel e insolúvel da fibra alimentar total. MÉTODOS: A influência da liofilização foi inicialmente avaliada em amostras de goiaba e, posteriormente, em acerola, manga, pinha, sapoti e uva. As modificações inerentes à seqüência metodológica foram testadas nos referidos frutos e em abacaxi, caju, maracujá e morango. RESULTADOS: As médias de fibra alimentar total obtidas para goiaba liofilizada e não liofilizada: 10,47%±1,15 e 10,53 %±0,88, respectivamente, demonstram: boa reprodutibilidade do método e inexistência de diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos aplicados à goiaba e demais frutos. Diferentemente do constatado na determinação da Fibra Alimentar Insolúvel, cujo percentual variou de 99,6% para o caju a 54,0% para a acerola, os dados gerados para a fibra alimentar solúvel foram desconsiderados, dada a dispersibilidade apresentada. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados evidenciam que as amostras prescindem da liofilização e que a quantificação da Fibra Alimentar Solúvel requer ajustes na etapa de precipitação.OBJETIVES: Modifications in the treatment of samples and operational sequence of the gravimetric non enzymatic method were carried out in order to simplify it and allow the quantification of soluble and insoluble quantities of the total dietary fiber. METHODS: Lyophilization influence was first evaluated in guava samples and afterward in samples of acerola, mango, sugar apples, sapodilla and grapes. The mentioned fruits and also pineapple, cashew, passion fruit and strawberry were tested for the modifications intrinsic in the methodological sequence. RESULTS: The average total dietary fiber for guava, both lyophilized and non-lyophilized, were: 10.50% ±0.97 and 10.53% ±0.88, respectively

  12. Desarrollo y validación de una nueva tecnología, basada en arginina al 1.5%, un compuesto de calcio insoluble y fluoruro, para el uso diario en la prevención y tratamiento de la caries dental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, D

    2013-10-22

    este artículo discute brevemente la prevalencia de caries, la naturaleza multifactorial de su etiología, el riesgo de caries y el papel y eficacia del fluoruro. Resalta también la investigación sobre el metabolismo bacteriano, que ha aportado conocimientos sobre la defensa natural oral contra la caries y la base para el desarrollo de una nueva tecnología para la prevención diaria y el tratamiento de la caries. Por último, se resume la evidencia que respalda que la tecnología complementa y mejora la eficacia anti-caries de la crema dental con fluoruro. los datos globales muestran que a pesar de la exitosa introducción del fluoruro, la caries dental es una enfermedad prevalente. La experiencia de caries depende del balance entre el consumo de azúcares, la higiene oral y el uso del fluoruro. Hay tres conceptos científicos que son fundamentales en las nuevas mediciones para detectar, tratar y monitorear la caries: (1) la caries dental es un proceso dinámico, (2) la caries dental es un proceso continuo de etapas que van desde reversible (pre-clínica) hasta irreversible (lesiones clínicamente detectables), y (3) el proceso de la caries es un balance de factores patológicos y protectores que pueden modularse para el manejo de la caries. El fluoruro funciona como factor protector al detener y revertir el proceso de la caries, pero el fluoruro no previene los factores patológicos que inician el proceso. Se ha identificado una tecnología novedosa, basada en arginina y un compuesto insoluble de calcio, que está dirigida a la placa dental para prevenir la iniciación del proceso de caries al reducir los factores patológicos. Como los mecanismos de acción de la arginina y el fluoruro son altamente complementarios, se ha desarrollado un nuevo dentífrico que combina la arginina y el fluoruro, y se ha probado clínicamente que brinda una prevención superior contra la caries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Composição e propriedades fisiológico - nutritivas de uma farinha rica em fibra insolúvel obtida do resíduo fibroso de fecularia de mandioca Composition, physiological and nutritive properties of an insoluble high fiber flour obtained from cassava fibrous waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. RAUPP

    1999-05-01

    existentes no comércio.At the brazilian starch industries the production process of sour or fermented cassava starch generates a high quantity of a by-product denominated residual cassava fibrous waste or bagasse. Normally such material is discarded with deleterious effects to the environment or it is utilized, in low quantity, as a component of animal feed. It was prepared in laboratory, from the bagasse, a cassava flour which presented higher insoluble dietary fiber (43.1% and lower starch (47.1%, compared to cassava flours obtained from the market place. The proportions of protein, lipid and ash of the high-fiber flour were similar to commercial flours. In addition, defecation frequency, wet (fresh and dry fecal weight and fecal bulking in rats fed high-fiber flour increased, but It did not interfere in the food efficiency ratio and on the protein efficiency ratio (PER op values. A reduction of the body weight gain, as a result of a decrease in food ingestion, was observed for the treatments containing the high fiber cassava flour. Such results indicate that the high-fiber cassava flour presents nutritional and gastrointestinal properties which allows it to be used as an adequate source of dietary fiber for human nutrition. The cassava fibrous waste may be used as high-fiber cassava flour containing high proportion of insoluble fiber, a distinct feature from the regular commercial flour.

  14. Fibras solúveis e insolúveis de verduras, tubérculos e canela para uso em nutrição clínica Soluble and insoluble fibres of vegetables, tubers and cinnamon for use in enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edma Maria de Araújo

    2009-06-01

    functional (isothiocyanate, indoles, lycopene, carotene, and chlorophyll. They were prepared in water solution and added to a homemade enteral formula. The soluble and insoluble fibres, proximate composition, and water activity (Aw were determined. The foods were added to the homemade enteral formula in the proportion of 100 g/2000 kcal/2 L and in the proportion of 150 g/2000 kcal/2 L to the water. The largest amount of dietary fibre (wet basis was found in the cinnamon (50.11%. The other foods results were: pumpkin, 1.76%, watercress 0.85%, cauliflower 1.51%, yam 1.56%, and tomato 1.00%. The Aw values were between 0.988 and 0.999, and so it indicates that the preparations can therefore be used in enteral diets, but they should be consumed soon after preparation to assure microbiological safety.

  15. Contribuciones de Eliseo Verón a los estudios sobre televisión en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Cavenaghi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the trajectory of Eliseo Verón and its influence on studies of media discourse, this paper aims to observe their impacts in the field of television studies in Brazil. This research is based on the papers published in the National Intercom Congress. By analyzing the articles presented in thematic group called “TV Journalism” and “TV & Video” in the last six years it is possible to verify the importance of the author’s works as a reference. It was observed the author’s concepts, approaches and bibliography used in these papers. As a context for the analysis, we present an overview of the developed theory, while focusing on the basic concepts that can be used as a methodology for the analysis of television products.

  16. Contribution to swelling analysis in ceramic nuclear fuels; Contribucion al analisis del hinchamiento de combustibles nucleares ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Gonzalez, A.

    1976-07-01

    In this work a swelling phenomenological model containing several experimental observation is presented. Observations such as dissolution and redi solution of gas atoms, bubble nucleations in defects, dislocations and grain boundary, bubbles migration and coalescence are included. The model gives a bubbles distribution according to their size and position the swelling rate is calculated through the bubble distribution changes. (Author) 17 refs.

  17. Contribuciones del derecho y el psicoanálisis sobre la memoria y el olvido en el postconflicto colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Elena García Manjarrés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El postconflicto colombiano ocupa el interés del Derecho y de la Ciencia Política, entre otros, por su indiscutible trascendencia, quienes han buscado explicaciones al mismo basándose en las re - gularizaciones que permite la Ley, como la denominada Justicia Transicional, dentro del marco del Derecho Internacional Huma- nitario y los Derechos Humanos. Esto ha adquirido un compro - miso con el lugar que ocupan la memoria y el olvido para la repa- ración del conflicto armado: el legado de una memoria social que permita a sus protagonistas poder significar de un modo diferente los estragos de la guerra. Ahora bien, se propone que la memo- ria y el olvido son funciones que también trascienden el marco le- gal y jurídico, en tanto integran la vida psíquica del sujeto. Es por esto que el psicoanálisis, como disciplina que atiende la singula- ridad que define a cada sujeto en la clínica, puede comprender el impacto que en la subjetividad ha tenido el conflicto armado. Para lo anterior, se realizó una atenta revisión teórica y concep - tual desde el campo del Derecho y el Psicoanálisis sobre las rela- ciones que la memoria y el olvido guardan con las leyes jurídicas y la vida psíquica: si para el Derecho la memoria se propone como un derecho primordial amparado por la Ley, el Psicoanálisis, por su parte, promueve que el sujeto puede hacerse responsable con su memoria de aquello que ha olvidado subjetivamente.

  18. Contribution to the study of gaseous Carburization of Uranium; Contribucion al estudio de la Carburacion gaesosa del uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban Hernandez, J. A.; Jimenez Moreno, J. M.; Villota Ruiz, P. de

    1966-07-01

    Thermal decomposition of uranium hydride powder obtained by hydrogenation of uranium turnings is studied on the first part of this paper. Carburization of the uranium hydride or metallic uranium powder with methane is studied in the second part. A method of uranium monocarbide fabrication under static atmosphere is described. On this method hydrogen is removed by means of an uranium getter. (Author) 6 refs.

  19. Un método para cuantificar las contribuciones de los colaboradores en las publicaciones científicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guallar, S.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A method for quantifying collaborators’ contributions in scientific publications Authorship has become a hot topic in the past decades, especially in the field of biomedical sciences. Concern about this issue is increasing in other sciences as well, due to the importance of authorship for scientific careers and funding. I propose a method to quantify collaborators’ relative contributions to scientific publications, from which contributorship (collaborators who sign the publication and their order of appearance can be established. This method begins with an initial agreement among collaborators based on principles of distribution of credit and weighting contributions to the design, data gathering, analysis, interpretation, writing and administration phases involved in scientific publication. Standardized application of this method with tables showing the percentage of each collaborators’ involvement would contribute to the assessment of scientists’ productivity and the construction of citation indexes Editorials, indexing services, university departments and laboratories should coordinate policies for the attainment of standardized, unified criteria

  20. Reflexiones sobre las contribuciones del pensamiento «decolonial» en la enseñanza del derecho constitucional

    OpenAIRE

    Garay Montañez, Nilda

    2016-01-01

    La corriente «decolonial» —en pleno desarrollo en América Latina— plantea poner en el centro del análisis y del debate académico aquella parte de la Modernidad que sobre la base del racismo y el sexismo trazó el concepto de Estado Moderno así como propició la elaboración de las categorías que hoy sustentan al constitucionalismo. Un constitucionalismo que nace en Occidente y se exporta a otros lugares a pesar de sus particulares dimensiones espaciales-temporales, dejando de lado otras perspect...

  1. Contribuciones de la fenomenologia de Alfred Schutz para las pesquisas sobre el SIDA: consideraciones epistemológicas y metodologicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Oltramari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims at discussing the contributions of Alfred Schutz's phenomenology to the field of research on sexual behavior and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. First, na investigation of the main studies on vulnerability of HIV/AIDS in Brazil was carried out, along with a discussion on the main movement of the epidemic. Then, the phenomenological theory is discussed within the field of the social sciences based on the contributions by Alfred Schutz. Finally, a discussion on the epistemological and methodological application of the phenomenology in the studies on sexual behavior and risk of infection by HIV/Aids is presented, using categories as epoché and intersubjectivity.

  2. Contribuciones de las escalas en salud como herramientas que influencian decisiones en el cuidado de los pacientes

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Luz Rodríguez Acelas; Wilson Cañon Montañez

    2018-01-01

    A lo largo del tiempo, es posible encontrar un incremento de escalas o también llamados instrumentos o cuestionarios en el ámbito de la salud, representando una gran contribución a las áreas de investigación, educación y práctica, así como a los ámbitos de gestión y extensión, una vez que tienen una participación importante en los diferentes escenarios. Se estima que el desarrollo de nuevas escalas depende de la búsqueda constante de evidencias que ayudan en la toma de decisión al profesi...

  3. Contribuciones de la Psicología al manejo interdisciplinario del paciente en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Contreras Moreno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las UCI son altamente estresantes para los pacientes, los familiares y los miembros del equipo de salud. Los temores, la soledad y la pérdida de autonomía son condiciones frecuentes que confrontan a los actores de estas unidades con la vulnerabilidad, el sufrimiento y la muerte. Objetivos: Presentar y argumentar las razones por las que la participación del psicólogo resulta pertinente, relevante e indispensable en el trabajo interdisciplinario dentro de las UCI. Metodología: La evidencia empírica se obtuvo de artículos científicos extraídos de bases de datos especializadas. Resultados: Estar en una UCI es una experiencia altamente estresante y potencialmente traumática, pues los pacientes se enfrentan a situaciones que comprometen la vida y se confrontan con la muerte. Conclusiones: La evidencia sobre la participación del psicólogo en las UCI es escasa. El psicólogo, como estudioso del comportamiento, puede contribuir de manera activa en la evaluación y el manejo del paciente crítico, de su familia y de los miembros del equipo de salud

  4. Aproximaciones teóricas a la relación naturaleza - cultura: algunas contribuciones entre 1980 – 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gómez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es mostrar algunas de las críticas más importantes dadas en el debate actual entre naturaleza y cultura. Busca reivindicar nuevos paradigmas de las ciencias dentro de la problemática del agotamiento de los recursos naturales del hogar que habitamos, la tierra, y el papel que juegan las comunidades locales contra el discurso predador del capitalismo global, a partir de su existencia cultural y social. Este trabajo se divide en tres partes que proponen por analogía, un símil entre los momentos de cambio de la noche al amanecer de un nuevo día; de la misma forma en que podríamos pasar de paradigmas “clásicos”, a procesos sociales recientes que incluyen los conocimientos locales. La primera, llamada “la noche”, expone brevísimamente los planteamientos más comunes que el capitalismo y las corrientes positivistas de la ciencia, mantienen frente a la naturaleza. La segunda, “el amanecer”, es una de las partes más importantes del presente escrito, ya que realiza una crítica a la oscuridad de la noche, a los planteamientos del capitalismo global desde el marxismo, el post-estructuralismo y el género. La tercera, “nuevo día”, concluye que a la luz de estas nuevas perspectivas de análisis podemos comprender mejor la relación entre los seres humanos y la tierra. Estos nuevos conocimientos políticos, culturales, ambientales y globales, desde el centro y la periferia, están atravesados por vínculos de poder que proponen una posición integradora entre conceptos aparentemente contradictorios y suponen susuperación a partir de la conciencia que autogeneran buscando orientar el tema político hacia estos nuevos conocimientos