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Sample records for suicide rates compared

  1. Time-trends in method-specific suicide rates compared with the availability of specific compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. All suicides in Denmark between 1970 and 2000 were examined with regard to method used for suicide. Overall suicide mortality and method-specific suicide mortality was compared...... in the number of suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55% decrease in suicide rate....

  2. Time-trends in method-specific suicide rates compared with the availability of specific compounds. The Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. All suicides in Denmark between 1970 and 2000 were examined with regard to method used for suicide. Overall suicide mortality and method-specific suicide mortality was compared...... in the number of suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55% decrease in suicide rate...

  3. Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2014-01-01

    National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified...... as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than...... suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ≥71 years) and for causes of death...

  4. Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup; Bøggild, Henrik; Lalu, Kaisa; Sajantila, Antti

    2014-11-01

    National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ≥71 years) and for causes of death. Deaths classified as suicide were compared with other unnatural classifications, and comparable causes of death were coded into six subgroups: poisonings, suffocations/strangulations, firearm discharges, drowning/submersions, explosions/flames and other/unspecified causes. The total autopsy rate for suicides was 99.8% in Finland and 13.2% in Denmark. Almost all of these autopsies were conducted as forensic autopsies. In the age group ≥71 years, Danish suicides outnumbered Finnish suicides (410 versus 283). The total autopsy rate was lower in the more senior age group in Denmark (19.5%, 9.9%, 5.6%), whereas it was consistently high in Finland (99.8%, 99.9%, 99.6%). Among Danish deaths due to poisonings, the autopsy rate was 89.5% when these were classified as accidents, but only 20.7% for cases classified as suicides. The number of deaths in the two Danish subgroups was comparable (550 versus 553). In Denmark, the decision regarding the need, if any, for a forensic autopsy is made during the external forensic examination of the body. Our study showed that the limited use

  5. A Comparative Study of Suicide Rates among 10–19-Year-Olds in 29 OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Beop-Rae; Jung, Eun Hee; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study had two main objectives: to compare current suicide rates in OECD countries among 10–19-year-olds and to identify patterns of suicide rates based on age, gender and time. Furthermore we investigated the main dimensions that contributed to the variation in child and adolescent suicide rates across countries. Methods We combined the WHO mortality data and the population data released by OECD to calculate the suicide rates in 29 OECD countries. A self-organizing map (SOM), k-means clustering analysis, and multi-dimensional scaling were used to classify countries based on similarities in suicide rate structure and to identify the important dimensions accounting for differences among groups. Results We identified significant differences in suicide rates depending on age, sex, country, and time period. Late adolescence and male gender were universal risk factors for suicide, and we observed a general trend of declining suicide rates in OECD countries. The SOM analysis yielded eight types of countries. Most countries showed gender gaps in suicide rates of similar magnitudes; however, there were outliers in which the gender gap was particularly large or small. Conclusion Significant variation exists with respect to suicide rates and their associated gender gaps in OECD countries. PMID:29486551

  6. Recent trends in elderly suicide rates in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxey, K; Shah, A

    2000-03-01

    The proportion of elderly in the population is increasing due to increased life expectancy and falling birth rate, and suicide rates increase with age. This study examined the following in England and Wales: (i) recent trends in the elderly suicide rate; (ii) recent trends in method-specific elderly suicide rate; (iii) the relationship between elderly population size and elderly suicide rate in recent years; and (iv) the sex difference in overall and method-specific elderly suicide rate. Data on the various suicide variables were ascertained from the annually published mortality data for years 1985 to 1996. The main findings of this study were: (i) there is a trend towards decline in the overall pure and combined suicide rates for elderly men and women over the 12 year study period; (ii) the main contributors to this decline are suicides due to poisoning by solid and liquid substances (E950), hanging, strangulation and suffocation (E953), drowning (E954), firearms and explosives (E955), and jumping from high places (E957); (iii) the overall pure and combined suicide rates and that for most categories of suicide was higher in men compared to women; and (iv) suicide rates decreased with an increase in the elderly population size. Suicide rates can decline due to a number of reasons. The challenge now is to ensure further decline in suicide rates to meet the Our Healthier Nations target.

  7. Comparative epidemiology of suicide in South Korea and Japan: effects of age, gender and suicide methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Yi; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cho, Youngtae

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of mortality in both South Korea and Japan. The study aims to compare the descriptive epidemiology of suicide over the last two decades (1985-2006) and to explore the conditions associated with the different distribution of suicides in both countries. Age-standardized suicide rates were obtained from the OECD Health Data 2009. Age-specific suicide rates for the age groups were calculated from the WHO Mortality Database. Suicide methods were identified based on ICD-10. Through 1980-2000, Japan showed consistently higher suicide rates compared to Korea. However, from the mid-1990s, Korea showed an acute increase of suicides and finally surpassed Japan; the age-standardized suicide rate of Korea increased from 10.2 (per 100,000) in 1985 to 21.5 in 2006, while it slightly increased from 18.4 to 19.1 in Japan. The highest age-specific suicide rate was observed among Japanese men aged 45-64 years and Korean men aged over 64 years. The increase of elderly suicides among Korean women was notable. The gender ratio increased in Japan and decreased in Korea, respectively. The preferred suicide methods were hanging and pesticide poisoning in Korea and hanging in Japan. Because of the limited number of observations, hypothesis testing of specific risk factors was not possible. Age and gender distribution of suicide rates differed considerably between the two countries. Welfare protection throughout the life course in both countries, and pesticide regulation in Korea would be helpful in reducing the burden of suicide mortality in both countries, even if the social values could not be changed in a short time.

  8. Police suicide in small departments: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Andrew, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    The majority of police suicide research has focused on larger police departments. Very little research has been done within small departments. The present study compared suicide rates between small and larger police departments. Two Hundred ninty-eight departments were drawn from the U.S. Public Safety Officer Benefits database totaling 119,624 officers. Annual suicide rates were calculated per 100,000 for each of four category (by size of department) and p-values from Chi-square tests were employed to assess differences in rates across categories. The annual suicide rate varied significantly across departments. Smaller police departments had a significantly higher suicide rate than large departments. Possible reasons include lack of availability for mental health assistance, increased workload and danger and community visibility.

  9. Rising longitudinal trajectories in suicide rates: The role of firearm suicide rates and firearm legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Selby, Edward A; Butterworth, Sarah E

    2017-07-01

    Firearms account for approximately half of all US suicide deaths each year despite being utilized in only a small minority of suicide attempts. We examined the extent to which overall suicide rates fluctuated relative to firearm and non-firearm suicide rates across a period of 16years (1999-2015). We further tested the notion of means substitution by examining the association between firearm suicide rates and non-firearm suicide rates. Lastly, we examined the extent to which the presence of specific laws related to handgun ownership previously shown cross-sectionally to be associated with lower suicide rates (universal background checks, mandatory waiting periods) were associated with an attenuated trajectory in suicide rates across the study period. As anticipated, whereas decreases in firearm suicide rates were associated with decreases in overall suicide rates (b=0.46, SE=0.07, psuicides were not associated with off-setting increases in suicides by other methods (b=-0.04, SE=0.05, p=0.36). Furthermore, the absence of universal background check (b=0.12, SE=0.05, p=0.028) and mandatory waiting period (b=0.16, SE=0.06, p=0.008) laws was associated with a more steeply rising trajectory of statewide suicide rates. These results mitigate concerns regarding means substitution and speak to the potential high yield impact of systematically implemented means safety prevention efforts focused on firearms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Suicide mortality rates in Louisiana, 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Ratard, Raoult

    2012-01-01

    This report is a descriptive study on suicide deaths in Louisiana occurring in the years 1999 to 2010. Mortality data was collected from death certificates from this 12-year period to describe suicide mortality by year, race, sex, age group, and methods of suicide. Data were also compared to national data. Rates and methods used to commit suicide vary greatly according to sex, race, and age. The highest rates were observed in white males, followed by black males, white females, and black females. Older white males had the highest suicide rates. The influence of age was modulated by the sex and race categories. Firearm was the most common method used in all four categories. Other less common methods were hanging/strangulation/suffocation (HSS) and drugs/alcohol. Although no parish-level data were systematically analyzed, a comparison of suicide rates post-Katrina versus pre-Katrina was done for Orleans Parish, the rest of the Greater New Orleans area, and a comparison group. It appears that rates observed among whites, particularly males, were higher after Katrina. Data based on mortality do not give a comprehensive picture of the burden of suicide, and their interpretation should be done with caution.

  11. Economic conditions and suicide rates in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Arijit; Prescott, Marta R; Cerdá, Magdalena; Vlahov, David; Tardiff, Kenneth J; Galea, Sandro

    2012-03-15

    Extant analyses of the relation between economic conditions and population health were often based on annualized data and were susceptible to confounding by nonlinear time trends. In the present study, the authors used generalized additive models with nonparametric smoothing splines to examine the association between economic conditions, including levels of economic activity in New York State and the degree of volatility in the New York Stock Exchange, and monthly rates of death by suicide in New York City. The rate of suicide declined linearly from 8.1 per 100,000 people in 1990 to 4.8 per 100,000 people in 1999 and then remained stable from 1999 to 2006. In a generalized additive model in which the authors accounted for long-term and seasonal time trends, there was a negative association between monthly levels of economic activity and rates of suicide; the predicted rate of suicide was 0.12 per 100,000 persons lower when economic activity was at its peak compared with when it was at its nadir. The relation between economic activity and suicide differed by race/ethnicity and sex. Stock market volatility was not associated with suicide rates. Further work is needed to elucidate pathways that link economic conditions and suicide.

  12. Police Suicide in Small Departments: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Violanti, John M.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of police suicide research has focused on larger police departments. Very little research has been done within small departments. The present study compared suicide rates between small and larger police departments. Two Hundred ninty-eight departments were drawn from the U.S. Public Safety Officer Benefits database totaling 119,624 officers. Annual suicide rates were calculated per 100,000 for each of four category (by size of department) and p-values from Chi-square tests were e...

  13. An Application of Durkheim's Theory of Suicide to Prison Suicide Rates in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2005-01-01

    E. Durkheim (1897) suggested that the societal rate of suicide might be explained by societal factors, such as marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The current study examined male prison suicide rates and suicide rates for men in the total population in the United States and found that variables based on Durkheim's theory of suicide explained…

  14. Tolerance of suicide, religion and suicide rates : an ecological and individual study in 19 Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Halpern, D; Leon, D; Lewis, G

    Background. Negative associations between religion and suicide, in individuals and countries, may be mediated by the degree to which suicide is tolerated. Methods. Linear regression was used to examine ecological associations between suicide tolerance, religion and suicide rates in 19 Western

  15. Risk factors related to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide: comparative study of Korean and American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-12-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both countries, depression was the most predominant predictor to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Unique predictors of suicidal youth in each country were also found. In America, attempted suicide was predicted by poor body image, whereas in Korea attempted suicide was predicted by medical diagnosis such as asthma, concern about weight, and alcohol consumption. The value of our approach lies in the comparative analysis of analogous and unique characteristics of suicidal youths in these two huge data sets from different countries. These results should be helpful for school and mental health care providers to plan interventions for youth at risk of suicide to prevent suicidal completion in these nations.

  16. Predictive Validity of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale for Short-Term Suicidal Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2017-01-01

    adolescents (90.6% females) who participated at follow-up (85.9%) out of the 99 (49.7%) baseline respondents. All adolescents were recruited from a specialized suicide-prevention clinic in Denmark. Through multivariate logistic regression analyses, we examined whether baseline suicidal behavior predicted......Using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), we examined the predictive and incremental predictive validity of past-month suicidal behavior and ideation for short-term suicidal behavior among adolescents at high risk of suicide. The study was conducted in 2014 on a sample of 85...... subsequent suicidal behavior (actual attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, including preparatory acts, aborted, interrupted and actual attempts; mean follow-up of 80.8 days, SD = 52.4). Furthermore, we examined whether suicidal ideation severity and intensity incrementally predicted suicidal behavior...

  17. [Religion and suicide - part 2: confessions, religiousness, secularisation and national suicide rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kristina; Zitterl, Werner; Stompe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    National suicide rates differ remarkably. The influence of religion on the frequency of suicides was already stressed by Durkheim, however, character and dimension of this influence are still unclear. Our study claims to assess the association between (a) the distribution of believers of different religions, (b) the secularization, (c) the religiousness and the national suicide rates by gender. Data of the distribution of religious confessions and of the religiousness of the inhabitants of the single countries were correlated with the national suicide rates and illustrated by means of Scatter/Dot-Plots. Independent of gender, low suicide rates were found in Islamic countries. Buddhist countries showed high suicide rates in women, and countries with a high percentage of inhabitants without confession high suicide rates in men. Only catholic countries showed an association between secularisation and suicide rates. In countries with a high proportion of religious inhabitants we found low suicide rates. Although none of the World religions support the human right of suicide, the mosaic religions of resurrection refuse suicide more strictly than the Eastern religions of reincarnation. All in all our study supports the hypothesis that religiousness can be seen as a protective factor against suicide.

  18. Suicide epidemics: the impact of newly emerging methods on overall suicide rates - a time trends study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu-Sen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of newly emerging, popular suicide methods on overall rates of suicide has not previously been investigated systematically. Understanding these effects may have important implications for public health surveillance. We examine the emergence of three novel methods of suicide by gassing in the 20th and 21st centuries and determine the impact of emerging methods on overall suicide rates. Methods We studied the epidemic rises in domestic coal gas (1919-1935, England and Wales, motor vehicle exhaust gas (1975-1992, England and Wales and barbecue charcoal gas (1999-2006, Taiwan suicide using Poisson and joinpoint regression models. Joinpoint regression uses contiguous linear segments and join points (points at which trends change to describe trends in incidence. Results Epidemic increases in the use of new methods of suicide were generally associated with rises in overall suicide rates of between 23% and 71%. The recent epidemic of barbecue charcoal suicides in Taiwan was associated with the largest rise in overall rates (40-50% annual rise, whereas the smallest rise was seen for car exhaust gassing in England and Wales (7% annual rise. Joinpoint analyses were only feasible for car exhaust and charcoal burning suicides; these suggested an impact of the emergence of car exhaust suicides on overall suicide rates in both sexes in England and Wales. However there was no statistical evidence of a change in the already increasing overall suicide trends when charcoal burning suicides emerged in Taiwan, possibly due to the concurrent economic recession. Conclusions Rapid rises in the use of new sources of gas for suicide were generally associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Suicide prevention strategies should include strengthening local and national surveillance for early detection of novel suicide methods and implementation of effective media guidelines and other appropriate interventions to limit the spread of

  19. The effectiveness of suicide prevention programmes: urban and gender disparity in age-specific suicide rates in a Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, F-W; Liao, S-C; Wu, C-Y; Lee, M-B

    2017-06-01

    The effectiveness of suicide prevention programmes is an important issue worldwide today. The impact of urbanization and gender is controversial in suicide rates. Hence, this study adjusted on potential risk factors and secular changes for suicide rates in gender and rural/urban areas. Observational study. A Suicide Prevention Center was established by the Executive Yuan in Taiwan in 2005 and tried to carry out suicidal intervention in the community in every city and town. There were two phases, including the first phase of the programme from 2005 to 2008, and the second phase of the programme from 2009 to 2013. The crude suicide rates data from the period of 1991-2013, which recruited nine urban and 14 rural areas in Taiwan, were extracted from the Taiwanese national mortality data file. The suicide rates in two areas of Taiwan (Taipei city and Yilan County) were further used to compare the differences between urban and rural areas. The results show that unemployment increased the suicide rate in men aged 45-64 years and in women older than 65 years of age in Taiwan. High divorce and unemployment rates resulted in increased suicide rates in men in the city, whereas emotional distress was the main cause of suicides in men in rural areas. The main method of suicide was jumping from a high building for both sexes in the city, whereas drowning was the most common method of suicide for men in rural areas. Following the intervention programme, suicide behaviour began to decrease in all urban and rural areas of Taiwan. This study showed the cumulative effect of the intervention programme in decreasing the suicide rate in Taiwan. Moreover, the gender-specific suicidal rate and disparity in suicidal methods in urban and rural areas should be considered in further preventive strategies in Taiwan. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Suicide in Recent Onset Psychosis Revisited: Significant Reduction of Suicide Rate over the Last Two Decades - A Replication Study of a Dutch Incidence Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stynke Castelein

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the suicide risk over the past decade following recent onset psychosis to findings from the eighties and nineties in the same catchment area and to identify predictors of suicide in the context of the Psychosis Recent Onset Groningen-Survey (PROGR-S. A medical file search was carried out to determine the current status of all patients admitted between 2000 and 2009. The suicide rate was compared with a study executed in 1973-1988 in the same catchment area. Predictors of suicide were investigated using Cox regression. The status of 424 of the 614 patients was known in July 2014. Suicide occurred in 2.4% of patients with psychosis disorders (n = 10; mean follow-up 5.6 years; 6 out of 10 suicides took place within two years. Within two decades, the suicide rate dropped from 11% (follow-up 15 years, 8.5% after 5 years to 2.4%. The Standardized Mortality Rate (SMR of suicides compared with the general population was 41.6. A higher age was the only significant predictor for suicide. Neuroticism, living situation, disorganized and negative symptoms, and passive coping style all showed a trend for significance. A significant reduction in the suicide rate was found for people with psychosis over the past decades. Given the high SMR, suicide research should be given the highest priority. Identifying predictors may contribute to further reduction of suicide among patients with psychosis.

  1. Association of suicide rates, gun ownership, conservatism and individual suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kposowa, Augustine J

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association of suicide rates, firearm ownership, political conservatism, religious integration at the state level, and individual suicide risk. Social structural and social learning and social integration theories were theoretical frameworks employed. It was hypothesized that higher suicide rates, higher state firearm availability, and state conservatism elevate individual suicide risk. Data were pooled from the Multiple Cause of Death Files. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted to all deaths occurring in 2000 through 2004 by suicide. The state suicide rate significantly elevated individual suicide risk (AOR = 1.042, CI = 1.037, 1.046). Firearm availability at the state level was associated with significantly higher odds of individual suicide (AOR = 1.004, CI = 1.003, 1.006). State political conservatism elevated the odds of individual suicides (AOR = 1.005, CI = 1.003, 1.007), while church membership at the state level reduced individual odds of suicide (AOR = 0.995, CI = 0.993, 0.996). The results held even after controlling for socioeconomic and demographic variables at the individual level. It was concluded that the observed association between individual suicide odds and national suicide rates, and firearm ownership cannot be discounted. Future research ought to focus on integrating individual level data and contextual variables when testing for the impact of firearm ownership. Support was found for social learning and social integration theories.

  2. Mixed Approach Retrospective Analyses of Suicide and Suicidal Ideation for Brand Compared with Generic Central Nervous System Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ning; Rahman, Md Motiur; Alatawi, Yasser; Qian, Jingjing; Peissig, Peggy L; Berg, Richard L; Page, C David; Hansen, Richard A

    2018-04-01

    Several different types of drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) have previously been associated with an increased risk of suicide and suicidal ideation (broadly referred to as suicide). However, a differential association between brand and generic CNS drugs and suicide has not been reported. This study compares suicide adverse event rates for brand versus generic CNS drugs using multiple sources of data. Selected examples of CNS drugs (sertraline, gabapentin, zolpidem, and methylphenidate) were evaluated via the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) for a hypothesis-generating study, and then via administrative claims and electronic health record (EHR) data for a more rigorous retrospective cohort study. Disproportionality analyses with reporting odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used in the FAERS analyses to quantify the association between each drug and reported suicide. For the cohort studies, Cox proportional hazards models were used, controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics as well as the background risk of suicide in the insured population. The FAERS analyses found significantly lower suicide reporting rates for brands compared with generics for all four studied products (Breslow-Day P brand CNS drugs in FAERS and adjusted retrospective cohort analyses remained significant only for sertraline. However, even for sertraline, temporal confounding related to the close proximity of black box warnings and generic availability is possible. Additional analyses in larger data sources with additional drugs are needed.

  3. How Does Legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide Affect Rates of Suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Albert; Paton, David

    2015-10-01

    Several US states have legalized or decriminalized physician-assisted suicide (PAS) while others are considering permitting PAS. Although it has been suggested that legalization could lead to a reduction in total suicides and to a delay in those suicides that do occur, to date no research has tested whether these effects can be identified in practice. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by examining the association between the legalization of PAS and state-level suicide rates in the United States between 1990 and 2013. We used regression analysis to test the change in rates of nonassisted suicides and total suicides (including assisted suicides) before and after the legalization of PAS. Controlling for various socioeconomic factors, unobservable state and year effects, and state-specific linear trends, we found that legalizing PAS was associated with a 6.3% (95% confidence interval 2.70%-9.9%) increase in total suicides (including assisted suicides). This effect was larger in the individuals older than 65 years (14.5%, CI 6.4%-22.7%). Introduction of PAS was neither associated with a reduction in nonassisted suicide rates nor with an increase in the mean age of nonassisted suicide. Legalizing PAS has been associated with an increased rate of total suicides relative to other states and no decrease in nonassisted suicides. This suggests either that PAS does not inhibit (nor acts as an alternative to) nonassisted suicide, or that it acts in this way in some individuals but is associated with an increased inclination to suicide in other individuals.

  4. Influence of psychotherapist density and antidepressant sales on suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, N D; Niederkrotenthaler, T; Etzersdorfer, E; Voracek, M; Dervic, K; Jandl-Jager, E; Sonneck, G

    2009-03-01

    Antidepressant sales and suicide rates have been shown to be correlated in industrialized countries. The aim was to study the possible effects of psychotherapy utilization on suicide rates. We assessed the impact of antidepressant sales and psychotherapist density on suicide rates between 1991 and 2005. To adjust for serial correlation in time series, three first-order autoregressive models adjusted for per capita alcohol consumption and unemployment rates were employed. Antidepressant sales and the density of psychotherapists in the population were negatively associated with suicide rates. This study provides evidence that decreasing suicide rates were associated with both increasing antidepressant sales and an increasing density of psychotherapists. The decrease of suicide rates could reflect a general improvement in mental health care rather than being caused by antidepressant sales or psychotherapist density alone.

  5. Suicide rates: age-associated trends and their correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Shah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Suicide rates traditionally increased with ageing. There is a paucity of studies examining factors associated with age-associated trends in suicide rates. METHODS: The relationship between suicide rates and ageing was examined by ascertaining suicide rates in the seven age-bands 16-24 years to 75+ years from the World Health Organization for 97 countries. The relationship between socio-economic status, income inequality, healthcare expenditure, child mortality rates and life expectancy and countries with an increase, a decline and no change in suicide rates with ageing was examined using data from the United Nations. RESULTS: In males and females there was a decline in 5 and 10 countries, an increase in 33 and 37 countries and no change in 59 and 50 countries respectively in suicide rates with ageing. Age-associated trends in suicide rates were significantly associated with socio-economic status (males or income inequality (females, per capita expenditure in healthcare, the proportion of gross-national domestic product spent on healthcare, child mortality rates and life expectancy. CONCLUSIONS: The current study, of factors associated with age-associated trends in suicide rates, confirmed a previously developed five sequential stage model to explain the relationship between elderly suicide rates and socio-economic status and income inequality, quality and quantity of healthcare services, child mortality rates and life expectancy.

  6. Relationship of suicide rates to economic variables in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Kawohl, Wolfram; Theodorakis, Pavlos N

    2014-01-01

    European countries and included the number of deaths by suicide in men and women, the unemployment rate, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the annual economic growth rate and inflation. RESULTS: There was a strong correlation between suicide rates and all economic indices except GPD per capita...... in men but only a correlation with unemployment in women. However, the increase in suicide rates occurred several months before the economic crisis emerged. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study confirms a general relationship between the economic environment and suicide rates; however, it does not support...

  7. Changes in Scottish suicide rates during the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rob; Stark, Cameron; Humphry, Roger W; Selvaraj, Sivasubramaniam

    2006-06-23

    It is believed that total reported suicide rates tend to decrease during wartime. However, analysis of suicide rates during recent conflicts suggests a more complex picture, with increases in some age groups and changes in method choice. As few age and gender specific analyses of more distant conflicts have been conducted, it is not clear if these findings reflect a change in the epidemiology of suicide in wartime. Therefore, we examined suicide rates in Scotland before, during and after the Second World War to see if similar features were present. Data on deaths in Scotland recorded as suicide during the period 1931-1952, and population estimates for each of these years, were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland. Using computer spreadsheets, suicide rates by gender, age and method were calculated. Forward stepwise logistic regression was used to assess the effect of gender, war and year on suicide rates using SAS V8.2. The all-age suicide rate among both men and women declined during the period studied. However, when this long-term decline is taken into account, the likelihood of suicide during the Second World War was higher than during both the pre-War and post-War periods. Suicide rates among men aged 15-24 years rose during the Second World War, peaking at 148 per million (41 deaths) during 1942 before declining to 39 per million (10 deaths) by 1945, while the rate among men aged 25-34 years reached 199 per million (43 deaths) during 1943 before falling to 66 per million (23 deaths) by 1946. This was accompanied by an increase in male suicides attributable to firearms and explosives during the War years which decreased following its conclusion. All age male and female suicide rates decreased in Scotland during World War II. However, once the general background decrease in suicide rates over the whole period is accounted for, the likelihood of suicide among the entire Scottish population during the Second World War was elevated. The overall

  8. Comparing Families of Suicide Attempters, Human

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rezaei: Family process and content of suicide attempters and HIV positive patients. Annals of Medical ... the exclusion criteria (psychotic disorders, suicidal ideation, addiction, refusing ..... A review of mood disorders among juvenile offenders.

  9. The Impact of Celebrity Suicide on Subsequent Suicide Rates in the General Population of Korea from 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juhyun; Choi, Nari; Kim, Seog Ju; Kim, Soohyun; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-04-01

    The association between celebrity suicide and subsequent increase in suicide rates among the general population has been suggested. Previous studies primarily focused on celebrity suicides in the 2000s. To better understand the association, this study examined the impacts of celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates using the data of Korean celebrity suicides between 1990 and 2010. Nine celebrity suicides were selected by an investigation of media reports of suicide deaths published in three major newspapers in Korea between 1990 and 2010. Suicide mortality data were obtained from the National Statistical Office of Korea. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models with intervention analysis were used to test the impacts of celebrity suicides, controlling for seasonality. Six of the 9 celebrity suicides had significant impacts on suicide rates both in the total population and in the same gender- or the same age-subgroups. The incident that occurred in the 1990s had no significant impact on the overall suicide rates, whereas the majority of the incidents in the 2000s had significant influences for 30 or 60 days following each incident. The influence of celebrity suicide was shown to reach its peak following the suicide death of a renowned actress in 2008. The findings may suggest a link between media coverage and the impact of celebrity suicide. Future studies should focus more on the underlying processes and confounding factors that may contribute to the impact of celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide rates.

  10. The Effects of Gun Ownership Rates and Gun Control Laws on Suicide Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Gius

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of gun control laws and gun ownership rates on state-level suicide rates. Using the most recent data on suicide rates, gun control measures, and gun ownership rates, the results of the present study suggest that states that require handgun permits have lower gun-related suicide rates, and states that have higher gun ownership rates have higher gun-related suicide rates. Regarding non-gun suicides, results suggest that stricter gun c...

  11. Dietary tryptophan intake and suicide rate in industrialized nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ecological association of dietary tryptophan intake and suicide rates across industrialized nations. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the rate-limiting precursor of serotonin biosynthesis. The serotonergic system has been strongly implicated in the neurobiology of suicide. Contemporary male and female suicide rates for the general population (42 countries) and the elderly (38 countries) were correlated with national estimates of dietary tryptophan intake. Measures of tryptophan intake were significantly negatively associated to national suicide rates. Controlling for national affluence, total alcohol consumption and happiness levels slightly attenuated these associations, but left all of them negative. The effect is an ecological (group-level) finding. Estimated per capita tryptophan supply is only a proxy for actual consumption. Developed nations ranking high in dietary tryptophan intake rank low in suicide rates, independent of national wealth, alcohol intake and happiness.

  12. Male suicide rates in German prisons and the role of citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeloff, Daniel; Lempp, Thomas; Kettner, Mattias; Rauf, Amna; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Freitag, Christine M

    2017-01-01

    Prisoners are at a particularly high risk of suicide. In contrast to other psychosocial risk factors it remains unclear to what degree the risk of suicide differs between prisoners with local citizenship and foreigners. In order to provide more detailed information for suicide prevention in prisons, this study aims to compare suicide rates (SR) between these populations in German criminal custody. Based on a German national database of completed suicide in custody, suicides by prisoners were analysed and compared with epidemiological data of the prison population and the general population, stratified for German and foreign citizenship. Data analysis was adjusted for differences in the age distribution of both populations by calculating standard mortality ratios (SMR) for suicide. SR were higher in prisoners with German citizenship than those with foreign citizenship (SR = 76.5 vs. SR = 42.8, Pcitizenship was comparable in juvenile and adult prisoners, indicating its relevance to both the juvenile and adult detention systems. Imprisonment is associated with a substantially increased risk of suicide in both German and non-German citizens, a finding which needs to be taken into consideration by the justice system. The lower suicide risk in non-German citizens is independent of whether or not they are in custody.

  13. Male suicide rates in German prisons and the role of citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempp, Thomas; Kettner, Mattias; Rauf, Amna; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Freitag, Christine M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Prisoners are at a particularly high risk of suicide. In contrast to other psychosocial risk factors it remains unclear to what degree the risk of suicide differs between prisoners with local citizenship and foreigners. In order to provide more detailed information for suicide prevention in prisons, this study aims to compare suicide rates (SR) between these populations in German criminal custody. Methods Based on a German national database of completed suicide in custody, suicides by prisoners were analysed and compared with epidemiological data of the prison population and the general population, stratified for German and foreign citizenship. Data analysis was adjusted for differences in the age distribution of both populations by calculating standard mortality ratios (SMR) for suicide. Results SR were higher in prisoners with German citizenship than those with foreign citizenship (SR = 76.5 vs. SR = 42.8, Pcitizenship was comparable in juvenile and adult prisoners, indicating its relevance to both the juvenile and adult detention systems. Conclusion Imprisonment is associated with a substantially increased risk of suicide in both German and non-German citizens, a finding which needs to be taken into consideration by the justice system. The lower suicide risk in non-German citizens is independent of whether or not they are in custody. PMID:28591187

  14. Homicide-suicides compared to homicides and suicides: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Geissbühler, Michael; Zwahlen, Marcel; Killias, Martin; Tal, Kali; Egger, Matthias

    2013-12-10

    Homicide-suicides, the murder of one or several individuals followed by the suicide of the perpetrator, are rare but have devastating effects on families and communities. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing perpetrators of homicide-suicides with perpetrators of simple homicides and suicides and examined the proportion of firearm use and its correlation with firearm availability. We searched Medline and Embase from inception to July 2012 and identified 27 eligible studies. Perpetrators of homicide-suicides were older and more likely to be male and married to or separated from their victims than perpetrator of simple homicides or suicides. Influence of alcohol and a history of domestic violence or unemployment were less prevalent in homicide-suicides than in homicides. The proportion of firearm use in homicide-suicides varied across countries and was highest in the USA, Switzerland and South Africa, followed by Australia, Canada, The Netherlands and England and Wales, with a strong correlation between the use of firearms and the level of civilian gun ownership in the country. Our results indicate that homicide-suicides represent a distinct entity, with characteristics distinguishing them both from homicides and suicides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing U.S. Army suicide cases to a control sample: initial data and methodological lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Cynthia L; Reger, Mark A; Smolenski, Derek J; Fullerton, Nicole R

    2014-10-01

    Identification of risk and protective factors for suicide is a priority for the United States military, especially in light of the recent steady increase in military suicide rates. The Department of Defense Suicide Event Report contains comprehensive data on suicides for active duty military personnel, but no analogous control data is available to permit identification of factors that differentially determine suicide risk. This proof-of-concept study was conducted to determine the feasibility of collecting such control data. The study employed a prospective case-control design in which control cases were randomly selected from a large Army installation at a rate of four control participants for every qualifying Army suicide. Although 111 Army suicides were confirmed during the study period, just 27 control soldiers completed the study. Despite the small control sample, preliminary analyses comparing suicide cases to controls identified several factors more frequently reported for suicide cases, including recent failed intimate relationships, outpatient mental health history, mood disorder diagnosis, substance abuse history, and prior self-injury. No deployment-related risk factors were found. These data are consistent with existing literature and form a foundation for larger control studies. Methodological lessons learned regarding study design and recruitment are discussed to inform future studies. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. An ecological analysis of prison overcrowding and suicide rates in England and Wales, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, Esther F J C; Sutherland, Alex; Molleman, Toon

    Prisoners are at a greatly increased risk of suicides compared to the general population. Differences in suicide risk can be partly explained by individual risk factors, but the contribution of prison characteristics remains unclear. Overcrowded prisons have higher suicide rates, but this may be related to prison function, security level, population size and turnover. The aim of the current study was to investigate the contribution of each of these prison characteristics to suicide rates, using data from the Ministry of Justice for adult prisons in England and Wales from 2000 to 2014. Negative binomial regression analysis showed that larger population size, higher turnover, higher security and public management were associated with higher suicide rates. When controlling for these factors, overcrowding was not found to be related to suicide rates. Questions remain about the causal mechanisms underlying variation in prison suicides and the impact of the lived experience of overcrowding. Further research is needed to examine the relative contribution of prison and prisoner characteristics to suicides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictive Validity of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale for Short-Term Suicidal Behavior: A Danish Study of Adolescents at a High Risk of Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Teasdale, Thomas William; Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Larsen, Kim Juul

    2017-07-03

    Using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), we examined the predictive and incremental predictive validity of past-month suicidal behavior and ideation for short-term suicidal behavior among adolescents at high risk of suicide. The study was conducted in 2014 on a sample of 85 adolescents (90.6% females) who participated at follow-up (85.9%) out of the 99 (49.7%) baseline respondents. All adolescents were recruited from a specialized suicide-prevention clinic in Denmark. Through multivariate logistic regression analyses, we examined whether baseline suicidal behavior predicted subsequent suicidal behavior (actual attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, including preparatory acts, aborted, interrupted and actual attempts; mean follow-up of 80.8 days, SD = 52.4). Furthermore, we examined whether suicidal ideation severity and intensity incrementally predicted suicidal behavior at follow-up over and above suicidal behavior at baseline. Actual suicide attempts at baseline strongly predicted suicide attempts at follow-up. Baseline suicidal ideation severity and intensity did not significantly predict future actual attempts over and above baseline attempts. The suicidal ideation intensity items deterrents and duration were significant predictors of subsequent actual attempts after adjustment for baseline suicide attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, respectively. Suicidal ideation severity and intensity, and the intensity items frequency, duration and deterrents, all significantly predicted any type of suicidal behavior at follow-up, also after adjusting for baseline suicidal behavior. The present study points to an incremental predictive validity of the C-SSRS suicidal ideation scales for short-term suicidal behavior of any type among high-risk adolescents.

  18. Decreased suicide rate after induced abortion, after the Current Care Guidelines in Finland 1987-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissler, Mika; Karalis, Elina; Ulander, Veli-Matti

    2015-02-01

    Women with a recent induced abortion have a 3-fold risk for suicide, compared to non-pregnant women. The increased risk was recognised in unofficial guidelines (1996) and Current Care Guidelines (2001) on abortion treatment, highlighting the importance of a check-up 2 - 3 weeks after the termination, to monitor for mental health disorders. We studied the suicide trends after induced abortion in 1987 - 2012 in Finland. We linked the Register on Induced Abortions (N = 284,751) and Cause-of-Death Register (N = 3798 suicides) to identify women who had committed suicide within 1 year after an induced abortion (N = 79). The abortion rates per 100,000 person-years were calculated for 1987 - 1996 (period with no guidelines), 1997 - 2001 (with unofficial guidelines) and 2002 - 2012 (with Current Care Guidelines). The suicide rate after induced abortion declined by 24%, from 32.4/100,000 in 1987 - 1996 to 24.3/100,000 in 1997 - 2001 and then 24.8/100,000 in 2002 - 2012. The age-adjusted suicide rate among women aged 15 - 49 decreased by 13%; from 11.4/100,000 to 10.4/100,000 and 9.9/100,000, respectively. After induced abortions, the suicide rate increased by 30% among teenagers (to 25/100,000), stagnated for women aged 20 - 24 (at 32/100,000), but decreased by 43% (to 21/100,000) for women aged 25 - 49. The excess risk for suicide after induced abortion decreased, but the change was not statistically significant. Women with a recent induced abortion still have a 2-fold suicide risk. A mandatory check-up may decrease this risk. The causes for the increased suicide risk, including mental health prior to pregnancy and the social circumstances, should be investigated further. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  19. Help-seeking, stigma and attitudes of people with and without a suicidal past. A comparison between a low and a high suicide rate country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Alexandre; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    A significant proportion of suicidal persons do not seek help for their psychological problems. Psychological help-seeking is assumed to be a protective factor for suicide. However, different studies showed that negative attitudes and stigma related to help-seeking are major barriers to psychological help-seeking. These attitudes and stigma are not merely individual characteristics but they are also developed by and within society. The aim of this study is twofold. First, we investigate if persons with a suicidal past differ from people without a suicidal past with respect to help-seeking intentions, attitudes toward help-seeking, stigma and attitudes toward suicide. The second aim is to investigate if these attitudinal factors differ between people living in two regions with similar socio-economic characteristics but deviating suicide rates. We defined high (Flemish Community of Belgium) and low (The Netherlands) suicide regions and drew a representative sample of the general Flemish and Dutch population between 18 and 65 years. Data were gathered by means of a postal questionnaire. Descriptive statistics are presented to compare people with and without suicidal past. Multiple logistic regressions were used to compare Flemish and Dutch participants with a suicidal past. Compared to people without a suicidal past, people with a suicidal past are less likely to seek professional and informal help, perceive more stigma, experience more self-stigma (only men) and shame (only women) when seeking help and have more accepting attitudes toward suicide. In comparison to their Dutch counterparts, Flemish people with a suicidal past have less often positive attitudes toward help-seeking, less intentions to seek professional and informal (only women) help and have less often received help for psychological problems (only men). The main limitations are: the relatively low response rate; suicidal ideation was measured by retrospective self-report; and the research sample

  20. Male suicide rates in German prisons and the role of citizenship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Radeloff

    Full Text Available Prisoners are at a particularly high risk of suicide. In contrast to other psychosocial risk factors it remains unclear to what degree the risk of suicide differs between prisoners with local citizenship and foreigners. In order to provide more detailed information for suicide prevention in prisons, this study aims to compare suicide rates (SR between these populations in German criminal custody.Based on a German national database of completed suicide in custody, suicides by prisoners were analysed and compared with epidemiological data of the prison population and the general population, stratified for German and foreign citizenship. Data analysis was adjusted for differences in the age distribution of both populations by calculating standard mortality ratios (SMR for suicide.SR were higher in prisoners with German citizenship than those with foreign citizenship (SR = 76.5 vs. SR = 42.8, P<0.01. This association was not specific to the prison population, as the higher SR in citizens compared to non-citizens (SR = 19.3 vs. SR = 9.0, P<0.01 were also found in the general population. The association between prison suicide and citizenship was comparable in juvenile and adult prisoners, indicating its relevance to both the juvenile and adult detention systems.Imprisonment is associated with a substantially increased risk of suicide in both German and non-German citizens, a finding which needs to be taken into consideration by the justice system. The lower suicide risk in non-German citizens is independent of whether or not they are in custody.

  1. Some critical methodological issues in secondary analysis of world health organization data on elderly suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2009-07-01

    Suicides may be misclassified as accidental deaths in countries with strict legal definitions of suicide, with cultural and religious factors leading to poor registration of suicide and stigma attached to suicide. The concordance between four different definitions of suicides was evaluated by examining the relationship between pure suicide and accidental death rates, gender differences, age-associated trends and potential distil risk and protective factors by conducting secondary analysis of the latest World Health Organisation data on elderly death rates. The four definitions of suicide were: (i) one-year pure suicides rates; one-year combined suicide rates (pure suicide rates combined with accidental death rates); (iii) five-year average pure suicide rates; and (iv) five-year average combined suicides rates (pure suicides rates combined with accidental death rates). The predicted negative correlation between pure suicide and accidental death rates was not observed. Gender differences were similar for all four definitions of suicide. There was a highly significant concordance for the findings of age-associated trends between one-year pure and combined suicide rates, one-year and five-year average pure suicide rates, and five-year average pure and combined suicide rates. There was poor concordance between pure and combined suicide rates for both one-year and five-year average data for the 14 potential distil risk and protective factors, but this concordance between one-year and five-year average pure suicide rates was highly significant. The use of one-year pure suicide rates in cross-national ecological studies examining gender differences, age-associated trends and potential distil risk and protective factors is likely to be practical, pragmatic and resource-efficient.

  2. A changing epidemiology of suicide? The influence of birth cohorts on suicide rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie A

    2014-08-01

    The increases in suicide among middle-aged baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1964) in the United States since 1999 suggest a changing epidemiology of suicide. Using data from 1935 to 2010, this paper conducts age-period-cohort analyses to determine the impact of cohorts in shaping temporal patterns of suicide in the United States. The analysis demonstrates that age, period and cohort effects are all important in determining suicide trends. Net of age and period effects, the cohort pattern of suicide rates is U-shaped, with cohorts born between 1915 and 1945 possessing among the very lowest suicide rates. Suicide rates begin to rise with boomers and subsequent cohorts exhibit increasingly higher rates of suicide. The general pattern exists for both men and women but is especially pronounced among males. The average suicide rate over the entire period for males is about 28 per 100,000, 95% CI [27.4, 28.7]. For males born in 1930-34, the suicide rate is estimated to be 17.4 per 100,000, 95% CI [15.9, 18.8]; for males born between 1955 and 1959, the rate is essentially the same as the average for the period while for males born between 1985 and 1989, the suicide rate is estimated to be 37.8 per 100,000, 95% CI [33.1, 43.4]. The results dispute popular claims that boomers exhibit an elevated suicide rate relative to other generations, but boomers do appear to have ushered in new cohort patterns of suicide rates over the life course. These patterns are interpreted within a Durkheimian framework that suggests weakened forms of social integration and regulation among postwar cohorts may be producing increased suicide rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Durkheim, social integration and suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaszewski, A; Manthorpe, J

    This second paper of six on the application of sociology in health care considers the work of Emile Durkheim. He was concerned with the production of social order through relationships and shared values. Durkheim conceived social phenomena as 'social facts' which could be studied, and his treatment of suicide as a case study of social fact is discussed here. His work on the processes of social cohesion has influenced the work of sociologists up to the present day.

  4. Suicide rates and information seeking via search engines: A cross-national correlational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian

    2018-09-01

    The volume of Google searches for suicide-related terms is positively associated with suicide rates, but previous studies used data from specific, restricted geographical contexts, thus, limiting the generalizability of this finding. We investigated the correlation between suicide-related search volume and suicide rates of 50 nations from five continents. We found a positive correlation between suicide rates and search volume, even after controlling for the level of industrialization. Results give credence to the global existence of a correlation. However, the reason why suicide-related search volume is higher in countries with higher suicide rates is still unclear and up to future research.

  5. Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Lynge, Inge

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of youth suicides has increased dramatically among the Inuit in Greenland since the modernization started in the 1950s. Suicides currently peak at age 15-24 Men: 400-500, Women: 100-150 per 100,000 person-years. The methods are drastic: shooting or hanging. An early peak was seen...... in the capital, a later peak in the rest of West Greenland, and high and increasing rates in remote East Greenland. Suicidal thoughts occur more often in young people who grew up in homes with a poor emotional environment, alcohol problems and violence. There is a definite correlation with several aspects...... of the modernization process but it is hard to pinpoint causal relationships. It is rather the "modernization package" that should be regarded as risk factors for suicides....

  6. The influence of media reporting of the suicide of a celebrity on suicide rates: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andrew T A; Hawton, Keith; Lee, Charles T C; Chen, Tony H H

    2007-12-01

    The impact of media reporting of suicides of entertainment celebrities may affect suicide rates due to an imitation effect. We investigated the impact on suicides of the media reporting of the suicide of a male television celebrity. All suicides during 2003-2005 in Taiwan (n = 10,945) were included in this study. A Poisson time series autoregression analysis was conducted to examine whether there was an increase in suicides during the 4-week period after extensive media reporting of the celebrity suicide. After controlling for seasonal variation, calendar year, temperature, humidity and unemployment rate, there was a marked increase in the number of suicides during the 4-week period after media reporting (relative risk = 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31). The increase was in men (relative risk = 1.30, 95% CI 1.14-1.50) and for the individuals using the same highly lethal method (hanging) as the TV actor did (relative risk = 1.51, 95% CI 1.25-1.83). However, the age groups in which the increase occurred were younger than the age of the celebrity. The extensive media reporting of the celebrity suicide was followed by an increase in suicides with a strong implication of a modelling effect. The results provide further support for the need for more restrained reporting of suicides as part of suicide prevention strategies to decrease the imitation effect.

  7. What differentiates homeless persons who died by suicide from other suicides in Australia? A comparative analysis using a unique mortality register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautovska, U; Sveticic, J; De Leo, D

    2014-04-01

    To study the incidence of suicide by homeless persons over a 20-year period, and identify demographic and clinical characteristics that distinguish these cases from those in non-homeless persons. A comparative analysis of homeless and non-homeless persons who died by suicide between 1990 and 2009 in Queensland, Australia. Ninety-two persons (82 males and 10 females) were identified from the Queensland Suicide Register as being homeless at the time of death. Suicide rates were calculated for the second decade only due to the lack of population numbers of homeless persons in the first decade. Homeless persons had almost twice higher suicide rate than non-homeless counterparts. They were more often male, of young age, single/never married, non-Indigenous, unemployed, had at least one physical illness or other stressful life event prior to death, had drug and alcohol abuse problems, and also were more likely to have evidence for an untreated mental illness. Regression analysis showed that being unemployed, having a history of legal problems and not being diagnosed with mental illness were strongly associated with suicide among homeless persons. This study is the first in Australia, and the second study internationally, to examine the characteristics of homeless people who died by suicide. Although based on a relatively small sample, the present work nonetheless carries practical implications for the development of targeted suicide prevention strategies in this peculiar population of individuals.

  8. Examining the Relationship Between Past Orientation and US Suicide Rates: An Analysis Using Big Data-Driven Google Search Queries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghyun; Lee, Hojun; Choi, Munkee

    2016-02-11

    Internet search query data reflect the attitudes of the users, using which we can measure the past orientation to commit suicide. Examinations of past orientation often highlight certain predispositions of attitude, many of which can be suicide risk factors. To investigate the relationship between past orientation and suicide rate by examining Google search queries. We measured the past orientation using Google search query data by comparing the search volumes of the past year and those of the future year, across the 50 US states and the District of Columbia during the period from 2004 to 2012. We constructed a panel dataset with independent variables as control variables; we then undertook an analysis using multiple ordinary least squares regression and methods that leverage the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion. It was found that past orientation had a positive relationship with the suicide rate (P ≤ .001) and that it improves the goodness-of-fit of the model regarding the suicide rate. Unemployment rate (P ≤ .001 in Models 3 and 4), Gini coefficient (P ≤ .001), and population growth rate (P ≤ .001) had a positive relationship with the suicide rate, whereas the gross state product (P ≤ .001) showed a negative relationship with the suicide rate. We empirically identified the positive relationship between the suicide rate and past orientation, which was measured by big data-driven Google search query.

  9. Suicide rates among working-age adults in South Korea before and after the 2008 economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chee Hon; Caine, Eric D; You, Sungeun; Fu, King Wa; Chang, Shu Sen; Yip, Paul Siu Fai

    2014-03-01

    Multiple studies have shown that macroeconomic factors are associated with changes in suicide rates. We investigated how changes in economic conditions associated with the recent economic crisis in South Korea influenced suicide rates among working-age adults. Time-series analyses were performed to examine the temporal associations of national unemployment rates and sex-employment-specific suicide rates in South Korea from 2003 to 2011, with particular attention to the increases of suicides that occurred during the recessionary period that began in 2008. We also compared the relative risk of suicide among different occupations. National unemployment rates were positively associated with suicide rates among employed and unemployed men and women, with a 2-month to 3 month lagged period. Significant increases of suicide rates among working-age adults during the recession were detected in most of the subgroups stratified by age, sex and employment status. Forty-three per cent of the increase of suicides was derived from the employed population. Compared with workers in elementary occupations, the relative risk of suicide for mangers increased by threefold during the recessionary period. Among those who were employed, half of the increases in suicides occurred among clerks and workers involved in sales and services. Changes in macroeconomic conditions are tied to population-level suicide risks for employed and unemployed persons. However, these associations vary depending on sex, employment status and occupational roles. In advance of future economic crises, it is important to develop prevention initiatives intended to reach the diverse populations potentially exposed to the adverse effects of sudden economic disruptions.

  10. Comparison of elderly suicide rates among migrants in England and Wales with their country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Lindesay, James; Dennis, Mick

    2009-03-01

    The black and minority ethnic (BME) elderly population size in England and Wales has progressively increased over the last three decades. Only two studies, both well over a decade old, have compared suicide rates in BME groups in England and Wales with those in their country of origin. A study comparing suicide rates among elderly migrants in England and Wales and in their country of origin using the latest available mortality data from the Office of National Statistics and the World Health Organization was conducted. There were wide variations in standardised mortality ratios for elderly suicides among migrants from different countries compared with those born in England and Wales and in their country of origin. There was convergence towards elderly suicide rates for England and Wales in some migrant groups in males in the age-bands 65-74 years and 75 + years, and in females in the age-band 75 + years. However, males aged 75 + years from most migrant groups had higher rates than those born in England and Wales. A more detailed analysis of suicide of older people from migrant groups is required to determine vulnerability and protective influences.

  11. Trends in Suicide Methods and Rates among Older Adults in South Korea: A Comparison with Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Go Eun; Ahn, Myung Hee; Yi, Ki Kyoung; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lethality of the chosen method during a suicide attempt is a strong risk factor for completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea and Japan. Methods We analyzed annual the World Health Organization data on rates and methods of suicide from 2000 to 2011 in South Korea and Japan. Results For Korean older adults, there was a significant positive correlation betw...

  12. Suicide rates in the national and expatriate population in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervic, Kanita; Amiri, Leena; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Yousef, Said; Salem, Mohamed O; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot

    2012-11-01

    Reports on suicide from the Gulf region are scarce. Dubai is a city with a large expatriate population. However, total and gender-specific suicide rates for the national and expatriate populations are not known. To investigate total and gender-specific suicide rates in the national and expatriate population in Dubai and to elicit socio-demographic characteristics of suicide victims. Registered suicides in Dubai from 2003 to 2009, and aggregated socio-demographic data of suicide victims were analysed. Suicide rates per 100,000 population were calculated. Suicide rate among expatriates (6.3/100,000) was seven times higher than the rate among the nationals (0.9/100,000). In both groups, male suicide rate was more than three times higher than the female rate. Approximately three out of four expatriate suicides were committed by Indians. The majority of suicide victims were male, older than 30 years, expatriate, single and employed, with an education of secondary school level and below. Further research on risk factors for and protective factors against suicide, particularly among the expatriate population, is needed. Epidemiological monitoring of suicide trends at the national level and improvement of UAE suicide statistics would provide useful information for developing suicide prevention strategies.

  13. Effect of the First World War on suicide rates in Ireland: an investigation of the 1864–1921 suicide trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the proposition of the social integration theory by Émile Durkheim, macro-sociological changes have been speculated to affect suicide rates. This study investigates the effect of the First World War on Irish suicide rates. We applied an interrupted time series design of 1864–1921 annual Irish suicide rates. The 1864–1913 suicide rates exhibited a slow-rising trend with a sharp decline from the year 1914 onwards. The odds for death by suicide for males during the 1914–1918 period was 0.811 (95% CI 0.768–0.963). Irish rates of suicide were significantly reduced during the First World War, most notably for males. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © 2015 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703742

  14. Effect of the First World War on suicide rates in Ireland: an investigation of the 1864-1921 suicide trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mugtaba; Parnell, Andrew C

    2015-10-01

    Since the proposition of the social integration theory by Émile Durkheim, macro-sociological changes have been speculated to affect suicide rates. This study investigates the effect of the First World War on Irish suicide rates. We applied an interrupted time series design of 1864-1921 annual Irish suicide rates. The 1864-1913 suicide rates exhibited a slow-rising trend with a sharp decline from the year 1914 onwards. The odds for death by suicide for males during the 1914-1918 period was 0.811 (95% CI 0.768-0.963). Irish rates of suicide were significantly reduced during the First World War, most notably for males. None. © 2015 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence.

  15. Are elderly dependency ratios associated with general population suicide rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2011-05-01

    The elderly population size is increasing worldwide due to falling birth rates and increasing life expectancy. It has been hypothesized that as the elderly dependency ratio (the ratio of those over the age of 65 years to those under 65) increases, there will be fewer younger people available to care for older people and this, in turn, will increase the burden on younger carers with increased levels of psychiatric morbidity leading to an increase in general population suicide rates. A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates was conducted using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations websites. The main findings were of a significant and independent positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates in both genders. The contribution of cross-national differences in psychiatric morbidity in younger carers on general population suicide rates requires further study. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in younger carers of older people should be examined by: (i) cross-national studies using standardized measures of psychiatric morbidity that are education-free, culture-fair and language-fair; and (ii) within-country longitudinal studies with changing elderly dependency ratios over time.

  16. Paraquat prohibition and change in the suicide rate and methods in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Woojae; Lee, Geung-Hee; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nyer, Maren; Kim, Doh Kwan; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    The annual suicide rate in South Korea is the highest among the developed countries. Paraquat is a highly lethal herbicide, commonly used in South Korea as a means for suicide. We have studied the effect of the 2011 paraquat prohibition on the national suicide rate and method of suicide in South Korea. We obtained the monthly suicide rate from 2005 to 2013 in South Korea. In our analyses, we adjusted for the effects of celebrity suicides, and economic, meteorological, and seasonal factors on suicide rate. We employed change point analysis to determine the effect of paraquat prohibition on suicide rate over time, and the results were verified by structural change analysis, an alternative statistical method. After the paraquat prohibition period in South Korea, there was a significant reduction in the total suicide rate and suicide rate by poisoning with herbicides or fungicides in all age groups and in both genders. The estimated suicide rates during this period decreased by 10.0% and 46.1% for total suicides and suicides by poisoning of herbicides or fungicides, respectively. In addition, method substitution effect of paraquat prohibition was found in suicide by poisoning by carbon monoxide, which did not exceed the reduction in the suicide rate of poisoning with herbicides or fungicides. In South Korea, paraquat prohibition led to a lower rate of suicide by paraquat poisoning, as well as a reduction in the overall suicide rate. Paraquat prohibition should be considered as a national suicide prevention strategy in developing and developed countries alongside careful observation for method substitution effects.

  17. Paraquat prohibition and change in the suicide rate and methods in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojae Myung

    Full Text Available The annual suicide rate in South Korea is the highest among the developed countries. Paraquat is a highly lethal herbicide, commonly used in South Korea as a means for suicide. We have studied the effect of the 2011 paraquat prohibition on the national suicide rate and method of suicide in South Korea. We obtained the monthly suicide rate from 2005 to 2013 in South Korea. In our analyses, we adjusted for the effects of celebrity suicides, and economic, meteorological, and seasonal factors on suicide rate. We employed change point analysis to determine the effect of paraquat prohibition on suicide rate over time, and the results were verified by structural change analysis, an alternative statistical method. After the paraquat prohibition period in South Korea, there was a significant reduction in the total suicide rate and suicide rate by poisoning with herbicides or fungicides in all age groups and in both genders. The estimated suicide rates during this period decreased by 10.0% and 46.1% for total suicides and suicides by poisoning of herbicides or fungicides, respectively. In addition, method substitution effect of paraquat prohibition was found in suicide by poisoning by carbon monoxide, which did not exceed the reduction in the suicide rate of poisoning with herbicides or fungicides. In South Korea, paraquat prohibition led to a lower rate of suicide by paraquat poisoning, as well as a reduction in the overall suicide rate. Paraquat prohibition should be considered as a national suicide prevention strategy in developing and developed countries alongside careful observation for method substitution effects.

  18. Age-Related Racial Disparity in Suicide Rates Among U.S. Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ...

  19. Trends in Suicide Methods and Rates among Older Adults in South Korea: A Comparison with Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Go Eun; Ahn, Myung Hee; Yi, Ki Kyoung; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2016-03-01

    Lethality of the chosen method during a suicide attempt is a strong risk factor for completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea and Japan. We analyzed annual the World Health Organization data on rates and methods of suicide from 2000 to 2011 in South Korea and Japan. For Korean older adults, there was a significant positive correlation between suicide rate and the rate of hanging or the rate of jumping, and a significant negative correlation between suicide rate and the rate of poisoning. Among older adults in Japan, annual changes in the suicide rate and the pattern of suicide methods were less conspicuous, and no correlation was found between them. The results of the present study suggest that the increasing use of lethal suicide methods has contributed to the rise in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea. Targeted efforts to reduce the social acceptability and accessibility of lethal suicide methods might lead to lower suicide rate among older adults in South Korea.

  20. Suicide rates among Turkish and American youth: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Murat; Zoroglu, Salih; Ghaziuddin, Neera

    2012-01-01

    This study compares youth (suicide rates in Turkey and the United States; a demographic and cross-cultural comparison and exploration of possible causative factors. Publicly available data were compared for children, adolescents, and young adults for years 1992-2004. The mean general population suicide rate in Turkey (per 100,000) was, male = 3.53 and female = 2.31 (for the US, males = 18.37, females = 4.31); for ages below 15 years the rate was, males = 0.28 and females = 0.39 (for the US, males = 1.09 and females = 0.38); while for aged 15-24 years the rate was, males = 4.58 and females = 5.22 (for the US, males = 18.84 and females = 3.36). The patterns for Turkey are: (a) Female youth had a higher suicide rate than male youth; this was the reverse of the U.S. pattern, (b) Youth suicide increased during the time period in Turkey, whereas it was relatively stable in the US, (c) However, suicide rates in Turkey were generally lower than the US, (d) Fifty percent of all female suicide victims in Turkey were under the age of 24 years (versus 11% in the US). Possible psychosocial causative factors may include (a) negative social status of females (forced marriage, young marriage age, low literacy, honor killings); (b) substantial rural to urban migration which disrupts ties and exposes migrants to a less traditional cultural system; (c) shortage of mental health services; (d) and possibly, reduced religious education enrollment may be an additional factor.

  1. Suicide Rates and State Laws Regulating Access and Exposure to Handguns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Anestis, Joye C

    2015-10-01

    Using previous research, we examined the impact of 4 handgun laws (waiting periods, universal background checks, gun locks, and open carrying regulations) on suicide rates. We used publicly available databases to collect information on statewide laws, suicide rates, and demographic characteristics for 2013. Each law was associated with significantly lower firearm suicide rates and the proportion of suicides resulting from firearms. In addition, each law, except for that which required a waiting period, was associated with a lower overall suicide rate. Follow-up analyses showed a significant indirect effect on overall suicide rates through the proportion of suicides by firearms, indicating that the reduced overall suicide rate was attributable to fewer suicide attempts, fewer handguns in the home, suicide attempts using less lethal means, or a combination of these factors. States that implemented any of these laws saw a decreased suicide rate in subsequent years, whereas the only state that repealed 1 of these laws saw an increased suicide rate. Our results were supportive of a potentially vital role in suicide prevention for state legislation that limits access and exposure to handguns.

  2. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  3. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? a cross-national study

    OpenAIRE

    Ritesh Bhandarkar; Ajit Shah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. Methods: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. Results: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the pe...

  4. The impact of indiscriminate media coverage of a celebrity suicide on a society with a high suicide rate: epidemiological findings on copycat suicides from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju Ji, Nam; Young Lee, Weon; Seok Noh, Maeng; Yip, Paul S F

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the extent to which the indiscriminate media coverage of the famous young actress Lee Eun-ju's suicide in 2005 affected suicides overall and in specific subgroups (by age, gender, and suicide method) in a suicide-prone society, South Korea. South Korea's 2003-2005 suicide data (n=34,237) were obtained from death certificate records of the National Statistical Office (NSO). Data was analyzed with Poisson time series auto-regression models. After adjusting for confounding factors (such as seasonal variation, calendar year, temperature, humidity, and unemployment rate), there was a significant increase in suicide (RR=1.40, 95%, CI=1.30-1.51, no. of excess mortalities=331; 95% CI=267-391) during the 4 weeks after Lee's suicide. This increase was more prominent in subgroups with similar characteristics to the celebrity. In particular, the relative risk of suicide during this period was the largest (5.24; 95% CI=3.31-8.29) in young women who used the same suicide method as the celebrity. Moreover, the incidence of these copycat suicides during the same time significantly increased in both genders and in all age subgroups among those who committed suicide using the same method as the celebrity (hanging). It is difficult to prove conclusively that the real motivation of the suicides was Lee's death. The findings from this study imply that, if the media indiscreetly reports the suicide of a celebrity in a suicide-prone society, the copycat effect can be far-reaching and very strong, particularly for vulnerable people. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Suicide and general elections in Austria: do preceding regional suicide rate differentials foreshadow subsequent voting behavior swings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Formann, Anton K; Fülöp, Gerhard; Sonneck, Gernot

    2003-05-01

    Suicide-epidemiological research on short-term effects of elections on national/regional suicide and parasuicide incidence has yielded contradictory evidence. Reversing the cause-effect relationship of this line of research we investigated whether preceding regional suicide rates are related to subsequent election results. For Austria's 121 districts, we regressed averaged standardized suicide rates for the preceding period (1988-1994) on political parties' subsequent electoral gains/losses (1999-to-1995) while controlling for a set of 12 domain-relevant psychosocial/economic indices. Stepwise weighted multiple regression led to a significant model. The 1999-to-1995 electoral gains/losses of two opposition parties, together with the population variation caused by migration balance and by births/deaths balance, accounted for a substantial part (30%) of the variability in preceding district-level suicide rates. Various other social indices failed to contribute further substantial increments to this model. This finding suggests that variations in preceding regional suicide incidence might be mirrored in subsequent changes in voting behavior. A speculative post hoc explanation for the finding is offered: on a community level, suicide's aftermath might produce socially and politically alienated survivors of suicide who co-shape swings towards opposition parties in subsequent general elections. The finding calls for more research on suicide's long-term aftermath. Within-country replicability and cross-national generalizability await further investigation. At present, the factor/mechanism accounting for this finding is neither well-established nor has been directly tested.

  6. Stigma, attitudes and help-seeking intentions for psychological problems in relation to regional suicide rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynders, A.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Molenberghs, G.; Van Audenhove, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this ecological study, we investigated whether help-seeking related to stigma, intentions, and attitudes toward suicide are associated with the suicide rates of 20 regions within the Netherlands and Belgium. Significant associations were found between regional suicide rates and the intention to

  7. National Suicide Rates a Century after Durkheim: Do We Know Enough to Estimate Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Cynthia A.; Yip, Paul S.; Corcoran, Paul; Bossarte, Robert M.; Lawrence, Bruce A.; Currier, Glenn W.

    2010-01-01

    Durkheim's nineteenth-century analysis of national suicide rates dismissed prior concerns about mortality data fidelity. Over the intervening century, however, evidence documenting various types of error in suicide data has only mounted, and surprising levels of such error continue to be routinely uncovered. Yet the annual suicide rate remains the…

  8. Suicide rates and risk factors among Korean cancer patients, 1993-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eunmi; Shin, Dong Wook; Cho, Sung-Il; Park, Sohee; Won, Young-Joo; Yun, Young Ho

    2010-08-01

    As the number of cancer survivors increases, suicide risk approaches that of the general population. We therefore investigated suicide rates and risk factors among Korean cancer patients. We observed 816,295 cancer patients for 3,007,294 person-years from 1993 to 2005 through a nationwide cancer registry. We calculated their sex- and age-standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and studied suicide risk factors using rate ratios (RR) based on a log-linear Poisson regression model. Compared with the Korean general population, the suicide rate among cancer patients was high [SMR, 2.00; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.91-2.08]. The rates were highest in the year following the cancer diagnosis (SMR, 3.45; 95% CI, 3.19-3.73) and were still elevated 5 years later (SMR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.12-1.36). The clinical groups at highest risk were male pancreas cancer patients (SMR, 6.01; 95% CI, 4.33-8.33) and female lung cancer patients (SMR, 3.55; 95% CI, 2.55-4.94). The sociodemographic groups at highest risk were those who had no spouse versus those who were married (RR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.35-1.68), those who were not employed versus those who were (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.26-1.54), and those who did not have high school education versus those who had (RR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.30-1.79). Korean cancer patients are at increased risk of suicide. Both clinical and sociodemographic factors play a role. There is a need for social support and suicide prevention strategies for cancer survivors in Korea. (c)2010 AACR.

  9. Nonmarital Fertility and the Effects of Divorce Rates on Youth Suicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Steven F.; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Robinson, Bryan K.

    2006-01-01

    Using pooled, time-series data for a sample of 15 developed nations, we assess the effect of divorce rates on gender-specific suicide rates for youths aged 15-19 with models of relative cohort size, lagged nonmarital fertility, and an interaction term for divorce rates and nonmarital fertility. The results reveal that, for young men, relative…

  10. Vital Signs: Trends in State Suicide Rates - United States, 1999-2016 and Circumstances Contributing to Suicide - 27 States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Deborah M; Simon, Thomas R; Fowler, Katherine A; Kegler, Scott R; Yuan, Keming; Holland, Kristin M; Ivey-Stephenson, Asha Z; Crosby, Alex E

    2018-06-08

    Suicide rates in the United States have risen nearly 30% since 1999, and mental health conditions are one of several factors contributing to suicide. Examining state-level trends in suicide and the multiple circumstances contributing to it can inform comprehensive state suicide prevention planning. Trends in age-adjusted suicide rates among persons aged ≥10 years, by state and sex, across six consecutive 3-year periods (1999-2016), were assessed using data from the National Vital Statistics System for 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data from the National Violent Death Reporting System, covering 27 states in 2015, were used to examine contributing circumstances among decedents with and without known mental health conditions. During 1999-2016, suicide rates increased significantly in 44 states, with 25 states experiencing increases >30%. Rates increased significantly among males and females in 34 and 43 states, respectively. Fifty-four percent of decedents in 27 states in 2015 did not have a known mental health condition. Among decedents with available information, several circumstances were significantly more likely among those without known mental health conditions than among those with mental health conditions, including relationship problems/loss (45.1% versus 39.6%), life stressors (50.5% versus 47.2%), and recent/impending crises (32.9% versus 26.0%), but these circumstances were common across groups. Suicide rates increased significantly across most states during 1999-2016. Various circumstances contributed to suicides among persons with and without known mental health conditions. States can use a comprehensive evidence-based public health approach to prevent suicide risk before it occurs, identify and support persons at risk, prevent reattempts, and help friends and family members in the aftermath of a suicide.

  11. Non-Fatal Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jena, S.; Sidhartha, T.

    2004-01-01

    In the USA, suicide ranked as the third leading cause of death for adolescents in 1999. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours are suicidal thought, specific suicidal plan and suicide attempt. Prospective studies have emphasized the high subsequent suicide rates in clinically presenting suicide attempters. This study was planned to critically review the existing international literature on this area, and compare, if possible, with the Indian data. Both electronic and manual search for published and un...

  12. Psychological autopsy study comparing suicide decedents, suicide ideators, and propensity score matched controls: results from the study to assess risk and resilience in service members (Army STARRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, M K; Dempsey, C L; Aliaga, P A; Brent, D A; Heeringa, S G; Kessler, R C; Stein, M B; Ursano, R J; Benedek, D

    2017-11-01

    The suicide rate has increased significantly among US Army soldiers over the past decade. Here we report the first results from a large psychological autopsy study using two control groups designed to reveal risk factors for suicide death among soldiers beyond known sociodemographic factors and the presence of suicide ideation. Informants were next-of-kin and Army supervisors for: 135 suicide cases, 137 control soldiers propensity-score-matched on known sociodemographic risk factors for suicide and Army history variables, and 118 control soldiers who reported suicide ideation in the past year. Results revealed that most (79.3%) soldiers who died by suicide have a prior mental disorder; mental disorders in the prior 30-days were especially strong risk factors for suicide death. Approximately half of suicide decedents tell someone that they are considering suicide. Virtually all of the risk factors identified in this study differed between suicide cases and propensity-score-matched controls, but did not significantly differ between suicide cases and suicide ideators. The most striking difference between suicides and ideators was the presence in the former of an internalizing disorder (especially depression) and multi-morbidity (i.e. 3+ disorders) in the past 30 days. Most soldiers who die by suicide have identifiable mental disorders shortly before their death and tell others about their suicidal thinking, suggesting that there are opportunities for prevention and intervention. However, few risk factors distinguish between suicide ideators and decedents, pointing to an important direction for future research.

  13. Why has the continuous decline in German suicide rates stopped in 2007?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Hegerl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whereas German suicide rates had a clear decreasing tendency between 1991 and 2006, they increased from 2007 to 2010. Deeper analyses of suicide data might help to understand better this change. The aim of this study was to analyze 1 whether recent trends can be related to changes in specific suicide methods and diverge by gender and age; 2 whether the decrease of suicide rates before 2007 as well as the increase from 2007 to 2010 are driven by the same suicide method. METHODS: Analyses were based on suicide data from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany. For 1998-2010, 136.583 suicide cases of men and women with known age and suicide method could be identified. These data were analyzed by joinpoint regression analysis, allowing identification of the best fitting point in time ("joinpoint" at which the suicide rate significantly changes in magnitude or direction. RESULTS: The national downward trend between 1998 and 2007 was mainly due to corresponding changes in self-poisoning by other means than drugs (e.g., pesticides (annual percentage change (APC ≤ -4.33, drowning (APC ≤ -2.73, hanging (APC ≤ -2.69 and suicides by firearms (APC ≤ -1.46 in both genders. Regarding the overall increase of age-adjusted suicide rates in Germany 2007-2010, mainly the increase of self-poisoning (e.g., by drugs and "being overrun" (APC ≥ 1.50 contributed to this trend. LIMITATIONS: The true suicide rates might have been underestimated because of errors in the official death certificates. CONCLUSIONS: Increase in suicide rates in Germany since 2007 went along with corresponding changes for "being overrun" and "self-poisoning". Copycat suicides following the railway suicide of the goalkeeper Robert Enke partly contributed to the results. Thus, prevention of Werther effects and limitation of the availability of high pack sizes for drugs are of special relevance for the reversal of this trend.

  14. Suicides in two Scandinavian capitals--a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogde, S; Hougen, H P; Poulsen, K

    1996-01-01

    and psychiatric disease, previous suicidal attempts or suicidal threats, and suicide location. The incidence of suicides was higher in the Copenhagen material than in the Oslo material. In both cities the preferred method was intoxication by prescription drugs. In Copenhagen suffocation by means of a plastic bag...

  15. Relation Between Rates of Geriatric Suicide and Consumption of Alcohol Beverages in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Among older adults, suicide is a significant and persistent health problem. The highest suicide rate is found among white men aged 65 years and older. The causes of elder suicide are multifaceted. Although no predominate factor precipitates or explains geriatric suicide, alcohol is strongly linked to suicide attempts and completions. This study examined the relationship between rates of suicide in 65- to 74-year-olds and per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages in European countries. Data on suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-olds and per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages were obtained from the World Health Organization databases. Correlations were computed to examine relationships between suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-old males and females and per capita consumption of beer, wine, and spirits in the general population in 34 European countries. There was a positive correlation between suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-old males and per capita consumption of spirits. No correlations between suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-old males and per capita consumption of beer or wine were found. We also found no correlations between rates of suicide in 65- to 74-year-old females and per capita consumption of beer, wine, or spirits. The results of this study are consistent with reports that consumption of spirits is associated with suicide events. It is to be hoped that this paper will stimulate further studies that are necessary to clarify the relation between suicide rates in different age groups and consumption of alcoholic beverages, and attract more attention to the problem of geriatric suicide.

  16. The epidemiology of suicide in Jamaica 2002-2010: rates and patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, W D; James, K; Bridgelal-Nagassar, R; Holder-Nevins, D; Eldemire, H; Thompson, E; Sewell, C

    2012-08-01

    Suicide is increasingly recognized as a worldwide problem. There is a paucity of quality data pertaining to suicide in developing countries. Epidemiological analysis of suicide data elucidates prevailing patterns that facilitate risk factor identification and the development of germane programmatic responses. This paper analyses temporal variations in suicide rates for the years 2002-2010 in Jamaica and describes the sociodemographic profile of cases and method of suicide for the latter four years. Data pertaining to suicides were extracted from the police (The Jamaica Constabulary Force) records. These were summarized and analysed with respect to person, place and time. Population statistics for the computation of rates were obtained from publications of the Statistical Institute of Jamaica. Age-standardized rates were generated for comparison of trends over time. Poisson and binomial probabilities were used to determine statistically significant differences in rates. Suicide rates in Jamaica have remained relatively stable for the period reviewed with mean overall annual incidence of 2.1 per 100 000 population. Rates for males were significantly higher than those for females. The majority (90.4%) of suicide cases were males. A trend for higher rates of suicide was generally noted in the 25-34-year and the 75-year and over age groups. Hanging was the main method used to commit suicide (77.5%). Age-adjusted rates of suicide indicate no significant changes in Jamaica over the period 2002 to 2010. Continued surveillance of suicide as well as improved recording of the circumstances surrounding suicides are recommended to promote greater understanding of suicides and this will ultimately inform intervention strategies.

  17. Emile Durkheim and altruistic suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Altruistic suicides are marked by cultural approval and benefit the social order. They occur in social groups where there is a low value placed on the individual. The principle loci of altruistic suicide are primitive societies and the modern military. Subtypes of altruistic suicide (obligatory, optional, acute) are delineated and evaluated. Military suicide rates are seen as being inversely related to civilian suicide rates. Key limitations of Durkheim's model are discussed including his exaggerating the prevalence of obligatory suicide. Suggested points of departure for future research on altruistic suicide include comparative analyses of suicide in the modern military, and application of the concept of optional altruistic suicide to the impact of suicide acceptability on national suicide rates.

  18. Suicidality and Associated Risk Factors among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Compared to Heterosexual Austrian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploderl, Martin; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    This is the first study in German-speaking countries to compare the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (n = 358) with matched heterosexual adults (n = 267). The former had significantly elevated incidences of current suicide ideation (28% vs. 13%) and lifetime suicide attempts defined in three ways (14% vs. 1% to 10% vs. 2%),…

  19. Associations between changes in the pattern of suicide methods and rates in Korea, the US, and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The lethality of the suicide method employed is a strong risk factor for the completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates in South Korea, the United States (US), and Finland. Methods We analyzed annual data from 2000–2011 for South Korea and Finland, and 2000–2010 for the US in order to examine trends in the rates and methods of suicide. Data on suicide methods were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database. Results Along with an annual rapid increase in suicide rates, the incidence of hanging increased steadily while suicide by self-poisoning steadily decreased in South Korea. In the US, along with an annual increase in suicide rates, the proportion of suicides committed by hanging increased while those committed with the use of firearms steadily decreased. In Finland, annual changes in the suicide rate and suicide method were not statistically significant during the study period. Conclusions Our present findings suggest that the increased use of specific lethal methods for suicide, namely hanging, is reflected in the increased suicide rates in the Korean and the US populations. The most effective approach for reducing overall suicide rates may be the implementation of population-based initiatives that reduce both the accessibility (e.g., access to firearms) and the social acceptability (e.g., effective and responsible regulations for reporting suicide) of lethal methods of suicide. PMID:24949083

  20. Suicide rates across income levels: Retrospective cohort data on 1 million participants collected between 2003 and 2013 in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Uk; Oh, In-Hwan; Jeon, Hong Jin; Roh, Sungwon

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relation of income and socioeconomic status with suicide rates remains unclear. Most previous studies have focused on the relationship between suicide rates and macroeconomic factors (e.g., economic growth rate). Therefore, we aimed to identify the relationship between individuals' socioeconomic position and suicide risk. Methods: We analyzed suicide mortality rates across socioeconomic positions to identify potential trends using observational data on suicide mortality co...

  1. Decrease in Suicide Rates after a Change of Policy Reducing Access to Firearms in Adolescents: A Naturalistic Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Gad; Werbeloff, Nomi; Halperin, Demian; Shmushkevitch, Mordechai; Weiser, Mark; Knobler, Haim Y.

    2010-01-01

    The use of firearms is a common means of suicide. We examined the effect of a policy change in the Israeli Defense Forces reducing adolescents' access to firearms on rates of suicide. Following the policy change, suicide rates decreased significantly by 40%. Most of this decrease was due to decrease in suicide using firearms over the weekend.…

  2. Risk Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide: Comparative Study of Korean and American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…

  3. Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States. People may consider suicide when they are hopeless and can't see ... event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. But women and teens report ...

  4. Explaining Cross-State Differences in Elderly Suicide Rates and Identifying State-Level Public Policy Responses that Reduce Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles-Sims, Jean; Lockhart, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Elderly Americans commit suicide at higher rates than other age groups. We contend that macro- and micro-social variables contribute distinct aspects to explanations of this tragic loss: the former focus on circumstances that affect overall rates, the latter reveal why certain individuals succumb to suicide. Our analysis focuses on the…

  5. Solar radiation increases suicide rate after adjusting for other climate factors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Hee-Jung; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Yu Jin; Choi, Nari; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that suicide rates have significant seasonal variations. There is seasonal discordance between temperature and solar radiation due to the monsoon season in South Korea. We investigated the seasonality of suicide and assessed its association with climate variables in South Korea. Suicide rates were obtained from the National Statistical Office of South Korea, and climatic data were obtained from the Korea Meteorological Administration for the period of 1992-2010. We conducted analyses using a generalized additive model (GAM). First, we explored the seasonality of suicide and climate variables such as mean temperature, daily temperature range, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Next, we identified confounding climate variables associated with suicide rate. To estimate the adjusted effect of solar radiation on the suicide rate, we investigated the confounding variables using a multivariable GAM. Suicide rate showed seasonality with a pattern similar to that of solar radiation. We found that the suicide rate increased 1.008 times when solar radiation increased by 1 MJ/m 2 after adjusting for other confounding climate factors (P Solar radiation has a significant linear relationship with suicide after adjusting for region, other climate variables, and time trends. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. High Rates of Suicide and Violence in the Lives of Girls and Young Women in Bangladesh: Issues for Feminist Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Adam Bagley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Deaths by suicide in Bangladesh have an atypical sex ratio, with higher rates in females than in males—a characteristic shared with several countries in Southern Asia. Reasons for this are explored in this paper. An examination of the social structure of Bangladesh suggests that girls and women are subjected to higher rates of sexual and physical violence compared with males, especially in rural and urban slum areas. This violence is often linked to the enforced marriage of young girls to older men. A systematic review of 24 studies on suicide and suicidal behaviors in Bangladesh has shown that suicide death rates are exceptionally high in younger women, at a rate of about 20 per 100,000, more than twice the rate in males aged less than 49. In girls aged 15 to 17, the estimated suicide rate is 14 per 100,000, 50% higher than in males. Because of problems in obtaining systematic data on deaths by suicide, these rates are likely to be underestimates. Extreme poverty and lack of education have been recorded as factors in deaths by suicide, although there are methodological problems in reaching such conclusions. We speculate that some of the “suicides” (especially those using poison may in fact be cases of murder. A dowry system (not sanctioned by Islam is thought to be a major cause of family poverty, and violence experienced by young girls. In proposing solutions, we argue the case (as Muslims for the support of an Islamic feminism which urges better support for girls growing up in extreme poverty.

  7. Elderly suicide rates in the United Kingdom: trends from 1979 to 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2007-01-01

    The proportion of elderly in the population is increasing due to a falling birth rate and increased life expectancy, and suicide rates increase with age. Trends in elderly suicide rates over a 24-year period, 1979 to 2002, were examined. Differences in suicide rates between elderly men and women and between the age-bands 65 to 74 years and 75+ years were examined. Data was ascertained from the WHO website. Suicide rates for men and women for the age-bands 65 to 74 years and 75+ years declined over the 24-year study period. Suicide rates were higher in men than women for both the age bands. In men, suicide rates were higher in the 75+ age-band than in the 65 to 74 years age-band. Various national initiatives may have contributed to the decline in suicide rates. The challenge will be to sustain the decline, given that the population is ageing and suicide rates generally increase with age.

  8. Decomposing change in China's suicide rate, 1990-2010: ageing and urbanisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Feng; Yip, Paul S F; Law, Yik Wa

    2017-02-01

    The study empirically quantifies the contributions of age composition and urbanisation to changes in the suicide rate in China over the periods 1990-2000 and 2000-2010. A decompositional method was used to quantify the absolute and relative contributions of the age structure; the age-specific proportion of the urban population and the suicide rate of each age-specific, gender-specific and urban/rural cohort to the overall suicide rates in the two 10-year intervals. In the period between 1990 and 2000, a significant decline in the suicide rate among younger age groups (especially young rural women) was identified as the main driving force of the downward trend in the overall suicide rate. In 2000-2010, the rate of decline in suicide was predominantly explained by the drop in the suicide rate among all age groups in rural areas, with the exception of those aged over 80. The positive impact of urbanisation on the decline of the suicide rate has gradually diminished relative to the earlier period. As the positive impact of urbanisation on suicide rates is diminishing, further urbanisation and rapid change in society may induce stress and adjustment problems that are not conducive to the promotion of well-being. Furthermore, as China is facing the prospects of slower economic growth and a rapidly ageing population, suicides among older adults may also be elevated, particularly among those in rural areas with insufficient healthcare and social support. In order to maintain the decreasing trend of suicide in China, it is important for the Chinese government to pay more attention to the mental well-being of the population and to mitigate the stress of urban life and to provide timely support to older adults especially in rural areas. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Regional suicide rates in the Netherlands : does religion still play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    Background This study examined the nature of ecological associations between 'religiousness' and suicide rates (1985-1994) in the 11 provinces in the Netherlands. Methods Indices of religiousness, obtained from a nationwide survey were used as aggregate predictors of provincial suicide rates in

  10. Testing the hypothesis of the natural suicide rates: Further evidence from OECD data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Antonio Rodriguez; Halicioglu, Ferda

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides further evidence on the hypothesis of the natural rate of suicide using the time series data for 15 OECD countries over the period 1970–2004. This hypothesis suggests that the suicide rate of a society could never be zero even if both the economic and the social conditions wer...

  11. Relationship of suicide rates to economic variables in Europe: 2000-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountoulakis, K.N.; Kawohl, W.; Theodorakis, P.N.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Navickas, A.; Hoshl, C.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Sorel, E.; Rancans, E.; Palova, E.; Juckel, G.; Isacsson, G.; Korosec Jagodic, H.; Botezat-Antonescu, I.; Warmke, I.; Rybakowski, J.; Azorin, J.M.; Cookson, J.; Waddington, J.; Pregelj, P.; Demyttenaere, K.; Hranov, L.G.; Stevovic, L.I.; Pezawas, L.; Adida, M.; Figuera, M.L.; Pompili, M.; Jakovljevic, M.; Vichi, M.; Perugi, G.; Andreasen, O.; Vukovic, O.; Mavrogiorgou, P.; Vamik, P.; Bech, P.; Dome, P.; Winkler, P.; Salokangas, R.K.R.; From, T.; Danileviciute, V.; Gonda, X; Rihmer, Z.; Benhalima, J.F.; Grady, A.; Kloster Leadholm, A.K.; Soendergaard, S.; Nordt, C.; Lopez-Ibor, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether there is a direct link between economic crises and changes in suicide rates. Aims: The Lopez-Ibor Foundation launched an initiative to study the possible impact of the economic crisis on European suicide rates. Method: Data was gathered and analysed from 29 European

  12. Suicide rate trends in the Slovak Republic in 1993-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazinova, Alexandra; Moravansky, Norbert; Gulis, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicide is a significant public health issue worldwide, resulting in loss of lives, and burdening societies. AIMS: To describe and analyze the time trends of suicide rates (SRs) in the Slovak Republic in 1993-2015 for targeted suicide prevention strategies. METHODS: Data for this study...... were obtained from the mortality database of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. Crude and standardized annual SRs were calculated. Trends and relative risks of suicide according to age and sex were analyzed by joinpoint regression and negative binomial regression. RESULTS: In total......, there were 14,575 suicides in the Slovak Republic in the period 1993-2015 (85.3% were men). The overall average age-standardized SR for the study period was 11.45 per 100,000 person years. The rate increases with age, the highest is in men aged 75+ (42.74 per 100,000 person years). Risk of suicide is six...

  13. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among women firefighters: An examination of associated features and comparison of pre-career and career prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-10-15

    Women protective service workers die by suicide at a higher rate than women workers in other occupational groups. However, no study has examined rates and correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among women firefighters, despite the potential for these data to inform suicide screening, prevention, and intervention initiatives. The purpose of this study is to describe and compare pre-career and career rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors and identify their sociodemographic and occupational correlates among women firefighters. Data were obtained from 313 current U.S. women firefighters who completed a web-based survey (mean age = 37.30y, SD = 9.70y, 92.7% White). Pre-career rates of suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) were found to be 28.4%, 10.2%, 5.8%, and 11.2%, respectively. Career rates of suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and NSSI were found to be 37.7%, 10.9%, 3.5%, and 9.3%, respectively. Pre-career rates of suicide ideation (OR = 4.760, 95% CI = 2.820-8.034, p harassment) are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Does the environment affect suicide rates in Spain? A spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Maite; Santurtún, Ana; Zarrabeitia, María T

    2017-06-05

    Suicide is an important public health problem, it represents one of the major causes of unnatural death, and there are many factors that affect the risk of suicidal behaviour. The present study analyzes the temporal and spatial variations of mortality by suicide in Spain and its relationship with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. A retrospective study was performed, in which deaths by suicide, sex and age group in 50 Spanish provinces between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed. The annual trend of suicide mortality was assessed using Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient. Seasonality and monthly and weekly behaviour were evaluated by performing the ANOVA test and the Bonferroni adjustment. Finally, the relationship between GDP per capita and suicide was studied. Between 2000 and 2012, 42,905adult people died by suicide in Spain. The annual average incidence rate was 95 suicides per million population. The regions located in the south and in the northwest of the country registered the highest per capita mortality rates. There is a decreasing trend in mortality by suicide over the period studied (CC=-.744; P=.0004) in adults over the age of 64, and a seasonal behaviour was identified with summer maximum and autumn minimum values (f=.504; P<.0001). The regions with the highest GDP per capita showed the lowest mortality by suicide (r=-.645; P<.0001) and the relationship is stronger among older age groups. Mortality by suicide does not follow a homogenous geographical distribution in Spain. Mortality in men was higher than in women. Over the period of study, there has been a decrease in mortality by suicide in Spain in adults over the age of 64. The seasonal cycle of suicides and the inverse relationship with GDP per capita found in this study, provide information which may be used as a tool for developing prevention and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional analysis of big five personality factors and suicide rates in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Extending cross-national and intranational studies on possible aggregate-level associations between personality dimensions and suicide prevalence, this study examined the associations of the Big Five personality factors and suicide rates across 32 regions of the Russian Federation. Failing to replicate one key finding of similar geographic studies, namely, a correspondence of higher suicide rates with lower Agreeableness and Conscientiousness (i.e., higher Psychoticism) scores, higher suicide rates corresponded to higher Agreeableness scores. This effect was obtained with one available data source (regional-level Big Five ratings based on the National Character Survey), but not with another (based on the NEO-PI-R measure). All in all, regional suicide rates across Russia were dissociated from regional variation in personality dimensions.

  16. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  17. Low validity of Google Trends for behavioral forecasting of national suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ulrich S; Andel, Rita; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Till, Benedikt; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Voracek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that search volumes of the most popular search engine worldwide, Google, provided via Google Trends, could be associated with national suicide rates in the USA, UK, and some Asian countries. However, search volumes have mostly been studied in an ad hoc fashion, without controls for spurious associations. This study evaluated the validity and utility of Google Trends search volumes for behavioral forecasting of suicide rates in the USA, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Suicide-related search terms were systematically collected and respective Google Trends search volumes evaluated for availability. Time spans covered 2004 to 2010 (USA, Switzerland) and 2004 to 2012 (Germany, Austria). Temporal associations of search volumes and suicide rates were investigated with time-series analyses that rigorously controlled for spurious associations. The number and reliability of analyzable search volume data increased with country size. Search volumes showed various temporal associations with suicide rates. However, associations differed both across and within countries and mostly followed no discernable patterns. The total number of significant associations roughly matched the number of expected Type I errors. These results suggest that the validity of Google Trends search volumes for behavioral forecasting of national suicide rates is low. The utility and validity of search volumes for the forecasting of suicide rates depend on two key assumptions ("the population that conducts searches consists mostly of individuals with suicidal ideation", "suicide-related search behavior is strongly linked with suicidal behavior"). We discuss strands of evidence that these two assumptions are likely not met. Implications for future research with Google Trends in the context of suicide research are also discussed.

  18. Availability of mental health service providers and suicide rates in Slovenia: a nationwide ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korošec Jagodič, Helena; Rokavec, Tatjana; Agius, Mark; Pregelj, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the influence of socioeconomic factors, mental health service availability, and prevalence of mental disorders on regional differences in the suicide rate in Slovenia. Methods The effects of different socioeconomic factors, mental health service availability, and mental disorders factors on suicide rates from 2000-2009 were analyzed using a general linear mixed model (GLMM). Pearson correlations were used to explore the direction and magnitude of associations. Results Among socioeconomic factors, unemployment rate ranked as the most powerful predictor of suicide and an increase of one unit in the unemployment rate increased regional suicide rate by 2.21 (β = 2.21, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.87-2.54, P < 0.001). On the other hand, higher marriage/divorce ratio was negatively related to the suicide rate and an increase of one unit in marriage/divorce ratio reduced regional suicide rate by 1.16 (β = -1.16, 95% CI = -2.20 to -0.13, P < 0.031). The most influential mental health service availability parameter was higher psychiatrist availability (4 psychiatrists and more working at outpatient clinics per 100 000 inhabitants), which was negatively correlated with the suicide rate and reduced regional suicide rate by 2.95 (β = -2.95, 95% CI = -4.60 to -1.31, P = 0.002). Another negatively correlated factor was the antidepressant/anxiolytic ratio higher than 0.5, which reduced the regional suicide rate by 2.32 (β = -2.32, 95% CI = -3.75 to -0.89, P = 0.003). Among mental health disorders, only the prevalence of alcohol use disorders was significantly related to the regional suicide rates and an increase of one unit in the prevalence of alcohol use disorders per 1000 inhabitants increased the regional suicide rate by 0.02 (β = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.01- 0.03, P = 0.008). Conclusions Besides unemployment, which was a very strong predictor of suicide rates, unequal availability of mental

  19. Interrelation between the prevalence rate of suicides and the length of working hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Korotkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that overworking as well as deficiency of work (plenty of free time are major factors of a suicide on an individual level which allows when passing to the level of a real social group (employees to suppose of existence of a certain optimum of working time or a parabolic (U-shaped connection between the suicide rate and an average duration of working time. From the theoretical point of view the supposed parabolic dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average duration of working time of employees is described from the point of view of suicidology: excessive increase of working time is an external tendency which prevents satisfaction of actual needs of an employee and limits physically the space (off-work time for their realization. Multidirectional tendencies form a life conflict which has crucial significance when transferring to a suicidal phase. The objective of this article consists in a qualitative assessment of an influence of “an average duration of working time” on the level of prevalence of suicides when other things are fixed (economic, social, religious and others in a relatively stable social situation. For the econometric analysis, reliable and comparable data of the European database of detailed mortality data of the World Health Organization and Eurostat are used for 22 European countries for the period from 1998 till 2012. Based on analysis of a dynamics of the studied variables different hypothesis have been made: 1 about existence of statistically significant linear or logarithmic dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average factual duration of working time inside a country 2 about existence of a parabolic (U-shaped dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average factual duration of working time between countries. A set of panel unit root tests and stationarity testify that the examined variables are unsteady variables with integratedness order I(1. The

  20. Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & ... Do Teens Try to Kill Themselves? Depression Substance Abuse Suicide Is Not Always Planned Warning Signs What ...

  1. Stigma, Attitudes, and Help-Seeking Intentions for Psychological Problems in Relation to Regional Suicide Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Alexandre; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2016-02-01

    In this ecological study, we investigated whether help-seeking related to stigma, intentions, and attitudes toward suicide are associated with the suicide rates of 20 regions within the Netherlands and Belgium. Significant associations were found between regional suicide rates and the intention to seek informal help (β = -1.47, p = .001), self-stigma (β = 1.33, p = .038), and shame (β = .71, p = .030). The association between self-stigma and suicide rate was mediated by intentions to seek informal help. These results suggest that to promote suicide prevention at the level of the regional population, stigma, shame, and intentions to seek help should be targeted in the public domain. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  2. Long-Term Effects of a Screening Intervention for Depression on Suicide Rates among Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Sakashita, Tomoe

    2016-04-01

    To explore the long-term impact of a universal screening intervention for depression on suicide rates among older community-dwelling adults, with gender as an effect modifier. Controlled cohort study reporting long-term follow-up of previous research. Two sets of three municipalities in Japan were assigned as intervention and control regions and compared with the surrounding zone and prefecture. Intervention area residents aged 60 years and older (14,291) were invited to participate in a 2-year intervention (2005-2006). Four population-based dynamic cohorts of residents aged 65 years and older (1999-2010) were included as subjects, 6 years before and after the intervention started. At-risk residents within the intervention region (4,918) were invited for a two-step screening program; 2,552 participated in the program linked with care/support services for 2 years. An education program open to the public was held. Changes in suicide from a 6-year baseline to the 2-year intervention and a 4-year follow-up in the intervention region (11,700 adults ≥65 years) were compared with a matched control and two comparison areas using mixed-effects negative binomial regression models. Suicide rates among older adults exposed to screening were compared with those of the control region. Suicide rates in the intervention region decreased by 48%, which was significantly greater than in the three comparison areas. The program's benefits lasted longer for women than men. Screening exposure may be associated with decreased suicide risk over the 4-year follow-up. Universal screening may decrease suicide rates among older adults, with potential gender differences in treatment response. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling of the temporal patterns of fluoxetine prescriptions and suicide rates in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Milane

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the potential association of antidepressant use and suicide at a population level, we analyzed the associations between suicide rates and dispensing of the prototypic SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine in the United States during the period 1960-2002.Sources of data included Centers of Disease Control and US Census Bureau age-adjusted suicide rates since 1960 and numbers of fluoxetine sales in the US, since its introduction in 1988. We conducted statistical analysis of age-adjusted population data and prescription numbers. Suicide rates fluctuated between 12.2 and 13.7 per 100,000 for the entire population from the early 1960s until 1988. Since then, suicide rates have gradually declined, with the lowest value of 10.4 per 100,000 in 2000. This steady decline is significantly associated with increased numbers of fluoxetine prescriptions dispensed from 2,469,000 in 1988 to 33,320,000 in 2002 (r(s = -0.92; p < 0.001. Mathematical modeling of what suicide rates would have been during the 1988-2002 period based on pre-1988 data indicates that since the introduction of fluoxetine in 1988 through 2002 there has been a cumulative decrease in expected suicide mortality of 33,600 individuals (posterior median, 95% Bayesian credible interval 22,400-45,000.The introduction of SSRIs in 1988 has been temporally associated with a substantial reduction in the number of suicides. This effect may have been more apparent in the female population, whom we postulate might have particularly benefited from SSRI treatment. While these types of data cannot lead to conclusions on causality, we suggest here that in the context of untreated depression being the major cause of suicide, antidepressant treatment could have had a contributory role in the reduction of suicide rates in the period 1988-2002.

  4. Associations Between the Macroeconomic Indicators and Suicide Rates in India: Two Ecological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Anto P; Senthilkumar, P; Gayathri, K; Shyamsundar, G; Jacob, K S

    2015-01-01

    While western studies have focused on the importance of psychiatric illnesses in the complex pathways leading to suicides, several Indian studies have highlighted the important contributions by economic, social, and cultural factors. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that annual national suicide rates and suicide rates of the different states in India were associated with macroeconomic indices. Data from the National crime records bureau, Ministry of finance, labour bureau, Government of India, population commission, and planning commission official portals, World Bank and the United Nations were accessed. We assessed the correlations of annual national and state-wise suicide rates with macroeconomic, health, and other indices using ecological study design for India, and for its different states and union territories. We documented statistically significant associations between the suicide rates and per capita gross domestic product, consumer price index, foreign exchange, trade balance, total health expenditure as well as literacy rates. As recent economic growth in India is associated with increasing suicide rates, macroeconomic policies emphasizing equitable distribution of resources may help curtailing the population suicide rates in India.

  5. [Association between inequality and suicide rate in Colombia (1994-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Income inequality is directly related to the mental health of the population. However, the relationship between income inequality and suicide rates in Colombia has still not been explored. To estimate the relationship between inequality and suicide rates in Colombia from 1994 to 2013. An ecological study was conducted, in which the correlation was estimated (Spearman) between inequality (Gini coefficient) and suicide rate between 1994 and 2013, according to official information available from the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE), and the National Institute of Forensic Science and Forensic Medicine. A Gini coefficient between 0.53 and 0.60 (median, 0.65 [interquartile range, 0.54-0.57]) was observed, and suicide rates were between 3.84 and 5.26 (median, 4.20 [4.08-4.86]). The correlation between inequality and suicide rates was positive and statistically significant (r=.70; p<.001). There is a positive association between economic inequality and suicide rate in Colombia. It is important to achieve greater equity in the distribution of income to reduce suicide rate in the country. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychometric validation of the Columbia-Suicide Severity rating scale in Spanish-speaking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrani Azcurra, Daniel

    2017-12-30

    Adolescent suicide is a major public health issue, and early and accurate detection is of great concern. There are many reliable instruments for this purpose, such as the Columbia-Suicide severity rating scale (C-SSRS), but no validation exists for Spanish speaking Latin American adolescents. To assess psychometric properties and cut-off scores of the C-SSRS in Spanish speaking adolescents. Exploratory assessment with principal component analysis (PCA) and Varimax rotation, and confirmatory analysis (CFA) were performed on two groups with 782 and 834 participants respectively (N=1616). Mean age was 24.8 years. A Receiver operator analysis was applied to distinguish between control and suicide-risk subgroups adolescents. Promax rotation yielded two 10-items factors, for suicide ideation and behavior respectively. C-SSRS was positively correlated with other suicide risk scales, such as Beck Depression Inventory-II, Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, or PHQ-9. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution as the best goodness of fit model. C-SSRS showed adequate ability to detect suicide risk group with positive predictive value of 68.3%. ROC analyses showed cutoff scores of ≥ 6 and ≥ 4 for suicide ideation and behavior scales respectively. This research offers data supporting psychometric validity and reliability of C-SSRS in nonclinical Spanish-speaking students. Added benefits are flexible scoring and management easiness. This questionnaire yields data on distinct aspects of suicidality, being more parsimonious than separate administration of a bunch of questionnaires.

  7. Associations between changes in the pattern of suicide methods and rates in Korea, the US, and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Ahn, Myung Hee; Lee, Ahrong; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-01-01

    Background The lethality of the suicide method employed is a strong risk factor for the completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates in South Korea, the United States (US), and Finland. Methods We analyzed annual data from 2000–2011 for South Korea and Finland, and 2000–2010 for the US in order to examine trends in the rates and methods of suicide. Data on suicide methods were obtained from the World ...

  8. Elderly Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderly Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • The elderly (ages 65 and older) made up 13. ... population; they accounted for 16.37% of all suicides in the US. • The rate of suicides for ...

  9. More than just numbers: Suicide rates and the economic cycle in Portugal (1910–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pereira dos Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicides are a major concern for public health first and foremost because they are an avoidable cause of death. Moreover, they can be an indicator of self-reported emotional satisfaction and a good marker of overall well-being.In this study we examine how different economic and social aspects affected Portuguese suicide rates for more than one hundred years (1910–2013. We place this exercise in the specific historical context of the XX and early XXI century in Portugal, emphasizing the role of economic recessions and expansions. Controlling for aspects like wars, health care availability, political instability, and demographic changes, we find a strong association between a decline in the growth rate of real output and an increase in suicide rates for the whole population. In this regard, while male suicide rates are non-negligibly influenced by economic downturns, female suicide rates are in general more responsive to a more open political and economic environment. Our results are robust if we consider the mid-term cyclical relationship.Our findings advocate that, during recessions, public health responses should be seen as a crucial component of suicide prevention. Keywords: Suicide rates, Portugal, Mental health, Crisis, Austerity, Marriage

  10. [Investigation of the association between arsenic levels in drinking water and suicide rate of Hungarian settlements between 2005 and 2011. A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Hal, Melinda; Kapitány, Balázs; Gonda, Xénia; Vargha, Márta; Döme, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Both suicidal behaviour and consumption of arsenic-contaminated drinking-water represent major public health problems. Previous epidemiological and animal studies showed that high arsenic intake may also be associated with the elevated risk for depression. Since untreated depression is the most powerful risk factor for suicidal behaviour, we postulated that the consumption of arsenic-contaminated tap drinking-water may also be related to suicide. Based on the level of arsenic in their drinking water Hungarian settlements with more then 500 inhabitants (n=1639) were divided into four groups. Then average age-standardized suicide rates of the four groups were compared. We found that the higher is the arsenic level in the drinking water the higher is the suicide rate of the settlements. In addition to the practical consequences of our preliminary results (e.g. in the suicide prevention) they also suggest that high level of arsenic in drinking water might contribute, at least in part, to the well-known and stable in time regional differences in suicide mortality of Hungary since the highest arsenic levels in drinking water have been found in counties with traditionally high suicide rates, such as Bacs-Kiskun, Csongrad, Bekes and Hajdu- Bihar.

  11. Increasing Suicide Rates Among Middle-age Persons and Interventions to Manage Patients with Psychiatric Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Chakravarthy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has published significant data and trends related to suicide rates in the United States (U.S.. Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in U.S. adults, and rates are increasing across all geographic regions. There is a significant increase in the suicide rate among adults in the 35-64 age range. We present findings from the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR with commentary on current resources and barriers to psychiatric care. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(1:11–13.

  12. Suicide or accident? A psychological autopsy study of suicide in youths under the age of 16 compared to deaths labeled as accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freuchen Anne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In the present paper, we describe suicide in youths under 16 years of age and compare their risk factors for suicide to those of older adolescents as described in the literature. Furthermore, we evaluate the possible mislabeling of suicides as accidents, and vice versa. Method We used the data from a nationwide psychological autopsy of youths 15 years and younger who had committed suicide or died in accidents in Norway from 1993 to 2004 (n = 84. We additionally constructed a suicide index to distinguish between the two causes of death. Results The young suicide victims presented, with little gender difference, fewer obvious risk factors and less suicide intent than commonly described for older adolescents. The suicide index distinguished quite well between suicides and accidents, with few cases indicating a possible mislabeling, although some suicide cases could have been labeled as uncertain. Conclusion In line with previous research, suicides in 11-15-year-olds have many similarities to suicides in older adolescents in terms of external circumstances, but they present less apparent warning signs. In our total sample of 84 deaths, there were few indications of incorrect labeling.

  13. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? A cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality). Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood. ‎

  14. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Bhandarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. METHODS: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. RESULTS: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood.

  15. Inequalities in suicide mortality rates and the economic recession in the municipalities of Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurina, Carme; Marzo, Manel; Saez, Marc

    2015-09-08

    While previous research already exists on the impact of the current economic crisis and whether it leads to an increase in mortality by suicide, our objective in this paper is to determine if the increase in the suicide rate in Catalonia, Spain from 2010 onwards has been statistically significant and whether it is associated with rising unemployment. We used hierarchical mixed models, separately considering the crude death rate of suicides for municipalities with more than and less than 10,000 inhabitants as dependent variables both unstratified and stratified according to gender and/or age group. In municipalities with 10,000 or more inhabitants there was an increase in the relative risk of suicide from 2009 onwards. This increase was only statistically significant for working-aged women (16-64 years). In municipalities with less than 10,000 inhabitants the relative risk showed a decreasing trend even after 2009. In no case did we find the unemployment rate to be associated (statistically significant) with the suicide rate. The increase in the suicide rate from 2010 in Catalonia was not statistically significant as a whole, with the exception of working-aged women (16-64 years) living in municipalities with 10,000 or more inhabitants. We have not found this increase to be associated with rising unemployment in any of the cases. Future research into the effects of economic recessions on suicide mortality should take into account inequalities by age, sex and size of municipalities.

  16. The Politics of Hope and Despair: The Effect of Presidential Election Outcomes on Suicide Rates*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Timothy J.; Dunn, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This article examines the effect of election outcomes on suicide rates by combining the theory of social integration developed by Durkheim with the models of rational choice used in economics. Methods Theory predicts that states with a greater percentage of residents who supported the losing candidate would tend to exhibit a relative increase in suicide rates. However, being around others who also supported the losing candidate may indicate a greater degree of social integration at the local level, thereby lowering relative suicide rates. We therefore use fixed-effects regression of state suicide rates from 1981 to 2005 on state election outcomes during presidential elections to determine which effect is stronger. Results We find that the local effect of social integration is dominant. The suicide rate when a state supports the losing candidate will tend to be lower than if the state had supported the winning candidate—4.6 percent lower for males and 5.3 percent lower for females. Conclusion Social integration works at many levels; it not only affects suicide risk directly, but can mediate other shocks that influence suicide risk. PMID:20645463

  17. Relationship of suicide rates with climate and economic variables in Europe during 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Chatzikosta, Isaia; Pastiadis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that suicidal rates vary considerably among European countries and the reasons for this are unknown, although several theories have been proposed. The effect of economic variables has been extensively studied but not that of climate. METHODS: Data from 29 European...... countries covering the years 2000-2012 and concerning male and female standardized suicidal rates (according to WHO), economic variables (according World Bank) and climate variables were gathered. The statistical analysis included cluster and principal component analysis and categorical regression. RESULTS......: The derived models explained 62.4 % of the variability of male suicidal rates. Economic variables alone explained 26.9 % and climate variables 37.6 %. For females, the respective figures were 41.7, 11.5 and 28.1 %. Male suicides correlated with high unemployment rate in the frame of high growth rate and high...

  18. The relationship between elderly suicide rates and the internet: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2010-05-01

    Suicide rates generally increase with age. Internet websites and chat rooms have been reported both to promote suicides and to have a positive beneficial effect on suicidal individuals. The role of the internet in elderly suicides has not been studied. The relationship between elderly suicide rates and the prevalence of internet users was examined in a cross-national study using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations website. The prevalence of internet users was significantly and positively correlated with suicide rates in both genders in the age bands 65-74 years and 75+ years. On multiple regression analysis the prevalence of internet users was independently associated with suicide rates in both genders in both age bands. Caution should be exercised in the attribution of a causal relationship and the direction of this relationship because of the cross-sectional and ecological study design whereby the findings are subject to ecological fallacy. However, the findings identify and support a need for further research.

  19. The effect of altitude and climate on the suicide rates in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asirdizer, Mahmut; Kartal, Erhan; Etli, Yasin; Tatlisumak, Ertugrul; Gumus, Orhan; Hekimoglu, Yavuz; Keskin, Sıddık

    2018-02-01

    Suicide is one of the most important public health problems. There was an association between suicide and several factors such as psychiatric diseases and psychological characteristics, somatic illness, cultural, socioeconomic, familial, occupational and individual risk factors. Also, high altitude and climatic factors including high temperature, cloudiness, more sunshine and low rainfalls were defined as some of these risk factors in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate correlation between suicide rates and altitudes of all cities in Turkey and between suicide rates and climatic factors including Rainfall Activity Index, Winter Mean Temperatures, Summer Mean Temperatures and Temperature Difference between January and July previously defined by several authors in the broad series in Turkey. In Turkey, 29865 suicidal deaths occurred in 10 years period between 2006 and 2015. Of them, 21020 (70.4%) were males and 8845 (29.6%) were females. In this study, we found that high altitude above 1500 m, winter median temperature lower than -10 °C and hard temperature changes above 25 °C between winter and summer of settlements were important factors that affected on female suicide rates appropriate to knowledge which defined in previous studies. In conclusion, we suggested that the associations among suicide rates with altitudes and climate should be studied in wider series obtained from different countries for reaching more reliable results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for more than 1% of all deaths; Suicide ... of weakness or will somehow interfere with their career. It‘s important to remember that actual weakness poses ...

  1. Risk of Suicidal Events With Atomoxetine Compared to Stimulant Treatment: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Stephan; Bussing, Regina; Kubilis, Paul; Gerhard, Tobias; Segal, Richard; Shuster, Jonathan J; Winterstein, Almut G

    2016-05-01

    Antidepressant effects on increased suicidality in children have raised public concern in recent years. Approved in 2002 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment, the selective noradrenalin-reuptake-inhibitor atomoxetine was initially investigated for the treatment of depression. In post-hoc analyses of clinical trial data, atomoxetine has been associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in children and adolescents. We analyzed whether the observed increased risk of suicidal ideation in clinical trials translates into an increased risk of suicidal events in pediatric patients treated with atomoxetine compared with stimulants in 26 Medicaid programs. Employing a retrospective cohort design, we used propensity score-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the risk of suicide and suicide attempt in pediatric patients initiating treatment with atomoxetine compared with stimulants from 2002 to 2006. The first-line treatment cohort included 279 315 patients. During the first year of follow-up, the adjusted hazard ratio for current atomoxetine use compared with current stimulant use was 0.95 (95% CI 0.47-1.92, P = .88). The second-line treatment cohort included 220 215 patients. During the first year of follow-up, the adjusted hazard ratio for current atomoxetine use compared with current stimulant use was 0.71 (95% CI 0.30-1.67, P = .43). First- and second-line treatment of youths age 5 to 18 with atomoxetine compared with stimulants was not significantly associated with an increased risk of suicidal events. The low incidence of suicide and suicide attempt resulted in wide confidence intervals and did not allow stratified analysis of high-risk groups or assessment of suicidal risk associated with long-term use of atomoxetine. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. The relationship between obesity and elderly suicide rates: a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Shah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An inverse relationship between obesity and suicide has been observed in younger adults, but this has not been examined in the elderly. METHODS: A cross-national ecological study examined the independent relationship between the prevalence of obesity and elderly suicide rates, by controlling for potentially confounding variables, using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations. RESULTS: Elderly suicide rates in females were independently associated with the prevalence of obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Caution should be exercised in attributing a causal relationship from this cross-sectional ecological study due to ecological fallacy and requires confirmation in individual-level case-control or cohort studies.

  3. The relationship between elderly suicide rates and different components of education: a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Shah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two recent studies reported a curvilinear (U-shaped between elderly suicide rates and educational attainment measured by the United Nation’s Education Index. A study examining the curvilinear (U-shaped relationship between elderly suicide rates and the individual components of the Education Index (adult literacy rate, percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled in primary schools and percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and one other measure of educational attainment (youth literacy rate was undertaken to partial out the effects of the individual components of Education Index on elderly suicides. METHODS: A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly suicide rates (Y-axis and different measures of educational attainment (X-axis was undertaken using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks using Curve estimation regression models. RESULTS: The relationship between elderly suicide rates with the adult literacy rate, the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and the youth literacy rate was curvilinear (U-shaped curve. This relationship was absent with the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled in primary schools. CONCLUSIONS: Given the cross-sectional study design, a causal relationship between elderly suicide rates and measures of educational attainment, including the adult literacy rate, the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and the youth literacy rate, cannot be assumed. However, the findings suggest that future studies of elderly suicide rates and educational attainment should focus on the adult literacy rate, the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and the youth literacy rate as measures of educational attainment.

  4. Exploring Personality Features in Patients with Affective Disorders and History of Suicide Attempts: A Comparative Study with Their Parents and Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Camarena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personality traits are important candidate predictors of suicidal behavior. Several studies have reported an association between personality/temperament traits and suicidal behavior, suggesting personality traits as intermediary phenotypes related to suicidal behavior. Thus, it is possible that suicide attempts can be accounted for by increased familial rates of risk personality traits. The aim of this work was to evaluate personality traits in affective disorder patients with attempted suicide and to compare them with the personality trait scores of their parents. In addition, ITC scores in the two groups were compared with a healthy control sample. The patients evaluated met the DSM-IV criteria for major depression disorder or dysthymia and had a documented history of suicide attempts. Psychiatric diagnoses of patients and parents were done according to the SCID-I and the personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. We analyzed 49 suicide attempt subjects and their parents (n=95 and 89 control subjects. We observed that temperament and character dimensions were similar between patients and their parents (P>0.05. In particular, we observed that high HA and low P, SD, and CO were shared among families. Our study is the first to report that the personality traits of affective disorder patients with a history of attempted suicide are shared between patients and their parents.

  5. Suicide and the 2008 economic recession: Who is most at risk? Trends in suicide rates in England and Wales 2001–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coope, Caroline; Gunnell, David; Hollingworth, William; Hawton, Keith; Kapur, Nav; Fearn, Vanessa; Wells, Claudia; Metcalfe, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The negative impacts of previous economic recessions on suicide rates have largely been attributed to rapid rises in unemployment in the context of inadequate social and work protection programmes. We have investigated trends in indicators of the 2008 economic recession and trends in suicide rates in England and Wales in men and women of working age (16–64 years old) for the period 2001–2011, before, during and after the economic recession, our aim was to identify demographic groups whose suicide rates were most affected. We found no clear evidence of an association between trends in female suicide rates and indicators of economic recession. Evidence of a halt in the previous downward trend in suicide rates occurred for men aged 16–34 years in 2006 (95% CI Quarter 3 (Q3) 2004, Q3 2007 for 16–24 year olds & Q1 2005, Q4 2006 for 25–34 year olds), whilst suicide rates in 35–44 year old men reversed from a downward to upward trend in early 2010 (95% CI Q4 2008, Q2 2011). For the younger men (16–34 years) this change preceded the sharp increases in redundancy and unemployment rates of early 2008 and lagged behind rising trends in house repossessions and bankruptcy that began around 2003. An exception were the 35–44 year old men for whom a change in suicide rate trends from downwards to upwards coincided with peaks in redundancies, unemployment and rises in long-term unemployment. Suicide rates across the decade rose monotonically in men aged 45–64 years. Male suicide in the most-to-medium deprived areas showed evidence of decreasing rates across the decade, whilst in the least-deprived areas suicide rates were fairly static but remained much lower than those in the most-deprived areas. There were small post-recession increases in the proportion of suicides in men in higher management/professional, small employer/self-employed occupations and fulltime education. A halt in the downward trend in suicide rates amongst men aged 16–34 years, may have begun

  6. Increased use of antidepressants and decreasing suicide rates: a population-based study using Danish register data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Canudas-Romo, V.; Conwell, Yeates

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to examine if the change in the suicide rate is associated with individuals' use of antidepressants as has been suggested by ecological studies. DESIGN: Decomposition of suicide rates by antidepressant treatment group. SETTING: Population......-based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 50 years and older living in Denmark between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2000 (N = 2,100,808). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide rates are calculated according to current antidepressant treatment status (no treatment, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA......), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), other antidepressants). The change in the suicide rate during 1996-2000 was decomposed by treatment group. RESULTS: Only one in five older adults dying by suicide was in treatment at the time of death. Whereas the male suicide rate declined by 9.7 suicides per...

  7. More than just numbers: Suicide rates and the economic cycle in Portugal (1910-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, João Pereira; Tavares, Mariana; Barros, Pedro Pita

    2016-12-01

    Suicides are a major concern for public health first and foremost because they are an avoidable cause of death. Moreover, they can be an indicator of self-reported emotional satisfaction and a good marker of overall well-being. In this study we examine how different economic and social aspects affected Portuguese suicide rates for more than one hundred years (1910-2013). We place this exercise in the specific historical context of the XX and early XXI century in Portugal, emphasizing the role of economic recessions and expansions. Controlling for aspects like wars, health care availability, political instability, and demographic changes, we find a strong association between a decline in the growth rate of real output and an increase in suicide rates for the whole population. In this regard, while male suicide rates are non-negligibly influenced by economic downturns, female suicide rates are in general more responsive to a more open political and economic environment. Our results are robust if we consider the mid-term cyclical relationship. Our findings advocate that, during recessions, public health responses should be seen as a crucial component of suicide prevention.

  8. Association between the Density of Physicians and Suicide Rates in Japan: Nationwide Ecological Study Using a Spatial Bayesian Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available Regional disparity in suicide rates is a serious problem worldwide. One possible cause is unequal distribution of the health workforce, especially psychiatrists. Research about the association between regional physician numbers and suicide rates is therefore important but studies are rare. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between physician numbers and suicide rates in Japan, by municipality.The study included all the municipalities in Japan (n = 1,896. We estimated smoothed standardized mortality ratios of suicide rates for each municipality and evaluated the association between health workforce and suicide rates using a hierarchical Bayesian model accounting for spatially correlated random effects, a conditional autoregressive model. We assumed a Poisson distribution for the observed number of suicides and set the expected number of suicides as the offset variable. The explanatory variables were numbers of physicians, a binary variable for the presence of psychiatrists, and social covariates.After adjustment for socioeconomic factors, suicide rates in municipalities that had at least one psychiatrist were lower than those in the other municipalities. There was, however, a positive and statistically significant association between the number of physicians and suicide rates.Suicide rates in municipalities that had at least one psychiatrist were lower than those in other municipalities, but the number of physicians was positively and significantly related with suicide rates. To improve the regional disparity in suicide rates, the government should encourage psychiatrists to participate in community-based suicide prevention programs and to settle in municipalities that currently have no psychiatrists. The government and other stakeholders should also construct better networks between psychiatrists and non-psychiatrists to support sharing of information for suicide prevention.

  9. Association between the Density of Physicians and Suicide Rates in Japan: Nationwide Ecological Study Using a Spatial Bayesian Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hideaki; Koike, Soichi

    2016-01-01

    Regional disparity in suicide rates is a serious problem worldwide. One possible cause is unequal distribution of the health workforce, especially psychiatrists. Research about the association between regional physician numbers and suicide rates is therefore important but studies are rare. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between physician numbers and suicide rates in Japan, by municipality. The study included all the municipalities in Japan (n = 1,896). We estimated smoothed standardized mortality ratios of suicide rates for each municipality and evaluated the association between health workforce and suicide rates using a hierarchical Bayesian model accounting for spatially correlated random effects, a conditional autoregressive model. We assumed a Poisson distribution for the observed number of suicides and set the expected number of suicides as the offset variable. The explanatory variables were numbers of physicians, a binary variable for the presence of psychiatrists, and social covariates. After adjustment for socioeconomic factors, suicide rates in municipalities that had at least one psychiatrist were lower than those in the other municipalities. There was, however, a positive and statistically significant association between the number of physicians and suicide rates. Suicide rates in municipalities that had at least one psychiatrist were lower than those in other municipalities, but the number of physicians was positively and significantly related with suicide rates. To improve the regional disparity in suicide rates, the government should encourage psychiatrists to participate in community-based suicide prevention programs and to settle in municipalities that currently have no psychiatrists. The government and other stakeholders should also construct better networks between psychiatrists and non-psychiatrists to support sharing of information for suicide prevention.

  10. Did the suicide barrier work after all? Revisiting the Bloor Viaduct natural experiment and its impact on suicide rates in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyor, Mark; Schaffer, Ayal; Redelmeier, Donald A; Kiss, Alex; Nishikawa, Yasunori; Cheung, Amy H; Levitt, Anthony J; Pirkis, Jane

    2017-06-19

    This research aims to determine the long-term impact of the Bloor Street Viaduct suicide barrier on rates of suicide in Toronto and whether media reporting had any impact on suicide rates. Natural experiment. City of Toronto, Canada; records at the chief coroner's office of Ontario 1993-2003 (11 years before the barrier) and 2004-2014 (11 years after the barrier). 5403 people who died by suicide in the city of Toronto. Changes in yearly rates of suicide by jumping at Bloor Street Viaduct, other bridges including nearest comparison bridge and walking distance bridges, and buildings, and by other means. Suicide rates at the Bloor Street Viaduct declined from 9.0 deaths/year before the barrier to 0.1 deaths/year after the barrier (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.005, 95% CI 0.0005 to 0.19, p=0.002). Suicide deaths from bridges in Toronto also declined significantly (IRR 0.53, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.71, psuicide at the Bloor Street Viaduct were associated with an increase in suicide-by-jumping from bridges the following year. The current study demonstrates that, over the long term, suicide-by-jumping declined in Toronto after the barrier with no associated increase in suicide by other means. That is, the barrier appears to have had its intended impact at preventing suicide despite a short-term rise in deaths at other bridges that was at least partially influenced by a media effect. Research examining barriers at other locations should interpret short-term results with caution. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Mortality rate and years of life lost from unintentional injury and suicide in South India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Anuradha; Konradsen, Flemming; John, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    We calculated mortality rates and years of life lost because of unintentional injuries and suicides using community based information obtained prospectively over a 7-year period, from 1998 to 2004, among a rural and peri-urban population of 108,000 in South India. Per 100,000 population the total...... in this study is significantly higher than the figures reflected in available reports for India and is likely due to the under reporting in routine mortality statistics, particularly of suicides....

  12. The sales of antidepressants and suicide rates in Norway and its counties 1980-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Walby, Fredrik A; Tverdal, Aage

    2007-09-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem and depression is among the most important risk factors for suicide. Treatment of depression might prevent suicide. To study this hypothesis further we conducted an ecological study. An ecological study using sales data for antidepressants and numbers of suicides in Norway and Norwegian counties 1980-2004 was performed. Data on alcohol consumption and unemployment rates were registered and taken into account. Data were analyzed using Cochrane-Orcutt time series for the country as a whole. The county specific data were analyzed with a random coefficient model with county as subject and intercept and time (slope) as random variables using an unstructured covariance matrix. Sales of non-tricyclic antidepressants (non-TCAs) and suicide were clearly negatively related, even when controlling for alcohol and unemployment (adjusted r(2): 0.57). There was an effect modification between time and level of sales of non-TCAs. Studying the relationship between the sales of non-TCAs and the suicide rate, we found that it was significant and stronger for the low sales figures, but non-existent for the high sales figures. Ecological studies cannot infer causality. The fall in suicide rates in Norway and its counties was related to the increased sales of non-TCAs. The effect was mostly a result of a sales increase in the lower sales segment, indicating that a change from the more toxic TCAs, or heightened awareness of depression and its treatment, could explain the relationship found between sales of newer antidepressants and a decrease in suicide rate.

  13. Impact of income inequality and other social determinants on suicide rate in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daiane Borges; Rasella, Davide; Dos Santos, Darci Neves

    2015-01-01

    To analyze whether income inequality and other social determinants are associated with suicide rate in Brazil. This study used panel data from all 5,507 Brazilian municipalities from 2000 to 2011. Suicide rates were calculated by sex and standardized by age for each municipality and year. The independent variables of the regression model included the Gini Index, per capita income, percentage of individuals with up to eight years of education, urbanization, average number of residents per household, percentage of divorced people, of Catholics, Pentecostals, and Evangelicals. A multivariable negative binomial regression for panel data with fixed-effects specification was performed. The Gini index was positively associated with suicide rates; the rate ratio (RR) was 1.055 (95% CI: 1.011-1.101). Of the other social determinants, income had a significant negative association with suicide rates (RR: 0.968, 95% CI: 0.948-0.988), whereas a low-level education had a positive association (RR: 1.015, 95% CI: 1.010-1.021). Income inequality represents a community-level risk factor for suicide rates in Brazil. The decrease in income inequality, increase in income per capita, and decrease in the percentage of individuals who did not complete basic studies may have counteracted the increase in suicides in the last decade. Other changes, such as the decrease in the mean residents per household, may have contributed to their increase. Therefore, the implementation of social policies that may improve the population's socioeconomic conditions and reduce income inequality in Brazil, and in other low and middle-income countries, can help to reduce suicide rates.

  14. Impact of income inequality and other social determinants on suicide rate in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Borges Machado

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze whether income inequality and other social determinants are associated with suicide rate in Brazil. METHOD: This study used panel data from all 5,507 Brazilian municipalities from 2000 to 2011. Suicide rates were calculated by sex and standardized by age for each municipality and year. The independent variables of the regression model included the Gini Index, per capita income, percentage of individuals with up to eight years of education, urbanization, average number of residents per household, percentage of divorced people, of Catholics, Pentecostals, and Evangelicals. A multivariable negative binomial regression for panel data with fixed-effects specification was performed. RESULTS: The Gini index was positively associated with suicide rates; the rate ratio (RR was 1.055 (95% CI: 1.011-1.101. Of the other social determinants, income had a significant negative association with suicide rates (RR: 0.968, 95% CI: 0.948-0.988, whereas a low-level education had a positive association (RR: 1.015, 95% CI: 1.010-1.021. CONCLUSIONS: Income inequality represents a community-level risk factor for suicide rates in Brazil. The decrease in income inequality, increase in income per capita, and decrease in the percentage of individuals who did not complete basic studies may have counteracted the increase in suicides in the last decade. Other changes, such as the decrease in the mean residents per household, may have contributed to their increase. Therefore, the implementation of social policies that may improve the population's socioeconomic conditions and reduce income inequality in Brazil, and in other low and middle-income countries, can help to reduce suicide rates.

  15. Impact of macro-level socio-economic factors on rising suicide rates in South Korea: panel-data analysis in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jihyung; Knapp, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The rapid increase in suicide rates in South Korea, particularly in the aftermath of the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s, compares with the declining suicide rates observed in most other OECD countries over the same period. This study aimed to examine an array of macro-level societal factors that might have contributed to the rising suicide trend in South Korea. We first investigated whether this trend was unique to South Korea, or ubiquitous across five Asian countries/areas that are geographically and culturally similar (South Korea, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan), using WHO mortality data and national statistics (1980-2009). Age-standardised suicide rates (per 100,000 population) were calculated for each gender and age group (15-24, 25-44, 45-64, and 65+) for each country. Both panel data and country-specific time-series analyses were employed to investigate the impact of economic change and social integration/regulation on suicide. Despite similarities in geography and culture, the rising trend of suicide rates was unique to South Korea. This atypical trend was most apparent for people aged 65 and over, which was in sharp contrast to the decreasing suicide trends observed in the other four Asian countries. The results of the panel data analyses generally pointed to a negative relationship between economic growth and suicide rates, particularly for working-aged people. The results of the time-series analyses further suggested that low levels of social integration, as indicated by rising divorce rates, may also have a role in rising suicide rates in South Korea, particularly for older people. Furthermore, the association between suicide rates and economic adversity (unemployment and economic downturn) was most salient among middle-aged men in South Korea. Compared to four other East Asian countries/areas (Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan), South Korea has uniquely experienced a rising trend of suicide rates over the past three decades

  16. High Altitude Remains Associated with Elevated Suicide Rates after Adjusting for Socioeconomic Status: A Study from South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jaelim; Choi, Nari; Lee, Yu-Jin; An, Hyonggin; Kim, Namkug; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    There have been several studies supporting a possible relationship between high suicide rate and high altitude. However socioeconomic status may confound this association because low socioeconomic status, which is known to be related to a high suicide rate, is also associated with living at high altitude. This study aims to explore whether the relationship between high altitude and high suicide rate remains after adjusting for socioeconomic status in South Korea. We collected demographic data...

  17. Social psychological variables in populations contrasted by income and suicide rate: Durkheim revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrada-Noli, M

    1997-08-01

    The ten richest and ten poorest municipalities of Sweden were investigated with respect to national statistics to assess the relationship between suicide incidence, discrete social psychological variables associated with welfare admittance among the elderly, and income of municipality. The relative frequency of suicide was 1.6 times greater for Swedes from the low-income municipalities than for those from the high-income ones. The group of municipalities with the highest suicide rate had a significantly higher proportion of older people in need of municipal social assistance at their homes and also a significantly higher proportion of elderly living in municipality-managed 'service-homes.' The findings replicate earlier investigations and suggest social psychological indicators denoting less favourable economic and social resources are also associated with both an increased suicide rate and a decreased county or municipal income. Some theoretical issues of the socioeconomic and of the external restraint hypotheses of the incidence of suicide, contradicted by the present findings as well as of Durkheim's hypothesis of social control are discussed. Further, we suggest the consideration of negative socioeconomic conditions as a risk factor amid psychiatric clinical assessments of risk for suicidal behaviour.

  18. Rates and correlates of suicidal ideation among stroke survivors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Francesco; Pompili, Maurizio; Lillia, Nicoletta; Crocamo, Cristina; Salemi, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    A better understanding of the epidemiological impact of suicidal ideation after stroke is required to identify subjects needing personalised interventions. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate rates and correlates of suicidal ideation among stroke survivors. We searched via Ovid, Medline, Embase and PsycInfo from database inception until August 2016. Predefined outcomes were (1) rates of suicidal ideation based on random-effects pooled proportion and (2) relevant sociodemographic and clinical correlates, using random-effects odds ratio (OR) or standardised mean difference (SMD) for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Fifteen studies and 13 independent samples, accounting for 10 400 subjects, were included in meta-analyses. The pooled proportion of suicidal ideation among stroke survivors was 11.8% (7.4% to 16.2%), with high heterogeneity across studies (I 2 =97.3%). Current (OR=11.50; psuicidal ideation. Moreover, suicidal ideation was less likely in stroke survivors who were married (OR=0.63; psuicidal ideation. Thus, there is enough evidence to support the use of routine screening and early interventions to prevent and treat suicidal ideation after stroke, especially among subjects carrying specific correlates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Was the economic crisis 1997-1998 responsible for rising suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia? A time-trend analysis for Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2009-04-01

    In 1997-1998 a widespread economic crisis hit the economies of many East/Southeast Asian countries; its impact on suicide rates across the region has not been systematically documented. We investigated the impact of the Asian economic crisis (1997-1998) on suicide in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. Suicide and population data for the period 1985-2006 were extracted from the World Health Organisation's mortality database and Taiwanese mortality statistics. Sex-specific age-standardised suicide rates for people aged 15years or above were analysed using joinpoint regression. Trends in divorce, marriage, unemployment, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and alcohol consumption were compared with trends in suicide rates graphically and using time-series analysis. Suicide mortality decreased in the late 1980s and early 1990s but subsequently increased markedly in all countries except Singapore, which had steadily declining suicide rates throughout the study period. Compared to 1997, male rates in 1998 rose by 39% in Japan, 44% in Hong Kong and 45% in Korea; rises in female rates were less marked. Male rates also rose in Thailand, but accurate data were incomplete. The economic crisis was associated with 10,400 more suicides in 1998 compared to 1997 in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Similar increases in suicide rates were not seen in Taiwan and Singapore, the two countries where the economic crisis had a smaller impact on GDP and unemployment. Time-series analyses indicated that some of the crisis's impact on male suicides was attributable to increases in unemployment. These findings suggest an association of the Asian economic crisis with a sharp increase in suicide mortality in some, but not all, East/Southeast Asian countries, and that these increases were most closely associated with rises in unemployment.

  20. Suicide rates in children aged 10-14 years worldwide: changes in the past two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-10-01

    Limited research is focused on suicides in children aged below 15 years. To analyse worldwide suicide rates in children aged 10-14 years in two decades: 1990-1999 and 2000-2009. Suicide data for 81 countries or territories were retrieved from the World Health Organization Mortality Database, and population data from the World Bank data-set. In the past two decades the suicide rate per 100 000 in boys aged 10-14 years in 81 countries has shown a minor decline (from 1.61 to 1.52) whereas in girls it has shown a slight increase (from 0.85 to 0.94). Although the average rate has not changed significantly, rates have decreased in Europe and increased in South America. The suicide rates remain critical for boys in some former USSR republics. The changes may be related to economic recession and its impact on children from diverse cultural backgrounds, but may also be due to improvements in mortality registration in South America. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  1. A replication of the relationship between elderly suicides rates and elderly dependency ratios: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    A positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates has been observed using one-year cross-sectional data on elderly suicide rates. A cross-national study designed to replicate this positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates was undertaken by: (i) using one-year average of five years data on suicide rates; and (ii) using more recent data on both elderly suicide rates and elderly dependency ratios. Data on elderly suicide rates, and the total number of elderly and young people was ascertained from the World Health Organization website. The main findings were of significant positive correlations between elderly dependency ratios and suicide rates in both sexes in both the elderly age-bands (65-74 years and 75+ years). The replication of the positive correlations between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates by using one-year average of five years data on suicide rates suggests that this relationship is robust and accurate. ‎

  2. A replication of the relationship between elderly suicides rates and elderly dependency ratios: cross-national study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: A positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates has been observed using one-year cross-sectional data on elderly suicide rates. Methods: A cross-national study designed to replicate this positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates was undertaken by: (i) using one-year average of five years data on suicide rates; and (ii) using more recent data on both elderly suicide rates and elderly dependency ratios. Data on elderly suicide rates, and the total number of elderly and young people was ascertained from the World Health Organization website. Results: The main findings were of significant positive correlations between elderly dependency ratios and suicide rates in both sexes in both the elderly age-bands (65-74 years and 75+ years). Conclusions: The replication of the positive correlations between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates by using one-year average of five years data on suicide rates suggests that this relationship is robust and accurate. PMID:21483194

  3. Attitudes and stigma in relation to help-seeking intentions for psychological problems in low and high suicide rate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, A; Kerkhof, A J F M; Molenberghs, G; Van Audenhove, C

    2014-02-01

    Accessibility and availability of mental health care services are necessary but not sufficient for people to seek help for psychological problems. Attitudes and stigma related to help seeking also determine help seeking intentions. The aim of this study is to investigate how cross-national differences in attitudes and stigma within the general population are related to professional and informal help seeking intentions in low and high suicide rate regions. By means of a postal structured questionnaire, data of 2999 Dutch and Flemish respondents between 18 and 65 years were gathered. Attitudes toward help seeking, perceived stigma, self-stigma, shame and intention to seek help were assessed. People in the Netherlands, where suicide rates are low, have more positive attitudes toward help seeking and experience less self stigma and shame compared to the people in Flanders, where suicide rates are relatively high. These attitudinal factors predicted professional as well as informal help seeking intentions. Perceived stigma was negatively associated with informal help seeking. Shame was positively associated with higher intention to use psychotropic drugs and perceived stigma was negatively associated with the intention to seek help from a psychotherapist in Flanders but not in the Netherlands. Help seeking for psychological problems prevent these problems to aggravate and it is assumed to be a protective factor for suicide. Our results stress the importance of the promotion of positive attitudes and the reduction of stigma within the general population to facilitate help seeking from professional providers and informal networks. Focusing on these attitudinal factors is believed to be a key aspect of universal mental health and suicide prevention policies.

  4. Celebrity suicides and their differential influence on suicides in the general population: a national population-based study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Woojae; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Yeung, Albert; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Doh Kwan; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-04-01

    Although evidence suggests that there is an increase in suicide rates in the general population following celebrity suicide, the rates are heterogeneous across celebrities and countries. It is unclear which is the more vulnerable population according to the effect sizes of celebrity suicides to general population. All suicide victims in the general population verified by the Korea National Statistical Office and suicides of celebrity in South Korea were included for 7 years from 2005 to 2011. Effect sizes were estimated by comparing rates of suicide in the population one month before and after each celebrity suicide. The associations between suicide victims and celebrities were examined. Among 94,845 suicide victims, 17,209 completed suicide within one month after 13 celebrity suicides. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that suicide victims who died after celebrity suicide were significantly likely to be of age 20-39, female, and to die by hanging. These qualities were more strongly associated among those who followed celebrity suicide with intermediate and high effect sizes than lower. Younger suicide victims were significantly associated with higher effect size, female gender, white collar employment, unmarried status, higher education, death by hanging, and night-time death. Characteristics of celebrities were significantly associated with those of general population in hanging method and gender. Individuals who commit suicide after a celebrity suicide are likely to be younger, female, and prefer hanging as method of suicide, which are more strongly associated in higher effect sizes of celebrity suicide.

  5. The influence of economic business cycles on United States suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, I M

    1984-01-01

    A number of social science investigators have shown that a downturn in the economy leads to an increase in the suicide rate. However, the previous works on the subject are flawed by the fact that they employ years as their temporal unit of analysis. This time period is so large that it makes it difficult for investigators to precisely determine the length of the lag effect, while at the same time removing the autocorrelation effects. Also, although most works on suicide and the business cycle employ unemployment as a measure of a downturn in the business cycle, the average duration of unemployment represents a better measure for determining the social impact of an economic downturn. From 1947 to 1977 the average monthly duration of unemployment is statistically related to the suicide rate using multivariate time-series analysis. From 1910 to 1939 the Ayres business index, a surrogate measure for movement in the business cycle, is statistically related to the monthly suicide rate. An examination of the findings confirms that in most cases a downturn in the economy causes an increase in the suicide rate.

  6. Firearms and suicide in the United States: is risk independent of underlying suicidal behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew; Barber, Catherine; White, Richard A; Azrael, Deborah

    2013-09-15

    On an average day in the United States, more than 100 Americans die by suicide; half of these suicides involve the use of firearms. In this ecological study, we used linear regression techniques and recently available state-level measures of suicide attempt rates to assess whether, and if so, to what extent, the well-established relationship between household firearm ownership rates and suicide mortality persists after accounting for rates of underlying suicidal behavior. After controlling for state-level suicide attempt rates (2008-2009), higher rates of firearm ownership (assessed in 2004) were strongly associated with higher rates of overall suicide and firearm suicide, but not with nonfirearm suicide (2008-2009). Furthermore, suicide attempt rates were not significantly related to gun ownership levels. These findings suggest that firearm ownership rates, independent of underlying rates of suicidal behavior, largely determine variations in suicide mortality across the 50 states. Our results support the hypothesis that firearms in the home impose suicide risk above and beyond the baseline risk and help explain why, year after year, several thousand more Americans die by suicide in states with higher than average household firearm ownership compared with states with lower than average firearm ownership.

  7. The relationship between sales of SSRI, TCA and suicide rates in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; De Leo, Diego; Ekeberg, Øivind; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Dieserud, Gudrun

    2010-08-06

    In the period 1990-2006, strong and almost equivalent increases in sales figures of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were observed in all Nordic countries. The sales figures of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) dropped in Norway and Sweden in the nineties. After 2000, sales figures of TCAs have been almost constant in all Nordic countries. The potentially toxic effect of TCAs in overdose was an important reason for replacing TCAs with SSRIs when treating depression. We studied whether the rapid increase in sales of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in TCAs in the period 1990-98 were associated with a decline in suicide rates. Aggregated suicide rates for the period 1975-2006 in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) were obtained from the national causes-of-death registries. The sales figures of antidepressants were provided from the wholesale registers in each of the Nordic countries. Data were analysed using Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. There was no statistical association (P = 1.0) between the increase of sales figures of SSRIs and the decline in suicide rates. There was no statistical association (P = 1.0) between the decrease in the sale figures of TCAs and change in suicide rates either. We found no evidence for the rapid increase in use of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in sales of TCAs being associated with a decline in the suicide rates in the Nordic countries in the period 1990-98. We did not find any inverse relationship between the increase in sales of SSRIs and declining suicide rates in four Nordic countries.

  8. The relationship between sales of SSRI, TCA and suicide rates in the Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahl Per-Henrik

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the period 1990-2006, strong and almost equivalent increases in sales figures of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs were observed in all Nordic countries. The sales figures of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs dropped in Norway and Sweden in the nineties. After 2000, sales figures of TCAs have been almost constant in all Nordic countries. The potentially toxic effect of TCAs in overdose was an important reason for replacing TCAs with SSRIs when treating depression. We studied whether the rapid increase in sales of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in TCAs in the period 1990-98 were associated with a decline in suicide rates. Methods Aggregated suicide rates for the period 1975-2006 in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden were obtained from the national causes-of-death registries. The sales figures of antidepressants were provided from the wholesale registers in each of the Nordic countries. Data were analysed using Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results There was no statistical association (P = 1.0 between the increase of sales figures of SSRIs and the decline in suicide rates. There was no statistical association (P = 1.0 between the decrease in the sale figures of TCAs and change in suicide rates either. Conclusions We found no evidence for the rapid increase in use of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in sales of TCAs being associated with a decline in the suicide rates in the Nordic countries in the period 1990-98. We did not find any inverse relationship between the increase in sales of SSRIs and declining suicide rates in four Nordic countries.

  9. Increased use of antidepressants and decreasing suicide rates: a population-based study using Danish register data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Canudas-Romo, V.; Conwell, Yeates

    2008-01-01

    -based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 50 years and older living in Denmark between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2000 (N = 2,100,808). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide rates are calculated according to current antidepressant treatment status (no treatment, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA...... 100,000, recipients of antidepressants contributed to the decline by 0.9 suicides. Women redeeming antidepressant prescriptions accounted for 0.4 suicides of the observed reduction of 3.3 per 100,000. The average suicide rates for men receiving TCA and SSRI were 153.3 and 169.0 per 100,000 person......-years, respectively. Among older women, both TCA and SSRI users had an average suicide rate of 68.8 per 100,000 over the period examined. CONCLUSIONS: Just a small proportion of older adults dying by suicide were found to be in treatment with antidepressants at the time of death. Individuals in active treatment...

  10. Socio-economic factors and suicide rates in European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabio; Coluccia, Anna

    2009-04-01

    Are socio-economic factors valid determinants of suicide? The modern sociological theory of suicide is based on Durkheim's studies. In addition to these fundamental social determinants, modern theorists have put more attention on economic factors. The purpose of the research is to determine the relationship between suicide rates and socio-economic factors, such as demography, economic development, education, healthcare systems, living conditions and labour market. All data were collected from a Eurostat publication and they concern 25 European Union countries. In order to test this relationship, a discriminant analysis was performed using an ordinal dependent variable and a set of independent variables concerning socio-economic factors. A dataset of 37 independent variables was used. We estimated a model with five variables: annual growth rates for industry, people working in S&T (% of total employment), at-risk-of-poverty rate, all accidents (standardized rates), and healthcare expenditures (% of GDP). Highly significant values of Wilk's Lambda assess a good discriminating power of the model. The accuracy too is very high: all cases are correctly classified by the model. Countries with high suicide rate levels are marked by high levels of at-risk-of-poverty rates, high annual growth rates for industry and low healthcare expenditures.

  11. Does Unstable Employment Have an Association with Suicide Rates among the Young?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chungah; Cho, Youngtae

    2017-04-28

    Although a growing body of literature has indicated that unemployment has a positive association with suicide, the dynamic aspects of unstable employment have not yet been considered in suicidology. This study explored the association between employment stability and completed suicide among people aged 25-34 years in 20 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries with time-series data (1994-2010). In order to consider the different aspects of unstable employment, we tested the impacts of employment protection legislation indicators as another proxy of job insecurity (employed, but unstable) apart from unemployment rates. Covariates, including economic growth rates, GDP per capita, fertility rates, and divorce rate, were controlled for. The analysis was designed to be gender- and age-specific, where observations with ages of 25-29 were separated from those with ages of 30-34. Random effect models were applied to examine changes over time in suicide rates, and other models were presented to check robustness. The results showed that it is a low level of employment protection, rather than unemployment itself, that was associated with increased suicide rates among all of the studied populations. The magnitude of the effect differed by gender.

  12. Suicide and Suicidal Behavior among Transgender Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virupaksha, H G; Muralidhar, Daliboyina; Ramakrishna, Jayashree

    2016-01-01

    Suicide rate and suicidal tendencies among transgender persons are considerably high compared to general population. Hence, this review is an attempt to understand the issues around the suicide and suicidal behavior among transgender persons. The literature search conducted using three sources, i.e., electronic databases (PubMed, ProQuest, Google Scholar, PsycInfo), manual search (library catalog), and gray literature (consultation with experts). The suicide attempt rate among transgender persons ranges from 32% to 50% across the countries. Gender-based victimization, discrimination, bullying, violence, being rejected by the family, friends, and community; harassment by intimate partner, family members, police and public; discrimination and ill treatment at health-care system are the major risk factors that influence the suicidal behavior among transgender persons. In spite of facing a number of hardships in their day-to-day life, the transgender community holds a number of resiliency factors. Further, this community needs to be supported to strengthen their resiliency factors and draw culturally sensitive and transgender-inclusive suicide prevention strategies and increase protective factors to tackle this high rate of suicidality.

  13. Testing the hypothesis of the natural suicide rates: Further evidence from OECD data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Antonio Rodriguez; Halicioglu, Ferda

    2011-01-01

    -distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration advocated by Pesaran et al. (2001). In majority of regression equations, the constant term was positive and statistically significant, indicating a non-zero natural suicide rate. In particular, we find evidence that at aggregate level, Turkey has the lowest (3...

  14. Young Peoples' Opinions about the Causes of, and Solutions to, New Zealand's High Youth Suicide Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heled, Edna; Read, John

    2005-01-01

    In response to an open-ended question about the causes of New Zealand's high youth suicide rate, 384 young adults most commonly cited pressure to conform and perform, followed by financial worries, abuse and neglect, problems with alcohol or drugs, and boredom. Depression was cited by 5 percent and mental illness by only 1 percent. Recommended…

  15. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Puerto Rico: Rates and Correlates in Clinical and Community Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most…

  16. Comparative study of hostility in depressive patients with and without a suicide attempt history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Christos; Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Ferentinos, Panagiotis; Poulios, Antonios; Papadopoulou, Athanasia; Douzenis, Athanassios

    2017-08-01

    Hostility in association with depression seems to be connected to suicidal behavior. This study aimed to evaluate hostility and its dimensions in relation to depression in patients who suffered from diagnosed depression with and without a suicide attempt history. The study included 168 participants; 58 patients with depression and suicide attempt history, 55 patients with depression without a suicide attempt history and 55 healthy controls. Hostility was assessed with the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire, while depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients with depression and a suicide attempt history compared with the patients without attempt history presented statistically significantly higher total hostility (28.71 ± 6.43 vs 24.20 ± 7.66), extroverted hostility (17.16 ± 4.37 vs 14.15 ± 4.63), acting out hostility (6.03 ± 2.09 vs 4.73 ± 1.93), and self criticism (6.95 ± 2.12 vs 5.89 ± 2.32). No statistically significant differences were found between the two clinical groups in depression according to the BDI. Moreover depressive patients with suicide attempt history scored higher in all the hostility dimensions than the controls. Therefore, it could be suggested that hostility and especially its extrapunitive dimensions are associated with suicidal behavior, since no differences in depression were recorded between the two clinical groups.

  17. A longitudinal comparison of age patterns and rates of suicide in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Japan and two Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, John; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Zhong, Baoliang; Yamauchi, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Suicide data relating to 1979-2014 were obtained from three East Asian jurisdictions (Taiwan, Hong Kong, Japan) and two 'Western' countries (Australia, New Zealand). Rates and age patterns of suicide have changed markedly since 1979. Graphs of these patterns largely remained either upward-sloping, bimodal or flat (uniform) over the 36 years, male commonly differing from female, and East Asian patterns more like each other than those of the Western countries. Japan's male middle-aged suicide rate reached a peak in 1999-2003, which, like increased rates among working age males in Hong Kong and Taiwan, has been attributed largely to consequences of Asian financial crises. Male to female ratios of suicide rates have remained higher in the Western countries, but late life suicide rates have decreased to varying extents in all five jurisdictions. Identifying reasons for differences between jurisdictions in their suicide rates and patterns at particular times, and over time, is likely to point to factors (period, cohort, psychosocial or cultural) that protect against or foster suicidal ideation. This avenue of research may assist in identifying ways of preventing suicide. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be

  19. Differences between children and adolescents who commit suicide and their peers: A psychological autopsy of suicide victims compared to accident victims and a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freuchen Anne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the circumstances related to suicide among children and adolescents 15 years and younger. Methods We conducted a psychological autopsy, collecting information from parents, hospital records and police reports on persons below the age of 16 who had committed suicide in Norway during a 12-year period (1993-2004 (n = 41. Those who committed suicide were compared with children and adolescents who were killed in accidents during the same time period (n = 43 and with a community sample. Results: Among the suicides 25% met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis and 30% had depressive symptoms at the time of death. Furthermore, 60% of the parents of the suicide victims reported the child experienced some kind of stressful conflict prior to death, whereas only 12% of the parents of the accident victims reported such conflicts. Conclusion One in four suicide victims fulfilled the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis. The level of sub-threshold depression and of stressful conflict experienced by youths who committed suicide did not appear to differ substantially from that of their peers, and therefore did not raise sufficient concern for referral to professional help.

  20. Differences between children and adolescents who commit suicide and their peers: A psychological autopsy of suicide victims compared to accident victims and a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuchen, Anne; Kjelsberg, Ellen; Lundervold, Astri J; Grøholt, Berit

    2012-01-04

    The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the circumstances related to suicide among children and adolescents 15 years and younger. We conducted a psychological autopsy, collecting information from parents, hospital records and police reports on persons below the age of 16 who had committed suicide in Norway during a 12-year period (1993-2004) (n = 41). Those who committed suicide were compared with children and adolescents who were killed in accidents during the same time period (n = 43) and with a community sample. Among the suicides 25% met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis and 30% had depressive symptoms at the time of death. Furthermore, 60% of the parents of the suicide victims reported the child experienced some kind of stressful conflict prior to death, whereas only 12% of the parents of the accident victims reported such conflicts. One in four suicide victims fulfilled the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis. The level of sub-threshold depression and of stressful conflict experienced by youths who committed suicide did not appear to differ substantially from that of their peers, and therefore did not raise sufficient concern for referral to professional help.

  1. Comment on Black's (1993) article, "comparing genuine and simulated suicide notes: a new perspective".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, G M; More, D L; Hawkins, A G; Soucar, E

    1995-02-01

    The recent article by Stephen T. Black (1993) comparing genuine suicide notes with simulated notes is examined here. This article corrected a sampling error made in the original study by E. S. Shneidman and N. Farberow (1957), but Black's design suffers from theoretical and methodological problems that render it uninterpretable: First, no theoretical background is elaborated, and no hypotheses are offered. Second, no constructs are operationalized, and no predictions are tested. In the present article, the operational design is critiqued, and then it is suggested that the study of suicide notes in this fashion should cease.

  2. Dependent Children and Suicide of Married Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Conrad M.; Gibbs, James O.

    1979-01-01

    Single suicides and married suicides with dependent children were compared to similar groups in the general population. Married people with dependent children experienced the lowest average suicide rate, but had a larger mean number of children than the population as a whole. (Author)

  3. Increased rates of body dissatisfaction, depressive symptoms, and suicide attempts in Jamaican teens with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt-Poulose, Komal; James, Kenneth; Reid, Marvin; Harrison, Abigail; Asnani, Monika

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to examine the association of body image and weight perceptions with risk of depression and suicidal attempts in Jamaican adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). Adolescents with SCD and a national sample of Jamaican adolescents completed a questionnaire examining body image, weight perceptions, and risk for depression. Perceived and desired body images were similar for both groups. Adolescents with SCD had higher levels of "negative body satisfaction" (43.9% vs. 33.9%; P = 0.03), risk for depression (28.7% vs. 19.3%; P = 0.01), and attempted suicide (12.4% vs. 6.6%; P = 0.02) than national sample. Risk of depression was higher in those who perceived themselves to be over or underweight, and lower in those with more friends and attending school. Females and those with body image dissatisfaction were more likely to have attempted suicide. Within the SCD adolescents, girls were at greater odds of having mental health issues. Jamaican adolescents with SCD have significantly higher rates of negative body satisfaction and depressive symptoms, and nearly twice the rate of attempted suicide, compared with their healthy peers. This underscores the need for healthcare professionals to better explore and discuss healthy weight, body satisfaction, and coping with the demands and uncertainties of having a chronic illness with Jamaican adolescents with SCD, even while promoting body acceptance and good self-esteem. Screening for mood disorders is strongly recommended and gender-specific interventions should be developed. Healthcare professionals need to encourage positive social interactions that improve adolescents' mental health. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Suicidal behaviour in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia: Prevalence data suggest disparities increase across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Pirkis, Jane; Arabena, Kerry; Currier, Dianne; Spittal, Matthew J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-12-01

    We compare the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia, and examine the extent to which any disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males varies across age groups. We used data from the baseline wave of The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men), a large-scale cohort study of Australian males aged 10-55 years residing in urban and regional areas. Indigenous identification was determined through participants self-reporting as Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander or both. The survey collected data on suicidal thoughts in the preceding 2 weeks and lifetime suicide attempts. A total of 432 participants (2.7%) identified as Indigenous and 15,425 as non-Indigenous (97.3%). Indigenous males were twice as likely as non-Indigenous males to report recent suicidal thoughts (17.6% vs 9.4%; odds ratio = 2.1, p age groups, but a significant gap emerged among men aged 30-39 years and was largest among men aged 40-55 years. Similarly, the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts did not differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in the 14- to 17-years age group, but a disparity emerged in the 18- to 24-years age group and was even larger among males aged 25 years and older. Our paper presents unique data on suicidal thoughts and attempts among a broad age range of Indigenous and non-Indigenous males. The disparity in the prevalence of suicidal thoughts increased across age groups, which is in contrast to the large disparity between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous suicide rates in younger age groups.

  5. Suicide among Arab-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Arab-American (AA populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US.ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC, the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12% and women (16%.Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans.

  6. Suicide among Arab-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Tracy, Melissa; Scarborough, Peter; Galea, Sandro

    2011-02-17

    Arab-American (AA) populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US. ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC), the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12%) and women (16%). Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans.

  7. Clinical characteristics in schizophrenia patients with or without suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Erlend; Walby, Fredrik A; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; Barrett, Elizabeth A; Steen, Nils E; Lorentzen, Steinar; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Mehlum, Lars

    2013-10-09

    To investigate whether schizophrenia patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm have earlier age of onset of psychotic and depressive symptoms and higher levels of clinical symptoms compared to patients with only suicide attempts or without suicide attempt. Using a cross-sectional design, 251 patients (18-61 years old, 58% men) with schizophrenia treated at hospitals in Oslo and Innlandet Hospital Trust, Norway, were assessed with a comprehensive clinical research protocol and divided into three groups based on their history of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm. Suicide attempts were present in 88 patients (35%); 52 had suicide attempts only (29%) and 36 had both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm (14%). When compared with nonattempters and those with suicide attempts without non-suicidal self-harm, patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more frequently women, younger at the onset of psychotic symptoms, had longer duration of untreated psychosis, and had higher levels of current impulsivity/aggression and depression. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more likely to repeat suicide attempts than patients with suicide attempts only. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm had different illness history and clinical characteristics compared to patients with only suicide attempts or patients without suicidal behavior. Our study suggests that patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm represent a distinct subgroup among patients with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior with their early onset of psychotic symptoms, high rate of repeated suicidal behavior and significant treatment delay.

  8. Adolescent Suicide Rates Between 1990 and 2009: Analysis of Age Group 15-19 Years Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current analysis is to analyze suicide rates in adolescents aged 15-19 years in decades between 1990 and 2009 worldwide. Suicide data were obtained from the World Health Organization Mortality Database and population data from the World Bank Data set. In total, 81 countries or territories, having data at least for 5 years in 1990-1999 and in 2000-2009, were included in the analysis. Additional analysis for regional trends with 57 countries was performed. Over the decades considered, analysis showed a declining trend in the overall suicide rate for males from 10.30 to 9.51 per 100,000 (p = .076), and for females from 4.39 to 4.18 (p = .472). The average suicide rate showed a significant decline for both genders in Europe, dropping from 13.13 to 10.93 (p = .001) in males and from 3.88 to 3.34 in females (p = .038). There was a significant increase in South American countries for males, from 7.36 to 11.47 (p = .016), and a close to significant rise for females, from 5.59 to 7.98 (p = .053). Although other world regions did not show significant trends, there were several significant changes at country level. Reasons behind the decrease in Western countries could potentially be related to the overall improvements in global health; the possible contribution of suicide prevention activities remains unclear. Increases in several South American countries might be related to economic recession and its impact on adolescents from diverse cultural backgrounds, and partly also to improvements in mortality registration. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A population-based analysis of increasing rates of suicide mortality in Japan and South Korea, 1985-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sun Y; Reither, Eric N; Masters, Ryan K

    2016-04-23

    In the past two decades, rates of suicide mortality have declined among most OECD member states. Two notable exceptions are Japan and South Korea, where suicide mortality has increased by 20 % and 280 %, respectively. Population and suicide mortality data were collected through national statistics organizations in Japan and South Korea for the period 1985 to 2010. Age, period of observation, and birth cohort membership were divided into five-year increments. We fitted a series of intrinsic estimator age-period-cohort models to estimate the effects of age-related processes, secular changes, and birth cohort dynamics on the rising rates of suicide mortality in the two neighboring countries. In Japan, elevated suicide rates are primarily driven by period effects, initiated during the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s. In South Korea, multiple factors appear to be responsible for the stark increase in suicide mortality, including recent secular changes, elevated suicide risks at older ages in the context of an aging society, and strong cohort effects for those born between the Great Depression and the aftermath of the Korean War. In spite of cultural, demographic and geographic similarities in Japan and South Korea, the underlying causes of increased suicide mortality differ across these societies-suggesting that public health responses should be tailored to fit each country's unique situation.

  10. Suicide rates across income levels: Retrospective cohort data on 1 million participants collected between 2003 and 2013 in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Uk; Oh, In-Hwan; Jeon, Hong Jin; Roh, Sungwon

    2017-06-01

    The relation of income and socioeconomic status with suicide rates remains unclear. Most previous studies have focused on the relationship between suicide rates and macroeconomic factors (e.g., economic growth rate). Therefore, we aimed to identify the relationship between individuals' socioeconomic position and suicide risk. We analyzed suicide mortality rates across socioeconomic positions to identify potential trends using observational data on suicide mortality collected between January 2003 and December 2013 from 1,025,340 national health insurance enrollees. We followed the subjects for 123.5 months on average. Socioeconomic position was estimated using insurance premium levels. To examine the hazard ratios of suicide mortality in various socioeconomic positions, we used Cox proportional hazard models. We found that the hazard ratios of suicide showed an increasing trend as socioeconomic position decreased. After adjusting for gender, age, geographic location, and disability level, Medicaid recipients had the highest suicide hazard ratio (2.28; 95% CI, 1.87-2.77). Among the Medicaid recipients, men had higher hazard ratios than women (2.79; 95% CI, 2.17-3.59 vs. 1.71; 95% CI, 1.25-2.34). Hazard ratios also varied across age groups. The highest hazard ratio was found in the 40-59-year-old group (3.19; 95% CI, 2.31-4.43), whereas the lowest ratio was found in those 60 years and older (1.44; 95% CI, 1.09-1.87). Our results illuminate the relationship between socioeconomic position and suicide rates and can be used to design and implement future policies on suicide prevention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Suicide rates across income levels: Retrospective cohort data on 1 million participants collected between 2003 and 2013 in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Uk Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relation of income and socioeconomic status with suicide rates remains unclear. Most previous studies have focused on the relationship between suicide rates and macroeconomic factors (e.g., economic growth rate. Therefore, we aimed to identify the relationship between individuals' socioeconomic position and suicide risk. Methods: We analyzed suicide mortality rates across socioeconomic positions to identify potential trends using observational data on suicide mortality collected between January 2003 and December 2013 from 1,025,340 national health insurance enrollees. We followed the subjects for 123.5 months on average. Socioeconomic position was estimated using insurance premium levels. To examine the hazard ratios of suicide mortality in various socioeconomic positions, we used Cox proportional hazard models. Results: We found that the hazard ratios of suicide showed an increasing trend as socioeconomic position decreased. After adjusting for gender, age, geographic location, and disability level, Medicaid recipients had the highest suicide hazard ratio (2.28; 95% CI, 1.87–2.77. Among the Medicaid recipients, men had higher hazard ratios than women (2.79; 95% CI, 2.17–3.59 vs. 1.71; 95% CI, 1.25–2.34. Hazard ratios also varied across age groups. The highest hazard ratio was found in the 40–59-year-old group (3.19; 95% CI, 2.31–4.43, whereas the lowest ratio was found in those 60 years and older (1.44; 95% CI, 1.09–1.87. Conclusions: Our results illuminate the relationship between socioeconomic position and suicide rates and can be used to design and implement future policies on suicide prevention.

  12. Increased use of lethal methods and annual increase of suicide rates in Korean adolescents: comparison with adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-03-01

    The lethality of the suicide method is a strong risk factor for completed suicide. We examined whether the annual change in the pattern of suicide methods was related to the annual change in suicide rates among adolescents in South Korea and the United States. We analyzed annual data for the 2000-2009 period for South Korea and the 2000-2008 period for the United States to examine time trends in the suicide rates and suicide methods of adolescents aged 10-19 years in two countries. Data on suicide methods were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database. Suicide rates among adolescents in the United States have remained relatively steady since 2000, whereas the suicide among Korean adolescents has increased. Between 2000 and 2009, the most common suicide method among Korean adolescents was jumping for boys and girls, whereas it was hanging for girls and firearms for boys in the United States. Along with the annual increase in suicide rates in South Korea, the incidences of jumping among males and hanging (and recently jumping) among females have increased steadily, whereas suicide by self-poisoning steadily decreased. In the United States, between 2000 and 2008, the proportion of suicides committed by hanging increased, whereas those committed using firearms steadily decreased, particularly among adolescent females. These findings suggest that the increased use of lethal suicide methods is reflected in the increase in suicide rates in Korean adolescents. The most fruitful approach to addressing the rises in jumping suicides among Korean adolescents and hanging suicides among adolescents in the United States may be through population-based initiatives to reduce the physical availability (e.g., limiting access to or fencing off tall structures) and the social acceptability (e.g., effective and responsible regulations for reporting suicide) of these methods. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association

  13. [Psychosocial aspects of coping with tinnitus and psoriasis patients. A comparative study of suicidal tendencies, anxiety and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, H; Eipp, C; Deubner, R; Hesse, G; Vasa, R; Gieler, U

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of tinnitus is primarily the task of ENT specialists, while treatment of the psychiatric diseases lies in the hand of psychotherapists. Different from mostly very apparent dermatological diseases, the severity level of tinnitus can often only be determined by psychological test batteries as well as a specific psychosomatic exploration. In this study patients with psoriasis were compared with tinnitus patients regarding quality of life, anxiety, depression and imminent suicidal tendencies, in order to realize the psychological impact and find appropriate instruments for treatment. Between February and April 2005, 89 tinnitus patients, who underwent in-patient therapy in a neurootological and psychosomatic hospital, and 105 psoriasis patients, who had in-patient treatment from October 1999 until October 2004 in a specialized clinic, were examined with psychological tests, which included the Tinnitus questionnaire proposed by Goebel und Hiller, the Symptoms Check List of Derogatis SCL-90-R, the HADS and the suicide rating according to Pöldinger. Tinnitus in-patients suffered significantly more from suicidal tendencies, depression and anxiety in contrast to patients with psoriasis, who suffered more from problems associated with their outward appearance. The use of a specific psychological test diagnostic is very helpful in the hand of the ENT specialist, but the Tinnitus questionnaire of Goebel and Hiller enables an initial screening.

  14. Suicidal ideation and attempts among people with severe mental disorder, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duko, Bereket; Ayano, Getinet

    2018-01-01

    People with severe mental disorders are associated with increased risk of suicide and suicide attempts compared to the general population. In low and middle-income countries, research concerning suicide attempts and completed suicide among people living with severe mental disorder is limited. The objective of this study was to assess suicide and attempts in people with severe mental disorder at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in August-September 2016. Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected using systematic random-sampling technique. The composite international diagnostic interview was used to assess suicide that was administered by psychiatry professionals. Substance use disorder was assessed through face-to-face interviews using structured clinical interview of DSM-IV. A total of 542 (272 schizophrenia + 270 bipolar disorder) patients were included in the study. One hundred nineteen (43.75%) of schizophrenic participants and 128 (47.1%) of bipolar participants have suicidal ideation. Fifty-six (20.7%) of schizophrenic participants and 58 (21.3%) of bipolar participants have suicidal attempt. Among the schizophrenic and bipolar patients who had suicidal ideation, 31.8 and 32.60% had co-morbid substance use disorder, respectively. In this study, which was performed in Ethiopia, suicidal ideation and attempt were shown to be common problems in people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Co-morbid substance use disorder was a more frequent phenomenon among patients with suicidal ideation and attempt. Attention should be given to screen and assess suicidal ideation and attempt in persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  15. Ethnocultural Aspects of Suicide in Young People: A Systematic Literature Review Part 1--Rates and Methods of Youth Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Erminia; Martin, Graham

    2007-01-01

    The study of ethnocultural aspects of suicidal behaviour is, at the moment, still a neglected area. The relatively few studies available are mainly on adults; young people usually are not examined separately. The authors reviewed 82 publications on youth suicide that have addressed, to different degrees, the ethnicity/culture of the population…

  16. Changing rates of suicide ideation and attempts among Inuit youth: a gender-based analysis of risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah L; Geoffroy, Dominique; Chachamovich, Eduardo; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-04-01

    Inuit in Canada currently suffer from one of the highest rates of suicide in the world. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of suicide ideations and attempts among 15-24 year olds living in Nunavik, Québec, and to explore risk and protective factors of suicide attempts as a function of gender. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 across Nunavik. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. A total of 22% of young males and 39% of females adults reported past suicidal attempts. Gender differences were observed in relation to associated risk and protective factors as well as degree of exposure to risk factors. Suicide prevention must include alcohol and drug prevention programs and rehabilitation services, interventions to reduce physical and sexual violence and their long-term impacts on Inuit youth, as well as exposure to culturally meaningful activities. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  17. Thwarted interpersonal needs and suicide ideation: Comparing psychiatric inpatients with bipolar and non-bipolar mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nathanael J; Mitchell, Sean M; Roush, Jared F; Brown, Sarah L; Jahn, Danielle R; Cukrowicz, Kelly C

    2016-12-30

    Psychiatric inpatients are at heightened risk for suicide, and evidence suggests that psychiatric inpatients with bipolar mood disorders may be at greater risk for suicide ideation compared to those with non-bipolar mood disorders. There is a paucity of research directly comparing risk factors for suicide ideation in bipolar versus non-bipolar mood disorders in an inpatient sample. The current study sought to clarify the association between two constructs from the interpersonal theory of suicide (i.e., perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) in leading to suicide ideation among psychiatric inpatients with bipolar and non-bipolar mood disorders. Participants were (N=90) psychiatric inpatients with a bipolar (n = 20) or non-bipolar mood disorder (n=70; per their medical charts). Perceived burdensomeness, but not thwarted belongingness, was significantly associated with suicide ideation after adjusting for other covariates. This suggests perceived burdensomeness may play a key role in suicide ideation among psychiatric inpatients with any mood disorder and highlights the importance of assessment and intervention of perceived burdensomeness in this population. Contrary to our hypothesis, mood disorder group (i.e., bipolar versus non-bipolar) did not moderate the relations between perceived burdensomeness/thwarted belongingness and suicide ideation. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Gender differences in suicide methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callanan, Valerie J; Davis, Mark S

    2012-06-01

    Gender differences in suicide completion rates have been attributed to the differences in lethality of suicide methods chosen by men and women, but few empirical studies have investigated factors other than demographic characteristics that might explain this differential. Data from the 621 suicides in Summit County, Ohio during 1997-2006 were disaggregated by gender to compare known correlates of suicide risk on three methods of suicide-firearm, hanging and drug poisoning. Compared to women, men who completed suicide with firearms were more likely to be married and committed the act at home. Unmarried men were likelier to hang themselves than married men, but unmarried women were less likely to hang themselves than married women. Men with a history of depression were more likely to suicide by hanging, but women with depression were half as likely to hang themselves compared to the women without a history of depression. Men with a history of substance abuse were more likely to suicide by poisoning than men without such history, but substance abuse history had no influence on women's use of poisoning to suicide. For both sexes, the odds of suicide by poisoning were significantly higher for those on psychiatric medications.

  19. Psychometric Adaptation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale as a Self-Rated Suicide Risk Screening Instrument Among Nigerian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloba, Olutayo; Awe, Oluwatosin; Adelola, Aderopo; Olatunji, Philemon; Aloba, Tolulope

    2018-03-01

    Globally, suicide is the most important cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. The factor that correlates most significantly with suicide is hopelessness. The aim is to explore the psychometric adaptation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) as a suicide risk evaluation tool among Nigerian university students. A total of 554 Nigerian students completed the BHS and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Suicide risk level among them was determined by interviewing them with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Suicidality module. Cronbach's alpha for the 16-item BHS was 0.87. It exhibited satisfactory concurrent validity with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Suicidality module and the subscales of the DASS among the students. The 2-factor model of the BHS-16 exhibited satisfactory indices of fitness (goodness of fit index = 0.930; parsimonious goodness of fit index = 0.601; comparative fit index = 0.934; incremental fit index = 0.936; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.910; root mean square error of approximation = 0.059; χ 2 / df = 1.9). Receiver operating characteristics curve indicated that the best cutoff score for those categorized as high suicide risk was 7 (sensitivity 0.700, specificity 0.908, AUC = 0.897). The BHS has satisfactory psychometric properties as a suicide risk screening tool among Nigerian university students.

  20. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    -79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. METHODS: Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000...... were ascertained from three sources: colleagues with access to national data, national statisics office websites and email contact with the national statistics offices. The population size for the corresponding years and age-bands was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations......BACKGROUND: There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60...

  1. Suicide Mortality among Kentucky Farmers, 1979-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallones, Lorann

    1990-01-01

    Compared age-specific suicide rates for Kentucky White farmers, Kentucky White males, and United States White males. Found suicide rates highest for farmers, followed by Kentucky males, and the United States males. All males were most likely to use firearms to commit suicide, but farmers and other Kentucky males used firearms significantly more…

  2. Latina Teen Suicide and Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Andrea J.; Wiggs, Christine Bracamonte; Valencia, Celina; Bauman, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    Latina adolescents experience depression and suicidal ideations in a disproportionate manner compared to their non-Latina counterparts. We investigate suicide and depressive symptoms among a state-wide sample (N = 650) of adolescent Latina girls with a focus on bullying as a predictor. Bullying rates are higher than previous studies have found for…

  3. HSMR : Comparing Death Rates Across UK Hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Teeuwen; Thuy Ngo; Frans Nauta

    2011-01-01

    The Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratio (HSMR) is a measurement tool that shows hospitals’ death rates. The HSMR compares deaths that occur in hospitals with death ratios that one would normally expect based on patients’ diseases. It is used as a benchmark for adjusted hospital death rates. These

  4. The reporting rate of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: a study of the trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurup, Mette L; Buiting, Hilde M; Pasman, H Roeline W; van der Maas, Paul J; van der Heide, Agnes; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2008-12-01

    To study trends in reporting rates of euthanasia from 1990 to 2005 in relation to whether recommended or nonrecommended drugs were used, and the most important differences between reported and unreported cases in 2005. Questionnaires were sent to a sample of 6860 physicians who had reported a death in 2005 (response 78%). Previously, 3 similar studies were done at 5-year intervals. The total number of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide cases was estimated using a "gold standard" definition: death was-according to the physician-the result of the use of drugs at the explicit request of the patient with the explicit goal of hastening death (denominator). The Euthanasia Review Committees provided the number of reported cases (numerator). The reporting rate of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide increased from 18% in 1990, 41% in 1995, and 54% in 2001 to 80% in 2005. The reporting rate in the subgroup of euthanasia with recommended drugs (barbiturates and muscle relaxants) was 73% in 1995, 71% in 2001, and 99% in 2005. The reporting rate of euthanasia with nonrecommended drugs (eg, opioids) was below 3% in 1995, 2001, and 2005. Unreported euthanasia differed also from reported euthanasia in the fact that physicians less often labeled their act as euthanasia. Euthanasia with nonrecommended drugs is almost never reported. The total reporting rate increased because of an increase in the use of recommended drugs for euthanasia between 1995 and 2001, and an increase in the reporting rate for euthanasia with recommended drugs between 2001 and 2005.

  5. Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide policy in The Netherlands and Oregon: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kant

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide policy in The Netherlands and the state of Oregon in the United States. The topics of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are discussed in the context of the historical setting of The Netherlands and the United States with special emphasis placed on public opinion, role of the courts and the legislative bodies, and opinions of physicians. Major similarities and differences in the laws of The Netherlands and Oregon are discussed. The article examines whether the passage of the law has led to a slide down the slippery slope in The Netherlands and Oregon as had been suggested by the opponents of the law. The article concludes that the empirical evidence does not support the contention of the opponents. However, the author argues that the potential for this happening is much greater in The Netherlands than in Oregon.

  6. Changes in suicide rates in disaster-stricken areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake and their effect on economic factors: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orui, Masatsugu; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2014-11-01

    Devastating disasters may increase suicide rates due to mental distress. Previous domestic studies have reported decreased suicide rates among men following disasters. Few reports are available regarding factors associated with disasters, making it difficult to discuss how these events affect suicide rates. This study aimed to observe changes in suicide rates in disaster-stricken and neighboring areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake, and examine associations between suicide rates and economic factors. Monthly suicide rates were observed from March 2009 to February 2013, during which time the earthquake occurred on March, 2011. Data were included from disaster-stricken (Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures) and neighboring (control: Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures) areas. The association between changes in suicide rates and economic variables was evaluated based on the number of bankruptcy cases and ratio of effective job offers. In disaster-stricken areas, post-disaster male suicide rates decreased during the 24 months following the earthquake. This trend differed relative to control areas. Female suicide rates increased during the first seven months. Multiple regression analysis showed that bankruptcy cases (β = 0.386, p = 0.038) and ratio of effective job offers (β = -0.445, p = 0.018) were only significantly associated with male post-disaster suicide rates in control areas. Post-disaster suicide rates differed by gender following the earthquake. Our findings suggest that considering gender differences might be important for developing future post-disaster suicide prevention measures. This ecological study revealed that increasing effective job offers and decreasing bankruptcy cases can affect protectively male suicide rates in control areas.

  7. Suicides in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: analysis of Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-12-01

    Suicide rates among Indigenous Australian children are higher than for other Australian children. The current study aimed to identify factors associated with Indigenous child suicide when compared to other Australian children. Using the Queensland Suicide Register, suicides in Indigenous children (10-14 years) and other Australian children in the same age band were compared. Between 2000 and 2010, 45 child suicides were recorded: 21 of Indigenous children and 24 of other Australian children. This corresponded to a suicide rate of 10.15 suicides per 100,000 for Indigenous children - 12.63 times higher than the suicide rate for other Australian children (0.80 per 100,000). Hanging was the predominant method used by all children. Indigenous children were significantly more likely to suicide outside the home, to be living outside the parental home at time of death, and be living in remote or very remote areas. Indigenous children were found to consume alcohol more frequently before suicide, compared to other Australian children. Current and past treatments of psychiatric disorders were significantly less common among Indigenous children compared to other Australian children. Western conceptualisation of mental illness may not adequately embody Indigenous people's holistic perspective regarding mental health. Further development of culturally appropriate suicide prevention activities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children is required. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Research to reduce the suicide rate among older adults: methodology roadblocks and promising paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Katalin; Lenze, Eric J; Waern, Margda; Duberstein, Paul; Bruce, Martha L; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Conwell, Yeates

    2013-06-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health and the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention have requested input into the development of a national suicide research agenda. In response, a working group of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry has prepared recommendations to ensure that the suicide prevention dialogue includes older adults, a large and fast-growing population at high risk of suicide. In this Open Forum, the working group describes three methodology roadblocks to research into suicide prevention among elderly persons and three paradigms that might provide directions for future research into suicide prevention strategies for older adults.

  9. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years: the international landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia; DeLeo, Diego; Erlangsen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60-79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000 were ascertained from three sources: colleagues with access to national data, national statisics office websites and email contact with the national statistics offices. The population size for the corresponding years and age-bands was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations website. In men, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the seven five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 90-94 years age-band, and then declined slightly for the 95-99 year age-band. In women, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the six five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 85-89 years age-bands, and then declined slightly for the 90-94 years and 95-99 years age-bands. The overall global suicide rates for each of the eight five-year age-bands are sufficiently large for them to constitute a public health concern. This is especially important given the ongoing rise in the elderly population size and the paucity of data on risk and protective factors for suicide in the five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years.

  10. Is Hinduism ambivalent about suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; John, Sujit

    2018-05-01

    Hinduism is one of the oldest religions in the world and has over 1.1 billion adherents comprising about 16% of the global population living mainly in India and Nepal. The stand of Hinduism on suicide has been ambiguous through the ages, on one hand, condemning general suicides, while condoning religious suicides on the other. This ambiguity is reflected in contemporary India and among the Indian diaspora. To examine the stand of Hinduism as a religion in the context of suicide. A selected review of literature covering the major Hindu religious texts, cultural practices and suicide. People who follow Hinduism have a suicide rate of about 21 per 100,000 population compared to the global average of 11.4. Hindu countries have higher rates of suicide compared to Islamic and Christian countries, but these rates are lower when compared to Atheist and Buddhist countries. This is reflected in the Indian diaspora as well with reports from Fiji, the Caribbean, Malaysia and the United Kingdom, indicating that suicide was disproportionately high among those of Indian origin. However, a strong faith in Hinduism acts as protective factor. The Hindu belief in karma fosters a sense of acceptance of the vicissitudes of life with equanimity, and the belief in the cycle of births and deaths renders suicide meaningless, as one's soul continues after death. Their religious beliefs makes the Hindus tolerate and accept hardships and calamities stoically. In certain situations, the Hindu religion acts as a protective factor, whereas at other times, it may increase the risk of suicide. It is important to understand these different nuances in the Hindu religion in formulating a culturally appropriate suicide prevention strategy.

  11. Depression disorders rate and related factors in suicide attempters with drug or toxins

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    Hadi Shahrabi Farahani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a complicated phenomenon which is influenced by the interaction of psychological and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate rate of depression disorders in suicide attempters with drug or toxins in the Baharloo hospital, Tehran, Iran, duration 1394.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, Beck Depression standardized questionnaire and demographic/socioeconomic information form was given to 248 suicide cases with drug or toxins to fill completely. For analyzing the data, Chi- Square and Multiple logistic regression tests were executed by spss19.Results: In this study, from 248 cases hospitalized due to suicide attempt with drugs or toxins, 87.2% diagnosed with depressive disorders. In chi2 analysis there was significant association between depression disorders and these variables “married status (p=0.001, housewife (p=0.002, family monthly income below 10000000 Rials[1] (p=0.005, substance use (p=0.001, psychiatric disorders history (p=0.001”. In full model multiple logistic regression analysis (total variables entered in model we found significant association between depressive disorders and "   gender, woman (p=0.03, OR=6.2, 95%CI= 1.33-3.44, aged 25-15 years (p=0.002, OR=22.7, 95%CI= 3.16-154.9, married status (p=0.007, OR=10.2, 95%CI= 1.87-55.5, worker or self-employment (p=0.02, OR=15.66, 95%CI= 1.41-172.25, (p=0.02, OR=14.97, 95%CI= 1.32-162.5  and family monthly income below ten million Rails (p<0.001, OR=11.30, 95%CI= 3.16-40.8 ".  Also, family monthly income below 10000000 Rials (p<0.001, OR=5.34, 95%CI= 2.05-13.91, married status and divorced or widow/widower (p<0.001, OR=3.93, 95%CI= 11.5-33.74, (p=0.01, OR=3.27, 95%CI= 16.57-83.71, age 15-25 and 26-35 (p=0.02, OR=9.15, 95%CI= 2.32-36.08,(p=0.01, OR=5.34, 95%CI= 1.36-21.03 are predictor factors for depression disorders leading to suicide attempt.Conclusion: Future planning should focus on premature

  12. Media representation of gender patterns of suicide in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S F; Tsai, Chi-Wei; Fan, Hsiang-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Extensive media reporting of suicide events has been indicated as a contributing factor to the upsurge in suicide rates in Taiwan in the past decade. The study compares gender differences in sociodemographic profiles and method of suicide selectively reported in the newspapers and all suicide cases registered in official death records. It also identifies gender differences in media reports of suicides. Articles reporting suicide news from four major newspapers in Taiwan (China Times, United Daily, Liberty Times, and Apple Daily) in 2009 were retrieved and analyzed. Gender differences in sociodemographic profiles of suicides reported in the newspapers and official records of all suicide deaths were compared. Any gender differences in newspaper depictions of contributing factors of suicide and situations surrounding the suicidal acts were compared. Newspapers in Taiwan tended to overreport unusual methods of suicide among men and extended suicide among women. The reasons for suicide in men were more frequently portrayed as work-related or after legal problems, whereas in women suicide was more frequently framed as due to mental illness or relationship problems. The news media tended to underreport mental illness as a reason for suicide in men. The analysis was based solely on news reporting in the four major newspapers during the year 2009. Media representation of suicide generally follow societal-gendered assumptions of acceptable/unacceptable behaviors. Media professionals should be more careful and responsible in reporting suicide news and avoid any gender bias in their framing of suicide stories. Sensitive rather than sensational reporting should be promoted in order not to reinforce the myths of suicides in the community.

  13. Some psychological characteristics of adolescents hospitalized following a suicide attempt.

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    Maraš, J S; Kolundžija, K; Dukić, O; Marković, J; Okanović, P; Stokin, B; Mitrović, D; Ivanović-Kovačević, S

    2013-02-01

    In most countries, suicide is second or third leading cause of death in youth. Suicidal tendencies among youth have been the subject of extensive research. Reports of increased rate of suicide attempts in the past few decades indicate that this phenomenon has not been fully understood. The aim of this study was to better understand the phenomenon of adolescent suicide behavior by defining some specific psychological characteristics of adolescents who were hospitalized at the psychiatric ward because of the suicide attempt. 62 participants were assigned to two groups: clinical (adolescents who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt) and non-clinical (adolescents without psychiatric symptoms). They filled in a series of instruments: a questionnaire examining adolescents' demographic characteristics, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Youth Self Report. Compared to the non-clinical populaton adolescents attempting suicide had significantly more frequent suicidal thoughts (χ2 = 18.627, df = 1, p self-esteem (t = 4.23, p suicide attempt.  

  14. [Study on the detection rate and risk factors regarding non-suicidal self-injurious behavior in middle school students].

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    Yan, Jing; Zhu, Cui-zhen; Situ, Ming-jing; DU, Na; Huang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    To understand the prevalence and risk factors of non-suicidal self-injury in middle school students. 1312 middle school students of Pengzhou and Santai were selected to fill in a Risky Behavior Questionnaire for Adolescence (RBQ-A), Family Environment Scale (FES), Center for Epidemiological Survey, Depression Scale (CES-D), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), Social Support Scale for Adolescents (SSSA) and self-administered questionnaire. In all the research subjects, 1288 were qualified for the study in April 2011 before the risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury were identified by logistic regression. In 1288 middle school students, 22.67% had a history of non-suicidal self-injury, with 22.70% in boys and 22.64% in girls. 63.36% of students had injured themselves through variously ways, more seen in boys (26.88%) than in girls (11.36%) who cut or burnt themselves. The scores of ASLEC and CES-D in non-suicidal self-injury group appeared higher than that in the control group and the score of SSSA was found higher in the control group. The main risk factors for non-suicidal self-injuries were family conflict, depressive emotion, negative life events and receiving less social support. The prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury among middle school students in Pengzhou was high, which called for more attention.

  15. The Associations between Infant Homicide, Homicide, and Suicide Rates: An Analysis of World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control Statistics

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    Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Lackersteen, Steven; Smith, Glen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have found that rates of homicide of children aged under one (infant homicide) are associated with rates of suicide, but not with rates of homicide. Linear regression was used to examine associations among infant homicide, homicide, and suicide in samples of regions in the United States and other countries. Infant homicide rates…

  16. Alexithymia and suicidality in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, I; Dannon, P N; Poreh, A; Lepkifker, E; Grunhaus, L

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of suicidal behavior in patients with panic disorder (PD) and to study the role of alexithymia (AL), an affect component, as a predictor of suicidal behavior in PD, we compared 42 patients with PD with or without agoraphobia with 24 healthy controls with regards to depression, AL and suicide risk. Only 5% of the PD patients reported previous suicide attempts. A higher frequency of positive AL (score > 73) was found among the PD patients (39% v 4% among the controls). PD patients had a higher suicide risk and AL as compared to controls, but only the increased suicide risk reached statistical significance. AL subjects had higher suicide risk scores as compared to non-AL subjects. Significant correlations were found between the AL score and suicide risk, although the most significant correlation was, as expected, between the depression level and the suicide risk. A low rate of previous suicide attempts was found in the PD group, perhaps reflecting the low comorbidity in our sample. We suggest that AL may have a role in the causation of suicidal behavior in PD patients, although further studies should re-examine this issue with larger samples. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  17. Differences in characteristics between suicide cases of farm managers compared to those of farm labourers in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautovska, Urska; McPhedran, Samara; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Farmers constitute an occupation group at a heightened suicide risk compared to the general population. To date, research has tried to explain this peculiarity by identifying suicide risk factors that are common to the whole of the farming population. There are, however, indications that risk factors may be different for different sub-populations of farmers, such as younger/older farmers or farm managers/farm labourers. This study compared the characteristics of suicides by farm managers and farm labourers, while controlling for the effect of age. A review of two datasets, the Queensland Suicide Register and the National Coroners Information System, was conducted in which a total of 78 cases of farm managers and 69 cases of farm labourers were identified as a suicide during 2000-2009, Queensland, Australia. The main outcome measures included various demographic characteristics, circumstances related to death, health and mental health variables, and history of stressful life events. The two groups differed in marital status, living arrangements, ethnicity, physical and mental illness, alcohol and drug abuse, contact with a health professional prior to death, and specific life events such as relationship breakdown and recent/pending unemployment. The majority of these differences were not statistically significant once age was accounted for. However, differences in psychiatric variables and experience of a recent/pending unemployment remained significant. This study contributes towards better understanding of suicide among farmers in different job positions, and highlights the need for tailored suicide prevention initiatives that consider a combination of age- and job-specific suicide risk and protective factors among farmers.

  18. Suicide death and hospital-treated suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands: a national registry-based study

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    van Oostrum Irene EA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several suicide and suicidal behaviour risk factors are highly prevalent in asylum seekers, but there is little insight into the suicide death rate and the suicidal behaviour incidence in this population. The main objective of this study is to assess the burden of suicide and hospital-treated non-fatal suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands and to identify factors that could guide prevention. Methods We obtained data on cases of suicide and suicidal behaviour from all asylum seeker reception centres in the Netherlands (period 2002-2007, age 15+. The suicide death rates in this population and in subgroups by sex, age and region of origin were compared with the rate in the Dutch population; the rates of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour were compared with that in the population of The Hague using indirect age group standardization. Results The study included 35 suicide deaths and 290 cases of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour. The suicide death rate and the incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour differed between subgroups by sex and region of origin. For male asylum seekers, the suicide death rate was higher than that of the Dutch population (N = 32; RR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.37-2.83. No difference was found between suicide mortality in female asylum seekers and in the female general population of the Netherlands (N = 3; RR = 0.73; 95%CI 0.15-2.07. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour was high in comparison with the population of The Hague for males and females from Europe and the Middle East/South West Asia, and low for males and females from Africa. Health professionals knew about mental health problems prior to the suicidal behaviour for 80% of the hospital-treated suicidal behaviour cases in asylum seekers. Conclusions In this study the suicide death rate was higher in male asylum seekers than in males in the reference population. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour

  19. Reporting on Suicide Between 1819 and 1944.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian

    2018-04-05

    Suicide rates increased substantially in many countries during the 19th century. Little is known about news coverage on suicide in this period and its relationship to suicide rates. To test whether there was a covariation between the quantity of reporting and suicide rates and whether the press relied on sensational reporting. A content analysis of Austrian news coverage between 1819 and 1944 was conducted and compared with contemporary findings. There were similar corresponding troughs and peaks in both time series, indicative of covariation. The analysis revealed that variations in the quantity of reporting predicted the following year's suicide rates, a pattern consistent with a long-term Werther effect. Conversely, suicide rates did not predict future values of the quantity of reporting. Furthermore, the press substantially overrepresented "vivid" firearm suicides compared with other more "pallid" methods such as drowning, indicative of sensational reporting. The causal order of the quantity of reporting and suicide rates should be interpreted with caution. The press may have contributed to the establishment of suicide as a mass phenomenon in the 19th century. The contemporary comparison is indicative of temporal stability.

  20. An Ecological Study on the Spatially Varying Relationship between County-Level Suicide Rates and Altitude in the United States

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    Hoehun Ha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a serious but preventable public health issue. Several previous studies have revealed a positive association between altitude and suicide rates at the county level in the contiguous United States. We assessed the association between suicide rates and altitude using a cross-county ecological study design. Data on suicide rates were obtained from a Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS, maintained by the U.S. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC. Altitude data were collected from the United States Geological Survey (USGS. We employed an ordinary least square (OLS regression to model the association between altitude and suicide rates in 3064 counties in the contiguous U.S. We conducted a geographically weighted regression (GWR to examine the spatially varying relationship between suicide rates and altitude after controlling for several well-established covariates. A significant positive association between altitude and suicide rates (average county rates between 2008 and 2014 was found in the dataset in the OLS model (R2 = 0.483, p < 0.001. Our GWR model fitted the data better, as indicated by an improved R2 (average: 0.62; range: 0.21–0.64 and a lower Akaike Information Criteria (AIC value (13,593.68 vs. 14,432.14 in the OLS model. The GWR model also significantly reduced the spatial autocorrelation, as indicated by Moran’s I test statistic (Moran’s I = 0.171; z = 33.656; p < 0.001 vs. Moran’s I = 0.323; z = 63.526; p < 0.001 in the OLS model. In addition, a stronger positive relationship was detected in areas of the northern regions, northern plain regions, and southeastern regions in the U.S. Our study confirmed a varying overall positive relationship between altitude and suicide. Future research may consider controlling more predictor variables in regression models, such as firearm ownership, religion, and access to mental health services.

  1. Do Generous Unemployment Benefit Programs Reduce Suicide Rates? A State Fixed-Effect Analysis Covering 1968–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M. Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    The recent economic recession has led to increases in suicide, but whether US state unemployment insurance programs ameliorate this association has not been examined. Exploiting US state variations in the generosity of benefit programs between 1968 and 2008, we tested the hypothesis that more generous unemployment benefit programs reduce the impact of economic downturns on suicide. Using state linear fixed-effect models, we found a negative additive interaction between unemployment rates and benefits among the US working-age (20–64 years) population (β = −0.57, 95% confidence interval: −0.86, −0.27; P unemployment rates on suicide is offset by the presence of generous state unemployment benefit programs, though estimated effects are small in magnitude. PMID:24939978

  2. Do generous unemployment benefit programs reduce suicide rates? A state fixed-effect analysis covering 1968-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    The recent economic recession has led to increases in suicide, but whether US state unemployment insurance programs ameliorate this association has not been examined. Exploiting US state variations in the generosity of benefit programs between 1968 and 2008, we tested the hypothesis that more generous unemployment benefit programs reduce the impact of economic downturns on suicide. Using state linear fixed-effect models, we found a negative additive interaction between unemployment rates and benefits among the US working-age (20-64 years) population (β = -0.57, 95% confidence interval: -0.86, -0.27; P unemployment rates on suicide is offset by the presence of generous state unemployment benefit programs, though estimated effects are small in magnitude. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Assisted and unassisted suicide in men and women: longitudinal study of the Swiss population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Nicole; Egger, Matthias; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2016-05-01

    In Switzerland assisted suicide is legal if no self-interest is involved. To compare the strength and direction of associations with sociodemographic factors between assisted and unassisted suicides. We calculated rates and used Cox and logistic regression models in a longitudinal study of the Swiss population. Analyses were based on 5 004 403 people, 1301 assisted and 5708 unassisted suicides from 2003 to 2008. The rate of unassisted suicides was higher in men than in women, rates of assisted suicides were similar in men and women. Higher education was positively associated with assisted suicide, but negatively with unassisted. Living alone, having no children and no religious affiliation were associated with higher rates of both. Some situations that indicate greater vulnerability such as living alone were associated with both assisted and unassisted suicide. Among the terminally ill, women were more likely to choose assisted suicide, whereas men died more often by unassisted suicide. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  4. Suicide and suicidal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than prescribed medicines) can reduce the risk of suicide. In homes with children or teenagers: Keep all prescription medicines high up ... or attempted suicide. Alternative Names Depression - suicide; Bipolar - suicide ... in children Depression among the elderly References American Psychiatric Association. ...

  5. Removing bridge barriers stimulates suicides: an unfortunate natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beautrais, Annette L; Gibb, Sheree J; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Larkin, Gregory Luke

    2009-06-01

    Safety barriers to prevent suicide by jumping were removed from Grafton Bridge in Auckland, New Zealand, in 1996 after having been in place for 60 years. This study compared the number of suicides due to jumping from the bridge after the reinstallation of safety barriers in 2003. National mortality data for suicide deaths were compared for three time periods: 1991-1995 (old barrier in place); 1997-2002 (no barriers in place); 2003-2006 (after barriers were reinstated). Removal of barriers was followed by a fivefold increase in the number and rate of suicides from the bridge. These increases led to a decision to reinstall safety barriers. Since the reinstallation of barriers, of an improved design, in 2003, there have been no suicides from the bridge. This natural experiment, using a powerful a-b-a (reversal) design, shows that safety barriers are effective in preventing suicide: their removal increases suicides; their reinstatement prevents suicides.

  6. Temperament and character personality profile in relation to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in major depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Rupert; Walz, Frank; Geiser, Franziska; Imbierowicz, Katrin; Liedtke, Reinhard; Wegener, Ingo

    2009-12-30

    To prevent suicidal behaviour, it is important to better understand those personality traits associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. A sample of 394 consecutive major depressed outpatients admitted to Bonn University Hospital was subdivided into three groups: Lifetime suicide attempters (N=32; 8.1%), suicide ideators (N=133) and patients without suicide ideation (N=229). Psychodiagnostic measures embraced the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Symptom Checklist-90-R and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Suicide attempters and ideators showed higher scores on emotional distress and depression. Analysis of covariance (covariates: age, gender, depression) revealed that suicide attempters score higher on the temperament dimension harm avoidance compared with non-attempters. Suicide ideators could be distinguished from non-ideators by character dimensions in terms of lower self-directedness and higher self-transcendence. Our findings suggest that high harm avoidance is a personality trait associated with suicide attempt in major depression, whereas low self-directedness and high self-transcendence are related to suicidal ideation. As temperament dimensions represent the "emotional core" and character dimensions the "cognitive core" of personality, we discuss whether Cloninger's psychobiological model might be helpful to distinguish between non-suicide ideators, patients who do think about suicide, and patients initiating suicidal behaviour.

  7. Suicide in Sorocaba-SP: an epidemiological study

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    Melissa Nobrega Vasques de Freitas

    2013-09-01

    Introduction: suicide is a major worldwide public health issue and appears as one of the ten most frequent causes of death in all ages. Objective: to perform an epidemiological analysis of suicide rates recorded between 2000 and 2009 in the city of Sorocaba-SP and compare them to national epidemiological data. Methods: We performed a descriptive analysis of suicide data in Sorocaba-SP in the period 2000 to 2009 collected by the Surveillance of Violence and Injuries (VIVA and the Municipal Health Secretariat of Sorocaba-SP. Results: a total of 229 suicide cases were recorded between 2000 and 2009. Total suicide rate suffered an increase of 3.8% in 2005, as compared to previous years, and remained constant in subsequent years. The highest average rates were recorded in 2005 and 2007. Men are more likely to commit suicide. The highest rates of suicide were recorded in the age group 35-44 years. Being single was the most common sociodemographic characteristic of suicides during the study period. The most common methods of suicide were hanging and firearms. Conclusion: The rate of suicide in Sorocaba-SP, despite low, is consistent with the national and international growth trends. Members of the younger population are killing themselves with increasing frequency, although the highest rates of suicide are still found among those aged 35 - 44 years

  8. Relationship between leukotriene-modifying agent prescriptions dispensed and rate of suicide deaths by county in the US

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    Schumock GT

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Glen T Schumock1, Robert D Gibbons2, Todd A Lee1,3,4,6, Min J Joo4, Robert J Valuck5, Leslie T Stayner61Center for Pharmacoeconomic Research, and Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Center for Health Statistics, and Departments of Medicine and Health Studies, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Center for Management of Complex Chronic Care, Hines VA Hospital, Hines, IL, USA; 4Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; 6Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USABackground: The US Food and Drug Administration has issued warnings about a potential link between leukotriene receptor-modifying agents (LTMA and suicide. These warnings are based on case reports and there is controversy about the association. While spontaneous reporting of suicide-related events attributed to LTMA has risen dramatically, these data may be biased by the warnings. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between LTMA and suicide deaths using event data preceding the Food and Drug Administration warnings.Methods: We conducted a mixed-effects Poisson regression analysis of the association between LTMA prescriptions dispensed and suicide deaths at the county level. Counts of suicide deaths in each US county, stratified by race, age group, gender, and year were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics for the period January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2006. Counts of LTMA prescriptions dispensed in each US county were obtained from IMS Health Incorporated. The model estimated the overall suicide rate conditional on LTMA use, adjusted for age, gender, race, year

  9. An Extension and Test of Sutherland's Concept of Differential Social Organization: The Geographic Clustering of Japanese Suicide and Homicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, Robert D.; Shin, Dong-Joon; Richardson, Kelly K.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to explain the spatial patterning of violence, we expanded Sutherland's (1947) concept of differential social organization to include the level of deviance exhibited by neighboring areas. To test the value of this extension, the geographic clustering of Japanese suicide and homicide rates is assessed using 1985 and 1995 data for…

  10. Suicide in children over two decades: 1993-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, K M; Quinlivani, L; McGuinness, S; McNicholas, F; Kelleher, C

    2012-01-01

    Suicide rates have increased in Ireland's youth over the past two decades. However, no research report has focussed on suicide rates in those aged under 18--the children of Ireland. We retrieved national disaggregated age and sex-specific suicide mortality data from 1993-1998 and compared it with similar suicide mortality data from 2003-2008. Significant age (older vs younger) and sex effects (boys greater risk than girls) are apparent in both decades Suicide rates in both males and females have increased (males: 9.3-13.5/100,000), (females: 2.4-5.1/100,000. Suicide rates in under 15 year olds boys and girls is extremely rare for both time periods studied (1.6/100,000). Results are discussed in light of the rights of children and the obligation of the nation in this regard, as well as more child-specific and transition to adulthood-specific suicide prevention policy implications.

  11. A comparative analysis of suicide attempts in left-behind children and non-left-behind children in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hongjuan; Yan, Qiuge; Tang, Lina; Huang, Juan; Ma, Yuqiao; Ye, Xiaozhou; Yu, Yizhen

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of suicide attempts and explore the shared and unique factors influencing suicide risk in left-behind children (LBC) and non-left-behind children (NLBC) in rural China, this study collected data using a multi-stage cluster random sampling method from 13,952 children including 6,034 LBC and 7,918 NLBC. Sociodemographic characteristics, suicide attempts, neglect and physical abuse, negative life events, and loneliness were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models. Gender and mother's education level were unique influential factors for NLBC while family structure type was a unique influential factor for LBC. The study provides two novel findings regarding NLBC specifically: 1. Children with optimal family socioeconomic status are more likely to report suicide attempts (odds ratio OR = 1)than are those in the general children population, OR 0.52 (95% CI: 0.39-0.70), and 2. Children with higher mother's education level are subject to higher suicide rates in high school, OR 1.67 (95% CI: 1.13-2.46), and post-secondary education, OR 2.14 (95% CI: 1.37-3.37). The unique characteristics of LBC and NLBC in China suggest that investigating risk factors and determining the factors that might be targeted in intervention programs are urgently needed currently.

  12. A comparative analysis of suicide attempts in left-behind children and non-left-behind children in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjuan Chang

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of suicide attempts and explore the shared and unique factors influencing suicide risk in left-behind children (LBC and non-left-behind children (NLBC in rural China, this study collected data using a multi-stage cluster random sampling method from 13,952 children including 6,034 LBC and 7,918 NLBC. Sociodemographic characteristics, suicide attempts, neglect and physical abuse, negative life events, and loneliness were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models. Gender and mother's education level were unique influential factors for NLBC while family structure type was a unique influential factor for LBC. The study provides two novel findings regarding NLBC specifically: 1. Children with optimal family socioeconomic status are more likely to report suicide attempts (odds ratio OR = 1than are those in the general children population, OR 0.52 (95% CI: 0.39-0.70, and 2. Children with higher mother's education level are subject to higher suicide rates in high school, OR 1.67 (95% CI: 1.13-2.46, and post-secondary education, OR 2.14 (95% CI: 1.37-3.37. The unique characteristics of LBC and NLBC in China suggest that investigating risk factors and determining the factors that might be targeted in intervention programs are urgently needed currently.

  13. Suicide Mortality, Suicidal Ideation and Psychological Problems in Dutch Anaesthesiologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, M.C.A.; Liem, A.L.; Dongen, van E.P.A.; Carels, I.C.; Egmond, van M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reveal an elevated suicide rate for anaesthesiologists. We sought to examine anaesthesiologist suicide mortality and its underlying explanatory factors. Two studies were conducted in order to establish the suicide mortality figures among Dutch anaesthesiologists and to investigate

  14. Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder: Part I of a report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo; Moreno, Doris H; Sinyor, Mark; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Turecki, Gustavo; Weizman, Abraham; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Ha, Kyooseob; Reis, Catherine; Cassidy, Frederick; Goldstein, Tina; Rihmer, Zoltán; Beautrais, Annette; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Diazgranados, Nancy; Levitt, Anthony J; Zarate, Carlos A; Yatham, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated risk of suicide attempts and deaths. Key aims of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide included examining the extant literature on epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy related to suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder. Methods Systematic review of studies from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 examining suicide attempts or deaths in bipolar disorder, with a specific focus on the incidence and characterization of suicide attempts and deaths, genetic and non-genetic biological studies and pharmacotherapy studies specific to bipolar disorder. We conducted pooled, weighted analyses of suicide rates. Results The pooled suicide rate in bipolar disorder is 164 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval = [5, 324]). Sex-specific data on suicide rates identified a 1.7:1 ratio in men compared to women. People with bipolar disorder account for 3.4–14% of all suicide deaths, with self-poisoning and hanging being the most common methods. Epidemiological studies report that 23–26% of people with bipolar disorder attempt suicide, with higher rates in clinical samples. There are numerous genetic associations with suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder, but few replication studies. Data on treatment with lithium or anticonvulsants are strongly suggestive for prevention of suicide attempts and deaths, but additional data are required before relative anti-suicide effects can be confirmed. There were limited data on potential anti-suicide effects of treatment with antipsychotics or antidepressants. Conclusion This analysis identified a lower estimated suicide rate in bipolar disorder than what was previously published. Understanding the overall risk of suicide deaths and attempts, and the most common methods, are important building blocks to greater awareness and improved interventions for suicide prevention in bipolar disorder. Replication of genetic findings and

  15. Cross-national comparisons of increasing suicidal mortality rates for Koreans in the Republic of Korea and Korean Americans in the USA, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, A; Hastings, K G; Kapphahn, K I; Wang, E J; Cullen, M R; Ivey, S L; Palaniappan, L P; Chung, S

    2018-02-01

    Korea has the highest suicide rate of developed countries, two times higher than the USA. Suicide trends among Koreans Americans living in the USA during the same period have not yet been described. We report suicide mortality rates and trends for four groups: (1) Korean Americans, (2) non-Hispanic White (NHW) Americans, (3) selected Asian American subgroups and (4) Koreans living in the Republic of Korea. We used US national (n = 18 113 585) and World Health Organization (WHO) (n = 232 919 253) mortality records for Korea from 2003 to 2012 to calculate suicide rates, all expressed per 100 000 persons. We assessed temporal trends and differences in age, gender and race/ethnicity using binomial regression. Suicide rates are highest in Koreans living in the Republic of Korea (32.4 for men and 14.8 for women). Suicide rates in Korean Americans (13.9 for men and 6.5 for women) have nearly doubled from 2003 to 2012 and exceed rates for all other Asian American subgroups (5.4-10.7 for men and 1.6-4.2 for women). Suicide rates among NHWs (21.0 for men and 5.6 for women) remain high. Among elders, suicide in Korean Americans (32.9 for men and 15.4 for women) is the highest of all examined racial/ethnic groups in the USA. Suicide in Korean Americans is higher than for other Asian Americans and follows temporal patterns more similar to Korea than the USA. Interventions to prevent suicide in Korean American populations, particularly among the elderly, are needed.

  16. Suicide among Young People and Adults in Ireland: Method Characteristics, Toxicological Analysis and Substance Abuse Histories Compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arensman, Ella; Bennardi, Marco; Larkin, Celine; Wall, Amanda; McAuliffe, Carmel; McCarthy, Jacklyn; Williamson, Eileen; Perry, Ivan J

    2016-01-01

    Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide. The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007-2012) occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county). Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals. A comparison was made between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals. Socio-demographic characteristics of the deceased, methods of suicide, history of alcohol and drug abuse, and findings from toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples taken at post mortem were included. Pearson's χ2 tests and binary logistic regression analysis were performed. Alcohol and/or drugs were detected through toxicological analysis for the majority of the total sample (79.5%), which did not differentiate between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals (74.1% and 86.2% respectively). Compared to 25-34-year-old individuals, 15-24-year-old individuals were more likely to engage in suicide by hanging (88.5%). Younger individuals were less likely to die by intentional drug overdose and carbon monoxide poisoning compared to older individuals. Younger individuals who died between Saturday and Monday were more likely to have had alcohol before dying. Substance abuse histories were similar in the two age groups. Based on this research it is recommended that strategies to reduce substance abuse be applied among 25-34-year-old individuals at risk of suicide. The wide use of hanging in young people should be taken into consideration for future means restriction strategies.

  17. Suicide among Young People and Adults in Ireland: Method Characteristics, Toxicological Analysis and Substance Abuse Histories Compared.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Arensman

    Full Text Available Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide.The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007-2012 occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county. Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals. A comparison was made between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals. Socio-demographic characteristics of the deceased, methods of suicide, history of alcohol and drug abuse, and findings from toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples taken at post mortem were included. Pearson's χ2 tests and binary logistic regression analysis were performed.Alcohol and/or drugs were detected through toxicological analysis for the majority of the total sample (79.5%, which did not differentiate between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals (74.1% and 86.2% respectively. Compared to 25-34-year-old individuals, 15-24-year-old individuals were more likely to engage in suicide by hanging (88.5%. Younger individuals were less likely to die by intentional drug overdose and carbon monoxide poisoning compared to older individuals. Younger individuals who died between Saturday and Monday were more likely to have had alcohol before dying. Substance abuse histories were similar in the two age groups.Based on this research it is recommended that strategies to reduce substance abuse be applied among 25-34-year-old individuals at risk of suicide. The wide use of hanging in young people should be taken into consideration for future means restriction strategies.

  18. Suicide among Young People and Adults in Ireland: Method Characteristics, Toxicological Analysis and Substance Abuse Histories Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Celine; Wall, Amanda; McAuliffe, Carmel; McCarthy, Jacklyn; Williamson, Eileen; Perry, Ivan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide. Methods The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007–2012) occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county). Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals. A comparison was made between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals. Socio-demographic characteristics of the deceased, methods of suicide, history of alcohol and drug abuse, and findings from toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples taken at post mortem were included. Pearson’s χ2 tests and binary logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Alcohol and/or drugs were detected through toxicological analysis for the majority of the total sample (79.5%), which did not differentiate between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals (74.1% and 86.2% respectively). Compared to 25-34-year-old individuals, 15-24-year-old individuals were more likely to engage in suicide by hanging (88.5%). Younger individuals were less likely to die by intentional drug overdose and carbon monoxide poisoning compared to older individuals. Younger individuals who died between Saturday and Monday were more likely to have had alcohol before dying. Substance abuse histories were similar in the two age groups. Conclusion Based on this research it is recommended that strategies to reduce substance abuse be applied among 25-34-year-old individuals at risk of suicide. The wide use of hanging in young people should be taken into consideration for future means restriction strategies. PMID:27898722

  19. Suicide in a large population of former psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Gabriele; Tondo, Leonardo; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Reginaldi, Daniela; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Koukopoulos, Alexia E; Manfredi, Giovanni; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Simonetti, Alessio; Ambrosi, Elisa; Angeletti, Gloria; Girardi, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of completed suicide in a wide sample of psychiatric inpatients receiving retrospective and prospective DSM-IV diagnoses. We followed up 4441 severe psychiatric patients who were hospitalized for some time during a 35-year period in a private hospital setting. We collected sociodemographic, clinical and temperamental data. Ninety-six patients from the sample committed suicide. There were no sex differences in suicide completion and no differences between major psychiatric disorders, but people who had been hospitalized for anxiety disorders did not commit suicide and people with bipolar disorders were more likely to commit suicide than people with unipolar major depression. Shorter-term treatment with lithium and anticonvulsants, longer-term treatment with antidepressants, history of suicide attempts, suicidal thinking, and single status positively predicted completed suicide. Suicide tended to occur after a mean period of about 14 years of duration of disease. Patients' symptoms during the period preceding suicide were assessed through interviewing patients' physicians or family members. Symptoms occurring in >10% of cases were, in decreasing order, inner tension, racing/crowded thoughts, aggressive behavior, guilt, psychomotor agitation, persecutory ideation, anxiety, and hallucinations. Surprisingly, cyclothymic temperament was less associated with completed suicide as compared to other temperaments. Suicide is likely to occur in a milieu of agitation, mixed anxiety and depression, and psychosis. Longer-term mood stabilizer treatment may reduce the rate of completed suicide. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. Suicide in Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a review of studies on suicide in children aged 14 years and younger. Articles were identified through a systematic search of Scopus, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO. Key words were "children, suicide, psychological autopsy, and case-study." Additional articles were identified through manual search of reference lists and discussion with colleagues. Fifteen published articles were identified, 8 psychological autopsy studies (PA), and 7 retrospective case-study series. Suicide incidence and gender asymmetry increases with age. Hanging is the most frequent method. Lower rates of psychopathology are evident among child suicides compared to adolescents. Previous suicide attempts were an important risk factor. Children were less likely to consume alcohol prior to suicide. Parent-child conflicts were the most common precipitant.

  1. Workplace Suicide and States of Denial: The France Telecom and Foxconn Cases Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Waters

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Workplace suicides are sharply on the rise and reflect a generalised deterioration in working conditions across the globalised economy. Despite their growing prevalence, workplace suicides are subject to specific modes of repression that tend to keep them hidden from public view. Suicides and their social recognition threaten the vested interests of corporate and political elites by giving material embodiment to relations of production in the form of extreme human suffering. This article focuses on 'suicide waves' at two distant corporations in the information and communications sector: in France, the telecoms provider, France Télécom (rebranded Orange in 2013 and in China, electronics supplier, Foxconn. Drawing on Stanley Cohen's notion of 'states of denial', the article examines the tactics used by corporate and political elites in an effort to keep the suicides concealed. These include discourses that denied the suicides, individualised their causes and repressive tactics intended to control information and impede investigations. Recognising workplace suicides and the forms of repression that seek to occlude them, is crucial if we are to confront the profound human costs of a new international division of digital labour on lived experiences of work.

  2. Relationship between suicide rate and economic growth and stock market in the People’s Republic of China: 2004–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Honglei; Xu, Lin; Shao, Yechang; Li, Liping; Wan, Chengsong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to estimate the features of suicide rate and its association with economic development and stock market during the past decade in the People’s Republic of China. Methods Official data were gathered and analyzed in the People’s Republic of China during the period 2004–2013. Nationwide suicide rate was stratified by four year age-groups, sex, urban/rural areas, and regions (East, Central, and West). Annual economic indexes including gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and rural and urban income per capita were all adjusted for inflation. Variation coefficient of market index (VCMI) was also included as an economic index to measure the fluctuation of the stock market. Negative binomial regression was performed to examine the time trend of region-level suicide rates and effects of sex, age, urban/rural area, region, and economic index on the suicide rates. Results Suicide rates of each age-group, sex, urban/rural area, and region were generally decreased from 2004 to 2013, while annual GDP per capita and rural and urban income per capita were generally increased by year. VCMI fluctuated largely, which peaked around 2009 and decreased after that time. Negative binomial regression showed that the decreased suicide rate in East and Central rural areas was the main cause of the decrease in suicide rate in the People’s Republic of China. Suicide rate in the People’s Republic of China for the study period increased with age and was higher in rural than in urban area, higher in males than in females, and the highest in the Central region. When GDP per capita increased by 2,787 RMB, the suicide rate decreased by 0.498 times. VCMI showed no significant relationship with suicide rate in the negative binomial regression. Conclusion Suicide rate decreased in 2004–2013; varied among different age-groups, sex, urban/rural areas, and regions; and was negatively associated with the economic growth in the People’s Republic of

  3. Risk of suicide ideation associated with problem-solving ability and attitudes toward suicidal behavior in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Carmel; Corcoran, Paul; Keeley, Helen S; Perry, Ivan J

    2003-01-01

    The present paper investigates the risk of lifetime suicide ideation associated with problem-solving ability and attitudes toward suicidal behavior in a sample of 328 university students (41% male, 59% female). The response rate was 77% based on the total number of students registered for the relevant courses. A series of questions assessed lifetime suicide ideation, while problem solving and attitudes toward suicide were measured using the Self-Rating Problem Solving scale and four subscales of the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire, respectively (McLeavey, 1986; Domino et al., 1989). Almost one-third of the students surveyed had lifetime suicide ideation. Both genders were similar in terms of their suicide ideation history, problem solving, and attitudes toward suicidal behavior with the exception that male students were more in agreement with the attitude that suicidal behavior lacks real intent. Compared with 2% of nonideators and ideators, one in four planners reported that they would more than likely attempt suicide at some point in their life. Greater agreement with the attitude that suicidal behavior is normal was associated with significantly increased risk of being an ideator, as was poor problem solving and less agreement with the attitude that suicidal behavior is associated with mental illness.

  4. Suicide prevention through means restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knipe, Duleeka W.; Chang, Shu-Sen; Dawson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 3-year phased bans of the pesticides dimethoate and fenthion in 2008–2010, and paraquat in 2009–2011, on suicide mortality in Sri Lanka. Methods: Age-standardised overall, sex-specific, and method-specific suicide rates were calculated using Sri Lankan police...... data (1989–2015). Using negative binomial regression models, we estimated the change in the rate and number of suicide deaths in post-ban years (2011–15) compared to those expected based on pre-ban trends (2001–10). Findings: Overall suicide mortality dropped by 21% between 2011 and 2015, from 18.......3 to 14.3 per 100,000. The decline in pesticide suicides during this same period was larger than for overall suicides: from 8.5 to 4.2 per 100,000, a 50% reduction. This was accompanied by a smaller concurrent rise in non-pesticide suicide mortality with a 2% increase (9.9 to 10.1 per 100,000). In 2015...

  5. Suicide and Suicidal Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the best way to identify risk. Murder and suicide In rare cases, people who are suicidal are ... access to a firearm Starting antidepressants and increased suicide risk Most antidepressants are generally safe, but the ...

  6. Suicide and Murder-Suicide Involving Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenedi, Christopher; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Watson, Dougal; Preitner, Claude

    2016-04-01

    This is a systematic review of suicide and homicide-suicide events involving aircraft. In aeromedical literature and in the media, these very different events are both described as pilot suicide, but in psychiatry they are considered separate events with distinct risk factors. Medical databases, internet search engines, and aviation safety databases were searched in a systematic way to obtain relevant cases. Relevant articles were searched for additional references. There were 65 cases of pilot suicide and 6 cases of passengers who jumped from aircraft found. There were also 18 cases of homicide-suicide found involving 732 deaths. Pilots perpetrated 13 homicide-suicide events. Compared to non-aviation samples, a large percentage of pilot suicides in this study were homicide-suicides (17%). Homicide-suicide events occur extremely rarely. However, their impact in terms of the proportion of deaths is significant when compared to deaths from accidents. There is evidence of clustering where pilot suicides occur after by media reports of suicide or homicide-suicide. Five of six homicide-suicide events by pilots of commercial airliners occurred after they were left alone in the cockpit. This, along with a sixth incident in which active intervention by a Japan Air crew saved 147 lives, suggests that having two flight members in the cockpit is potentially protective. No single factor was associated with the risk for suicide or homicide-suicide. Factors associated with both events included legal and financial crises, occupational conflict, mental illness, and relationship stressors. Drugs and/or alcohol played a role in almost half of suicides, but not in homicide-suicides.

  7. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  8. Comparing BV solutions of rate independent processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Recupero, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 121-146 ISSN 0944-6532 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : variational inequalities * rate independence * convex sets Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.552, year: 2014 http://www.heldermann.de/JCA/JCA21/JCA211/jca21006.htm

  9. Duration of unemployment and suicide in Australia over the period 1985-2006: an ecological investigation by sex and age during rising versus declining national unemployment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Page, Andrew; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between unemployment and suicide may be sensitive to demographic factors, national unemployment rates, and length of time without employment. This study investigated these factors in relation to suicide in Australia for the period 1985-2006, in an ecological study. The outcome variable was annual suicide rate by age group, sex and the eight states and territories over 22 years of observation (total observations=1760). The main predictor variable was the average duration of unemployment in the population, categorised into three time periods (4 weeks). Poisson regression models were used to investigate the relationship between duration of unemployment and suicide over the years 1985-2006 in a series of cross-sectional analyses. Interaction analyses indicated significant differences during periods of declining or increasing labour market opportunity and by age group. During periods of declining unemployment rates in the country, longer durations of unemployment were associated with higher male suicide rates. During periods of increasing unemployment in the country, longer unemployment duration was associated with lower male suicide rates. Effect modification was also apparent by age-group, with stronger associations between unemployment duration and male suicide evident in those aged 25-34 and 55-64, and weaker associations in those aged 15-24 and 44-54 years. Longer length of unemployment was not associated with an increase in female suicide rates. The labour market opportunities in Australia modified the effect of duration of unemployment on suicide, and the effect was more prominent in men and older age groups. This may reflect social norms and acceptability about unemployment, as well as life-stage influences associated with transitions into and out of the labour market.

  10. Suicides in Serbia at the beginning of the 21st century and trends in the past fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penev Goran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 in Serbia, 1444 persons committed suicide (19.5 per 100.000 population. Compared to the early 50s of the 20th century, the number of suicides has nearly doubled, but there has been a moderate decrease in the last 15 years. Similar, but somewhat more moderate tendencies are noted in the change of the value of the suicide rates. The lowest suicide rates were recorded during the 1950s, around 12 per 100.000, and the highest in the last decade of the 20th century when the rate reached 20 suicides per 100.000 inhabitants. The highest suicide rate is among the elderly, and there is also a noticeable tendency of increase in the share of the elderly in the total number of suicides, which is primarily the consequence of intense demographic aging. With youth, the last thirty years note a decline of both the number of suicides and the value of the suicide rates. The number of young people aged 15-24 who have committed suicide in 2006 is less than half of the number from 1971 (decreased from 150 to 66, and the values of suicide rates are also significantly low (decreased from 11.5 to 6.9 per 100.000. Despite certain changes in the values of age-specific suicide rates achieved in the last 50 years, their age patterns of suicide mortality can be characterized as stable. Men are dominant among persons who have committed suicide, with double the number of women, and the highest recorded value of the suicide rate of women never surpassed the value of the lowest suicide rate in men. In terms of marital status, the total rate of suicides is highest with widowers then divorced persons, married persons, and lowest rates are with celibates. In all four groups, suicide rates are at least 3 times higher for men. There is also a clear connection between the level of education and suicide rates for both sexes, with the suicide rate decreasing with higher educational level. In terms of total suicide rate, Serbia is currently in the top half of the European list of

  11. Suicide in older adults: a comparison with middle-aged adults using the Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yu Wen; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Globally, suicide rates increase with age, being highest in older adults. This study analyzed differences in suicides in older adults (65 years and over) compared to middle-aged adults (35-64 years) in Queensland, Australia, during the years 2000-2012. The Queensland Suicide Register was utilized for the analysis. Annual suicide rates were calculated by gender and age group, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were examined. In Queensland, the average annual rate of suicides for older adults was 15.27 per 100,000 persons compared to 18.77 in middle-aged adults in 2000-2012. There were no significant changes in time trends for older adults in 2002-2012. Suicide methods differed between gender and age groups. Older adults who died by suicide were more likely to be male, widowed, living alone or in a nursing home, and out of the work force. The prevalence of untreated psychiatric conditions, diagnosed psychiatric disorders, and consultations with a mental health professional three months prior to death was lower in older adults than middle-aged adults. Somatic illness, bereavement, and attention to suicide in the media were more common among older adults than middle-age adults. Older females were particularly more likely to pay attention to suicide in the media. Our findings show older adults who died by suicide were more likely to experience somatic illnesses, bereavement, and pay attention to suicide in the media compared to middle aged. Preventing suicide in older adults would therefore require holistic and comprehensive approaches.

  12. Comparative study of suicide risk in depressive disorder patients with and without problem drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Azekawa, Takaharu; Uchikado, Hirotake; Ozaki, Shigeru; Hasegawa, Naomi; Takekawa, Yoshikazu; Matsushita, Sachio

    2011-08-01

    The present study sought to determine whether the co-occurrence of problem drinking heightens suicide risk in individuals with depression in Japan, using a sample of 784 outpatients (287 men and 497 women) with depressive disorder. Female subjects with at least a moderate problem drinking showed significantly more severe depression and suicidality than those without, but no such difference was identified in men. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  13. Investigation of the marked and long-standing spatial inhomogeneity of the Hungarian suicide rate: a spatial regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Lajos; Dome, Peter; Daroczi, Gergely; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan

    2014-02-01

    In the last century Hungary had astonishingly high suicide rates characterized by marked regional within-country inequalities, a spatial pattern which has been quite stable over time. To explain the above phenomenon at the level of micro-regions (n=175) in the period between 2005 and 2011. Our dependent variable was the age and gender standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for suicide while explanatory variables were factors which are supposed to influence suicide risk, such as measures of religious and political integration, travel time accessibility of psychiatric services, alcohol consumption, unemployment and disability pensionery. When applying the ordinary least squared regression model, the residuals were found to be spatially autocorrelated, which indicates the violation of the assumption on the independence of error terms and - accordingly - the necessity of application of a spatial autoregressive (SAR) model to handle this problem. According to our calculations the SARlag model was a better way (versus the SARerr model) of addressing the problem of spatial autocorrelation, furthermore its substantive meaning is more convenient. SMR was significantly associated with the "political integration" variable in a negative and with "lack of religious integration" and "disability pensionery" variables in a positive manner. Associations were not significant for the remaining explanatory variables. Several important psychiatric variables were not available at the level of micro-regions. We conducted our analysis on aggregate data. Our results may draw attention to the relevance and abiding validity of the classic Durkheimian suicide risk factors - such as lack of social integration - apropos of the spatial pattern of Hungarian suicides. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Suicide rate in relation to the Human Development Index and other health related factors: A global ecological study from 91 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been no worldwide ecological study on suicide as a global major public health problem. This study aimed to identify the variations in suicide specific rates using the Human Development Index (HDI and some health related variables among countries around the world. In this ecological study, we obtained the data from the World Bank Report 2013. The analysis was restricted to 91 countries for which both the epidemiologic data from the suicide rates and HDI were available. Overall, the global prevalence of suicide rate was 10.5 (95% confidence intervals: 8.8, 12.2 per 100,000 individuals, which significantly varied according to gender (16.3 in males vs. 4.6 in females, p < 0.001 and different levels of human development (11.64/100,000 individuals in very high development countries, 7.93/100,000 individuals in medium development countries, and 13.94/100,000 individuals in high development countries, p = 0.004. In conclusion, the suicide rate varies greatly between countries with different development levels. Our findings also suggest that male gender and HDI components are associated with an increased risk of suicide behaviors. Hence, detecting population subgroups with a high suicide risk and reducing the inequality of socioeconomic determinants are necessary to prevent this disorder around the world.

  15. Epidemiology of suicide in Brazil (1980 - 2000: characterization of age and gender rates of suicide Epidemiologia do suicídio no Brasil (1980 - 2000: caracterização das taxas de suicídio por idade e gênero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Mello-Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the suicide rates in Brazil in recent decades, drawing comparisons with the worldwide epidemiological situation. METHODS: Descriptive analyses of Brazilian suicide data, relating to the 1980-2000 period and extracted from the DATASUS database. Brazilian suicide trends were examined by age and gender. RESULTS: The overall rate of suicide in Brazil increased 21% in 20 years. Men were found to be 2.3 to 4.0 times more likely to commit suicide than were women, and the highest suicide rates were found in the over-65 age group. The greatest increase in suicide rates (1900% was seen in the 15-24 age range. CONCLUSION: Brazilian suicide rates, although low, are consistent with the global trend toward growth. Although the highest rates are still seen among the elderly, members of the younger population have been killing themselves with ever-increasing frequency.OBJETIVOS: Descrever as taxas de suicídio do Brasil nas últimas décadas, bem como compará-las com a situação epidemiológica mundial. MÉTODOS: Análise descritiva dos dados brasileiros sobre o suicídio, extraídos a partir do banco de dados de DATASUS, cobrindo o período de 1980-2000. Foram examinadas as tendências de suicídio no Brasil quanto à distribuição etária e gênero. RESULTADOS: A taxa global de suicídio no Brasil cresceu 21% em 20 anos. Os homens se suicidaram de 2,3 a 4 vezes mais que as mulheres e os idosos acima de 65 anos apresentaram as maiores taxas de suicídio. O estrato de jovens entre 15 a 24 anos foi o grupo de maior crescimento (1.900%. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de suicídio no Brasil, embora baixa, segue a tendência mundial de crescimento. Os idosos apresentam as taxas mais altas, mas, em números absolutos, a população jovem está se matando cada vez mais.

  16. International comparison of death place for suicide; a population-level eight country death certificate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, YongJoo; Houttekier, Dirk; MacLeod, Roderick; Wilson, Donna M; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Loucka, Martin; Aubry, Regis; Teno, Joan; Roh, Sungwon; Reinecke, Mark A; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The places of death for people who died of suicide were compared across eight countries and socio-demographic factors associated with home suicide deaths identified. Death certificate data were analyzed; using multivariable binary logistic regression to determine associations. National suicide death rates ranged from 1.4 % (Mexico) to 6.4 % (South Korea). The proportion of suicide deaths occurring at home was high, ranging from 29.9 % (South Korea) to 65.8 % (Belgium). Being older, female, widowed/separated, highly educated and living in an urban area were risk factors for home suicide. Home suicide deaths need specific attention in prevention programs.

  17. Do newspaper reports of suicides comply with standard suicide reporting guidelines? A study from Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Prabha S; Doraiswamy, Padmavathy; Padmanabh, Anuroopa; Philip, Mariamma

    2014-11-01

    Several countries have prescribed standard guidelines for media professionals on suicide reporting. However, the implementation of these guidelines has been varied. Suicide rates in South Asia are one of the highest in the world, and it is known that media guidelines for suicide reporting are not followed adequately. However, there are no published reports available from this region. This study aimed at assessing newspaper reports of suicide for quality of reporting based on standard reporting guidelines and to study differences between English and vernacular (Kannada) newspapers in Bangalore, South India. A total of 341 newspaper reports of suicide from 550 newspapers (3 English and 3 Kannada) over 3 months were systematically assessed for compliance with reporting guidelines. Each report was evaluated on 2 domains and 36 parameters. Data were analyzed for frequency of inappropriate reporting and patterns compared between vernacular and English newspapers. In all, 87% of the reports were those of completed suicide. Non-compliant reporting - method of suicide was reported in 89% and 32% of reports were in prominent pages of the newspaper, 95% mentioned gender, 90% reported the name, 80% reported age and suicide location, 75% reported life events related to suicide, 70% reported occupation, 69% had headline explicity on suicide and 61% reported monocausality. Only 16% reported mental disorder related to suicide, and less than 3% included information on suicide prevention and helplines. Vernacular papers showed significantly better compliance in 16 of the 20 areas. However, protective characteristics were better reported in English newspapers. Majority of reports on suicides in newspapers from Bangalore did not comply with standard guidelines of reporting. There is a strong need to evolve local guidelines and mechanisms for ensuring responsible reporting which have important implications in prevention of suicide. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Epilepsy and risk of suicide: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2007-01-01

    by sex, birth year, and calendar date, were assigned to each suicide case. FINDINGS: We identified 21 169 cases of suicide and 423 128 controls. 492 (2.32%) individuals who committed suicide had epilepsy compared with 3140 (0.74%) controls, corresponding to a three times higher risk (rate ratio [RR] 3...

  19. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D

    2013-01-01

    OUTCOME MEASURES Mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use. RESULTS Suicide bereavement was associated with an increased rate of depression (ARR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.88-2.43), anxiety disorders (ARR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60), and marital breakup (ARR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.23) in the 2...... years after the suicide of an offspring, as compared with the 2 years prior to the death. Suicide-bereaved and MVC-bereaved parents had very few differences on predeath to postdeath outcomes. Depression rate increases were greater for MVC-bereaved parents (19.9%) compared with suicide-bereaved parents...... (15.9%; P = .005), whereas suicide-bereaved parents had higher rate increases of hospitalization for mental illness (P = .049). Suicide-bereaved parents were more likely than their MVC-bereaved counterparts to have depression (ARR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61), physical disorders (ARR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1...

  20. Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale predicts suicide in suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Forslund, Kaj; Ahnemark, Ewa; Gustavsson, J Petter; Nordström, Peter; Asberg, Marie

    2010-08-01

    Both childhood trauma and violent behavior are important risk factors for suicidal behavior. The aim of the present study was to construct and validate a clinical rating scale that could measure both the exposure to and the expression of violence in childhood and during adult life and to study the ability of the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) to predict ultimate suicide in suicide attempters. A total of 161 suicide attempters and 95 healthy volunteers were assessed with the KIVS measuring exposure to violence and expressed violent behavior in childhood (between 6-14 years of age) and during adult life (15 years or older). The Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), "Urge to act out hostility" subscale from the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ), and the Early Experience Questionnaire (EEQ) were used for validation. All patients were followed up for cause of death and a minimum of 4 years from entering in the study. Five patients who committed suicide within 4 years had significantly higher scores in exposure to violence as a child, in expressed violent behavior as an adult, and in KIVS total score compared to survivors. Suicide attempters scored significantly higher compared to healthy volunteers in 3 of the 4 KIVS subscales. There were significant correlations between the subscales measuring exposure to and expression of violent behavior during the life cycle. BDHI, Urge to act out hostility, and EEQ validated the KIVS. Exposure to violence in childhood and violent behavior in adulthood are risk factors for completed suicide in suicide attempters. Behavioral dysregulation of aggression is important to assess in clinical work. The KIVS is a valuable new tool for case detection and long-term clinical suicide prevention. Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. [Internet Addiction, Suicidality and Non-Suicidal Self-Harming Behavior - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbüchel, Toni Andreas; Herpertz, Stephan; Külpmann, Ina; Kehyayan, Aram; Dieris-Hirche, Jan; Te Wildt, Bert Theodor

    2017-11-23

    Background Internet addiction (IA) is associated with a high rate of co-morbid mental disorders, especially depression, anxiety disorders, ADHD and personality disorders and a considerable level of psychological strain. In terms of risk assessment, the present work investigates the current research literature on suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI). Methods We performed a systematic literature search in 14 databases on title and abstract level for the most common keywords for IA, NSSI and suicidality. After deduction of multiple items, 2334 articles remained. They were filtered per inclusion and exclusion criteria. We identified studies that examined the relationship between IA, NSSI and suicidality, which were assessed by validated psychometric instruments. This allowed a total of 15 studies to be included. Results The relationship between IA and suicidality was examined in 10 studies, four studies examined the relationship of IA, suicidality, and NSSI, and one study exclusively focused on IA and NSSHB. All studies showed higher prevalence for NSSI and respectively suicidality of the subjects with an IA compared to subjects without IA, with point prevalence varying considerably between 1.6-18.7%. Discussion The results of the included publications suggest that Internet dependency is associated with an increased rate of non-suicidal self-harming behavior and increased suicidality, with suicidal ideation being more closely related to IA than suicidal actions. In order to develop a better understanding of causal relationships between IA, NSSI and suicidality, further longitudinal studies are required. Conclusion  Against the background of the presented studies NSSHB and suicidality need to be explicitly addressed within the assessment and treatment of IA patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Suicide in high security hospital patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roland M; Hales, Heidi; Butwell, Martin; Ferriter, Mike; Taylor, Pamela J

    2011-08-01

    People with mental disorder and people who are violent are separately recognised as being at high risk of suicide. People detained in high security hospitals are recognised for their violence to others, but perhaps less so for their suicide potential. We aimed to investigate suicide rates among such patients during and after their high security hospital residency, and to establish risk factors for suicide. We extracted data from the Special Hospitals' Case Register on each person resident at any time between 1 January 1972 and 31 December 2000. Suicide rates were calculated for the whole period. We compared rates to the general population using standardised mortality ratios (SMRs). We used poisson regression to estimate the effects of gender, legal category of detention, offending history and length of admission on the suicide rate. Of the 5,955 individuals, 218 completed suicide. The suicide rate was nearly 7 times higher among resident men (SMR 662, 95% CI 478-845) and over 40 times higher in resident women (SMR 4,012, 95% CI 2,526-5,498) than in the general population; it was 23 times higher (SMR 2,325, 95% CI 1,901-2,751) and 45 times higher (SMR 4,486, 95% CI 2,727-6,245) among post-discharge men and women, respectively. The suicide rate was significantly higher among women than men inside high security but not after discharge. The suicide rate among high security hospital patients was significantly higher than in the general population. Women were especially at risk while resident, whereas for men, the risk was higher after discharge.

  3. Suicide rates and income in São Paulo and Brazil: a temporal and spatial epidemiologic analysis from 1996 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Daniel H; Brunoni, Andre R; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2012-08-28

    In a classical study, Durkheim noted a direct relation between suicide rates and wealth in the XIX century France. Since that time, several studies have verified this relationship. It is known that suicide rates are associated with income, although the direction of this association varies worldwide. Brazil presents a heterogeneous distribution of income and suicide across its territory; however, evaluation for an association between these variables has shown mixed results. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between suicide rates and income in Brazil, State of São Paulo (SP), and City of SP, considering geographical area and temporal trends. Data were extracted from the National and State official statistics departments. Three socioeconomic areas were considered according to income, from the wealthiest (area 1) to the poorest (area 3). We also considered three regions: country-wide (27 Brazilian States and 558 Brazilian micro-regions), state-wide (645 counties of SP State), and city-wide (96 districts of SP city). Relative risks (RR) were calculated among areas 1, 2, and 3 for all regions, in a cross-sectional approach. Then, we used Joinpoint analysis to explore the temporal trends of suicide rates and SaTScan to investigate geographical clusters of high/low suicide rates across the territory. Suicide rates in Brazil, the State of SP, and the city of SP were 6.2, 6.6, and 5.4 per 100,000, respectively. Taking suicide rates of the poorest area (3) as reference, the RR for the wealthiest area was 1.64, 0.88, and 1.65 for Brazil, State of SP, and city of SP, respectively (p for trend <0.05 for all analyses). Spatial cluster of high suicide rates were identified at Brazilian southern (RR = 2.37), state of SP western (RR = 1.32), and city of SP central (RR = 1.65) regions. A direct association between income and suicide were found for Brazil (OR = 2.59) and the city of SP (OR = 1.07), and an inverse association for the state of SP (OR = 0

  4. Suicidality in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A.

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicide appear common in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Available evidence indicates that approximately 80% of individuals with BDD experience lifetime suicidal ideation and 24% to 28% have attempted suicide. Although data on completed suicide are limited and preliminary, the suicide rate appears markedly high. These findings underscore the importance of recognizing and effectively treating BDD. However, BDD is underrecognized in clinical settings even though it is relatively common and often presents to psychiatrists and other mental health practitioners, dermatologists, surgeons, and other physicians. This article reviews available evidence on suicidality in BDD and discusses how to recognize and diagnose this often secret disorder. Efficacious treatments for BDD, ie, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy, are also discussed. Although data are limited, it appears that SRIs often diminish suicidality in these patients. Additional research is greatly needed on suicidality rates, characteristics, correlates, risk factors, treatment, and prevention of suicidality in BDD. PMID:18449358

  5. Suicide in deaf populations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Oliver; Windfuhr, Kirsten; Kapur, Navneet

    2007-10-08

    Studies have found that deaf individuals have higher rates of psychiatric disorder than those who are hearing, while at the same time encountering difficulties in accessing mental health services. These factors might increase the risk of suicide. However, the burden of suicidal behaviour in deaf people is currently unknown. The aim of the present review was to provide a summary of literature on suicidal behaviour with specific reference to deaf individuals. The objectives of the review were to establish the incidence and prevalence of suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe risk factors for suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe approaches to intervention and suicide prevention that have been used in deaf populations. A number of electronic databases (e.g. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, Dissertation Abstracts International, Web of Science, ComDisDome, ASSIA, Education Sage Full Text, Google Scholar, and the grey literature databases FADE and SIGLE) were explored using a combination of key words and medical subject headings as search terms. Reference lists of papers were also searched. The Science and Social Sciences Citation Index electronic databases were used to identify studies that had cited key papers. We also contacted experts and organisations with an interest in the field. Very few studies focussed specifically on suicide in deaf populations. Those studies that were included (n = 13) generally involved small and unrepresentative samples. There were limited data on the rate of suicidal behaviour in deaf people. One study reported evidence of hearing impairment in 0.2% of all suicide deaths. Another found that individuals with tinnitus seen in specialist clinics had an elevated rate of suicide compared to the general population. The rates of attempted suicide in deaf school and college students during the previous year ranged from 1.7% to 18%, with lifetime rates as high as 30%. Little evidence was found to suggest that risk factors for

  6. Genetic and familial environmental effects on suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Genetic factors have been found to influence the risk of suicide. It is less clear if this also applies to attempted suicide. We have investigated genetic and familial environmental factors by studying the occurrence of suicide attempts in biological and adoptive siblings of adoptees...... who attempted suicide compared to siblings of adoptees with no suicide attempts. METHOD: We used a random sample of 1933 adoptees from the Danish Adoption Register, a register of non-familial adoptions of Danish children, i.e. the adoptive parents are biologically unrelated to the adoptee. Analyses...... admission of siblings the increased rate was statistically significant (IRR=3.88; 95% CI-1.42-10.6). LIMITATIONS: Information on attempted suicide and psychiatric history was limited to that which involved hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic factors influence risk of suicide attempts....

  7. Controlling firearms use in Australia: has the 1996 gun law reform produced the decrease in rates of suicide with this method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieve, Helen; Barnes, Michael; De Leo, Diego

    2009-04-01

    Observed reductions in firearm suicides in Australia have been linked to the 1997 national firearms agreement (NFA) introduced following the 1996 Port Arthur massacre. The NFA placed strong access restrictions on firearms. To assess the impact of legislative restrictions on the incidence of firearm suicide in Queensland and explore alternative or contributory factors behind observed declines. The Queensland suicide register (QSR) provided detailed information on all male suicides in Queensland (1990-2004), with additional data for Australia (1968-2004) accessed from other official sources. Trends in suicide rates pre/post NFA, and in method selection, were assessed using negative binomial regressions. Changing method selection patterns were examined using a cohort analysis of 5 years of age classes for Australian males. The observed reduction in firearms suicides was initiated prior to the 1997 introduction of the NFA in Queensland and Australia, with a clear decline observed in Australian figures from 1988. No significant difference was found in the rate pre/post the introduction of the NFA in Queensland; however, a significant difference was found for Australian data, the quality of which is noticeably less satisfactory. A marked age-difference in method choice was observed through a cohort analysis demonstrating both time and age influences. Within sequential birth cohorts, rates of firearms suicides decreased in younger males but increased in hanging suicides; this trend was far less marked in older males. The implemented restrictions may not be responsible for the observed reductions in firearms suicide. Data suggest that a change in social and cultural attitudes could have contributed to the shift in method preference.

  8. Weaker gun state laws are associated with higher rates of suicide secondary to firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Rodrigo F; Nuño, Miriam; Ko, Ara; Barmparas, Galinos; Lewis, Azaria V; Margulies, Daniel R

    2018-01-01

    Firearm-related suicides comprise over two-thirds of gun-related violence in the United States, and gun laws and policies remain under scrutiny, with many advocating for revision of the regulatory map for lawful gun ownership, aiming at restricting access and distribution of these weapons. However, the quantitative relationship between how strict gun laws are and the incidence of firearm violence with their associated mortality is largely unknown. We therefore, sought to explore the impact of firearm law patterns among states on the incidence and outcomes of firearm-related suicide attempts, utilizing established objective criteria. The National Inpatient Sample for the years 1998-2011 was queried for all firearm-related suicides. Discharge facilities were stratified into five categories (A, B, C, D, and F, with A representing states with the most strict and F representing states with the least strict laws) based on the Brady Campaign to prevent Gun Violence that assigns scorecards for every state. The primary outcomes were suicide attempts and in-hospital mortality per 100,000 populations by Brady state grade. During the 14-year study period, 34,994 subjects met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 42.0 years and 80.1% were male. A handgun was utilized by 51.8% of patients. The overall mortality was 33.3%. Overall, 22.0% had reported psychoses and 19.3% reported depression. After adjusting for confounding factors and using group A as reference, there were higher adjusted odds for suicide attempts for patients admitted in group C, D, and F category states (1.73, 2.09, and 1.65, respectively, all P gun laws, and these injuries tend to be associated with a higher mortality. Efforts aimed at nationwide standardization of firearm state laws are warranted, particularly for young adults and suicide-prone populations. III. Trauma Outcomes study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tweeting celebrity suicides: Users' reaction to prominent suicide deaths on Twitter and subsequent increases in actual suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Michiko; Mori, Kota; Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki

    2017-09-01

    A substantial amount of evidence indicates that news coverage of suicide deaths by celebrities is followed by an increase in suicide rates, suggesting a copycat behavior. However, the underlying process by which celebrity status and media coverage leads to increases in subsequent suicides is still unclear. This study collected over 1 million individual messages ("tweets") posted on Twitter that were related to 26 prominent figures in Japan who died by suicide between 2010 and 2014 and investigated whether media reports on suicide deaths that generated a greater level of reactions by the public are likely to be followed by a larger increase in actual suicides. We also compared the number of Twitter posts and the number of media reports in newspaper and on television to understand whether the number of messages on Twitter in response to the deaths corresponds to the amount of coverage in the traditional media. Using daily data from Japan's national death registry between 2010 and 2014, our analysis found an increase in actual suicides only when suicide deaths generated a large reaction from Twitter users. In contrast, no discernible increase in suicide counts was observed when the analysis included suicide deaths to which Twitter users did not show much interest, even when these deaths were covered considerably by the traditional media. This study also found suicides by relatively young entertainers generated a large number of posts on Twitter. This sharply contrasts with the relatively smaller volume of reaction to them generated by traditional forms of media, which focuses more on the deaths of non-entertainers. The results of this study strongly suggest that it is not sufficient to examine only traditional news media when investigating the impact of media reports on actual suicides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Suicide: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Tejas C; Avenido, Jaymie; Patel, Milapkumar; Jaleel, Mohammad; Barker, Narviar C; Khan, Jahanzeb Ali; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta

    2011-07-01

    Suicide is the act of a human being intentionally causing his or her own death. More than 1 million people commit suicide every year. It is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide, with China, India, and Japan accounting for almost half of all suicides. In less than 50 years, the rate of suicide among Sri Lankans has risen from a modest level to one of the highest in the world (118 per 100,000). Suicide is a major preventable cause of premature death. It is influenced by psychosocial, cultural, and environmental risk factors. The impact of suicide can be devastating for all concerned. It is common in people who are living with chronic mental illness. Individuals with severe clinical depression and alcohol use disorders are at highest risk if untreated. On an interpersonal level, friends and families of suicide victims require social support. On a national level, governments need to recognize the causes of suicide and protect those most vulnerable. If governments commit to defining national responses to prevent suicide, significant progress can be made. On a global scale, research and health organizations can identify global trends and encourage the sharing of information in effective prevention activities. In September 2010, World Suicide Prevention Day, with a theme of "Many faces, many places: suicide prevention across the world," encouraged public awareness worldwide to unite in commitment and action to promote understanding about suicide and removal of stigmatization'. There is compelling evidence that adequate prevention and awareness can reduce suicide rates.

  11. Youth Suicide: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Greenberg, Ted; Velting, Drew M.; Shaffer, David

    2006-01-01

    Following a comprehensive review of the research literature on youth suicide, the authors discuss the rates and patterns of completed suicides and suicide attempts. The state of research on potential risk and protective factors is also reviewed, covering personal characteristics, family characteristics, adverse life circumstances, and…

  12. Suicidal ideation in Pakistani college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokher, Sehar; Khan, Murad M

    2005-01-01

    Suicidal behavior includes ideation, attempts and completed suicides. Information on suicidal behavior from Pakistan, a conservative South Asian Islamic country, is lacking. To address the issue, a pilot study was carried out to assess the prevalence of suicidal ideation in Pakistani college students. Suicidal ideation was assessed on the basis of responses to four questions contained in the depression subscale of the General Health Questionnaire-28. Of the total 217 completed questionnaires, the overall rate of suicidal ideation was 31.4%. While there was no significant difference between genders, more females (33%) than males (29.2%) responded positively. Respondents belonging to single parent families and those living at home, compared to those using hostel facilities, reported higher rates. The reported rate in our sample is higher than similar studies conducted elsewhere. There is the need for more information in this important area of suicidal behavior, including studying such feelings in school going children as well as in a larger community sample. The findings of such studies can contribute to our understanding of the suicidal process in the Pakistani population and to address it at various levels.

  13. Social inclusion affects elderly suicide mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yur'yev, Andriy; Leppik, Lauri; Tooding, Liina-Mai; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Peeter; Wu, Jing; Värnik, Airi

    2010-12-01

    National attitudes towards the elderly and their association with elderly suicide mortality in 26 European countries were assessed, and Eastern and Western European countries compared. For each country, mean age-adjusted, gender-specific elderly suicide rates in the last five years for which data had been available were obtained from the WHO European Mortality Database. Questions about citizens' attitudes towards the elderly were taken from the European Social Survey. Correlations between attitudes and suicide rates were analyzed using Pearson's test. Differences between mean scores for Western and Eastern European attitudes were calculated, and data on labor-market exit ages were obtained from the EUROSTAT database. Perception of the elderly as having higher status, recognition of their economic contribution and higher moral standards, and friendly feelings towards and admiration of them are inversely correlated with suicide mortality. Suicide rates are lower in countries where the elderly live with their families more often. Elderly suicide mortality and labor-market exit age are inversely correlated. In Eastern European countries, elderly people's status and economic contribution are seen as less important. Western Europeans regard the elderly with more admiration, consider them more friendly and more often have elderly relatives in the family. The data also show gender differences. Society's attitudes influence elderly suicide mortality; attitudes towards the elderly are more favorable among Western European citizens; and extended labor-market inclusion of the elderly is a suicide-protective factor.

  14. Suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia from 2007 to 2012: pesticides are the preferred method - females try but males commit suicide!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard; Aquilar, Guido Condarco; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Suicide attempts and suicides constitute a significant burden on communities and health systems, especially in low income countries. However, many low income countries lack epidemiological information on which to base future preventive strategies. This study reports on gender and age profiles as well as the likely background and means used for suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia. This study presents 1124 cases from four different sources of information: (i) emergency ward data with suicide attempts by poisoning from the year 2007, (ii) psychiatric ward data including suicide attempts from July 2011 to July 2012, (iii) newspaper articles reporting attempted suicides and suicides from 2009 to 2011, and (iv) the National Statistics on Crime reporting suicides from the years 2010-2011. Data on age was stratified into three age groups: adolescents aged 10-19 years, young adults aged 20-29 years, and older adults aged above 29 years. Data from the hospital wards and Crime Statistics were pooled to compare characteristics of suicide attempts with suicides concerning age and gender. Data on age, gender, methods used, and reasons were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21. Hospital data showed that more females (403/657, 61%) than males (254/657, 39%) attempted suicide, and females attempted suicide at a younger age than males (pcommitted suicide, and furthermore it was most prevalent among young adults aged 20-29 years of both genders, as observed from the Crime Statistics. The dominant method was pesticide poisoning varying from 400 out of 657 (70.5%) of the hospital poisoning cases to 65 out of 172 (37.8%) of the newspaper cases. Newspaper data showed a higher mortality rate (65/77, 85.1%) among those using violent methods such as hanging and jumping compared to non-violent methods (43/84, 50.9%) such as ingesting chemicals and drugs (psuicide seemed to be hidden due to cultural and religious reasons. More females attempted suicide, whereas more males realized suicide

  15. Some Syndromes Among Suicidal People: The Problem of Suicide Potentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Carl I.

    An on-going research project at the Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center is attempting to describe the potential suicide. Comparisons on a rating scale were made among patients who commit suicide and a random sample of case histories from the coroner's office. Approximately 10 syndromes or subgroupings of people who commit suicide have been…

  16. Impact of paraquat regulation on suicide in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Shil; Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Eddleston, Michael; Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-04-01

    Ingestion of pesticides (mainly paraquat) accounted for one-fifth of suicides in South Korea in 2006-10. We investigated the effect on suicide mortality of regulatory action, culminating in a ban on paraquat in South Korea in 2011-12. We calculated age-standardized method-specific suicide mortality rates among people aged ≥15 in South Korea (1983-2013) using registered death data. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate changes in the rate and number of pesticide suicides in 2013, compared with those expected based on previous trends (2003-11). Pesticide suicide mortality halved from 5.26 to 2.67 per 100 000 population between 2011 and 2013. Compared with the number expected based on previous trends, the regulations were followed by an estimated 847 [95% confidence interval (CI) -1180 to -533] fewer pesticide suicides, a 37% reduction in rates (rate ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.73) in 2013. The decline in pesticide suicides after the regulations was seen in all age/sex/geographical groups. The absolute reduction in the number of suicides was greatest among men, the elderly and in rural areas. The reduction in pesticide suicides contributed to 56% of the decline in overall suicides that occurred between 2011 and 2013. There was no impact of the regulations on crop yield. The regulation of paraquat in South Korea in 2011-12 was associated with a reduction in pesticide suicide. Further legislative interventions to prevent the easy availability of highly lethal suicide methods are recommended for reducing the number of suicides worldwide. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  17. Associations Between Peer Victimization and Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt During Adolescence: Results From a Prospective Population-Based Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Boivin, Michel; Arseneault, Louise; Turecki, Gustavo; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Renaud, Johanne; Séguin, Jean R; Tremblay, Richard E; Côté, Sylvana M

    2016-02-01

    To test whether adolescents who are victimized by peers are at heightened risk for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, using both cross-sectional and prospective investigations. Participants are from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, a general population sample of children born in Quebec in 1997 through 1998 and followed up until 15 years of age. Information about victimization and serious suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in the past year was obtained at ages 13 and 15 years from self-reports (N = 1,168). Victims reported concurrently higher rates of suicidal ideation at age 13 years (11.6-14.7%) and suicide attempt at age 15 years (5.4-6.8%) compared to those who had not been victimized (2.7-4.1% for suicidal ideation and 1.6-1.9% for suicide attempt). Being victimized by peers at 13 years predicted suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] = 2.27; 95% CI = 1.25-4.12) and suicide attempt (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.36-6.82) 2 years later, even after adjusting for baseline suicidality and mental health problems and a series of confounders (socioeconomic status, intelligence, family's functioning and structure, hostile-reactive parenting, maternal lifetime suicidal ideation/suicide attempt). Those who were victimized at both 13 and 15 years had the highest risk of suicidal ideation (OR = 5.41, 95% CI = 2.53-11.53) and suicide attempt (OR = 5.85, 95% CI = 2.12-16.18) at 15 years. Victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt over and above concurrent suicidality and prior mental health problems. The longer the history of victimization, the greater the risk. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations between Physical Activity and Reduced Rates of Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations among types of physical activity and hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among college students. Participants: Participants included 43,499 college students aged 18 to 25 who completed the 2005 National College Health Assessment conducted by the American College Health Association. Methods:…

  19. The suicidal desire of Tolstoy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Pridmore, William

    2011-06-01

    To explore whether a healthy, successful individual may experience suicidal desires. Examination of "A Confession" by Leo Tolstoy. Confirmation that a physically and mentally healthy, well resourced individual may experience suicidal desires. To reduce suicide rates, a broader understanding of the factors which contribute to suicidal desires is required.

  20. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    suicide attempt of psychosocial and pharmacological treatment in schizophrenia. In our own study, we did not find any effect of integrated treatment on attempted suicide, but there was an effect on hopelessness and a trend toward lower prevalence of depression among patients in the integrated treatment. There were four suicides and one probable suicide (drowning) in standard treatment and one suicide in integrated treatment at two-year follow-up, but the study did not have sufficient power to detect these differences in proportion to who committed suicide; more than one thousand patients should have been in each treatment condition in order for these differences in proportion to be significant. At the indicated prevention level, a literature review was carried out regarding risk of suicide attempt and suicide in short-term, medium-term and long-term follow-up of persons who attempted suicide. It was concluded that the risk of repetition in short- and medium-term follow-up studies was approximately 16 percent, with lower risk among "first-evers" compared to repeaters. There was a large variation in repetition rate. The proportion who committed suicide in medium-term follow-up studies was 2.8 percent and in long-term follow-up studies was 3.5 percent (weighted mean) with clearly higher proportions in the Nordic studies than in the studies from UK. Risk factors for attempted suicide were previous suicide attempt, alcohol and drug abuse, depression, schizophrenia, previous inpatient treatment, self-discharge before evaluation, sociopathy, unemployment, frequent change of address, hostility, and living alone. Several of the predictors are overlapping and most of them were already identified in early studies of factors predictive of repetition of suicide attempt. Predictors of suicide were male gender, increasing age, previous suicide attempt, serious suicide attempt, alcohol and substance abuse, somatic disease, mental illness, and planning of suicide attempt, high suicidal

  1. Suicidal behavior and attitudes in Slovak and Turkish high school students: a cross-cultural investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, Mehmet; Palova, Eva; Krokavcova, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and its variation across social contexts are of importance for the science of suicidology. Due to its special character controlled experimental studies on suicide are ruled out for ethical reasons. Cross-cultural studies may throw light on the etiology of both suicidal behavior and its cross-cultural variation. The present study compared suicidal behavior and attitudes in 423 Slovak and 541 Turkish high school students by means of a self-report questionnaire. The two groups reported similar percentages (Slovak = 36.4%; Turkish = 33.8%) of lifetime, past 12-months or current suicidal ideation but significantly more Turkish (12.2%) than Slovak (4.8%) students reported lifetime or past 12-months suicide attempts. Slovak adolescents displayed more liberal and permissive attitudes toward suicide, while those of Turkish adolescents were more rejecting. Turkish students rated themselves to be more religious and hence they believed to a greater extent that suicidal persons would be punished in a life after death than their Slovak peers. However, attitudes of Turkish students toward an imagined suicidal close friend were more accepting than the attitudes of Slovak students. Comparison of suicidal and nonsuicidal students revealed that those reporting suicidal ideation or attempts were more accepting of suicide and viewed suicide as a solution to a greater extent than the nonsuicidal ones. The results from this study suggest that cultural factors play a role in suicidal behavior, attitudes and reactions in a predicted direction.

  2. Help-seeking, stigma and attitudes of people with and without a suicidal past. A comparison between a low and a high suicide rate country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynders, A.; Kerkhof, A.; Molenberghs, G.; Van Audenhove, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background A significant proportion of suicidal persons do not seek help for their psychological problems. Psychological help-seeking is assumed to be a protective factor for suicide. However, different studies showed that negative attitudes and stigma related to help-seeking are major barriers to

  3. Biomarkers of suicide risk in psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carlborg, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide are major health problems. Approximately 1400 people die from suicide every year in Sweden and ten times more attempt suicide. Patients with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis have an increased risk of suicide and suicide rates have been suggested to be as high as 10%. Important risk factors include a prior suicide attempt and depressive disorder. Low concentrations of monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been related to suicida...

  4. Axis I Screens and Suicide Risk in Jails: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kimberly S.; Rogers, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Mental health professionals conducting screenings in jail settings face formidable challenges in identifying inmates at risk for major depression and suicide. Psychologists often rely on correctional staff to provide initial appraisals of those inmates requiring further evaluation. In a sample of 100 jail detainees, the effectiveness of two…

  5. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempt in Drug Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    farideh faraji; Neda Kakayi; Mohammad Kazem Atef Vahid; Ahmad Sohraby; Samira Purghorbani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II), Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress), and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was fou...

  6. Depression and suicidal ideation among Canadians aged 15 to 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne

    2017-01-18

    Among Canadians aged 15 to 24, the rate of depression is higher than at any other age, and suicide is the second leading cause of death. The current study provides detailed information about depression and suicidal ideation among young Canadians, including their use of mental health support. Data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH) were used to describe rates and experiences of depression and suicidal ideation among Canadians aged 15 to 24, including psychosocial characteristics of those who had depression or reported suicidal thoughts. Characteristics associated with seeking professional support were also examined. About 11% of Canadians aged 15 to 24 had experienced depression in their lifetime; 7%, in the past year. Approximately 14% reported having had suicidal thoughts in their lifetime; 6%, in the past year. Lifetime depression and suicidal thoughts were moderately correlated (r = .34, p ⟨ .001). Individuals with lifetime depression had more than four times the odds of seeking professional support in the previous year, compared with those who did not have lifetime depression; those with lifetime suicidal thoughts had more than three times the odds of seeking professional support, compared with those who did not have lifetime suicidal thoughts. Psychosocial factors such as negative social interactions and lower perceived ability to deal with stress were associated with depression and suicidal thoughts, although these associations differed for males and females. The findings suggest that many young Canadians have depression and/or suicidal thoughts. Their odds of seeking professional support are significantly high.

  7. Schizophrenia and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Cetin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance abuse. Biopsychosocial factors, such as a high intelligence quotient and high level of premorbid functioning, have also been associated with an increased risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia. The risk of suicide is considered to be highest in the early course of illness. Antipsychotic drugs, in particular clozapine and antidepressants may be helpful in reducing the risk of suicide in schizophrenia.

  8. Suicide rate in relation to the Human Development Index and other health related factors: A global ecological study from 91 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Salman; Armanmehr, Vajihe; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Rezaeian, Shahab; Khazaei, Somayeh

    2017-06-01

    There has been no worldwide ecological study on suicide as a global major public health problem. This study aimed to identify the variations in suicide specific rates using the Human Development Index (HDI) and some health related variables among countries around the world. In this ecological study, we obtained the data from the World Bank Report 2013. The analysis was restricted to 91 countries for which both the epidemiologic data from the suicide rates and HDI were available. Overall, the global prevalence of suicide rate was 10.5 (95% confidence intervals: 8.8, 12.2) per 100,000 individuals, which significantly varied according to gender (16.3 in males vs. 4.6 in females, pgender and HDI components are associated with an increased risk of suicide behaviors. Hence, detecting population subgroups with a high suicide risk and reducing the inequality of socioeconomic determinants are necessary to prevent this disorder around the world. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitions in bipolar affective disorder and unipolar depression: imagining suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Susie A; Deeprose, Catherine; Goodwin, Guy M; Holmes, Emily A

    2011-01-01

    Bipolar disorder has the highest rate of suicide of all the psychiatric disorders. In unipolar depression, individuals report vivid, affect-laden images of suicide or the aftermath of death (flashforwards to suicide) during suicidal ideation but this phenomenon has not been explored in bipolar disorder. Therefore the authors investigated and compared imagery and verbal thoughts related to past suicidality in individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 20) and unipolar depression (n = 20). The study used a quasi-experimental comparative design. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to confirm diagnoses. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered through questionnaire measures (e.g., mood and trait imagery use). Individual interviews assessed suicidal cognitions in the form of (i) mental images and (ii) verbal thoughts. All participants reported imagining flashforwards to suicide. Both groups reported greater preoccupation with these suicide-related images than with verbal thoughts about suicide. However, compared to the unipolar group, the bipolar group were significantly more preoccupied with flashforward imagery, rated this imagery as more compelling, and were more than twice as likely to report that the images made them want to take action to complete suicide. In addition, the bipolar group reported a greater trait propensity to use mental imagery in general. Suicidal ideation needs to be better characterized, and mental imagery of suicide has been a neglected but potentially critical feature of suicidal ideation, particularly in bipolar disorder. Our findings suggest that flashforward imagery warrants further investigation for formal universal clinical assessment procedures. © 2011 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

  10. [Mental Health and Prevention of Suicide in Japanese Workplaces Based on a Pilot Study of Job Stress and Suicide Ideation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese suicide rate is still high compared with other countries. Worker suicide especially leads to marked social and economic losses and severely affects the bereaved. There is an urgent need to devise a system to prevent suicide at a very early stage. Generally, it is considered very difficult to intervene and prevent suicide in cases in which individuals kill themselves suddenly. However, according to some studies on suicide attempts, even those who killed themselves suddenly had experienced some kind of conflict or a desire to die for a long period. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the risk factors at an early stage when individuals have vague thoughts of suicide. This will help reduce the risk of suicide in such cases. In this article, I first survey the data related to workers' mental health in Japan. Second, I introduce the results of our pilot study in which we investigated mental health issues related to suicide among workers who have taken leave from work for more than two months. In this study, workers who do not exhibit help-seeking behavior are suggested to be a high-risk group for suicide. It is speculated that this behavior is related to several factors such as the sex, age, social status, education, personal stigma, and perceived stigma. Therefore, we must focus on both clinical and social solutions for the prevention of suicide. I believe that psychiatrists will come to play a more important role as liaisons between workplaces and social resources for the prevention of suicide.

  11. Characteristics of attempted suicide by patients with schizophrenia compared with those with mood disorders: a case-controlled study in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takao; Hashimoto, Eri; Ukai, Wataru; Kakutani, Yohei; Sasaki, Ryuji; Saito, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggest a lifetime suicide risk for schizophrenia patients of approximately 5%. This figure is significantly higher than the general population suicide risk consequently, detection of those at risk is clinically important. This study was undertaken to define the characteristics of suicide attempts by schizophrenia patients compared with attempts by patients with mood disorders. All patients were diagnosed using the ICD-10 criteria. The study population comprised 65 patients with F2 disorders (schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders), i.e., "the F2 group", and 94 patients with F3 disorders (mood disorders), i.e., "the F3 group", who presented in the clinical setting of consultation-liaison psychiatry. The F2 group had a significantly younger mean age and significantly higher ratios of 'past/present psychiatric treatment' and 'more than 3 months interruption of psychiatric treatment'. In contrast, the ratios of 'physical disorder comorbidity', 'alcohol intake at suicide attempt' and 'suicide note left behind' were significantly higher in the F3 group. The F2 group attempted suicide by significantly more serious methods. Furthermore, 'hallucination-delusion' was the most prevalent motive in the F2 group and was the only factor that showed a significant association with the seriousness of the method of suicide attempt (OR = 3.36, 95% CI: 1.05-11.33).

  12. Characteristics of attempted suicide by patients with schizophrenia compared with those with mood disorders: a case-controlled study in northern Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Ishii

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggest a lifetime suicide risk for schizophrenia patients of approximately 5%. This figure is significantly higher than the general population suicide risk consequently, detection of those at risk is clinically important. This study was undertaken to define the characteristics of suicide attempts by schizophrenia patients compared with attempts by patients with mood disorders. All patients were diagnosed using the ICD-10 criteria. The study population comprised 65 patients with F2 disorders (schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, i.e., "the F2 group", and 94 patients with F3 disorders (mood disorders, i.e., "the F3 group", who presented in the clinical setting of consultation-liaison psychiatry. The F2 group had a significantly younger mean age and significantly higher ratios of 'past/present psychiatric treatment' and 'more than 3 months interruption of psychiatric treatment'. In contrast, the ratios of 'physical disorder comorbidity', 'alcohol intake at suicide attempt' and 'suicide note left behind' were significantly higher in the F3 group. The F2 group attempted suicide by significantly more serious methods. Furthermore, 'hallucination-delusion' was the most prevalent motive in the F2 group and was the only factor that showed a significant association with the seriousness of the method of suicide attempt (OR = 3.36, 95% CI: 1.05-11.33.

  13. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN PERSONS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia has been called a ‘Life-shortening disease’, because many sufferers die early than general population and suicide accounts for a significant proportion of those dying prematurely. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia has been an intriguing area of research work for mental health professionals. Indian research on suicide attempts in schizophrenia have been few. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the suicidal behaviour in schizophrenia, to compare and study the positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness and suicide intent in schizophrenic population with suicide attempt compared to nonattempters, along with socio-demographic parameters. METHODS A sample of 60 consecutive patients attending OPD of a Private tertiary care Hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for the presence of past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters, and analysed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS, Beck’s hopelessness scale (BHS, and Suicide intent scale (SIS. RESULTS Among the disorders schizophrenia is rated the second most common reason for suicide attempts (53.3%, especially when associated with positive symptoms, depressive features and significant hopelessness. Demographic parameters like age, sex, educational status, occupation, economic status, and marital status were not found to be significant factors linked to the suicide attempts, however family history of suicide had a significant association in schizophrenic suicide attempts. Suicidal intent severity was medium to high among most of the attempters; poisoning was the commonest method; and were found to be due to positive symptoms and depressive symptoms in the schizophrenic illness course.

  14. Mental Disorders and Suicidal Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Explores use of psychological autopsies to clarify intention in suicide. Compares clinical experience with courtroom experience. Discusses the "decriminalization" of suicide and insurance concerns, mental disorders, and intention to commit suicide. Notes that capacity to have the intent to commit suicide is lost due to mental disorders only under…

  15. Regional changes in charcoal-burning suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: a time trend analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Sen Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995-2011 and (ii whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries.We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996-2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for <1% of all suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%, but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997-1999, followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998-2001, Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999-2001, Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999-2003, and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006-2008. No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females, but not in Japan (for males, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide rate did not differ by sex/age group

  16. Regional changes in charcoal-burning suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: a time trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S F; Lee, Won Jin; Hagihara, Akihito; Gunnell, David

    2014-04-01

    Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i) time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995-2011 and (ii) whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries. We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996-2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for <1% of all suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%), but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997-1999), followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998-2001), Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999-2001), Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999-2003), and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006-2008). No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females), but not in Japan (for males), the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide rate did not differ by sex/age group in

  17. What Are Reasons for the Large Gender Differences in the Lethality of Suicidal Acts? An Epidemiological Analysis in Four European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mergl, Roland; Koburger, Nicole; Heinrichs, Katherina; Szekely, Andras; Toth, Monika Ditta; Coyne, James; Quintao, Sonia; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Maxwell, Margaret; Vaernik, Airi; van Audenhove, Chantal; McDaid, David; Sarchiapone, Marco; Schmidtke, Armin; Genz, Axel; Gusmao, Ricardo; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background In Europe, men have lower rates of attempted suicide compared to women and at the same time a higher rate of completed suicides, indicating major gender differences in lethality of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which these gender differences in

  18. Last Suicide Attempt before Completed Suicide in Severe Depression: An Extended Suicidal Process May Be Found in Men Rather Than Women.

    OpenAIRE

    Brådvik, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the time from last suicide attempt to suicide in men and women with major depressive disorder with melancholic and/or psychotic features. The case records of 100 suicide victims with severe depression were evaluated. All suicide attempts during the course of depression were noted. The time from last suicide attempt to suicide was compared as well as the occurrence of suicide attempt during the last depressive episode, by gender. Male suicide attempte...

  19. Suicide among the youth in Malaysia: What do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Norharlina; Ismail, Wan Salwina Wan; Hussain, Nurulwafa; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Bujang, Mohamad Adam; Hamid, Abdul Muneer; Yusuff, Yusni; Nordin, Norhayati; Ali, Nor Hayati

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to study the pattern of youth suicide cases in Malaysia, following which preventive actions can then be planned and practiced to reduce these suicide cases. This is a cross-sectional study looking at notifications of all suicides involving members of the youth population, as had been reported to National Suicide Registry Malaysia from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2009. Information such as profile demographics and methods of suicide were utilized accordingly. There were 53 youths between the ages of 15 and 24 years reported to have undergone completed suicides. The suicide rate among youths was 1.03 per 100,000 populations in 2009, accounting for the male gender (66.0%), with Indians being the highest suicide completers (40.4% and 5.6 per 100,000 populations). The most common method of suicide was hanging (56.6%) followed by self-poisoning (15.1%). The suicide rate among Malaysian youth is relatively lower compared with other countries in the Asian region. Majority were male, of Indian descent, and were still in secondary school. Preventive actions need to be taken especially for specific groups such as the Indian youth. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Identifying Adolescents at Highly Elevated Risk for Suicidal Behavior in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berona, Johnny; Czyz, Ewa; Horwitz, Adam G.; Gipson, Polly Y.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The feasibility and concurrent validity of adolescent suicide risk screening in medical emergency departments (EDs) has been documented. The objectives of this short-term prospective study of adolescents who screened positive for suicide risk in the ED were: 1) to examine adolescents' rate of suicidal behavior during the 2 months following their ED visits and compare it with reported rates for psychiatric samples; and 2) to identify possible predictors of acute risk for suicidal behavior in this at-risk sample. Method: Participants were 81 adolescents, ages 14–19 years, seeking services for psychiatric and nonpsychiatric chief complaints, who screened positive for suicide risk because of recent suicidal ideation, a suicide attempt, and/or depression plus alcohol or substance misuse. A comprehensive assessment of suicidal behavior, using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, was conducted at baseline and 2 month follow-up. Results: Six adolescents (7.4%) reported a suicide attempt and 15 (18.5%) engaged in some type of suicidal behavior (actual, aborted, or interrupted suicide attempt; preparatory behavior) during the 2 months following their ED visit. These rates suggest that this screen identified a high-risk sample. Furthermore, adolescents who screened positive for suicidal ideation and/or attempt plus depression and alcohol/substance misuse were most likely to engage in future suicidal behavior (38.9%). Conclusions: In this study, use of a higher screen threshold (multiple suicide risk factors) showed promise for identifying highly elevated acute risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:25746114

  1. Agency and Structure as Determinants of Female Suicide Terrorism: A Comparative Study of Three Conflict Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    stronger states.63 As the Egyptian scholar Sheik Yusuf al Qaradawi admits in response to condoning suicide terrorism, “I cannot confront the enemy’s point...Qaeda, democracy represents a system of rule by man. Ayman al-Zawahiri, referring to the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, wrote in 1991 that: “the...When the Taliban captured Mazar-e-Sharif, they protected her tomb from desecration. See: Rostami-Povey, Afghan Women, 16. 110 but the main intent of

  2. Psychiatric hospitalisation and suicide among the very old in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Vach, Werner

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very old people have higher suicide rates than the younger elderly population. Psychiatric disorders are known to have a strong association with suicide among elderly people. AIMS: To analyse the analyse the suicide risk associated with psychiatric hospitalisation among the very old...... (> or =80 years) compared with the middle-aged (50-64 years) and old (65-79 years) populations. METHOD: Individual-level data on the entire Danish population aged 50 years or over were analysed for the period 1994-1998. Relative suicide risks were calculated using event-history analysis. RESULTS: Among 1978...... 527 persons, 2323 died by suicide. Although the very old group exhibited a four-fold to five-fold increase in risk of suicide for those previously hospitalised, we noted an inverse interaction effect: the increase is distinctly smaller compared with that in the middle-aged and old groups. CONCLUSIONS...

  3. Suicide among immigrants in Europe—a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallek, Jacob; Reeske, Anna; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concerns about increased suicide risk among immigrants to European countries have been raised. We review the scientific literature on differences in suicide among immigrants compared with the majority populations in Europe's major immigration countries. METHODS: We searched...... the databases PubMed and PsycINFO for peer-reviewed epidemiological studies published in 1990-2011, which compared suicide risks of adult immigrant groups with the risks of the majority population in European countries. Hits were screened by two researchers. RESULTS:: We included 24 studies in the review....... No generalizable pattern of suicide among immigrants was found. Immigrants from countries in which suicide risks are particularly high, i.e. countries in Northern and Eastern Europe, experienced higher suicide rates relative to groups without migration background. Gender and age differences were observed. Young...

  4. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2016-10-01

    Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Multiple sclerosis and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony; Pavisian, Bennis

    2017-06-01

    Mortality rates are elevated in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) relative to the general population. There is, however, some uncertainty whether suicide contributes to this. Epidemiological data suggest that the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for suicide in MS is approximately twice that of the general population with younger males in the first few years following diagnosis most at risk. Rates of suicidal intent, a potential harbinger of more self-destructive behavior, are also elevated, but the frequency with which intent is followed by suicide is not known. Depression, severity of depression, social isolation, and alcohol abuse are associated with thoughts of suicide. The variables linked with suicide and suicidal intent are therefore well defined and should be readily available from routine clinical inquiry. While vigilance on the part of clinicians is required, particularly in the context of high-risk patients, it is also recognized that prevention is dependent on full disclosure of intent.

  6. Genetic and familial environmental effects on suicide attempts: a study of Danish adoptees and their biological and adoptive siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kragh Andersen, Per; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Hawton, Keith

    2014-02-01

    Genetic factors have been found to influence the risk of suicide. It is less clear if this also applies to attempted suicide. We have investigated genetic and familial environmental factors by studying the occurrence of suicide attempts in biological and adoptive siblings of adoptees who attempted suicide compared to siblings of adoptees with no suicide attempts. We used a random sample of 1933 adoptees from the Danish Adoption Register, a register of non-familial adoptions of Danish children, i.e. the adoptive parents are biologically unrelated to the adoptee. Analyses were conducted on incidence rates of attempted suicide in biological and adoptive siblings given occurrence of attempted suicide in the adoptees while also taking into account psychiatric disorders. Information about suicidal attempt and history of psychiatric disorder was based on hospital admissions. The rate of attempted suicide in full siblings of adoptees who attempted suicide before age 60 years was higher than in full siblings of adoptees who had not attempted suicide (incidence rate ratios (IRR)=3.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.94-12.7). After adjustment for history of psychiatric admission of siblings the increased rate was statistically significant (IRR=3.88; 95% CI-1.42-10.6). Information on attempted suicide and psychiatric history was limited to that which involved hospitalisation. Genetic factors influence risk of suicide attempts. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Suicide: Incidence or Prevalence? Comments on Hernández-Alvarado et al. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 552

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Alfredo Fernández-Niño

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available I recently reviewed the paper published in this journal by Hernández-Alvarado et al., titled “Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012” [1], and I noticed that the epidemiological concept “prevalence” is not correctly used.[...

  8. Comparison of impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempt patients treated in the emergency departments of four general hospitals in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengnan; Liu, Li; Bi, Bo; Li, Haiyan; Hou, Jinglin; Chen, Wei; Tan, Shanyong; Chen, Xu; Jia, Xiaoju; Dong, Guanghui; Qin, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare the sociodemographic and psychological characteristics of impulsive suicide attempters with those of nonimpulsive suicide attempters in the emergency departments of general hospitals in Shenyang, China. A total of 239 consecutive suicide attempters, who were treated in the emergency departments of four randomly selected general hospitals from Shenyang city, were evaluated by the following measurements: a detailed structured questionnaire, Beck Suicide Ideation Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, a quality of life scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The patients were categorized as "impulsive suicide attempts" (≤ 2 h) and "nonimpulsive suicide attempts" (> 2 h) based on the hours it takes for a patient to consider suicide before acting, and the characteristics of the two groups of patients were compared. One hundred seven (44.8%) patients were categorized as impulsive attempters. Compared to nonimpulsive suicide attempters, the impulsive suicide attempters had significantly more self-rescue ideation, their motive was more likely to threaten or express anger at others, and they scored much lower on the intensity of suicidal ideation and depression but higher on life quality; they also had a lower prevalence of psychiatric diagnosis but a higher rate of substance-related disorders. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the following independent predictors of impulsive suicide attempts among suicide attempters: having religious beliefs [odds ratio (OR)=4.435, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.545-12.736], a lower score on the Suicide Ideation Scale (OR=0.952, 95% CI=0.936-0.969) and a lower score on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (OR=0.949, 95% CI=0.911-0.989). The characteristics of impulsive suicide attempters differed significantly with those of nonimpulsive suicide attempters in emergency departments of urban China. It is important to develop different kinds of

  9. Characteristics of suicide attempts in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a case-control study.

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    Sébastien Guillaume

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compared to other eating disorders, anorexia nervosa (AN has the highest rates of completed suicide whereas suicide attempt rates are similar or lower than in bulimia nervosa (BN. Attempted suicide is a key predictor of suicide, thus this mismatch is intriguing. We sought to explore whether the clinical characteristics of suicidal acts differ between suicide attempters with AN, BN or without an eating disorders (ED. METHOD: Case-control study in a cohort of suicide attempters (n = 1563. Forty-four patients with AN and 71 with BN were compared with 235 non-ED attempters matched for sex, age and education, using interview measures of suicidal intent and severity. RESULTS: AN patients were more likely to have made a serious attempt (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-7.9, with a higher expectation of dying (OR = 3.7,95% CI 1.1-13.5, and an increased risk of severity (OR = 3.4,95% CI 1.2-9.6. BN patients did not differ from the control group. Clinical markers of the severity of ED were associated with the seriousness of the attempt. CONCLUSION: There are distinct features of suicide attempts in AN. This may explain the higher suicide rates in AN. Higher completed suicide rates in AN may be partially explained by AN patients' higher desire to die and their more severe and lethal attempts.

  10. Characteristics of suicide attempts in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Sébastien; Jaussent, Isabelle; Olié, Emilie; Genty, Catherine; Bringer, Jacques; Courtet, Philippe; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Compared to other eating disorders, anorexia nervosa (AN) has the highest rates of completed suicide whereas suicide attempt rates are similar or lower than in bulimia nervosa (BN). Attempted suicide is a key predictor of suicide, thus this mismatch is intriguing. We sought to explore whether the clinical characteristics of suicidal acts differ between suicide attempters with AN, BN or without an eating disorders (ED). Case-control study in a cohort of suicide attempters (n = 1563). Forty-four patients with AN and 71 with BN were compared with 235 non-ED attempters matched for sex, age and education, using interview measures of suicidal intent and severity. AN patients were more likely to have made a serious attempt (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-7.9), with a higher expectation of dying (OR = 3.7,95% CI 1.1-13.5), and an increased risk of severity (OR = 3.4,95% CI 1.2-9.6). BN patients did not differ from the control group. Clinical markers of the severity of ED were associated with the seriousness of the attempt. There are distinct features of suicide attempts in AN. This may explain the higher suicide rates in AN. Higher completed suicide rates in AN may be partially explained by AN patients' higher desire to die and their more severe and lethal attempts.

  11. Lack of association between use of efavirenz and death from suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Colette; Ryom, Lene; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A recent meta-analysis of 4 RCTs showed an increased rate of suicidality events (suicidal ideation or attempted/completed suicide) associated with efavirenz (EFV) compared to other regimens, but only a trend towards a higher rate of completed/attempted suicides, as only 17 events...... occurred. We investigated the association between EFV use and completed suicide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All D:A:D participants were followed from study entry to the first of death, last study visit or 1 February 2013. Deaths are centrally validated using cause of death methodology, which assigns underlying......, immediate and up to four contributing causes of death. Two endpoints were considered: 1) suicide or psychiatric disease as the underlying cause, and 2) suicide or psychiatric disease mentioned as an underlying, immediate or contributing cause of death (anywhere). Adjusted rate ratios were calculated using...

  12. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicting suicide risk in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder: Moderatory effect of family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivković, Maja; Pantović-Stefanović, Maja; Dunjić-Kostić, Bojana; Jurišić, Vladimir; Lačković, Maja; Totić-Poznanović, Sanja; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Damjanović, Aleksandar

    2016-04-01

    Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been independently related to bipolar disorder (BD) and factors associated with suicidal risk. The aim of our study was to explore the relationship between NLR and suicide risk in euthymic BD patients. We also sought to propose a model of interaction between NLR and stress-diathesis factors, leading to suicidal risk in BD. The study group consisted of 83 patients diagnosed with BD (36 suicide attempters; 47 suicide non-attempters), compared to the healthy control group (n=73) and matched according to age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). NLR was measured according to the complete blood count. Mood symptoms have been assessed by Young Mania Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Early trauma and acute stress were evaluated by Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form and List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire, respectively. Suicide risk has been assessed by Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). Significant correlation was found between NLR and SBQ-R score. The main effects of suicide attempts on NLR, after covarying for confounders, were observed, indicating increased NLR in BD suicide attempters compared to healthy controls. We found significant moderatory effects of family history on NLR relationship to suicidal risk, with NLR being significant positive predictor of suicidal risk only in the patients with positive family history of suicide attempts. The results suggest an enhancing effect of positive family history of suicide attempts on predictive effect of NLR on suicide risk. Our data support the idea that immune markers can predict suicide attempt risk in BD, but only in the subpopulation of BD patients with family history of suicide attempts. This could lead to prevention in suicide behavior in the patient population at particular risk of suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Childhood Maltreatment, Self-esteem, and Suicidal Ideation in a Low-SES Emerging Adult Sample: The Moderating Role of Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprey, Erinn Bernstein; Oshri, Assaf; Liu, Sihong

    2018-02-21

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with risk for suicidal ideation later in life, yet more research is needed on the indirect effects and bioregulatory protective factors in this association. The present study aimed to investigate the indirect influence of childhood maltreatment on suicidal ideation in emerging adulthood via level of self-esteem, and examine the moderating role of heart rate variability (HRV; a proxy for emotion regulation) in this indirect association. The study included a sample of 167 non-metropolitan emerging adults (M age  = 21.17, 55.8% female) of low-socioeconomic status (low-SES). HRV data were obained using an electrocardigram, whereas childhood maltreatment, suicidal ideation, and self-esteem data were obtained via self-report. Childhood maltreatment was indirectly associated with suicidal ideation via reduced self-esteem. HRV buffered this indirect association. Childhood maltreatment poses a risk for the development of suicidal ideation. Interventions that bolster self-esteem and emotion regulation may reduce suicide risk for emerging adults with a history of childhood maltreatment.

  14. Suicide in the Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrichin, Sergei V; Lester, David

    2002-01-01

    The suicide rates of the 24 provinces (oblasts) of the Ukraine were found to be strongly associated with indices of social disintegration (such as divorce and illegitimacy rates), with the Western provinces incorporated in the USSR later than other Ukrainian territories having lower suicide rates and lower levels of social disintegration.

  15. Seasonality of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2012-01-01

    A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308

  16. Suicide and unemployment in Australia 1907-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, S; Taylor, R; Quine, S; Kerr, C

    1993-03-01

    Ever since Durkheim postulated a relationship between economic change and suicide there has been evidence of a general association between aggregate data on unemployment and the frequency of suicide. Quantitatively, however, the association has been variable and it is clear that due to differing cultural, social and individual determinants of suicide, the relationship is complex. Methodological difficulties abound with interpretation of aggregate data. Australian records for most of the present century are suitable for examining secular trends in suicide and unemployment by age group and gender to gain an indication of the extent to which both parameters may be causally related. An aggregate/ecological study was designed to incorporate quantitative and qualitative strategies. Annual age-adjusted male and female suicide rates and annual unemployment rates were derived for the period 1907-1990. Female suicide rates were generally stable throughout the period, whereas those for males demonstrated sharp fluctuations with the peaks coinciding with times of high unemployment. The association between suicide and unemployment for 15-24 year old males was comparatively high for the recent period, 1966-1990. The increasingly youthful contribution to male suicide was demonstrated by a rise in the loss of life years during 1973-1984. Despite the inability of any investigation based on aggregate data to establish an unequivocable causal relationship, no evidence was detected to suggest that relatively high population levels of unemployment were not related to the occurrence of suicide.

  17. Suicide and changing values and beliefs in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Anne; Brannick, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the generalized theories explaining rising suicide rates in Ireland. The conclusion here is that linking suicide patterns to changing beliefs and values is problematic. Church attendance as well as adherence to traditional values remain high in this country compared to European levels, and variations in beliefs and values, especially rural/urban differences, do not fit with general explanations. Moreover, attitudes to value areas fluctuate in that justification for suicide--which showed an upward trend in the 1980s--was reversed in the 1990s, and this may have resulted from increased public focus and debate. Generalized explanations are unlikely to decipher complex phenomena such as suicidal behavior. Religious belief, if protective in relation to suicide, is unlikely to act alone. Social transformations have a differential impact depending on one's socio-economic positioning, which translates ideas of a general male vulnerability to suicide into focused areas of male distress.

  18. Suicidal ideation: Are refugees more at risk compared to host population? Findings from a preliminary assessment in a refugee community in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, O O; Atilola, O; Soyannwo, T

    2015-12-01

    Among the serious mental health problems that may be associated with being a refugee is suicidal behavior. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among African refugees in Oru-Ijebu Nigeria. Suicidal ideation was assessed using appropriate section in the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview while the brief version of the WHO Quality of Life was used to assess quality of life as a clinical variable. Study involved 444 refugees and 527 non-refugee member of host community. Result showed that the prevalence of suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the refugees than the non-refugee comparison group (27.3% vs. 17.3%; prefugees compared with their non-refugee members of same community. Quality of life was the only factor independently associated with suicidal ideations among refugees. In conclusion, the study shows that the prevalence of suicidal ideation is significantly higher among the refugees than the non-refugee members of the host community and calls for innovative ways of extending mental health services to refugees at the study site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ten-year review of rating scales. III: scales assessing suicidality, cognitive style, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Nancy C; Myers, Kathleen; Proud, Laura

    2002-10-01

    This is the third article in a series of 10-year reviews of rating scales. Here, the authors review scales that are useful in tapping the affective disturbances experienced with various psychiatric disorders, including suicidality, cognitive style, and self-esteem. The authors sampled articles incorporating these constructs over the past 25 years and selected scales with established uses or new development. Those presented here have adequate psychometric properties and high utility for efficiently elucidating youths' functioning, plus either wide literature citations or a special niche. These scales were developed bimodally. Many were developed in the 1980s when internalizing disorders were elucidated, but there has been a resurgence of interest in these constructs. Scales assessing suicidality have clear constructs, whereas scales of cognitive style demonstrate deficits in developmental relevance, and scales of self-esteem suffer from lax constructs. The constructs underlying these scales tap core symptoms of internalizing disorders, mediate the expression of affective disturbances associated with various disorders, and depict the impairments resulting from these disorders. Overall, the psychometrics of these scales are adequate. These scales provide a broader representation of youths' functioning than that conveyed with diagnostic scales alone.

  20. Middle-aged and older adults who had serious suicidal thoughts: who made suicide plans and nonfatal suicide attempts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan

    2015-03-01

    High suicide rates in late middle-aged and older adults are significant public health problems. Although suicide risk and protective factors are well established, more research is needed about suicide planners and attempters. Using multi-year, national epidemiologic survey data, this study identified correlates of making suicide plans and nonfatal suicide attempts among U.S. adults aged 50+ years. Data are from the 2008 to 2012 U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Descriptive statistics were used to examine sample characteristics by past-year serious suicidal thoughts, suicide plans, and suicide attempts. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to examine potential correlates (sociodemographic factors, health status, religiosity, psychiatric and substance use disorders (SUDs), and mental health and substance abuse treatment use) of suicide plans and suicide attempts among those who reported serious suicidal thoughts. Of the 2.5% of the study population that had serious suicidal thoughts (n = 804), 28% made suicide plans and 11.5% attempted suicide. Although 42% of those with serious suicidal thoughts had major depressive episode (MDE), MDE was not significantly associated with suicide plans or attempts in multivariate models. Being employed decreased the odds of making suicide plans, while mental health service use was associated with increased odds of suicide plans. SUDs increased the odds of suicide attempts. It is important to screen middle-aged and older adults for severe mental and SUDs and suicidal thoughts and to target interventions for likely planners and attempters.

  1. How Often Does Deliberate Self-Harm Occur Relative to Each Suicide? A Study of Variations by Gender and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, Keith; Harriss, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm (DSH; i.e., nonfatal self-poisoning or self-injury) occurs much more frequently than suicide, yet there has been little detailed investigation of the comparative rates of DSH and suicide. We conducted a study of how rates of DSH relate to suicide rates across the life cycle by gender and by method of estimation of DSH rates,…

  2. The risk of depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in patients with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, J J; Penfold, R B; Primatesta, P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sparse information is available concerning mental health issues in psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. OBJECTIVE: To estimate risk of depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in patients with psoriasis, PsA and AS, respectively......, compared with the general population. METHODS: This population-based cohort study analysed 36 214 psoriasis patients, 5138 PsA patients and 1878 AS patients who were frequency-matched with a general population cohort. Annual incidence rate of depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was calculated...... separately for psoriasis, PsA and AS. RESULTS: There was an increased risk of depression in the three cohorts; adjusted IRR: psoriasis, 1.14 (95% CI, 1.11, 1.17); PsA, 1.22 (95% CI, 1.16, 1.29); AS, 1.34 (95% CI, 1.23, 1.47). There was no significantly increased risk for suicidal ideations or suicide attempt...

  3. Assessment of suicidality in children and adolescents with diagnosis of high functioning autism spectrum disorder in a Turkish clinical sample

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    Karakoç Demirkaya S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya,1 Mustafa Deniz Tutkunkardaş,2 Nahit Motavalli Mukaddes3 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Adnan Menderes University School of Medicine, Aydin, 2Department of Child Psychiatry, Istanbul School of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, 3Istanbul Institute of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey Objectives: Considering that suicide is one of the most common reasons of adolescent death worldwide, there is a lack of clinical awareness on suicidal behaviors of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The present study aims to assess the rate of suicidality (suicidal ideation, behaviors and attempts and associated risk factors for suicidality in high functioning ASD.Methods: Medical records of 55 adolescents (six girls, 49 boys, aged between 7–20 years, with diagnosis of ASD were reviewed. The participants were all able to speak fluently and had no significant limitations in intellectual functioning. Clinical assessment of participants was carried out on the basis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition, Text Revision criteria and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. Eskin’s Suicide Screening Questionnaire and sociodemographic data form including detailed history of suicidal behaviors were used. The study group was also divided into suicidal and non-suicidal groups for the purpose of comparing the results.Results: The rate of suicidal behaviors was 29% and suicide attempt was 12.7%. Types of suicidality were behaviors (43.7%, thoughts (37.5%, and verbal declarations (18.7%. A number of bizarre acts were recorded. Rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders and disruptive behaviors were 23.6%, 43.6% and 65.4% respectively. Groups with the psychotic features, positive family history for suicidal behaviors and completed suicide showed more suicidality than

  4. Suicidality, ethnicity and immigration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Orozco, Ricardo; Rafful, Claudia; Miller, Elizabeth; Breslau, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide is the eleventh cause of death in the US. This rate varies across ethnic groups. Whether suicide behavior differs by ethnic groups in the US in the same way as observed for suicide death is a matter of current discussion. The goal of this report is to compare the lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation and attempt among four main ethnic groups (Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites) in the US. Methods Suicide ideation and attempts were assessed using the World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine risk for life-time suicidality by ethnicity and immigration among 15,180 participants in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys, a group of cross-sectional surveys. Results Suicide ideation was most common among Non-Hispanic Whites (16.10%), least common among Asians (9.02%), and intermediate among Hispanics (11.35%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (11.82%). Suicide attempts were equally common among Non-Hispanic Whites (4.69%), Hispanics (5.11%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (4.15%) and slightly less common among Asians (2.55%). These differences in the crude prevalence rates of suicide ideation decreased but persisted after control for psychiatric disorders, but disappeared for suicide attempt. Within ethnic groups, risk for suicidality was low among immigrants prior to migration compared to the US-born, but equalized over time after migration. Conclusions Ethnic differences in suicidal behaviors are partly explained by differences in psychiatric disorders and low risk prior to arrival in the US. These differences are likely to decrease as the US-born proportion of Hispanics and Asians increases. PMID:22030006

  5. [Epidemiological analysis of suicide in Brazil from 1980 to 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos; Santos, Simone Agadir; Legay, Letícia; Abelha, Lucia; Valencia, Elie

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to carry out an epidemiological analysis of the suicide rates found in Brazilian regions and state capitals between 1980 and 2006. Data on mortality rates due to suicide were collected from the Departamento de Informática do Sistema Unico de Saúde (Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Public Health System--DATASUS). A total of 158,952 suicide cases were registered between 1980 and 2006, excluding those cases in which the individual was less than 10 years old (n = 68). In the period under study, the total suicide rate in Brazil increased from 4.4 to 5.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants (29.5%). Higher average rates were found in the South (9.3) and Central-West (6.1) regions. Men were more likely to commit suicide. The highest suicide rates were found in the 70-years or above age range while the highest increases were found in the 20 to 59 year age bracket. The most dominant social-demographic characteristics of the persons who committed suicide in the period under study were low educational level and singlehood. The most common methods of suicide were hanging, fire arms and poisoning. Although in Brazil the rate increased 29.5% in 26 years, the national rate is still considered to be low when compared to worldwide suicide rates (average of 4.9 per 100,000 inhabitants). Suicide rates in Brazilian regions vary broadly, ranging from 2.7 to 9.3.

  6. Suicide among urban South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Stephanie; Laflamme, Lucie

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of suicide epidemiology in low- and middle-income settings is important for both well-tailored policies and an increased global understanding of suicide macro-determinants. Adolescents are an important target group in that respect, and those from South Africa are a particular concern, given the additional challenges associated with dramatic political, economic, and health transition. This study presents a profile of adolescent suicide occurrence and sex, race, and city differences. Adolescents aged 10-19 years in post-apartheid urban South Africa. Sex-, race- and city-specific suicide rates were calculated for two age groups (10-14, 15-19 years). Using logistic regression, odds ratios were compiled, first adjusting for age, then additionally for sex, race, and city. Female subjects, those classified as 'coloured' (denoting mixed racial origin), and those living in Tshwane were used as reference groups. Proportions (with 95% confidence intervals) of leading suicide methods were compared. Suicide rates were considerably higher among older adolescents and varied by sex, race, and city. Males had more than twice the odds of committing suicide compared with females. In the fully adjusted model, differences between races were not significant, but city-level differences remained. The leading suicide method was hanging for males and both hanging and poisoning for females. In contemporary urban South Africa, male sex, and city of residence, but not race, were associated with the commission of adolescent suicide, which tends to occur by quite specific methods. The findings warrant research into the possible underlying contextual, demographic, and individual mechanisms.

  7. Suicide in murderers in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2003-06-01

    In England and Wales, the suicide rate of murderers was positively associated with the male suicide rate in the general population, and both of these rates were positively associated with the unemployment rate.

  8. Trend of mortality rate and injury burden of transport accidents, suicides, and falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Sook; Kim, Soon Duck; Lee, Sang Hee

    2012-01-01

    Recently injury has become a major world-wide health problem. But studies in Korea about injuries were very few. Thus, this study was conducted to analyze the trend of major injuries from 1991 to 2006 and to provide basic data for preventing injuries. This study was based on the National Statistical Office data from 1991 to 2006 and calculated to estimate the burden of major injuries by using the standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL) and total lost earnings equation. For transport accidents, mortality, SEYLL and total lost earnings were increased from 1991 to 1996 and decreased from 2000 to 2006. On the other hand, for suicides, these were increased gradually. Since 2003, falls were included in ten leading causes of death. This study showed that injury causes major social and economical losses. We could reduce injury related premature death through active interest in injury prevention program.

  9. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids versus 5-hydroxytryptophan as add on therapy to sertraline in controlling suicidal ideation in patients with depression: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Sahoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Omega-3 fatty acids and 5-hydroxytryptophan have been gaining attention as promising alternative treatment for depressive illness. These agents are given as as add on treatment to conventional antidepressant drugs. The present study was carried out to evaluate efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids versus 5-hydroxytryptophan as add on therapy in controlling suicidal ideation in depressive patients on sertraline.Methods: This was a prospective, open label, randomized, parallel group study conducted in department of Psychiatry. Ninety treatment naïve patients (18-65 years age were divided into 3 groups of 30 each. Group I: Sertraline, Group II: Sertraline plus omega-3 fatty acids, Group III: Sertraline plus 5-hydroxytryptophan. Suicidal ideations were assessed with Beck’s scale for suicidal ideation (BSI at weeks 0, 4 and 8. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (SPSS version 20.0. Post hoc analysis was done using Bonferroni test.Results: Baseline parameters in patients of all groups were comparable. Administration of sertraline resulted in reduction of Beck’s scale for suicidal ideation scores as compared to baseline. Addition of omega-3 fatty acids and 5-hydroxytryptophan also showed reduction in BSI scores. Effect of sertraline monotherapy was more as compared to omega-3 fatty acids or 5-hydroxytryptophan as add on therapy, which was statistically significant (p value < 0.05.Conclusion: Both omega-3 fatty acids and 5-hydroxytryptophan produce significant effect in controlling suicidal ideations in patients with depression.

  10. Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders

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    Bedriye Oncu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.

  11. ERP investigation of attentional disengagement from suicide-relevant information in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Seung Yeon; Jeong, Minkyung; Kim, Hyang Sook; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies suggest the presence of attentional bias towards suicide-relevant information in suicidal individuals. However, the findings are limited by their reliance on behavioral measures. This study investigates the role of difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli using the P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs). Forty-four adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were administered the spatial cueing task using suicide-relevant and negatively-valenced words as cue stimuli. Disengagement difficulty was measured using reaction time and P300 during invalid trials. P300 amplitudes at Pz were higher in suicide-relevant compared to negatively-valenced word condition on invalid trials for participants with low rates of suicidal behavior. However, no such difference was found among participants with high rates of suicidal behavior. P300 amplitudes for suicide-relevant word condition were negatively correlated with "lifetime suicide ideation and attempt" at Pz. No significant results were found for the reaction time data, indicating that the ERP may be more sensitive in capturing the attentional disengagement effect. The groups were divided according to Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) total score. Neutral stimulus was not included as cue stimuli. Most participants were under medication during the experiment. Our results indicate that patients with MDD and low rates of suicidal behavior show difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli. We suggest that suicide-specific disengagement difficulties may be related to recentness of suicide attempt and that acquired capability for suicide may contribute to reduced disengagement difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Duration of suicide process among suicide attempters and characteristics of those providing window of opportunity for intervention

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    Shivanand Kattimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited cross-cultural literature on the duration of suicide process among attempters. Aims: The primary aim was to assess the duration of suicide process among suicide attempters attending the Crisis Intervention Clinic. We also aimed to identify the characteristics of those who reported a longer duration for this process. Methods: In this retrospective record-based study, we collected the duration of the suicidal process from the records of all the suicide attempters evaluated over a 3-year period (n = 319. Attempters were divided into four groups based on the quartile value of the duration of the suicidal process. For analysis, the characteristics of those in the last quartile with suicide process time of >120 min (n = 75 were compared with those in the first three (n = 244. Those in the last quartile were considered to provide a window of opportunity for intervention. Results: The median time for the suicidal process was 30 min (interquartile range of 5 min to 120 min. Seventy-five (23.5% subjects belonged to the fourth quartile (duration of suicide process >120 min. A significant proportion of them came from urban areas (P = 0.011, had a diagnosis of mood disorder (P = 0.028, had visited a health professional in the recent past (P = 0.015, and had lower rates of attempt under intoxication (P = 0.005. A lesser proportion of them showed problem-focused disengagement style of coping strategy (P = 0.015. Conclusions: The suicide process time among Indian suicide attempters is short. However, a quarter of them has suicide process duration of 2 h which provides some scope for intervention. Individual and community level interventions need further evaluation for their potential efficacy in preventing the progress of the suicidal process.

  13. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempt in Drug Abusers

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    farideh faraji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II, Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress, and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was found in young male drug abusers with these characteristics: single, junior school graduate, unemployed, suicide history, sex and physical abuse history during childhood, legal problems, suicide and self-injury witness, and violence and suicide in family members. Compared to non-attempters, suicide attempters obtained higher scores in depressive, obsessive, masochistic, and borderline personality disorders clinical somatoform symptoms, alcohol abuse in addition to drug use, major depressive disorder, and stress. Suicide attempters also used lower levels of task-focused and avoidance-focused strategies and higher levels of emotion-focused strategies to cope with stressors. Conclusion: The findings of this study can contribute to suicide identification and prevention among drug abusers.

  14. [Suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Mario; Silva, Daniel; Sanhueza, Félix; Cova, Félix; Melipillán, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    Suicide mortality rates are increasing among teenagers. To study the prevalence and predictive factors of suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents. A random sample of 195 teenagers aged 16 ± 1 years (53% males) answered an anonymous survey about their demographic features, substance abuse, the Osaka suicidal ideation questionnaire, Smilksten familial Apgar. Beck hopelessness scale, Beck depression scale and Coppersmith self-esteem inventory. Twenty five percent of respondents had attempted suicide at least in one occasion during their lives. These attempts were significantly associated with female gender, absent parents, family dysfunction, drug abuse, smoking, low self-esteem, hopelessness, depression and recent suicidal ideation. A logistic regression analysis accepted female gender, smoking and recent suicidal ideation as significant independent predictors of suicide attempt. Suicide attempted is common among teenagers and its predictors are female sex, smoking and previous suicidal ideation.

  15. Predictors of Suicidal Behavior in a Sample of Turkish Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Kemal; Kose, Samet; Acar, Burcin; Ak, Ismail; Reeves, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    In a Turkish sample, 100 suicide attempters, were compared with 60 healthy controls on measures of hopelessness, depression, and suicidal ideation. Suicide attempters were more depressive, more hopeless, and displayed greater suicidal ideation than healthy controls. Depression severity rather than hopelessness correlated with suicidal intent.…

  16. Suicide Method Runs in Families: A Birth Certificate Cohort Study of Adolescent Suicide in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Chang, Wan-Ting; Lin, Jin-Jia; Li, Chung-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Suicide method used by adolescents was examined to determine if it was the same as that employed by their suicidal parents. Six hundred eighty adolescents completed suicide between 1997 and 2007, of whom 12 had parents who had previously died by suicide. The suicide method used by these adolescents was compared with that employed by their suicidal…

  17. Young Adult Follow-up of Adolescent Girls in Juvenile Justice Using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, David C. R.; Gibson, Brandon; Leve, Leslie D.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the reliability and validity of the Columbia Suicide Severity Scale (C-SSRS). Severely delinquent adolescent girls (n = 166) participated in a treatment trial and repeated assessments over time. Lifetime suicide attempt history was measured using the C-SSRS in early adulthood (n = 144; 7–12 years post-baseline). Nonclinician raters showed strong interrater reliability using the C-SSRS. Self-, caseworker-, and caregiver-reports of girls’ suicide attempt histories collected at baseli...

  18. [Suicide, a social fact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudelot, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Treating suicide as a social fact means disregarding its individual and dramatic dimensions. Sociologists do not reason on the basis of specific cases but by studying the variations, in space and time, of suicide rates. Their contribution relates essentially to a renewed perspective on society: suicide is in fact a very accurate indicator of the intensity and quality of the bonds which unite or isolate individuals in a society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Suicide among Young People and Adults in Ireland: Method Characteristics, Toxicological Analysis and Substance Abuse Histories Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Arensman, Ella; Bennardi, Marco; Larkin, Celine; Wall, Amanda; McAuliffe, Carmel; McCarthy, Jacklyn; Williamson, Eileen; Perry, Ivan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide. Methods: The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007–2012) occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county). Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals. A compariso...

  20. Time-trends in assisted and unassisted suicides completed with different methods: Swiss National Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Nicole; Zwahlen, Marcel; Egger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The number of suicides assisted by right-to-die associations has increased in recent years in Switzerland. The aim of our study was to compare time trends in rates of assisted and unassisted suicide from 1991-2008. The Swiss National Cohort is a longitudinal study of mortality in the Swiss population; based on linkage of census data with mortality records up to 2008. The Federal Statistical Office coded suspected assisted suicides from 1998 onwards; and from 2003 onwards right-to-die associations reported the suicides they assisted. We used Poisson regression to analyse trends in rates of suicide per 100'000 person-years, by gender and age groups (15-34, 35-64, 65-94 years). A total of 7'940'297 individuals and 24'842 suicides were included. In women, rates changed little in the younger age groups but increased in 65-94-year-olds, due to an increase in suicide by poisoning (from 5.1 to 17.2 per 100'000; p suicides by poisoning was also observed in older men (from 8.6 to 18.2; psuicides by poisoning were assisted. In men, suicide rates declined in all age groups, driven by declines in suicide with firearms. Research is needed to gain a better understanding of the reasons for the tripling of assisted suicide rates in older women, and the doubling of rates in older men, of attitudes and vulnerabilities of those choosing assisted suicide, and of access to palliative care. Rates of assisted suicide should be monitored; including data on patient characteristics and underlying comorbidities.

  1. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  2. Variations in suicide method and in suicide occurrence by season and day of the week in Russia and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Northwestern Russia: a retrospective population-based mortality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarokov, Yury A; Brenn, Tormod; Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Nilssen, Odd

    2015-09-23

    Suicide is an important world health issue, especially in territories inhabited by indigenous people. This investigated differences in suicide rates, suicide methods, and suicide occurrence by month and day of the week among the indigenous and non-indigenous populations of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO) and to compare the findings from the NAO with national Russian statistics. In this retrospective population-based mortality study we investigated all suicides that occurred in the NAO in 2002-2012 (N = 252). Suicide method and the month and day of the week suicide occurred was taken from autopsy reports and disaggregated by ethnic group (indigenous and non-indigenous) and sex. Data from the NAO were then compared with national data from the Russian Federal Statistics Service (Rosstat). Hanging was the most common suicide method in the NAO in both indigenous and non-indigenous populations. The proportion of suicides by hanging among males was lower in the NAO than in national data (69.3 vs 86.2 %), but the inverse was true for females (86.5 vs 74.9 %). Suicide by firearm and by cutting was significantly higher among the indigenous population in the NAO when compared with national data. Peaks in suicide occurrence were observed in May and September in the NAO, whereas national data showed only one peak in May. Suicide occurrence in the indigenous population of the NAO was highest in April, while the non-indigenous population showed peaks in May and September. Suicide occurrence in the NAO was highest on Fridays; in national data this occurrence was highest on Mondays. We showed different relative frequencies of suicide by hanging, cutting, and firearm, as well as different suicide occurrence by month and day of the week in the NAO compared with Russia as a whole. These results can be used to plan suicide prevention activities in the Russian Arctic.

  3. [Risc factors for assisted suicide for cancer patients - mental burden of bereaved].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Caroline; Müller-Busch, H Christof

    2015-12-01

    Chronic and progressive disease represents a significant risk factor for suicidal behavior. Cancer patients have almost twice the rate of suicides compared to the general population. Based on a case report, the suicidal risk factors for cancer patients are presented. It is further investigated to what extent professional support by a mobile palliative care team can affect the wish for assisted suicide or the suicidal behavior generally among patients receiving palliative care. In addition, the mental impact on individuals, who were witnesses of assisted suicide of relatives or close friends are presented. The occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressions, anxiety disorders and complicated grief (CG) in close family members is shown. However, further research will be necessary to develop adequate support for patients (and their relatives), who plan an assisted suicide.

  4. Validating Machine Learning Algorithms for Twitter Data Against Established Measures of Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe; West, Josh; Barnes, Michael D; Hanson, Carl Lee

    2016-05-16

    One of the leading causes of death in the United States (US) is suicide and new methods of assessment are needed to track its risk in real time. Our objective is to validate the use of machine learning algorithms for Twitter data against empirically validated measures of suicidality in the US population. Using a machine learning algorithm, the Twitter feeds of 135 Mechanical Turk (MTurk) participants were compared with validated, self-report measures of suicide risk. Our findings show that people who are at high suicidal risk can be easily differentiated from those who are not by machine learning algorithms, which accurately identify the clinically significant suicidal rate in 92% of cases (sensitivity: 53%, specificity: 97%, positive predictive value: 75%, negative predictive value: 93%). Machine learning algorithms are efficient in differentiating people who are at a suicidal risk from those who are not. Evidence for suicidality can be measured in nonclinical populations using social media data.

  5. Suicide Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View Cart | ({{Header.numItems}} Item s ) Home Health & Wellness Mental Health Suicide March 15, 2018 @ 9:56 AM | 3 Min Read | 10105 Views Suicide Awareness Suicide is a serious concern in military communities; ...

  6. Factors predicting recovery from suicide in attempted suicide patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Lu, Chu-Yun; Tseng, Yun Shan; Chiang, Chun-Ying

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the factors predicting suicide recovery and to provide guidance for healthcare professionals when caring for individuals who have attempted suicide. The high rate of suicide is a global health problem. Suicide prevention has become an important issue in contemporary mental health. Most suicide research has focused on suicidal prevention and care. There is a lack of research on the factors predicting suicidal recovery. A cross-sectional design was adopted. A correlational study with a purposive sample of 160 individuals from a suicide prevention centre in southern Taiwan was conducted. The questionnaires included the Brief Symptom Rating Scale-5, Suicidal Recovery Assessment Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions were used for the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 40.2 years. Many participants were striving to make changes to create a more stable and fulfilling life, had an improved recovery from suicide and had a good ability to adapt or solve problems. The linear regression showed that the Beck Hopelessness Scale scores (ß = -.551, p suicidal behaviour (ß = -.145, p = .008) were significant predictors of individuals' recovery from suicide. They accounted for 57.1% of the variance. Suicidal individuals who have a lower level of hopelessness, a better ability to cope with their mental condition and fewer past suicidal behaviours may better recover from suicide attempts. The nurses could use the results of this study to predict recovery from suicide in patients with attempted suicide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Impact of the 1998 Football World Cup on Suicide Rates in France: Results from the National Death Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encrenaz, Gaelle; Contrand, Benjamin; Leffondre, Karen; Queinec, Raphaelle; Aouba, Albertine; Jougla, Eric; Miras, Alain; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup in 1998 had a short-term impact on the number of suicides in France. Exhaustive individual daily data on suicides from 1979 to 2006 were obtained from the French epidemiological center on the medical causes of death (CepiDC-INSERM;…

  8. Effects of perceived job insecurity on depression, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health in Korea: a population-based panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Seok; Hong, Yun-Chul; Yook, Ji-Hoo; Kang, Mo-Yeol

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effects of job security on new development of depressive episode, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health. Data from the Korea Welfare Panel Study from 2012 to 2015 were analysed. A total of 2912 waged workers self-assessed their depressive episode, suicide ideation, and health annually by answering the questionnaire. Participants were divided into three groups according to the level of job security: high, intermediate and low. To evaluate the influence of job security, we performed survival analysis after stratification by gender with adjustment for covariates. The result was further stratified by whether the respondent was the head of household. After adjusting for covariates, men in low job security group showed significantly higher hazard ratios (HRs) for depression (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.60), suicide ideation (HR 3.25, 95% CI 1.72-6.16), and decline in self-rated health (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.16-2.59). Women showed significantly higher HR of depression in the intermediate (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.01-1.87) and low (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.12-1.99) job security group. Male head of household with low job security showed significantly higher HR of depression, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health. Non-head-of-household women with intermediate and low job security showed higher risk of depression than those with high job security. We found that perceived job insecurity is associated with the new development of depressive episode, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health.

  9. X chromosome and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, L M; Zouk, H; Himmelman, C; Turecki, G

    2011-02-01

    Suicide completion rates are significantly higher in males than females in most societies. Although gender differences in suicide rates have been partially explained by environmental and behavioral factors, it is possible that genetic factors, through differential expression between genders, may also help explain gender moderation of suicide risk. This study investigated X-linked genes in suicide completers using a two-step strategy. We first took advantage of the genetic structure of the French-Canadian population and genotyped 722 unrelated French-Canadian male subjects, of whom 333 were suicide completers and 389 were non-suicide controls, using a panel of 37 microsatellite markers spanning the entire X chromosome. Nine haplotype windows and several individual markers were associated with suicide. Significant results aggregated primarily in two regions, one in the long arm and another in the short arm of chromosome X, limited by markers DXS8051 and DXS8102, and DXS1001 and DXS8106, respectively. The second stage of the study investigated differential brain expression of genes mapping to associated regions in Brodmann areas 8/9, 11, 44 and 46, in an independent sample of suicide completers and controls. Six genes within these regions, Rho GTPase-activating protein 6, adaptor-related protein complex 1 sigma 2 subunit, glycoprotein M6B, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 90  kDa polypeptide 3, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1 and THO complex 2, were found to be differentially expressed in suicide completers.

  10. Impact of the Garrett Lee Smith youth suicide prevention program on suicide mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrath, Christine; Garraza, Lucas Godoy; Reid, Hailey; Goldston, David B; McKeon, Richard

    2015-05-01

    We examined whether a reduction in youth suicide mortality occurred between 2007 and 2010 that could reasonably be attributed to Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) program efforts. We compared youth mortality rates across time between counties that implemented GLS-funded gatekeeper training sessions (the most frequently implemented suicide prevention strategy among grantees) and a set of matched counties in which no GLS-funded training occurred. A rich set of background characteristics, including preintervention mortality rates, was accounted for with a combination of propensity score-based techniques. We also analyzed closely related outcomes that we did not expect to be affected by GLS as control outcomes. Counties implementing GLS training had significantly lower suicide rates among the population aged 10 to 24 years the year after GLS training than similar counties that did not implement GLS training (1.33 fewer deaths per 100 000; P = .02). Simultaneously, we found no significant difference in terms of adult suicide mortality rates or nonsuicide youth mortality the year after the implementation. These results support the existence of an important reduction in youth suicide rates resulting from the implementation of GLS suicide prevention programming.

  11. Young adult follow-up of adolescent girls in juvenile justice using the Columbia suicide severity rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Gibson, Brandon; Leve, Leslie D; Degarmo, David S

    2014-04-01

    This study focused on the reliability and validity of the Columbia Suicide Severity Scale (C-SSRS). Severely delinquent adolescent girls (n = 166) participated in a treatment trial and repeated assessments over time. Lifetime suicide attempt history was measured using the C-SSRS in early adulthood (n = 144; 7-12 years postbaseline). Nonclinician raters showed strong interrater reliability using the C-SSRS. Self-reports, caseworker reports, and caregiver reports of girls' suicide attempt histories collected at baseline correlated with adult participants' recollections of their baseline attempt histories. Suicidal ideation measured prospectively across a 7- to -12-year period was associated with retrospectively reported suicide attempt across the same period. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  12. Risk of suicide according to level of psychiatric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Madsen, Trine; Agerbo, Esben

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Knowledge of the epidemiology of suicide is a necessary prerequisite of suicide prevention. We aimed to conduct a nationwide study investigating suicide risk in relation to level of psychiatric treatment. METHODS: Nationwide nested case-control study comparing individuals who died from...... suicide between 1996 and 2009 to age-, sex-, and year-matched controls. Psychiatric treatment in the previous year was graded as "no treatment," "medicated," "outpatient contact," "psychiatric emergency room contact," or "admitted to psychiatric hospital." RESULTS: There were 2,429 cases and 50......,323 controls. Compared with people who had not received any psychiatric treatment in the preceding year, the adjusted rate ratio (95 % confidence interval) for suicide was 5.8 (5.2-6.6) for people receiving only psychiatric medication, 8.2 (6.1-11.0) for people with at most psychiatric outpatient contact, 27...

  13. The Burden of Suicide in Rural Bangladesh: Magnitude and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmin Salam, Shumona; Alonge, Olakunle; Islam, Md Irteja; Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul; Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Ul Baset, Md Kamran; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; El Arifeen, Shams

    2017-09-09

    The aim of the paper is to quantify the burden and risk factors of fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviors in rural Bangladesh. A census was carried out in seven sub-districts encompassing 1.16 million people. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at the household level. Descriptive analyses were done to quantify the burden and Poisson regression was run to determine on risk factors. The estimated rates of fatal and non-fatal suicide were 3.29 and 9.86 per 100,000 person years (PY) observed, respectively. The risk of suicide was significantly higher by 6.31 times among 15-17 and 4.04 times among 18-24 olds compared to 25-64 years old. Married adolescents were 22 times more likely to commit suicide compared to never-married people. Compared to Chandpur/Comilla district, the risk of suicide was significantly higher in Narshingdi. Students had significantly lower risk of non-fatal suicidal behavior compared to skilled laborers. The risk of non-fatal suicidal behavior was lower in Sherpur compared to Chandpur/Comilla. Among adolescents, unskilled laborers were 16 times more likely to attempt suicide than students. The common methods for fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviors were hanging and poisoning. Suicide is a major public health problem in Bangladesh that needs to be addressed with targeted interventions.

  14. Comparative study of the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Imamura, Fumi; Chiba, Yasuhiko; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents aged 15-17 years. Results showed that delinquent adolescents, particularly girls, more frequently reported histories of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse than non-delinquent adolescents.

  15. Association between suicidal ideation and exposure to suicide in social relationships among family, friend, and acquaintance survivors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In Han; Kwon, Se Won; Kim, Ji Eun

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to suicide in social relationships may be associated with suicidal ideation among survivors. In South Korea, which is known for having the highest suicide rate among OECD countries, exposure to suicide in social relationships can have serious consequences as social relationships are greatly emphasized in the society. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between survivors' suicidal ideation and their exposure to suicide in close relationships. Data collected through a telephone survey of a total of 1,000 men and women selected from across the nation using a stratified sampling method were analyzed. The results show that individuals who lost a family member, friend, or acquaintance in their lifetime are 4.5 times, 3.7 times, 2.2 times, respectively, more likely to have suicidal ideation in the past year compared to those without such experience. These findings suggest that special intervention for suicide survivors should be considered for those who experience suicide in close relationships. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  16. Accounting for rate variation among lineages in comparative demographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Malaney, Jason L.; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analyses of contemporary populations can be used to estimate the demographic histories of species within an ecological community. Comparison of these demographic histories can shed light on community responses to past climatic events. However, species experience different rates of molecular evolution, and this presents a major obstacle to comparative demographic analyses. We address this problem by using a Bayesian relaxed-clock method to estimate the relative evolutionary rates of 22 small mammal taxa distributed across northwestern North America. We found that estimates of the relative molecular substitution rate for each taxon were consistent across the range of sampling schemes that we compared. Using three different reference rates, we rescaled the relative rates so that they could be used to estimate absolute evolutionary timescales. Accounting for rate variation among taxa led to temporal shifts in our skyline-plot estimates of demographic history, highlighting both uniform and idiosyncratic evolutionary responses to directional climate trends for distinct ecological subsets of the small mammal community. Our approach can be used in evolutionary analyses of populations from multiple species, including comparative demographic studies.

  17. Comparing Public Quality Ratings for Accredited and Nonaccredited Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott C; Morton, David J; Braun, Barbara I; Longo, Beth Ann; Baker, David W

    2017-01-01

    Compare quality ratings of accredited and nonaccredited nursing homes using the publicly available Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Nursing Home Compare data set. This cross-sectional study compared the performance of 711 Joint Commission-accredited (TJC-accredited) nursing homes (81 of which also had Post-Acute Care Certification) to 14,926 non-Joint Commission-accredited (non-TJC-accredited) facilities using the Nursing Home Compare data set (as downloaded on April 2015). Measures included the overall Five-Star Quality Rating and its 4 components (health inspection, quality measures, staffing, and RN staffing), the 18 Nursing Home Compare quality measures (5 short-stay measures, 13 long-stay measures), as well as inspection deficiencies, fines, and payment denials. t tests were used to assess differences in rates for TJC-accredited nursing homes versus non-TJC-accredited nursing homes for quality measures, ratings, and fine amounts. Analysis of variance models were used to determine differences in rates using Joint Commission accreditation status, nursing home size based on number of beds, and ownership type. An additional model with an interaction term using Joint Commission accreditation status and Joint Commission Post-Acute Care Certification status was used to determine differences in rates for Post-Acute Care Certified nursing homes. Binary variables (eg, deficiency type, fines, and payment denials) were evaluated using a logistic regression model with the same covariates. After controlling for the influences of facility size and ownership type, TJC-accredited nursing homes had significantly higher star ratings than non-TJC-accredited nursing homes on each of the star rating component subscales (P homes with Post-Acute Care Certification performed statistically better on the overall star rating, as well as 3 of the 4 subscales (P homes had statistically fewer deficiencies than non-TJC-accredited nursing homes (P payment denials (P homes

  18. Comparative rates of violence in chimpanzees and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, Richard W; Wilson, Michael L; Muller, Martin N

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests the proposal that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans have similar rates of death from intraspecific aggression, whereas chimpanzees have higher rates of non-lethal physical attack (Boehm 1999, Hierarchy in the forest: the evolution of egalitarian behavior. Harvard University Press). First, we assembled data on lethal aggression from long-term studies of nine communities of chimpanzees living in five populations. We calculated rates of death from intraspecific aggression both within and between communities. Variation among communities in mortality rates from aggression was high, and rates of death from intercommunity and intracommunity aggression were not correlated. Estimates for average rates of lethal violence for chimpanzees proved to be similar to average rates for subsistence societies of hunter-gatherers and farmers. Second, we compared rates of non-lethal physical aggression for two populations of chimpanzees and one population of recently settled hunter-gatherers. Chimpanzees had rates of aggression between two and three orders of magnitude higher than humans. These preliminary data support Boehm's hypothesis.

  19. Clinical Correlates of Planned and Unplanned Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sadia R; Singh, Tanya; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J John; Grunebaum, Michael; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Oquendo, Maria A

    2016-11-01

    Suicide attempters differ in the degree of planning for their suicide attempts. The purpose of this study was to identify differences between individuals who make planned (≥3 hours of planning) and unplanned (suicide attempts. Depressed suicide attempters (n = 110) were compared based on degree of planning of their most recent suicide attempt on demographic and clinical variables. Participants who made planned suicide attempts were more likely to have family history of completed suicide, more severe and frequent suicidal ideation, greater trait impulsivity, and greater suicidal intent and more severe medical consequences for both their most recent and most serious suicide attempts. These results suggest clear clinical differences based on the degree of suicide attempt planning. Severe suicidal ideation, high suicide intent, family history of suicide completion, and high levels of motor impulsivity contribute to a phenotype that is at greater risk of planned, highly lethal suicide attempts.

  20. Suicidal ideation is associated with individual differences in prescription opioid craving and cue-reactivity among chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Riquino, Michael R; Priddy, Sarah E; Bryan, Craig J

    2017-01-01

    Given that chronic pain patients experience significant rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, access to prescription opioids compounds the risk of death by suicide. These patients may experience heightened opioid craving and exhibit increased cue-reactivity to stimuli associated with past opioid use when suicidal ideation produces negative affective states. Because both opioids and suicidal behavior are used to alleviate emotional and physical pain through a process of negative reinforcement, elucidating factors that mediate this association may yield insight into suicide risk among chronic pain patients. This study examined the relationship between suicidal ideation and opioid craving and cue-reactivity, and tested opioid self-medication as a mediator of associations between those factors after controlling for the impact of pain severity. A sample of 115 chronic pain patients provided demographic and clinical information on the Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale, the Current Opioid Misuse Measure, and the Brief Pain Inventory before completing an opioid dot probe task in which heart rate variability was recorded. As hypothesized, suicidal ideation was positively correlated with subjective opioid craving and physiological cue-reactivity. Self-medication significantly mediated the association between suicidal ideation, craving, and cue-reactivity. As opioids relieve the emotional pain linked with suicidal thoughts, chronic pain patients with higher levels of suicidal ideation may experience more intense opioid craving and exhibit heightened physiological cue-reactivity when compared to patients with low levels of suicidal ideation.

  1. Assessment of psychological pain in suicidal veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reist, Christopher; Mee, Steven; Fujimoto, Ken; Rajani, Vivek; Bunney, William E; Bunney, Blynn G

    2017-01-01

    Psychological pain is a relatively understudied and potentially important construct in the evaluation of suicidal risk. Psychological pain also referred to as 'mental pain' or 'psychache' can be defined as an adverse emotional reaction to a severe trauma (e.g., the loss of a child) or may be associated with an illness such as depression. When psychological pain levels reach intolerable levels, some individuals may view suicide as the only and final means of escape. To better understand psychological pain, we previously developed and validated a brief self-rating 10-item scale, Mee-Bunney Psychological Pain Assessment Scale [MBP] in depressed patients and non-psychiatric controls. Our results showed a significant increase in psychological pain in the depressed patients compared to controls. We also observed a significant linear correlation between psychological pain and suicidality in the depressed patient cohort. The current investigation extends our study of psychological pain to a diagnostically heterogeneous population of 57 US Veterans enrolled in a suicide prevention program. In addition to the MBP, we administered the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Suicidal patients scoring above a predetermined threshold for high psychological pain also had significantly elevated scores on all the other assessments. Among all of the evaluations, psychological pain accounted for the most shared variance for suicidality (C-SSRS). Stepwise regression analyses showed that impulsiveness (BIS) and psychological pain (MBP) contributed more to suicidality than any of the other combined assessments. We followed patients for 15 months and identified a subgroup (24/57) with serious suicide events. Within this subgroup, 29% (7/24) had a serious suicidal event (determined by the lethality subscale of the C-SSRS), including one completed suicide. Our results

  2. Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Comparison with Homicide and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Marieke; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Homicide-suicides are a rare yet very serious form of lethal violence which mainly occurs in partnerships and families. The extent to which homicide-suicide can be understood as being primarily a homicide or a suicide event, or rather a category of its own is examined. In total, 103 homicide-suicides were compared to 3,203 homicides and 17,751…

  3. Suicide Risk Associated with Experience of Violence and Impulsivity in Alcohol Dependent Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Jokinen, Jussi; Runeson, Bo; Jayaram-Lindstr?m, Nitya

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) and aggression-impulsivity are both associated with increased suicide risk. There is a need to evaluate clinical tools in order to improve suicide risk assessment of AD patients. The present study consisted of 95 individuals with a diagnosis of AD, consecutively admitted for addiction treatment, compared with 95 healthy controls. Suicidal risk was assessed together with exposure of violence and impulsivity. AD patients reported significantly higher rates of exposure to...

  4. Suicide and suicide attempts in children and adolescents in the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Laurence Y; Au, Wendy; Singal, Deepa; Brownell, Marni; Roos, Noralou; Martens, Patricia J; Chateau, Dan; Enns, Murray W; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Sareen, Jitender

    2011-11-22

    Few population studies have examined the psychiatric outcomes of children and adolescents in the child welfare system, and no studies have compared outcomes before and after entry into care. Our objective was to assess the relative rate (RR) of suicide, attempted suicide, admission to hospital and visits to physicians' offices among children and adolescents in care compared with those not in care. We also examined these outcomes within the child welfare population before and after entry into care. We used population-level data to identify children and adolescents 5 to 17 years of age who were in care in Manitoba for the first time between Apr. 1, 1997, and Mar. 31, 2006, and a comparison cohort not in care. We compared the two cohorts to obtain RRs for the specified outcomes. We also determined RRs within the child welfare population relative to the same population two years before entry into care. We identified 8279 children and adolescents in care for the first time and a comparison cohort of 353 050 children and adolescents not in care. Outcome rates were higher among those in care than in the comparison cohort for suicide (adjusted RR 3.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.11-5.95), attempted suicide (adjusted RR 2.11, 95% CI 1.84-2.43) and all other outcomes. However, adjusted RRs for attempted suicide (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.21-0.34), admissions to hospital and physician visits decreased after entry into care. Children and adolescents in care were at greater risk of suicide and attempting suicide than those who were not in care. Rates of suicide attempts and hospital admissions within this population were highest before entry into care and decreased thereafter.

  5. CONTEMPORARY PRINCIPLES OF SUICIDE PREVENTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljusic, Dragana; Ravanic, Dragan; Filipovic Danic, Snezana; Soldatovic, Ivan; Cvetkovic, Jovana; Stojanovic Tasic, Mirjana

    2016-11-01

    Suicide remains a significant public health problem worldwide. This study is aimed at analyzing and presenting contemporary methods in suicide prevention in the world as well as at identifying specific risk groups and risk factors in order to explain their importance. in suicide prevention. The literature search covered electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. In order to select the relevant articles, the authors searched for the combination of key-words which included the following medical subject heading terms (suicide or suicide ideation or attempted) and (prevention or risk factors) and (man or elders or mental disorders). Data analysis covered meta-analyses, systematic reviews and original scientific papers with different characteristics of suicide preventions, risk factors and risk groups. Worldwide evidence-based interventions for suicide prevention are divided in universal, selective and indicated interventions. Restricted approach to various methods of committing suicide as well as pharmacotherapy contributes to a lower suicide rate. Suicide risk factors can be categorized as proximal and distal. The following groups are at highest risk of committing suicide: males. older persons and persons with registered psychiatric disorders. There is a lot of evidence that suicide is preventable. It is known that only 28 coun tries in the world have national suicide prevention strategies and Serbia is not one of them.

  6. HPA axis hyperactivity and attempted suicide in young adult mood disorder inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Nordström, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Hyperactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is a consistent finding in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and most prospective studies of HPA-axis function have found that non-suppressors in the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) are more likely to commit suicide during follow-up. The results of studies on HPA-axis function and attempted suicide are less consistent. Suicide attempts are more common among young people than the elderly, whereas suicide is more common among the elderly. The impact of age related changes in HPA-axis system activity in relation to suicidal behaviour across the lifecycle may be of importance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the DST results in 36 young adult (30 years or younger) inpatients with mood disorder, with (n=18) and without suicide attempt at the index episode. The DST non-suppressor rate was 25% among young mood disorder inpatients. DST non-suppression was associated with suicide attempt and post-dexamethasone serum cortisol at 11:00 p.m. was significantly higher in suicide attempters compared to non-attempters. The DST non-suppressor rate was 39% in young adult suicide attempters compared with 11% in non-attempters. The results add to previous evidence in support of the role of HPA axis hyperactivity and suicidal behaviour. The present findings motivate to include HPA axis measures in the assessment of depression in young adults.

  7. Response to unfairness across the suicide risk spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal, Jessica M; Gamboa, Jorge L; Moore, Jordan; Smith, Favrin; Ann Eads, Lou; Clothier, Jeffrey L; Cáceda, Ricardo

    2017-12-01

    Suicidal behavior is frequently triggered by social crises, such as familial, romantic, social or work-related conflict. A variety of cognitive and social functioning impairments has been associated with suicidal thoughts and acts. One of the precipitating and perpetuating factors of social conflict is the desire for retribution after a perceived offense, even at one's own detriment. We utilized the Ultimatum Game-a behavioral economic task which examines the behavioral response to perceived unfairness-in order to characterize the response to unfairness across the acute suicide risk spectrum. We examined five groups of adult individuals of both genders (n = 204): High- and Low-Lethality recent Suicide Attempters, Suicidal Ideators, Non-Suicidal Depressed Patients; and Healthy Controls. We also measured demographic and clinical variables. Even though all depressed groups showed similar rejection rates in the Ultimatum Game, there was a higher likelihood of rejecting offers in the low stakes condition in all acutely suicidal groups compared with healthy controls. Stake size, offer, education, and gender of the proposer were significantly associated with rejection rates. Acutely suicidal patients may be more vulnerable to adverse interpersonal interactions. Further characterization of social behavior may provide targets for secondary and tertiary prevention for high-risk individuals. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392

  9. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence rates, risk factors, and targeted interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marta; Galling, Britta; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with poor outcomes, including suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA). However, frequencies and risk factors of SI/SA and targeted intervention trials for SI/SA in PBD have not been reviewed systematically. Methods We conducted a systematic PubMed review, searching for articles reporting on prevalences/incidences, correlates and intervention studies targeting SI/SA in PBD. Weighted means were calculated, followed by an exploratory meta-regression of SI and SA correlates. Results Fourteen studies (n = 1,595) with 52.1% males aged 14.4 years reported data on SI/SA prevalence (N = 13, n = 1,508) and/or correlates (N = 10, n = 1,348) in PBD. Weighted mean prevalences were: past SI = 57.4%, past SA = 21.3%, current SI = 50.4%, and current SA = 25.5%; incidences (mean: 42 months follow-up were: SI = 14.6% and SA = 14.7%. Regarding significant correlates, SI (N = 3) was associated with a higher percentage of Caucasian race, narrow (as opposed to broad) PBD phenotype, younger age, and higher quality of life than SA. Significant correlates of SA (N = 10) included female gender, older age, earlier illness onset, more severe/episodic PBD, mixed episodes, comorbid disorders, past self-injurious behavior/SI/SA, physical/sexual abuse, parental depression, family history of suicidality, and poor family functioning. Race, socioeconomic status, living situation, and life events were not clearly associated with SA. In a meta-regression analysis, bipolar I disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly associated with SA. Only one open label study targeting the reduction of SI/SA in PBD was identified. Conclusions SI and SA are highly common but under-investigated in PBD. Exploration of predictors and protective factors is imperative for the establishment of effective preventive and intervention strategies, which are urgently needed. PMID:23829436

  10. What Are Reasons for the Large Gender Differences in the Lethality of Suicidal Acts? An Epidemiological Analysis in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergl, Roland; Koburger, Nicole; Heinrichs, Katherina; Székely, András; Tóth, Mónika Ditta; Coyne, James; Quintão, Sónia; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Maxwell, Margaret; Värnik, Airi; van Audenhove, Chantal; McDaid, David; Sarchiapone, Marco; Schmidtke, Armin; Genz, Axel; Gusmão, Ricardo; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, men have lower rates of attempted suicide compared to women and at the same time a higher rate of completed suicides, indicating major gender differences in lethality of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which these gender differences in lethality can be explained by factors such as choice of more lethal methods or lethality differences within the same suicide method or age. In addition, we explored gender differences in the intentionality of suicide attempts. Methods. Design: Epidemiological study using a combination of self-report and official data. Setting: Mental health care services in four European countries: Germany, Hungary, Ireland, and Portugal. Data basis: Completed suicides derived from official statistics for each country (767 acts, 74.4% male) and assessed suicide attempts excluding habitual intentional self-harm (8,175 acts, 43.2% male). Main Outcome Measures and Data Analysis. We collected data on suicidal acts in eight regions of four European countries participating in the EU-funded "OSPI-Europe"-project (www.ospi-europe.com). We calculated method-specific lethality using the number of completed suicides per method * 100 / (number of completed suicides per method + number of attempted suicides per method). We tested gender differences in the distribution of suicidal acts for significance by using the χ2-test for two-by-two tables. We assessed the effect sizes with phi coefficients (φ). We identified predictors of lethality with a binary logistic regression analysis. Poisson regression analysis examined the contribution of choice of methods and method-specific lethality to gender differences in the lethality of suicidal acts. Suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal) were 3.4 times more lethal in men than in women (lethality 13.91% (regarding 4106 suicidal acts) versus 4.05% (regarding 4836 suicidal acts)), the difference being significant for the methods hanging, jumping, moving objects, sharp objects

  11. Patterns of suicidal ideation and behavior in Northern Ireland and associations with conflict related trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan O'Neill

    Full Text Available In this study, data from the World Mental Health Survey's Northern Ireland (NI Study of Health and Stress (NISHS was used to assess the associations between conflict- and non-conflict-related traumatic events and suicidal behaviour, controlling for age and gender and the effects of mental disorders in NI. DSM mental disorders and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI in a multi-stage, clustered area probability household sample (N = 4,340, response rate 68.4%. The traumatic event categories were based on event types listed in the PTSD section of the CIDI. Suicidal ideation and attempts were more common in women than men, however, rates of suicide plans were similar for both genders. People with mood, anxiety and substance disorders were significantly more likely than those without to endorse suicidal ideation, plan or attempt. The highest odds ratios for all suicidal behaviors were for people with any mental disorder. However, the odds of seriously considering suicide were significantly higher for people with conflict and non-conflict-related traumatic events compared with people who had not experienced a traumatic event. The odds of having a suicide plan remain significantly higher for people with conflict-related traumatic events compared to those with only non-conflict-related events and no traumatic events. Finally, the odds of suicide attempt were significantly higher for people who have only non-conflict-related traumatic events compared with the other two categories. The results suggest that traumatic events associated with the NI conflict may be associated with suicidal ideation and plans, and this effect appears to be in addition to that explained by the presence of mental disorders. The reduced rates of suicide attempts among people who have had a conflict-related traumatic event may reflect a higher rate of single, fatal suicide attempts in this population.

  12. Selecting Suicide Ideation Assessment Instruments: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Jackson, Jessica; Bardhoshi, Gerta; Duncan, Kelly; Atalay, Zumra

    2018-01-01

    Psychometric meta-analyses and reviews were provided for four commonly used suicidal ideation instruments: the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation, the Suicide Ideation Questionnaire, the Suicide Probability Scale, and Columbia--Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Practical and technical issues and best use recommendations for screening and outcome…

  13. Googling suicide: surfing for suicide information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recupero, Patricia R; Harms, Samara E; Noble, Jeffrey M

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the types of resources a suicidal person might find through search engines on the Internet. We were especially interested in determining the accessibility of potentially harmful resources, such as prosuicide forums, as such resources have been implicated in completed suicides and are known to exist on the Web. Using 5 popular search engines (Google, Yahoo!, Ask.com, Lycos, and Dogpile) and 4 suicide-related search terms (suicide, how to commit suicide, suicide methods, and how to kill yourself), we collected quantitative and qualitative data about the search results. The searches were conducted in August and September 2006. Several coraters assigned codes and characterizations to the first 30 Web sites per search term combination (and "sponsored links" on those pages), which were then confirmed by consensus ratings. Search results were classified as being prosuicide, antisuicide, suicide-neutral, not a suicide site, or error (i.e., page would not load). Additional information was collected to further characterize the nature of the information on these Web sites. Suicide-neutral and anti-suicide pages occurred most frequently (of 373 unique Web pages, 115 were coded as suicide-neutral, and 109 were anti-suicide). While pro-suicide resources were less frequent (41 Web pages), they were nonetheless easily accessible. Detailed how-to instructions for unusual and lethal suicide methods were likewise easily located through the searches. Mental health professionals should ask patients about their Internet use. Depressed, suicidal, or potentially suicidal patients who use the Internet may be especially at risk. Clinicians may wish to assist patients in locating helpful, supportive resources online so that patients' Internet use may be more therapeutic than harmful.

  14. Non-suicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disordered Patients: Associations with Heart Rate Variability and State-Trait Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Giner-Bartolome

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is commonly present in individuals with eating disorders (EDs and is often employed as a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy to avoid or abate negative emotions. One of the most prevalent negative emotions experienced by self-injurers is anxiety; however, this emotion has not been extensively studied in this population. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of anxiety on NSSI in patients with ED from two different dimensions: state anxiety and trait anxiety.Methods: The study comprised a total of 66 females: 12 ED patients with NSSI, 32 ED patients without a history of NSSI, and 22 healthy controls. State and trait anxiety were assessed by means of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S-T and physiological data [i.e., heart rate variability (HRV] were collected.Results: STAI-trait scores were significantly higher in ED patients with NSSI than ED patients without NSSI. Furthermore, when conducting logistic regression analyses higher STAI-trait scores were associated with NSSI in ED patients. However, no differences in STAI-state scores and HRV were found between ED patients with and without NSSI.Discussion: The present findings suggest that anxiety as a trait is associated with the use of maladaptive strategies (i.e., NSSI in ED patients. These results uphold the need to target trait anxiety in ED treatment in order to prevent possible NSSI behaviors.

  15. Demographic and clinical characteristics of consistent and inconsistent longitudinal reporters of lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence through young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Shelley R; Musci, Rashelle J; Ialongo, Nicholas; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Wilcox, Holly C

    2013-10-01

    Within the context of the recent release of the 2012 National Suicide Prevention Strategy, and as the third leading cause of death for individuals 10- to 24-years-old, suicide prevention is a national priority. A consistently reported and robust risk factor for suicide is a prior suicide attempt; however few studies have investigated the consistency of self-reported lifetime suicide attempts. The goal of this study is to describe the prevalence and characteristics of inconsistent reporting of suicide attempt in a longitudinal cohort of participants annually assessed in 12 waves of data collected from middle school (age 12) to early adulthood (age 22). Among this cohort (n = 678), we compared those who consistently, inconsistently, and never reported a suicide attempt according to demographic and clinical variables. Almost 90% (88.5%) of our sample inconsistently reported a lifetime suicide attempt. Consistent and inconsistent reporters of lifetime suicide attempt did not differ on demographic or clinical variables with the exception of higher rates of lifetime suicidal ideation among consistent reporters (P adolescents. Inconsistent and consistent reporters of suicide attempt differ on few demographic or clinical variables; further prospective research should investigate the reasons for inconsistent reporting as well as the validity and stability of reporting in predicting future suicidal behavior. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Antidepressants and Suicide Risk: A Comprehensive Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tatarelli

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The annual worldwide suicide rate currently averages approximately 13 per 100,000 individuals per year (0.013% per year, with higher average rates for men than for women in all but a few countries, very low rates in children, and relatively high rates in elderly men. Suicide rates vary markedly between countries, reflecting in part differences in case-identification and reporting procedures. Rates of attempted suicide in the general population average 20–30 times higher than rates of completed suicide, but are probably under-reported. Research on the relationship between pharmacotherapy and suicidal behavior was rare until a decade ago. Most ecological studies and large clinical studies have found that a general reduction in suicide rates is significantly correlated with higher rates of prescribing modern antidepressants. However, ecological, cohort and case-control studies and data from brief, randomized, controlled trials in patients with acute affective disorders have found increases, particularly in young patients and particularly for the risk of suicide attempts, as well as increases in suicidal ideation in young patients. whether antidepressants are associated with specific aspects of suicidality (e.g., higher rates of completed suicide, attempted suicide and suicidal ideation in younger patients with major affective disorders remains a highly controversial question. In light of this gap this paper analyzes research on the relationship between suicidality and antidepressant treatment.

  17. Nursing magnet hospitals have better CMS hospital compare ratings

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    Robbins RA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been conflicting data on whether Nursing Magnet Hospitals (NMH provide better care. Methods: NMH in the Southwest USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Nevada, and New Mexico were compared to hospitals not designated as NMH using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS hospital compare star designation. Results: NMH had higher star ratings than non-NMH hospitals (3.34 + 0.78 vs. 2.86 + 0.83, p<0.001. The hospitals were mostly large, urban non-critical access hospitals. Academic medical centers made up a disproportionately large portion of the NMH. Conclusions: Although NMH had higher hospital ratings, the data may favor non-critical access academic medical centers which are known to have better outcomes.

  18. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Iosue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.

  19. Clinical studies of biomarkers in suicide prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, Jussi

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a major clinical problem in psychiatry and suicidal behaviours can be seen as a nosological entity per se. Predicting suicide is difficult due to its low base-rate and the limited specificity of clinical predictors. Prospective biological studies suggest that dysfunctions in the hypothalamo pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the serotonergic system have predictive power for suicide in mood disorders. Suicide attempt is the most robust clinical predictor making suici...

  20. Suicide in older adults: differences between the young-old, middle-old, and oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yu Wen; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2017-08-01

    In the limited research into suicides in older adults, they have been treated as a homogenous group without distinguishing between different age groups. This study aimed to compare differences in sociodemographic variables, recent life events, and mental and physical illnesses between three age groups within older adults who died by suicide: young-old (65-74 years), middle-old (75-84 years), and oldest old (85 years and over) in Queensland, Australia, during the years 2000-2012 (N = 978). The Queensland Suicide Register was utilized for the analysis. Annual suicide rates were calculated. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and χ 2 tests for trend were calculated to examine differences between the three groups. Suicide rates were increasing with age for males, but not for females. Hanging and firearms were the predominant methods of suicides. However, suffocation by plastic bag and drowning as suicide methods increased with age, in contrast firearms and explosives decreased with age. Overall, psychiatric problems, suicidal behavior, legal and financial stressors, and relationship problems decreased significantly with age, meanwhile physical conditions and bereavement increased with age. Suicide across older adulthood is not a homogenous phenomenon. Our findings showed significant differences in the prevalence of potential risk factors within the three different age groups considered. To prevent suicide in older adults would require targeting specific factors for each subgroup while using holistic and comprehensive approaches.

  1. The investigation of factors related to suicide attempts in Southeastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Ibiloglu A

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu, Abdullah Atli, Suleyman Demir, Mehmet Gunes, Mehmet Cemal Kaya, Mahmut Bulut, Aytekin Sir Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey Background: Suicide is an important health problem in Turkey as it is in all regions of the world. Suicidal behavior has multiple causes, which are broadly divided into those related to proximal stressors and those due to predisposition. Suicide statistics may be associated with mental health disorders, which are among the foremost predictors of suicide attempts. More than 90% of patients who commit suicide have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder, usually a major depressive disorder. Other major risk factors for suicide attempts are history of suicide attempts in the family, stressful life events, sleep disturbances, poor income, unemployment, severity of symptoms of depression, and anxiety. Sleep is a complex phenomenon. Sleep disturbances can therefore be contributed to the emergence of suicidal behavior allowing for the possibility of predicting future suicides. Methods: We evaluated 106 patients who were admitted after suicide attempts to the Department of Psychiatry at Dicle University Faculty of Medicine. The recruited subjects were assessed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, and the intensity of symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The mean values of the subjects attempting multiple and single suicides were compared using appropriate inferential statistical tests. Results: Most suicide attempts are believed to be preventable. Our results revealed that a great variety of risk factors are associated with an increased risk for multiple suicide attempts. Most of these attempts appeared to be spontaneous and impulsive rather than planned. In particular, this study highlights the importance of previous suicide attempts, history of

  2. The role of under-employment and unemployment in recent birth cohort effects in Australian suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Milner, Allison; Morrell, Stephen; Taylor, Richard

    2013-09-01

    High suicide rates evident in Australian young adults during an epidemic period in the 1990s appear to have been sustained in older age-groups in the subsequent decade. This period also coincides with changes in employment patterns in Australia. This study investigates age, period, and birth cohort effects in Australian suicide over the 20th century, with particular reference to the period subsequent to the 1990s youth suicide epidemic in young males. Period- and cohort-specific trends in suicide were examined for 1907-2010 based on descriptive analysis of age-specific suicide rates and a series of age-period-cohort (APC) models using Poisson regression. Under-employment rates (those employed part-time seeking additional hours of work) and unemployment rates (those currently seeking employment) for the latter part of this time series (1978-2010) were also examined and compared with period- and cohort-specific trends in suicide. A significant increasing birth cohort effect in male suicide rates was evident in birth cohorts born after 1970-74, after adjusting for the effects age and period. An increasing birth cohort effect was also evident in female suicide rates, but was of a lesser magnitude. Increases in male cohort-specific suicide rates were significantly correlated with increases in cohort-specific under-employment and unemployment rates. Birth cohorts that experienced the peak of the suicide epidemic during the 1990s have continued to have higher suicide rates than cohorts born in earlier epochs. This increase coincides with changes to a labour force characterised by greater 'flexibility' and 'casualised' employment, especially in younger aged cohorts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Suicidal and personality characteristics of women married to men with alcohol dependence and suicidal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merinov, A V; Shustov, D I

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the suicidal activity in men with alcohol dependence on suicidal indexes, personal-codependency and psychological specifics of their wives has been studied. It has been found that women married to suicidal men with alcohol dependence significantly more frequently demonstrate suicidal activity (a phenomenon of suicidal matrimonial comorbidity) compared to wives of "non-suicidal" men. They also reveal non-suicidal behavioral patterns more frequently and prosuicidal predictors are quite common in them. This contingent of women has high suicidal potential that needs special attention during the therapeutic work.

  4. Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…

  5. Comparing replacement rates under private and federal retirement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patricia P

    One measure of the adequacy of retirement income is replacement rate - the percentage of pre-retirement salary that is available to a worker in retirement. This article compares salary replacement rates for private-sector employees of medium and large private establishments with those for federal employees under the Civil Service Retirement System and the Federal Employees Retirement System. Because there is no standard benefit formula to represent the variety of formulas available in the private sector, a composite defined benefit formula was developed using the characteristics of plans summarized in the Bureau of Labor Statistics Medium and Large Employer Plan Survey. The resulting "typical" private-sector defined benefit plan, with an accompanying defined contribution plan, was then compared with the two federal systems. The Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) is a stand-alone defined benefit plan whose participants are not covered by Social Security. Until passage of the 1983 Amendments to Social Security Act, it was the only retirement plan for most federal civilian employees. Provisions of the 1983 Amendments were designed to restore long-term financial stability to the Social Security trust funds. One provision created the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS), which covers federal employees hired after 1983. It was one of the provisions designed to restore long-term financial stability to the Social Security trust funds. FERS employees contribute to and are covered by Social Security. FERS, which is a defined benefit plan, also includes a basic benefit and a 401(k)-type plan known as the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP). To compare how retirees would fare under the three different retirement systems, benefits of employees retiring at age 65 with 35 years of service were calculated using hypothetical workers with steady earnings. Workers were classified according to a percentage of the average wage in the economy: low earners (45 percent), average earners

  6. Reward/Punishment reversal learning in older suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovski, Alexandre Y; Clark, Luke; Siegle, Greg J; Butters, Meryl A; Ichikawa, Naho; Sahakian, Barbara J; Szanto, Katalin

    2010-06-01

    Suicide rates are high in old age, and the contribution of cognitive risk factors remains poorly understood. Suicide may be viewed as an outcome of an altered decision process. The authors hypothesized that impairment in reward/punishment-based learning, a component of affective decision making, is associated with attempted suicide in late-life depression. They expected that suicide attempters would discount past reward/punishment history, focusing excessively on the most recent rewards and punishments. The authors further hypothesized that this impairment could be dissociated from executive abilities, such as forward planning. The authors assessed reward/punishment-based learning using the probabilistic reversal learning task in 65 individuals age 60 and older: suicide attempters, suicide ideators, nonsuicidal depressed elderly, and nondepressed comparison subjects. The authors used a reinforcement learning computational model to decompose reward/punishment processing over time. The Stockings of Cambridge test served as a control measure of executive function. Suicide attempters but not suicide ideators showed impaired probabilistic reversal learning compared to both nonsuicidal depressed elderly and nondepressed comparison subjects, after controlling for effects of education, global cognitive function, and substance use. Model-based analyses revealed that suicide attempters discounted previous history to a higher degree relative to comparison subjects, basing their choice largely on reward/punishment received on the last trial. Groups did not differ in their performance on the Stockings of Cambridge test. Older suicide attempters display impaired reward/punishment-based learning. The authors propose a hypothesis that older suicide attempters make overly present-focused decisions, ignoring past experiences. Modification of this "myopia for the past" may have therapeutic potential.

  7. [Disease burden caused by suicide in the Chinese population, in 1990 and 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Wang, L H; Jin, Y; Ye, P P; Yang, L; Er, Y L; Deng, X; Wang, Y; Duan, L L

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To provide basic suicide prevention strategy through analyzing the disease burden of suicide in the Chinese population, in 1990 and 2013. Methods: Indicators including mortality rate, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLL), years lived with disability (YLD), and disability-adjusted of life years (DALY) on suicide, were from the results of Global Burden of Disease 2013 and used to describe the burden of disease caused by suicide in Chinese population. Data described the disease burden of suicide in China by comparing the corresponding parameters in 1990 and 2013. Results: In 2013, the standard mortality on suicide was 9.08 per 100 000, and 73.39 per 100 000 in the 80 and above year-old, with the highest rates on DALY and YLL seen in the 75-79-year-old. Each parameter related to suicide burden in males appeared higher than that in females. Compare to data in the 1990s, these parameters declined in 2013, especially seen in females. The rate of YLLs/YLDs on suicide was 90.03 in 2013, 89.83 in males and 89.00 in females. Conclusion: The disease burden of suicide decreased sharply between 1990 and 2013 but was still a serious issue in the elderly that called for more attention.

  8. Suicide among childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cižek Sajko, Mojca; Cižek, Niko; Jareb, Berta

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is one of the causes of late mortality among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk of suicide among childhood cancer survivors compared with that of the general population of Slovenia. This retrospective study included patients with childhood cancer registered at the Cancer Registry of Slovenia between 1978-2008, with an observation period of 1978-2010. Childhood cancer patients and control subjects from the general population of Slovenia were matched by sex, year and age at the beginning of follow-up and time of follow-up in years. Data on the general population of Slovenia were obtained from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. A total of 1647 patients were recorded in the Cancer Registry as having cancer during childhood, with 3 patients committing suicide. All three were male. Their age at diagnosis of cancer was 12, 13 and 2 years old; their age at suicide was 19, 32 and 28 years old. The mechanism of death was asphyxiation in all three deaths. The calculation of the expected number of suicides in the group of individuals with childhood cancer from the general Slovene population revealed the number of 3.16 persons. The comparison of the observed and expected probability showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the suicide rate between childhood cancer survivors and the general population of Slovenia. Copyright © 2012 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  9. High school youth and suicide risk: exploring protection afforded through physical activity and sport participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Rienzo, Barbara A; Miller, M David; Pigg, R Morgan; Dodd, Virginia J

    2008-10-01

    Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for adolescents. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that the adolescent suicide rate increased 18% between 2003 and 2004. Sport may represent a promising protective factor against adolescent suicide. This study examined the relative risk of hopelessness and suicidality associated with physical activity and sport participation. Data from the CDC's 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression modeling was used to compare the odds of hopelessness and suicidality in students who engaged in various levels of physical activity to inactive students. Similar analyses were performed comparing risks of athletes to nonathletes, and the risks of highly involved athletes to nonathletes. Findings showed that frequent, vigorous activity reduced the risk of hopelessness and suicidality among male adolescents. However, low levels of activity actually increased the risk of feeling hopeless among young females. Yet, for both males and females, sport participation protected against hopelessness and suicidality. These findings indicate that involvement in sport confers unique psychosocial benefits that protect adolescents against suicidality. Findings suggest that mechanisms other than physical activity contribute to the protective association between sport and reduced suicidality. Social support and integration may account for some of the differences found in suicidality between athletes and nonathletes.

  10. Suicide in deaf populations: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapur Navneet

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have found that deaf individuals have higher rates of psychiatric disorder than those who are hearing, while at the same time encountering difficulties in accessing mental health services. These factors might increase the risk of suicide. However, the burden of suicidal behaviour in deaf people is currently unknown. The aim of the present review was to provide a summary of literature on suicidal behaviour with specific reference to deaf individuals. The objectives of the review were to establish the incidence and prevalence of suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe risk factors for suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe approaches to intervention and suicide prevention that have been used in deaf populations. Methods A number of electronic databases (e.g. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, Dissertation Abstracts International, Web of Science, ComDisDome, ASSIA, Education Sage Full Text, Google Scholar, and the grey literature databases FADE and SIGLE were explored using a combination of key words and medical subject headings as search terms. Reference lists of papers were also searched. The Science and Social Sciences Citation Index electronic databases were used to identify studies that had cited key papers. We also contacted experts and organisations with an interest in the field. Results Very few studies focussed specifically on suicide in deaf populations. Those studies that were included (n = 13 generally involved small and unrepresentative samples. There were limited data on the rate of suicidal behaviour in deaf people. One study reported evidence of hearing impairment in 0.2% of all suicide deaths. Another found that individuals with tinnitus seen in specialist clinics had an elevated rate of suicide compared to the general population. The rates of attempted suicide in deaf school and college students during the previous year ranged from 1.7% to 18%, with lifetime rates as high as 30

  11. Primary health care utilization prior to suicide: a retrospective case-control study among active-duty military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Eldar; Shelef, Leah; Mann, J John; Portugese, Shirly; Krivoy, Amir; Shoval, Gal; Weiser, Mark; Fruchter, Eyal

    2014-08-01

    About 45% of civilians who died by suicide had contact with a doctor within 1 month of death. Thus, educating primary care physicians (PCP) to detect and mitigate depression is an important suicide-prevention strategy. However, the PCP consulting rate before suicide has not been examined in a military population. We investigated the utilization of primary health care and mental health services by active-duty military personnel suicide cases prior to death in comparison to matched military controls. All suicides (N = 170) were extracted from a cohort of all active-duty Israeli military male personnel between 2002 and 2012. Applying a retrospective, nested case-control design, we compared primary care services utilization by suicide cases with demographic and occupationally matched military controls (N = 500). Whereas 38.3% of suicide cases contacted a PCP within the last month before death, only 27.6% of suicide cases contacted a mental health specialist during their entire service time. The PCP contact rate within 1 month before death or index day did not differ between suicide cases and military controls (38.3% vs. 33.8%, χ²₁ = 1.05, P = .3). More suicide cases contacted a mental health specialist within service time than did military controls (27.6% vs. 13.6%, χ²₁ = 10.85, P = .001). Even though PCP contact rate by military personnel who died by suicide is slightly lower than that reported for civilians who died by suicide prior to their death, it is higher than mental health specialist contact rate and higher than that by age-matched civilians who died by suicide. These results imply that PCPs education is a viable approach to suicide prevention in a military setting. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. Suicide on Death Row.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2016-11-01

    Despite the level of supervision of inmates on death row, their suicide rate is higher than both the male prison population in the United States and the population of males over the age of 14 in free society. This study presents suicide data for death row inmates from 1978 through 2010. For the years 1978 through 2010, suicide rates on death row were higher than that for the general population of males over the age of 15 and for state prisons for all but 2 years. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Association between level of suicide risk, characteristics of suicide attempts, and mental disorders among suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Youn, Tak; Kim, Byung Soo; Park, Jong Ik; Kim, Haesoo; Lee, Hyo Chu; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2018-04-11

    Past attempted suicide is a strong predictor of future suicide risk, but the risk varies among suicide attempters. Hence, it is important to clarify distinguishing features of lifetime attempters with a high level of current suicide risk for efficient preventive management. We compared characteristics of suicide attempts and clinical characteristics among high-, moderate-, and low-risk attempters. Among the total of 6022 participants in the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 193 reported a suicide attempt in their lifetime, 36 of which had high, 126 moderate, and 30 low levels of current suicide risk (1 incomplete response). High-risk suicide attempters had more past attempts compared with moderate- and low-risk suicide attempters. Suicide attempts were closely linked to a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities regardless of degree of current level of suicide risk, but the relative risk for having at least one mental disorder was the highest in high-risk attempters. Specifically, the relative risks for depressive disorder, anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders were higher in high-risk attempters, and relative risk for somatoform disorder was higher in low-risk attempters than others. Our findings indicated that special attention is required for suicide attempters with a history of repeated attempts and current mental disorders, particularly anxiety disorders.

  14. [Experiences of Individuals With Suicidal Ideation and Attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Quintero, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem. It covers about half of violent deaths and results in approximately one million deaths annually. Although completed suicide rates in Colombia are relatively low when compared with other countries, suicidal behavior, represented not only by completed suicide, is a significant mental health problem. To understand life experiences of a group of subjects related to the phenomenon of ideation and suicide attempt. A qualitative study with a psychodynamic approach. In-depth interviews were conducted in order to explore thought processes, emotions, motivations and experiences that underlie and accompany the suicide attempt. Five women and 3 men were interviewed. The average age was 29 years. The exploration of subjective experiences in the present study showed that loneliness and psychic pain were linked to hopelessness, pessimism and discouragement. Also, the illusion of death represents an invitation to suicide attempt. It is important to consider the subjective assessment that patients with suicidal risk make of their depression and stressful life situations. Additionally, the concepts of loneliness and psychic pain have a leading role in the interaction between discourse and the experiences of the participants interviewed. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim Penberthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers, 1 4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed.

  16. Suicide and Western culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; McArthur, Milford

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the cultural roots and transmission of Western suicide and suicidal behaviour. We explored a period of antiquity (mythical Greece-61 CE) and selected accounts of 10 prominent suicides. The precipitating circumstances were tabulated and an assessment made of the most likely attendant emotions. The same process was followed for a recent period (1994-2008), from which 10 suicides were identified. The precipitating circumstances and the attendant emotions were compared. These circumstances and emotions were then compared to statements commonly encountered in clinical practice from people demonstrating suicidal behaviour. Finally, we looked for evidence that these stories (and the response models) had entered Western culture. Precipitating circumstances, loss of a loved one, actual or imminent execution or imprisonment, other losses and public disgrace, and the negative emotions of shame, guilt, fear, anger, grief and sorrow were common to both historical periods. These circumstances and emotions are similar to those commonly expressed by people who have demonstrated suicidal behaviour. There was a clear record (literature, visual arts) of these stories forming part of our cultural heritage. Models of maladaptive responses to certain adverse circumstances are part of Western culture. Suicide as a response to certain circumstances and negative emotions can be traced back more than 2000 years. Cultural change will be necessary to minimize suicide.

  17. Integrating a Suicide Prevention Program into the Primary Health Care Network: A Field Trial Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Malakouti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. Methodology. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. Results. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ2=14.8, P<0.001. We also found a reduction in the rate of suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Conclusion. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas.

  18. Characteristics of methods of suicide attempts in Korea: Korea National Suicide Survey (KNSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Ahn, Joon-Ho; Cha, Boseok; Chung, Young-Chul; Ha, Tae Hyon; Hong Jeong, Seong; Jung, Hee Yeon; Ju, Gawon; Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Moon-Doo; Kim, Min-Hyuk; Kim, Soo In; Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Seung Jae; Lee, Yu Jin; Moon, Eunsoo; Ahn, Yong-Min

    2015-12-01

    Because the method used for a suicide attempt is an important determinant of outcome, these methods should be explored. The present study was a nationwide investigation of suicide attempts and the characteristics of suicidal behavior. To compare the suicide methods used in attempted suicides with those used in completed suicides and to examine the factors associated with each phenomenon. The present study reviewed the medical charts of subjects who had attempted suicide and subsequently visited the emergency rooms of 17 medical centers from May 1, 2013 to November 7, 2013. All subjects completed a full psychiatric interview conducted by trained psychiatric residents. Suicide-attempt methods were divided into the following six categories: drug poisoning, pesticide poisoning, gassing, cutting, hanging, and others. The associations among demographic variables, related psychiatric variables, and suicide-attempt methods were analyzed using a multinomial regression analysis. Of the 1359 suicide attempts or instrumental suicide-related behaviors with/without injuries and the 14,160 completed suicides, drug poisoning and cutting were the most common suicidal behaviors with/without injuries, but they were the least frequent method of completed suicides. In contrast, hanging and jumping from a height were less common among failed suicide attempts but resulted in a higher percentage of fatalities. Being male, age, and area of residence were associated with pesticide poisoning, whereas previous suicide attempts were associated with cutting, pesticide poisoning, and gassing. A previous suicide attempt is a risk factor for suicide; thus, assessing the characteristics of suicide attempts or instrumental suicide-related behaviors with/without injuries is necessary to prevent these attempts. The present findings showed that the methods of suicide used by individuals who only attempted suicide differed from those used by individuals who completed. Of the suicide methods, pesticide

  19. Clinically relevant risk factors for suicide: Comparison between clinical group with passive suicidal ideation, active suicidal ideation and without suicidal ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence; Cuijpers, Pim; Stojcev, Saso; Niklewski, Gunter; Richter, Kneginja; Jovevska, Svetlana; Arsova, Roza; Serafimov, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, researchers and clinicians do not treat passive suicidal ideation as a clinically relevant risk factor for suicide, while underestimating the strength of this desire to die, compared with making a plan for suicide in individuals having active suicidal ideation. This research study is clinically prospective, cross-sequential, but also partly retrospective because it involves also variables from the past, such as patients’ history data (number of suicidal attempts...

  20. [Suicide in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvard, M P; Doyen, C

    1996-12-01

    With 1500 death each year, suicide does represent the second cause of death in young people (between 15 and 25 years). There is a clear increase of suicide rate during adolescence, with an higher rate of suicide attempts in females, but an higher mortality in boys. Suicidal behaviors in adolescents are clinically characterized by impulsivity, rhythmicity (during schooling) and seasonality. Risks factors are numerous. However, psychiatric disorders represent the main one, especially depressive states, conduct disorders and their association. In adolescents familial and environment events may have an important role in suicidal behaviors, especially the role of imitation behavior. These different factors interact and constitute dynamic models. The role of each factor can be involved differently considering the sex. Dangerosity of suicide in adolescents should not be under-estimated, as it has been the case in the past. It is particularly true if we consider the high rate of recidive (approximatively 50%) in this population. These data emphasized the importance of a careful evaluation of all suicidal adolescents more precisely of depressive symptoms and aggressive and/or delinquent behavior and of prevention.

  1. Comparative genomic analysis by microbial COGs self-attraction rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Daniele; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2009-06-21

    Whole genome analysis provides new perspectives to determine phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms. The availability of whole nucleotide sequences allows different levels of comparison among genomes by several approaches. In this work, self-attraction rates were considered for each cluster of orthologous groups of proteins (COGs) class in order to analyse gene aggregation levels in physical maps. Phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms were obtained by comparing self-attraction coefficients. Eighteen-dimensional vectors were computed for a set of 168 completely sequenced microbial genomes (19 archea, 149 bacteria). The components of the vector represent the aggregation rate of the genes belonging to each of 18 COGs classes. Genes involved in nonessential functions or related to environmental conditions showed the highest aggregation rates. On the contrary genes involved in basic cellular tasks showed a more uniform distribution along the genome, except for translation genes. Self-attraction clustering approach allowed classification of Proteobacteria, Bacilli and other species belonging to Firmicutes. Rearrangement and Lateral Gene Transfer events may influence divergences from classical taxonomy. Each set of COG classes' aggregation values represents an intrinsic property of the microbial genome. This novel approach provides a new point of view for whole genome analysis and bacterial characterization.

  2. Contributors to suicidality in rural communities: beyond the effects of depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Rural populations experience a higher suicide rate than urban areas despite their comparable prevalence of depression. This suggests the identification of additional contributors is necessary to improve our understanding of suicide risk in rural regions. Investigating the independent contribution of depression, and the impact of co-existing psychiatric disorders, to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a rural community sample may provide clarification of the role of depression in rural suicidality. Methods 618 participants in the Australian Rural Mental Health Study completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, providing assessment of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, affective disorders, anxiety disorders and substance-use disorders. Logistic regression analyses explored the independent contribution of depression and additional diagnoses to suicidality. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to illustrate the benefit of assessing secondary psychiatric diagnoses when determining suicide risk. Results Diagnostic criteria for lifetime depressive disorder were met by 28% (174) of the sample; 25% (154) had a history of suicidal ideation. Overall, 41% (63) of participants with lifetime suicidal ideation and 34% (16) of participants with a lifetime suicide attempt had no history of depression. When lifetime depression was controlled for, suicidal ideation was predicted by younger age, being currently unmarried, and lifetime anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder. In addition to depression, suicide attempts were predicted by lifetime anxiety and drug use disorders, as well as younger age; being currently married and employed were significant protective factors. The presence of comorbid depression and PTSD significantly increased the odds of reporting a suicide attempt above either of these conditions independently. Conclusions While depression contributes significantly to suicidal ideation, and is a key

  3. Suicide in bipolar disorder in a national English sample, 1996-2009: frequency, trends and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, C; Morriss, R; Jones, S; Peters, S; Roberts, C; Kapur, N

    2013-12-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has been reported to be associated with high risk of suicide. We aimed to investigate the frequency and characteristics of suicide in people with BD in a national sample. Suicide in BD in England from 1996 to 2009 was explored using descriptive statistics on data collected by the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness (NCI). Suicide cases with a primary diagnosis of BD were compared to suicide cases with any other primary diagnosis. During the study period 1489 individuals with BD died by suicide, an average of 116 cases/year. Compared to other primary diagnosis suicides, those with BD were more likely to be female, more than 5 years post-diagnosis, current/recent in-patients, to have more than five in-patient admissions, and to have depressive symptoms. In BD suicides the most common co-morbid diagnoses were personality disorder and alcohol dependence. Approximately 40% were not prescribed mood stabilizers at the time of death. More than 60% of BD suicides were in contact with services the week prior to suicide but were assessed as low risk. Given the high rate of suicide in BD and the low estimates of risk, it is important that health professionals can accurately identify patients most likely to experience poor outcomes. Factors such as alcohol dependence/misuse, personality disorder, depressive illness and current/recent in-patient admission could characterize a high-risk group. Future studies need to operationalize clinically useful indicators of suicide risk in BD.

  4. [Transcultural aspects of suicidal behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calliess, I T; Machleidt, W; Ziegenbein, M; Haltenhof, H

    2007-11-01

    Due to increasing immigration in Germany the German Mental Health Care System today has to deal in a growing number with the assessment of the level of psychic functioning and the capability of self control in patients of different ethnic origin. For clinicians this is a challenge, since suicidal behaviour in terms of its frequency, meaning, motives and manner is very much dependent on the cultural context in which it occurs. Moreover, the general attitude of an individual towards suicide is embedded in the culture of origin of the immigrant. Until now there has been only little systematic research on the influence of culture on suicidal behaviour. In this review the traditions of suicidal behaviour in different cultures in their religious and historical dimensions will be reflected. The historical and cultural roots of suicidal behaviour will be put in context to a categorization of the different variants of suicide, such as institutionalized suicide versus individualized suicide. Psychodynamic aspects of suicidal ideation will be highlighted in cross-cultural perspective with a distinction between a. the wish to die, b. the wish to kill and c. the wish to be killed. It will be shown that there can be differentiated between accepted and non-accepted suicide. With respect to epidemiology there will be discussed the impact of culture on the suicide rates across cultures. The influence of culture on the psychopathology of suicidal behaviour will be summed up systematically. These aspects are of high relevance for the understanding and assessment of suicidal crisis in immigrants, since the suicidal patient even today - although subconsciously - is influenced by the deep rooted traditions of suicidal behaviour in his culture of origin.

  5. An exploration of integrated data on the social dynamics of suicide among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Sharon; Galway, Karen; Hughes, Lynette; Rondón-Sulbarán, Janeet; Leavey, Gerard

    2016-05-01

    The gender-based nature of suicide-related behaviour is largely accepted. However, studies that report exclusively on female suicides are rare. Here we demonstrate how female suicide has effectively been 'othered' and appears incidental in studies which compare female and male behaviour. We highlight how recent studies of suicide have tended to be dominated by male-only approaches, which increasingly link issues of masculinity with male death by suicide. Drawing on data collected from the general practitioner and coroner's office, we then apply the sociological autopsy approach to a cohort of 78 deaths recorded as suicides in the UK between 2007 and 2009. By focusing on females in isolation from males, we demonstrate that, as in male-only suicide studies, it is similarly possible to draw out issues associated with the feminine identity, which can be linked to death by suicide. We find that bereavement, sexual violence and motherhood could all be linked to the lives and help-seeking of the females who died. In closing, we suggest that a reorientation towards sociological analytic approaches of female suicide may help to produce further reductions in the rate of female death by suicide. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a0w9KKMFdIQ. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  6. Effects of suicide bereavement on mental health and suicide risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitman, Alexandra; Osborn, David; King, Michael

    2014-01-01

    to psychiatric care for parents bereaved by the suicide of an offspring, increased risk of suicide in mothers bereaved by an adult child's suicide, and increased risk of depression in offspring bereaved by the suicide of a parent. Some evidence was shown for increased rejection and shame in people bereaved......Between 48 million and 500 million people are thought to experience suicide bereavement every year. Over the past decade, increased policy attention has been directed towards suicide bereavement, but with little evidence to describe the effect of exposure or to provide appropriate responses. We...... used a systematic approach to carry out a narrative review of studies of the effect of suicide bereavement on mortality, mental health, and social functioning, and compared them with effects from other bereavements. We found 57 studies that satisfied strict inclusion criteria. Results from...

  7. Hispanic Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 The following hypotheses have been presented regarding suicidal behavior among Hispanics: • Family needs are placed above individual ... the parents and elders is of major importance • Suicidal behavior among Hispanic femails may be related to the ...

  8. Suicidal behaviour and suicide prevention in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Brian M

    2014-10-01

    Despite a general decline in late life suicide rates over the last 30 years, older people have the highest rates of suicide in most countries. In contrast, non-fatal suicidal behaviour declines with age and more closely resembles suicide than in younger age groups. There are difficulties in the detection and determination of pathological suicidal ideation in older people. Multiple factors increase suicide risk ranging from distal early and mid-life issues such as child abuse, parental death, substance misuse and traumatic life experiences to proximal precipitants in late life such as social isolation and health-related concerns. Clinical depression is the most frequently identified proximal mental health concern and in many cases is a first episode of major depression. Recent studies have identified changes on neuroimaging and neurocognitive factors that might distinguish suicidal from non-suicidal depression in older people. Strategies for suicide prevention need to be 'whole of life' and, as no single prevention strategy is likely to be successful alone, a multi-faceted, multi-layered approach is required. This should include optimal detection and management of depression and of high risk individuals as available evidence indicates that this can reduce suicidal behaviour. How best to improve the quality of depression management in primary and secondary care requires further research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Managing suicidal adolescents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-05-09

    May 9, 2008 ... Adolescents with suicidal tendencies have a rather distinct set of problems compared with ... Disorders (4th edition, text revision) (DSM IV)1 represent a fairly standardised approach. ... Depressed mood. Reduced interest in ...

  10. Integrating a suicide prevention program into the primary health care network: a field trial study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Poshtmashadi, Marjan; Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Mansouri Moghadam, Fariba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Afghah, Susan; Bolhari, Jafar; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ (2) = 14.8, P suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas.

  11. Comparing policies for children of parents attending hospital emergency departments after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Diderich, Hester M; Teeuw, Arianne H; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; van der Lee, Johanna H

    2016-03-01

    To improve identification of child maltreatment, a new policy ('Hague protocol') was implemented in hospitals in The Netherlands, stating that adults attending the hospital emergency department after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt should be asked whether they care for children. If so, these children are referred to the Reporting Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN), for assessment and referrals to support services. An adapted, hospital-based version of this protocol ('Amsterdam protocol') was implemented in another region. Children are identified in the same manner, but, instead of a RCCAN referral, they are referred to the pediatric outpatient department for an assessment, including a physical examination, and referrals to services. We compared results of both protocols to assess how differences between the protocols affect the outcomes on implementation, detection of child maltreatment and referrals to services. Furthermore, we assessed social validity and results of a screening physical examination. We included 212 families from the Amsterdam protocol (cohort study with reports by pediatric staff and parents) and 565 families from the Hague protocol (study of RCCAN records and telephone interviews with parents). We found that the RCCAN identified more maltreatment than pediatric staff (98% versus at least 51%), but referrals to services were similar (82% versus 80% of the total sample) and parents were positive about both interventions. Physical examination revealed signs of maltreatment in 5%. We conclude that, despite the differences, both procedures can serve as suitable methods to identify and refer children at risk for maltreatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prospective Cohort Study of Stress, Life Satisfaction, Self-Rated Health, Insomnia, and Suicide Death in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Tokui, Noritaka; Yoshimura, Takesumi

    2005-01-01

    The association between many psychosocial factors and risk of suicide was examined. A cohort was conducted over 14 years of follow up among the general population (15,597 people) in Japan. A baseline survey of psychosocial characteristics was conducted by self-administrated questionnaire. The relative risks of occasional emotional stress,…

  13. Suicide by burning: epidemiological and clinical profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Panagiotis; Phan, Vu T Q; Weinand, Christian; Maegele, Marc; Maurer, Christoph A; Perbix, Walter; Leitsch, Sebastian; Lefering, Rolf; Spilker, Gerald

    2011-04-01

    Self-immolation constitutes a rare form of suicide in developed countries, though it accounts for unique injury characteristics in the burn intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to present the epidemiological and clinical features of patients burned during a suicidal attempt seen in a North Rhine-Westphalia burn intensive care unit (BICU). To address this aim, we undertook a 21-year retrospective study involving patients with thermal injuries admitted to the largest burn unit in Germany. A total of 125 suicide-related burn victims were identified in the study period (9.4%). Comparing the self-immolation group with the rest burn patient cohort, suicide victims were more likely to be single and to act under the influence of alcohol. The suicidal group had a larger extent of burns, higher incidence of inhalation injury, required more surgical procedures, catecholamines, blood transfusions, and a longer BICU stay. Their clinical course was complicated by prolonged intubation period, higher rate of multiple drug-resistant bacteria acquisition and sepsis, leading to a higher mortality rate. Although the proportion of self-immolation victims among all burned patients is not high, the markedly higher severity of their burns and their poorer quality of outcomes makes them an important clinical subgroup for further study.

  14. The Suicidal Narrative and Its Relationship to the Suicide Crisis Syndrome and Recent Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa Janet; Gorman, Bernard; Briggs, Jessica; Jeon, Min Eun; Ginsburg, Tal; Galynker, Igor

    2018-02-04

    In this study, we introduce the construct of the suicidal narrative, a hypothetical personal narrative linked to imminent suicide, and explore its relationship to near-term suicidal risk and the suicide crisis syndrome (SCS). Psychiatric outpatients (N = 289) were administered the Columbia Suicide-Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), Suicide Crisis Inventory (SCI), and Suicide Narrative Inventory (SNI), a novel instrument combining the documented risk factors of Thwarted Belongingness, Perceived Burdensomeness, Humiliation, Social Defeat, Goal Disengagement, and Goal Reengagement. Dimensional measures of past month, lifetime, and past suicidal phenomena, incorporating ideation and behavior, were calculated from the C-SSRS. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the interaction among variables. Factor analysis of the SNI yielded two orthogonal factors, termed Interpersonal and Goal Orientation. The former factor was comprised of Perceived Burdensomeness, Social Defeat, Humiliation, and Thwarted Belongingness, the latter of Goal Disengagement and Goal Reengagement. The Interpersonal factor correlated with both SCS severity and suicidal phenomena in each time frame and the Goal Orientation factor with no other variable. As hypothesized, the proposed model was significant for the past month only. Our findings support the construct of the suicidal narrative and its function as a near-term suicidal risk factor. © 2018 The American Association of Suicidology.

  15. Teen Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... episodes, or a mix of both types. Some teens will try to hide depression or thoughts of suicide. They might withdraw, or act out. This can ... teen depression? What should I do if my teen is depressed? Did I do ... antidepressants cause suicide? Once my teenager is treated for suicide or ...

  16. Subjective quality of life and suicidal behavior among Taiwanese schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chen; Liu, Yia-Ping; Cheng, Tsung-Hsing; Chou, Ming-Kuen

    2012-04-01

    Research of suicidal behavior in individuals with schizophrenia has often suggested that clinical characteristics and symptoms likely influence a patient's suicidal risk. However, there is a lack of research describing the link between patients' subjective quality of life (SQOL) and suicidal behavior in non-Western countries. Therefore, the current study attempts to explore how schizophrenia patients' SQOL and their suicidal behavior are related in a Taiwanese sample. In this study, 102 schizophrenia outpatients were investigated using the Taiwanese World Health Organization Quality of Life Schedule-Brief Version (WHO-QOL-BREF-TW), several Beck-Related symptom rating scales, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for psychopathology. These patients were also evaluated for suicidal risk using the critical items of the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and lifetime suicide attempts. Statistical analyses, including independent sample t tests, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and logistic stepwise regression models were completed. Compared with the non-suicidal group, suicidal patients had significantly lower scores in SQOL domains. The differences in social domain remained significant after adjusting for depressive symptoms. In multiple logistic regression analyses, level of depressive and psychotic symptoms increased and poor social and psychological SQOL were significant contributors to suicidal behavior. Having removed depressive symptoms from the model, only dissatisfaction with social SQOL was associated with heightened suicidal risk. Schizophrenia is associated with a high suicidal risk, of which depressive and psychotic symptoms are the major correlates. Again, the present study confirms and extends previous research showing that dissatisfied SQOL, particularly dissatisfaction with social relationships, should be considered in the assessment of suicidal risk in outpatients with schizophrenia, even when accounting other possible confounding factor

  17. Comparing policies for children of parents attending hospital emergency departments after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M. M.; Diderich, Hester M.; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; van der Lee, Johanna H.; Biezeveld, Maarten H.; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Edelenbos, Esther; Flapper, Boudien C.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.; Mahdi, Ulrike; Poldervaart, Jacoba D.; Sanders, Marian K.; Schoonenberg, N. Jolande; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; van Sommeren, Pauwlina G. W.; Vogt, Anne; Wilms, Janneke F.; Baeten, Paul; Fekkes, Minne; Pannebakker, Fieke D.; Sorensen, Peggy J. G.; Verkerk, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    To improve identification of child maltreatment, a new policy ('Hague protocol') was implemented in hospitals in The Netherlands, stating that adults attending the hospital emergency department after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt should be asked whether they care

  18. Comparing policies for children of parents attending hospital emergency departments after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E.M.; Diderich, H.M.; Teeuw, A.H.; Klein Velderman, M.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Lee, J.H. van der

    2016-01-01

    To improve identification of child maltreatment, a new policy (‘Hague protocol’) was implemented in hospitals in The Netherlands, stating that adults attending the hospital emergency department after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt should be asked whether they care

  19. Suicidality in non-treatment seeking young adults with subsyndromal gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Derbyshire, Katherine; Leppink, Eric; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2014-12-01

    Gambling Disorder is associated with elevated rates of suicidal thoughts and acts. However, virtually nothing is known about suicidality in people with subsyndromal forms of gambling disorder. A total of 174 non-treatment seeking subjects were recruited for a study of impulsivity and met criteria for a subsyndromal form of DSM-5 gambling disorder (31.0 % females; mean age = 21.7 ± 3.61 years). Subjects were categorized as being 'at risk of suicide' or 'no suicide risk' based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Those with and without suicidality were compared on clinical and cognitive measures. 32 (18.4 %) met MINI criteria for suicidality. Suicidality was significantly associated with mood and anxiety disorders, greater rates of nicotine consumption, and relative impairments in decision-making and cognitive flexibility. These findings suggest that decision-making impairments may be implicated in the development of both gambling problems and suicidality. Future work should address causality, neural correlates, and tailored suicide prevention strategies for people with, or at risk for, disordered forms of gambling.

  20. Negative emotions in veterans relate to suicide risk through feelings of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Megan L; Kelliher-Rabon, Jessica; Hagan, Christopher R; Hirsch, Jameson K; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-01-15

    Suicide rates among veterans are disproportionately high compared to rates among the general population. Veterans may experience a number of negative emotions (e.g., anger, self-directed hostility, shame, guilt) during periods of postwar adjustment and reintegration into civilian life that may uniquely confer risk for suicide. Mechanisms of these associations, however, are less well studied. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between negative emotions and suicide risk in veterans through the theoretical framework of the interpersonal theory of suicide. A large sample of veterans (N = 541) completed measures assessing their negative emotions, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicide risk. Self-directed hostility and shame related indirectly to suicide risk through both perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Thwarted belongingness accounted for the association between anger and suicide risk, whereas perceived burdensomeness accounted for the relationship between guilt and suicide risk. This study had a cross-sectional design and relied solely on self-report measures. These findings provide evidence for the role of negative emotions in conferring risk for suicide in veterans. Clinical implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rural and urban suicide in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B C Ben; Lester, David

    2012-10-01

    Suicide rates in 2005 in South Korea were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Those in rural areas more often used pesticides and chemicals as a method for suicide, and there was a greater proportion of men and the elderly, both groups at higher risk for suicide in South Korea. These three factors may account for the high rural suicide rate in South Korea.

  2. Suicidal ideation and the risk of suicide in patients with fibromyalgia: a comparison with non-pain controls and patients suffering from low-back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez I

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Irene Jimenez-Rodríguez,1 Juan Miguel Garcia-Leiva,1 Beatriz M Jimenez-Rodriguez,2 Emilia Condés-Moreno,3 Fernando Rico-Villademoros,1 Elena P Calandre11Instituto de Neurociencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain; 2Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain; 3Departamento de Especialidades Biomédicas, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Villaviciosa de Odón, SpainAbstract: Fibromyalgia is associated with an increased rate of mortality from suicide. In fact, this disease is associated with several characteristics that are linked to an increased risk of suicidal behaviors, such as being female and experiencing chronic pain, psychological distress, and sleep disturbances. However, the literature concerning suicidal behaviors and their risk factors in fibromyalgia is sparse. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence of suicidal ideation and the risk of suicide in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia compared with a sample of healthy subjects and a sample of patients with chronic low-back pain. We also aimed to evaluate the relevance of pain intensity, depression, and sleep quality as variables related to suicidal ideation and risks. Logistic regression was applied to estimate the likelihood of suicidal ideation and the risk of suicide adjusted by age and sex. We also used two logistic regression models using age, sex, pain severity score, depression severity, sleep quality, and disease state as independent variables and using the control group as a reference. Forty-four patients with fibromyalgia, 32 patients with low-back pain, and 50 controls were included. Suicidal ideation, measured with item 9 of the Beck Depression Inventory, was almost absent among the controls and was low among patients with low-back pain; however, suicidal ideation was prominent among patients with fibromyalgia (P<0.0001. The risk of suicide, measured with the Plutchik Suicide Risk Scale, was also

  3. Youth Suicide Trends in Finland, 1969-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Rasanen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa; Keranen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helina

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are only a few recent studies on secular trends in child and adolescent suicides. We examine here trends in rates and methods of suicide among young people in Finland, where suicide rates at these ages are among the highest in the world. Methods: The data, obtained from Statistics Finland, consisted of all suicides (n = 901)…

  4. A systematic review of elderly suicide prevention programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapierre, Sylvie; Erlangsen, Annette; Waern, Margda

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area.......Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area....

  5. [Risk factors and protective factors relating to suicide in the Netherlands and Flanders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, A; Kerkhof, A J F M; Molenberghs, G; van Audenhove, C

    2016-01-01

    The suicide rate is 82% higher in the Flanders region of Belgium than in the Netherlands. To investigate to what extent Flanders and the Netherlands differ with regard to the risk factors and protective factors relating to suicide and attempted suicide. By means of a structured postal questionnaire, we collected data on the following topics from 2999 Flemish and Dutch people between 18 and 64 years: mental well-being and earlier attempts to commit suicide, the help they had received and their intention to seek help for psychological problems, awareness of the mental health care available, satisfaction with the help received, and attitudes to suicide. The incidence of psychological problems and suicidality did not differ significantly between Flanders and the Netherlands. Compared to Flemish people, Dutch people with psychological problems had received more psychological help and more often expressed the intention to seek help in the future. Furthermore, the Dutch were better informed about mental health care, and patient satisfaction was higher in the Netherlands. Compared to the Flemish people, the Dutch had more positive and understanding attitude to suicide. In general, risk factors for suicide were similar in the Netherlands and Flanders. However, the Dutch were characterised by more protective factors. We attempt to explain these differences and suggest ways of improving suicidal prevention policy.

  6. Improving suicide mortality statistics in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain) between 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbería, Eneko; Gispert, Rosa; Gallo, Belén; Ribas, Gloria; Puigdefàbregas, Anna; Freitas, Adriana; Segú, Elena; Torralba, Pilar; García-Sayago, Francisco; Estarellas, Aina

    2016-07-20

    Monitoring and preventing suicidal behaviour requires, among other data, knowing suicide deaths precisely. They often appear under-reported or misclassified in the official mortality statistics. The aim of this study is to analyse the under-reporting found in the suicide mortality statistics of Tarragona (a province of Catalonia, Spain). The analysis takes into account all suicide deaths that occurred in the Tarragona Area of the Catalan Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (TA-CILMFS) between 2004 and 2012. The sources of information were the death data files of the Catalan Mortality Register, as well as the Autopsies Files of the TA-CILMFS. Suicide rates and socio-demographic profiles were statistically compared between the suicide initially reported and the final one. The mean percentage of non-reported cases in the period was 16.2%, with a minimum percentage of 2.2% in 2005 and a maximum of 26.8% in 2009. The crude mortality rate by suicide rose from 6.6 to 7.9 per 100,000 inhabitants once forensic data were incorporated. Small differences were detected between the socio-demographic profile of the suicide initially reported and the final one. Supplementary information was obtained on the suicide method, which revealed a significant increase in poisoning and suicides involving trains. An exhaustive review of suicide deaths data from forensic sources has led to an improvement in the under-reported statistical information. It also improves the knowledge of the method of suicide and personal characteristics. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Suicidal communication signifies suicidal intent in Chinese completed suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue Mei; Jia, Shu Hua

    2012-11-01

    Recognizing suicidal communication from the distressful catharsis in a high-risk group with suicidal tendencies is essential for suicide prevention. This study analyzes whether suicidal communication can indicate the severity of suicidal intent. Various types of suicidal communication are defined, and their clinical significance is further explored. A comprehensive analysis of the psychological autopsy data of 200 victims of completed suicide, including their general socio-demographic status, suicidal communication methods, previous suicide attempts, mental disorders, and psychosocial situation. Our results showed that 39.5% of all the subjects were suicidal communicators, 23.0% had previously attempted suicide, and 14.0% left suicide notes; 32.4% of 142 subjects free of physical disease suffered from mental disorders. Suicidal communication included verbal communication, behavioral communication, and suicidal notes. Younger people with a higher level of education were more inclined to communicate their suicidal intent by leaving a suicide note. Suicide notes, but not previous suicide attempts or psychosocial situation, were significantly correlated with suicidal intent. Suicidal communicators showed higher depression scores than non-communicators. Those who suffered from mood disorders with higher levels of both depression and suicidal intent were more likely to expose their intent through behavioral communication. The present study provides strong evidence that suicidal communication can indicate the severity of suicidal intent. Current findings help interpret high-risk, self-destructive behavior and consequently provide the theoretical basis for a feasible suicide prevention program.

  8. Occupational class differences in suicide: evidence of changes over time and during the global financial crisis in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Alison J; Niven, Heather; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-09-21

    Previous research showed an increase in Australian suicide rates during the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). There has been no research investigating whether suicide rates by occupational class changed during the GFC. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the GFC-associated increase in suicide rates in employed Australians may have masked changes by occupational class. Negative binomial regression models were used to investigate Rate Ratios (RRs) in suicide by occupational class. Years of the GFC (2007, 2008, 2009) were compared to the baseline years 2001-2006. There were widening disparities between a number of the lower class occupations and the highest class occupations during the years 2007, 2008, and 2009 for males, but less evidence of differences for females. Occupational disparities in suicide rates widened over the GFC period. There is a need for programs to be responsive to economic downturns, and to prioritise the occupational groups most affected.

  9. Cultural Aspects of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari D. Maharajh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  10. Suicide among War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Rozanov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  11. Suicide among war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its' frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  12. Suicidal attempts in psychiatric institutions: a report of two cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jiménez Genchi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that 5% of suicides occur inside of the psychiatric institutions. This report describes two cases of suicide inside of a psychiatric hospital which illustrate, on one hand, the characteristics of suicidal risk among psychiatric inpatients, and on the other hand, the limitations, we may have, to prevent suicide. The rate of suicides inside psychiatric hospitals are explained by the very low presentation of this behavior, among patients and the poor specificity for suicidal risk, that may provide the clinical evaluation with standard clinical criteria . Nevertheless, hospitalization in psychiatric institutions avoids more suicide attempts and suicides than those are committed inside of them.

  13. Pathways to suicidality across ethnic groups in Canadian adults: the possible role of social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D E; Colantonio, A; Rhodes, A E; Escobar, M

    2008-03-01

    Ethnicity is an important determinant of mental health outcomes including suicidality (i.e. suicidal ideation and suicide attempt). Understanding ethnic differences in the pathways to suicidality is important for suicide prevention efforts in ethnically diverse populations. These pathways can be conceptualized within a social stress framework. The study examines ethnic differences in the pathways to suicidality in Canada within a social stress framework. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (CCHS 1.1) and path analysis, we examined the hypotheses that variations in (1) socio-economic status (SES), (2) sense of community belonging (SCB), (3) SES and SCB combined, and (4) SES, SCB and clinical factors combined can explain ethnic differences in suicidality. Francophone whites and Aboriginals were more likely to report suicidality compared to Anglophone whites whereas visible minorities and Foreign-born whites were least likely. Disadvantages in income, income and education, income and its combined effect with depression and alcohol dependence/abuse led to high rates even among the low-risk visible minority group. Indirect pathways for Asians differed from that of Blacks and South Asians, specifically through SCB. With the exception of SCB, Aboriginals were most disadvantaged, which exacerbated their risk for suicidality. However, their strong SCB buffered the risk for suicidality across pathways. Disadvantages in education, income and SCB were associated with the high risk for suicidality in Francophone whites. Francophone whites and Aboriginals had higher odds of suicidality compared to Anglophone whites; however, some pathways differed, indicating the need for targeted program planning and prevention efforts.

  14. A Google-based approach for monitoring suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Paola; Ustulin, Morena; Pizzorno, Enrico; Vichi, Monica; Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Amore, Mario

    2016-12-30

    People seeking information and news regarding suicide are likely to use the Internet. However, evidence of the relationship between suicide-related search volumes and national suicide-rates in different countries can be strikingly different. We aimed to investigate the relationship between suicide-rates and Google suicide-related search volumes in the Italian population (2008-2012) using the Italian mortality database that provided monthly national data concerning suicides (2008-2012). Moreover, this study aimed to identify future trends of national suicide rates on the basis of the results we obtained concerning the period 2013-14. Google Trends provided data of online monthly search-volumes of the term "suicide", "commit suicide" and "how to commit suicide" in Google Search and Google News (2008-2014). Google Search volumes for the term "suicide" lags suicide by three months (ρ=0.482, p-valuecommit suicide" and "how to commit suicide" and national suicide rates. Google News search volumes for the three terms resulted in white noise. Apparently, online searches for suicide-related terms in Italy are more likely to be linked to factors other than suicidiality such as personal interest and suicide bereavement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Suicide Trends Among and Within Urbanization Levels by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, Age Group, and Mechanism of Death - United States, 2001-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey-Stephenson, Asha Z; Crosby, Alex E; Jack, Shane P D; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Kresnow-Sedacca, Marcie-Jo

    2017-10-06

    Suicide is a public health problem and one of the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States. Substantial geographic variations in suicide rates exist, with suicides in rural areas occurring at much higher rates than those occurring in more urban areas. Understanding demographic trends and mechanisms of death among and within urbanization levels is important to developing and targeting future prevention efforts. 2001-2015. Mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) include demographic, geographic, and cause of death information derived from death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. NVSS was used to identify suicide deaths, defined by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) underlying cause of death codes X60-X84, Y87.0, and U03. This report examines annual county level trends in suicide rates during 2001-2015 among and within urbanization levels by select demographics and mechanisms of death. Counties were collapsed into three urbanization levels using the 2006 National Center for Health Statistics classification scheme. Suicide rates increased across the three urbanization levels, with higher rates in nonmetropolitan/rural counties than in medium/small or large metropolitan counties. Each urbanization level experienced substantial annual rate changes at different times during the study period. Across urbanization levels, suicide rates were consistently highest for men and non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Natives compared with rates for women and other racial/ethnic groups; however, rates were highest for non-Hispanic whites in more metropolitan counties. Trends indicate that suicide rates for non-Hispanic blacks were lowest in nonmetropolitan/rural counties and highest in more urban counties. Increases in suicide rates occurred for all age groups across urbanization levels, with the highest rates for persons aged 35-64 years. For mechanism of death, greater increases in rates

  16. Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.

    2012-01-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…

  17. Suicide by age, ethnic group, coroners' verdicts and country of birth - A three-year survey in inner London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Mak, [No Value; Wessely, S

    Background information on suicide in ethnic and immigrant groups in England and Wales is limited. Method A three-year (1991-1993) survey was conducted of all unnatural deaths of residents of an urban area. True likely and 'official' age-adjusted suicide rates were compared by ethnicity and, for

  18. Suicide in later life : A comparison between cases with early-onset and late-onset depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Kapur, Nay; Bickley, Harriet; Williams, Alyson; Purandare, Nitin

    Background: Suicide rates are high in elderly people with depressive disorder. We compared behavioural, clinical and care characteristics of depressed elderly patients, aged 60 years and over at the time of death by suicide, with an early-onset depression (EOD, onset before 60 years) with those

  19. Depressed suicide attempters with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.

  20. Suicidality in chronic pain: predictors of suicidal ideation in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triñanes, Yolanda; González-Villar, Alberto; Gómez-Perretta, Claudio; Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T

    2015-04-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) has been associated with a higher prevalence of suicidal behavior. Nevertheless, much remains unknown about suicide risk factors for this chronic pain disorder. In the present study, the relationship of suicidal ideation in FM with a number of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological variables was analyzed. One hundred seventeen women with Fibromyalgia were assessed. The procedure included the exploration of sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), health-related quality of life (SF-36 and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), the core symptoms of FM (visual analogue scales), and algometry of tender points. Suicidal ideation was evaluated by item 9 of the BDI. Patients with presence vs. absence of suicidal ideation were compared in all the variables studied. The prevalence of suicidal ideation among FM patients was 32.5%. Significant differences between patients with vs. without suicidal ideas emerged mainly for the various indices of depression. Patients with suicidal ideation also reported higher levels of anxiety, more day dysfunction due to sleepiness and more limitations due to emotional and physical problems. Logistic regression analysis revealed that cognitive depression symptoms such as BDI Self-Blame cluster are the more closely related to suicide ideation. The presence of suicidal ideation in FM patients is closely related to comorbid depression, anxiety and to a higher impact of the disease in daily life. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.

  1. Differences and similarities of risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts among patients with depressive or bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, Kari; Näätänen, Petri; Heikkinen, Martti; Koivisto, Maaria; Baryshnikov, Ilya; Karpov, Boris; Oksanen, Jorma; Melartin, Tarja; Suominen, Kirsi; Joffe, Grigori; Paunio, Tiina; Isometsä, Erkki

    2016-03-15

    Substantial literature exists on risk factors for suicidal behaviour. However, their comparative strength, independence and specificity for either suicidal ideation or suicide attempt(s) remain unclear. The Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium (HUPC) Study surveyed 287 psychiatric care patients with ICD-10-DCR depressive or bipolar disorders about lifetime suicidal behaviour, developmental history and attachment style, personality and psychological traits, current and lifetime symptom profiles, and life events. Psychiatric records were used to confirm diagnosis and complement information on suicide attempts. Multinomial regression models predicting lifetime suicidal ideation and single or repeated suicide attempts were generated. Overall, 21.6% patients had no lifetime suicidal behaviour, 33.8% had lifetime suicide ideation without attempts, and 17.1% had a single and 27.5% repeated suicide attempts. In univariate analyses, lifetime suicidal behaviour was associated with numerous factors. In multivariate models, suicidal ideation was independently predicted by younger age, severe depressive disorder, bipolar disorder type II/nos, hopelessness, and childhood physical abuse. Repeated suicide attempts were independently predicted by younger age, female sex, severe depressive disorder with or without psychotic symptoms, bipolar disorder type II/nos, alcohol use disorder, borderline personality disorder traits, and childhood physical abuse. Cross-sectional and retrospective study design, utilization of clinical diagnoses, and relatively low response rate. Risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts may diverge both qualitatively and in terms of dose response. When effects of risk factors from multiple domains are concurrently examined, proximal clinical characteristics remain the most robust. All risk factors cluster into the group of repeated attempters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing Facilitator Priorities of Suicide Survivor Support Groups: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Between Japanese and American Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelman, William; Feigelman, Beverly; Kawashima, Daisuke; Shiraga, Keisuke; Kawano, Kenji

    2017-08-01

    A total of 56 Japanese and 59 American survivor of suicide support group facilitators were asked to rank the mutual aid objectives of their groups following Shulman's scheme in terms of their frequency and importance. Both American and Japanese facilitators showed an emphasis on personal adaptation goals (such as helping bereaved feel less isolated in their grief or encouraging bereaved to share their coping with loss experiences) over collective goals (such as raising monies for more research on mental illness or trying to combat societal suicide stigma in their local communities). Differences were also noted with American facilitators evaluating helping with problem solving, sharing different ways of coping, viewing personal issues as societal problems, and advocating for promoting social change as significantly higher than the Japanese did. We believe some of these contrasts reflect differences in American and Japanese cultural values.

  3. Suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...... therapy compared with untreated patients. The Danish MS Registry, the Danish MS Treatment Registry and the Suicide Attempt Registry are linked and merged together using a person identification number given to all persons residing in Denmark. Among 404 MS patients, 15 patients had attempted suicide...

  4. The role of impulsivity in self-mutilators, suicide ideators and suicide attempters - a study of 1265 male incarcerated individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Jovanović, Nikolina; Podlesek, Anja; Roy, Alec; Rihmer, Zoltan; Maggi, Stefania; Marusic, Dragan; Cesaro, Caterina; Marusic, Andrej; Sarchiapone, Marco

    2010-06-01

    We explored differences between high and low-impulsive incarcerated individuals in the context of lifetime self-mutilation, suicide ideation and suicide attempt. A total of 1265 males detained in Italian penitentiary institutions were studied between January 2006 and December 2008. The study raters were specifically trained to discriminate between suicide attempters, ideators and self-mutilators. Participants completed the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Brown-Goodwin Assessment for Lifetime History of Aggression (BGLHA) and Buss and Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Based on BIS 7 total score distribution, two extreme quarters - high-impulsive group (n=306) and low-impulsive group (n=285) - were compared. Over 42% of participants had lifetime suicide ideation, 13% attempted suicide and 17% were self-mutilators. High-impulsive subjects were younger, more often single and with more prominent psychoticism, extraversion, aggression, hostility and resilience capacity. They were more frequently diagnosed with substance use disorders and engaged in self-mutilating behaviour. There was no difference in the rate of suicide attempts between the two groups. Although high-impulsive subjects were more prone to suicidal behaviour, it was not predicted by higher impulsivity when other psychological variables were accounted for. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cultural influences on suicide in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Roxanne; Metraux, Daniel; Tohen, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Following the economic crash of the late 1990s, the suicide rate in Japan increased to a rate of over 30 000 people per year and has been one of the highest in the world. Cultural factors have influenced this high suicide rate, such as a tradition of honorable suicide as well as permissive attitudes towards suicide that remain in modern times. Additionally, the economic downturn, particularly the trend of unemployment in middle-aged men, also played a significant role in the high suicide rate. The suicide rate has started to decrease in recent years perhaps in part due to suicide prevention measures undertaken by the government. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. [Suicide in Spain today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Spain presents one of the lowest suicide rates (8.7 per 100,000) but, as well as Ireland, it has also experienced one of the highest rate increases both within Europe and within the world. In our country, it can be observed an increase in the suicide rates from 1975 to 1994, being this increase greater in men than in women. It can also be noted that there was a stabilisation in the following years. Social factors, specially those which have to deal with gender roles and changes in these roles, are the most common explanations. Another possible explanation for the observed increase in mortality due to suicide among young men could be the AIDS epidemic and intravenous drug addiction, that was observed in Spain during the eighties and nineties. Furthermore, we are witnessing an epidemic related to violence against children and women. Literature strongly suggests that child abuse (psychological and sexual) is associated with increased suicide risk in adolescent or adult life. Women experience violence from their intimate partners and have a greater risk of suffering from chronic pain, diverse somatisations, greater substance use like drugs and alcohol, depression and suicide attempt. The association between work precariousness and suicide seems to be due to economic and social and family support factors, which can lead to greater vulnerability to mental health problems. These factors are of great relevance, since Spain presents one of the highest unemployment and temporary employment rates in the European Union. It seems reasonable that, due to the individualism that characterises the contemporary society, its demands and the new role of women in the work market that cause, among others, a greater difficulty in combining work and family life, are factors that could explain the lack of decrease in suicide rates.

  7. The contribution of charcoal burning to the rise and decline of suicides in Hong Kong from 1997-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C K; Yip, Paul S F; Caine, Eric D

    2011-09-01

    There has been scant research exploring the relationship between choice of method (means) of self-inflicted death, and broader social or contextual factors. The recent emergence and growth of suicide using carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning charcoal in an enclosed space (hereafter, "charcoal burning") was related to an increase in the overall suicide rate in Hong Kong. The growth of this method coincided with changing economic conditions. This paper expands upon previous work to explore possible relationships further. This study aims to discern the role of charcoal burning in overall suicide rate transition during times of both economic recession and expansion, as captured in the unemployment rate of Hong Kong, and to examine whether there was evidence of an effect from means-substitution. Age and gender specific suicide rates in Hong Kong by suicide methods from 1997 to 2007 were calculated. To model the transition of suicide rate by different methods, Poisson regression analyses were employed. Charcoal burning constituted 18.3% of all suicides, 88% of which involved individuals drawn from the middle years (25-59) of life. During both periods of rising and declining unemployment, charcoal burning played an important role in the changing suicide rates, and this effect was most prominent among for those in their middle years. Means-substitution was found among the married women during the period of rate advancement (1997-2003). Compared to others, working-age adults preferentially selected carbon monoxide poisoning from charcoal burning.

  8. Suicide ideation and attempts and bullying in children and adolescents: psychiatric and general population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L; Syed, Ehsan; Mahr, Fauzia; Siddiqui, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between bullying and suicide behavior yield mixed results. This is the first study comparing frequencies of suicide behavior in four bullying groups (bully, victim, bully/victim, and neither) in two large psychiatric and community samples of young children and adolescents. Maternal ratings of bullying and suicide ideation and attempts were analyzed for 1,291 children with psychiatric disorders and 658 children in the general population 6-18 years old. For both the psychiatric and community samples, suicide ideation and attempt scores for bully/victims were significantly higher than for victims only and for neither bullies nor victims. Differences between victims only and neither victims nor bullies were nonsignificant. Controlling for sadness and conduct problems, suicide behavior did not differ between the four bullying groups. All children with suicide attempts had a comorbid psychiatric disorder, as did all but two children with suicide ideation. Although the contribution of bullying per se to suicide behavior independent of sadness and conduct problems is small, bullying has obvious negative psychological consequences that make intervention imperative. Interventions need to focus on the psychopathology associated with being a victim and/or perpetrator of bullying in order to reduce suicide behavior.

  9. Differences Between Patients that Made an Impulsive or Premeditated Suicide Attempt in a Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Tovilla, Jorge E; Hernández Yánez, Homero Daniel; Peralta-Jiménez, Yesenia; Ramón-Frías, Teresa; Juárez-Rojop, Isela; Pool-García, Sherezada; Velázquez-Sánchez, Martha Patricia; López-Narvóez, Lilia; Fresán, Ana; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    We performed a study to identify differences between patients with impulsive suicide attempt and those with premeditated suicide attempt in a Mexican population. We studied 144 patients who recently attempted suicide. Impulsive and premeditated suicide attempts were evaluated with the Suicide Intent Scale. These data were divided according to the type of attempt. Subsequently, the characteristics between the two groups were compared. The rate of patients that made an impulsive attempt was 61.8% and only 9.7% of the patients carried out a premeditated suicide attempt. More years of schooling/education and less severity of the attempt were observed in patients that carried out an impulsive suicide attempt (p suicide attempt. Our findings demonstrate that there are clinical differences among the individuals who carried out an impulsive suicide attempt from those who premeditated an attempt in a Mexican population. As a result, when planning interventions and prevention efforts it may be helpful to consider these clinical differences and demographic characteristics. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Serum S100B: a potential biomarker for suicidality in adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Falcone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that patients suffering from depression or schizophrenia often have immunological alterations that can be detected in the blood. Others reported a possible link between inflammation, a microgliosis and the blood-brain barrier (BBB in suicidal patients. Serum S100B is a marker of BBB function commonly used to study cerebrovascular wall function. METHODS: We measured levels of S100B in serum of 40 adolescents with acute psychosis, 24 adolescents with mood disorders and 20 healthy controls. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM-IV TR criteria. We evaluated suicidal ideation using the suicidality subscale of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children (BPRS-C. RESULTS: Serum S100B levels were significantly higher (p<0.05 and correlated to severity of suicidal ideation in patients with psychosis or mood disorders, independent of psychiatric diagnosis. Patients with a BPRS-C suicidality subscores of 1-4 (low suicidality had mean serum S100B values +/- SEM of 0.152+/-0.020 ng/mL (n = 34 compared to those with BPRS-C suicidality subscores of 5-7 (high suicidality with a mean of 0.354+/-0.044 ng/mL (n = 30. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Our data support the use of S100B as an adjunctive biomarker to assess suicidal risk in patients with mood disorders or schizophrenia.

  11. VA Suicide Prevention Applications Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Brady; Morley, Sybil; Thompson, Caitlin; Kemp, Janet; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The US Department of Veterans Affairs’ Suicide Prevention Applications Network (SPAN) is a national system for suicide event tracking and case management. The objective of this study was to assess data on suicide attempts among people using Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services. Methods: We assessed the degree of data overlap on suicide attempters reported in SPAN and the VHA’s medical records from October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2014—overall, by year, and by region. Data on suicide attempters in the VHA’s medical records consisted of diagnoses documented with E95 codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. Results: Of 50 518 VHA patients who attempted suicide during the 4-year study period, data on fewer than half (41%) were reported in both SPAN and the medical records; nearly 65% of patients whose suicide attempt was recorded in SPAN had no data on attempted suicide in the VHA’s medical records. Conclusion: Evaluation of administrative data suggests that use of SPAN substantially increases the collection of data on suicide attempters as compared with the use of medical records alone, but neither SPAN nor the VHA’s medical records identify all suicide attempters. Further research is needed to better understand the strengths and limitations of both systems and how to best combine information across systems. PMID:28123228

  12. Suicide and unintentional poisoning mortality trends in the United States, 1987-2006: two unrelated phenomena?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frost James L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two counter trends in injury mortality have been separately reported in the US in recent times - a declining suicide rate and a rapidly rising unintentional poisoning mortality rate. Poisoning suicides are especially difficult to detect, and injury of undetermined intent is the underlying cause-of-death category most likely to reflect this difficulty. We compare suicide and poisoning mortality trends over two decades in a preliminary assessment of their independence and implications for suicide misclassification. Methods Description of overall and gender- and age-specific trends using national mortality data from WISQARS, the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Subjects were the 936,633 residents dying in the 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1987 and 2006 whose underlying cause of death was classified as suicide, unintentional poisoning, or injury mortality of undetermined intent. Results The official US suicide rate declined 18% between 1987 and 2000, from 12.71 to 10.43 deaths per 100,000 population. It then increased to 11.15 deaths per 100,000 by 2006, a 7% rise. By contrast to these much smaller rate changes for suicide, the unintentional poisoning mortality rate rose more than fourfold between 1987 and 2006, from 2.19 to 9.22 deaths per 100,000. Only the population aged 65 years and older showed a sustained decline in the suicide rate over the entire observation period. Consistently highest in gender-age comparisons, the elderly male rate declined by 35%. The elderly female rate declined by 43%. Unlike rate trends for the non-elderly, both declines appeared independent of corresponding mortality trends for unintentional poisoning and poisoning of undetermined intent. The elderly also deviated from younger counterparts by having a smaller proportion of their injury deaths of undetermined intent classified as poisoning

  13. Suicide in South Asia: a scoping review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordans, Mark J D; Kaufman, Anne; Brenman, Natassia; Adhikar, Ramesh; Luitel, Nagendra; Tol, Wietse; Komproe, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, suicide is an important cause of mortality. In low- and middle income settings, it is difficult to find unequivocal data to establish suicide rates. The objective of this review is to synthesize the reporting of suicide incidence in six south Asian countries. Methods We

  14. [Suicidal behaviour and attempted suicide occurring during assessment by the outreach psychiatric emergency service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, R F P; de Groot, M H; van Dassen, M; Deen, M L; de Beurs, D P

    The outreach emergency psychiatric service plays an important role in recognising, arranging interventions and preventing suicide and suicidal behaviour. However, little is known about the assessments that members of the emergency team make when faced with patients showing suicidal behaviour. AIM: To describe the relationships that are revealed between patient characteristics, suicidal thoughts and attempted suicide during assessments made by the emergency psychiatric service in The Hague. METHOD: The emergency service kept a detailed record of 14,705 consultations. We compared the characteristics of patients who had suicidal thoughts with those of patients who had no such thoughts and we also compared the characteristics of patients who had attempted to commit suicide with those of patients who had not. We drew these comparisons by using logistic regression models, adjusting for clustering. RESULTS: 32.2% of the patients showed signs of suicidal behaviour and 9.2 % appeared likely to attempt suicide. Suicidal behaviour occurred most often in patients with depression. Suicidal patients were more often admitted to hospital than were non-suicidal patients and they were more likely to have been referred by a general practitioner or a general hospital. Medication was the most frequent means employed in attempts to commit suicide. CONCLUSION: In about one third of the consultations of the outreach emergency psychiatric service, the patient showed suicidal behaviour. The actions and the policy of the emergency psychiatric service with regard to suicidal behaviour were diverse and dependent on factors that could change over the course of time.

  15. Clarifying the role of neuroticism in suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among women with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, L M; Flint, J; Kendler, K S

    2017-10-01

    Prior research consistently demonstrates that neuroticism increases risk for suicidal ideation, but the association between neuroticism and suicidal behavior has been inconsistent. Whereas neuroticism is recommended as an endophenotype for suicidality, the association of neuroticism with attempted suicide warrants clarification. In particular, prior research has not distinguished between correlates of attempted suicide, correlates of suicidal ideation, and correlates of comorbid psychopathology. The present study used the CONVERGE study, a sample of 5864 women with major depressive disorder (MD) and 5783 women without MD throughout China. Diagnoses, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicide were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Neuroticism was assessed with the neuroticism portion of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results replicate prior findings on the correlates of suicidal ideation, particularly elevated neuroticism among individuals who report prior suicidal ideation. Moreover, as compared with individuals who reported having experienced only suicidal ideation, neuroticism was associated with decreased likelihood of having attempted suicide. The association of neuroticism with suicidality is more complicated than has been previously described. Whereas neuroticism increases risk for suicidal ideation, neuroticism may decrease risk for a suicide attempt among individuals with suicidal ideation. These results have implications for the assessment of risk for a suicide attempt among individuals who report suicidal ideation and addresses prior discordant findings by clarifying the association between neuroticism and attempted suicide.

  16. Seasonal spring peaks of suicide in victims with and without prior history of hospitalization for mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolache, Teodor T; Mortensen, Preben B; Tonelli, Leonardo H; Jiao, Xiaolong; Frangakis, Constantin; Soriano, Joseph J; Qin, Ping

    2010-02-01

    Seasonal spring peaks of suicide are highly replicated, but their origin is poorly understood. As the peak of suicide in spring could be a consequence of decompensation of mood disorders in spring, we hypothesized that prior history of mood disorders is predictively associated with suicide in spring. We analyzed the monthly rates of suicide based upon all 37,987 suicide cases in the Danish Cause of Death Registry from 1970 to 2001. History of mood disorder was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and socioeconomical data from the Integrated Database for Labour Market Research. The monthly rate ratio of suicide relative to December was estimated using a Poisson regression. Seasonality of suicide between individuals with versus without hospitalization for mood disorders was compared using conditional logistic regression analyses with adjustment for income, marital status, place of residence, and method of suicide. A statistically significant spring peak in suicide was observed in both groups. A history of mood disorders was associated with an increased risk of suicide in spring (for males: RR=1.18, 95% CI 1.07-1.31; for females: RR=1.20, 95% CI 1.10-1.32). History of axis II disorders was not analyzed. Danish socioeconomical realities have only limited generalizability. The results support the need to further investigate if exacerbation of mood disorders in spring triggers seasonal peaks of suicide. Identifying triggers for seasonal spring peaks in suicide may lead to uncovering novel risk factors and therapeutic targets for suicide prevention. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mysore study: A study of suicide notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namratha, P; Kishor, M; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Raman, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. Recent data suggest South India as one of the regions with highest suicide rates in the world. In 2013, 134,799 people committed suicide in India according to the statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau. Suicide note is one of the most important sources to understand suicide, which may be beneficial in suicide prevention. Studies on suicidal notes from this part of the world are sparse. The aim was to study the themes in suicide notes that might be useful in prevention strategies. A descriptive study of all suicide notes of those individuals who committed suicide between 2010 and 2013 available with Police Department, Mysore district was obtained and analyzed. A total of 22 suicide note were available. A majority of suicide note was in age group of 16-40 years (86%) and most were men (59%). All suicide notes were handwritten, the majority (70%) in regional language Kannada. Length of notes varied from just few words to few pages. Contents of suicide notes included apology/shame/guilt (80%), love for those left behind (55%) and instruction regarding practical affairs (23%). Most have blamed none for the act (50%). 23% mentioned that they are committing suicide to prove their innocence. 32% mentioned a last wish. The majority of suicidal note contained "guilt" which is a strong indicator of possible depression in deceased. Creating awareness about suicide among public and ensuring access to professionals trained in suicide prevention is need of the hour in this part of the world.

  18. Suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia from 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard

    2014-01-01

    (65/77, 85.1%) among those using violent methods such as hanging and jumping compared to non-violent methods (43/84, 50.9%) such as ingesting chemicals and drugs (pdepression, and unwanted pregnancies. Many cases of suicide......BACKGROUND: Suicide attempts and suicides constitute a significant burden on communities and health systems, especially in low income countries. However, many low income countries lack epidemiological information on which to base future preventive strategies. This study reports on gender and age...... profiles as well as the likely background and means used for suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia. METHOD: This study presents 1124 cases from four different sources of information: (i) emergency ward data with suicide attempts by poisoning from the year 2007, (ii) psychiatric ward data including...

  19. Repeated suicide attempts and suicide among individuals with a first emergency department contact for attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyszyn, Izabela E.; Erlangsen, Annette; Hjorthoj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Emergency departments are important, albeit underutilized, sites for suicide prevention. Preventive strategies and interventions could benefit from a greater understanding of factors influencing the course of suicide risk after emergency department contact due to attempted suicide...... = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22-2.49). The cumulative rates of repeated attempts and suicide deaths in the total sample were particularly high within the first week of the index attempt, reaching 3.6% and 0.1%, respectively. Conclusions: Preventive efforts need to target the period close to discharge from....... The aim of our study was 2-fold: to identify predictors of repeated suicide attempts and suicide and to investigate the timing of these events. Methods: Data from Danish nationwide, longitudinal registers were used in this prospective, population-based study of all individuals first presenting...

  20. TPH2 -703G/T SNP may have important effect on susceptibility to suicidal behavior in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2009-04-30

    Serotonergic system-related genes can be good candidate genes for both major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behavior. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of serotonin 2A receptor gene -1438A/G SNP (HTR2A -1438A/G), tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene -703G/T SNP (TPH2 -703G/T) and serotonin 1A receptor C-1019G (HTR1A C-1019G) with suicidal behavior. One hundred and eighty one suicidal depressed patients and 143 non-suicidal depressed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder were recruited from patients who were admitted to Korea University Ansan Hospital. One hundred seventy six normal controls were healthy volunteers who were recruited by local advertisement. Patients and normal controls were genotyped for HTR2A -1438A/G, TPH2 -703G/T and 5-HT1A C-1019G. The suicidal depressed patients were evaluated by the lethality of individual suicide attempts using Weisman and Worden's risk-rescue rating (RRR) and the Lethality Suicide Attempt Rating Scale-updated (LSARS-II). In order to assess the severity of depressive symptoms of patients, Hamilton's Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was administered. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between groups by chi(2) statistics. Association of genotype of the candidate genes with the lethality of suicidal behavior was examined with ANOVA by comparing the mean scores of LSARS and RRR according to the genotype. There were statistically significant differences in the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of TPH2 -703G/T between the suicidal depressive group and the normal control group. The homozygous allele G (G/G genotype) frequency was significantly higher in suicidal depressed patients than in controls. However, no differences in either genotype distribution or in allele frequencies of HTR2A -1438A/G and HTR1A C-1019G were observed between the suicidal depressed patients, the non-suicidal depressed patients, and the normal controls. There were no differences in the

  1. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2018-04-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  2. Human rights of children with intellectual disabilities: comparing self-ratings and proxy ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huus, K; Granlund, M; Bornman, J; Lygnegård, F

    2015-11-01

    A child rights-based approach to research articulates well with Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and highlights the importance and value of including children's own views about aspects that concern them. The aim of this study is to compare children with intellectual disability's own ratings (as self-raters) to those of their primary caregivers (as proxy raters) regarding human rights of children. The study also aims to establish whether there is an inter-rater agreement between the self-raters and proxy raters concerning Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This study is nested in a larger study examining the human rights of children with intellectual disability in South Africa. In total, 162 children with intellectual disability from 11 schools across three provinces and their primary caregivers participated by answering parts of a Children's Rights Questionnaire (CRQ) developed by the researchers based on the United Nation's CRC. We compared the answers for six questions in the questionnaire that were addressed to self-raters (children) and proxy raters (primary caregivers) in the same way. Questions regarding basic needs, such as access to clean water or whether the child had food to eat at home, were answered similarly by self-raters and proxy raters. Larger differences were found when self-raters and proxy raters were asked about whether the child had things or friends to play with at home. Socio-economic variables seemed to affect whether self-raters and proxy raters answered similarly. The results underscore the importance of promoting children's rights to express themselves by considering the opinions of both the children as self-raters and their primary caregivers as proxy raters - not only the latter. The results indicate that it is especially important to include children's own voices when more complex needs are surveyed. Agreement between self- and proxy ratings could be affected by socio-economic circumstances.

  3. Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…

  4. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  5. Rational Suicide and AIDS: Considerations for the Psychotherapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on suicide and terminal illnesses. Examines suicide rate for persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Explores physical and psychosocial factors that may contribute to decision by person with AIDS to commit suicide. Applies Siegel's criteria for rational suicide to case of person with AIDS. Examines role of…

  6. The Netherlands and World War II, Jews and suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultee, W.C.; Luijkx, R.; van Tubergen, F.; Sher, L.; Vilens, A.

    2009-01-01

    World War II in the Netherlands lasted from May 1940 to May 1945. Suicide numbers peaked in these months, in the first case because of suicide by Jews, and in the second case because of suicide by collaborators with the German occupier. Suicide rates for Jews were higher in 1942 than in 1940 and

  7. Suicide Risk Associated with Experience of Violence and Impulsivity in Alcohol Dependent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Jokinen, Jussi; Runeson, Bo; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2016-01-19

    Alcohol dependence (AD) and aggression-impulsivity are both associated with increased suicide risk. There is a need to evaluate clinical tools in order to improve suicide risk assessment of AD patients. The present study consisted of 95 individuals with a diagnosis of AD, consecutively admitted for addiction treatment, compared with 95 healthy controls. Suicidal risk was assessed together with exposure of violence and impulsivity. AD patients reported significantly higher rates of exposure to violence in childhood, as measured by the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS), compared to HC. Within the AD group, individuals with history of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior reported higher levels of violence experience compared to AD individuals without such history. AD patients with previous suicidal ideation scored higher on self-reported impulsivity as assessed by the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Our main finding was that experience of trauma and expression of violent behavior, coupled with increased impulsivity are associated with an elevated suicide risk in AD patients. Future longitudinal studies assessing these traits are needed to evaluate their potential role in identifying AD patients at risk of future suicide.

  8. Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation and Its Association with Positive Affect in Working Women: A Day Reconstruction Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Yang, Ying; Yang, Huijing; Huebner, E Scott

    2017-01-01

    The suicide rate for females in China is the second highest worldwide, and China is the only country in the world in which the rate of suicides is higher for women than men. Affective instability has been shown to be a strong predictor of suicidal ideation, particularly among women. However, prior research has mainly focused on the impact of women's negative affect on suicidal ideation, ignoring the influence of positive affect on suicidal ideation. Studies have revealed that hopelessness, which is 1.3 times more important than depression for explaining suicidal ideation, is driven more by low levels of positive affect than by high levels of negative affect. Although positive affect has also been found to be related to suicidal ideation, and it demonstrates independent, beneficial effects on mental health, much remains to be learned about the association between positive affective instability and suicidal ideation. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Chinese working women and explored the differences between working women with and without suicidal ideation in the intensity and daily variability of positive affect. A total of 222 young working women of ages 22-36 years ( M = 27.64, SD = 3.73) were recruited from a free weekend psychology lecture. The women subsequently completed a daily diary Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) as well as a suicidal ideation questionnaire. We used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to analyze the data, and the results showed that: (1) 10.81% of participates reported suicidal ideation, the intensity of positive affect (happiness, warmth/friendliness, interest and relaxation/calmness) was significantly lower for women with suicidal ideation compared to women without suicidal ideation; (2) differing diurnal patterns of positive emotions were observed between women with and without suicidal ideation; women with suicidal ideation demonstrated a significantly lower trend of growth and a higher volatility in

  9. Suicide and crisis management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Chavan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide among the general population is a major public health problem and thus is a cause of concern for India. Since suicide is the outcome of multiple factors including socioeconomic, cultural, religious, and political; intervention and prevention strategies will vary from region to region. The legal framework and guidelines in a country can influence the suicide rate by eliminating barriers to mental health services, by adopting and strictly implementing policies on access to firearms for persons with risk of suicide, providing services for treatment of substance abuse patients, and by training of school personnel so that they can identify and assist vulnerable youth in accessing help. Mental Healthcare Bill (MHCB, 2013, will soon become the guiding law for the treatment and rehabilitation of persons suffering from mental health issues. Although MHCB has been criticized on many fronts, it still has laudable provisions that attempt to address reducing treatment gap through the proposal of availability of minimum mental health facilities at primary health center, proposing comprehensive treatment facilities including rehabilitation and the proposal to remove attempted suicide from Section 309 of IPS, etc., which might contribute in suicide prevention and other mental health crisis situations.

  10. The impact of pesticide suicide on the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu-Sen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide self-poisoning is the most commonly used suicide method worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a major public health problem. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in pesticide suicide and their impact on the spatial distribution of suicide in Taiwan. Methods Smoothed standardized mortality ratios for pesticide suicide (2002-2009 were mapped across Taiwan's 358 districts (median population aged 15 or above = 27 000, and their associations with the size of agricultural workforce were investigated using Bayesian hierarchical models. Results In 2002-2009 pesticide poisoning was the third most common suicide method in Taiwan, accounting for 13.6% (4913/36 110 of all suicides. Rates were higher in agricultural East and Central Taiwan and lower in major cities. Almost half (47% of all pesticide suicides occurred in areas where only 13% of Taiwan's population lived. The geographic distribution of overall suicides was more similar to that of pesticide suicides than non-pesticide suicides. Rural-urban differences in suicide were mostly due to pesticide suicide. Areas where a higher proportion of people worked in agriculture showed higher pesticide suicide rates (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] per standard deviation increase in the proportion of agricultural workers = 1.58, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] 1.44-1.74 and overall suicide rates (ARR = 1.06, 95% CrI 1.03-1.10 but lower non-pesticide suicide rates (ARR = 0.91, 95% CrI 0.87-0.95. Conclusion Easy access to pesticides appears to influence the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan, highlighting the potential benefits of targeted prevention strategies such as restricting access to highly toxic pesticides.

  11. The impact of pesticide suicide on the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan: a spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Sterne, Jonathan Ac; Eddleston, Michael; Lin, Jin-Jia; Gunnell, David

    2012-04-02

    Pesticide self-poisoning is the most commonly used suicide method worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a major public health problem. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in pesticide suicide and their impact on the spatial distribution of suicide in Taiwan. Smoothed standardized mortality ratios for pesticide suicide (2002-2009) were mapped across Taiwan's 358 districts (median population aged 15 or above = 27 000), and their associations with the size of agricultural workforce were investigated using Bayesian hierarchical models. In 2002-2009 pesticide poisoning was the third most common suicide method in Taiwan, accounting for 13.6% (4913/36 110) of all suicides. Rates were higher in agricultural East and Central Taiwan and lower in major cities. Almost half (47%) of all pesticide suicides occurred in areas where only 13% of Taiwan's population lived. The geographic distribution of overall suicides was more similar to that of pesticide suicides than non-pesticide suicides. Rural-urban differences in suicide were mostly due to pesticide suicide. Areas where a higher proportion of people worked in agriculture showed higher pesticide suicide rates (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] per standard deviation increase in the proportion of agricultural workers = 1.58, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] 1.44-1.74) and overall suicide rates (ARR = 1.06, 95% CrI 1.03-1.10) but lower non-pesticide suicide rates (ARR = 0.91, 95% CrI 0.87-0.95). Easy access to pesticides appears to influence the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan, highlighting the potential benefits of targeted prevention strategies such as restricting access to highly toxic pesticides.

  12. Gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Skopp, Nancy A; Zhang, Ying; Smolenski, Derek J

    2015-02-28

    In order to best tailor suicide prevention initiatives and programs, it is critical to gain an understanding of how service members׳ suicide risk factors may differ by gender. We aimed to better understand gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among soldiers, including demographic, military, mental health, and other risk factors. We also examined risk factors uniquely associated with suicide and suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective study of 1857 US Army soldiers who died by suicide or attempted suicide between 2008 and 2010 and had a Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Female and male soldiers had more similarities than differences when examining risk factors associated with suicide. The only gender difference approaching significance was workplace difficulties, which was more strongly associated with suicide for female soldiers, compared to their male counterparts. Among suicide decedents, the most common risk factor was having a failed intimate relationship in the 90 days prior to suicide. Among those who attempted suicide, the most common risk factor was a major psychiatric diagnosis. Better understanding both gender differences and risk factors uniquely associated with suicide has critical prevention and public health implications as we work to better understand preventable mortality in our youngest generation of service members. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. a comparative study of the drying rate constant, drying efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drying rate constants for the solar dryer and open- air sun dried bitter leaf were 0.8 and ... of cost benefit but the poorest when other considerations ... J. I. Eze, National Centre for Energy Research and Development (NCERD), University of ...

  14. Corn nitrogen fertilization rate tools compared over eight Midwest states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publicly-available nitrogen (N) rate recommendation tools are utilized to help maximize yield in corn production. These tools often fail when N is over-applied and results in excess N being lost to the environment, or when N is under-applied and results in decreased yield and economic returns. Perfo...

  15. Testing the warning signs of suicidal behavior among suicide ideators using the 2009 National survey on drug abuse and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, John F; Lester, David; McSwain, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    In order to help crisis counselors assess clients for their suicidal risk, in 2003 the American Association of Suicidology proposed ten warning signs, memorized through the acronym IS PATH WARM However, little research has been done investigating their effectiveness for predicting suicidal behavior The present study compared (1) suicide ideators with non-suicide ideator controls and (2) suicide ideators with suicide attempters on six of the IS PATH WARM warning signs, along with depression in the past year, marital status, and gender With regards to the comparison between suicide ideators and non-ideators, all variables but gender; abuse of alcohol in the past year, and anxiety in the past year were predictive of suicide ideation. However, when comparing suicide ideators who had not made a suicide attempt with those who had, only anger/aggression, depression in the past year, and marital status were predictive of a suicide attempt.

  16. Time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicides remain a major public health problem in Greenland. Their increase coincides with the modernization since 1950. Serious suicidal thoughts are reported by a significant proportion of participants in countrywide surveys. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the time trend by region of suicides...... and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit in Greenland. DESIGN: Data included the Greenland registry of causes of death for 1970-2011 and 2 cross-sectional health surveys carried out in 1993-1994 and 2005-2010 with 1,580 and 3,102 Inuit participants, respectively. RESULTS: Suicide rates were higher among men than...... women while the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was higher among women. Suicide rates for men and women together increased from 1960 to 1980 and have remain