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Sample records for sugarcane putative sucrose

  1. Identification and Functional Characterization of Sugarcane Invertase Inhibitor (ShINH1: A Potential Candidate for Reducing Pre- and Post-harvest Loss of Sucrose in Sugarcane

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    Suresha G. Shivalingamurthy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane, invertase enzymes play a key role in sucrose accumulation and are also involved in futile reactions where sucrose is continuously degraded during the pre- and post-harvest period, thereby reducing sugar yield and recovery. Invertase inhibitor (INVINH proteins play a key role in post-translation regulation of plant invertases through which sucrose hydrolysis is controlled. INVINH proteins are small (18 kDa members of the pectin methylesterase inhibitor superfamily and they are moderately conserved across plants. In the present study, we identified two INVINH genes from sugarcane, ShINH1 and ShINH2. In silico characterization of the encoded proteins revealed 43% sequence identity at the amino acid level, confirming the non-allelic nature of the proteins. The presence of putative signal peptide and subcellular targeting sequences revealed that ShINH1 and ShINH2 likely have apoplasmic and vacuolar localization, respectively. Experimental visualization of ShINH1–GFP revealed that ShINHI is indeed exported to the apoplast. Differential tissue-specific and developmental expression of ShINH1 between leaf, stalk, flower and root suggest that it plays a role in controlling source-sink metabolic regulation during sucrose accumulation in sugarcane. ShINH1 is expressed at relatively high levels in leaves and stalk compared to flowers and roots, and expression decreases significantly toward internodal maturity during stalk development. ShINH1 is expressed at variable levels in flowers with no specific association to floral maturity. Production of recombinant ShINH1 enabled experimental validation of protein function under in vitro conditions. Recombinant ShINH1 potently inhibited acid invertase (IC50 22.5 nM, making it a candidate for controlling pre- and post-harvest deterioration of sucrose in sugarcane. Our results indicate that ShINH1 and ShINH2 are likely to play a regulatory role in sucrose accumulation and contribute to the improvement

  2. Increased sink strength offsets the inhibitory effect of sucrose on sugarcane photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rafael V; Machado, Eduardo C; Magalhães Filho, José R; Lobo, Ana Karla M; Martins, Márcio O; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Spraying sucrose inhibits photosynthesis by impairing Rubisco activity and stomatal conductance (g s ), whereas increasing sink demand by partially darkening the plant stimulates sugarcane photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the stimulatory effect of darkness can offset the inhibitory effect of exogenous sucrose on photosynthesis. Source-sink relationship was perturbed in two sugarcane cultivars by imposing partial darkness, spraying a sucrose solution (50mM) and their combination. Five days after the onset of the treatments, the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (V cmax ) and the initial slope of A-C i curve (k) were estimated by measuring leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. Photosynthesis was inhibited by sucrose spraying in both genotypes, through decreases in V cmax , k, g s and ATP production driven by electron transport (J atp ). Photosynthesis of plants subjected to the combination of partial darkness and sucrose spraying was similar to photosynthesis of reference plants for both genotypes. Significant increases in V cmax , g s and J atp and marginal increases in k were noticed when combining partial darkness and sucrose spraying compared with sucrose spraying alone. Our data also revealed that increases in sink strength due to partial darkness offset the inhibition of sugarcane photosynthesis caused by sucrose spraying, enhancing the knowledge on endogenous regulation of sugarcane photosynthesis through the source-sink relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Diverse Exopolysaccharide Producing Bacteria Isolated from Milled Sugarcane: Implications for Cane Spoilage and Sucrose Yield.

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    Stanton Hector

    Full Text Available Bacterial deterioration of sugarcane during harvesting and processing is correlated with significant loss of sucrose yield and the accumulation of bacterial polysaccharides. Dextran, a homoglucan produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides, has been cited as the primary polysaccharide associated with sugarcane deterioration. A culture-based approach was used to isolate extracellular polysaccharide (EPS producing bacterial strains from milled sugarcane stalks. Ribosomal RNA sequencing analysis grouped 25 isolates into 4 genera. This study identified 2 bacterial genera not previously associated with EPS production or sucrose degradation. All isolates produced polysaccharide when grown in the presence of sucrose. Monosaccharide analysis of purified polymers by Gas Chromatography revealed 17 EPSs consisting solely of glucose (homoglucans, while the remainder contained traces of mannose or fructose. Dextranase treatment of polysaccharides yielded full digestion profiles for only 11 extracts. Incomplete hydrolysis profiles of the remaining polysaccharides suggest the release of longer oligosaccharides which may interfere with sucrose crystal formation.

  4. CHANGES OF SUCROSE CONTENT AND INVERTASE ACTIVITY DURING SUGARCANE STEM STORAGE

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    Tri Agus Siswoyo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Invertases (beta-D-fructofuranosidase, E.C. 3.2.1.26 are the key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in sugarcane plants. They are highly correlated with sucrose and reducing sugar contents during plant growth. The sugarcane plants have two kinds of invertases, namely neutral invertase (NI and acid invertase (AI. They have different function in sucrose accumulation. The research aimed to study the role of AI and NI in accumulation of reducing sugar during storage of sugarcane stems. Plant materials of 18-month-old field grown sugarcane of the commercial variety R-579 (wet-land and M 442-51 (dry-land were used. Three internodes were sampled to represent immature (internode 1-8/F1, maturing (internode 9-16/F2, and mature (internode 17-24/F3 stem tissues. All tissues were stored for 0-9 days at room temperature (28-32oC and each day, the samplewas extracted to determine invertase activity, total soluble protein, and sugar contents. This observation was valid for invertase activity expressed on a protein basis. At the initiateharvested (0-3 days, NI had a higher specific activity than AI in the sucrose-accumulating region of the sugarcane stems. Negative significant correlation was found between NI specific activity and sucrose accumulation (r2 = 0.41, P < 0.05. AI showed a higher specific activity after 4 days harvested and had negative correlation with sucrose accumulation (r2 = 0.40, P < 0.05. These results showed that NI could be more  responsible in sucrose hydrolisis than AI at early storage of sugarcane stems.

  5. Stalk and sucrose yield in response to nitrogen fertilization of sugarcane under reduced tillage

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    Caio Fortes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the agroindustrial production of sugarcane (millable stalks and sucrose yield after successive nitrogen fertilizations of plant cane and ratoons in a reduced tillage system. The experiment was carried out at Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, on a Rhodic Eutrustox soil, during four consecutive crop cycles (March 2005 to July 2009. Plant cane treatments consisted of N-urea levels (control, 40, 80, and 120 kg ha-1 N + 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 and K2O in furrow application. In the first and second ratoons, the plant cane plots were subdivided in N-ammonium nitrate treatments (control, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha-1 N + 150 kg ha-1 K2O as top dressing over rows. In the third ratoon, N fertilization was leveled to 100 kg ha-1 in all plots, including controls, to detect residual effects of previous fertilizations on the last crop's cycle. Sugarcane ratoon was mechanically harvested. A weighing truck was used to evaluate stalk yield (TCH, and samples were collected in the field for analysis of sugar content (TSH. Increasing N doses and meteorological conditions promote significant responses in TCH and TSH in cane plant and ratoons, in the average and accumulated yield of the consecutive crop cycles.

  6. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

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    Carla P. Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  7. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  8. Aspect of sucrose and its monomers from sugarcane juice submitted to different doses of cobalt-60 irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Roberta B.; Rela, Paulo; Arthur, Valter; Souza, Juliana Ap.; Prezotto, Mariane P.; Baptista, Antonio S.; Aguiar, Claudio L.

    2011-01-01

    The sugarcane is an important source of sucrose, which has been for years an essential source of energy, even for consumption as food or to produce liquid fuels. During the manufacturing process of crystal sugar, one of the main concerns is to avoid the inversion of sucrose to glucose and fructose, which could decrease the efficiency of crystal's production. The increase of sugar production and the growing interest of foreign market have encouraged the development of numerous investigative studying, searching for alternative technologies and a better efficiency of process of current clarifying, sulphitation, producing a whiter sugar in a process named 'sulfur free' with effectiveness production of crystal sucrose. In acid conditions or extended exposure to high temperatures, inversion reaction can occur, resulting in the formation of reducing sugars - i.e. mainly glucose and fructose - which affect the sucrose crystallization process. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of gamma irradiation (Co-60) on the rate of reducing sugars and also totals reducing sugars (i.e., sucrose, glucose and fructose) into sugarcane juice before and after treatment with different doses: 5, 10 and 20 kGy. Some parameters were evaluated, such as: Brix, pH, reducing sugar and total reducing sugar, and from the results it was observed that parameters such as Brix and pH did not have a significant variation between the control and irradiated samples, varying from 13.2 Brix (Control) to 13.0 Brix (20 kGy) and 5.26 (10KGy) to 5.36 (20 kGy), respectively. For the analysis of reducing sugar, the contents varying from 29 ±0.87 to 43±1.43 mg.mL -1 with the largest rise occurred in the sample irradiated at 20 kGy. For analysis of total reducing sugar, the results ranged from 12.02±0.46% in control sample to 11.93±0.21% in the sample which received the highest radiation dose, 20 kGy. Against these results, we could conclude that the impact of gamma radiation emitted to dose rate of 3.88 KGy

  9. Aspect of sucrose and its monomers from sugarcane juice submitted to different doses of cobalt-60 irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Roberta B.; Rela, Paulo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear da Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Souza, Juliana Ap.; Prezotto, Mariane P.; Baptista, Antonio S.; Aguiar, Claudio L., E-mail: claguiar@esalq.usp.br [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP, (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2011-07-01

    The sugarcane is an important source of sucrose, which has been for years an essential source of energy, even for consumption as food or to produce liquid fuels. During the manufacturing process of crystal sugar, one of the main concerns is to avoid the inversion of sucrose to glucose and fructose, which could decrease the efficiency of crystal's production. The increase of sugar production and the growing interest of foreign market have encouraged the development of numerous investigative studying, searching for alternative technologies and a better efficiency of process of current clarifying, sulphitation, producing a whiter sugar in a process named 'sulfur free' with effectiveness production of crystal sucrose. In acid conditions or extended exposure to high temperatures, inversion reaction can occur, resulting in the formation of reducing sugars - i.e. mainly glucose and fructose - which affect the sucrose crystallization process. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of gamma irradiation (Co-60) on the rate of reducing sugars and also totals reducing sugars (i.e., sucrose, glucose and fructose) into sugarcane juice before and after treatment with different doses: 5, 10 and 20 kGy. Some parameters were evaluated, such as: Brix, pH, reducing sugar and total reducing sugar, and from the results it was observed that parameters such as Brix and pH did not have a significant variation between the control and irradiated samples, varying from 13.2 Brix (Control) to 13.0 Brix (20 kGy) and 5.26 (10KGy) to 5.36 (20 kGy), respectively. For the analysis of reducing sugar, the contents varying from 29 {+-}0.87 to 43{+-}1.43 mg.mL{sup -1} with the largest rise occurred in the sample irradiated at 20 kGy. For analysis of total reducing sugar, the results ranged from 12.02{+-}0.46% in control sample to 11.93{+-}0.21% in the sample which received the highest radiation dose, 20 kGy. Against these results, we could conclude that the impact of gamma radiation

  10. Sucrose and color profiles in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) juice analyzed by UFLC-ELSD and Synapt High-Definition Mass Spectrometry during radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Roberta B.; Lima de Aguiar, Claudio; Galaverna, Renan; Baptista, Antonio S.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Arthur, Valter

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of electron beam irradiation (E-beam) on sugarcane juice and compared the results with preliminary tests performed on sugarcane juice treated with gamma irradiation. The samples were irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 kGy doses and results were compared wile control samples without irradiation. The results showed a significant increase (p≤0.05) of phenolic compounds in both treatments. We also observed increased contents of reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) for the samples irradiated with gamma rays and E-beam measured by the DNS methods. However, there was no significant difference of sugars content measured by chromatographic analyses performed in the sugarcane juice treated with E-beam. Therefore reducing sugars content could be overestimated by the DNS method because salts in sugarcane juice. The treatments were able to reduce sugarcane juice ICUMSA color intensity in both treatments with irradiation. E-beam reduced sugarcane juice color by roughly 49% compared the control, while gamma irradiation reduced it by 30%. - Highlights: • E-beam and γ-radiation were evaluated on color reduction of sugarcane juice. • Any severe degradation of sucrose content was perceived by E-beam or γ-radiation. • Little degradation of sucrose was associated to the increase on radiation doses. • Average color reduction was found to be 49% with E-beam and 30% with γ-radiation. • Synapt HDMS was able to confirm the presence of sucrose, glucose and fructose.

  11. Low Density Sugarcane Bagasse Particleboard Bonded with Citric Acid and Sucrose: Effect of board density and additive content

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    Rui Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of natural adhesives derived from non-fossil resources is very important for the future. In this study, by taking sugarcane bagasse as the raw material, without using any synthetic resin but adding some eco-friendly additives (citric acid and sucrose, low density particleboards were successfully developed. The effects of board density and additive contents on the physical and mechanical properties of the boards were investigated. The bonding mechanism was observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results showed that the low density bagasse particleboard had good mechanical properties and dimensional stability relative to its low board density. The modulus of rupture (MOR and the thickness swelling (TS values increased with increasing board density. The board with a density of higher than 0.40 g/cm³ and manufactured at 15% additive content can meet the requirements of the Chinese national forestry industry standard LY/T 1718-2007 (2007. Based on the results of the FTIR spectra, the additive not only increased the hydrogen bond but also the molecular linkage force (C-O-C. X-ray diffraction showed the relationship between crystallinity of cellulose and the strength of particleboard.

  12. Sucrose and color profiles in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) juice analyzed by UFLC-ELSD and Synapt High-Definition Mass Spectrometry during radiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Roberta B.; de Aguiar, Claudio Lima; Galaverna, Renan; Baptista, Antonio S.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Arthur, Valter

    2016-04-01

    This work evaluated the effect of electron beam irradiation (E-beam) on sugarcane juice and compared the results with preliminary tests performed on sugarcane juice treated with gamma irradiation. The samples were irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 kGy doses and results were compared wile control samples without irradiation. The results showed a significant increase (p≤0.05) of phenolic compounds in both treatments. We also observed increased contents of reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) for the samples irradiated with gamma rays and E-beam measured by the DNS methods. However, there was no significant difference of sugars content measured by chromatographic analyses performed in the sugarcane juice treated with E-beam. Therefore reducing sugars content could be overestimated by the DNS method because salts in sugarcane juice. The treatments were able to reduce sugarcane juice ICUMSA color intensity in both treatments with irradiation. E-beam reduced sugarcane juice color by roughly 49% compared the control, while gamma irradiation reduced it by 30%.

  13. Improved control of sucrose losses and clarified juice turbidity with lime saccharate in hot lime clarification of sugarcane juice and other comparisons with milk of lime

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative investigation of adding milk of lime (MOL) versus lime saccharate (SACCH) in hot lime clarification of juice at a U.S. sugarcane factory was undertaken to quantify performance across the 2009 processing season after a preliminary factory study in 2008. SACCH was prepared by adding hyd...

  14. Putative metabolic pathway of mannitol and sorbitol and in sugarcane Provável via metabólica de manitol e sorbitol em cana-de-açúcar

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    Celso Luís Marino

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Until the mid 1950s, boron was believed to play an important role in the transport of sugars in plants. However, boron actually depends on sugar alcohols to be taken up by the plant. In some cases, the main sugars involved in this process are sorbitol and mannitol which form stable complexes with boron. In this study, the sequences of the SugarCane EST Genome Project (SUCEST database were searched for enzymes involved in the metabolism of these sugars by comparing them with enzymes from other organisms. Eighteen contigs from sugarcane (Saccharum sp. presented high similarity with 11 enzymes involved in the putative biosynthetic pathway of sorbitol and mannitol from fructose in sugarcane. Seven of these contigs had high homology with sequences deposited in GenBank.Até meados da década de 50 acreditava-se que o boro tinha uma importante função no transporte de açúcares em plantas. Na verdade, o boro depende de açúcares álcoois para serem mobilizados dentro da planta. Em alguns organismos os principais açúcares envolvidos neste processo são o sorbitol e o manitol, que formam complexos estáveis com o micronutriente. O objetivo deste estudo foi procurar seqüências no banco de dados SugarCane EST Genome Project (SUCEST que codificam enzimas participantes na via metabólica destes açúcares através da comparação de enzimas de outros organismos. Dezoito "contigs" de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp. apresentaram similaridade com onze seqüências de enzimas que compõem a provável via metabólica de sorbitol e manitol a partir de frutose. Destes "contigs", sete apresentaram uma alta similaridade entre as seqüências depositadas no GenBank.

  15. Concentration on Callus Induction in Sugarcane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protocols for in vitro micro propagation of sugarcane through callus culture from foliage leaves (Bugun et al., ... protocol for specific genotypes. Sucrose is the most important type of sugar produced from sugarcane. ... laboratories via plant tissue culture technique. (Lorenzo and Ganzalez, 1998). This allows for an extended ...

  16. Determining sucrose recovery in Saccarrum officinarum L. using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation for sucrose content on single factor basis was caused by tillers, therefore, this character was the most important to increase overall sucrose of S. officinarum L. However, second variable model exhibited that tillers and internodal length were important traits for increasing overall sucrose in sugarcane.

  17. Crescimento mixotrófico de Nostoc sp. Glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-de-açúcar foram testados como substratos para produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.121 Mixotrophic growth of Nostoc sp. on glucose, sucrose and sugarcane molasses for phycobiliprotein production

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    Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Todos os substratos aumentaram a biomassa e ficobiliproteinas em relação ao controle, meio mineral BG11. Melaço de cana-de-açúcar foi o melhor substrato tanto para a produção de biomassa como de ficobiliproteinas. A maior produção de biomassa ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 5,7 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 2,5 g L-1 e sacarose 1,5 g L-1, sendo 2,5 e 4,8 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. A maior produção de ficobiliproteinas ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 12,5 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 1,0 g L-1 e sacarose 0,5 g L-1, 3,0 e 4,5 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. Nostoc sp. testado pode crescer mixotroficamente, usando glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-deaçúcar como substratos orgânicos, uma maior produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas podendo ser alcançada nessas condições quando comparadas com o crescimento autotrófico.Glucose, sacarose, and sugarcane molasses were tested as substrates for production of biomass and phycobiliproteins by Nostoc sp., varying their concentrations in relation to a mineral medium, BG11. All substrates increased the biomass and phycobiliproteins when compared with the control. Sugarcane molasses showed to be the best substrate for production of both biomass and phycobiliproteins. Greater biomass production occurred in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1 and it was 5.7 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 2.5 g L-1 and sucrose, in 1.5 g L-1, reaching 2.5 and 4.8 times greater than the control, respectively. For phycobiliproteins, the major production was in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1, 12.5 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 1.0 g L-1 and sucrose, in 0,5 g L-1, reaching 3.0 and 4.5 times greater than the control, respectively. The Nostoc sp. assayed can grow mixotrophically, using glucose, sucrose, and sugarcane molasses as organic substrates, and a

  18. Mixotrophic growth of Nostoc sp. on glucose, sucrose and sugarcane molasses for phycobiliprotein production = Crescimento mixotrófico de Nostoc sp. Glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-de-açúcar foram testados como substratos para produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose, sacarose, and sugarcane molasses were tested as substrates for production of biomass and phycobiliproteins by Nostoc sp., varying their concentrations in relation to a mineral medium, BG11. All substrates increased the biomass and phycobiliproteins when compared with the control. Sugarcane molasses showed to be thebest substrate for production of both biomass and phycobiliproteins. Greater biomass production occurred in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1 and it was 5.7 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 2.5 g L-1 and sucrose, in 1.5 g L-1, reaching 2.5 and 4.8 timesgreater than the control, respectively. For phycobiliproteins, the major production was in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1, 12.5 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 1.0 g L-1 and sucrose, in 0,5 g L-1, reaching 3.0 and 4.5 times greater than the control, respectively. The Nostoc sp. assayed can grow mixotrophically, using glucose, sucrose, and sugarcane molasses as organic substrates, and a greater production of biomass andphycobiliproteins can be reached when compared with the autotrophic growth.Todos os substratos aumentaram a biomassa e ficobiliproteinas emrelação ao controle, meio mineral BG11. Melaço de cana-de-açúcar foi o melhor substrato tanto para a produção de biomassa como de ficobiliproteinas. A maior produção de biomassa ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 5,7 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 2,5 g L-1 e sacarose 1,5 g L-1, sendo 2,5 e 4,8 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. A maior produção de ficobiliproteinas ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 12,5 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 1,0g L-1 e sacarose 0,5 g L-1, 3,0 e 4,5 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. Nostoc sp. testado pode crescer mixotroficamente, usando glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-deaçúcar como substratos orgânicos, uma maior produção de biomassa e

  19. AmSUT1, a Sucrose Transporter in Collection and Transport Phloem of the Putative Symplastic Phloem Loader Alonsoa meridionalis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, Christian; Stadler, Ruth; Sauer, Norbert; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2004-01-01

    A sucrose (Suc) transporter cDNA has been cloned from Alonsoa meridionalis, a member of the Scrophulariaceae. This plant species has an open minor vein configuration and translocates mainly raffinose and stachyose in addition to Suc in the phloem (C. Knop, O. Voitsekhovskaja, G. Lohaus [2001] Planta 213: 80–91). These are typical properties of symplastic phloem loaders. For functional characterization, AmSUT1 cDNA was expressed in bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Substrate and inhibitor specificities, energy dependence, and Km value of the protein agree well with the properties measured for other Suc transporters of apoplastic phloem loaders. A polyclonal antiserum against the 17 N-terminal amino acids of the A. meridionalis Suc transporter AmSUT1 was used to determine the cellular localization of the AmSUT1 protein. Using fluorescence labeling on sections from A. meridionalis leaves and stems, AmSUT1 was localized exclusively in phloem cells. Further histological characterization identified these cells as companion cells and sieve elements. p-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid affected the sugar exudation of cut leaves in such a way that the exudation rates of Suc and hexoses decreased, whereas those of raffinose and stachyose increased. The data presented indicate that phloem loading of Suc and retrieval of Suc in A. meridionalis are at least partly mediated by the activity of AmSUT1 in addition to symplastic phloem loading. PMID:14730068

  20. Comparative performance of sugarcane bagasse and black polyethylene as mulch for squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana processed 11.6 million mt of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.36 million mt of raw sugar and an estimated 3.5 million mt of bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the sucrose, water, and other impurities (filter mud) from the millable sugarcane. Typically...

  1. Sucrose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking hexose transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Anderson S; Miletti, Luiz C; Stambuk, Boris U

    2004-01-01

    Sucrose is the major carbon source used by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during production of baker's yeast, fuel ethanol and several distilled beverages. It is generally accepted that sucrose fermentation proceeds through extracellular hydrolysis of the sugar, mediated by the periplasmic invertase, producing glucose and fructose that are transported into the cells and metabolized. In the present work we analyzed the contribution to sucrose fermentation of a poorly characterized pathway of sucrose utilization by S. cerevisiae cells, the active transport of the sugar through the plasma membrane and its intracellular hydrolysis. A yeast strain that lacks the major hexose transporters (hxt1-hxt7 and gal2) is incapable of growing on or fermenting glucose or fructose. Our results show that this hxt-null strain is still able to ferment sucrose due to direct uptake of the sugar into the cells. Deletion of the AGT1 gene, which encodes a high-affinity sucrose-H(+) symporter, rendered cells incapable of sucrose fermentation. Since sucrose is not an inducer of the permease, expression of the AGT1 must be constitutive in order to allow growth of the hxt-null strain on sucrose. The molecular characterization of active sucrose transport and fermentation by S. cerevisiae cells opens new opportunities to optimize yeasts for sugarcane-based industrial processes.

  2. Lignocellulosic ethanol in Brazil : technical assessment of 1st and 2nd generation sugarcane ethanol in a Brazilian setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanovic, M.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is currently the largest ethanol-biofuel producer worldwide. Ethanol is produced by fermenting the sucrose part of the sugarcane that contains only one third of the sugarcane energy. The rest of the plant is burned to produce energy to run the process and to generate electricity that is sold

  3. Role of mutation breeding in sugarcane improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shama Rao, H.K.

    1980-01-01

    Bud setts of a popular sugarcane var. Co-419 irradiated with Co 60 gamma rays produced wide genetic variations. It was easy to rapidly multiply and maintain the mutants appearing in the MV1 generation by repeated vegetative propagations. Two promising mutants (TS-1 and TS-8) found stable over 8 vegetative generations show increased cane girth and weight, enhanced sucrose content and possible early maturity, as compared to var. Co-419. Large scale field trials under different agroclimatic conditions for yield and mill tests are in progress in collaboration with some of the leading sugar factories in the country. Simultaneously, they are also being tested for disease resistance and agronomic performance at several Government Sugarcane Research Stations. Results obtained so far are presented. (author)

  4. Sucrose and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a relationship most sweet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Wesley Leoricy; Raghavendran, Vijayendran; Stambuk, Boris Ugarte; Gombert, Andreas Karoly

    2016-02-01

    Sucrose is an abundant, readily available and inexpensive substrate for industrial biotechnology processes and its use is demonstrated with much success in the production of fuel ethanol in Brazil. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which naturally evolved to efficiently consume sugars such as sucrose, is one of the most important cell factories due to its robustness, stress tolerance, genetic accessibility, simple nutrient requirements and long history as an industrial workhorse. This minireview is focused on sucrose metabolism in S. cerevisiae, a rather unexplored subject in the scientific literature. An analysis of sucrose availability in nature and yeast sugar metabolism was performed, in order to understand the molecular background that makes S. cerevisiae consume this sugar efficiently. A historical overview on the use of sucrose and S. cerevisiae by humans is also presented considering sugarcane and sugarbeet as the main sources of this carbohydrate. Physiological aspects of sucrose consumption are compared with those concerning other economically relevant sugars. Also, metabolic engineering efforts to alter sucrose catabolism are presented in a chronological manner. In spite of its extensive use in yeast-based industries, a lot of basic and applied research on sucrose metabolism is imperative, mainly in fields such as genetics, physiology and metabolic engineering. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Sugarcane exergy calculation; Calculo de la exergia de la cana de azucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez P, Maria I.; Nebra P, Silvia A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: mariai@fem.unicamp.br.; sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; Martinez R, Arnaldo [Universidade de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica. Centro de Estudios de Refrigeracion Luis Fernando Brossard Perez]. E-mail: arnaldo@fim.ceefe.uo.edu.cu

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a sugarcane exergy calculation, carried out considering the material as constituted by dry fiber and juice, being the last one that includes all the sucrose and water present in sugarcane. The variation intervals of sugarcane chemical composition and consequently the chemical composition of fibre and juice were obtained from a bibliography research. the finals results show that, the fibre exergy, as was considered totally dry and without sucrose, is a function of it chemical composition only. The quotient between the exergy and low calorific value has a middle value of 1,14 and the middle value of it exergy was 2329 kJ/kg of cane. Based on the environmental reference proposed by Szargut for the sugarcane juice exergy determination, it was obtained that the mixture component of the juice exergy has no piratical influence in the total exergy juice value, being the value of the reactive exergy component the determining of a middle value of sugarcane juice exergy of 2814,25 kJ/kg of juice and 2380Kj/Kg of cane. The sugarcane exergy value obtained for 8-18% of fiber, 75-82% of water and 14.5-22% of sucrose was 4709Kj/kg of cane. (author)

  6. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -users. Using data from the oldest and some more recently established sugarcane outgrower schemes in Ethiopia, this paper examines the effects of compulsory participation in sugarcane outgrower production on total household income and asset stocks. Because outgrowers and non-outgrowers may have some differences...

  7. Identifying Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) and Developing Diagnostic Markers Linked to Orange Rust Resistance in Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiping; Islam, Md S; Sood, Sushma; Maya, Stephanie; Hanson, Erik A; Comstock, Jack; Wang, Jianping

    2018-01-01

    Sugarcane ( Saccharum spp.) is an important economic crop, contributing up to 80% of table sugar used in the world and has become a promising feedstock for biofuel production. Sugarcane production has been threatened by many diseases, and fungicide applications for disease control have been opted out for sustainable agriculture. Orange rust is one of the major diseases impacting sugarcane production worldwide. Identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and developing diagnostic markers are valuable for breeding programs to expedite release of superior sugarcane cultivars for disease control. In this study, an F 1 segregating population derived from a cross between two hybrid sugarcane clones, CP95-1039 and CP88-1762, was evaluated for orange rust resistance in replicated trails. Three QTLs controlling orange rust resistance in sugarcane (qORR109, qORR4 and qORR102) were identified for the first time ever, which can explain 58, 12 and 8% of the phenotypic variation, separately. We also characterized 1,574 sugarcane putative resistance ( R ) genes. These sugarcane putative R genes and simple sequence repeats in the QTL intervals were further used to develop diagnostic markers for marker-assisted selection of orange rust resistance. A PCR-based Resistance gene-derived maker, G1 was developed, which showed significant association with orange rust resistance. The putative QTLs and marker developed in this study can be effectively utilized in sugarcane breeding programs to facilitate the selection process, thus contributing to the sustainable agriculture for orange rust disease control.

  8. Compartmentation of sucrose during radial transfer in mature sorghum culm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vietor Donald M

    2007-06-01

    apoplasmic step. In contrast, much of the sucrose is transferred through a symplasmic path in growing internode (axillary branch tissue. These results contrast with the probable symplasmic path in mature culm of the closely related species, sugarcane. Phylogenetic variability exists in the compartmental path of radial transfer of sucrose in culms of the andropogonoid grasses.

  9. Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nagendra K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6% of which functions were determined in silico. High level of

  10. Sugarcane-Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sílvio

    2017-03-17

    Concepts such as biorefinery and green chemistry focus on the usage of biomass, as with the oil value chain. However, it can cause less negative impact on the environment. A biorefinery based on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as feedstock is an example, because it can integrate into the same physical space, of processes for obtaining biofuels (ethanol), chemicals (from sugars or ethanol), electricity, and heat.The use of sugarcane as feedstock for biorefineries is dictated by its potential to supply sugars, ethanol, natural polymers or macromolecules, organic matter, and other compounds and materials. By means of conversion processes (chemical, biochemical, and thermochemical), sugarcane biomass can be transformed into high-value bioproducts to replace petrochemicals, as a bioeconomy model.

  11. Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiebaut Flávia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species and DNA methylation (24-nt-species, respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome.

  12. RNAseq Transcriptional Profiling following Whip Development in Sugarcane Smut Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia D C Schaker

    Full Text Available Sugarcane smut disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Sporisorium scitamineum. The disease is characterized by the development of a whip-like structure from the primary meristems, where billions of teliospores are produced. Sugarcane smut also causes tillering and low sucrose and high fiber contents, reducing cane productivity. We investigated the biological events contributing to disease symptoms in a smut intermediate-resistant sugarcane genotype by examining the transcriptional profiles (RNAseq shortly after inoculating the plants and immediately after whip emission. The overall picture of disease progression suggests that premature transcriptional reprogramming of the shoot meristem functions continues until the emergence of the whip. The guidance of this altered pattern is potentially primarily related to auxin mobilization in addition to the involvement of other hormonal imbalances. The consequences associated with whip emission are the modulation of typical meristematic functions toward reproductive organ differentiation, requiring strong changes in carbon partitioning and energy production. These changes include the overexpression of genes coding for invertases and trehalose-6P synthase, as well as other enzymes from key metabolic pathways, such as from lignin biosynthesis. This is the first report describing changes in the transcriptional profiles following whip development, providing a hypothetical model and candidate genes to further study sugarcane smut disease progression.

  13. Converting developing and mature sugarcane carbohydrates into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolz, Carlos; De Leon, Roberto [Biochemical Engineering Center, Research Institute, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala (Guatemala)

    2010-10-15

    Experiments were performed employing cane particles obtained from sugarcane at different growth stages until maturation measuring the amount of ethanol produced and the carbohydrate consumption in order to estimate the sugarcane growth stage where both parameters were optimized. Two non-flowering commercial cane varieties NA56 and PR752002 were cultivated and samples taken at different time intervals. Two Saccharomyces cerevisae strains were also compared in the trials. Sucrose was poorly consumed in young cane, which was an unexpected result. Fructose on the other hand was the hexose that remained in the medium at the end of the fermentations specially when using mature sugarcane. There was an increasing trend in ethanol production as a function of days after planting (DAP) as expected; however, a plateau was reached after 225 DAP and the maximum value obtained was between 300 and 325 DAP. When these figures were compared with the corresponding DAP used for sugar production, only 25 days less were needed in the field for maximum ethanol production. On the other hand, it was clear from the data that cane harvesting for ethanol production should not be done after the recommended DAP for commercial sugar production. If this is done, the excess fructose present will not be completely utilized by yeast. Finally, it was observed that the yeast with more affinity for sugarcane fibers showed better ethanol yields in all samples tested. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. RNAseq Transcriptional Profiling following Whip Development in Sugarcane Smut Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguti, Lucas M.; Peters, Leila P.; Creste, Silvana; Aitken, Karen S.; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Kitajima, João P.; Vieira, Maria L. C.; Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia B.

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane smut disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Sporisorium scitamineum. The disease is characterized by the development of a whip-like structure from the primary meristems, where billions of teliospores are produced. Sugarcane smut also causes tillering and low sucrose and high fiber contents, reducing cane productivity. We investigated the biological events contributing to disease symptoms in a smut intermediate-resistant sugarcane genotype by examining the transcriptional profiles (RNAseq) shortly after inoculating the plants and immediately after whip emission. The overall picture of disease progression suggests that premature transcriptional reprogramming of the shoot meristem functions continues until the emergence of the whip. The guidance of this altered pattern is potentially primarily related to auxin mobilization in addition to the involvement of other hormonal imbalances. The consequences associated with whip emission are the modulation of typical meristematic functions toward reproductive organ differentiation, requiring strong changes in carbon partitioning and energy production. These changes include the overexpression of genes coding for invertases and trehalose-6P synthase, as well as other enzymes from key metabolic pathways, such as from lignin biosynthesis. This is the first report describing changes in the transcriptional profiles following whip development, providing a hypothetical model and candidate genes to further study sugarcane smut disease progression. PMID:27583836

  15. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant...

  16. Sugarcane Aphid in Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Logan

    2018-01-01

    This article is intended for readers in the production agriculture industry who deal with grain sorghum throughout the growing season. This publication will discuss the impacts of the sugarcane aphid in various crops and the ways to manage and identify them as they continue to advance north.

  17. Residual recovery and yield performance of nitrogen fertilizer applied at sugarcane planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe low effectiveness of nitrogen fertilizer (N is a substantial concern that threatens global sugarcane production. The aim of the research reported in this paper was to assess the residual effect of N-fertilizer applied at sugarcane planting over four crop seasons in relation to sugarcane crop yield. Toward this end three field experiments were established in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, during February of 2005 and July of 2009, in a randomized block design with four treatments: 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1 of N applied as urea during sugarcane planting. Within each plot, a microplot was established to which 15N-labeled urea was applied. The application of N at planting increased plant cane yield in two of the three sites and sucrose content at the other, whereas the only residual effect was higher sucrose content in one of the following ratoons. The combined effect was an increase in sugar yield for three of the 11 crop seasons evaluated. Over the crop cycle of a plant cane and three ratoon crops, only 35 % of the applied N was recovered, split 75, 13, 7 and 5 % in the plant cane, first, second and third ratoons, respectively. These findings document the low efficiency of N recovery by sugarcane, which increases the risk that excessive N fertilization will reduce profitability and have an adverse effect on the environment.

  18. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minussi Rosana Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL and polygalacturonase (PG by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3 in a rotary shaker (150 rpm for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium promoted higher PL activity and mycelial dry weight when compared to pectin and the use of sugar-cane juice and yeast extract yielded levels of PG activity that were similar to those obtained with sucrose-yeast extract or pectin. The results indicated that, even at low concentrations, sugar-cane juice was capable of inducing pectin lyase and polygalacturonase with no cellulase activity in P. griseoroseum.

  19. Sucrose assimilation and the role of sucrose transporters in plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (25), pp. ... Review. Sucrose assimilation and the role of sucrose transporters in plant wound response. Omodele ... Key words: Sucrose transporters, Plasma membrane, carbohydrate, sieve element, source-sink. ... pathogens (Paul et al., 2000) and results in a severe.

  20. Butanol-acetone fermentation of sugar-cane juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo, E V

    1958-01-01

    Sixteen new varieties of Clostridium acetobutylicum of varying activity were isolated from different sources. The most active one was obtained from sugar-cane roots. The effects of 86 additives were studied. The following formulation gave a 32% yield (with respect to sucrose) of solvent mixture (73% BuOH, 19 to 23% acetone, and 3 to 4% EtOH) sugar-cane juice (I) (20/sup 0/ Brix) 250 ml, ground Vicia sativa 1 g, KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ 2.5 g, CaCO/sub 3/ 4 g, H/sub 2/O 1000 ml; the pH of this solution was 5.6 to 6.0. Unclarified, it was inverted by invertase; the other components were added and the mixture was sterilized (20 minutes, 15 pounds).

  1. Spittlebug impacts on sugarcane quality and ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Ravaneli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impacts of spittlebug (Mahanarva fimbriolata attack on sugarcane quality and ethanol production. Technological and microbiological parameters of juice and fermentation process were evaluated in ten fermentation cycles and two harvest seasons. Treatments consisted of different spittlebug stalk damage levels: control, with 100% of apparently healthy stalks; medium, with 15% of damaged or dry stalks (DDS; high, with 30% of DDS; and very high, with 60% of DDS. Spittlebug attack caused significant losses in cane quality, reducing total soluble solids, sucrose content, total reducing sugars, and pH, and increasing total phenolic compounds, and total and volatile juice acidity. The fermentation process was also significantly affected, resulting in lower ethanol content in wine. There was an increase in acetaldehyde concentration in the distillate. The spittlebug attack caused negative impacts on sugarcane quality and fermentation process, and these impacts are stronger in late season harvests.

  2. Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

  3. Biochemical conversion of sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with co-substrates for xylitol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, A F; Costa, I A L; Silva, D D V; Dussán, K J; Villela, T R; Canettieri, E V; Carvalho, J A; Soares Neto, T G; Felipe, M G A

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnological production of xylitol is an attractive route to add value to a sugarcane biorefinery, through utilization of the hemicellulosic fraction of sugarcane straw, whose availability is increasing in Brazil. Herein, supplementation of the sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate (xylose 57gL(-1)) with maltose, sucrose, cellobiose or glycerol was proposed, and their effect as co-substrates on xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 was studied. Sucrose (10gL(-1)) and glycerol (0.7gL(-1)) supplementation led to significant increase of 8.88% and 6.86% on xylose uptake rate (1.11gL(-1)h(-1) and 1.09gL(-1)), respectively, but only with sucrose, significant increments of 12.88% and 8.69% on final xylitol concentration (36.11gL(-1)) and volumetric productivity (0.75gL(-1)h(-1)), respectively, were achieved. Based on these results, utilization of complex sources of sucrose, derived from agro-industries, as nutritional supplementation for xylitol production can be proposed as a strategy for improving the yeast performance and reducing the cost of this bioprocess by replacing more expensive nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oligosaccharides Derived from Sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsan, Pierre F.; Ouarné, Francois

    Sucrose is a non-reducing disaccharide, consisting of an α-D-glucopyranosyl residue and a β-D-fructofuranosyl residue linked covalently by their respective anomeric carbons (α-D-glucopyranosyl-1,2-β-D-fructofuranoside). It is not just a simple disaccharide, among others: in fact, the energy of its glycosidic bond is higher than that of a usual glycosidic bond. It is equal to 27.6 kJ/mol, which is similar to the energy of a nucleotide-sugar bond as in UDP-glucose or ADP-glucose. This means that sucrose is a protected and activated form of D-glucose (as well as of D-fructose), which plays a key role in the metabolism of plants, for a wide variety of synthesis reactions.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461

  6. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Gustavo H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB. Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.

  7. Sucrose Phosphate Synthase and Sucrose Accumulation at Low Temperature 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Charles L.; Huber, Joan L. A.; Huber, Steven C.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of growth temperature on the free sugar and sucrose phosphate synthase content and activity of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaf tissue was studied. When plants were grown at 25°C for 3 weeks and then transferred to a constant 5°C, sucrose, glucose, and fructose accumulated to high levels during a 14-d period. Predawn sugar levels increased from 14- to 20-fold over the levels present at the outset of the low-temperature treatment. Sucrose was the most abundant free sugar before, during, and after exposure to 5°C. Leaf sucrose phosphate synthase activity was significantly increased by the low-temperature treatment, whereas sucrose synthase and invertases were not. Synthesis of the sucrose phosphate synthase subunit was increased during and after low-temperature exposure and paralleled an increase in the steady-state level of the subunit. The increases in sucrose and its primary biosynthetic enzyme, sucrose phosphate synthase, are discussed in relation to adjustment of metabolism to low nonfreezing temperature and freezing stress tolerance. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16652990

  8. Genetic Divergence in Sugarcane Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Mohammad; Rahman, Hidayatur; Gul, Rahmani; Ali, Amjad; Khalid, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    To assess genetic divergence of sugarcane germplasm, an experiment comprising 25 sugarcane genotypes was conducted at Sugar Crops Research Institute (SCRI), Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, in quadruple lattice design during 2008-09. Among the 14 parameters evaluated, majority exhibited significant differences while some showed nonsignificant mean squares. The initial correlation matrix revealed medium to high correlations. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that there were two pr...

  9. Frost Damage Detection in Sugarcane Crop Using Modis Images and Srtm Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudorff, B.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Adami, M.

    2011-12-01

    Brazil is the largest world producer of sugarcane which is used to produce almost equal proportions of either sugar (food) or ethanol (biofuel). In recent years sugarcane crop production has increased fast to meet the growing market demand for sugar and ethanol. This increase has been mainly due to expansion in crop area, but sugarcane production is also subjected to several factors that influence both the agricultural crop yield (tons of stalks/ha) and the industrial yield (kg of sugar/ton of stalks). Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop that experiences major growth during spring and summer seasons with large demands for water and high temperatures to produce good stalk formation (crop yield). The harvest is performed mainly during fall and winter seasons when water availability and temperature should be low in order to accumulate sucrose in the stalks (industrial yield). These favorable climatic conditions for sugarcane crop are found in several regions in Brazil, particularly in São Paulo state, which is the major sugarcane producer in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production. Despite the favorable climate in São Paulo state there is a certain probability of frost occurrence from time to time that has a negative impact on sugarcane crop, particularly on industrial yield, reducing the amount of sugar in the stalks; having consequences on price increase and product shortage. To evaluate the impact of frost on sugarcane crop, in the field, on a state level, is not a trivial task; however, this information is relevant due to its direct impact on the consumer market. Remote sensing images allow a synoptic view and present great potential to monitor large sugarcane plantations as has been done since 2003 in São Paulo state by the Canasat Project with Landsat type images (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/). Images acquired from sensors with high temporal resolution such as MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) present the

  10. Deregulation of sucrose-controlled translation of a bZIP-type transcription factor results in sucrose accumulation in leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Thalor

    Full Text Available Sucrose is known to repress the translation of Arabidopsis thaliana AtbZIP11 transcript which encodes a protein belonging to the group of S (S--stands for small basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP-type transcription factor. This repression is called sucrose-induced repression of translation (SIRT. It is mediated through the sucrose-controlled upstream open reading frame (SC-uORF found in the AtbZIP11 transcript. The SIRT is reported for 4 other genes belonging to the group of S bZIP in Arabidopsis. Tobacco tbz17 is phylogenetically closely related to AtbZIP11 and carries a putative SC-uORF in its 5'-leader region. Here we demonstrate that tbz17 exhibits SIRT mediated by its SC-uORF in a manner similar to genes belonging to the S bZIP group of the Arabidopsis genus. Furthermore, constitutive transgenic expression of tbz17 lacking its 5'-leader region containing the SC-uORF leads to production of tobacco plants with thicker leaves composed of enlarged cells with 3-4 times higher sucrose content compared to wild type plants. Our finding provides a novel strategy to generate plants with high sucrose content.

  11. Deregulation of sucrose-controlled translation of a bZIP-type transcription factor results in sucrose accumulation in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalor, Sunil Kumar; Berberich, Thomas; Lee, Sung Shin; Yang, Seung Hwan; Zhu, Xujun; Imai, Ryozo; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose is known to repress the translation of Arabidopsis thaliana AtbZIP11 transcript which encodes a protein belonging to the group of S (S--stands for small) basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factor. This repression is called sucrose-induced repression of translation (SIRT). It is mediated through the sucrose-controlled upstream open reading frame (SC-uORF) found in the AtbZIP11 transcript. The SIRT is reported for 4 other genes belonging to the group of S bZIP in Arabidopsis. Tobacco tbz17 is phylogenetically closely related to AtbZIP11 and carries a putative SC-uORF in its 5'-leader region. Here we demonstrate that tbz17 exhibits SIRT mediated by its SC-uORF in a manner similar to genes belonging to the S bZIP group of the Arabidopsis genus. Furthermore, constitutive transgenic expression of tbz17 lacking its 5'-leader region containing the SC-uORF leads to production of tobacco plants with thicker leaves composed of enlarged cells with 3-4 times higher sucrose content compared to wild type plants. Our finding provides a novel strategy to generate plants with high sucrose content.

  12. Kenaf and cowpea as sugarcane cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cover crops during the fallow period prior to planting sugarcane has the potential to influence not only the following sugarcane crop, but the economics of the production system as a whole. Typically, a Louisiana sugarcane field is replanted every four years due to declining yields, and,...

  13. Sugarcane for Bioethanol: Soil and Environmental Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cultivation of sugarcane for bioethanol is increasing and the area under sugarcane is expanding. Much of the sugar for bioethanol comes from large plantations where it is grown with relatively high inputs. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil because of the use of heavy machinery and because

  14. ISOLASI cDNA SUCROSE TRANSPORTER (SUT DARI BATANG TANAMAN TEBU (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Slameto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose Transporter (SUT is kind of protein transporter that control in sucrose translocation. Sucrose Transporter is intermediate in translocation of sucrose from apoplasmic to simplasmic. SUT facilitates sucrose transportation from vascular tissues to parenchyma cells toward in node sugarcane stem. This research was purposed to isolate cDNA SUT from sugarcane stem, and cloned in Escherichia coli strain DH5α. Total RNA of sugarcane stem was isolated by single step method, then add with oligo dT in order to obtain the first strand of SUT cDNA then used as template for PCR. The primer used for PCR is 5’ –ggg ctg att gtg gcc atg tc- ‘3 (SUT-F and 5’ –tgc cct ttg tct ccg gaa cc- ‘3 (SUT-R. PCR was programmed as follow denaturation at 94°C for 2 minutes and 30 second, annealing at 54°C for 30 s, extension at 72°C 2 min and 7 min, and storage at 4°C for unlimited, It was for 30 cycles. Complementary DNA SUT from PCR ligalized to pTOPO bunt-end, then it cloned in to E. coli strain DH5α. The cloning resulted then be sequenced in order to observe the homologues with other nucleotides sequences of some plant using BLASTn program in GENE BANK NCBI and the level of homology determined by Genetyx program. The concentrated of total RNA isolated was 5,024 μg/μl, with purity of 1,85. Complementary DNA SUT fragment from PCR with size 2037 bp appropriated to the both of primer was used. Complementary DNA SUT fragment showed by analyzed some of restriction enzyme e.g. EcoRI, PstI and BamHI. Homologues of this cDNA SUT fragment was 100% to SoSUT 2A of sugarcane stem and 84% to OsSUT of rice plant (Casu et al ., 2003.

  15. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. França

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A set of genes related to secondary metabolism was extracted from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database and was used to investigate both the gene expression pattern of key enzymes regulating the main biosynthetic secondary metabolism pathways and the major classes of metabolites involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental and developmental cues. The SUCEST database was constructed with tissues in different physiological conditions which had been collected under varied situation of environmental stress. This database allows researchers to identify and characterize the expressed genes of a wide range of putative enzymes able to catalyze steps in the phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and other pathways of the special metabolic mechanisms involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental changes. Our results show that sugarcane cDNAs encoded putative ultra-violet induced sesquiterpene cyclases (SC; chalcone synthase (CHS, the first enzyme in the pathway branch for flavonoid biosynthesis; isoflavone synthase (IFS, involved in plant defense and root nodulation; isoflavone reductase (IFR, a key enzyme in phenylpropanoid phytoalexin biosynthesis; and caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin cell wall precursors. High levels of CHS transcripts from plantlets infected with Herbaspirillum rubri or Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans suggests that agents of biotic stress can elicit flavonoid biosynthesis in sugarcane. From this data we have predicted the profile of isoprenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in sugarcane and pointed the branches of secondary metabolism activated during tissue-specific stages of development and the adaptive response of sugarcane to agents of biotic and abiotic stress, although our assignment of enzyme function should be confirmed by careful biochemical and genetic supporting evidence.Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de gerar uma coleção de genes

  16. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi Furtado, Andre; Gaya Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne; Barbosa Cortez, Luis Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  17. Red rot resistant transgenic sugarcane developed through expression of β-1,3-glucanase gene.

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    Shivani Nayyar

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is a commercially important crop, vulnerable to fungal disease red rot caused by Colletotrichum falcatum Went. The pathogen attacks sucrose accumulating parenchyma cells of cane stalk leading to severe losses in cane yield and sugar recovery. We report development of red rot resistant transgenic sugarcane through expression of β-1,3-glucanase gene from Trichoderma spp. The transgene integration and its expression were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in first clonal generation raised from T0 plants revealing up to 4.4-fold higher expression, in comparison to non-transgenic sugarcane. Bioassay of transgenic plants with two virulent C. falcatum pathotypes, Cf 08 and Cf 09 causing red rot disease demonstrated that some plants were resistant to Cf 08 and moderately resistant to Cf 09. The electron micrographs of sucrose storing stalk parenchyma cells from these plants displayed characteristic sucrose-filled cells inhibiting Cf 08 hyphae and lysis of Cf 09 hyphae; in contrast, the cells of susceptible plants were sucrose depleted and prone to both the pathotypes. The transgene expression was up-regulated (up to 2.0-fold in leaves and 5.0-fold in roots after infection, as compared to before infection in resistant plants. The transgene was successfully transmitted to second clonal generation raised from resistant transgenic plants. β-1,3-glucanase protein structural model revealed that active sites Glutamate 628 and Aspartate 569 of the catalytic domain acted as proton donor and nucleophile having role in cleaving β-1,3-glycosidic bonds and pathogen hyphal lysis.

  18. In-vitro regeneration of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azu, E.

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars Barbados 46 (B46), Natal Coimbatore 339 (NC0339), Ragna, local sugarcane cultivar (LSC) and Kenana (Kn) series sourced from Kyebi, Akorley, Subriso, Jejeti and the University of Ghana Agriculture Research Station, Kpong, were evaluated for sterilisation, multiplication and rooting. An efficient double sterilisation protocol was achieved by immersing axillary buds pre-treated with Goldazim (active ingredient carbendazim) in 0.2% mercuric chloride for 7 minutes followed by 0.1 % mercuric chloride for 3 minutes. At this optimal sterilisation regime, 70% of the cultured buds were decontaminated. However, post sterilisation survival required the incorporation of 0.002g/L and 0.001g/L of amphotericin Band cefotaxime respectively in the culture medium indicating that the contaminants were endophytic. Evaluation for multiple shoot induction was conducted using Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal salts (MS) medium supplemented with 25g/L sucrose, 2mg/L IAA, 2mg/L GA 3 , 3g/L activated charcoal and varying concentrations (mg/L) of BAP or kinetin. The response of the cultivars to shoot induction varied with Ragna producing the highest number of shoots (2.17) on 5mg/L BAP indicating genotypic differences. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at a concentration of 5mg/L induced the highest frequency (65%) of roots in all the cultivars tested. Post-flask acclimatization and survival of plantlets was high and independent of the age at which regenerated plantlets were transferred to the plant barn for weaning. This procedure could therefore be useful for regenerating sugarcane plantlets as well as provide target tissues for genetic transformation studies (au).

  19. Transgenic Sugarcane Resistant to Sorghum mosaic virus Based on Coat Protein Gene Silencing by RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the critical diseases of sugarcane, sugarcane mosaic disease can lead to serious decline in stalk yield and sucrose content. It is mainly caused by Potyvirus sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV and/or Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV, with additional differences in viral strains. RNA interference (RNAi is a novel strategy for producing viral resistant plants. In this study, based on multiple sequence alignment conducted on genomic sequences of different strains and isolates of SrMV, the conserved region of coat protein (CP genes was selected as the target gene and the interference sequence with size of 423 bp in length was obtained through PCR amplification. The RNAi vector pGII00-HACP with an expression cassette containing both hairpin interference sequence and cp4-epsps herbicide-tolerant gene was transferred to sugarcane cultivar ROC22 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. After herbicide screening, PCR molecular identification, and artificial inoculation challenge, anti-SrMV positive transgenic lines were successfully obtained. SrMV resistance rate of the transgenic lines with the interference sequence was 87.5% based on SrMV challenge by artificial inoculation. The genetically modified SrMV-resistant lines of cultivar ROC22 provide resistant germplasm for breeding lines and can also serve as resistant lines having the same genetic background for study of resistance mechanisms.

  20. Cloning and sequence analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase gene from varieties of Pennisetum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H C; Lu, H B; Yang, F Y; Liu, S J; Bai, C J; Zhang, Y W

    2015-03-31

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is an enzyme used by higher plants for sucrose synthesis. In this study, three primer sets were designed on the basis of known SPS sequences from maize (GenBank: NM_001112224.1) and sugarcane (GenBank: JN584485.1), and five novel SPS genes were identified by RT-PCR from the genomes of Pennisetum spp (the hybrid P. americanum x P. purpureum, P. purpureum Schum., P. purpureum Schum. cv. Red, P. purpureum Schum. cv. Taiwan, and P. purpureum Schum. cv. Mott). The cloned sequences showed 99.9% identity and 80-88% similarity to the SPS sequences of other plants. The SPS gene of hybrid Pennisetum had one nucleotide and four amino acid polymorphisms compared to the other four germplasms, and cluster analysis was performed to assess genetic diversity in this species. Additional characterization of the SPS gene product can potentially allow Pennisetum to be exploited as a biofuel source.

  1. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from...

  2. SYNTHESIS OF HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL FROM SUCROSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from sucrose was investigated in the ... It was concluded that IL 1-(3-sulfonic acid)-propyl-3- ... imidazolium chloride was also used as both solvent and catalyst for the reactions of fructose and.

  3. Sucrose ingestion causes opioid analgesia

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    F.N. Segato

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The intake of saccharin solutions for relatively long periods of time causes analgesia in rats, as measured in the hot-plate test, an experimental procedure involving supraspinal components. In order to investigate the effects of sweet substance intake on pain modulation using a different model, male albino Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g received either tap water or sucrose solutions (250 g/l for 1 day or 14 days as their only source of liquid. Each rat consumed an average of 15.6 g sucrose/day. Their tail withdrawal latencies in the tail-flick test (probably a spinal reflex were measured immediately before and after this treatment. An analgesia index was calculated from the withdrawal latencies before and after treatment. The indexes (mean ± SEM, N = 12 for the groups receiving tap water for 1 day or 14 days, and sucrose solution for 1 day or 14 days were 0.09 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0.15 ± 0.08 and 0.49 ± 0.07, respectively. One-way ANOVA indicated a significant difference (F(3,47 = 9.521, P<0.001 and the Tukey multiple comparison test (P<0.05 showed that the analgesia index of the 14-day sucrose-treated animals differed from all other groups. Naloxone-treated rats (N = 7 receiving sucrose exhibited an analgesia index of 0.20 ± 0.10 while rats receiving only sucrose (N = 7 had an index of 0.68 ± 0.11 (t = 0.254, 10 degrees of freedom, P<0.03. This result indicates that the analgesic effect of sucrose depends on the time during which the solution is consumed and extends the analgesic effects of sweet substance intake, such as saccharin, to a model other than the hot-plate test, with similar results. Endogenous opioids may be involved in the central regulation of the sweet substance-produced analgesia.

  4. Screening for sugarcane brown rust in first clonal stage of the Canal Point sugarcane breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala H. & P. Sydow) was first reported in the United States in 1978 and is still one of great challenges for sugarcane production. A better understanding of sugarcane genotypic variation in response to brown rust will help optimize b...

  5. Signal transduction-related responses to phytohormones and environmental challenges in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemerly Adriana S

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane is an increasingly economically and environmentally important C4 grass, used for the production of sugar and bioethanol, a low-carbon emission fuel. Sugarcane originated from crosses of Saccharum species and is noted for its unique capacity to accumulate high amounts of sucrose in its stems. Environmental stresses limit enormously sugarcane productivity worldwide. To investigate transcriptome changes in response to environmental inputs that alter yield we used cDNA microarrays to profile expression of 1,545 genes in plants submitted to drought, phosphate starvation, herbivory and N2-fixing endophytic bacteria. We also investigated the response to phytohormones (abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate. The arrayed elements correspond mostly to genes involved in signal transduction, hormone biosynthesis, transcription factors, novel genes and genes corresponding to unknown proteins. Results Adopting an outliers searching method 179 genes with strikingly different expression levels were identified as differentially expressed in at least one of the treatments analysed. Self Organizing Maps were used to cluster the expression profiles of 695 genes that showed a highly correlated expression pattern among replicates. The expression data for 22 genes was evaluated for 36 experimental data points by quantitative RT-PCR indicating a validation rate of 80.5% using three biological experimental replicates. The SUCAST Database was created that provides public access to the data described in this work, linked to tissue expression profiling and the SUCAST gene category and sequence analysis. The SUCAST database also includes a categorization of the sugarcane kinome based on a phylogenetic grouping that included 182 undefined kinases. Conclusion An extensive study on the sugarcane transcriptome was performed. Sugarcane genes responsive to phytohormones and to challenges sugarcane commonly deals with in the field were identified

  6. Effect of Dicamba and 2,4 dichlorophenoxiacetic acid on sugarcane somatic embryogenesis

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    Beatriz Alvez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to conserve sugarcane germplasm, produce microbial disease-free material, detect resistance to diseases and pests, etc., in vitro propagation of sugarcane has been established in many commercial varieties. In this sense, the aim of this work was to analyze the efficiency of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D and 3,6-dichloro -2- methoxybenzoic acid (Dicamba to induce somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of plantlets from sugarcane varieties C26670, RB855546, V99245, V756, V781, V0050, CC8592, CC8475. For induction of embryogenic callus, leaf discs in tillering stage of 1 cm diameter and 2 mm thick, were inoculated on Murashige-Skoog, 1962 medium (MS, supplemented with 50 ml.l-1 coconut water, 30 g.l-1sucrose and two different treatments: 3 mg.l-1 2,4D or 6.63 mg.l-1 Dicamba, both of them in total darkness at 25 °C, during 1 month. For plant regeneration, embryogenic calli were transferred to ½ MS salts supplemented with coconut water 200 ml.l-1 and sucrose 60 g.l-1 and incubated under continuous light, 25 °C, for 2 months. The highest percent of embryogenic callus induction was obtained in media supplemented with Dicamba, an average of 70.83 % of embryogenic callus by variety, while in media with 2,4-D, 62.08 % of embryogenic callus was obtained by variety. An average of 89,00 % of plantlets was obtained from calli induced on media with Dicamba and an average of 66.12% of plantlets was obtained from calli induced on media supplemented with 2,4D. Using Dicamba it was possible to establish an efficient somatic embryogenesis protocol for these sugarcane varieties.

  7. Genetic itemization of exotic sugarcane clones of the basis of quantitative and qualitative parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seema, N.; Khan, M. T.; Khan, I. A.; Yasmeen, S.

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane varietal development program in Pakistan primarily depends on evaluation of imported genotypes because of the unfavorable climatic conditions for sugarcane flowering and hybridization in the country. Performance of 41 exotic sugarcane clones was assessed in this study on the basis of seven quantitative (plant height, number of tillers, internode length, number of internode, cane girth, cane yield, and weight per stool) and six qualitative (sucrose %, brix %, CCS %, fiber %, sugar recovery % and sugar yield) attributes. Sugarcane clones comprised of fifteen genotypes from Canal Point (USA), eight from Homma (USA), and eighteen from Brazil. The clones exhibited statistically significant differences for tillers per plant, weight per stool, plant height, cane yield, brix%, sucrose%, fiber%, sugar recovery and sugar yield. Highest cane yield of 51.66 t/ha was observed for Canal Point clone CPNIA-240 while the lowest yield of 26.66 t/ha was recorded in Homma clone HoNIA-795. The highest sugar recovery (10.83 and 10.81) was exhibited by the clones SPNIA-396 and SPNIA-8 whereas the lowest (4.00) was observed in clone SPNIA-05. Moreover, maximum sugar yield was recorded in clone SPNIA-8 (5.37 tha-1) and minimum was observed in clone SPNIA-05 (0.91). Ward's linkage cluster analysis of the exotic clones placed the genotypes into six major groups in dendrogram. Genotypes appeared in the clusters irrespective of their geographical location. Cluster II, IV and V showed excellent qualitative, combination of quantitative and qualitative, and quantitative characters respectively. Clones from different clusters demonstrate genetic variations and thus can be subjected to selection and hybridization for further improvement. The accessions demonstrating excellent cane and sugar yield can serve as potential candidates for varietal development program in Pakistan. (author)

  8. In silico differential display of defense-related expressed sequence tags from sugarcane tissues infected with diazotrophic endophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambais Marcio R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression patterns of 277 sugarcane expressed sequence tags (EST-contigs encoding putative defense-related (DR proteins were evaluated using the Sugarcane EST database. The DR proteins evaluated included chitinases, beta-1,3-glucanases, phenylalanine ammonia-lyases, chalcone synthases, chalcone isomerases, isoflavone reductases, hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, proline-rich glycoproteins, peroxidases, catalases, superoxide dismutases, WRKY-like transcription factors and proteins involved in cell death control. Putative sugarcane WRKY proteins were compared and their phylogenetic relationships determined. A hierarchical clustering approach was used to identify DR ESTs with similar expression profiles in representative cDNA libraries. To identify DR ESTs differentially expressed in sugarcane tissues infected with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus or Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, 179 putative DR EST-contigs expressed in non-infected tissues (leaves and roots and/or infected tissues were selected and arrayed by similarity of their expression profiles. Changes in the expression levels of 124 putative DR EST-contigs, expressed in non-infected tissues, were evaluated in infected tissues. Approximately 42% of these EST-contigs showed no expression in infected tissues, whereas 15% and 3% showed more than 2-fold suppression in tissues infected with G. diazotrophicus or H. rubrisubalbicans, respectively. Approximately 14 and 8% of the DR EST-contigs evaluated showed more than 2-fold induction in tissues infected with G. diazotrophicus or H. rubrisubalbicans, respectively. The differential expression of clusters of DR genes may be important in the establishment of a compatible interaction between sugarcane and diazotrophic endophytes. It is suggested that the hierarchical clustering approach can be used on a genome-wide scale to identify genes likely involved in controlling plant-microorganism interactions.

  9. X-ray diffraction studies of sucrose and sucrose irradiated with γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Mahendra

    1981-01-01

    In order to understand and solve numerous problems related to sugar quality and its storage life, X-ray diffraction studies of sucrose and sucrose irradiated with γ-radiation have been made. It is observed that the interplanar spacing 'd' in irradiated sucrose is reduced indicating the partial damage of sucrose lattice. (author)

  10. Mining the enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurama, Eiko E; Fenille, Roseli C; Rosa, Vicente E; Rosa, Daniel D; Ulian, Eugenio C

    2002-07-01

    Summary Adopting the sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of a sugarcane database derived from libraries induced and not induced by pathogens, we identified EST clusters homologous to genes corresponding to enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. The predicted amino acids of these enzymes are superoxide dismutases (SODs), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalases. Three MnSOD mitochondrial precursors and 10 CuZnSOD were identified in sugarcane: the MnSOD mitochondrial precursor is 96% similar to the maize MnSOD mitochondrial precursor and, of the 10 CuZnSOD identified, seven were 98% identical to maize cytosolic CuZnSOD4 and one was 67% identical to putative peroxisomal CuZnSOD from Arabidopsis. Three homologues to class Phi GST were 87-88% identical to GST III from maize. Five GPX homologues were identified: three were homologous to cytosolic GPX from barley, one was 88% identical to phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX) from rice, and the last was 71% identical to GPX from A. thaliana. Three enzymes similar to maize catalase were identified in sugarcane: two were similar to catalase isozyme 3 and catalase chain 3 from maize, which are mitochondrial, and one was similar to catalase isozyme 1 from maize, whose location is peroxisomal subcellular. All enzymes were induced in all sugarcane libraries (flower, seed, root, callus, leaves) and also in the pathogen-induced libraries, except for CuZnSOD whose cDNA was detected in none of the libraries induced by pathogens (Acetobacter diazotroficans and Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans). The expression of the enzymes SOD, GST, GPX, and catalases involved in the detoxification was examined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in cDNA from leaves of sugarcane under biotic stress conditions, inoculated with Puccinia melanocephala, the causal agent of sugarcane rust disease.

  11. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Suhail Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%, catalytic activity (13%, cell growth (10% and transport related proteins (6%. A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane.

  12. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammad Suhail

    2014-06-09

    Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%), catalytic activity (13%), cell growth (10%) and transport related proteins (6%). A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70. kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane. © 2014 The Authors.

  13. Magnetostructural study of iron sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Lucia; Puerto Morales, Maria del; Jose Lazaro, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic and structural analyses have been performed on an iron sucrose complex used as a haematinic agent. The system contains two-line ferrihydrite particles of about 5 nm that are superparamagnetic above approximately 50 K. The observed low-temperature magnetic dynamics of this compound is closer to simple models than in the case of other iron-containing drugs for intravenous use like iron dextran

  14. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Horii, Jorge; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  15. Biomass of cocoa and sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto; Sumanto; Hartati, R. S.; Prastowo, B.

    2017-05-01

    The role of the agricultural sector is very important as the upstream addressing downstream sectors and national energy needs. The agricultural sector itself is also highly dependent on the availability of energy. Evolving from it then it must be policies and strategies for agricultural development Indonesia to forward particularly agriculture as producers as well as users of biomass energy or bioenergy for national development including agriculture balance with agriculture and food production. Exports of biomass unbridled currently include preceded by ignorance, indifference and the lack of scientific data and potential tree industry in the country. This requires adequate scientific supporting data. This study is necessary because currently there are insufficient data on the potential of biomass, including tree biomasanya detailing the benefits of bioenergy, feed and food is very necessary as a basis for future policy. Measurement of the main estate plants biomass such as cocoa and sugarcane be done in 2015. Measurements were also conducted on its lignocellulose content. Tree biomass sugarcane potential measured consist of leaves, stems and roots, with the weight mostly located on the stem. Nevertheless, not all the potential of the stem is a good raw material for bioethanol. For cocoa turned out leaves more prospective because of its adequate hemicellulose content. For sugarcane, leaf buds contain a good indicator of digestion of feed making it more suitable for feed.

  16. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of vegetable biomass as substrate for ethanol production could reduce the existing usage of fossil fuels, thereby minimizing negative environmental impacts. Due to mechanical harvesting of sugarcane, the amount of pointer and straw has increased in sugarcane fields, becoming inputs of great energy potential.

  17. Vegetable seedling production with sugarcane bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eleven sugarcane mills in Louisiana processed 380,000 ac and 12.8 million tons of harvested sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.5 million tons of raw sugar (brown sugar), and an estimated 3 million tons of the fibrous plant residue called bagasse. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after remov...

  18. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juliana

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... The use of vegetable biomass as substrate for ethanol production could reduce the ... Fermentation was performed in a laboratory scale using the J10 and FT858 ... Key words: Hydrolysis of sugarcane straw and pointers, sugarcane juice, ..... Ethanol: An Overview about Composition, Pretreatment Methods,.

  19. Detection of Bar Transgenic Sugarcane with a Rapid and Visual Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dinggang; Wang, Chunfeng; Li, Zhu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Shiwu; Guo, Jinlong; Lu, Wenying; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    Genetic engineering offers an attractive alternative in sugarcane breeding for increasing cane and sugar yields as well as disease and insect resistance. Bar transgenic sugarcane employing the herbicide tolerance is a useful agronomical trait in weed control. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of the bar gene in transgenic sugarcane has been developed and evaluated. A set of six primers was designed for LAMP-based amplification of the bar gene. The LAMP reaction conditions were optimized as follows: 5.25 mM of Mg(2+), 6:1 ratio of inner vs. outer primer, and 6.0 U of Bst DNA polymerase in a reaction volume of 25.0 μL. The detection limit of the recombinant plasmid 1Ac0229 was as low as 10 copies in the developed LAMP, which was 10-fold higher sensitive than that of conventional PCR. In 100 putative transgenic lines, the bar gene was detected in 100/100 cases (100%) by LAMP and 97/100 cases (97%) by conventional PCR, respectively. In conclusion, the developed LAMP assay is visual, rapid, sensitive, reliable, and cost-effective for detection of the bar specific transgenic sugarcane.

  20. Detection of bar transgenic sugarcane with a rapid and visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinggang eZhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering offers an attractive alternative in sugarcane breeding for increasing cane and sugar yields as well as disease and insect resistance. Bar transgenic sugarcane employing the herbicide tolerance is a useful agronomical trait in weed control. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for rapid detection of the bar gene in transgenic sugarcane has been developed and evaluated. A set of six primers was designed for LAMP-based amplification of the bar gene. The LAMP reaction conditions were optimized as follows: 5.25 mM of Mg2+, 6:1 ratio of inner vs outer primer, and 6.0 U of Bst DNA polymerase in a reaction volume of 25.0 μL. The detection limit of the recombinant plasmid 1Ac0229 was as low as 10 copies in the developed LAMP, which was ten-fold higher sensitive than that of conventional PCR. In 100 putative transgenic lines, the bar gene was detected in 100/100 cases (100% by LAMP and 97/100 cases (97% by conventional PCR, respectively. In conclusion, the developed LAMP assay is visual, rapid, sensitive, reliable and cost-effective for detection of the bar specific transgenic sugarcane.

  1. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed

  2. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T. [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1986-03-15

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed.

  3. Genetic analyses, phenotypic adaptability and stability in sugarcane genotypes for commercial cultivation in Pernambuco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra Filho, J A; Junior, T C; Simões Neto, D E

    2015-10-05

    In the present study, we assessed the agro-industrial performance of 22 sugarcane genotypes adaptable to edaphoclimatic conditions in production microregions in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, and we recommended the commercial cultivation of select genotypes. The variables analyzed were as follows: sucrose percentage in cane juice, tonnage of saccharose per hectare (TPH), sugarcane tonnage per hectare (TCH), fiber, solid soluble contents, total recoverable sugar tonnage (ATR), and total recoverable sugar tonnage per hectare (ATR t/ha). A randomized block design with 4 repeats was used. Combined variance of the experiments, genetic parameter estimates, and environment stratification were analyzed. Phenotypic adaptability and stability were analyzed using the Annicchiarico and Wricke methods and analysis of variance. Genetic gain was estimated using the classic index and sum of ranks. Genotype selection was efficient for TPH, TCH, and ATR t/ha. Genotypes presented a great potential for improvement and a similar response pattern in Litoral Norte and Mata Sul microregions for TPH and TCH and Litoral Norte and Litoral Sul microregions for ATR t/ha. Genotypes SP78-4764, RB813804, and SP79-101 showed better productivity and phenotypic adaptability and stability, according to the Wricke and Annicchiarico methods. These genotypes can be recommended for cultivation in the sugarcane belt in the State of Pernambuco.

  4. Screening of sugarcane somaclones of variety bl4 for agronomic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, S.; Qamarunnisa, S.; Jamil, I.

    2014-01-01

    Considering the environmental conditions of Pakistan where sugarcane breeding is constrained due to non viable fuzz (seeds) production. Somaclonal variation could prove to be a useful tool to overcome the difficulties in cane breeding. In the present study, 324 sugarcane somaclones regenerated from immature leaf roll callus of sugarcane variety BL4 were evaluated for their yield and yield contributing characters and the quality traits of cane. The field trial of somaclones showed variation in 160 somaclones from the mother plant in at least one character observed. Most of the somaclones showed variation in weight of stalks per plant; however, only twenty four out of 89 clones showed increase in the weight of the stalks per clump. The second highly variable trait was the number of stalks, 88 plants showed either increase or decrease in the number of stalks. It is noteworthy that the sucrose accumulation was not increased in any of the somaclones. Twenty one somaclones were selected for their increased yield potential. The comparative performance of these selected clones revealed that clones 'K-250, K-265, K-251, K-109, K-106, K-300 and K-315 gave better sugar yield /plant as compared to BL4. Maximum sugar yield/plant was observed in Clone 'K-250' (2.5 Kg) followed by K-265 (2.44 Kg), whereas the average sugar yield of BL4 was 1.2 Kg/plant. (author)

  5. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  6. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal α-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit α- dextrin.

  7. Production of 16% ethanol from 35% sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breisha, Gaber Z.

    2010-01-01

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which showed marked fermentation activity, ethanol and temperature tolerance and good flocculation ability, was selected for ethanol production. A stuck fermentation occurred at sucrose concentration of 25%. Increasing the yeast inoculum volume from 3% to 6% showed positive effects on fermentation from 25% sucrose. The ratio of added nitrogen to sucrose, which gave the best results (for the selected yeast strain), was determined. It was concluded that this ratio (nitrogen as ammonium sulphate at a rate of 5 mg g -1 of consumed sucrose) is constant at various sugar concentrations. Addition of nitrogen at this ratio produced 11.55% ethanol with complete consumption of 25% sucrose after 48 h of fermentation. However fermentation of 30% sucrose at the above optimum conditions was not complete. Addition of yeast extract at a level of 6 g l -1 together with thiamine at a level of 0.2 g l -1 led to complete utilization of 30% sucrose with resultant 14% ethanol production. However the selected yeast strain was not able to ferment 35% sucrose at the same optimum conditions. Addition of air at a rate of 150 dm 3 min -1 m 3 of reactor volume during the first 12 h of fermentation led to complete consumption of 35% sucrose and 16% ethanol was produced. This was approximately the theoretical maximum for ethanol production.

  8. Production of 16% ethanol from 35% sucrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breisha, Gaber Z. [Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Minia (Egypt)

    2010-08-15

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which showed marked fermentation activity, ethanol and temperature tolerance and good flocculation ability, was selected for ethanol production. A stuck fermentation occurred at sucrose concentration of 25%. Increasing the yeast inoculum volume from 3% to 6% showed positive effects on fermentation from 25% sucrose. The ratio of added nitrogen to sucrose, which gave the best results (for the selected yeast strain), was determined. It was concluded that this ratio (nitrogen as ammonium sulphate at a rate of 5 mg g{sup -1} of consumed sucrose) is constant at various sugar concentrations. Addition of nitrogen at this ratio produced 11.55% ethanol with complete consumption of 25% sucrose after 48 h of fermentation. However fermentation of 30% sucrose at the above optimum conditions was not complete. Addition of yeast extract at a level of 6 g l{sup -1} together with thiamine at a level of 0.2 g l{sup -1} led to complete utilization of 30% sucrose with resultant 14% ethanol production. However the selected yeast strain was not able to ferment 35% sucrose at the same optimum conditions. Addition of air at a rate of 150 dm{sup 3} min{sup -1} m{sup 3} of reactor volume during the first 12 h of fermentation led to complete consumption of 35% sucrose and 16% ethanol was produced. This was approximately the theoretical maximum for ethanol production. (author)

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  10. Trimming and clustering sugarcane ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme P. Telles

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The original clustering procedure adopted in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag project (SUCEST had many problems, for instance too many clusters, the presence of ribosomal sequences, etc. We therefore redesigned the clustering procedure entirely, including a much more careful initial trimming of the reads. In this paper the new trimming and clustering strategies are described in detail and we give the new official figures for the project, 237,954 expressed sequence tags and 43,141 clusters.O método de clustering adotado no Projeto SUCEST (Sugarcane EST Project tinha vários problemas (muitos clusters, presença de seqüências de ribossomo etc. Nós assumimos a tarefa de reprojetar todo o processo de clustering, propondo uma "limpeza" inicial mais cuidadosa das seqüências. Neste artigo as estratégias de limpeza das seqüências e de clustering são descritas em detalhe, incluindo os números oficiais do projeto (237,954 ESTs e 43,141 clusters.

  11. N-glycosylation in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Ivan G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The N-linked glycosylation of secretory and membrane proteins is the most complex posttranslational modification known to occur in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to play critical roles in modulating protein function. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, much less is known about this biosynthetic pathway in plants. The enzymes involved in plant N-glycan biosynthesis and processing are still not well defined and the mechanism of their genetic regulation is almost completely unknown. In this paper we describe our first attempt to understand the N-linked glycosylation mechanism in a plant species by using the data generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project. The SUCEST database was mined for sugarcane gene products potentially involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. This approach has led to the identification and functional assignment of 90 expressed sequence tag (EST clusters sharing significant sequence similarity with the enzymes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis and processing. The ESTs identified were also analyzed to establish their relative abundance.

  12. Callus induction, regeneration and transformation of sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), yeast extract and coconut water .... transformed (control) plantlets using CTAB method (Doyle and .... Embryogenic Sugarcane Callus by Image Analysis.

  13. Sugarcane genes related to mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Ghislaine V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria function as metabolic powerhouses by generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation and have become the focus of renewed interest due to progress in understanding the subtleties of their biogenesis and the discovery of the important roles which these organelles play in senescence, cell death and the assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe/S centers. Using proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for the presence of expressed sequence tags (ESTs with similarity to nuclear genes related to mitochondrial functions. Starting with 869 protein sequences, we searched for sugarcane EST counterparts to these proteins using the basic local alignment search tool TBLASTN similarity searching program run against 260,781 sugarcane ESTs contained in 81,223 clusters. We were able to recover 367 clusters likely to represent sugarcane orthologues of the corresponding genes from S. cerevisiae, H. sapiens and A. thaliana with E-value <= 10-10. Gene products belonging to all functional categories related to mitochondrial functions were found and this allowed us to produce an overview of the nuclear genes required for sugarcane mitochondrial biogenesis and function as well as providing a starting point for detailed analysis of sugarcane gene structure and physiology.

  14. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, Jose; Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Guardabassi, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO 2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production. (author)

  15. Power plant perspectives for sugarcane mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocci, E.; Di Carlo, A.; Marcelo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass, integral to life, is one of the main energy sources that modern technologies could widely develop, overcoming inefficient and pollutant uses. The sugarcane bagasse is one of the more abundant biomass. Moreover, the fluctuating sugar and energy prices force the sugarcane companies to implement improved power plants. Thanks to a multiyear collaboration between University of Rome and University of Piura and Chiclayo, this paper investigates, starting from the real data of an old sugarcane plant, the energy efficiency of the plant. Furthermore, it explores possible improvements as higher temperature and pressure Rankine cycles and innovative configurations based on gasifier plus hot gas conditioning and gas turbine or molten carbonate fuel cells. Even if the process of sugar extraction from sugarcane and the relative Rankine cycles power plants are well documented in literature, this paper shows that innovative power plant configurations can increase the bagasse-based cogeneration potential. Sugarcane companies can become electricity producers, having convenience in the use of sugarcane leaves and trash (when it is feasible). The worldwide implementation of advanced power plants, answering to a market competition, will improve significantly the renewable electricity produced, reducing CO 2 emissions, and increasing economic and social benefits.

  16. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for RT-qPCR expression studies on Burkholderia tropica strain Ppe8, a sugarcane-associated diazotrophic bacterium grown with different carbon sources or sugarcane juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Paula Renata Alves; Vidal, Marcia Soares; de Paula Soares, Cleiton; Polese, Valéria; Simões-Araújo, Jean Luís; Baldani, José Ivo

    2016-11-01

    Among the members of the genus Burkholderia, Burkholderia tropica has the ability to fix nitrogen and promote sugarcane plant growth as well as act as a biological control agent. There is little information about how this bacterium metabolizes carbohydrates as well as those carbon sources found in the sugarcane juice that accumulates in stems during plant growth. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) can be used to evaluate changes in gene expression during bacterial growth on different carbon sources. Here we tested the expression of six reference genes, lpxC, gyrB, recA, rpoA, rpoB, and rpoD, when cells were grown with glucose, fructose, sucrose, mannitol, aconitic acid, and sugarcane juice as carbon sources. The lpxC, gyrB, and recA were selected as the most stable reference genes based on geNorm and NormFinder software analyses. Validation of these three reference genes during strain Ppe8 growth on the same carbon sources showed that genes involved in glycogen biosynthesis (glgA, glgB, glgC) and trehalose biosynthesis (treY and treZ) were highly expressed when Ppe8 was grown in aconitic acid relative to other carbon sources, while otsA expression (trehalose biosynthesis) was reduced with all carbon sources. In addition, the expression level of the ORF_6066 (gluconolactonase) gene was reduced on sugarcane juice. The results confirmed the stability of the three selected reference genes (lpxC, gyrB, and recA) during the RT-qPCR and also their robustness by evaluating the relative expression of genes involved in glycogen and trehalose biosynthesis when strain Ppe8 was grown on different carbon sources and sugarcane juice.

  17. Integrated management of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudagrass is a difficult perennial weed to manage in Louisiana sugarcane. Research was conducted to compare interrow tillage practice, postharvest residue management, and herbicide placement on bermudagrass proliferation and sugarcane yield. Tillage frequencies included conventional (four tillage...

  18. Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Pippo, Walfrido; Luengo, Carlos A. [Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos, DFA/IFGW/UNICAMP, CP 6165, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Koehlinger, John [Energy Consultant. 1322 Hepburn Ave 1, Louisville, KY 40204 (United States); Garzone, Pietro; Cornacchia, Giacinto [ENEA Trisaia Research Centre. Prot-STP. SS106 Jonica, Rotondella (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from

  19. Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Pippo, Walfrido; Luengo, Carlos A.; Koehlinger, John; Garzone, Pietro; Cornacchia, Giacinto

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from sugarcane bagasse are estimated at 0

  20. [Sucrose reward promotes rats' motivation for cocaine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Qing; LE, Qiu-Min; Yu, Xiang-Chen; Ma, Lan; Wang, Fei-Fei

    2016-06-25

    Caloric diet, such as fat and sugar intake, has rewarding effects, and has been indicated to affect the responses to addictive substances in animal experiments. However, the possible association between sucrose reward and the motivation for addictive drugs remains to be elucidated. Thus, we carried out behavioral tests after sucrose self-administration training to determine the effects of sucrose experience on rats' motivation for cocaine, locomotor sensitivity to cocaine, basal locomotor activity, anxiety level, and associative learning ability. The sucrose-experienced (sucrose) group exhibited higher lever press, cocaine infusion and break point, as well as upshift of cocaine dose-response curve in cocaine self-administration test, as compared with the control (chow) group. Additionally, despite similar locomotor activity in open field test and comparable score in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, the sucrose group showed higher cocaine-induced locomotor sensitivity as compared with the chow group. The anxiety level and the performance in vocal-cue induced fear memory were similar between these two groups in elevated plus maze and fear conditioning tests, respectively. Taken together, our work indicates that sucrose experience promotes the rats' motivation for cocaine.

  1. The effects of potassium and chloride ions on the ethanolic fermentation of sucrose by Zymomonas mobilis 2716

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, L A; Doelle, H W [Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Dept. of Microbiology

    1992-04-01

    The inclusion of specific salts in Zymomonas mobilis batch sucrose fermentations can limit by-product formation. Sorbitol and fructo-oligosaccharide formation can be reduced and ethanol production enhanced by manipulating mineral salt concentrations. Chloride salts reduced the production of biomass and sorbitol in favour of fructo-obligosaccharide formation at concentrations lower than 10 g NaCl/l or MgCl{sub 2}. Higher concentrations led to the accumulation of glucose and fructose. Low concentrations of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (<20 g/l) enhanced biomass formation, and the concomitant reduction in sorbitol and fructo-obligosaccharides favoured enhanced ethanol formation. At concentrations above 20 g/l, its effects were similar to those obtained with the chloride salts. Invertase addition at the start of fermentation increased sorbitol formation, whereas addition after the completion of sucrose hydrolysis resulted in the conversion of fructo-obligosaccharides formed into fructose or ethanol. Fermentation with 250 g/l of sugar-cane syrup (=130 g sucrose/l) in the presence of 8 g KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}/l, with 0.05 g invertase/l added on the completion of sucrose hydrolysis, resulted in a conversion efficiency of 94% with complete carbon accountability, and only 7 g sorbitol/l. (orig.).

  2. Disease resistance in sugarcane – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramesh Sundar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is one of the important commercial crops cultivated world-wide both under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. The crop gains economic importance by virtue of its industrial potential in terms of products like crystal white sugar, bagasse, pressmud, power etc. Among the various production constraints of the crop, diseases are seen as a major threat for sustaining the productivity of sugarcane. Conventional Breeding is a lengthy process and it involves almost more than 10 years for the release of a commercial variety. Many varieties with superior agronomical traits have succumbed to diseases like red rot and smut during the course of cultivation, which hitherto at the time of release were rated to be resistant. The breakdown of disease resistance is attributed to the possible emergence of new virulent pathotypes. This situation has warranted a pertinent need to have a thorough understanding on inheritance pattern and mechanism of disease resistance in sugarcane, which would aid for quick screening of disease resistant clones and successful management of the diseases, respectively. Overall, there is a paradigm shift in the understanding of plant disease resistance, thanks to the advent of robust molecular tools. An integration of the tools of “Omics” namely genomics, proteomics, metabolomics etc. has further strengthened in deciphering plant-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. With the accomplishments in elucidating sugarcane ESTs, which was ably supported by employing the next generation sequencing platforms to unlock the secrets of pathogenomics in sugarcane, it is now made possible to further improve our understanding on disease resistance in sugarcane. Giving the scenario, the future looks evenmore promising, wherein convincing results are in the offing to thoroughly unravel the enigmatic relationship between sugarcane and its important pathogens.

  3. Sugarcane boiler ash as an amendment for soilless growing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, research was conducted to investigate the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) as an amendment to soilless planting media for the production of vegetable seedlings. Typically, the eleven Louisiana sugarcane mills use a portion of the sugarcane bagasse for fuel, producing over 60,000 tons of S...

  4. Controlling sugarcane diseases in Florida: a challenge in constant evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are limiting factors for the sugarcane crop in almost any sugarcane growing location. More than 40 diseases have been recorded in Florida, with bown rust, orange rust and yellow leaf currently impacting on sugarcane production. Ideally, these diseases should be controlled using resistant ...

  5. Controlling sugarcane diseases in Florida: a challenge in constant evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are limiting factors for the sugarcane crop in almost any sugarcane growing location. More than 40 diseases have been recorded in Florida, with brown rust, orange rust and yellow leaf currently impacting on sugarcane production. Ideally, these diseases should be controlled using resistant c...

  6. Identification of virus isolates inducing mosaic of sugarcane in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugarcane mosaic disease caused by sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and sorghum mosaic Virus (SrMV) is an economically important viral disease of sugarcane worldwide. Field survey was conducted to assess the presence of the viruses involve in ...

  7. A new species of Burkholderia isolated from sugarcane roots promotes plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Lonhienne, Thierry G A; Yeoh, Yun Kit; Webb, Richard I; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chan, Cheong Xin; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Ragan, Mark A; Schmidt, Susanne; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is a globally important food, biofuel and biomaterials crop. High nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates aimed at increasing yield often result in environmental damage because of excess and inefficient application. Inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria is an attractive option for reducing N fertilizer needs. However, the efficacy of bacterial inoculants is variable, and their effective formulation remains a knowledge frontier. Here, we take a new approach to investigating diazotrophic bacteria associated with roots using culture-independent microbial community profiling of a commercial sugarcane variety (Q208A) in a field setting. We first identified bacteria that were markedly enriched in the rhizosphere to guide isolation and then tested putative diazotrophs for the ability to colonize axenic sugarcane plantlets (Q208A) and promote growth in suboptimal N supply. One isolate readily colonized roots, fixed N2 and stimulated growth of plantlets, and was classified as a new species, Burkholderia australis sp. nov. Draft genome sequencing of the isolate confirmed the presence of nitrogen fixation. We propose that culture-independent identification and isolation of bacteria that are enriched in rhizosphere and roots, followed by systematic testing and confirming their growth-promoting capacity, is a necessary step towards designing effective microbial inoculants. PMID:24350979

  8. Structural development of sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Marianna Rousseva; Terzieva, Vesselina Velichkova; Panchev, Ivan Nedelchev

    2003-06-01

    The influence of sucrose, wheat starch and sorbitol upon the heat- and mass-exchanging processes forming the structure of sponge cake was studied. Under the influence of wheat starch and sorbitol the structure of the sucrose-free sponge cake was formed at more uniform total moisture release. This process was done at lower temperatures and smoother change of the sponge cake height with respect to the sucrose-sweetened sponge cake. The porous and steady structure of both cakes was finally formed at identical time--between 18th and 19th minute, at the applied conditions for baking of each batter (metal pan with diameter 15.4 cm and depth 6.2 cm containing 300 g of batter and placed in an electric oven "Rahovetz-02", Bulgaria for 30 min at 180 degrees C). The water-losses at the end of baking (10.30% and 10.40% for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) and the final temperatures reached in the crumb central layers (96.6 degrees C and 96.3 degrees C for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) during baking of both samples were not statistically different. The addition of wheat starch and sorbitol in sucrose-free sponge cake lead to the statistically different values for the porosity (76.15% and 72.98%) and the volume (1014.17 cm3 and 984.25 cm3) of the sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes, respectively. As a result, the sucrose-free sponge cake formed during baking had a more homogeneous and finer microstructure with respect to that ofthe sucrose-sweetened one.

  9. Sucrose, Its Proprieties and the New Sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Monique Manhani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to review the literature on sucrose, commonly known as table sugar; to report as it appeared in Brazil and in the world; to discuss the differences between crystal and refined sucrose; to show the harmful effects of overconsumption; and to list their main sweeteners. Sucrose appeared over 7000 years ago and since then it has actively participated in the creation of new forms of food consumption, in the development of societies and in the social and political relations. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body and considering that they are present in different foods, their consumption in excess can cause diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The amount of processed products with sucrose in its composition is uncountable and overconsumption has caused concern in the medical field. The manufacture of sugar is a process that involves a series of operations to obtain the final product. There are several kinds of sucrose that are available according to its use (domestic and industrial. The sweeteners can be used to sweeten, and may replace sucrose. Some of these compounds are known as intense sweeteners, being used in very small quantities, are indicated to people who have a disorder in the metabolism of sugars (diabetics or consumers who are in search of products of low calorific value.

  10. Roles of Non-Coding RNA in Sugarcane-Microbe Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaut, Flávia; Rojas, Cristian A; Grativol, Clícia; Calixto, Edmundo P da R; Motta, Mariana R; Ballesteros, Helkin G F; Peixoto, Barbara; de Lima, Berenice N S; Vieira, Lucas M; Walter, Maria Emilia; de Armas, Elvismary M; Entenza, Júlio O P; Lifschitz, Sergio; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana S; Ferreira, Paulo C G

    2017-12-20

    Studies have highlighted the importance of non-coding RNA regulation in plant-microbe interaction. However, the roles of sugarcane microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of disease responses have not been investigated. Firstly, we screened the sRNA transcriptome of sugarcane infected with Acidovorax avenae . Conserved and novel miRNAs were identified. Additionally, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were aligned to differentially expressed sequences from the sugarcane transcriptome. Interestingly, many siRNAs aligned to a transcript encoding a copper-transporter gene whose expression was induced in the presence of A. avenae , while the siRNAs were repressed in the presence of A. avenae . Moreover, a long intergenic non-coding RNA was identified as a potential target or decoy of miR408. To extend the bioinformatics analysis, we carried out independent inoculations and the expression patterns of six miRNAs were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Among these miRNAs, miR408-a copper-microRNA-was downregulated. The cleavage of a putative miR408 target, a laccase, was confirmed by a modified 5'RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. MiR408 was also downregulated in samples infected with other pathogens, but it was upregulated in the presence of a beneficial diazotrophic bacteria. Our results suggest that regulation by miR408 is important in sugarcane sensing whether microorganisms are either pathogenic or beneficial, triggering specific miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms accordingly.

  11. Roles of Non-Coding RNA in Sugarcane-Microbe Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grativol, Clícia; Motta, Mariana R.; Ballesteros, Helkin G. F.; Peixoto, Barbara; Vieira, Lucas M.; Walter, Maria Emilia; de Armas, Elvismary M.; Entenza, Júlio O. P.; Lifschitz, Sergio; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana S.

    2017-01-01

    Studies have highlighted the importance of non-coding RNA regulation in plant-microbe interaction. However, the roles of sugarcane microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of disease responses have not been investigated. Firstly, we screened the sRNA transcriptome of sugarcane infected with Acidovorax avenae. Conserved and novel miRNAs were identified. Additionally, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were aligned to differentially expressed sequences from the sugarcane transcriptome. Interestingly, many siRNAs aligned to a transcript encoding a copper-transporter gene whose expression was induced in the presence of A. avenae, while the siRNAs were repressed in the presence of A. avenae. Moreover, a long intergenic non-coding RNA was identified as a potential target or decoy of miR408. To extend the bioinformatics analysis, we carried out independent inoculations and the expression patterns of six miRNAs were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Among these miRNAs, miR408—a copper-microRNA—was downregulated. The cleavage of a putative miR408 target, a laccase, was confirmed by a modified 5′RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. MiR408 was also downregulated in samples infected with other pathogens, but it was upregulated in the presence of a beneficial diazotrophic bacteria. Our results suggest that regulation by miR408 is important in sugarcane sensing whether microorganisms are either pathogenic or beneficial, triggering specific miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms accordingly. PMID:29657296

  12. Roles of Non-Coding RNA in Sugarcane-Microbe Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Thiebaut

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have highlighted the importance of non-coding RNA regulation in plant-microbe interaction. However, the roles of sugarcane microRNAs (miRNAs in the regulation of disease responses have not been investigated. Firstly, we screened the sRNA transcriptome of sugarcane infected with Acidovorax avenae. Conserved and novel miRNAs were identified. Additionally, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs were aligned to differentially expressed sequences from the sugarcane transcriptome. Interestingly, many siRNAs aligned to a transcript encoding a copper-transporter gene whose expression was induced in the presence of A. avenae, while the siRNAs were repressed in the presence of A. avenae. Moreover, a long intergenic non-coding RNA was identified as a potential target or decoy of miR408. To extend the bioinformatics analysis, we carried out independent inoculations and the expression patterns of six miRNAs were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR. Among these miRNAs, miR408—a copper-microRNA—was downregulated. The cleavage of a putative miR408 target, a laccase, was confirmed by a modified 5′RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends assay. MiR408 was also downregulated in samples infected with other pathogens, but it was upregulated in the presence of a beneficial diazotrophic bacteria. Our results suggest that regulation by miR408 is important in sugarcane sensing whether microorganisms are either pathogenic or beneficial, triggering specific miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms accordingly.

  13. Simulated Impacts of Climate Change on Water Use and Yield of Irrigated Sugarcane in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M.R; Singels, A.; Ruane, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable predictions of climate change impacts on water use, irrigation requirements and yields of irrigated sugarcane in South Africa (a water-scarce country) are necessary to plan adaptation strategies. Although previous work has been done in this regard, methodologies and results vary considerably. The objectives were (1) to estimate likely impacts of climate change on sugarcane yields, water use and irrigation demand at three irrigated sugarcane production sites in South Africa (Malelane, Pongola and La Mercy) for current (1980-2010) and future (2070-2100) climate scenarios, using an approach based on the Agricultural Model Inter-comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) protocols; and (2) to assess the suitability of this methodology for investigating climate change impacts on sugarcane production. Future climate datasets were generated using the Delta downscaling method and three Global Circulation Models (GCMs) assuming atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of 734 ppm(A2 emissions scenario). Yield and water use were simulated using the DSSAT-Canegro v4.5 model. Irrigated cane yields are expected to increase at all three sites (between 11 and 14%), primarily due to increased interception of radiation as a result of accelerated canopy development. Evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements increased by 11% due to increased canopy cover and evaporative demand. Sucrose yields are expected to decline because of increased consumption of photo-assimilate for structural growth and maintenance respiration. Crop responses in canopy development and yield formation differed markedly between the crop cycles investigated. Possible agronomic implications of these results include reduced weed control costs due to shortened periods of partial canopy, a need for improved efficiency of irrigation to counter increased demands, and adjustments to ripening and harvest practices to counter decreased cane quality and optimize productivity. Although the Delta climate data

  14. Sucrose metabolic pathways in sweetgum and pecan seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.S. Sung; P.P. Kormanik; D.P. Xu; C.C. Black

    1989-01-01

    Sucrose metabolism and glycolysis were studied in one- to two-year-old seedlings of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch). The sucrose synthase pathway was identified as the dominant sucrose metabolic activity in sucrose sink tissues such as terminal buds and the root cambial...

  15. Effect of sugarcane waste in the control of interrill erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wander Cardoso Valim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of sugarcane uses different cropping systems that result in varying quantities of crop waste, this may influence soil erosion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the loss of soil and water, the infiltration rate, and soil surface roughness in an area cultivated with sugarcane (Saccharum spp.. Six treatments with different levels of plant waste were evaluated: sugarcane without plant waste; sugarcane with 4.0 Mg ha-1 of waste; sugarcane with 8.0 Mg ha-1 of waste; sugarcane with 12.0 Mg ha-1 of waste; sugarcane with 16.0 Mg ha-1 of waste; and burned sugarcane. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, totalling 24 experimental plots. As soil depth increased, there is reduction in macroporosity, total soil porosity, organic carbon content, mean geometric diameter and weighted mean diameter of the soil aggregates, whereas the bulk density of the soil displays the opposite trend. The presence of sugarcane waste on the soil surface increases the time required for the initiation of surface runoff. Sugarcane waste does not alter soil surface roughness, and at the minimum amount of waste administered (4 Mg ha-1 reduces losses of soil and water and increases the infiltration rate. The lack of soil surface coverage after harvesting the sugarcane contributes to soil and water loss, and reduces the rate of stable infiltration of water into the soil.

  16. Sugarcane genes differentially expressed in response to Puccinia melanocephala infection: identification and transcript profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloriz, María I; Gil, Víctor; Rojas, Luis; Portal, Orelvis; Izquierdo, Yovanny; Jiménez, Elio; Höfte, Monica

    2012-05-01

    Brown rust caused by the fungus Puccinia melanocephala is a major disease of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). A sugarcane mutant, obtained by chemical mutagenesis of the susceptible variety B4362, showed a post-haustorial hypersensitive response (HR)-mediated resistance to the pathogen and was used to identify genes differentially expressed in response to P. melanocephala via suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Tester cDNA was derived from the brown rust-resistant mutant after inoculation with P. melanocephala, while driver cDNAs were obtained from the non-inoculated resistant mutant and the inoculated susceptible donor variety B4362. Database comparisons of the sequences of the SSH recombinant clones revealed that, of a subset of 89 non-redundant sequences, 88% had similarity to known functional genes, while 12% were of unknown function. Thirteen genes were selected for transcript profiling in the resistant mutant and the susceptible donor variety. Genes involved in glycolysis and C4 carbon fixation were up-regulated in both interactions probably due to disturbance of sugarcane carbon metabolism by the pathogen. Genes related with the nascent polypeptide associated complex, post-translational proteome modulation and autophagy were transcribed at higher levels in the compatible interaction. Up-regulation of a putative L-isoaspartyl O-methyltransferase S-adenosylmethionine gene in the compatible interaction may point to fungal manipulation of the cytoplasmatic methionine cycle. Genes coding for a putative no apical meristem protein, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, non-specific lipid transfer protein, and GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase involved in ascorbic acid biosynthesis were up-regulated in the incompatible interaction at the onset of haustorium formation, and may contribute to the HR-mediated defense response in the rust-resistant mutant.

  17. Structural rearrangements of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis during sucrose conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman; Henriksen, Lars Skov; Sprogøe, Desiree

    2006-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BiSP) was studied by site-directed mutagenesis and x-ray crystallography. An inactive mutant of BiSP (E232Q) was co-crystallized with sucrose. The structure revealed a substrate-binding mode comparable with that se...

  18. Production of poly(malic acid) from sugarcane juice in fermentation by Aureobasidium pullulans: Kinetics and process economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peilian; Cheng, Chi; Lin, Meng; Zhou, Yipin; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-01-01

    Poly(β-l-malic acid) (PMA) is a biodegradable polymer with many potential biomedical applications. PMA can be readily hydrolyzed to malic acid (MA), which is widely used as an acidulant in foods and pharmaceuticals. PMA production from sucrose and sugarcane juice by Aureobasidium pullulans ZX-10 was studied in shake-flasks and bioreactors, confirming that sugarcane juice can be used as an economical substrate without any pretreatment or nutrients supplementation. A high PMA titer of 116.3g/L and yield of 0.41g/g were achieved in fed-batch fermentation. A high productivity of 0.66g/L·h was achieved in repeated-batch fermentation with cell recycle. These results compared favorably with those obtained from glucose and other biomass feedstocks. A process economic analysis showed that PMA could be produced from sugarcane juice at a cost of $1.33/kg, offering a cost-competitive bio-based PMA for industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of lactic acid from sucrose: strain selection, fermentation, and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunelli, Betânia H; Andrade, Rafael R; Atala, Daniel I P; Wolf Maciel, Maria Regina; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2010-05-01

    Lactic acid is an important product arising from the anaerobic fermentation of sugars. It is used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, chemical, and food industries as well as for biodegradable polymer and green solvent production. In this work, several bacterial strains were isolated from industrial ethanol fermentation, and the most efficient strain for lactic acid production was selected. The fermentation was conducted in a batch system under anaerobic conditions for 50 h at a temperature of 34 degrees C, a pH value of 5.0, and an initial sucrose concentration of 12 g/L using diluted sugarcane molasses. Throughout the process, pulses of molasses were added in order to avoid the cell growth inhibition due to high sugar concentration as well as increased lactic acid concentrations. At the end of the fermentation, about 90% of sucrose was consumed to produce lactic acid and cells. A kinetic model has been developed to simulate the batch lactic acid fermentation results. The data obtained from the fermentation were used for determining the kinetic parameters of the model. The developed model for lactic acid production, growth cell, and sugar consumption simulates the experimental data well.

  20. Revisiting Meiosis in Sugarcane: Chromosomal Irregularities and the Prevalence of Bivalent Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia C. Vieira

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum officinarum proved highly susceptible to diseases, and this led breeders to progress to interspecific crosses resulting in disease resistance. A backcrossing program to S. officinarum was then required to boost sucrose content. Clonal selection across generations and incorporation of other germplasm into cultivated backgrounds established the (narrow genetic base of modern cultivars (Saccharum spp., which have a man-made genome. The genome complexity has inspired several molecular studies that have elucidated aspects of sugarcane genome constitution, architecture, and cytogenetics. However, there is a critical shortage of information on chromosome behavior throughout meiosis in modern cultivars. In this study, we examined the microsporogenesis of a contemporary variety, providing a detailed analysis of the meiotic process and chromosome association at diakinesis, using FISH with centromeric probes. Chromosomal abnormalities were documented by examining high quality preparations of pollen mother cells (700 in total. Approximately 70% of the cells showed abnormalities, such as metaphase chromosomes not lined up at the plate, lagging chromosomes and chromosomal bridges, and tetrad cells with micronuclei. Some dyads with asynchronous behavior were also observed. Due to the hybrid composition of the sugarcane genome, we suggest that bivalent incomplete pairing may occur in the first prophase leading to univalency. The presence of rod bivalents showing the lagging tendency is consistent with a reduction in chiasma frequency. Finally, the presence of chromatin bridges indicates the indirect occurrence of chromosomal inversions, although chromosome fragments were not clearly recognized. Possible reasons for such meiotic abnormalities and the large prevalence of bivalent formation are discussed.

  1. High value added lipids produced by microorganisms: a potential use of sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruna Soares; Vieira, João Paulo Fernandes; Contesini, Fabiano Jares; Mantelatto, Paulo Eduardo; Zaiat, Marcelo; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2017-12-01

    This review aims to present an innovative concept of high value added lipids produced by heterotrophic microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, using carbon sources, such as sugars, acids and alcohols that could come from sugarcane vinasse, which is the main byproduct from ethanol production that is released in the distillation step. Vinasse is a rich carbon source and low-cost feedstock produced in large amounts from ethanol production. In 2019, the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply estimates that growth of ethanol domestic consumption will be 58.8 billion liters, more than double the amount in 2008. This represents the annual production of more than 588 billion liters of vinasse, which is currently used as a fertilizer in the sugarcane crop, due to its high concentration of minerals, mainly potassium. However, studies indicate some disadvantages such as the generation of Greenhouse Gas emission during vinasse distribution in the crop, as well as the possibility of contaminating the groundwater and soil. Therefore, the development of programs for sustainable use of vinasse is a priority. One profitable alternative is the fermentation of vinasse, followed by an anaerobic digester, in order to obtain biomaterials such as lipids, other byproducts, and methane. Promising high value added lipids, for instance carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS), with a predicted market of millions of US$, could be produced using vinasse as carbon source, to guide an innovative concept for sustainable production. Example of lipids obtained from the fermentation of compounds present in vinasse are vitamin D, which comes from yeast sucrose fermentation and Omega 3, which can be obtained by bacteria and fungi fermentation. Additionally, several other compounds present in vinasse can be used for this purpose, including sucrose, ethanol, lactate, pyruvate, acetate and other carbon sources. Finally, this paper illustrates the potential market and

  2. Sugarcane Yield Response to Furrow-Applied Organic Amendments on Sand Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mabry McCray

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic amendments have been shown to increase sugarcane yield on sand soils in Florida. These soils have very low water and nutrient-holding capacities because of the low content of organic matter, silt, and clay. Because of high costs associated with broadcast application, this field study was conducted to determine sugarcane yield response to furrow application of two organic amendments on sand soils. One experiment compared broadcast application (226 m3 ha−1 of mill mud and yard waste compost, furrow application (14, 28, and 56 m3 ha−1 of these materials, and no amendment. Another experiment compared furrow applications (28 and 56 m3 ha−1 of mill mud and yard waste compost with no amendment. There were significant yield (t sucrose ha−1 responses to broadcast and furrow-applied mill mud but responses to furrow applications were not consistent across sites. There were no significant yield responses to yard waste compost suggesting that higher rates or repeated applications of this amendment will be required to achieve results comparable to mill mud. Results also suggest that enhancing water and nutrient availability in the entire volume of the root zone with broadcast incorporation of organic amendments is the more effective approach for low organic matter sands.

  3. Relationship of Soil Properties and Sugarcane Yields to Red Stripe in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard M; Grisham, Michael P; Warnke, Kathryn Z; Maggio, Jeri R

    2016-07-01

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form, which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of red stripe in the field and determine its effects on cane and sugar yields. Soil properties data, red stripe incidence, and sugarcane yields were all highly variable and were not randomly distributed in the field. Combined harvest data showed a negative correlation between yield components and red stripe incidence, with the strongest relationship between sucrose per metric ton and disease incidence. Red stripe incidence was positively correlated with several soil properties, including phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and calcium. Red stripe incidence also was found to increase with increasing nitrogen rate, with the greatest effects in heavy soils. Results also indicated that using red-stripe-infected cane as a seed source can significantly decrease shoot emergence, stalk population, and subsequent cane and sugar yields. These combined data suggest that red stripe disease can exhibit a highly variable rate of infection in commercial sugarcane fields and may also significantly decrease sugar yields.

  4. Analysis of Three Sugarcane Homo/Homeologous Regions Suggests Independent Polyploidization Events of Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Mariane de Mendonça; Del Bem, Luiz Eduardo; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; de Setta, Nathalia; Kitajima, João Paulo; Cruz, Guilherme Marcelo Queiroga; Sforça, Danilo Augusto; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes; Grativol, Clícia; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; Vicentini, Renato; Vincentz, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Whole genome duplication has played an important role in plant evolution and diversification. Sugarcane is an important crop with a complex hybrid polyploid genome, for which the process of adaptation to polyploidy is still poorly understood. In order to improve our knowledge about sugarcane genome evolution and the homo/homeologous gene expression balance, we sequenced and analyzed 27 BACs (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) of sugarcane R570 cultivar, containing the putative single-copy genes LFY (seven haplotypes), PHYC (four haplotypes), and TOR (seven haplotypes). Comparative genomic approaches showed that these sugarcane loci presented a high degree of conservation of gene content and collinearity (synteny) with sorghum and rice orthologous regions, but were invaded by transposable elements (TE). All the homo/homeologous haplotypes of LFY, PHYC, and TOR are likely to be functional, because they are all under purifying selection (dN/dS ≪ 1). However, they were found to participate in a nonequivalently manner to the overall expression of the corresponding gene. SNPs, indels, and amino acid substitutions allowed inferring the S. officinarum or S. spontaneum origin of the TOR haplotypes, which further led to the estimation that these two sugarcane ancestral species diverged between 2.5 and 3.5 Ma. In addition, analysis of shared TE insertions in TOR haplotypes suggested that two autopolyploidization may have occurred in the lineage that gave rise to S. officinarum, after its divergence from S. spontaneum. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Registration of 'CP 09-2392' Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    CP 09-2392’ (Reg. No.____; PI _____) sugarcane, a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp, was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and was released to growers in June 2016. ‘CP 09-2392’ was selected from a cro...

  6. Genome Editing in Sugarcane: Challenges ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Mohan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome editing opens new and unique opportunities for researchers to enhance crop production. Until 2013, the zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs were the key tools used for genome editing applications. The advent of RNA-guided engineered nucleases - the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated system from Streptococcus pyogenes holds great potential since it is simple, effective and more versatile than ZFNs and TALENs. CRISPR/Cas9 system has already been successfully employed in several crop plants. Use of these techniques is in its infant stage in sugarcane. Jung and Altpeter (2016 have reported TALEN mediated approach for the first time to reduce lignin content in sugarcane to make it amenable for biofuel production. This is so far the only report describing genome editing in sugarcane. Large genome size, polyploidy, low transformation efficiency, transgene silencing and lack of high throughput screening techniques are certainly great challenges for genome editing in sugarcane which would be discussed in detail in this review.

  7. Callus induction, regeneration and transformation of sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... 2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khonkaen 40002, Thailand. ... The genetic transformation was achieved ..... image processing. Int. J. Eng. Technol. 3(5): 297-301. Nasir NM, Qureshi RH, Aslam M (2000). Effect of salinity on emergence of sugarcane lines. Pak.

  8. Inoculation of sugarcane with diazotrophic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Schultz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane industry, a strategic crop in Brazil, requires technological improvements in production efficiency to increase the crop energy balance. Among the various currently studied alternatives, inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria proved to be a technology with great potential. In this context, the efficiency of a mixture of bacterial inoculant was evaluated with regard to the agronomic performance and N nutrition of sugarcane. The experiment was carried out on an experimental field of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, using a randomized block, 2 × 3 factorial design (two varieties and three treatments with four replications, totaling 24 plots. The varieties RB867515 and RB72454 were tested in treatments consisting of: inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria, N-fertilized control with 120 kg ha-1 N and absolute control (no inoculation and no N fertilizer. The inoculum was composed of five strains of five diazotrophic species. The yield, dry matter accumulation, total N in the shoot dry matter and the contribution of N by biological fixation were evaluated, using the natural 15N abundance in non-inoculated sugarcane as reference. The bacterial inoculant increased the stalk yield of variety RB72454 similarly to fertilization with 120 kg ha-1 N in the harvests of plant-cane and first ratoon crops, however the contribution of biological N fixation was unchanged by inoculation, indicating that the benefits of the inoculant in sugarcane may have resulted from plant growth promotion.

  9. Genome-wide study of the defective sucrose fermenter strain of Vibrio cholerae from the Latin American cholera epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rios Garza

    Full Text Available The 7th cholera pandemic reached Latin America in 1991, spreading from Peru to virtually all Latin American countries. During the late epidemic period, a strain that failed to ferment sucrose dominated cholera outbreaks in the Northern Brazilian Amazon region. In order to understand the genomic characteristics and the determinants of this altered sucrose fermenting phenotype, the genome of the strain IEC224 was sequenced. This paper reports a broad genomic study of this strain, showing its correlation with the major epidemic lineage. The potentially mobile genomic regions are shown to possess GC content deviation, and harbor the main V. cholera virulence genes. A novel bioinformatic approach was applied in order to identify the putative functions of hypothetical proteins, and was compared with the automatic annotation by RAST. The genome of a large bacteriophage was found to be integrated to the IEC224's alanine aminopeptidase gene. The presence of this phage is shown to be a common characteristic of the El Tor strains from the Latin American epidemic, as well as its putative ancestor from Angola. The defective sucrose fermenting phenotype is shown to be due to a single nucleotide insertion in the V. cholerae sucrose-specific transportation gene. This frame-shift mutation truncated a membrane protein, altering its structural pore-like conformation. Further, the identification of a common bacteriophage reinforces both the monophyletic and African-Origin hypotheses for the main causative agent of the 1991 Latin America cholera epidemics.

  10. Determination of flavonoids in cultivated sugarcane leaves, bagasse, juice and in transgenic sugarcane by liquid chromatography-UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Renata; Lanças, Fernando M; Yariwake, Janete H

    2006-01-20

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with photo-diode array (DAD) detection was developed to separate and quantify flavonoids in sugarcane leaves and bagasse (= the crushed sugarcane refuse from juice extraction), and in sugarcane juice. Sugarcane flavonoids consist of a complex mixture of aglycones and glycosides (including flavonolignan glycosides), and the HPLC-UV method herein proposed is suitable for their quantification as total flavonoids. This method was applied to analyze samples of cultivated sugarcane, commercial juice and transgenic sugarcane leaves. Sugarcane leaves proved a promising source of flavonoids: an average of 1.10 mg of total flavonoids/g plant material was found in fresh leaves. Moreover, the flavonoid content of sugarcane juice (0.6 mg/mL) is comparable to other food sources of flavonoids previously reported. Transgenic sugarcane leaves ("Bowman-Birk" and "Kunitz") were compared with non-modified ("control") plant samples using the proposed HPLC-UV method, which indicated that the content of total flavonoids in transgenic plants is different from that in non-modified sugarcane.

  11. Effect of exogenous phytohormones and sucrose on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of exogenous phytohormones and sucrose on micropropagation and microtuberization from nodal cuttings of Manihot esculenta was studied. Direct and indirect organogeneses were established from these explants. When nodal cuttings were cultured in the presence of 0.01 to 0.1 mg.L-1 of BAP or NAA there was ...

  12. 2G ethanol from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Sandra Cerqueira; Maehara, Larissa; Machado, Cristina Maria Monteiro; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Background In the sugarcane industry, large amounts of lignocellulosic residues are generated, which includes bagasse, straw, and tops. The use of the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass for the production of second-generation (2G) ethanol can be a potential alternative to contribute to the economic viability of this process. Here, we conducted a systematic comparative study of the use of the lignocellulosic residues from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass (bagasse, straw, and to...

  13. Sugarcane Bagasse: A Potential Medium for Fungal Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Arushdeep Sidana; Umar Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, sugarcane industries produce tons of sugarcane bagasse as residual/waste material. This residual material is rich in complex lignocellulosic substances and may be used as a low cost carbon and energy source for the growth of fungal species. The present work was aimed at designing a sugarcane waste-based medium as a substitute for expensive commercial media for growing fungal cultures. Eight species of fungi, namely, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fus...

  14. Sugarcane Elongin C is involved in infection by sugarcane mosaic disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yushan; Deng, Yuqing; Cheng, Guangyuan; Peng, Lei; Zheng, Yanru; Yang, Yongqing; Xu, Jingsheng

    2015-10-23

    Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) provides the main source of sugar for humans. Sugarcane mosaic disease (SMD) is a major threat to sugarcane production. Currently, control of SMD is mainly dependent on breeding resistant cultivars through hybridization, which is time-consuming. Understanding the mechanism of viral infection may facilitate novel strategies to breed cultivars resistant to SMD and to control the disease. In this study, a wide interaction was detected between the viral VPg protein and host proteins. Several genes were screened from sugarcane cDNA library that could interact with Sugarcane streak mosaic virus VPg, including SceIF4E1 and ScELC. ScELC was predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein, but subcellular localization analysis showed it was distributed both in cytoplasmic and nuclear, and interactions were also detected between ScELC and VPg of SCMV or SrMV that reveal ScELC was widely used in the SMD pathogen infection process. ScELC and VPgs interacted in the nucleus, and may function to enhance the viral transcription rate. ScELC also interacted with SceIF4E2 both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, but not with SceIF4E1 and SceIF4E3. These results suggest that ScELC may be essential for the function of SceIF4E2, an isomer of eIF4E. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane clones selected for varied lignin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masarin Fernando

    2011-12-01

    the enzymatic treatment. Conclusion Some of the experimental sugarcane hybrids did have the combined characteristics of high biomass and high sucrose production with low lignin content. Conversion of glucan to glucose by commercial cellulases was increased in the samples with low lignin content. Chemical delignification further increased the cellulose conversion to values of more than 80%. Thus, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during the enzymatic treatment.

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL SCENARIOS TO THE DEMAND FOR SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Franco Paes Leme Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From the first decade of the 2000s, it is clear that there is an increase in discussions involving sustainability, including the bioenergy issue, to which Brazil has drawn the attention due to advances in the ethanol industry. Advances in engine technology reflected new opportunities for this industry and, according to the Ten-Year Energy Plan for 2019 developed by the Ministry of Mines and Energy, there is an expected increase in demand for ethanol of 90% by 2019 (Brazil, 2010. However, new technologies for the conversion and use of sugarcane and the complex context of this industry add uncertainties to this sector. Aiming to discuss and include the uncertainties on the agenda of this industry, this study proposes to elaborate and discuss prospective scenarios to the demand for sugarcane. Four scenarios with different perspectives of technological advance and market development were elaborated and discussed in the conclusion.

  17. Transcriptional profiling of sugarcane leaves and roots under progressive osmotic stress reveals a regulated coordination of gene expression in a spatiotemporal manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pereira-Santana

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is one of the most important crops worldwide and is a key plant for the global production of sucrose. Sugarcane cultivation is severely affected by drought stress and it is considered as the major limiting factor for their productivity. In recent years, this plant has been subjected to intensive research focused on improving its resilience against water scarcity; particularly the molecular mechanisms in response to drought stress have become an underlying issue for its improvement. To better understand water stress and the molecular mechanisms we performed a de novo transcriptomic assembly of sugarcane (var. Mex 69-290. A total of 16 libraries were sequenced in a 2x100 bp configuration on a HiSeq-Illumina platform. A total of 536 and 750 genes were differentially up-regulated along with the stress treatments for leave and root tissues respectively, while 1093 and 531 genes were differentially down-regulated in leaves and roots respectively. Gene Ontology functional analysis showed that genes related to response of water deprivation, heat, abscisic acid, and flavonoid biosynthesis were enriched during stress treatment in our study. The reliability of the observed expression patterns was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Additionally, several physiological parameters of sugarcane were significantly affected due to stress imposition. The results of this study may help identify useful target genes and provide tissue-specific data set of genes that are differentially expressed in response to osmotic stress, as well as a complete analysis of the main groups is significantly enriched under this condition. This study provides a useful benchmark for improving drought tolerance in sugarcane and other economically important grass species.

  18. Radiometric relations of a sugarcane crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, E.C.; Pereira, A.R.; Camargo, M.B.P. de; Fahl, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    The radiometric relations of a sugarcane crop, cv. NA56-79, are studied during the period of maximum leaf area index. The coefficients of reflection, transmission and absorption of the incoming solar radiation were function of solar elevation and the waveband considered. The photosynthetically active radiation was always less reflected and transmitted but more absorved than the near infrared radiation. (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. Prospecting sugarcane resistance to Sugarcane yellow leaf virus by genome-wide association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debibakas, S; Rocher, S; Garsmeur, O; Toubi, L; Roques, D; D'Hont, A; Hoarau, J-Y; Daugrois, J H

    2014-08-01

    Using GWAS approaches, we detected independent resistant markers in sugarcane towards a vectored virus disease. Based on comparative genomics, several candidate genes potentially involved in virus/aphid/plant interactions were pinpointed. Yellow leaf of sugarcane is an emerging viral disease whose causal agent is a Polerovirus, the Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) transmitted by aphids. To identify quantitative trait loci controlling resistance to yellow leaf which are of direct relevance for breeding, we undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a sugarcane cultivar panel (n = 189) representative of current breeding germplasm. This panel was fingerprinted with 3,949 polymorphic markers (DArT and AFLP). The panel was phenotyped for SCYLV infection in leaves and stalks in two trials for two crop cycles, under natural disease pressure prevalent in Guadeloupe. Mixed linear models including co-factors representing population structure fixed effects and pairwise kinship random effects provided an efficient control of the risk of inflated type-I error at a genome-wide level. Six independent markers were significantly detected in association with SCYLV resistance phenotype. These markers explained individually between 9 and 14 % of the disease variation of the cultivar panel. Their frequency in the panel was relatively low (8-20 %). Among them, two markers were detected repeatedly across the GWAS exercises based on the different disease resistance parameters. These two markers could be blasted on Sorghum bicolor genome and candidate genes potentially involved in plant-aphid or plant-virus interactions were localized in the vicinity of sorghum homologs of sugarcane markers. Our results illustrate the potential of GWAS approaches to prospect among sugarcane germplasm for accessions likely bearing resistance alleles of significant effect useful in breeding programs.

  20. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  1. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  2. Florescimento em cana-de-açúcar Flowering in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilaine Araldi

    2010-03-01

    from due to the increased fiber content. As other Poaceae, the sugarcane flowers, fruit and dies, ensuring the perpetuation of the species. Thus, the man tries to interfere in nature, trying to prevent the flowering sugarcane, either through breeding or through plant growth regulators. In areas of sugarcane commercial production, where there are ideal conditions for the flowering culture, it is recommended the se of variety with lower potential of flowering. And when this varietal management is more difficult, the use of inhibitors of flowering is the best alternative to avoid more losses of sucrose content.

  3. Growing Sugarcane for Bioenergy – Effects on the Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing area of sugarcane is being growing for the production of bioenergy. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil due to the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest. Biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduces risks of groundwater

  4. Persistence of Selected Pesticides used in Sugarcane Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to monitor pesticide levels in soils and runoff water following treatment of a sugarcane field in the Northern Lake Victoria watershed. Soil and water samples were collected over a period of 304 days after planting of the sugarcane and analysed for pesticide residues. In soils, glyphosate levels ...

  5. Isolation and screening of glycolipid biosurfactant producers from sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Hirose, Naoto; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Forty-three fungal producers for glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were isolated from leaves and smuts of sugarcane plants. These isolates produced MELs with sugarcane juice as nutrient source. The strains were taxonomically categorized into the genera Pseudozyma and Ustilago on the basis of partial sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene.

  6. Registration of ‘CP 09-1822’ Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘CP 09-1822’ (Reg. No. __; PI 686942 sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was released in June 2016 for commercial cultivation on sand (mineral) soils in Florida. This cultivar was developed through a collaborative sugarcane cultivar development program of the USDA-ARS, the University of F...

  7. Registration of ‘CP 09-1430’ Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘CP 09-1430’ (Reg. No. ; PI 686940 sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed and released (6 Jun. 2016) through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station , Canal Point, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. for use on ...

  8. Identification of virus isolates inducing mosaic of sugarcane in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... (JGMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and sorghum mosaic Virus (SrMV) is an economically important viral disease of sugarcane ... race (“Bahausa”) and the least infected was the white land race (“fararkwama”). ... stripes symptoms on leaf blade and white stripe on stem in infected sugarcane and are ...

  9. Protocol optimization for in vitro mass propagation of two sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... The present study was initiated to optimize in vitro protocol for mass propagation of two commercial sugarcane clones (Co 449 and Co .... mass propagation of sugarcane genotypes grown in. Ethiopia, and due to this the .... transferred cultures showed multiple shooting with an average of 9.10 ± 0.10 shoots ...

  10. 611 A QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATE OF WEEDS OF SUGARCANE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. A survey was conducted in the sugarcane fields of Unilorin Sugar Research Institute, Ilorin in the southern. Guinea savanna agro-ecological zone of Nigeria during 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons with an objective to identify the current status of prevalent weeds in rainfed and irrigated sugarcane fields. A.

  11. Rumen dry matter degradability of fresh and ensiled sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and in situ ruminal degradability of fresh (FSC) and ensiled (ESC) sugarcane. In situ dry matter degradability (DMD) was determined using the nylon bag technique with four cows equipped ruminal fistulas. Cows were fed with fresh or ensiled sugarcane and ...

  12. Impact of biotechnology on sugarcane agriculture and industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are nine key issues that can influence the productivity and sustainability of the sugarcane industry. These include land, soil fertility, water, variety, planting density, crop protection, cultural practices, harvesting and processing, and information technology. To all sugarcane farmers, it r...

  13. Production of Citric Acid from Solid State Fermentation of Sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger is the leading microorganism of choice for citric acid production. Sugarcane waste was used as substrate under solid state fermentation to comparatively evaluate the citric acid production capacity of Aspergillus niger isolates and the indigenous microflora in the sugarcane waste. Known optimal cultural ...

  14. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Mukhtar, Hayat Muhammad; Singh, Prabh Simran; Shah, Gagan; Dhawan, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary product of sugarcane juice, but during its processing, various other valuable products are also obtained in an unrefined form, such as, brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery. Sugarcane juice is widely used in India in the treatment of jaundice, hemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, and other urinary diseases. Herein, we have summarized the different phytoconstituents and health benefits of sugarcane and its valuable products. The phytochemistry of sugarcane wax (obtained from the leaves and stalks of sugarcane), leaves, juice, and its products has revealed the presence of various fatty acid, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids. The future prospective of some of the sugarcane products has been discussed, which needs a phytopharmacological study and has a great potential to be a valuable medicinal product.

  15. Development of somaclones in sugarcane genotype BF-162 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pris

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Cluster and sub cluster formation further verified the presence of variability in the red rot resistant somaclones with respect to the parent. Key words: Sugarcane, callogenesis, organogenesis, somaclone, polymorphism, cluster. INTRODUCTION. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L) is a major source.

  16. Agrobiodiversity endangered by sugarcane farming in Mumias and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Victoria basin of Kenya and Uganda. In Kenya sugarcane is commercially grown in Western and Nyanza provinces, primarily by small scale farmers followed by large-scale farmers and company/factory nucleus estates (Gok,. 2002). While setting up infrastructure for sugarcane farming and processing, minimal input is ...

  17. Potential of diazotrophic bacteria associated with sugarcane for energycane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosses between sugarcane and wild species of Saccharum and other closely related genera are made to introgress new genes from the wild species into sugarcane. Characteristics of the progeny from these crosses may include increased biomass and the ability to be grown in a broader geographical range ...

  18. The political organization of sugarcane production in Western Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzman - Flores, E.

    1995-01-01

    The strike of CNC sugarcane producers and the immediate response by the refinery administration are a good example of the ongoing political negotiations between the main actors involved in the organization of sugarcane production in the Valley of Autlán-El Grullo. I introduced in Chapter I

  19. Application of sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugarcane bagasse ash is a byproduct of sugar factories found after burning sugarcane ... making materials especially cement, resulting in an increase in price. ... advantages can also be exploited by using bagasse ash as a partial cement ... Normal consistency, Setting time, Compressive strength, Water penetration depth.

  20. A search for markers of sugarcane evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bacci Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarcane as the sister group of Saccharum sinense. However, because there are few parsimony-informative characters and high homoplasy in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region we were not able to determine with confidence the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane and some of the remaining members of Saccharine subtribe. To find alternatives for the phylogenetic reconstruction of sugarcane evolutionary history, we selected 17 markers (nuclear, chloroplastic or mitochondrial from the SUCEST database of which apha-tubulin, ribosomal protein L16 (rpl16 and DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC2 were found to have a low incidence of polymorphism and comparable, or even faster, rates of evolution than the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. We suggest that these markers should be considered as preferential choices for phylogenetic studies of Saccharinae subtribe.Com o propósito de determinar a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e membros da subtribo Saccharinae, a região gênica nuclear ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 (ITS: espaçador interno transcrito; 5,8S: DNA ribossomal 5.8S, com alta taxa evolutiva, foi identificada no banco de dados do projeto genoma "Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag" (SUCEST. Uma análise através do método de parcimônia, utilizando esta região e seqüências homólogas de 23 Andropogoneae retiradas da base de dados GenBank, indicou que a cana-de-açúcar é o grupo-irmão de Saccharum sinense. No entanto, devido à pequena quantidade de caracteres

  1. Cold alkaline extraction as a pretreatment for bioethanol production from eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Danila Morais de; Sevastyanova, Olena; Queiroz, José Humberto de; Colodette, Jorge Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical approach to optimize the process of cold alkaline extraction. • Hemicelluloses and lignin removal from biomasses by cold alkaline extraction. • Higher xylan and lignin removal for straw during pretreatment. • Formation of pseudo-extractives for eucalyptus during pretreatment. • Higher ethanol production for pretreated sugarcane straw. - Abstract: Optimal conditions for the cold alkaline extraction (CAE) pretreatment of eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw are proposed in view of their subsequent bioconversion into ethanol through the semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF) process (with presaccharification followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, or SSF). The optimum conditions, which are identified based on an experiment with a factorial central composite design, resulted in the removal of 46%, 52% and 61% of the xylan and 15%, 37% and 45% of the lignin for eucalyptus, bagasse and straw, respectively. The formation of pseudo-extractives was observed during the CAE of eucalyptus. Despite the similar glucose concentration and yield for all biomasses after 12 h of presaccharification, the highest yield (0.065 g_e_t_h_a_n_o_l/g_b_i_o_m_a_s_s), concentrations (5.74 g L"−"1) and volumetric productivity for ethanol (0.57 g L"−"1 h"−"1) were observed for the sugarcane straw. This finding was most likely related to the improved accessibility of cellulose that resulted from the removal of the largest amount of xylan and lignin.

  2. Analysis of sucrose-induced small RNAs in Streptococcus mutans in the presence of different sucrose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan Shan; Zhu, Wen Hui; Zhi, Qing Hui; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yan; Lin, Huan Cai

    2017-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the major pathogen contributing to dental caries. Sucrose is an important carbohydrate source for S. mutans and is crucial for dental caries. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are key post-transcriptional regulators of stress adaptation and virulence in bacteria. Here, for the first time, we created three replicate RNA libraries exposed to either 1 or 5% sucrose. The expression levels of sRNAs and target genes (gtfB, gtfC, and spaP) related to virulence were assessed. In addition, some phenotypic traits were evaluated. We obtained 2125 sRNA candidates with at least 100 average reads in 1% sucrose or 5% sucrose. Of these candidates, 2 were upregulated and 20 were downregulated in 1% sucrose. Six of these 22 differentially expressed sRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The expression level of target gene gtfB was higher in 1% sucrose. The adherence ratio of S. mutans was higher in 1% sucrose than in 5% sucrose. The synthesis of water-insoluble glucans (WIGs) was significantly higher in 5% sucrose than in 1% sucrose. These data suggest that a series of sRNAs can be induced in response to sucrose, and that some sRNAs might be involved in the regulation of phenotypes, providing new insight into the prevention of caries.

  3. Sucrose and warmth for analgesia in healthy newborns: an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Larry; Garza, Elizabeth; Zageris, Danielle; Heilman, Keri J; Porges, Stephen W

    2015-03-01

    Increasing data suggest that neonatal pain has long-term consequences. Nonpharmacologic techniques (sucrose taste, pacifier suckling, breastfeeding) are effective and now widely used to combat minor neonatal pain. This study examined the analgesic effect of sucrose combined with radiant warmth compared with the taste of sucrose alone during a painful procedure in healthy full-term newborns. A randomized, controlled trial included 29 healthy, full-term newborns born at the University of Chicago Hospital. Both groups of infants were given 1.0 mL of 25% sucrose solution 2 minutes before the vaccination, and 1 group additionally was given radiant warmth from an infant warmer before the vaccination. We assessed pain by comparing differences in cry, grimace, heart rate variability (ie, respiratory sinus arrhythmia), and heart rate between the groups. The sucrose plus warmer group cried and grimaced for 50% less time after the vaccination than the sucrose alone group (P < .05, respectively). The sucrose plus warmer group had lower heart rate and heart rate variability (ie, respiratory sinus arrhythmia) responses compared with the sucrose alone group (P < .01), reflecting a greater ability to physiologically regulate in response to the painful vaccination. The combination of sucrose and radiant warmth is an effective analgesic in newborns and reduces pain better than sucrose alone. The ready availability of this practical nonpharmacologic technique has the potential to reduce the burden of newborn pain. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Sucrose accumulation in watermelon fruits: genetic variation and biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yativ, Merav; Harary, Idan; Wolf, Shmuel

    2010-05-15

    Sugar accumulation, the key process determining fruit quality, is controlled by both the translocation of sugars and their metabolism in developing fruits. Sugar composition in watermelon, as in all cucurbit fruits, includes sucrose, fructose and glucose. The proportions of these three sugars are determined primarily by three enzyme families: invertases, sucrose synthases (SuSys) and sucrose phosphate synthases (SPSs). The goal of the present research was to explore the process of sugar metabolism in watermelon fruits. Crosses between the domestic watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and three wild species provided a wide germplasm to explore genetic variability in sugar composition and metabolism. This survey demonstrated great genetic variability in sugar content and in the proportions of sucrose, glucose and fructose in mature fruits. Genotypes accumulating high and low percentage of sucrose provided an experimental system to study sugar metabolism in developing fruits. Insoluble invertase activity was high and constant throughout fruit development in control lines and in genotypes accumulating low levels of sucrose, while in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose, activity declined sharply 4 weeks after pollination. Soluble acid invertase activity was significantly lower in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose than in low-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. Conversely, activities of SuSy and SPS were higher in the high-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. The present results establish that, within the genus Citrullus, there are genotypes that accumulate a high percentage of sucrose in the fruit, while others accumulate high percentages of glucose and fructose. The significant negative correlation between insoluble invertase activity and fruit sucrose level suggests that sucrose accumulation is affected by both phloem unloading and sugar metabolism. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Dissolved triazines in watersheds under sugarcane cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portocarrero, Rocio; Aparicio, Virginia; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Costa, José Luis

    2017-04-01

    Sugarcane is an important extensive crop in north western of Argentina. Chemical weed control have been increasing over the last years. The typical period of this practice takes place from October to December, at beginnig of rainy season. Atrazine and ametryn are the main herbicides used, they have moderate to high potential mobility in soils, which is a potential source of contamination for nearby streams. The aim of this study was to quantify both atrazine and ametryn contamination levels in two streams of the southeast of Tucuman (Argentina) under sugarcane production. This area has a subtropical climate, and a monsoon rainfall regime with an annual average of 700 mm. Five sampling points of Mista and Saladillo streams were monitored from September to April, during three growing season. In each growing season, four sampling moments were defined: M1) Before the herbicides application; M2) Beginning of the rainy season and during the chemical weed control period; M3) High accumulated rainfall; M4) End of the rainy season. Water samples were taken and stored in polypropylene bottles at -20°C until analysis. Samples were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography (Waters® ACQUITY® UPLC) coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS/MS Quattro Premier XE Waters). Atrazine was quantified in all samples and the highest concentrations were found in M2 (0.03-3.07 μg L-1). For the others sampling moments, atrazine concentrations were ranged from 0.003 to 0.2 μg L-1. Ametryn was detected in the 90% of the samples. Ametryn concentrations in M2 varied from 0.004 to 0.32 μg L-1, and in the rest sampling moments were less than 0.11 μg L-1. Both herbicides were highly detected in the study area. Although atrazine is authorized for other crops in the area, ametryn is only authorized for sugarcane, the largest cultivation in the area.

  6. Analysis and protease-catalysed synthesis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the presented research were to develop quantifiable methods for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers and to investigate the activity and regioisomeric distribution in the biocatalytic esterification of sucrose with vinyl laur...... in the reaction mixture appeared to be catalysed by the presence of aluminosilicate molecular sieves in the reaction medium. Mass spectrometry analysis of sucrose laurate product confirmed the molecular mass.......The aims of the presented research were to develop quantifiable methods for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers and to investigate the activity and regioisomeric distribution in the biocatalytic esterification of sucrose with vinyl...... laurate in DMF using serine proteases and a metalloprotease. A broad range of elution strategies for the chromatographic analysis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers was systematically investigated using design of experiments strategies and statistical and multivariate analysis and modelling. Efficiency...

  7. Changes in photosynthetic rates and gene expression of leaves during a source-sink perturbation in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, A J; Cramer, M D; Watt, D A

    2008-01-01

    In crops other than sugarcane there is good evidence that the size and activity of carbon sinks influence source activity via sugar-related regulation of the enzymes of photosynthesis, an effect that is partly mediated through coarse regulation of gene expression. In the current study, leaf shading treatments were used to perturb the source-sink balance in 12-month-old Saccharum spp. hybrid 'N19' (N19) by restricting source activity to a single mature leaf. Changes in leaf photosynthetic gas exchange variables and leaf and culm sugar concentrations were subsequently measured over a 14 d period. In addition, the changes in leaf gene response to the source-sink perturbation were measured by reverse northern hybridization analysis of an array of 128 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) related to photosynthetic and carbohydrate metabolism. Sucrose concentrations in immature culm tissue declined significantly over the duration of the shading treatment, while a 57 and 88% increase in the assimilation rate (A) and electron transport rate (ETR), respectively, was observed in the source leaf. Several genes (27) in the leaf displayed a >2-fold change in expression level, including the upregulation of several genes associated with C(4) photosynthesis, mitochondrial metabolism and sugar transport. Changes in gene expression levels of several genes, including Rubisco (EC 4.1.1.39) and hexokinase (HXK; EC 2.7.1.1), correlated with changes in photosynthesis and tissue sugar concentrations that occurred subsequent to the source-sink perturbation. These results are consistent with the notion that sink demand may limit source activity through a kinase-mediated sugar signalling mechanism that correlates to a decrease in source hexose concentrations, which, in turn, correlate with increased expression of genes involved in photosynthesis and metabolite transport. The signal feedback system reporting sink sufficiency and regulating source activity may be a potentially valuable target for

  8. Sugarcane Elongin C is involved in infection by sugarcane mosaic disease pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yushan; Deng, Yuqing; Cheng, Guangyuan; Peng, Lei; Zheng, Yanru; Yang, Yongqing, E-mail: yyq287346@163.com; Xu, Jingsheng, E-mail: xujingsheng@126.com

    2015-10-23

    Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) provides the main source of sugar for humans. Sugarcane mosaic disease (SMD) is a major threat to sugarcane production. Currently, control of SMD is mainly dependent on breeding resistant cultivars through hybridization, which is time-consuming. Understanding the mechanism of viral infection may facilitate novel strategies to breed cultivars resistant to SMD and to control the disease. In this study, a wide interaction was detected between the viral VPg protein and host proteins. Several genes were screened from sugarcane cDNA library that could interact with Sugarcane streak mosaic virus VPg, including SceIF4E1 and ScELC. ScELC was predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein, but subcellular localization analysis showed it was distributed both in cytoplasmic and nuclear, and interactions were also detected between ScELC and VPg of SCMV or SrMV that reveal ScELC was widely used in the SMD pathogen infection process. ScELC and VPgs interacted in the nucleus, and may function to enhance the viral transcription rate. ScELC also interacted with SceIF4E2 both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, but not with SceIF4E1 and SceIF4E3. These results suggest that ScELC may be essential for the function of SceIF4E2, an isomer of eIF4E. - Highlights: • We cloned ScELC, SceIF4E1, SceIF4E2 and SceIF4E3 from sugarcane accession Badila. • We examined interactions among VPg, ScELC, SceIF4E1, SceIF4E2 and SceIF4E3. • We proofed that ScELC interacted with VPgs of SCMV, SrMV and SCSMV. • We proofed that ScELC interacted with SceIF4E2 but not SceIF4E1 or SceIF4E3.

  9. Sugarcane Elongin C is involved in infection by sugarcane mosaic disease pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Yushan; Deng, Yuqing; Cheng, Guangyuan; Peng, Lei; Zheng, Yanru; Yang, Yongqing; Xu, Jingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) provides the main source of sugar for humans. Sugarcane mosaic disease (SMD) is a major threat to sugarcane production. Currently, control of SMD is mainly dependent on breeding resistant cultivars through hybridization, which is time-consuming. Understanding the mechanism of viral infection may facilitate novel strategies to breed cultivars resistant to SMD and to control the disease. In this study, a wide interaction was detected between the viral VPg protein and host proteins. Several genes were screened from sugarcane cDNA library that could interact with Sugarcane streak mosaic virus VPg, including SceIF4E1 and ScELC. ScELC was predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein, but subcellular localization analysis showed it was distributed both in cytoplasmic and nuclear, and interactions were also detected between ScELC and VPg of SCMV or SrMV that reveal ScELC was widely used in the SMD pathogen infection process. ScELC and VPgs interacted in the nucleus, and may function to enhance the viral transcription rate. ScELC also interacted with SceIF4E2 both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, but not with SceIF4E1 and SceIF4E3. These results suggest that ScELC may be essential for the function of SceIF4E2, an isomer of eIF4E. - Highlights: • We cloned ScELC, SceIF4E1, SceIF4E2 and SceIF4E3 from sugarcane accession Badila. • We examined interactions among VPg, ScELC, SceIF4E1, SceIF4E2 and SceIF4E3. • We proofed that ScELC interacted with VPgs of SCMV, SrMV and SCSMV. • We proofed that ScELC interacted with SceIF4E2 but not SceIF4E1 or SceIF4E3.

  10. Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, David

    2005-11-01

    This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV

  11. Functional characterization of sucrose phosphorylase and scrR, a regulator of sucrose metabolism in Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Januana S; Abdi, Reihaneh; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri harbours alternative enzymes for sucrose metabolism, sucrose phosphorylase, fructansucrases, and glucansucrases. Sucrose phosphorylase and fructansucrases additionally contribute to raffinose metabolism. Glucansucrases and fructansucrases produce exopolysaccharides as alternative to sucrose hydrolysis. L. reuteri LTH5448 expresses a levansucrase (ftfA) and sucrose phosphorylase (scrP), both are inducible by sucrose. This study determined the contribution of scrP to sucrose and raffinose metabolism in L. reuteri LTH5448, and elucidated the role of scrR in regulation sucrose metabolism. Disruption of scrP and scrR was achieved by double crossover mutagenesis. L. reuteri LTH5448, LTH5448ΔscrP and LTH5448ΔscrR were characterized with respect to growth and metabolite formation with glucose, sucrose, or raffinose as sole carbon source. Inactivation of scrR led to constitutive transcription of scrP and ftfA, demonstrating that scrR is negative regulator. L. reuteri LTH5448 and the LTH5448ΔscrP or LTH5448ΔscrR mutant strains did not differ with respect to glucose, sucrose or raffinose utilization. However, L. reuteri LTH5448ΔscrP produced more levan, indicating that the lack of sucrose phosphorylase is compensated by an increased metabolic flux through levansucrase. In conclusion, the presence of alternate pathways for sucrose and raffinose metabolism and their regulation indicate that these substrates, which are abundant in plants, are preferred carbohydrate sources for L. reuteri. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sucrose transport and phloem unloading in stem of Vicia faba: possible involvement of a sucrose carrier and osmotic regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloni, B.; Wyse, R.E.; Griffith, S.

    1986-01-01

    After pulse labeling of a source leaf with 14 CO 2 , stem sections of Vicia faba plants were cut and the efflux characteristics of 14 C-labeled sugars into various buffered solutions were determined. Radiolabeled sucrose was shown to remain localized in the phloem and adjacent phloem parenchyma tissues after a 2-hour chase. Therefore, sucrose leakage from stem segments prepared following a 75-minute chase period was assumed to be characteristic of phloem unloading. The efflux of 14 C assimilates from the phloem was enhanced by 1 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) and by 5 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenly hydrazone (CCCP). However, PCMBS inhibited and CCCP enhanced general leakage of nonradioactive sugars from the stem segments. Sucrose at concentrations of 50 millimolar in the free space increased efflux of [ 14 C]sucrose, presumably through an exchange mechanism. This exchange was inhibited by PCMBS and abolished by 0.2 molar mannitol. Increasing the osmotic concentration of the efflux medium with mannitol reduced [ 14 C]sucrose efflux. However, this inhibition seems not to be specific to sucrose unloading since leakage of total sugars, nonlabeled sucrose, glucose, and amino acids from the bulk of the tissue was reduced in a similar manner. The data suggest that phloem unloading in cut stem segments is consistent with passive efflux of sucrose from the phloem to the apoplast and that sucrose exchange via a membrane carrier may be involved

  13. Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Roma, W. N. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg......, and study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products...... fuel. The recommendations for the ethanol lifecycle are: harvesting the sugarcane without burning; more environmentally benign agricultural practices; renewable fuel rather than diesel; not washing sugarcane and implementing water recycling systems during the industrial processing; and improving...

  14. 2G ethanol from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sandra Cerqueira; Maehara, Larissa; Machado, Cristina Maria Monteiro; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    In the sugarcane industry, large amounts of lignocellulosic residues are generated, which includes bagasse, straw, and tops. The use of the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass for the production of second-generation (2G) ethanol can be a potential alternative to contribute to the economic viability of this process. Here, we conducted a systematic comparative study of the use of the lignocellulosic residues from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass (bagasse, straw, and tops) from commercial sugarcane varieties for the production of 2G ethanol. In addition, the feasibility of using a mixture of these residues from a selected variety was also investigated. The materials were pretreated with dilute acid and hydrolyzed with a commercial enzymatic preparation, after which the hydrolysates were fermented using an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The susceptibility to enzymatic saccharification was higher for the tops, followed by straw and bagasse. Interestingly, the fermentability of the hydrolysates showed a different profile, with straw achieving the highest ethanol yields, followed by tops and bagasse. Using a mixture of the different sugarcane parts (bagasse-straw-tops, 1:1:1, in a dry-weight basis), it was possible to achieve a 55% higher enzymatic conversion and a 25% higher ethanol yield, compared to use of the bagasse alone. For the four commercial sugarcane varieties evaluated using the same experimental set of conditions, it was found that the variety of sugarcane was not a significant factor in the 2G ethanol production process. Assessment of use of the whole lignocellulosic sugarcane biomass clearly showed that 2G ethanol production could be significantly improved by the combined use of bagasse, straw, and tops, when compared to the use of bagasse alone. The lower susceptibility to saccharification of sugarcane bagasse, as well as the lower fermentability of its hydrolysates, can be compensated by using it in combination with straw

  15. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Amandeep; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Mukhtar, Hayat Muhammad; Singh, Prabh Simran; Shah, Gagan; Dhawan, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary produ...

  16. Biotechnological interventions in sugarcane improvement: strategies, methods and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprasanna, P.

    2010-01-01

    Work has been conducted towards employing in vitro culture system combined with radiation induced mutagenesis in the improvement of sugarcane. Several radiation induced mutants with agronomically desirable traits were isolated and evaluated under field conditions, besides studying abiotic stress responses using biochemical, physiological and molecular tools. This article describes the developments in the in vitro culture systems and related biotechnologies that are evolving as novel strategies in the recent years for use in sugarcane improvement

  17. Phosphorus fertilization in sugarcane cultivation under different soil managements

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa Junior, Paulo R. de; Brunharo, Caio A. C. G.; Furlani, Carlos E. A.; Prado, Renato de M.; Maldonado Júnior, Walter; Zerbato, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soil preparation along with its chemical adjustment is the most important step in sugarcane plantation, especially because it provides proper conditions for plant development. The objective of the present research was to evaluate sugarcane response to the application of different phosphorus doses and their location, associated with both minimum soil tillage and conventional soil tillage. The experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot randomized block design, where the main plots ...

  18. RB975242 and RB975201 - Late maturation sugarcane varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Sampaio Carneiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane varieties RB975201 and RB975242 were developed and released for harvest at the end of the season (late maturation in the CentralSouth region of Brazil. In specific environments, these varieties were compared with commercial standards in sugar yield per area. They are resistant to major sugarcane diseases and present the Bru1 gene of resistance to brown rust.

  19. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crago, Christine L.; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO 2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  20. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polachini, G.M.; Tajara, E.H. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Santos, U.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Zeri, A.C.M.; Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  1. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polachini, G.M.; Tajara, E.H.; Santos, U.P.; Zeri, A.C.M.; Paes Leme, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  2. Sequence analysis of cereal sucrose synthase genes and isolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... sequencing of sucrose synthase gene fragment from sor- ghum using primers designed at their conserved exons. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Multiple sequence alignment. Sucrose synthase gene sequences of various cereals like rice, maize, and barley were accessed from NCBI Genbank database.

  3. Comparative Sucrose Responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana Foragers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Kuang, Haiou; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhenhong; Tian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Zachary Y.; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER) assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources. PMID:24194958

  4. Comparative sucrose responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Kuang, Haiou; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhenhong; Tian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Zachary Y; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER) assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources.

  5. Comparative sucrose responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana foragers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Yang

    Full Text Available In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources.

  6. Functionality of Inulin as a Sucrose Replacer in Cookie Baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin was evaluated as a sucrose replacer for healthy cookie production with benefits of low glycemic impact and prebiotic soluble fiber. Sucrose (as a reference) and three inulin products of different concentrations (as soluble fibers) were used to explore the effects of sugar-replacer type on so...

  7. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of sucrose esters on the physicochemical properties of wheat starch. Methods: Sucrose ester was mixed with wheat starch extracted from normal soft wheat cultivars and heated. Change in starch properties arising from the interaction between were assessed for starch blue value, viscosity ...

  8. Citrate increases glass transition temperature of vitrified sucrose preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.; Lipelaar, P.J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Vromans, H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium citrate on the properties of dried amorphous sucrose glasses. Addition of sodium citrate to a sucrose solution followed by freeze-drying or convective drying resulted in a glass transition temperature (T-g) that was higher than the

  9. Sucrose Treated Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Yarns and Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Consolidated carbon nanotube or graphene yarns and woven sheets are consolidated through the formation of a carbon binder formed from the dehydration of sucrose. The resulting materials, on a macro-scale are lightweight and of a high specific modulus and/or strength. Sucrose is relatively inexpensive and readily available, and the process is therefore cost-effective.

  10. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To understand the role of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system in the biomineralization process, we have tested the influence of different concentration of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin (BSA) on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. The CaCO3 crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscope ...

  11. Kestose:sucrose fructosyl transfer - a potential problem in the investigation of fructan and sucrose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanabus, J.; Carpita, N.C.; Housley, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    Wheat leaves can be induced by excision to produce fructans. Fructose residues of newly made oligofructans in leaves labeled in vivo with 14 CO 2 are not equally labeled. We report here on a fructosyl transferase activity in wheat leaves catalyzing the reaction: G * -F * + G-F-F = G * -F * -F + G-F. This activity, described previously in J. artichoke was attributed to fructan:fructan fructosyl transferase (FFT). The rate of this reaction in vitro is much higher than that of net kestose synthesis by SST. Hence, appearance of labeled 1-kestose from sucrose may not be an accurate measure of SST, but a curious reshuffling of hexoses between pools of 1-kestose and sucrose

  12. Transcriptional responses to sucrose mimic the plant-associated life style of the plant growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Safiyh; Wu, Xiao; Ouyang, Liming; Zhang, Yian Biao; Stadler, Andrea; McCorkle, Sean; Zhu, Wei; Maslov, Sergei; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g., flagella biosynthesis) and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.

  13. Transcriptional responses to sucrose mimic the plant-associated life style of the plant growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiyh Taghavi

    Full Text Available Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g., flagella biosynthesis and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.

  14. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletti Luiz C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. Results We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Conclusion Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by

  15. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badotti, Fernanda; Dário, Marcelo G; Alves, Sergio L; Cordioli, Maria Luiza A; Miletti, Luiz C; de Araujo, Pedro S; Stambuk, Boris U

    2008-02-27

    Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L) initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by effectively reducing sucrose uptake by the yeast cells

  16. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT EXOTIC SUGARCANE GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at research area of Sugarcane Research Institute (Faisalabad, Pakistan to evaluate the best sugarcane clones amongst twenty eight clones against two standard varietiesHSF-240 and CPF-249 for different agronomic traits and yield characters during the crop season of 2016-2017 at third selection stage of variety development. In the experiment, three clones (S2014-SL-1322, S2014-SL-1359, S2014-SL-1372 out of twenty eight (11% were selected on the basis of good performance and did not show splits, lodging tendency, pithiness, aerials roots, disease infestation and these showed good crop stand and thick canes. These three clones were promoted to next stage of variety development cycle. In set-1, Clone S2014-SL-347 gave higher cane yield (58.37 tha-1 with sugar yield of 7.18 tha-1. But it showed some characters of high aerial roots and pithiness and so rejected. In set-II, the clone S2014-SL-1224 gave higher cane yield of 71.51t ha-1 with 8.73t ha-1 sugar yield and showed high disease infestation of red rot and smut and so rejected. But S2014-SL-1322, S2014-SL-1359, S2014-SL-1372 produced cane yield of 71.37 t ha-1 , 68.56 t ha-1 , 67.33 t ha-1 with 8.71 t ha-1, 8.34 t ha-1 , 8.31 t ha-1 sugar yield respectively. The remaining twenty five clones (89% out of twenty eight were rejected due to diseases susceptibility, lodging, pithiness, poor crop stand, aerial roots and high splits.

  17. Soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period: influence on soil chemical and physical properties and on sugarcane productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roniram Pereira da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The planting of diversified crops during the sugarcane fallow period can improve the chemical and physical properties and increase the production potential of the soil for the next sugarcane cycle. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the influence of various soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period on soil chemical and physical properties and productivity after the first sugarcane harvest. The experiment was conducted in two areas located in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º 14' 05'' S, 48º 17' 09'' W with two different soil types, namely: an eutroferric Red Latosol (RLe with high-clay texture (clay content = 680 g kg-1 and an acric Red Latosol (RLa with clayey texture (clay content = 440 g kg-1. A randomized block design with five replications and four treatments (crop sequences was used. The crop sequences during the sugarcane fallow period were soybean/millet/soybean, soybean/sunn hemp/soybean, soybean/fallow/soybean, and soybean. Soil use was found not to affect chemical properties and sugarcane productivity of RLe or RLa. The soybean/millet/soybean sequence improved aggregation in the acric Latosol.

  18. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol production in India in comparison to Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André P C; Seabra, Joaquim E A; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Briois, Jean François; Patel, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: India's biofuel programme relies on ethanol production from sugarcane molasses. However, there is limited insight on environmental impacts across the Indian ethanol production chain. This study closes this gap by assessing the environmental impacts of ethanol production from sugarcane

  19. Sugarcane Genotype Performance in Three Environments (Based on Crop Cycle) at Mardan, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane breeders often face significant genotype x environment interactions in their trials grown under multiple environments. Hence, genotypes need to be tested for their stability across different environments keeping in view the significant interactions. An experiment comprising 28 sugarcane ge...

  20. Development, yield and quality attributes of sugarcane cultivars fertigated by subsurface drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. B. de O. Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to evaluate the development, yield and quality of four sugarcane cultivars fertigated by subsurface drip system. The experiment was carried out in Campinas-SP, Brazil, from January 2012 to November 2013, with the cultivars SP79-1011, IACSP94-2101, IACSP94-2094 and IACSP95-5000 subjected to daily irrigations. The irrigations depths were applied to bring soil moisture to field capacity. Soil moisture was monitored using soil moisture probes. Samples were collected along the crop cycle in order to evaluate crop development and yield, at the end of the first and second ratoons. Stalk height showed good correlation for the estimation of crop yield, with R2 equal to or higher than 0.96. The cultivar IACSP95-5000 showed the highest yield in the first ratoon. In the second ratoon the highest yield was observed in IACSP94-2101, followed by IACSP95-5000 and SP79-1011. Considering the yield results associated with the technological analysis, such as soluble solids content and apparent sucrose, the cultivar IACSP95-5000 excelled the others in the cultivation under subsurface drip irrigation.

  1. Enhanced micropropagation and tiller formation in sugarcane through pretreatment of explants with thidiazuron (TDZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Kavita; Lal, Madan; Saxena, Sangeeta

    2017-10-01

    An efficient, simple and commercially applicable protocol for rapid micropropagation of sugarcane has been designed using variety Co 05011. Pretreatment of shoot tip explants with thidiazuron (TDZ) induced high frequency regeneration of shoot cultures with improved multiplication ratio. The highest frequency (80%) of shoot initiation in explants pretreated with 10 mg/l of TDZ was obtained during the study. Maximum 65% shoot cultures could be established from the explants pretreated with TDZ as compared to minimum 40% establishment in explants without pretreatment. The explants pretreated with 10 mg/l of TDZ required minimum 40 days for the establishment of shoot cultures as compared to untreated explants which required 60 days. The highest average number of shoots per culture (19.1) could be obtained from the explants pretreated with 10 mg/l of TDZ, indicating the highest multiplication ratio (1:6). Highest rooting (over 94%) was obtained in shoots regenerated from pretreated explants on ½ strength MS medium containing 5.0 mg/l of NAA and 50 g/l of sucrose within 15 days. Higher number of tillers/clump (15.3) could be counted in plants regenerated from pretreated explants than untreated ones (10.9 tillers/clump) in field condition, three months after transplantation. Molecular analysis using RAPD and DAMD markers suggested that the pretreatment of explants with TDZ did not adversely affect the genetic stability of regenerated plants and maintained high clonal purity.

  2. Appraisal of pressmud and inorganic fertilizers on soil properties yield and sugarcane quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.A.; Ibrahim, M.; Tahir, M.; Ahmad, K.; Khan, Z.I.; Valeem, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted under semi-arid climatic conditions to evaluate the response of pressmud in combination with inorganic fertilizers and alone (only inorganic fertilizers) on the yield and sugarcane quality parameters besides a value-added product (locally called Gur). It is obvious from the results that inorganic fertilizer use (T2) has increased the tillers per plant, number of millable canes, stripped cane yield, sugar yield and juice present cane by 38.95 %, 38.66 %, 51.96 %, 54.92 % and 21.9 5% respectively, over the control (T1). Similarly when higher dose of pressmud was applied in integration with inorganic fertilizers (in T3), it increased total soluble solids, sucrose, purity, CSS and sugar recovery of juice by 7.83 %, 10.42 %, 2.80 %, 12.06 %, and 12.07 %, over the control (T1). The studies concluded that higher doses of mineral fertilizers increased gur % juice but it did not improve gur quality as done by higher doses of organic manures. Soil properties were also investigated before and after crop harvest. Maximum fertilizer use efficiency (124.29) was recorded in T2. (author)

  3. Characterization of Sucrose Thin Films for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Iconaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose is a natural osmolyte accumulated in the cells of organisms as they adapt to environmental stress. In vitro sucrose increases protein stability and forces partially unfolded structures to refold. Thin films of sucrose (C12H22O11 were deposited on thin cut glass substrates by the thermal evaporation technique (P∼10−5 torr. Characteristics of thin films were put into evidence by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG/DTA. The experimental results confirm a uniform deposition of an adherent layer. In this paper we present a part of the characteristics of sucrose thin films deposited on glass in medium vacuum conditions, as a part of a culture medium for osteoblast cells. Osteoblast cells were used to determine proliferation, viability, and cytotoxicity interactions with sucrose powder and sucrose thin films. The osteoblast cells have been provided from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC Centre. The outcome of this study demonstrated the effectiveness of sucrose thin films as a possible nontoxic agent for biomedical applications.

  4. Sucrose and IQ induced mutations in rat colon by independent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Hald, M. T.; Autrup, H.

    2004-01-01

    Sucrose-rich diets have repeatedly been observed to have co-carcinogenic actions in colon and liver of rats and to increase the number of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) induced aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. To investigate a possible interaction between sucrose and IQ...... on the genotoxicity in rat liver and colon, we gave Big Blue rats(TM) a diet containing sucrose (0%, 3.45% or 13.4% w/w) and/or IQ (70 ppm) for a period of 3 weeks. Sucrose and IQ increased the mutation frequency in the colon. The effect of combined treatments with IQ and sucrose on the mutation frequencies...... was additive indicating that sucrose and IQ act independently. This was supported by the mutation spectra where sucrose expands the background mutations in the colon, whereas IQ, in other studies, more specifically has induced G:C --> T:A transversions. In the liver IQ increased the mutation frequency, whereas...

  5. Impact of sugarcane field residue and mill bagasse on seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research indicates that sugarcane field residue and sugarcane mill bagasse may be allelopathic. Allelopathy is the chemical interaction between plants, which may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. Previous research in Louisiana indicated that sugarcane field residue may inhibi...

  6. Louisiana sugarcane entomology: A look at the back and a peek at the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling insect pests is an important consideration for sugarcane farmers seeking to minimize losses and maximize profits. Research in managing insects has been conducted for almost as long as sugarcane has been grown in Louisiana. This presentation reviews Louisiana sugarcane entomology from the...

  7. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachid, Caio T. C. C.; Piccolo, Marisa C.; Leite, Deborah Catharine A.; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Coutinho, Heitor Luiz C.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Peixoto, Raquel S.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes

  8. Evaluation of the juice brix of wild sugarcanes (Saccharum spontaneum indigenous to Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Sakaigaichi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern sugarcane cultivars are derived from the interspecific crossing between Saccharum officinarum and wild sugarcane, Saccharum spontaneum. The introgression of valuable characteristics from wild sugarcane is recognized as extremely important, but this process typically requires long-term effort over multiple generations of backcrosses owing to the low sugar content of the initial interspecific hybrids. In this study, we aimed to identify Japanese wild sugarcanes with high juice brix in order to promote effective interspecific crossing of sugarcane. Sixty-four accessions from the Nansei Islands and 70 accessions from the Honshu were evaluated for juice brix. Wild sugarcanes with high juice brix were demonstrated to exist among wild sugarcanes indigenous to the Honshu. A significant difference was observed between the median juice brix values of wild sugarcanes of the Nansei Islands and those of the Honshu. The relationship between juice brix and stem traits was then examined in 20 wild sugarcanes, 10 each from the Nansei Islands and the Honshu. The reproducibility of juice brix value in both experiments was confirmed. In contrast to juice brix, stem traits, such as length, diameter, and volume, were typically smaller in wild sugarcanes from the Honshu. Moreover, a negative correlation was observed between the index of stem volume and juice brix. In this study, we identified outstanding wild sugarcanes with high juice brix. Using germplasms from the identified wild sugarcanes in interspecific crossing could contribute to the increases in both yield and sugar content.

  9. First report of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) [genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae] is the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease. SCYLV is widespread in Florida where sugarcane was the only known natural host of this virus. During spring 2015, we collected (leaves or stalks) and tested several gras...

  10. Sucrose tricarboxylate by sonocatalysed TEMPO-mediated oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, S; Thomazeau, C; Joannard, D; Trombotto, S; Descotes, G; Bouchu, A; Queneau, Y

    2000-06-16

    Oxidation of sucrose by the NaOCl/TEMPO system provided sucrose tricarboxylate without the addition of sodium bromide as co-catalyst when high-frequency (500 kHz) ultrasound was applied, in contrast to very limited conversion without sonication. In the presence of sodium bromide, sonication also caused acceleration of the oxidation. The rate increase due to sonication of the oxidant system prior to sucrose addition suggests that ultrasound acts at the level of the formation of the nitrosonium ion, the active oxidising species in the catalytic cycle.

  11. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, Maurício R; Karlen, Douglas L; Cerri, Carlos E P; Franco, André L C; Tormena, Cássio A; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

  12. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício R Cherubin

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI. The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators. Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity; however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC, abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity. Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration and proportional weighting to reflect

  13. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, Maurício R.; Karlen, Douglas L.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Franco, André L. C.; Tormena, Cássio A.; Davies, Christian A.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

  14. Characteristics of Sucrose Transport through the Sucrose-Specific Porin ScrY Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping eSun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose-specific porin (ScrY is a transmembrane protein that allows for the uptake of sucrose under growth-limiting conditions. The crystal structure of ScrY was resolved before by X-ray crystallography, both in its uncomplexed form and with bound sucrose. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of the transport mechanism of ScrY. To date, there has not yet been any clear demonstration for sucrose transport through the ScrY.Here, the dynamics of the ScrY trimer embedded in a phospholipid bilayer as well as the characteristics of sucrose translocation were investigated by means of atomistic molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The potential of mean force (PMF for sucrose translocation through the pore showed two main energy barriers within the constriction region of ScrY. Energy decomposition allowed to pinpoint three aspartic acids as key residues opposing the passage of sucrose, all located within the L3 loop. Mutation of two aspartic acids to uncharged residues resulted in an accordingly modified electrostatics and decreased PMF barrier. The chosen methodology and results will aid in the design of porins with modified transport specificities.

  15. Molecular motions in sucrose-PVP and sucrose-sorbitol dispersions-II. Implications of annealing on secondary relaxations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sisir; Bhardwaj, Sunny P; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2014-10-01

    To determine the effect of annealing on the two secondary relaxations in amorphous sucrose and in sucrose solid dispersions. Sucrose was co-lyophilized with either PVP or sorbitol, annealed for different time periods and analyzed by dielectric spectroscopy. In an earlier investigation, we had documented the effect of PVP and sorbitol on the primary and the two secondary relaxations in amorphous sucrose solid dispersions (1). Here we investigated the effect of annealing on local motions, both in amorphous sucrose and in the dispersions. The average relaxation time of the local motion (irrespective of origin) in sucrose, decreased upon annealing. However, the heterogeneity in relaxation time distribution as well as the dielectric strength decreased only for β1- (the slower relaxation) but not for β2-relaxations. The effect of annealing on β2-relaxation times was neutralized by sorbitol while PVP negated the effect of annealing on both β1- and β2-relaxations. An increase in local mobility of sucrose brought about by annealing could be negated with an additive.

  16. Sucrose or sucrose and caffeine differentially impact memory and anxiety-like behaviours, and alter hippocampal parvalbumin and doublecortin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tanya J; Reichelt, Amy C

    2018-04-11

    Caffeinated sugar-sweetened "energy" drinks are a subset of soft drinks that are popular among young people worldwide. High sucrose diets impair cognition and alter aspects of emotional behaviour in rats, however, little is known about sucrose combined with caffeine. Rats were allocated to 2 h/day 10% sucrose (Suc), 10% sucrose plus 0.04% caffeine (CafSuc) or control (water) conditions. The addition of caffeine to sucrose appeared to increase the rewarding aspect of sucrose, as the CafSuc group consumed more solution than the Suc group. After 14 days of intermittent Suc or CafSuc access, anxiety was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) prior to their daily solution access, whereby CafSuc and Suc rats spent more time in the closed arms, indicative of increased anxiety. Following daily solution access, CafSuc, but not Suc, rats showed reduced anxiety-like behaviour in the open-field. Control and CafSuc rats displayed intact place and long-term object memory, while Suc showed impaired memory performance. Sucrose reduced parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, but no differences were observed between Control and CafSuc conditions. Parvalbumin reactivity in the basolateral amygdala did not differ between conditions. Reduced doublecortin immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus relative to controls was seen in the CafSuc, but not Suc, treatment conditions. These findings indicate that the addition of caffeine to sucrose attenuated cognitive deficits. However, the addition of caffeine to sucrose evoked anxiety-like responses under certain testing conditions, suggesting that frequent consumption of caffeinated energy drinks may promote emotional alterations and brain changes compared to standard soft drinks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EFFECTS OF SUCROSE AND VEGETABLE OIL ON PROPERTIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nindjin.c

    diameter) to minimize the formation of air bubbles included in the film. ..... polymeric chains was more difficult to make due to the molecule structure of ... observed during storage, due to sucrose addition to cassava starch-xanthan gum films,.

  18. Effects of salinity on sucrose metabolism during tomato fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... (fructose and glucose) accumulated to higher levels and the content of ... But the effects of salinity treatment on sucrose phosphate synthase activities were ... analysis. Sink strength was expressed as the dry matter accumu-.

  19. Effects of salinity on sucrose metabolism during tomato fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... But the effects of salinity treatment on sucrose phosphate synthase activities were weak under the ... The growth of different sink organs depends firstly on the use of ..... isoforms, location and regulatory mechanisms by endo-.

  20. Sucrose effect on broomrape (Orobanche crenata) development on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Key words: Sucrose, Orobanche crenata, Vicia narbonensis and broomrape control. INTRODUCTION ... and forage legume used for livestock feed in the .... the yield of faba bean significantly (Kukula and Masri, 1984). More-.

  1. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in .... 24, 701–713. Bate N. and Twell D. 1998 Functional architecture of a late pollen .... Manzara T. and Gruissem W. 1988 Organization and expression.

  2. Cloning and expression of pineapple sucrose- phosphate synthase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... phosphate; EDTA, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid; Ivr, invertase; SS .... phenolics, tannins and artifacts due to differences of tissue composition ..... Banana sucrose-phosphate synthase gene expression during fruit ripening.

  3. Functional characterization of sugarcane mustang domesticated transposases and comparative diversity in sugarcane, rice, maize and sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Kajihara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs account for a large portion of plant genomes, particularly in grasses, in which they correspond to 50%-80% of the genomic content. TEs have recently been shown to be a source of new genes and new regulatory networks. The most striking contribution of TEs is referred as “molecular domestication”, by which the element coding sequence loses its movement capacity and acquires cellular function. Recently, domesticated transposases known as mustang and derived from the Mutator element have been described in sugarcane. In order to improve our understanding of the function of these proteins, we identified mustang genes from Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays and performed a phenetic analysis to assess the diversity and evolutionary history of this gene family. This analysis identified orthologous groups and showed that mustang genes are highly conserved in grass genomes. We also explored the transcriptional activity of sugarcane mustang genes in heterologous and homologous systems. These genes were found to be ubiquitously transcribed, with shoot apical meristem having the highest expression levels, and were downregulated by phytohormones. Together, these findings suggest the possible involvement of mustang proteins in the maintenance of hormonal homeostasis.

  4. Screening for Sugarcane Brown Rust in the First Clonal Stage of the Canal Point Sugarcane Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duli Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd. was first reported in the United States in 1978 and is still one of the great challenges for sugarcane production. A better understanding of sugarcane genotypic variation in response to brown rust will help optimize breeding and selection strategies for disease resistance. Brown rust ratings were scaled from non-infection (0 to severe infection (4 with intervals of 0.5 and routinely recorded for genotypes in the first clonal selection stage of the Canal Point sugarcane breeding program in Florida. Data were collected from 14,272 and 12,661 genotypes and replicated check cultivars in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Mean rust rating, % infection, and severity in each family and progeny of female parent were determined, and their coefficients of variation (CV within and among families (females were estimated. Considerable variation exists in rust ratings among families or females. The families and female parents with high susceptibility or resistance to brown rust were identified and ranked. The findings of this study can help scientists to evaluate sugarcane crosses and parents for brown rust disease, to use desirable parents for crossing, and to improve genetic resistance to brown rust in breeding programs.

  5. Sucrose Improves Insecticide Activity Against Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Richard S; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Loeb, Gregory M; Elsensohn, Johanna E; Hesler, Steven P

    2015-04-01

    The addition of sucrose to insecticides targeting spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), enhanced lethality in laboratory, semifield, and field tests. In the laboratory, 0.1% sucrose added to a spray solution enhanced spotted wing drosophila feeding. Flies died 120 min earlier when exposed to spinosad residues at label rates enhanced with sucrose. Added sucrose reduced the LC50 for dried acetamiprid residues from 82 to 41 ppm in the spray solution. Laboratory bioassays of spotted wing drosophila mortality followed exposure to grape and blueberry foliage and/or fruit sprayed and aged in the field. On grape foliage, the addition of 2.4 g/liter of sugar with insecticide sprays resulted in an 11 and 6% increase of spotted wing drosophila mortality at 1 and 2 d exposures to residues, respectively, averaged over seven insecticides with three concentrations. In a separate experiment, spinetoram and cyantraniliprole reduced by 95-100% the larval infestation of blueberries, relative to the untreated control, 7 d after application at labeled rates when applied with 1.2 g/liter sucrose in a spray mixture, irrespective of rainfall; without sucrose infestation was reduced by 46-91%. Adding sugar to the organically acceptable spinosyn, Entrust, reduced larval infestation of strawberries by >50% relative to without sugar for five of the six sample dates during a season-long field trial. In a small-plot field test with blueberries, weekly applications in alternating sprays of sucrose plus reduced-risk insecticides, spinetoram or acetamiprid, reduced larval infestation relative to the untreated control by 76%; alternating bifenthrin and phosmet (without sucrose) reduced infestation by 65%. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Sugarcane maturity estimation through edaphic-climatic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarpari Maximiliano Salles

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. grows under different weather conditions directly affecting crop maturation. Raw material quality predicting models are important tools in sugarcane crop management; the goal of these models is to provide productivity estimates during harvesting, increasing the efficiency of strategical and administrative decisions. The objective of this work was developing a model to predict Total Recoverable Sugars (TRS during harvesting, using data related to production factors such as soil water storage and negative degree-days. The database of a sugar mill for the crop seasons 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 was analyzed, and statistical models were tested to estimate raw material. The maturity model for a one-year old sugarcane proved to be significant, with a coefficient of determination (R² of 0.7049*. No differences were detected between measured and estimated data in the simulation (P < 0.05.

  7. Preparation and characterization of super absorbent polymer from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiwien Andriyanti; Suyanti; Ngasifudin

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a source of biomass which large enough numbers and has not been fully exploited. At this time has developed a super absorbent polymer material of sugarcane bagasse that can absorb water up to several times of its own weight and keep this water. Super absorbent polymers can be used as a soil conditioner that can be used as an absorber and storage of ground water, the giver of nutrients for plants, and can improve soil properties. The purpose of this study is to make and characterization of super absorbent polymer (PCS) from sugarcane bagasse. Preparation of super absorbent polymers (PCS) has been done by grafting method using ionizing radiation from Electron Beam Engineering (MBE) 350 mA keV/10. Irradiation process carried out with a dose variation of 20, 35, and 50 kGy. Increasing doses of radiation will increase the percentage fraction of transplantation (grafting) and the fraction of water absorption ability (swelling ratio). (author)

  8. Isozyme Analysis on Different Varieties of Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Isozymic and protein diversity among five sugarcane varieties viz., Co 6304, Co 85019, Co 8371, Co 89003 and Co 91010 were studied to understand the varietal interrelationship and to identify the biochemical marker for the disease resistance and stress tolerance. The standard technique of vertical gel electrophoresis PAGE was employed for size separation of isozymes. The gel was stained with different staining solutions for different isozyme systems viz. peroxidase, esterase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and proteins. Rf values of the banding profiles, similarity index and variation between the varieties were analysed. Among the four enzyme systems, peroxidase profile reveals the difference between the disease resistant / susceptible and abiotic stress tolerant / non tolerant varieties. The two isoperoxidase bands with Rf values 0.62 and 0.66 showed their presence in disease resistant and abiotic tolerant varieties. The presence of two marker bands (0.62, 0.66 of resistant and stress tolerant varieties suggest that the variety Co 6304 may also be resistant to smut, wilt and moderately resistant to red rot and tolerant to drought.

  9. Evaluation and comparison of antinociceptive activity of aspartame with sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Seema; Gupta, Mahesh C

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are low-calorie substances used to sweeten a wide variety of foods. At present they are used increasingly not only by diabetics, but also by the general public as a mean of controlling the weight. This study was carried out to evaluate and compare antinociceptive activity of the artificial sweeteners, aspartame and sucrose and to study the mechanisms involved in this analgesic activity. Forty eight white albino Wistar rats were divided into two groups of 24 rats each. Group 1 received sucrose and group 2 received aspartame solution ad libitum for 14 days as their only source of liquid. On 14(th) day, both groups of rats were divided into 3 subgroups having 8 rats each. Group Ia and IIa served as control. Group Ib and IIb were given naloxone and Ic and IIc received ketanserin, the opioid and serotonergic receptor antagonists, respectively. Tail withdrawal latencies (tail flick analgesiometer) and paw licking/jumping latencies (Eddy's hot plate method) were increased significantly in both aspartame and sucrose group. The analgesia produced by aspartame was comparable with sucrose. The opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the 5-HT(2A/2C) serotonergic receptor antagonist ketanserin partly reversed the antinociceptive effect of these sweeteners. Thus, the artificial sweetening agent aspartame showed antinociceptive activity like sucrose in rats. Reduction in antinociceptive activity of aspartame and sucrose by opioid and serotoninergic antagonists demonstrate the involvement of both opioid and serotonergic system.

  10. Estimating Canopy Nitrogen Concentration in Sugarcane Using Field Imaging Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Souris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of nutrient concentration in sugarcane through hyperspectral remote sensing is widely known to be affected by canopy architecture. The goal of this research was to develop an estimation model that could explain the nitrogen variations in sugarcane with combined cultivars. Reflectance spectra were measured over the sugarcane canopy using a field spectroradiometer. The models were calibrated by a vegetation index and multiple linear regression. The original reflectance was transformed into a First-Derivative Spectrum (FDS and two absorption features. The results indicated that the sensitive spectral wavelengths for quantifying nitrogen content existed mainly in the visible, red edge and far near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Normalized Differential Index (NDI based on FDS(750/700 and Ratio Spectral Index (RVI based on FDS(724/700 are best suited for characterizing the nitrogen concentration. The modified estimation model, generated by the Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR technique from FDS centered at 410, 426, 720, 754, and 1,216 nm, yielded the highest correlation coefficient value of 0.86 and Root Mean Square Error of the Estimate (RMSE value of 0.033%N (n = 90 with nitrogen concentration in sugarcane. The results of this research demonstrated that the estimation model developed by SMLR yielded a higher correlation coefficient with nitrogen content than the model computed by narrow vegetation indices. The strong correlation between measured and estimated nitrogen concentration indicated that the methods proposed in this study could be used for the reliable diagnosis of nitrogen quantity in sugarcane. Finally, the success of the field spectroscopy used for estimating the nutrient quality of sugarcane allowed an additional experiment using the polar orbiting hyperspectral data for the timely determination of crop nutrient status in rangelands without any requirement of prior

  11. Lithium storage into carbonaceous materials obtained from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Elaine Y.; Lala, Stella M.; Rosolen, Jose Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials with different structures are prepared by carbonization of sugarcane bagasse. Depending on carbonization conditions, it is possible to obtain soot rich in flakes or in honeycomb-shaped micrometric particles, whose concentration has large influence on lithium storage into electrodes. The soot rich in honeycomb-shaped particles provides the best electrochemical performance, with a reversible specific capacity of 310 mAh g -1 . The results suggest that the sugarcane bagasse can be potentially used in the design of anodic materials for lithium ion batteries. (author)

  12. A METHOD FOR EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BOILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORTEZ L.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers. The method is based on the standard and actual reactions which allows the calculation of the enthalpies of each process subequation and the exergies of each of the main flowrates participating in the combustion. The method is presented using an example with real data from a sugarcane bagasse boiler. A summary of the results obtained is also presented together based on the 1st Law of Thermodynamics analysis, the exergetic efficiencies, and the irreversibility rates. The method presented is very rigorous with respect to data consistency, particularly for the flue gas composition.

  13. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effects of sucrose concentration and wheel-running reinforcer duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Hancock, Stephanie D

    2003-03-01

    Six male albino rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed-interval 30-s schedule of lever pressing that produced either a drop of sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for a fixed duration as reinforcers. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. In Experiment 1, the duration of running was held constant at 15 s while the concentration of sucrose solution was varied across values of 0, 2.5. 5, 10, and 15%. As concentration decreased, postreinforcement pause duration increased and local rates decreased in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. Consequently, the difference between responding in the presence of stimuli signaling wheel-running and sucrose reinforcers diminished, and at 2.5%, response functions for the two reinforcers were similar. In Experiment 2, the concentration of sucrose solution was held constant at 15% while the duration of the opportunity to run was first varied across values of 15, 45, and 90 s then subsequently across values of 5, 10, and 15 s. As run duration increased, postreinforcement pause duration in the presence of the wheel-running stimulus increased and local rates increased then decreased. In summary, inhibitory aftereffects of previous reinforcers occurred when both sucrose concentration and run duration varied; changes in responding were attributable to changes in the excitatory value of the stimuli signaling the two reinforcers.

  14. Identification of metalloprotease gene families in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H.P. Ramos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalloproteases play a key role in many physiological processes in mammals such as cell migration, tissue remodeling and processing of growth factors. They have also been identified as important factors in the patho-physiology of a number of human diseases, including cancer and hypertension. Many bacterial pathogens rely on proteases in order to infect the host. Several classes of metalloproteases have been described in humans, bacteria, snake venoms and insects. However, the presence and characterization of plant metalloproteases have rarely been described in the literature. In our research, we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST DNA library in order to identify, by homology with sequences deposited in other databases, metalloprotease gene families expressed under different conditions. Protein sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max were used to search the SUCEST data bank. Conserved regions corresponding to different metalloprotease domains and sequence motifs were identified in the reads to characterize each group of enzymes. At least four classes of sugarcane metalloproteases have been identified, i.e. matrix metalloproteases, zincins, inverzincins, and ATP-dependent metalloproteases. Each enzyme class was analyzed for its expression in different conditions and tissues.Metaloproteases exercem papéis importantes em muitos processos fisiológicos em mamíferos tais como migração celular, remodelamento tecidual e processamento de fatores de crescimento. Estas enzimas estão envolvidas também na pato-fisiologia de um grande número de doenças humanas como hipertensão e câncer. Muitas bactérias patogênicas dependem de proteases para infectar o hospedeiro. Diversas classes de metaloproteases foram descritas em seres humanos, bactérias, venenos de serpentes e insetos. No entanto, a presença e a caracterização de metaloproteases em plantas estão pouco descritas na literatura. Neste trabalho, foi

  15. Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Bonnie; Yamada, Janet; Ohlsson, Arne; Haliburton, Sarah; Shorkey, Allyson

    2016-07-16

    Administration of oral sucrose with and without non-nutritive sucking is the most frequently studied non-pharmacological intervention for procedural pain relief in neonates. To determine the efficacy, effect of dose, method of administration and safety of sucrose for relieving procedural pain in neonates as assessed by validated composite pain scores, physiological pain indicators (heart rate, respiratory rate, saturation of peripheral oxygen in the blood, transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide (gas exchange measured across the skin - TcpO2, TcpCO2), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), electroencephalogram (EEG), or behavioural pain indicators (cry duration, proportion of time crying, proportion of time facial actions (e.g. grimace) are present), or a combination of these and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal. We performed electronic and manual literature searches in February 2016 for published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2016), MEDLINE (1950 to 2016), EMBASE (1980 to 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 2016). We did not impose language restrictions. RCTs in which term or preterm neonates (postnatal age maximum of 28 days after reaching 40 weeks' postmenstrual age), or both, received sucrose for procedural pain. Control interventions included no treatment, water, glucose, breast milk, breastfeeding, local anaesthetic, pacifier, positioning/containing or acupuncture. Our main outcome measures were composite pain scores (including a combination of behavioural, physiological and contextual indicators). Secondary outcomes included separate physiological and behavioural pain indicators. We reported a mean difference (MD) or weighted MD (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the fixed-effect model for continuous outcome measures. For categorical data we used risk ratio (RR) and risk difference. We assessed

  16. The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Mendes Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br that corresponded to signal transduction components. We also produced a sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm that covered the main categories and pathways. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs encoding enzymes for hormone (gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathways were found and tissue specificity was inferred from their relative frequency of occurrence in the different libraries. Whenever possible, transducers of hormones and plant peptide signaling were catalogued to the respective pathway. Over 100 receptors were found in sugarcane, which contains a large family of Ser/Thr kinase receptors and also photoreceptors, histidine kinase receptors and their response regulators. G-protein and small GTPases were analyzed and compared to known members of these families found in mammalian and plant systems. Major kinase and phosphatase pathways were mapped, with special attention being given to the MAP kinase and the inositol pathway, both of which are well known in plants.O sequenciamento de ESTs (etiquetas de sequencias transcritas tem possibilitado a descoberta de muitos novos genes em uma ampla variedade de organismos. Um aumento do aproveitamento desta informação pela comunidade científica tem sido possível graças ao desenvolvimento de base de dados contendo seqüências completamente anotadas. O trabalho aqui relatado teve como objetivo a identificação de ESTs de cana de açúcar seqüenciadas através do projeto SUCEST (http://sucest.lad.ic. unicamp.br que

  17. Reduction of Exudates (Browning) in Sugarcane Micro Propagation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL USER

    necessity to meet the need for the diverse use of sugar which has presently been in high demand and currently ... required for industrial sugar production remains a major constraint to sugarcane-based production ..... The result of these is that the plant tissues become brown or black and growth of the plant cell is inhibited ...

  18. Evaluation of sugarcane cultivars for resistance to colletotrichum falcatum went

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, F.; Qureshi, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Screening for resistance against Colletotrichum falcatum was performed In 96 test lines of sugarcane by artificially inoculation method under field conditions for two consecutive years (1998-99). Out of these 96 cultivars, 43 were graded intermediately resistant and 53 intermediately susceptible on the basis of 0-9 scale. (author)

  19. Reduction of Exudates (Browning) in Sugarcane Micro Propagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of this variety, ascorbic acid and citric acid was added as constituent of the media using MS and stock at different concentrations. The browning was reduced drastically at the addition of 0.1g/litre ascorbic acid and 0.15g/litre citric acid. Keywords: reduction, exudates browning, micro propagation, sugarcane. Nig J. Biotech.

  20. Moringa extracts used in sugarcane juice treatment and effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane juice treatment using Moringa oleifera leaf and seeds extracts on ethanolic fermentation. The experiment was arranged in a split plot statistical design, with four replications. Main treatments were three sedimentation agents (synthetic polyelectrolyte, ...

  1. Feed Technology of Fibrous Sugarcane Residues for Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswandi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundant sugarcane residue during shortage of roughage in dry season gives an opportunity to raise ruminants around sugarcane industries. However, these products are not widely used by farmers due to an assumption that the usage is inefficient and that the feed utilization technology is not widely recognized. Sugarcane fibrous residues (tops, bagasse and pith may be a potential feed component if pre-treated to increase its digestion and consumption by the animal, and/or supplemented by other ingredients to balance nutrients in the rumen as well as those for production purpose. Digestibility can be increased by chemical treatments such as ammoniation and other alkaline treatments, whereas consumption can be increased by physical treatments such as grinding, hammermilling or pelleting. Nutrients that are missing in these fibrous residues can be provided by addition of urea, molasses and minerals for maintenance need, and bypass nutrients (carbohydrates, protein and fats that are digested in the small intestine and available for tissue or milk synthesis. There are three options for development of livestock agribusiness based on fibrous sugarcane residues; however, these require several technologies to optimize the utilization of these residues.

  2. Optimized Subsurface Irrigation System: The Future of Sugarcane Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. J. P. Gunarathna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may harm the growth and yield of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. without the introduction of appropriate irrigation facilities. Therefore, new irrigation methods should be developed to maximize water use efficiency and reduce operational costs. OPSIS (optimized subsurface irrigation system is a new solar-powered automatic subsurface irrigation system that creates a phreatic zone below crop roots and relies on capillarity to supply water to the root zone. It is designed for upland crops such as sugarcane. We investigated the performance of OPSIS for irrigating sugarcane and evaluated its performance against sprinkler irrigation under subtropical conditions. We conducted field experiments in Okinawa, Japan, over the period from 2013 to 2016 and took measurements during spring- and summer-planted main crops and two ratoon crops of the spring-planted crop. Compared with sprinkler irrigation, OPSIS produced a significantly higher fresh cane yield, consumed less irrigation water and provided a higher irrigation water use efficiency. We conclude that OPSIS could be adopted as a sustainable solution to sugarcane irrigation in Okinawa and similar environments.

  3. Development of somaclones in sugarcane genotype BF-162 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pris

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Baksha R, Alam R, Karim MZ, Paul SK, Hossain MA, Miah MAS,. Rahman ABMM (2002). In vitro Shoot Tip Culture of Sugarcane. (Saccharum officinarum) Variety Isd 28. Int. Quarterly J. Biotech. 1: 67-72. Brisibe E, Miyake AH, Taniguchi T, Maeda E (1994). Regulation of somatic embryogenesis in long-term ...

  4. Inheritance of resistance to orange rust in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, is an economically important disease in the Florida sugarcane industry. In this study, orange rust reactions of seedlings in progenies originating from 12 crosses between female and male parents with differing resistance to orange rust (three of each categor...

  5. Efficacy of selected herbicide formulations on sugarcane field weeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In continuation for the search of appropriate weed control strategy for sugarcane field weeds at the Unilorin Sugar Research Institute (USRI), Ilorin located at 8o 030' N; 4o 32' E , Nigeria. Field trials were laid out in a randomized complete block design during 2012 and 2013 growing seasons to evaluate four herbicide ...

  6. Sugarcane straw and the populations of pests and nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The green cane harvesting represented a significant change in sugarcane ecosystem due to the presence of straw left on the soil and to the absence of fire. These two factors may affect the populations of pests and their natural enemies. Among the pests benefit from the green cane harvesting stand out the spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata, the curculionid Sphenophorus levis and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis. In areas of green cane harvesting, the population of these species grew faster than in areas of burnt cane. On the other hand, there are virtually no records of attacks by lesser cornstalk borers in areas of green cane harvesting. Populations of plant parasitic nematodes and the beetles Migdolus fryanus, very important pests of sugarcane, were apparently not affected by the green cane harvesting. Despite the absence of more consistent information, it appears that populations of ants and the giant borer Telchin licus can increase in green cane areas, due primarily to the difficulty of pest control. The partial or total removal of straw from the field represents an additional change to the ecosystem that could alter the status of pests and nematodes. It is likely that spittlebug, the curculionid S. levis and sugarcane borer populations decrease if a portion of the straw is removed from the field. However, the pest populations in areas where the straw is collected will not return to their original conditions at the time of burnt cane harvesting because the absence of fire will be maintained.

  7. RB962962, a sugarcane cultivar for late harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeast of Brazil, sugarcane cultivar RB962962 is harvested at the end of the cycle, between December and February, with a high sugar yield per area. Recommended for sandy soils of medium texture and fertility, it is resistant to the major diseases and fast-growing in plant and ratoon crops.

  8. Evaluating Brazilian sugarcane expansion effects on soil structure using VESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing global demand for biofuel has accelerated land-use change (LUC) in Brazil, primarily by replacing degraded pasture with sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). The intensive echanization associated with this LUC has increased concerns regarding soil structural quality (SSQ). Through decades of...

  9. Potential of Sugarcane in Modern Energy Development in Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Simone P., E-mail: sp.souza@yahoo.com.br; Horta Nogueira, Luiz A. [Interdisciplinary Center for Energy Planning, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Watson, Helen K. [School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KZN (South Africa); Lynd, Lee Rybeck [Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth, NH (United States); Elmissiry, Mosad [New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), Johannesburg, GT (South Africa); Cortez, Luís A. B. [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-12-26

    For more than half of the Southern African population, human development is limited by a lack of access to electricity and modern energy for cooking. Modern bioenergy merits consideration as one means to address this situation in areas where sufficient arable land is available. While numerous studies have concluded that Africa has significant biomass potential, they do not indicate by how much it can effectively reduce the use of traditional biomass and provide more accessible energy, especially at a country level. Here, we evaluate the potential of sugarcane to replace traditional biomass and fossil fuel and enlarge the access to electricity in Southern Africa. By using its current molasses for ethanol production, Swaziland could increase electricity generation by 40% using bagasse and replace 60% of cooking fuel or 30% of liquid fossil fuel. Sugarcane expansion over 1% of the pasture land in Angola, Mozambique, and Zambia could replace greater than 70% of cooking fuel. Bioelectricity generation from modest sugarcane expansion could be increased by 10% in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia and by 20% in Angola. Our results support the potential of sugarcane as a modern energy alternative for Southern Africa.

  10. Rumen dry matter degradability of fresh and ensiled sugarcane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    my mord

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Brasileira de Zootecnia, Viçosa-MG. pp. 977-985. Ferreira DA, Gonçalves L, Molina LR, Castro-Neto A, Tomich TR. (2007). Fermentation of sugarcane silage treated with urea, zeolita, bacteria inoculant and bacteria/enzymatic inoculants. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. 59:423-433. Garcia H, Abreu M, Soto JM ...

  11. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with fertilizing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHADIONO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latief AS, Syarief R, Pramudya B, Muhadiono. 2010. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with various fertilizing treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 43-47. This research aims to determine the sugarcane plants of ratooning productivity with low external input of fertilization treatment towards farmers can increase profits. The method used is the Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD with four treatments and three repetitions (4x3. Sugarcane varieties R 579 planted in each patch experiment 5x5 m2. Dosage of fertilizer: P0 = 3.6 kg/year plot experiment was 100% dosage usage of chemical fertilizers used by farmers. Further dosages were P1 (75% = 2.7 kg/plot, P2 (50% = 1.8 kg/plot and P3 (0.25% = 0.9 kg/plot, each supplemented with fertilizer 5 mL of liquid organic/patch a year. Sugarcane crops with a variety of treatment showed no significant difference. The highest productivity was achieved at dosages of P2 (50% chemical fertilizers plus organic fertilizer is 21.67 kg per square meter. Chemical fertilizers can be saved 7 quintals per hectare a year or Rp 997,500 per year. Additional costs of liquid organic fertilizer Rp. 100,000 per hectare year and labor Rp 100,000 per hectare, so the additional advantage of saving farmers fertilizer Rp. 797,500 per year.

  12. Assessment of genetic diversity among sugarcane cultivars using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity based on the characterization of genetic makeup, using molecular markers is of utmost importance for breeders in crop improvement programme. A total of 26 microsatellite primers were used to determine the genetic diversity among 40 sugarcane genotypes including their parents. The polymerase chain ...

  13. Potential of Sugarcane in Modern Energy Development in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone P.; Horta Nogueira, Luiz A.; Watson, Helen K.; Lynd, Lee Rybeck; Elmissiry, Mosad; Cortez, Luís A. B.

    2016-01-01

    For more than half of the Southern African population, human development is limited by a lack of access to electricity and modern energy for cooking. Modern bioenergy merits consideration as one means to address this situation in areas where sufficient arable land is available. While numerous studies have concluded that Africa has significant biomass potential, they do not indicate by how much it can effectively reduce the use of traditional biomass and provide more accessible energy, especially at a country level. Here, we evaluate the potential of sugarcane to replace traditional biomass and fossil fuel and enlarge the access to electricity in Southern Africa. By using its current molasses for ethanol production, Swaziland could increase electricity generation by 40% using bagasse and replace 60% of cooking fuel or 30% of liquid fossil fuel. Sugarcane expansion over 1% of the pasture land in Angola, Mozambique, and Zambia could replace greater than 70% of cooking fuel. Bioelectricity generation from modest sugarcane expansion could be increased by 10% in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia and by 20% in Angola. Our results support the potential of sugarcane as a modern energy alternative for Southern Africa.

  14. Reproducible in vitro regeneration system for purifying sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This procedure may be considered as one of the best ever published report on regeneration from in vitro grown plants to purify clones without subjecting the plants to field conditions and harvesting the mature cane. This technique was used to purify transgenic sugarcane plants carrying Bacillus thuringiensis gene.

  15. Life cycle impact assssment of biobased plastics from sugarcane ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Biois, J.F.; Patel, M.K.

    The increasing production of bio-based plastics calls for thorough environmental assessments. Using life cycle assessment, this study compares European supply of fully bio-based high-density polyethylene and partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate from Brazilian and Indian sugarcane ethanol

  16. Toxic heavy metal contamination assessment and speciation in sugarcane soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Deng, Chaobing; Yin, Juan; Tang, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    The increasing heavy metal pollution in the sugarcane soils along the Great Huanjiang River was caused by leakage and spills of Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) tailing dams during a flood event. Copper (Cu), Zn, Pb, Cadmium (Cd), and Arsenic (As) concentrations of soil samples collected from 16 different sites along the Great Huanjiang River coast typical pollution area were analyzed by Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and As in the sugarcane soils were 151.57 mg/kg, 0.33 mg/kg, 155.52 mg/kg, 14.19 mg/kg, and 18.74 mg/kg, respectively. Results from the analysis of heavy metal speciation distribution showed that Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd existed in weak acid, reducible, and oxidizable fractions, and the sum of these fractions accounted for significant proportions in sugarcane soils. However, the residual fraction of As with high proportion of reducible fraction indicated that this trace element still poses some environmental risk in the sugarcane soils because of its high content. Assessments of pollution levels revealed that the highest environmental risk was arouse by Pb. In addition, moderate to strong Cd and Zn pollution were found, while As has zero to medium level of pollution and Cu has zero level.

  17. pesticide residues in water from tpc sugarcane plantations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. We report herein, the analysis of water samples collected from TPC Sugarcane Plantation and its environs in Kilimanjaro region, which is the earliest intensive user of pesticides in Tanzania. A total of 50 water samples collected from 18 sampling sites between 2000 and 2001 were analyzed for pesticide ...

  18. LEAF WHORL INOCULATION METHOD FOR SCREENING SUGARCANE RUST RESISTANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract: Sugarcane rust diseases, brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala, and orange rust caused by P. kuehnii, are agronomically important diseases in Florida. Cultivar resistance is the best means of controlling these diseases. Natural infection has been the primary means of asses...

  19. Relationship between sugarcane rust severity and soil properties in louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard M; Grisham, Michael P; Richard, Edward P

    2007-06-01

    ABSTRACT The extent of spatial and temporal variability of sugarcane rust (Puccinia melanocephala) infestation was related to variation in soil properties in five commercial fields of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp., cv. LCP 85-384) in southern Louisiana. Sugarcane fields were grid-soil sampled at several intensities and rust ratings were collected at each point over 6 to 7 weeks. Soil properties exhibited significant variability (coefficients of variation = 9 to 70.1%) and were spatially correlated in 39 of 40 cases with a range of spatial correlation varying from 39 to 201 m. Rust ratings were spatially correlated in 32 of 33 cases, with a range varying from 29 to 241 m. Rust ratings were correlated with several soil properties, most notably soil phosphorus (r = 0.40 to 0.81) and soil sulfur (r = 0.36 to 0.68). Multiple linear regression analysis resulted in coefficients of determination that ranged from 0.22 to 0.73, and discriminant analysis further improved the overall predictive ability of rust models. Finally, contour plots of soil properties and rust levels clearly suggested a link between these two parameters. These combined data suggest that sugarcane growers that apply fertilizer in excess of plant requirements will increase the incidence and severity of rust infestations in their fields.

  20. Ensilage Of Sugarcane Tops Using Urea And Broiler Litter Additives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugarcane tops (SCT) constitute a source of readily available and cheap agroindustrial by-product for ruminant feeding in Mauritius. Its nutritional constraints are its low digestibility, and low crude protein (CP) content. Wilted SCT (50% DM) was ensiled in the laboratory using a SemiMicro technique with PVC silos.

  1. Mapping salinity stress in sugarcane fields with hyperspectral satellite imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamzeh, S.; Naseria, A.A.; Alavi Panah, S.K.; Mojaradic, B.; Bartholomeus, H.; Herold, M.

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity is a huge problem negatively affecting physiological and metabolic processes in plant life, ultimately diminishing growth and yield. An area with more than 70,000 ha sugarcane farming and its by-products are the major agricultural activities in the Khuzestan province, in the southwest

  2. Fiber optic yield monitor for a sugarcane chopper harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fiber optic yield monitoring system was developed for a sugarcane chopper harvester that utilizes a duty-cycle type approach with three fiber optic sensors mounted in the elevator floor to estimate cane yield. Field testing of the monitor demonstrated that there was a linear relationship between t...

  3. Analysis of SSR information in EST resources of sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expressed sequence tags ( ESTs) offer the opportunity to exploit single, low -copy, conserved sequence motifs for the development of simple sequence repeats ( SSRs). The total of 262 113 ESTs of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in the database of NCBI were downloaded and analyzed, which resulted in...

  4. Growth, proline and ion accumulation in sugarcane callus cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calli obtained from two sugarcane cultivars (R570 and CP59-73) were exposed to different osmotic stress intensities followed by a period of stress relief. Relative rate growth, callus water content and changes in organic and inorganic solutes were determined at the end of stress and relief periods. After the stress period, ...

  5. Nutrient contents of Soyabeans: A Guide for sugarcane growers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient contents of Soyabeans: A Guide for sugarcane growers under fast track land reform programme [FTLRP] in Zimbabwe. ... The economic benefits of growing soyabeans accrue from the nutrients that remain in the leaves, petioles, stems and shells that are ploughed into the soil during land preparation. Keywords: soil ...

  6. Drinking sucrose enhances quinpirole-induced yawning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; Thomas, Yvonne M; France, Charles P

    2011-12-01

    Food and drugs can activate brain dopamine systems and sensitivity to the effects of drugs acting on those systems is influenced by amount and content of food consumed. This study examined the effects of drinking sucrose on behavioral effects of the direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6/group) had free access to water or 10% sucrose and quinpirole dose-response curves (yawning and hypothermia) were generated weekly for 8 weeks. Subsequently, all rats drank water for 8 weeks with quinpirole dose-response curves determined on weeks 9, 10, and 16. In rats drinking sucrose, the ascending (D3 receptor-mediated), but not descending (D2 receptor-mediated), limb of the yawning dose-response curve shifted leftward. The D3 receptor-selective antagonist PG01037 shifted the ascending limb of the dose-response curve to the right in all rats. When rats that previously drank sucrose drank water, their sensitivity to quinpirole did not return to normal. Quinpirole-induced hypothermia was not different between groups. These data show that drinking sucrose increases sensitivity to a dopamine D3, but not D2, receptor-mediated effect and that this change is long lasting. Dopamine receptors mediate the effects of many drugs and the actions of those drugs are likely impacted by dietary factors.

  7. SUCROSE SYNTHASE: ELUCIDATION OF COMPLEX POST-TRANSLATIONAL REGULATORY MECHANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven C. Huber

    2009-05-12

    Studies have focused on the enzyme sucrose synthase, which plays an important role in the metabolism of sucrose in seeds and tubers. There are three isoforms of SUS in maize, referred to as SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2. SUS is generally considered to be tetrameric protein but recent evidence suggests that SUS can also occur as a dimeric protein. The formation of tetrameric SUS is regulated by sucrose concentration in vitro and this could also be an important factor in the cellular localization of the protein. We found that high sucrose concentrations, which promote tetramer formation, also inhibit the binding of SUS1 to actin filaments in vitro. Previously, high sucrose concentrations were shown to promote SUS association with the plasma membrane. The specific regions of the SUS molecule involved in oligomerization are not known, but we identified a region of the SUS1 moelcule by bioinformatic analysis that was predicted to form a coiled coil. We demonstrated that this sequence could, in fact, self-associate as predicted for a coiled coil, but truncation analysis with the full-length recombinant protein suggested that it was not responsible for formation of dimers or tetramers. However, the coiled coil may function in binding of other proteins to SUS1. Overall, sugar availability may differentially influence the binding of SUS to cellular structures, and these effects may be mediated by changes in the oligomeric nature of the enzyme.

  8. The Putative Son's Attractiveness Alters the Perceived Attractiveness of the Putative Father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol

    2015-08-01

    A body of literature has investigated female mate choice in the pre-mating context (pre-mating sexual selection). Humans, however, are long-living mammals forming pair-bonds which sequentially produce offspring. Post-mating evaluations of a partner's attractiveness may thus significantly influence the reproductive success of men and women. I tested herein the theory that the attractiveness of putative sons provides extra information about the genetic quality of fathers, thereby influencing fathers' attractiveness across three studies. As predicted, facially attractive boys were more frequently attributed to attractive putative fathers and vice versa (Study 1). Furthermore, priming with an attractive putative son increased the attractiveness of the putative father with the reverse being true for unattractive putative sons. When putative fathers were presented as stepfathers, the effect of the boy's attractiveness on the stepfather's attractiveness was lower and less consistent (Study 2). This suggests that the presence of an attractive boy has the strongest effect on the perceived attractiveness of putative fathers rather than on non-fathers. The generalized effect of priming with beautiful non-human objects also exists, but its effect is much weaker compared with the effects of putative biological sons (Study 3). Overall, this study highlighted the importance of post-mating sexual selection in humans and suggests that the heritable attractive traits of men are also evaluated by females after mating and/or may be used by females in mate poaching.

  9. Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus infection risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prist, Paula Ribeiro; Uriarte, María; Fernandes, Katia; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2017-07-01

    Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC). Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%). Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5), and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks obtained here can be

  10. Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus infection risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ribeiro Prist

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC. Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%. Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5, and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks

  11. Experimental assessment of the accuracy of genomic selection in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouy, M; Rousselle, Y; Bastianelli, D; Lecomte, P; Bonnal, L; Roques, D; Efile, J-C; Rocher, S; Daugrois, J; Toubi, L; Nabeneza, S; Hervouet, C; Telismart, H; Denis, M; Thong-Chane, A; Glaszmann, J C; Hoarau, J-Y; Nibouche, S; Costet, L

    2013-10-01

    Sugarcane cultivars are interspecific hybrids with an aneuploid, highly heterozygous polyploid genome. The complexity of the sugarcane genome is the main obstacle to the use of marker-assisted selection in sugarcane breeding. Given the promising results of recent studies of plant genomic selection, we explored the feasibility of genomic selection in this complex polyploid crop. Genetic values were predicted in two independent panels, each composed of 167 accessions representing sugarcane genetic diversity worldwide. Accessions were genotyped with 1,499 DArT markers. One panel was phenotyped in Reunion Island and the other in Guadeloupe. Ten traits concerning sugar and bagasse contents, digestibility and composition of the bagasse, plant morphology, and disease resistance were used. We used four statistical predictive models: bayesian LASSO, ridge regression, reproducing kernel Hilbert space, and partial least square regression. The accuracy of the predictions was assessed through the correlation between observed and predicted genetic values by cross validation within each panel and between the two panels. We observed equivalent accuracy among the four predictive models for a given trait, and marked differences were observed among traits. Depending on the trait concerned, within-panel cross validation yielded median correlations ranging from 0.29 to 0.62 in the Reunion Island panel and from 0.11 to 0.5 in the Guadeloupe panel. Cross validation between panels yielded correlations ranging from 0.13 for smut resistance to 0.55 for brix. This level of correlations is promising for future implementations. Our results provide the first validation of genomic selection in sugarcane.

  12. Informative genomic microsatellite markers for efficient genotyping applications in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Swarup K; Kalia, Sanjay K; Kaul, Sunita; Dalal, Vivek; Hemaprabha, G; Selvi, Athiappan; Pandit, Awadhesh; Singh, Archana; Gaikwad, Kishor; Sharma, Tilak R; Srivastava, Prem Shankar; Singh, Nagendra K; Mohapatra, Trilochan

    2009-01-01

    Genomic microsatellite markers are capable of revealing high degree of polymorphism. Sugarcane (Saccharum sp.), having a complex polyploid genome requires more number of such informative markers for various applications in genetics and breeding. With the objective of generating a large set of microsatellite markers designated as Sugarcane Enriched Genomic MicroSatellite (SEGMS), 6,318 clones from genomic libraries of two hybrid sugarcane cultivars enriched with 18 different microsatellite repeat-motifs were sequenced to generate 4.16 Mb high-quality sequences. Microsatellites were identified in 1,261 of the 5,742 non-redundant clones that accounted for 22% enrichment of the libraries. Retro-transposon association was observed for 23.1% of the identified microsatellites. The utility of the microsatellite containing genomic sequences were demonstrated by higher primer designing potential (90%) and PCR amplification efficiency (87.4%). A total of 1,315 markers including 567 class I microsatellite markers were designed and placed in the public domain for unrestricted use. The level of polymorphism detected by these markers among sugarcane species, genera, and varieties was 88.6%, while cross-transferability rate was 93.2% within Saccharum complex and 25% to cereals. Cloning and sequencing of size variant amplicons revealed that the variation in the number of repeat-units was the main source of SEGMS fragment length polymorphism. High level of polymorphism and wide range of genetic diversity (0.16-0.82 with an average of 0.44) assayed with the SEGMS markers suggested their usefulness in various genotyping applications in sugarcane.

  13. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the sucrose transporter gene family from Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fupeng; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Yan, Lin; Hao, Chaoyun; Tan, Lehe; Lai, Jianxiong

    2014-08-10

    In this study, we performed cloning and expression analysis of six putative sucrose transporter genes, designated TcSUT1, TcSUT2, TcSUT3, TcSUT4, TcSUT5 and TcSUT6, from the cacao genotype 'TAS-R8'. The combination of cDNA and genomic DNA sequences revealed that the cacao SUT genes contained exon numbers ranging from 1 to 14. The average molecular mass of all six deduced proteins was approximately 56 kDa (range 52 to 66 kDa). All six proteins were predicted to exhibit typical features of sucrose transporters with 12 trans-membrane spanning domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that TcSUT2 and TcSUT4 belonged to Group 2 SUT and Group 4 SUT, respectively, and the other TcSUT proteins were belonging to Group 1 SUT. Real-time PCR was conducted to investigate the expression pattern of each member of the SUT family in cacao. Our experiment showed that TcSUT1 was expressed dominantly in pods and that, TcSUT3 and TcSUT4 were highly expressed in both pods and in bark with phloem. Within pods, TcSUT1 and TcSUT4 were expressed more in the seed coat and seed from the pod enlargement stage to the ripening stage. TcSUT5 expression sharply increased to its highest expression level in the seed coat during the ripening stage. Expression pattern analysis indicated that TcSUT genes may be associated with photoassimilate transport into developing seeds and may, therefore, have an impact on seed production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploration of potential baker's yeast from sugarcane juice: optimization and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun-Or-rashid, A N M; Dash, Biplab Kumar; Chowdhury, Md Nurul Abadin; Waheed, Momtaz Fatima; Pramanik, Md Kamruzzaman

    2013-07-01

    The present study was carried out to explore baker's yeasts strains from sugarcane juice to assess its potential in laboratory scale production of breads. Collected juice samples were processed for isolation and identification of yeast strains based on standard cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Among the six isolated strains, four (designated as S1, S2, S5 and S6) were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the rests (designated S3 and S4) were as S. rouxii. When assessing their CO2 production rates as a measure of their baking potential, S6 was found to produce maximum amount of gas (226.67 mm3 mL(-1)) in sucrose broth, whereas gas produced by S2, S1 and S5 were relatively insignificant (170, 136.67 and 86.67 mm3 mL(-1), respectively). No strain was found to produce undesirable H2S gas responsible for off-flavor. Besides, effects of different physicochemical parameters (e.g., pH, temperature, substrate concentration, incubation period, agitation etc.) on the production of yeast cell-mass were studied. Yield of cell mass was indirectly measured by spectrophotometric method at 550 nm. All the test isolates were found to produce maximum cell mass at a pH range of 4.0 to 5.0 in 2 to 4% molasses broth at 30 degrees C after 4 days of incubation. In the laboratory scale production of bread using composite flour, Isolate-S6 formed significant characteristic texture. Considering overall characteristics, Isolate- S6 was found to be satisfactorily potent for baking purpose.

  15. The aptitude of the soils for the production of sugarcane. Part 2: Comparison of two methods at ‘Ciudad Caracas’ sugarcane mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Arzola Pina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to compare two methods for determining the aptitude of soils for growing Sugarcane in Cuba. The information was provided by three sugarcane farms owned by Ciudad Caracas sugarcane mill in the municipality of Santa Isabel de Las Lajas in Cienfuegos. The information of the soils from each farm was taken from the 1:25 000 scale cadastral maps designed by Ministerio de la Agricultura (MINAG. Rainfall data was collected from the nearby stations rain gauges. And the sugarcane yield was reported by each farm. The aptitude of the soils was determined by two methods (AGRO 24 de 1993 y Arzola de 1999 using the information available. Results showed that both methods are appropriate for selecting soils with higher productive potential, and are a useful tool for making right decisions for optimizing the land use at each sugarcane farm.

  16. Anharmonicity and hydrogen bonding in electrooptic sucrose crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, M. M.; Giermańska, J.

    1990-03-01

    The polarized absorption spectra of the sucrose crystal in the 5300 - 7300 cm -1 region have been measured. The assignments of all the eight OH stretching overtones are proposed and their mechanical anharmonicities are estimated. The discrepancies from the oriented gas model (OGM) in the observed relative band intensities, especially of the -CH vibrations, are assumed to be connected with vibronic couplings enhanced by the helical arrangement of molecules joined by hydrogen bondings. It seems that this kind of interactions might be important for the second harmonic generation (SHG) by the sucrose crystal.

  17. Identification and characterization of putative conserved IAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available putative AMI sequences from a wide array of monocot and dicot plants were identified and the phylogenetic tree was constructed and analyzed. We identified in this tree, a clade that contained sequences from species across the plant kingdom suggesting that AMI is conserved and may have a primary role in plant ...

  18. Toddlers' Duration of Attention toward Putative Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk of developing anxious behavior, toddlers' attention toward a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined…

  19. POOR FERTILITY, SHORT LONGEVITY AND LOW ABUNDANCE IN THE SOIL SEED BANK LIMIT VOLUNTEER SUGARCANE FROM SEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann S Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a two year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half life between 1.5 and 2.1 months. This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment.

  20. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Johann S; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L; Bonnett, Graham D

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy, and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half-life between 1.5 and 2.1 months). This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed that there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence, and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment.

  1. Properties of Sugarcane Fiber on the Strength of the Normal and Lightweight Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Khalid Faisal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of natural fiber in construction are widely used in building materials engineering. However, using sugarcane fiber waste material as a natural in construction is very precious, because it can increase crack control and ductility, brittle concrete. Furthermore, the usage of sugarcane in construction can reduce of environmental pollution.In this study, a mixture of sugarcane fiber to be used in normal grade concrete and lightweight concrete to determine whether there is an increase in the compressive and tensile strength of the concrete. The objective of this study was to determine the compressive and tensile strength between control concrete and concrete mix with sugarcane fiber. In addition, the optimal volume of sugarcane fiber in the concrete mixture where the percentage of sugarcane fiber used was 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%. Compessive strength was tested on days 7 and 28 after curing test is carried out. Meanwhile, the tensile test, has been carried out to measure the tensile strength of sugarcane fiber relations in concrete mixes only at 28 day curing. Result of the testing showed that the optimum value containing admixtures of sugarcane is 0.5%. This percentage get the value of compressive strength is nearest with concrete control and the value of tensile strength is higher than concrete control and also the timing of concrete to cracked getting slower. Therefore, the use of sugarcane fiber suitable for addition that do not exceed 0.5% of the concrete mixture.

  2. Residual biomass potential of commercial and pre-commercial sugarcane cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Guimarães de Andrade Landell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is an efficient and sustainable alternative for energy generation compared to non-renewable sources. Currently, during the mechanized harvest process, the straw left in the field can be used in part for the second generation ethanol and increasing the electric energy production. Thus, this study aimed to provide information on the potential for residual biomass cultivars of sugarcane cropping system. This study provides the following information: yield of straw, depending on the calculated leaf area index and the number of tillers per linear meter; primary energy production of several sugarcane genotypes; contribution of dry tops and leaves; biomass yield; and evaluation of fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Preliminary results obtained by researchers of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and reCviews related studies are presented. The results suggest that the production of sugarcane straw content varies according to the cultivars; the greater mass of sugarcane straw is in the top leaves and that the potential for the crude energy production of sugarcane per area unit can be increased using fiber-rich species or species that produce more straw. The straw indexes was shown to be a good indicator and allow the estimation of straw volumes generated in a sugarcane crop. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin composition in sugarcane is distinct among varieties. Therefore, it is possible to develop distinct biomass materials for energy production and for the development of sugarcane mills using biochemical processes and thermal routes.

  3. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Different Hawaiian Sugarcane Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investigation, we studied four sugarcane cultivars (H-65-7052, H-78-3567, H-86-3792 and H-87-4319 grown on a Hawaiian commercial sugarcane plantation to determine their ability to store and accumulate soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N across a 24-month growth cycle on contrasting soil types. The main study objective establish baseline parameters for biofuel production life cycle analyses; sub-objectives included (1 determining which of four main sugarcane cultivars sequestered the most soil C and (2 assessing how soil C sequestration varies among two common Hawaiian soil series (Pulehu-sandy clay loam and Molokai-clay. Soil samples were collected at 20 cm increments to depths of up to 120 cm using hand augers at the three main growth stages (tillering, grand growth, and maturity from two experimental plots at to observe total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrates (NO−3 using laboratory flash combustion for TC and TN and solution filtering and analysis for DOC and NO−3. Aboveground plant biomass was collected and subsampled to determine lignin and C and N content. This study determined that there was an increase of TC with the advancement of growing stages in the studied four sugarcane cultivars at both soil types (increase in TC of 15–35 kg·m2. Nitrogen accumulation was more variable, and NO−3 (<5 ppm were insignificant. The C and N accumulation varies in the whole profile based on the ability of the sugarcane cultivar’s roots to explore and grow in the different soil types. For the purpose of storing C in the soil, cultivar H-65-7052 (TC accumulation of ~30 kg·m−2 and H-86-3792 (25 kg·m−2 rather H-78

  4. NDVI to Detect Sugarcane Aphid Injury to Grain Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, N C; Backoulou, G F; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L

    2015-06-01

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. We describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants in fields of grain sorghum could be detected using multispectral remote sensing from a fixed wing aircraft. A study was conducted in commercial grain sorghum fields in the Texas Gulf Coast region in June 2014. Twenty-six commercial grain sorghum fields were selected and rated for the level of injury to sorghum plants in the field caused by sugarcane aphid. Plant growth stage ranged from 5.0 (watery ripe) to 7.0 (hard dough) among fields; and plant injury rating from sugarcane aphid ranged from 1.0 (little or no injury) to 4.0 (>40% of plants displaying injury) among fields. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from light reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelength bands in multispectral imagery and is a common index of plant stress. High NDVI indicates low levels of stress and low NDVI indicates high stress. NDVI ranged from -0.07 to 0.26 among fields. The correlation between NDVI and plant injury rating was negative and significant, as was the correlation between NDVI and plant growth stage. The negative correlation of NDVI with injury rating indicated that plant stress increased with increasing plant injury. Reduced NDVI with increasing plant growth probably resulted from reduced photosynthetic activity in more mature plants. The correlation between plant injury rating and plant growth stage was positive and significant indicating that plant injury from sugarcane aphid increased as plants matured. The partial correlation of NDVI with plant injury rating was negative and significant indicating that NDVI decreased with increasing plant injury after adjusting for its association with plant growth stage. We demonstrated that remotely sensed imagery acquired from grain

  5. Detection of maltodextrin and its discrimination from sucrose are independent of the T1R2 + T1R3 heterodimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly R; Spector, Alan C

    2017-10-01

    Maltodextrins, such as Maltrin and Polycose, are glucose polymer mixtures of varying chain lengths that are palatable to rodents. Although glucose and other sugars activate the T1R2 + T1R3 "sweet" taste receptor, recent evidence from T1R2- or T1R3-knockout (KO) mice suggests that maltodextrins, despite their glucose polymer composition, activate a separate receptor mechanism to generate a taste percept qualitatively distinguishable from that of sweeteners. However, explicit discrimination of maltodextrins from prototypical sweeteners has not yet been psychophysically tested in any murine model. Therefore, mice lacking T1R2 + T1R3 and wild-type controls were tested in a two-response taste discrimination task to determine whether maltodextrins are 1 ) detectable when both receptor subunits are absent and 2 ) perceptually distinct from that of sucrose irrespective of viscosity, intensity, and hedonics. Most KO mice displayed similar Polycose sensitivity as controls. However, some KO mice were only sensitive to the higher Polycose concentrations, implicating potential allelic variation in the putative polysaccharide receptor or downstream pathways unmasked by the absence of T1R2 + T1R3. Varied Maltrin and sucrose concentrations of approximately matched viscosities were then presented to render the oral somatosensory features, intensity, and hedonic value of the solutions irrelevant. Although both genotypes competently discriminated Maltrin from sucrose, performance was apparently driven by the different orosensory percepts of the two stimuli in control mice and the presence of a Maltrin but not sucrose orosensory cue in KO mice. These data support the proposed presence of an orosensory receptor mechanism that gives rise to a qualitatively distinguishable sensation from that of sucrose. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Variability in Phytochemicals, Á-Galactosides, Sucrose Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro protein digestibility varied significantly (P <0.05) among the bean varieties and had a positive significant correlation with sucrose content and negative correlations with trypsin inhibitors, tannins, lectins, á-galactosides and saponins. The correlation matrix indicated that variability in á-galactosides, the protein ...

  7. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-16

    Sep 16, 2015 ... serine residue for phosphorylation by Ser/Thr protein kinase is indicated by a red star. The characteristic sucrose synthase domain (single underline) and a glycosyltransferases domain (double underline) were identified by the Interproscan algorithm (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/ pfa/iprscan/). 464. Journal of ...

  8. Sucrose Responsiveness, Learning Success, and Task Specialization in Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Margot; Rolland, Uther; Giurfa,, Martin; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Social insects possess remarkable learning capabilities, which are crucial for their ecological success. They also exhibit interindividual differences in responsiveness to environmental stimuli, which underlie task specialization and division of labor. Here we investigated for the first time the relationships between sucrose responsiveness,…

  9. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the structure and thermodynamic properties of the modified starch were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results: The properties of wheat starch changed greatly by adding different sucrose esters to their ...

  10. Radiation effect on sucrose content of inverted sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podadera, Priscilla; Sabato, Susy F.

    2007-01-01

    Inverted sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose used as an ingredient in the food and beverage industry. During production there are points of contamination by microorganisms that can modify the sugar properties and reduce shelf life. This work aims to consider one efficient technique in the sanitization of this ingredient with minimum alterations in the sugar ratios. Irradiation with Cobalt 60 is a technique with proven efficacy in the reduction of microorganisms. Samples of inverted sugar had been radiated with Cobalt 60, Gammacell type, at the CTR-IPEN, with doses of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 kGy, and dose rate of 3.88 kGy/h. The content of sucrose was determined by the Fehling method. The sample irradiated at highest dose presented the most intense reduction in the concentration of sucrose: 13% in comparison to the control. Irradiated samples up to 30 kGy did not presented statistical difference in relation to the control (p<0.05), indicating that radiation can be applied to the inverted sugar without significant alterations in the concentration of sucrose. (author)

  11. Radiation effect on sucrose content of inverted sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podadera, Priscilla; Sabato, Susy F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mails: ppodadera@yahoo.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Inverted sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose used as an ingredient in the food and beverage industry. During production there are points of contamination by microorganisms that can modify the sugar properties and reduce shelf life. This work aims to consider one efficient technique in the sanitization of this ingredient with minimum alterations in the sugar ratios. Irradiation with Cobalt 60 is a technique with proven efficacy in the reduction of microorganisms. Samples of inverted sugar had been radiated with Cobalt 60, Gammacell type, at the CTR-IPEN, with doses of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 kGy, and dose rate of 3.88 kGy/h. The content of sucrose was determined by the Fehling method. The sample irradiated at highest dose presented the most intense reduction in the concentration of sucrose: 13% in comparison to the control. Irradiated samples up to 30 kGy did not presented statistical difference in relation to the control (p<0.05), indicating that radiation can be applied to the inverted sugar without significant alterations in the concentration of sucrose. (author)

  12. Steroid hormone excretion is enhanced by sucrose feeding to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, T.C.; Hsu, H.; Saunders, J.P.; Kim, S.S.; Given-Proctor, J.; Ahrens, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that feeding rats sucrose rather than invert sugar (50:50 mixture of glucose and fructose) or cornstarch would result in a more rapid excretion of intravenously injected 1,2- 3 H aldosterone or 1,2,6,7- 3 H cortisol. The three carbohydrate sources provided 45% of dietary energy when fed, respectively, to one of three groups of 10 male, Sprague Dawley rats. After 4 or 8 weeks of ad lib feeding of the three diets 5 μCI of 3 H-labeled hormones were injected intravenously and % recovery in urine and feces was measured for 4 days by liquid scintillation counting. Nearly 90% of the 3 H injected as 1,2- 3 H aldosterone was recovered over 4 days in the excreta of the sucrose fed rats. This recovery of 3 H from aldosterone was significantly greater (P 3 H from intravenously injected 1,2,6,7- 3 H cortisol followed a similar pattern. The authors anticipate that the excretion of all metabolic end products and xenobiotics excreted as glucuronides would be enhanced by sucrose feeding. Oxocarbonium ions from the glucose portion of sucrose digestion in the mammalian small intestine are thought to compete with oxocarbonium ions from the glucuronic acid portion of glucuronide hydrolysis. Such competition may slow glucuronide hydrolysis and promote glucuronide excretion, including the glucuronides derived from aldosterone and cortisol

  13. Diverse expression of sucrose transporter gene family in Zea mays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-03-04

    Mar 4, 2015 ... In this study, we identified four sucrose transporter genes. (ZmSUT1 .... strand synthesis was done with forward and reverse primers designed at .... Qazi H. A., Paranjpe S. and Bhargava S. 2012 Stem sugar accu- mulation in ...

  14. Synthesis of Fructooligosaccharides from Sucrose Using Inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maugeri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructooligosaccharides (FOS from sucrose, new alternative sweeteners with functional properties, also called soluble fibers, have a number of desirable characteristics such as low calories, no cariogenicity, and safety for diabetics and Bifidus stimulating factor. Fructooligosaccharides are also known as prebiotics, since they stimulate probiotic organisms. The production, as well as the application of food-grade fructooligosaccharides, has increased rapidly during last years. In this work, experimental factorial design has been applied to optimize the fructooligosaccharide synthesis conditions by inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus var. bulgaricus. The studied variables were: temperature, pH, sucrose and enzyme concentrations. According to the results, only temperature and sucrose concentrations have shown to be significant parameters. The syntheses of the fructooligosaccharides were carried out on stirred reactor and packed bed reactors, using free and immobilized enzymes, with the best conditions obtained from the experimental design. It has been shown that there is no significant difference between these processes. The final sugar concentrations can be tailor made by varying residence time in the reactor to cope with the different standard needs in food industries. A typical solution product consists of a mixture of fructose (155 g/L, glucose (155 g/L, sucrose (132 g/L and fructooligosaccharides (50 g/L. These concentrations are suitable for applications in most food industries, in products such as sweets, candies, chocolates and yogurts. Besides, the prebiotic function of fructooligosaccharides as stimulants of the beneficial intestinal flora will give the product a functional and differentiated feature.

  15. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    stereo-chemical, and structural interactions at the ... are considered to play a principal role in biominer- alization, but their function is still ... men powders were prepared for SEM analysis by coating each .... mixture of two components and micro-absorption ef- fects are ... With the addition of the BSA, protein–sucrose com-.

  16. Transitions in aqueous solutions of sucrose at subzero temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sikora, Antonín; Dupanov, V. O.; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Zámečník, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2007), s. 71-85 ISSN 0022-2348 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/04/0384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : aqueous sucrose solutions * subzero temperature * glass transitions Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.809, year: 2007

  17. Sucrose substitutes affect the cariogenic potential of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, S C; Vieira, L M; Cruz, J N S; Azevedo, C S; Rodrigues, P H; Simionato, M R L

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and contributes significantly to the virulence of dental plaque, especially in the presence of sucrose. To avoid the role of sucrose on the virulence factors of S. mutans, sugar substitutes are commonly consumed because they lead to lower or no production of acids and interfere with biofilm formation. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of sugar substitutes in the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Thus, in the presence of sucrose, glucose, sucralose and sorbitol, the biofilm mass was quantified up to 96 h, the pH of the spent culture media was measured, the expression of biofilm-related genes was determined, and demineralization challenge experiments were conduct in enamel fragments. The presence of sugars or sugar substitutes profoundly affected the expression of spaP, gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, ftf, vicR and vicX in either biofilm or planktonic cells. The substitution of sucrose induced a down-regulation of most genes involved in sucrose-dependent colonization in biofilm cells. When the ratio between the expression of biofilm and planktonic cells was considered, most of those genes were down-regulated in biofilm cells in the presence of sugars and up-regulated in the presence of sugar substitutes. However, sucralose but not sorbitol fulfilled the purpose of reducing the cariogenic potential of the diet since it induced the biofilm formation with the lowest biomass, did not change the pH of the medium and led to the lowest lesion depth in the cariogenic challenge.

  18. Mutation breeding in sugar-cane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) by gamma irradiation of cuttings and tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, S.H.; Javed, M.

    1982-01-01

    The sugar-cane variety Co 547, which is highly susceptible to smut disease (Ustilago scitaminea Syd.) and is also late maturing, was exposed to different doses of gamma radiation to study its radiosensitivity and to induce smut disease resistance and early maturity. The radiosensitivity of the variety showed that an optimum dose (LD 50 ) was 2.0 kR and the working dose range was found to be 1.5-3.0 kR, whereas doses higher than 4.0 kR drastically affected the growth and germination. A broad spectrum of variability in reaction to disease resistance was observed after radiation exposure. This facilitated the isolation of disease-resistant mutants. Twenty-three mutants showing varied reaction to smut under field infection conditions were tested for two years by artificial inoculation using the dip method. From these studies 15 stable mutants were isolated. Of 15 mutants, seven showed promising performance in cane yield and sucrose contents. The tissue culture technique was used to determine the potential of different commercial clones for callusing. In test explants callusing was achieved readily and proliferation of callus was fairly good in all the clones. (author)

  19. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE SUGARCANE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oranges Cezarino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the concern about the environmental degradation and the conditions of life of our planet has increased. An alarm literally sounded relating the environmental problems and the uncertainties of the future. An energy revolution is necessary in face of the climate changes. Nature offers numerous possibilities of energy production and Brazil is in a great position in this scenario. It is the greatest producer, consumer and exporter of ethanol. Analyzing the Brazilian sugarcane industry, it is easy to recognize its historical and economic importance. More than ever, this industry has shown environmental solutions with changes in the energy matrix using ethanol as renewable fuel. It is essential to have the industry development in balance with social and environmental values. Thus, the first step to expand this sector would be to identify the social and environmental impacts of the sugarcane industry. Public policies are also acting on the sector and have a prominent role in the scenario.

  20. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.

    2015-01-01

    on the economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary.......In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...

  1. Reliability evaluation and analysis of sugarcane 7000 series harvesters in sugarcane harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Najafi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The performance of agricultural machines depends on the reliability of the equipment used, the maintenance efficiency, the operation process, the technical expertise of workers, etc. As the size and complexity of agricultural equipment continue to increase, the implications of equipment failure become even more critical. Machine failure probability is (1-R and R is machine reliability (Vafaei et al., 2010. Moreover, system reliability is the probability that an item will perform a required function without failure under stated conditions for a stated period of time (Billinton and Allan, 1992. Therefore, we must be able to create an appropriate compromise between maintenance methods and acceptable reliability levels. Precision failure data gathering in a farm is a worthwhile work, because these can represent a good estimate of machine reliability combining the effects of machine loading, surrounding effects and incorrect repair and maintenance. Each machine based on its work conditions, parts combinationand manufacturing process follows a failures distribution function depending on the environment where the machine work and the machine’s specifications (Meeker and Escobar, 1998. General failures distributions for contiguous data are normal, log-normal, exponential and Weibull (Shirmohamadi, 2002. Each machine can represent proportionate behavior with these functions in short or long time. Materials and methods: The study area was the Hakim Farabi agro-industry Company located 35 kilometers south of Ahvaz in Iran. Arable lands of this company are located in 31 to 31°10 N latitude and 45 to 48°36 E longitudes. The region has dry and warm climate. A total of 24 Austoft 7000 sugarcane chopper harvester are being used in the company. Cane harvesters were divided into 3 group consisting of old, middle aged and new. From each group, one machine was chosen. Data from maintenance reports of harvesters which have been recorded within 400

  2. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XIX. The Identification of Sucrose Phosphate in Sugar Beet Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, J. G.

    1952-09-01

    The recognition and characterization of a sucrose phosphate as an intermediate in sucrose by synthesis by green plants is described. A tentative structure for this phosphate is proposed and its mode of formation suggested.

  3. Single, but not multiple pairings of sucrose and corticosterone enhance memory for sucrose drinking and amplify remote reward relativity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pecoraro, Norman; Gomez, Francisca; La Fleur, Susanne; Roy, Monica; Dallman, Mary F.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested whether pre-training pairings of ingestion of a 32% sucrose solution and injection(s) of corticosterone (B) would enhance later ingestion in the absence of B, and whether these effects would carry over into later contrast-like effects when animals were subsequently shifted to 4%

  4. Endophytic nitrogen fixation in sugarcane: Present knowledge and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddey, Robert M.; Urquiaga, Segundo; Alves, Bruno J.R.; Reis, Veronica

    2001-01-01

    In Brazil the long-term continuous cultivation of sugarcane with low N fertiliser inputs, without apparent depletion of soil-N reserves, led to the suggestion that N 2 -fixing bacteria associated with the plants may be the source of agronomically significant N inputs to this crop. From the 1950s to 1970s, considerable numbers of N 2 -fixing bacteria were found to be associated with the crop, but it was not until the late 1980s that evidence from N balance and 15 N dilution experiments showed that some Brazilian varieties of sugarcane were able to obtain significant contributions from this source. The results of these studies renewed the efforts to search for N 2 -fixing bacteria, but this time the emphasis was on those diazotrophs that infected the interior of the plants. Within a few years several species of such 'endophytic diazotrophs' were discovered including Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae, H. rubrisubalbicans and Burkholderia sp. Work has continued on these endophytes within sugarcane plants, but to date little success has been attained in elucidating which endophyte is responsible for the observed BNF and in what site, or sites, within the cane plants the N 2 fixation mainly occurs. Until such important questions are answered further developments or extension of this novel N 2 -fixing system to other economically important non-legumes (e.g. cereals) will be seriously hindered. As far as application of present knowledge to maximise BNF with sugarcane is concerned, molybdenum is an essential micronutrient. An abundant water supply favours high BNF inputs, and the best medium term strategy to increase BNF would appear to be based on cultivar selection on irrigated N deficient soils fertilised with Mo. (author)

  5. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia: ’Forced’ to remain poor?

    OpenAIRE

    Mengistu Assefa Wendimu; Arne Henningsen; Peter Gibbon

    2015-01-01

    Contract farming is often seen as a panacea to many of the challenges faced by agricultural production in developing countries. Given the large heterogeneity of contract farming arrangements, it is debatable whether all kinds of contract farming arrangements offer benefits to participating smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of ...

  6. Vinasse from Sugarcane Ethanol Production: Better Treatment or Better Utilization?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Reis, Cristiano E.; Hu, Bo, E-mail: bhu@umn.edu [Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil is a well-established industry, with relatively simple operations and high yield. The ethanol primarily serves as a renewable fuel blending with gasoline and diesel to increase the energy security in Brazil. Several environmental concerns are emerged around the by-products from this industry. Vinasse, the liquid fraction generated from the rectification and distillation operations of ethanol, is a sulfur-rich, low pH, dark-colored, and odorous effluent, produced at volumes as high as 20-fold of ethanol. Traditional wastewater treatments, such as bioprocessing, advanced oxidative processes, anaerobic digestion (AD), and chemical-based processes, have been applied to vinasse management. Despite most of its utilization being in fertirrigation practices, vinasse may represent a key factor in enhancing profitability and environmental outcomes of a sugarcane-to-ethanol plant. The application of some upgrade solutions to sugarcane-derived vinasse may represent additional sources of energy, production of animal feed components, and reduction in water consumption within a plant. The use of mature technologies, yet not widespread in the sugarcane-to-ethanol industry, could help attenuate environmental concerns. Oxidation and chemical processes, AD, and microbial fermentation have been presented as alternative impactful alternatives to (i) reduce its organic and mineral load, converting it to a feedstock with fewer environmental applications when applied as fertilizer and (ii) to convert organic matter and nutrients to a nutritious biomass, simultaneously increasing water reclamation potential by plants. This mini-review article provides a critical and comprehensive summary of the alternatives developed or under development to vinasse management.

  7. The diet of bushpigs in a sugarcane agro-ecosystem.

    OpenAIRE

    Melton, D.A.; Cooper, S.M.; Whittington, Andrew E.

    1989-01-01

    Bushpigs, Potamochoerus porcus, in a sugar-farming area of Natal, South Africa, were found to be omnivorous, but plant material dominated their diet year round. Sugar-cane stem was the main item identified in faeces collected on farmland during all seasons and in faeces from adjacent forest during winter and spring. Fruits were probably preferred to sugar cane by animals defecating in the forest during summer and autumn.

  8. An overview of sugarcane brown rust in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María La O

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Multiple pathogens affect sugarcane, among them Puccinia melanocephala, the causal agent of brown rust. This disease was first reported in Cuba in 1979 when it was responsible for a severe attack on the main sugarcane variety B4362. The aims of the present study were to give an overview of sugarcane brown rust in Cuba and show the current disease situation in the country. A retrospective analysis regard to sugarcane cultivar composition resistant to brown rust in Cuba was carried out. In addition 154 genotypes, including the most used progenitors in the breeding program and commercial varieties were evaluated under natural infection conditions. The identity of P. melanocephala was verified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and by sequencing the ITS1 region. After the introduction of P. melanocephala into Cuba, the susceptible variety, B4362, was replaced by Ja60-5 which remained resistant until 1998. Since 2002, a varietal policy supported by a governmental resolution establishing that any single cultivar cannot occupy more than 20 % of the production area for each production company, local area and province, has been applied. Out of the genotypes evaluated, 49 showed resistance to the disease and 35 intermediate behavior, while 39 were susceptible and 31, highly susceptible. P. melanocephala was detected by PCR in all symptomatic samples and its identify confirmed by sequencing the ITS1 region. The adopted measurement together with permanent phytosanitary monitoring and commercial release of resistant or intermediate cultivars succeeded in avoiding any new epidemic. Inoculum pressure was reduced, even on susceptible and highly susceptible varieties since, by resolution, they cannot occupy more than 10 % of the planted area.

  9. [Effects of reduced nitrogen application and soybean intercropping on nitrogen balance of sugarcane field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Wen-ting; Li, Zhi-xian; Guan, Ao-mei

    2015-03-01

    A four-year (2010-2013) field experiment was carried out to explore the effects of three planting patterns (sugarcane, soybean monoculture and sugarcane-soybean 1:2 intercropping) with two nitrogen input levels (300 and 525 kg . hm-2) on soybean nitrogen fixation, sugarcane and soybean nitrogen accumulation, and ammonia volatilization and nitrogen leaching in sugarcane field. The results showed that the soybean nitrogen fixation efficiency (NFE) of sugarcane-soybean inter-cropping was lower than that of soybean monoculture. There was no significant difference in NFE among the treatments with the two nitrogen application rates. The nitrogen application rate and inter-cropping did not remarkably affect nitrogen accumulation of sugarcane and soybean. The ammonia volatilization of the reduced nitrogen input treatment was significantly lower than that of the conventional nitrogen input treatment. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in nitrogen leaching at different nitrogen input levels and among different planting patterns. The sugarcane field nitrogen balance analysis indicated that the nitrogen application rate dominated the nitrogen budget of sugarcane field. During the four-year experiment, all treatments leaved a nitrogen surplus (from 73.10 to 400.03 kg . hm-2) , except a nitrogen deficit of 66.22 kg . hm-2 in 2011 in the treatment of sugarcane monoculture with the reduced nitrogen application. The excessive nitrogen surplus might increase the risk of nitrogen pollution in the field. In conclusion, sugarcane-soybean intercropping with reduced nitrogen application is feasible to practice in consideration of enriching the soil fertility, reducing nitrogen pollution and saving production cost in sugarcane field.

  10. Potential to expand sustainable bioenergy from sugarcane in southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Helen K.

    2011-01-01

    The Cane Resources Network for Southern Africa evaluated how bioenergy from sugarcane can support sustainable development and improve global competitiveness in the region. The assessment of six countries with good contemporary potential for expanding sugarcane cultivation described in this paper was part of their analysis. Its principal objective was to identify land where such production will not have detrimental environmental and/or socio-economic impacts. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to interrogate 1 km 2 resolution protected area, land cover, climate, elevation and soil data sets. To avoid detrimental impacts on biodiversity, all categories of protected areas, closed canopy forests and wetlands were excluded. To safeguard food security, all areas under food and/or cash crop production were excluded. Areas unsuitable because of climate, terrain and soil constraints were also excluded. The assessment found that almost 6 million hectares of suitable land is available in these countries, clearly suggesting that 'land' is unlikely to be a limiting factor in harnessing sugarcane's bioenergy potential in the region. However, land identified as such in this study needs to be verified using better resolution, preferably ground, information.

  11. Estimation of herbicide bioconcentration in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Cerdeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for sugar and biofuel production in Brazil. Growers depend greatly on herbicides to produce it. This experiment used herbicide physical-chemical and sugarcane plant physiological properties to simulate herbicide uptake and estimate the bioconcentration factor (BCF. The (BCF was calculated for the steady state chemical equilibrium between the plant herbicide concentration and soil solution. Plant-water partition coefficient (sugarcane bagasse-water partition coefficient, herbicide dilution rate, metabolism and dissipation in the soil-plant system, as well as total plant biomass factors were used. In addition, we added Tebuthiuron at rate of 5.0kg a.i. ha-1 to physically test the model. In conclusion, the model showed the following ranking of herbicide uptake: sulfentrazone > picloram >tebuthiuron > hexazinone > metribuzin > simazine > ametryn > diuron > clomazone > acetochlor. Furthermore, the highest BCF herbicides showed higher Groundwater Ubiquity Score (GUS index indicating high leaching potential. We did not find tebuthiuron in plants after three months of herbicide application

  12. Brazilian organic sugarcane spirits: Physicochemical and chromatographic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cimino Duarte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There has been a growing demand for products from organic agriculture for the food market. Brazil leads the production of sugarcane spirits and produces about 1.6 billion liters/year. New technologies have been sought throughout the supply chain to improve production, and organic raw material has been used in the production of sugar cane for the production of beverages. This study aimed to define the physicochemical and chromatographic profiles of eleven organic sugarcane spirits samples from various Brazilian states. The secondary components and contaminants were identified and quantified through physicochemical analyses, HPLC and gas chromatography (GC. A significant percentage of the organic sugarcane spirits samples contained concentrations of components that were above the limits required by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Provisioning (MAPA, specifically the esters (18.20%, copper and dry extract (9.10%. This contamination is caused by bad conditions employed during the production process, which are not in compliance with the good manufacturing practices determined and legislated by Brazilian law.

  13. Yield accumulation in irrigated sugarcane. II. Utilization of intercepted radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchow, R.C.; Evensen, C.I.; Osgood, R.V.; Robertson, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Intercepted radiation is a major driving variable of crop production under high-input irrigated conditions. Quantitative information on the utilization of radiation in yield accumulation allows extrapolation beyond the current season and location, and when this information is incorporated into crop growth simulation models, the effect of crop age on the productivity of different cultivars can be examined under different climatic conditions. This paper examines the differential performance of high-yielding sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) crops in terms of the amount of short-wave solar radiation intercepted (Si) and the efficiency of use of intercepted radiation (RUE) in biomass production. Biomass accumulation during the 12- to 24-mo crop cycle was examined for two experiments conducted in Hawaii, and three experiments conducted in tropical Australia from 1991 to 1993. The analysis showed that (i) RUE was much less for growth after 12 mo than in the first 12 mo; (ii) maximum RUE of sugarcane approaches 2.0 g MJ(-1); (iii) biomass accumulation beyond 12 mo was not related directly to radiation utilization; and (iv) cultivars differed in Si, but differences in RUE could not be unequivocally assessed due to the confounding effect of variable recovery of trash in biomass estimates. It is concluded that stalk death and consequent biomass loss are important factors contributing to yield variation in sugarcane crops growing for 12 to 24 mo, with a yield plateau occurring at variable crop ages during the second year of growth

  14. Land Suitability Assessment for Sugarcane in "Herois de Caxito" (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baert, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of the soils surrounding the sugarcane plantation at "Herois de Caxito" (7068 ha is assessed. The main goal is to identify land suitability for the enlargement of the present plantation, using FAO land evaluation models (modified to suit Herois de Caxito conditions and GIS. Calculations of the radiationthermal production potential (RPP, land production potential (LPP, irrigation suitability index, and evaluation of the irrigation water quality are done. The water-limited production potential (WPP is found equal to the RPP, because water needs were fully met under irrigation. Maps showing the spatial distribution of the LPP and the suitability for irrigation are generated. The matching of irrigation and fertility indices has shown that, about 40% of the soils with good fertility for sugarcane production present low suitability for irrigation, the main limitations being the very fine texture and the drainage. The available surface water at Herois de Caxito (Dande river is of very good quality for irrigation of sugarcane.

  15. Probing genetic diversity to characterize red rot resistance in sugarcane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumtaz, A S; Dure-e-Nayab,; Iqbal, M J; Shinwari, Z.K., E-mail: asmumtaz@qau.edu.pk

    2011-10-15

    Genetic diversity was assessed in a set of twelve sugarcane genotypes using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). A total of thirty-two oligo-primers were employed, sixteen of them revealed amplification at 149 loci, out of which 136 were polymorphic. The genotype SPSG-26 showed the highest number of polymorphic loci, followed by CSSG-668 and HSF-242. Pairwise genetic similarity ranged from 67.2% to 83.3%. The UPGMA cluster analysis resolved most of the accessions in two groups. The clustering pattern did not place all resistant varieties in one or related group which depict diverse resistance source in the present set of sugarcane varieties. Ten primers revealed genotype specific bands among which four primers (K07, H02, K10 and F01) produced multiple genotype specific bands that aid genotype identification especially those with red rot resistance. The present study not only provided information on the genetic diversity among the genotypes but also revealed the potential of RAPD-PCR markers for genotype identification and therefore could be utilized in marker assisted selection for red rot resistance in sugarcane. (author)

  16. Plant growth inhibitors isolated from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro, Diego Alejandro; Vattuone, Marta Amelia; Isla, María Ines

    2006-07-01

    Several compounds related with plant defense and pharmacological activities have been isolated from sugarcane. Straw phytotoxins and their possible mechanisms of growth inhibition are largely unknown. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the phytotoxic constituents leachated from a sugarcane straw led to the isolation of trans-ferulic (trans-FA), cis-ferulic (cis-FA), vanillic (VA) and syringic (SA) acids. The straw leachates and their identified constituents significantly inhibited root growth of lettuce and four weeds. VA was more phytotoxic to root elongation than FA and SA. The identified phenolic compounds significantly increased leakage of root cell constituents, inhibited dehydrogenase activity and reduced chlorophyll content in lettuce. VA and FA inhibited mitotic index while SA increased cell division. Additive (VA-FA and FA-SA) and synergistic (VA-SA) interactions on root growth were observed at the response level of EC(25). Although the isolated compounds differed in their relative phytotoxic activities, the observed physiological responses suggest that they have a common mode of action. HPLC analysis indicated that sugarcane straw can potentially release 1.43 (ratio 2:1, trans:cis), 1.14 and 0.14mmolkg(-1) (straw dry weight) of FA, VA and SA, respectively. As phenolic acids are often found spatially concentrated in the top soil layers under plant straws, further studies are needed to establish the impact of these compounds in natural settings.

  17. Repeatibility of agroindustrial characters in sugarcane in different harvest cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudsonkléio Da Costa Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In commercial cultivation of sugarcane, knowledge about the repetition of agroindustrial characters is essential to identify long-lived genotypes in production cycles, which when selected, will contribute to the significant increase in productivity. This work evaluated the agroindustrial performance of 16 sugarcane genotypes in the sugarcane microregion Litoral Norte of Pernambuco in four harvest cycles and the regularity in the repetition of characters. The experiment was conducted in the agricultural area of São José sugar mill, Igarassu, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The experiment was carried out following a randomized block design with four replications. The variables evaluated were: tons of POL per hectare (TPH, tons of cane per hectare (TCH, fiber (FIB, adjusted POL% (PCC, soluble solids content (BRIX, and total recoverable sugar (TRS. The variance analysis detected significant differences among the genotypes along the four harvest seasons, indicating genetic variability and possibility of success in the selection of superior genotypes. Estimates of repeatability coefficient point to regularity in the repetition of agro-industrial characteristics allowing to identify genotypes with the highest longevity. The genotypes SP79-1011, RB863129, RB92579, RB813804, RB982559 e RB982613 presented best agroindustrial performance, and two evaluations based on TPH and TCH characters are enough to select superior genotypes with 90% predictability of their actual values.

  18. Survey of transposable elements in sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Magdalena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project has produced a large number of cDNA sequences from several plant tissues submitted or not to different conditions of stress. In this paper we report the result of a search for transposable elements (TEs revealing a surprising amount of expressed TEs homologues. Of the 260,781 sequences grouped in 81,223 fragment assembly program (Phrap clusters, a total of 276 clones showed homology to previously reported TEs using a stringent cut-off value of e-50 or better. Homologous clones to Copia/Ty1 and Gypsy/Ty3 groups of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons were found but no non-LTR retroelements were identified. All major transposon families were represented in sugarcane including Activator (Ac, Mutator (MuDR, Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm and Mariner. In order to compare the TE diversity in grasses genomes, we carried out a search for TEs described in sugarcane related species O.sativa, Z. mays and S. bicolor. We also present preliminary results showing the potential use of TEs insertion pattern polymorphism as molecular markers for cultivar identification.

  19. Process control of an ethanol fermentation with an enzyme thermistor as a sucrose sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandenius, C F; Danielsson, B; Mattiasson, B

    1981-01-01

    An enzyme thermistor was used to monitor and control the sucrose concentration in a conversion of sucrose to EtOH with immobilized yeast. A continuous stirred tank reactor containing Ca alginate-immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used. The enzyme thermistor continuously measured the sucrose concentration in the fermentor with an online arrangement giving stable and reproducible heat signals. The control of the sucrose concentration level was performed with an analog P1-controller.

  20. Dimerization and endocytosis of the sucrose transporter StSUT1 in mature sieve elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesche, Johannes; Schulz, Alexander; Krügel, Undine; Grimm, Bernhard; Kühn, Christina

    2008-12-01

    The sucrose transporter StSUT1 from Solanum tuberosum was shown to be regulated post-translationally by redox reagents. Its activity is increased at least 10-fold in the presence of oxidizing agents if expressed in yeast. Oxidation has also an effect on plasma membrane targeting and dimerization of the protein. In response to oxidizing agents, StSUT1 is targeted to lipid raft-like microdomains and SUT1 protein is detectable in the detergent resistant membrane fraction of plant plasma membranes. Interestingly, StSUT1 treated with brefeldin A seems to aggregate in endocytic compartments in mature sieve elements.1 Further analysis of SUT1 targeting will certainly provide more information about the putative involvement of lipid raft-like microdomains in endocytic events. We provide here additional information on the dimerization and endocytosis of the SUT1 protein. The oligomerization of overexpressed SoSUT1 from Spinacia oleracea in transgenic potato plants was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and endocytosis of the StSUT1 protein was confirmed by immunogold labeling.

  1. Frequency and distribution of the brown rust resistance gene Bru1 and implications for the Louisiana sugarcane breeding programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia melanocephala, is an important disease of sugarcane posing an increasing threat to sugarcane industries worldwide. A major gene, Bru1, has been shown to contribute a significant proportion of brown rust resistance in multiple sugarcane industries. The recent...

  2. Genotype-specific microsatellite (SSR) markers for the sugarcane germplasm in the Karst region of Guizhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is the first report on SSR-based molecular evaluation of genetic variability among sugarcane genotypes from the Karst region of China that provides useful information for local sugarcane improvement. Eighteen sugarcane genotypes including 13 active cultivars and five elite QT-series clones bred l...

  3. Reinforcement Value and Substitutability of Sucrose and Wheel Running: Implications for Activity Anorexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W.; Duncan, Ian D.; Pierce, W. David

    2006-01-01

    Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30 s VI 30 s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior…

  4. Complete Sucrose Metabolism Requires Fructose Phosphotransferase Activity in Corynebacterium glutamicum To Ensure Phosphorylation of Liberated Fructose

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, H.; Lindley, N. D.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose uptake by Corynebacterium glutamicum involves a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sucrose phosphotransferase (PTS), but in the absence of fructokinase, further metabolism of the liberated fructose requires efflux of the fructose and reassimilation via the fructose PTS. Mutant strains lacking detectable fructose-transporting PTS activity accumulated fructose extracellularly but consumed sucrose at rates comparable to those of the wild-type strain.

  5. Phenotype adaptability and stability of sugarcane genotypes in the sugarcane belt of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra Filho, J A; Junior, T C; Simões Neto, D E

    2014-08-29

    We assessed the agroindustrial performance of 25 sugarcane genotypes adapted to the edaphoclimatic conditions of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, within the microregions Mata Norte, Mata Sul, Região Central, Litoral Norte, and Litoral Sul. The variables analyzed were POL tonnage per hectare, sugarcane tonnage per hectare, fiber and total recoverable sugar tonnage per hectare, using a randomized block design with four repetitions. Combined variance of experiments, genetic parameter estimates, decomposition of the genotype-environment interaction, and environment stratification were analyzed. Phenotype adaptability and stability were also analyzed. The various genotypes presented great potential for improvement and a similar response pattern to the microregions Centro and Mata Sul of the state of Pernambuco. Genotypes RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB953180, SP81-3250, RB75126, and RB942520 were better in productivity and phenotype adaptability and stability compared to genotypes RB892700, RB943365, SP79-1011, Q138, RB943538, SP78-4764, RB953281, RB943066, RB928064, RB93509, RB72454, RB952675, RB952991, RB943161, RB942898, RB872552, RB952900, and RB942849. These genotypes are recommended as cultivation options in the sugarcane belt in the state of Pernambuco, since they stand out in terms of phenotype adaptability and stability as evaluated using the method by Annicchiarico, Lin and Bins, and the method by Eberhart and Russel.

  6. The impact of some physiomorphic characters of sugarcane genotypes on their resistance against sugarcane pyrilla, pyrilla perpusilla wlk. (lophopidae: homoptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasul, A.; Hassan, M.; Suhail, A.; Sahi, S.T.

    2010-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in the Research Area, Directorate of Sugarcane, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to study he physio-morphic characters of sugarcane resistance to the sucking pest Pyrilla perpusilla. Twenty genotypes of sugarcane were tested for their resistance susceptibility against P. perpusilla, as a preliminary screening experiment, during 2006. Based on the population-density count, 3 genotypes, viz., HSF- 240, CPF-243 and S-2002-US-114 showing resistance responses, 3 genotypes viz. CPHS-35, S-2003-US-394 and S-2003-US-623 showing susceptible trends and 3 genotypes viz. S-2003-US-809, S-2002-US-140 and S- 2002-US-104 exerting intermediate trends against the pest under test were selected for the final screening trials during 2007.The genotype S-2003-US-623, was found to be comparatively susceptible; whereas, HSF-240, showed resistance responses. The leaf-width and cane length showed a positive and significant correlation whereas the leaf-spine density had a significant negative effect with pest-population. The Leaf-length and Cane-Diameter did not show a significant correlation with the pest population. (author)

  7. Sugarcane field residue and bagasse allelopathic impact on vegetable seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the allelopathic impact of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) var. ‘HoCP 96-540’ field residue and sugarcane baga...

  8. Sugarcane biochar as an amendment for greenhouse growing media for the production of cucurbit seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana sugarcane farmers in 2016 harvested 11.7 million mt millable sugarcane from 163,000 ha, producing 1.47 million mg of raw sugar and an estimated 3.5 million mt of bagasse. Even though Louisiana sugar mills use 80 to 90% of the bagasse for fuel production, another 350,000 to 700,000 mt of ba...

  9. Regional based estimates of water use for commercial sugar-cane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water use of rain-fed sugar-cane has come under the spotlight in South Africa, largely as a result of changes in legislation and a focus on streamflow reduction activities. In this study a robust relationship between sugar-cane yield and evapotranspiration derived by Thompson in 1976 is applied in conjunction with ...

  10. Life cycle assessment of biofuels from an integrated Brazilian algae-sugarcane biorefinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone P.; Gopal, Anand R.; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane ethanol biorefineries in Brazil produce carbon dioxide, electricity and heat as byproducts. These are essential inputs for algae biodiesel production. In this paper, we assessed ethanol's life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy use produced in an integrated sugarcane and algae biorefinery where biodiesel replaces petroleum diesel for all agricultural operations. Carbon dioxide from cane juice fermentation is used as the carbon source for algae cultivation, and sugarcane bagasse is the sole source of energy for the entire facility. Glycerin produced from the biodiesel plant is consumed by algae during the mixotrophic growth phase. We assessed the uncertainties through a detailed Monte-Carlo analysis. We found that this integrated system can improve both the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and the fossil energy use of sugarcane ethanol by around 10% and 50%, respectively, compared to a traditional Brazilian sugarcane ethanol distillery. - Highlights: • A high diesel consumption is associated to the ethanol sugarcane life-cycle. • Sugarcane industry can provide sources of carbon and energy for the algae growing. • The sugarcane-algae integration can improve the ethanol life-cycle performance. • This integration is a promising pathway for the deployment of algae biodiesel. • There are still significant techno-economic barriers associated with algae biodiesel

  11. Plant resistance in sorghums to the sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated ten sorghum lines that were near or in commercial release with the intent of identifying phenotypic expression of host-plant resistance to the sugarcane aphid. Two of the ten entries OL2042 and SP7715 expressed a high degree of resistance to the sugarcane aphid with damage ratings <3.0...

  12. Crop rotation biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi effects on sugarcane yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio; Guirado, Nivaldo; Teramoto, Juliana Rolim Salome [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional Centro Sul; Azcon, Rozario [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Granada (Spain). Estacao Experimental de Zaidin; Cantarela, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Solos e Recursos Ambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social], Email: ambrosano@apta.sp.gov.br; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Plantas Graniferas

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important crop for sugar production and agro-energy purposes in Brazil. In the sugarcane production system after a 4- to 8-year cycle crop rotation may be used before replanting sugarcane to improve soil conditions and give an extra income. This study had the objective of characterizing the biomass and the natural colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of leguminous green manure and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in rotation with sugarcane. Their effect on stalk and sugar yield of sugarcane cv. IAC 87-3396 grown subsequently was also studied. Cane yield was harvested in three subsequent cuttings. Peanut cv. IAC-Caiapo, sunflower cv. IAC-Uruguai and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were the rotational crops that resulted in the greater percentage of AMF. Sunflower was the specie that most extracted nutrients from the soil, followed by peanut cv. IAC-Tatu and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The colonization with AMF had a positive correlation with sugarcane plant height, at the first cut (p = 0.01 and R = 0.52) but not with the stalk or cane yields. Sunflower was the rotational crop that brought about the greatest yield increase of the subsequent sugarcane crop: 46% increase in stalk yield and 50% in sugar yield compared with the control. Except for both peanut varieties, all rotational crops caused an increase in net income of the cropping system in the average of three sugarcane harvests. (author)

  13. Where is sugarcane cropping expanding in the brazilian cerrado, and why? A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arruda, de M.R.; Giller, K.E.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane growing area in Brazil sharply expanded between 2000 and 2010 due to the increasing world demand for sugar and ethanol. Since this expansion of sugarcane is said to occur in areas covered by degraded pastures, it is likely not threatening the environment or food production. In order to

  14. Building organic matter of long-term sugarcane soils in a temperate environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineral soils with a history of sugarcane monoculture cropping contain less soil organic matter (-35%), and plant macro- and micronutrients, including N (-20%), K (-26%), S (-7%), Ca (-8%), B (-33%), Zn (-88%), Mn (-29%), and Cu (-26%), than adjacent non-cultivated soils. Harvesting sugarcane ‘green...

  15. A mixed model QTL analysis for sugarcane multiple-harvest-location trial data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastina, M.M.; Malosetti, M.; Gazaffi, R.; Mollinari, M.; Margarido, G.R.A.; Oliveira, K.M.; Pinto, L.R.; Souza, A.P.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Garcia, A.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane-breeding programs take at least 12 years to develop new commercial cultivars. Molecular markers offer a possibility to study the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in sugarcane, and they may be used in marker-assisted selection to speed up artificial selection. Although the

  16. Effect of orange rust on sugarcane breeding program at canal Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange rust of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids), caused by Puccinia kuehnii (W. Krüger) E.J. Butler, appeared in the Western Hemisphere ten years ago. Orange rust substantially reduces yields in susceptible sugarcane genotypes. Majority of the commercial cultivars were susceptible at the time of o...

  17. Using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate sugarcane yield and yield components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) yield and yield components are important traits for growers and scientists to evaluate and select cultivars. Collection of these yield data would be labor intensive and time consuming in the early selection stages of sugarcane breeding cultivar development programs with a ...

  18. Diversity and antifungal activity of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria colonizing sugarcane in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    The price of nitrogen continues to increase and is a major input in sugarcane production. Sugarcane grown in Egypt was screened for the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Nitrogen-free medium LGI-P was used to isolate bacteria from cane stalks. Among the 52 isolates subjected to acetylene redu...

  19. Regional-based estimates of water use for commercial sugar-cane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    derived by Thompson in 1976 is applied in conjunction with regional cane production records in South Africa. These were used to provide regional estimates of water use of commercial rain-fed and irrigated sugar-cane as affected by environmental limitations. The mean water use of sugar-cane at an industry scale was 598 ...

  20. Determining yield loss caused by brown rust in production fields of sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections of Puccinia melanocephala, the causal agent of brown rust, appear on Louisiana sugarcane in the spring. Disease expression is usually limited to 2 to 3 months until temperatures exceed those favorable for spore production. The affected sugarcane is harvested 4 to 6 months after rust sympt...

  1. Genetic variability among the brown rust resistant and susceptible genotypes of sugarcane by RAPD technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown leaf rust in sugarcane is caused by Puccinia melanocephala (Syd. & P. Syd.), which is major cause of cultivar withdrawal. We attempted to analyze the RAPD diversity of two discrete phenotypic classes i.e. rust resistant (R) and rust susceptible (S) of six commercially available sugarcane elite...

  2. Glyphosate Control of Orange and Brown Rusts in Glyphosate-Sensitive Sugarcane Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract: Brown and orange rust diseases cause substantial yield reductions on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida and other regions where sugarcane is grown. Brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd has been present in Florida since 1978 and orange rust caused by Pucci...

  3. Genotyping Sugarcane for the Brown Rust Resistance Locus Bru1 Using Unlabeled Probe Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia melanocephala, is a major disease of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida, Louisiana, and other sugarcane growing regions. The Bru1 locus has been used as a durable and effective source of resistance, and markers are available to select for the trait. The...

  4. The sugarcane-biofuel expansion and dairy farmers' responses in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Novo, A.L.; Jansen, K.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in São Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales

  5. Status of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus and its impact in different progenies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow leaf disease caused by Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) a Polerovirus is an important disease for sugarcane industries worldwide. High yield losses up to 50% were reported in susceptible varieties. Most of the commercial cultivars in Florida are infected with SCYLV; therefore, there is a ...

  6. Growth, cane yield and sugar content of six genotypes of sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth and yield of six sugarcane genotypes were studied in field plots between 1999 and 2001, at Umudike, in the humid forest zone of southeastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised five improved sugarcane genotypes (NCS 001, NCS 003, NCS 004, NCS 005 and C062175) and one local variety (Umudike Local) ...

  7. Development and integration of an SSR-based molecular identity database into sugarcane breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane breeding is very difficult and it takes 12 to 14 years to develop a new cultivar for commercial production. This is because sugarcane varieties are highly polyploid, inter-specific hybrids with 100 to 130 chromosomes that may vary across geographical areas. Other obstacles/constraints incl...

  8. Soil bacterial community shifts associated with sugarcane straw removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Laisa; Gumiere, Thiago; Andreote, Fernando; Cerri, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    In Brazil, the adoption of the mechanical unburned sugarcane harvest potentially increase the quantity of residue left in the field after harvesting. Economically, this material has a high potential for second generation ethanol (2G) production. However, crop residues have an essential role in diverse properties and processes in the soil. The greater part of the uncertainties about straw removal for 2G ethanol production is based on its effects in soil microbial community. In this sense, it is important to identify the main impacts of sugarcane straw removal on soil microbial community. Therefore, we conducted a field study, during one year, in Valparaíso (São Paulo state - Brazil) to evaluate the effects of straw decomposition on soil bacterial community. Specifically, we wanted: i) to compare the rates of straw removal and ii) to evaluate the effects of straw decomposition on soil bacterial groups over one year. The experiment was in a randomized block design with treatments arranged in strip plot. The treatments are different rates of sugarcane straw removal, namely: no removal, 50, 75 and 100% of straw removal. Soil sampling was carried out at 0, 4, 8 and 12 months after the sugarcane harvest (August 2015). Total DNA was extracted from soil using the PowersoilTM DNA Isolation kit. And the abundance of bacterial in each soil sample was estimated via quantification of 16S rRNA gene. The composition of the bacterial communities was estimated via terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, and the T-RF sizes were performed on a 3500 Genetic Analyzer. Finally, the results were examined with GeneMapper 4.1 software. There was bacterial community shifts through the time and among the rates of sugarcane straw removal. Bacterial community was firstly determined by the time scale, which explained 29.16% of total variation. Rates of straw removal explained 11.55% of shifts on bacterial community. Distribution through the time is an important

  9. Characterization of Sugar Contents and Sucrose Metabolizing Enzymes in Developing Leaves of Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinheng Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in plant leaves have hitherto been investigated mainly in temperate plants, and rarely conducted in tandem with gene expression and sugar analysis. Here, we investigated the sugar content, gene expression, and the activity of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in the leaves of Hevea brasiliensis, a tropical tree widely cultivated for natural rubber. Sucrose, fructose and glucose were the major sugars detected in Hevea leaves at four developmental stages (I to IV, with starch and quebrachitol as minor saccharides. Fructose and glucose contents increased until stage III, but decreased strongly at stage IV (mature leaves. On the other hand, sucrose increased continuously throughout leaf development. Activities of all sucrose-cleaving enzymes decreased markedly at maturation, consistent with transcript decline for most of their encoding genes. Activity of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS was low in spite of its high transcript levels at maturation. Hence, the high sucrose content in mature leaves was not due to increased sucrose-synthesizing activity, but more to the decline in sucrose cleavage. Gene expression and activities of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in Hevea leaves showed striking differences compared with other plants. Unlike in most other species where vacuolar invertase predominates in sucrose cleavage in developing leaves, cytoplasmic invertase and sucrose synthase (cleavage direction also featured prominently in Hevea. Whereas SPS is normally responsible for sucrose synthesis in plant leaves, sucrose synthase (synthesis direction was comparable or higher than that of SPS in Hevea leaves. Mature Hevea leaves had an unusually high sucrose:starch ratio of about 11, the highest reported to date in plants.

  10. Characterization of the cellulolytic secretome of Trichoderma harzianum during growth on sugarcane bagasse and analysis of the activity boosting effects of swollenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A L Rocha, Vanessa; N Maeda, Roberto; Pereira, Nei; F Kern, Marcelo; Elias, Luisa; Simister, Rachael; Steele-King, Clare; Gómez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2016-03-01

    This study demonstrates the production of an active enzyme cocktail produced by growing Trichoderma harzianum on sugarcane bagasse. The component enzymes were identified by LCMS-MS. Glycosyl hydrolases were the most abundant class of proteins, representing 67% of total secreted protein. Other carbohydrate active enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction included lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (AA9), carbohydrate-binding modules, carbohydrate esterases and swollenin, all present at levels of 1%. In total, proteases and lipases represented 5 and 1% of the total secretome, respectively, with the rest of the secretome being made up of proteins of unknown or putative function. This enzyme cocktail was efficient in catalysing the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse cellulolignin to fermentable sugars for potential use in ethanol production. Apart from mapping the secretome of T. harzianum, which is a very important tool to understand the catalytic performance of enzyme cocktails, the gene coding for T. harzianum swollenin was expressed in Aspergillus niger. This novel aspect in this work, allowed increasing the swollenin concentration by 95 fold. This is the first report about the heterologous expression of swollenin from T. harzianum, and the findings are of interest in enriching enzyme cocktail with this important accessory protein which takes part in the cellulose amorphogenesis. Despite lacking detectable glycoside activity, the addition of swollenin of T. harzianum increased by two-fold the hydrolysis efficiency of a commercial cellulase cocktail. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:327-336, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. Discrimination of sugarcane according to cultivar by 1H NMR and chemometric analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Silva, Lorena M.A.; Choze, Rafael; Liao, Luciano M. [Laboratorio de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Honda, Neli K.; Alcantara, Glaucia B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Several technologies for the development of new sugarcane cultivars have mainly focused on the increase in productivity and greater disease resistance. Sugarcane cultivars are usually identified by the organography of the leaves and stems, the analysis of peroxidase and esterase isoenzyme activities and the total soluble protein as well as soluble solid content. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) associated with chemometric analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for cultivar assessment. Thus, this article describes the potential of chemometric analysis applied to 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) and NMR in solution for the investigation of sugarcane cultivars. For this purpose, leaves from eight different cultivars of sugarcane were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis. The approach shows to be a useful tool for the distinction and classification of different sugarcane cultivars as well as to access the differences on its chemical composition. (author)

  12. Sucrose synthase: A unique glycosyltransferase for biocatalytic glycosylation process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmölzer, Katharina; Gutmann, Alexander; Diricks, Margo; Desmet, Tom; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) is a glycosyltransferase (GT) long known from plants and more recently discovered in bacteria. The enzyme catalyzes the reversible transfer of a glucosyl moiety between fructose and a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) (sucrose+NDP↔NDP-glucose+fructose). The equilibrium for sucrose conversion is pH dependent, and pH values between 5.5 and 7.5 promote NDP-glucose formation. The conversion of a bulk chemical to high-priced NDP-glucose in a one-step reaction provides the key aspect for industrial interest. NDP-sugars are important as such and as key intermediates for glycosylation reactions by highly selective Leloir GTs. SuSy has gained renewed interest as industrially attractive biocatalyst, due to substantial scientific progresses achieved in the last few years. These include biochemical characterization of bacterial SuSys, overproduction of recombinant SuSys, structural information useful for design of tailor-made catalysts, and development of one-pot SuSy-GT cascade reactions for production of several relevant glycosides. These advances could pave the way for the application of Leloir GTs to be used in cost-effective processes. This review provides a framework for application requirements, focusing on catalytic properties, heterologous enzyme production and reaction engineering. The potential of SuSy biocatalysis will be presented based on various biotechnological applications: NDP-sugar synthesis; sucrose analog synthesis; glycoside synthesis by SuSy-GT cascade reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alveolar wound healing in rats fed on high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, María A; Rocamundi, Marina R; Viotto, Javier O; Ferreyra, Ruth S

    2013-01-01

    The potential for bone repair is influenced by various biochemical, biomechanical, hormonal, and pathological mechanisms and factors such as diet and its components, all of which govern the behavior and function of the cells responsible for forming new bone. Several authors suggest that a high sucrose diet could change the calcium balance and bone composition in animals, altering hard tissue mineralization. The mechanism by which it occurs is unclear. Alveolar healing following tooth extraction has certain characteristics making this type of wound unique, in both animals and humans. The general aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the biological response during alveolar healing following tooth extraction in rats fed on high sucrose diets, by means of osteocyte lacunae histomorphometry, counting empty lacunae and measuring areas of bone quiescence, formation and resorption. Forty-two Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into two groups: an experimental group fed on modified Stephan Harris diet (43% sucrose) and a control group fed on standard balanced diet. The animals were anesthetized and their left and right lower molars extracted. They were killed at 0 hours, 14, 28, 60 and 120 days. Samples were fixed, decalcified in EDTA and embedded in paraffin to prepare sections for optical microscopy which were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant differences in the size of osteocyte lacunae between groups at 28 and 60 days, with the experimental group having larger lacunae. There were more empty lacunae in the experimental group at 14 days, and no significant difference in the areas of bone activity. A high sucrose diet could modify the morphology and quality of bone tissue formed in the alveolus following tooth extraction.

  14. Sucrose polyesters from poultry fat as non-ionic emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, Mohamed G.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry fats are rich in palmitic and oleic acids are produced as by-products from poultry industries. These fats can be utilized in the preparation of emulsifiers. Sucrose esters of poultry fat are prepared from low-cost poultry fat and sucrose by esterification. The yield of sucrose esters prepared in this work exceeds than 85%. The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB, surface tension, interfacial tension and stability index (SI were evaluated and compared with standard emulsifiers prepared from pure palmitate and oleate esters. Concerning the stability of emulsions, the values of interfacial tension and HLB were higher for the sucrose esters of poultry fat.Las grasas de aves de corral son ricas en ácidos palmítico y oleico y son producidas como subproductos de las industrias avícolas. Estas grasas pueden ser utilizadas en la preparación de emulsionantes. Los ésteres de sacarosa de grasas de aves de corral fueron preparadas a partir de grasas de bajo coste y sacarosa por esterificación. El rendimiento de los ésteres de sacarosa preparados en este trabajo superó el 85%. El balance hidrofílicolipofílico (HLB, tensión superficial, tensión interfacial e índice de estabilidad (SI fueron evaluados y comparados con emulsionantes estandar preparados de ésteres de palmitato y oleato puros. Los valores de tensión interfacial y el HLB fueron más altos en los poliésteres de sacarosa de las grasas de aves de corral.

  15. Structural analyses of sucrose laurate regioisomers by mass spectrometry techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Aleksander; Stensballe, Allan; Pedersen, Lars Haastrup

    2015-01-01

    6- And 6′-O-lauroyl sucrose were isolated and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), Orbitrap high-resolution (HR) MS, and electrospray-ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The analyses aimed to explore the physic......6- And 6′-O-lauroyl sucrose were isolated and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), Orbitrap high-resolution (HR) MS, and electrospray-ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The analyses aimed to explore.......8, respectively, and Orbitrap HRMS confirmed the mass of [M+Na]+ (m/z 547.2712). ESI-MS/MS on the precursor ion [M+Na]+ resulted in product ion mass spectra showing two high-intensity signals for each sample. 6-O-Lauroyl sucrose produced signals located at m/z 547.27 and m/z 385.21, corresponding to the 6-O...

  16. Effect of heavy ion irradiation on sucrose radical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Sato, Yukio

    2004-01-01

    We investigated sucrose radicals produced by heavy-ion irradiation with various LETs (linear energy transfer) and the possibility for a sucrose ESR (electron spin resonance) dosimeter. The obtained spectral pattern was the same as that for helium (He) ions, carbon (C) ions, neon (Ne) ions, argon (Ar) ions, and iron (Fe) ions. Identical spectra were measured after one year, but the initial intensities decreased by a few percent when the samples were kept in ESR tubes with the caps at ambient temperature. The total spin concentration obtained by heavy-ion irradiation had a linear relation with the absorbed dose, and correlated logarithmically with the LET. Qualitative ESR analyses showed that the production of sucrose radicals depended on both the particle identity and the LET at the same dose. The production of spin concentration by He ions was the most sensitive to LET. Empirical relations between the LET and the spin yield for various particles imply that the LET at a certain dose can be estimated by the spin concentration. (authors)

  17. Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2013-05-01

    Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil.

  18. Metabolic engineering to expand the substrate spectrum of Pseudomonas putida toward sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Hannes; Schmauder, Lukas; Hobmeier, Karina; Kremling, Andreas; Pflüger-Grau, Katharina

    2017-08-01

    Sucrose is an important disaccharide used as a substrate in many industrial applications. It is a major component of molasses, a cheap by-product of the sugar industry. Unfortunately, not all industrially relevant organisms, among them Pseudomonas putida, are capable of metabolizing sucrose. We chose a metabolic engineering approach to circumvent this blockage and equip P. putida with the activities necessary to consume sucrose. Therefore, we constructed a pair of broad-host range mini-transposons (pSST - sucrose splitting transposon), carrying either cscA, encoding an invertase able to split sucrose into glucose and fructose, or additionally cscB, encoding a sucrose permease. Introduction of cscA was sufficient to convey sucrose consumption and the additional presence of cscB had no further effect, though the sucrose permease was built and localized to the membrane. Sucrose was split extracellularly by the activity of the invertase CscA leaking out of the cell. The transposons were also used to confer sucrose consumption to Cupriavidus necator. Interestingly, in this strain, CscB acted as a glucose transporter, such that C. necator also gained the ability to grow on glucose. Thus, the pSST transposons are functional tools to extend the substrate spectrum of Gram-negative bacterial strains toward sucrose. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Photocatalytic properties of hierarchical ZnO flowers synthesized by a sucrose-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Wei [Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Wei Bo [Center for Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Xu Lingling, E-mail: xulingling_hit@163.com [Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China) and Center for Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhao Yan, E-mail: zhaoyan516@126.com [Department of Physics, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Gao Hong; Liu Jia [Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hierarchical ZnO flowers were synthesized via a sucrose-assisted urea hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sucrose added ZnO flowers showed improved activity mainly due to the improved crystallinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of sucrose content was studied and optimized. - Abstract: In this work, hierarchical ZnO flowers were synthesized via a sucrose-assisted urea hydrothermal method. The thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) showed that sucrose acted as a complexing agent in the synthesis process and assisted combustion during annealing. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated using the degradation of organic dye methyl orange. The sucrose added ZnO flowers showed improved activity, which was mainly attributed to the better crystallinity as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The effect of sucrose amount on photocatalytic activity was also studied.

  20. The genes and enzymes of sucrose metabolism in moderately thermophilic methanotroph Methylocaldum szegediense O12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    But, Sergey Y; Solntseva, Natalia P; Egorova, Svetlana V; Mustakhimov, Ildar I; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Reshetnikov, Alexander; Trotsenko, Yuri A

    2018-05-01

    Four enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism: sucrose phosphate synthase (Sps), sucrose phosphate phosphatase (Spp), sucrose synthase (Sus) and fructokinase (FruK), were obtained as his-tagged proteins from the moderately thermophilic methanotroph Methylocaldum szegediense O12. Sps, Spp, FruK and Sus demonstrated biochemical properties similar to those of other bacterial counterparts, but the translated amino acid sequences of Sps and Spp displayed high divergence from the respective microbial enzymes. The Sus of M. szegediense O12 catalyzed the reversible reaction of sucrose cleavage in the presence of ADP or UDP and preferred ADP as a substrate, thus implying a connection between sucrose and glycogen metabolism. Sus-like genes were found only in a few methanotrophs, whereas amylosucrase was generally used in sucrose cleavage in this group of bacteria. Like other microbial fructokinases, FruK of M. szegediense O12 showed a high specificity to fructose.

  1. Ten Putative Contributors to the Obesity Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Emily J.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Keith, Scott W.; Aronne, Louis J.; Barger, Jamie; Baskin, Monica; Benca, Ruth M.; Biggio, Joseph; Boggiano, Mary M.; Eisenmann, Joe C.; Elobeid, Mai; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Gluckman, Peter; Hanlon, Erin C.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Redden, David T.; Ruden, Douglas M.; Wang, Chenxi; Waterland, Robert A.; Wright, Suzanne M.; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a global issue and shows no signs of abating, while the cause of this epidemic remains unclear. Marketing practices of energy-dense foods and institutionally-driven declines in physical activity are the alleged perpetrators for the epidemic, despite a lack of solid evidence to demonstrate their causal role. While both may contribute to obesity, we call attention to their unquestioned dominance in program funding and public efforts to reduce obesity, and propose several alternative putative contributors that would benefit from equal consideration and attention. Evidence for microorganisms, epigenetics, increasing maternal age, greater fecundity among people with higher adiposity, assortative mating, sleep debt, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical iatrogenesis, reduction in variability of ambient temperatures, and intrauterine and intergenerational effects, as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic are reviewed herein. While the evidence is strong for some contributors such as pharmaceutical-induced weight gain, it is still emerging for other reviewed factors. Considering the role of such putative etiological factors of obesity may lead to comprehensive, cause specific, and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this global epidemic. PMID:19960394

  2. Evaluation of [14C] and [13C]Sucrose as Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mohammad K; Chowdhury, Ekram A; Bickel, Ulrich; Mehvar, Reza

    2017-06-01

    Nonspecific quantitation of [ 14 C]sucrose in blood and brain has been routinely used as a quantitative measure of the in vivo blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. However, the reported apparent brain uptake clearance (K in ) of the marker varies widely (∼100-fold). We investigated the accuracy of the use of the marker in comparison with a stable isotope of sucrose ([ 13 C]sucrose) measured by a specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Rats received single doses of each marker, and the K in values were determined. Surprisingly, the K in value of [ 13 C]sucrose was 6- to 7-fold lower than that of [ 14 C]sucrose. Chromatographic fractionation after in vivo administration of [ 14 C]sucrose indicated that the majority of the brain content of radioactivity belonged to compounds other than the intact [ 14 C]sucrose. However, mechanistic studies failed to reveal any substantial metabolism of the marker. The octanol:water partition coefficient of [ 14 C]sucrose was >2-fold higher than that of [ 13 C]sucrose, indicating the presence of lipid-soluble impurities in the [ 14 C]sucrose solution. Our data indicate that [ 14 C]sucrose overestimates the true BBB permeability to sucrose. We suggest that specific quantitation of the stable isotope ( 13 C) of sucrose is a more accurate alternative to the current widespread use of the radioactive sucrose as a BBB marker. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of sugarcane genes involved in the purine synthesis pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Jancso

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide synthesis is of central importance to all cells. In most organisms, the purine nucleotides are synthesized de novo from non-nucleotide precursors such as amino acids, ammonia and carbon dioxide. An understanding of the enzymes involved in sugarcane purine synthesis opens the possibility of using these enzymes as targets for chemicals which may be effective in combating phytopathogen. Such an approach has already been applied to several parasites and types of cancer. The strategy described in this paper was applied to identify sugarcane clusters for each step of the de novo purine synthesis pathway. Representative sequences of this pathway were chosen from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database and used to search the translated sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database using the available basic local alignment search tool (BLAST facility. Retrieved clusters were further tested for the statistical significance of the alignment by an implementation (PRSS3 of the Monte Carlo shuffling algorithm calibrated using known protein sequences of divergent taxa along the phylogenetic tree. The sequences were compared to each other and to the sugarcane clusters selected using BLAST analysis, with the resulting table of p-values indicating the degree of divergence of each enzyme within different taxa and in relation to the sugarcane clusters. The results obtained by this strategy allowed us to identify the sugarcane proteins participating in the purine synthesis pathway.A via de síntese de purino nucleotídeos é considerada uma via de central importância para todas as células. Na maioria dos organismos, os purino nucleotídeos são sintetizados ''de novo'' a partir de precursores não-nucleotídicos como amino ácidos, amônia e dióxido de carbono. O conhecimento das enzimas envolvidas na via de síntese de purinas da cana-de-açúcar vai abrir a possibilidade do uso dessas enzimas como alvos no desenho

  4. As-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse possessing exotic field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnia, Lucky; Yadav, Brajesh S.; Palnitkar, Umesh; Satyam, P. V.; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Koratkar, Nikhil A.; Tyagi, Pawan K.

    2018-06-01

    The present study aims to demonstrate the application of sugarcane bagasse as an excellent field emitter. Field emission property of as-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (p-SBg) before and after the plasma treatment has been investigated. It has been observed that electronic nature of p-SBg transformed from semiconducting to metallic after plasma treatment. Maximum current and turn-on field defined at 10 μA/cm2 was found to be 800 μA/cm2 and 2.2 V/μm for as-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (p-SBg) and 25 μA/cm2 and 8.4 V/μm for H2-plasma treated p-SBg. These values are found to be better than the reported values for graphene and activated carbon. In this report, pyrolysis of bagasse has been carried in a thermal chemical vapor deposition (Th-CVD) system in inert argon atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to study the structure of both pre and post plasma-treated p-SBg bagasse's sample. HRTEM study reveals that carbonaceous structures such as 3D-nanographene oxide (3D-NGO), graphite nanodots (GNDs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and carbon onions are present in both pre-treated and plasma-treated p-SBg. Hence, we envision that the performed study will be a forwarding step to facilitate the application of p-SBg in display devices.

  5. Sugarcane bagasse gasification: Global reaction mechanism of syngas evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.I.; Gupta, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated using a semi batch reactor. ► Global reaction mechanism combining pyrolysis and gasification reactions is presented. ► High flow rates of syngas supported fragmentation and secondary reactions. ► CO flow rate increased at higher heating rates at the expense of CO 2 production. ► At high temperatures merger between pyrolysis and char gasification occurs. -- Abstract: Steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated. A semi batch reactor with a fixed amount of sugarcane bagasse sample placed in steady flow of high temperature steam at atmospheric pressure has been used. The gasification of bagasse was examined at reactor and steam temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The evolution of syngas flow rate and chemical composition has been monitored. The evolution of chemical composition and total flow rate of the syngas has been used to formulate a global reaction mechanism. The mechanism combines pyrolysis reaction mechanisms from the literature and steam gasification/reforming reactions. Steam gasification steps include steam–hydrocarbons reforming, char gasification and water gas shift reactions. Evidence of fragmentation, secondary ring opening reactions and tertiary reactions resulting in formation of gaseous hydrocarbons is supported by higher flow rates of syngas and hydrogen at high heating rates and high reactor temperatures. Increase in carbon monoxide flow rate at the expense of carbon dioxide flow rate with the increase in reactor temperature has been observed. This increase in the ratio of CO/CO 2 flow rate confirms the production of CO and CO 2 from the competing reaction routes. At 1000 °C gasification a total merging between the pyrolysis step and the char gasification step has been observed. This is attributed to acceleration of char gasification reactions and acceleration of steam–hydrocarbons reforming reactions. These hydrocarbons are the precursors to

  6. Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Enzymatic Treatment for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The escalating demands for traditional fossil fuels with unsecured deliverance and issues of climate change compel the researchers to develop alternative fuels like bioethanol. This study examines the prospect of biofuel production from high carbohydrate containing lignocellulosic material, e.g. sugarcane bagasse through biological means. Methodology and Results: Cellulolytic enzymes were collected from the culture filtrate of thermotolerant Trichodermaviride grown on variously pre-treated sugarcane bagasse. CMCase and FPase enzyme activities were determined as a measure of suitable substrate pre-treatment and optimum condition for cellulolytic enzyme production. The highest CMCase and FPase activity was found to be 1.217 U/ml and 0.109 U/ml respectively under the production conditions of 200 rpm, pH 4.0 and 50 °C using steamed NaOH treated bagasse as substrate. SEM was carried out to compare and confirm the activity of cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse. Saccharification of pre-treated bagasse was carried out with crude enzymes together using a two-factor experimental design. Under optimized conditions the pre-treated bagasse was saccharified up to 42.7 % in 24 h. The hydrolysate was concentrated by heating to suitable concentration and then used for fermentation by an indigenous isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With 50 and 80 % brix containing liquor the concentration of alcohol was 0.579 % and 1.15 % respectively. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first report in Bangladesh for the production of cellulosicethanol using local isolates. Though the rate of alcohol production was very low, a great impetus in this field can maximize the production thereby meet the demand for fuel in future.

  7. Kinetics of thermophilic acidogenesis of typical Brazilian sugarcane vinasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mirian Harumi; Araújo Júnior, Moacir Messias; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of the acidogenic phase during anaerobic digestion of sugarcane vinasse in differential reactors containing immobilized cells was investigated. The maximum substrate conversion rate (r_m_a_x), substrate saturation constant (K_s) and constant of inhibition by excess substrate (K_i_s) were determined using vinasse with and without pH adjustment. Simulation and scaling-up of a thermophilic-hydrogen production system were performed. The r_m_a_x values obtained at different pH were similar and near 0.9 mg-Total carbohydrates g-VS"−"1 h"−"1. The K_s obtained from the system without pH adjustment was 10,762.3 mg-Total carbohydrates L"−"1 (i.e., 2.5 times higher than the system with pH adjustment). No inhibition by excess substrate was achieved in the system without pH adjustment, indicating that sugarcane vinasse can be used to produce hydrogen without input costs. The simulation revealed that hydrogen production is a sensitive process that requires careful balancing of various operational parameters. The payback for the investment in system implementation is 4.4 years. - Highlights: • Sugarcane vinasse can be used to produce hydrogen without pH adjustment. • Excess substrate inhibition was observed when vinasse with pH adjusted was used. • A careful balancing of operational conditions is required to produce hydrogen. • The payback for the investment in system implementation is four years.

  8. Patterns of expression of cell wall related genes in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima D.U.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Our search for genes related to cell wall metabolism in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database (http://sucest.lbi.dcc.unicamp.br resulted in 3,283 reads (1% of the total reads which were grouped into 459 clusters (potential genes with an average of 7.1 reads per cluster. To more clearly display our correlation coefficients, we constructed surface maps which we used to investigate the relationship between cell wall genes and the sugarcane tissues libraries from which they came. The only significant correlations that we found between cell wall genes and/or their expression within particular libraries were neutral or synergetic. Genes related to cellulose biosynthesis were from the CesA family, and were found to be the most abundant cell wall related genes in the SUCEST database. We found that the highest number of CesA reads came from the root and stem libraries. The genes with the greatest number of reads were those involved in cell wall hydrolases (e.g. beta-1,3-glucanases, xyloglucan endo-beta-transglycosylase, beta-glucosidase and endo-beta-mannanase. Correlation analyses by surface mapping revealed that the expression of genes related to biosynthesis seems to be associated with the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses, pectin hydrolases being mainly associated with xyloglucan hydrolases. The patterns of cell wall related gene expression in sugarcane based on the number of reads per cluster reflected quite well the expected physiological characteristics of the tissues. This is the first work to provide a general view on plant cell wall metabolism through the expression of related genes in almost all the tissues of a plant at the same time. For example, developing flowers behaved similarly to both meristematic tissues and leaf-root transition zone tissues. Besides providing a basis for future research on the mechanisms of plant development which involve the cell wall, our findings will provide valuable tools for plant engineering in the

  9. EFFICIENCY OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA (PGPR IN SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Morgado González

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are an alternative for promoting sugarcane (Saccharum spp. development. Growth promotion was evaluated in sugarcane vitroplants inoculated separately with twenty-four strains of seven different bacterial species. Total indole synthesis and phosphate solubilization activity were determined in each strain. The experimental unit was one 5 L pot filled with a sterile mixture of farm soil-agrolite and one plant. The experimental design was completely random. Inoculation consisted of 1.0 mL of bacterial suspension (1 × 107 CFU. Plant height, stem diameter, number of shoots, leaf area and dry matter of shoot and root were determined every two weeks. The Ochrobactrum anthropi strains N208 and IMP311 and Pseudomonas luteola IMPCA244 had the highest production of total indoles (116.69, 115.70 and 117.34 µg mL-1, respectively. The Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains CA158 and 79 exhibited the highest values of phosphate solubilization (222.43 and 216.38 µg mL-1, respectively. In general, plant height increased 27.75%, stem diameter 30.75%, number of tillers 38.5%, leaf area 49%, aerial dry matter 59.75% and root dry matter 59.5%. P. luteola, P. f luorescens, O. anthropi and S. maltophilia exhibited the highest values of the leaf area index, net assimilation, and relative and absolute growth rates. P. luteola IMPCA244, O. anthropi IMP311, Aeromonas salmonicida N264, Burkholderia cepacia N172, P. f luorescens N50 and S. maltophilia 79 promoted the highest values in different response variables throughout the study. Before using these strains as sugarcane biofertilizer, additional studies are required.

  10. Dissecting genomic hotspots underlying seed protein, oil, and sucrose content in an interspecific mapping population of soybean using high-density linkage mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Vuong, Tri D; Kale, Sandip; Valliyodan, Babu; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Zhu, Chengsong; Wu, Xiaolei; Bai, Yonghe; Yungbluth, Dennis; Lu, Fang; Kumpatla, Siva; Grover Shannon, J; Varshney, Rajeev K; Nguyen, Henry T

    2018-04-04

    The cultivated [Glycine max (L) Merr.] and wild [Glycine soja Siebold & Zucc.] soybean species comprise wide variation in seed composition traits. Compared to wild soybean, cultivated soybean contains low protein, high oil and high sucrose. In this study, an inter-specific population was derived from a cross between G. max (Williams 82) and G. soja (PI 483460B). This recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 188 lines was sequenced at 0.3x depth. Based on 91,342 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), recombination events in RILs were defined, and a high-resolution bin map was developed (4,070 bins). In addition to bin mapping, QTL analysis for protein, oil and sucrose was performed using 3,343 polymorphic SNPs (3K-SNP), derived from Illumina Infinium BeadChip sequencing platform. The QTL regions from both platforms were compared and a significant concordance was observed between bin and 3K-SNP markers. Importantly, the bin map derived from next generation sequencing technology enhanced mapping resolution (from 1325 Kb to 50 Kb). A total of 5, 9 and 4 QTLs were identified for protein, oil and sucrose content, respectively and some of the QTLs coincided with soybean domestication related genomic loci. The major QTL for protein and oil was mapped on Chr. 20 (qPro_20) and suggested negative correlation between oil and protein. In terms of sucrose content, a novel and major QTL was identified on Chr. 8 (qSuc_08) and harbors putative genes involved in sugar transport. In addition, genome-wide association (GWAS) using 91,342 SNPs confirmed the genomic loci derived from QTL mapping. A QTL based haplotype using whole genome resequencing of 106 diverse soybean lines identified unique allelic variation in wild soybean that could be utilized to widen the genetic base in cultivated soybean. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation of membranes from cellulose obtained of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Paulo Henrique Fernandes; Cioffi, Maria Odila Hilario; Voorwald, Herman Jacobus Cornelis; Pinho, Maria Noberta de; Silva, Maria Lucia Caetano Pinto da

    2010-01-01

    In this work, cellulose obtained from sugarcane bagasse to produce both cellulose and acetylated cellulose to prepare asymmetric membranes. Membranes was procedure used a mixture of materials of DMAc/ LiCl systemic in different conditions. Cellulose and acetylated cellulose were characterized by thermogravimetric (TG), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Observed less stability thermal of acetylated cellulose when compared of cellulose. All membranes procedure were asymmetric, characterized by presence of a dense skin and porous support can be observed. SEM showed that the morphology of the superficial of membranes depends on the method preparation. (author)

  12. Characterization of sugarcane bagasse ash for use in ceramic bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: katiacpf@terra.com.br, E-mail: rfguenf2009@hotmail.com, E-mail: holanda@uenf.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LAMAV/GMCer/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work is to characterization of sugarcane bagasse ash waste aiming the use it in red ceramic industry. The characterization was done in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, morphology, and plasticity. The results show that the cane bagasse ash waste is a non plastic material, which contains high content of silica and minor amounts of Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and K oxides. Thus, the sugar cane bagasse ash waste presents high potential for application in the manufacture of ceramic products such as bricks, roofing tiles, and ceramic tiles. (author)

  13. Characterization of sugarcane bagasse ash for use in ceramic bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to characterization of sugarcane bagasse ash waste aiming the use it in red ceramic industry. The characterization was done in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, morphology, and plasticity. The results show that the cane bagasse ash waste is a non plastic material, which contains high content of silica and minor amounts of Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and K oxides. Thus, the sugar cane bagasse ash waste presents high potential for application in the manufacture of ceramic products such as bricks, roofing tiles, and ceramic tiles. (author)

  14. Enzyme loading dependence of cellulose hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated sugarcane bagasse, either delignified or non-delignified, was studied as a function of enzyme loading. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out using five enzyme loadings (2.5 to 20 FPU/g cellulose and the concentration of solids was 2% for both materials. Alkaline delignification improved cellulose hydrolysis by increasing surface area. For both materials, glucose concentrations increased with enzyme loading. On the other hand, enzyme loadings higher than 15 FPU/g did not result in any increase in the initial rate, since the excess of enzyme adsorbed onto the substrate restricted the diffusion process through the structure.

  15. Where is sugarcane cropping expanding in the brazilian cerrado, and why? A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURILO R. DE ARRUDA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sugarcane growing area in Brazil sharply expanded between 2000 and 2010 due to the increasing world demand for sugar and ethanol. Since this expansion of sugarcane is said to occur in areas covered by degraded pastures, it is likely not threatening the environment or food production. In order to verify this assumption, we investigate at farm and field levels which types of land use sugarcane cropping replaced between 2005 and 2010 and the reasons for farmers shifting or not shifting to sugarcane, as a case study in two counties in the state of Goiás. Within the studied period, sugarcane cropping expansion was related to large farms, lower risk perceived by farmers, and higher profitability compared with soybean and beef cattle-raising. For smallholders, particularly dairy farmers, the need to comply with the set-aside rules under Brazilian Forest Code (Código Florestal Brasileiro made a shift to sugarcane less attractive, as it would have forced them to reduce farm cultivable area, with loss of incomes. From 30,408 ha under sugarcane surveyed, 45.7% had used to be pastures, 31% had previously been pastures rotated with soybean and maize, and 23.3% had been cropped exclusively with soybean or maize.

  16. Pontine and Thalamic Influences on Fluid Rewards: I. Operant Responding for Sucrose and Corn Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Freet, Christopher S.; Grigson, Patricia S; Norgren, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The reward strength of orosensory sucrose and corn oil was measured using fixed and progressive ratio operant schedules. Because the orosensory effects of the stimuli were of interest, Experiment 1 compared operant responses for sucrose in sham and real feeding rats. The results demonstrated that rats would work for sucrose solutions without the accompanying postingestive effects. Furthermore, the break points for high concentrations of sucrose (1.0 M or 2.0 M) were significantly higher in sham feeding rats than in real feeding controls. Experiment 2 investigated the role of the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and of the thalamic orosensory area (TOA) in sucrose and corn oil reward. During free access, rats with PBN lesions (PBNx) licked significantly less sucrose solution than their controls, but both groups ingested a similar volume of corn oil emulsion. When an operant was imposed, these same PBNx rats failed to respond for sucrose and continued only modestly for corn oil. In contrast, the TOA lesioned rats (TOAx) showed no impairment in responding for sucrose or corn oil during either the free access or operant sessions. Furthermore, rats with TOA lesions demonstrated significantly higher break points for sucrose than did their controls. Together, the data imply that the PBN but not the TOA is critical for the perception of, or responding to the reward value of sucrose and corn oil. PMID:21703290

  17. Putative neuroprotective agents in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Seetal; Maes, Michael; Anderson, George; Dean, Olivia M; Moylan, Steven; Berk, Michael

    2013-04-05

    In many individuals with major neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, their disease characteristics are consistent with a neuroprogressive illness. This includes progressive structural brain changes, cognitive and functional decline, poorer treatment response and an increasing vulnerability to relapse with chronicity. The underlying molecular mechanisms of neuroprogression are thought to include neurotrophins and regulation of neurogenesis and apoptosis, neurotransmitters, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, cortisol and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and epigenetic influences. Knowledge of the involvement of each of these pathways implies that specific agents that act on some or multiple of these pathways may thus block this cascade and have neuroprotective properties. This paper reviews the potential of the most promising of these agents, including lithium and other known psychotropics, aspirin, minocycline, statins, N-acetylcysteine, leptin and melatonin. These agents are putative neuroprotective agents for schizophrenia and mood disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of Genetically Modified Sugarcane by Using Terahertz Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Xie, H.; Zha, B.; Ding, W.; Luo, J.; Hu, C.

    2018-03-01

    A methodology is proposed to identify genetically modified sugarcane from non-genetically modified sugarcane by using terahertz spectroscopy and chemometrics techniques, including linear discriminant analysis (LDA), support vector machine-discriminant analysis (SVM-DA), and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The classification rate of the above mentioned methods is compared, and different types of preprocessing are considered. According to the experimental results, the best option is PLS-DA, with an identification rate of 98%. The results indicated that THz spectroscopy and chemometrics techniques are a powerful tool to identify genetically modified and non-genetically modified sugarcane.

  19. Crystal structure of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Desiree; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Mirza, Osman

    2004-01-01

    phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BiSP) refined at 1.77 A resolution. It represents the first 3D structure of a sucrose phosphorylase and is the first structure of a phosphate-dependent enzyme from the glycoside hydrolase family 13. The structure of BiSP is composed of the four domains A, B, B...... binding and reduces the size of the substrate access channel compared to other family 13 members, underlining the role of this domain in modulating the function of these enzymes. It is remarkable that the fold of the C domain is not observed in any other known hydrolases of family 13. BiSP was found...

  20. Process integration and pinch analysis in sugarcane industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Adelk de Carvalho; Pinheiro, Ricardo Brant [UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: rbp@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2010-07-01

    Process integration techniques were applied, particularly through the Pinch Analysis method, to sugarcane industry. Research was performed upon harvest data from an agroindustrial complex which processes sugarcane plant in excess of 3.5 million metric tons per year, producing motor fuel grade ethanol, standard quality sugar, and delivering excess electric power to the grid. Pinch Analysis was used in assessing internal heat recovery as well as external utility demand targets, while keeping the lowest but economically achievable targets for entropy increase. Efficiency on the use of energy was evaluated for the plant as it was found (the base case) as well as for five selected process and/or plant design modifications, always with guidance of the method. The first alternative design (case 2) was proposed to evaluate equipment mean idle time in the base case, to support subsequent comparisons. Cases 3 and 4 were used to estimate the upper limits of combined heat and power generation while raw material supply of the base case is kept; both the cases did not prove worth implementing. Cases 5 and 6 were devised to deal with the bottleneck of the plant, namely boiler capacity, in order to allow for some production increment. Inexpensive, minor modifications considered in case 5 were found unable to produce reasonable outcome gain. Nevertheless, proper changes in cane juice evaporation section (case 6) could allow sugar and ethanol combined production to rise up to 9.1% relative to the base case, without dropping cogenerated power. (author)

  1. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  2. Assessment of genetic variability in somaclonal population of sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seema, N.; Raza, S.; Yasmeen, S.; Bibi, S.; Nizamani, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study plant tissue culture technique was used to create the genetic variability in three sugarcane clones NIA98, BL4 and AEC82-1026. Callus induced in these clones in media containing MS + 2, 4 D (2mg 1it-1) and Dicamba (1mg1it-1). The embryogenic calli then regenerated in media containing MS basal media + Kinetin (2mg1it-1) + IBA (2mg1it-1) + IAA (2mglit-1). After shooting and rooting, plants were exposed to green house and acclimatization of the somaclones in the field condition. RAPD markers were used to evaluate the genetic variation at DNA level between parents and somaclones of NIA98, BL4 and AEC82-1026 developed through callus culture. Fourteen RAPD primer chosen randomly were used to amplify DNA from plant material to assess the genetic variation between parents and regenerated somaclones. The highest similarity was obtained between BL4 parent and BL4 somaclone (96%). While minimum similarity found between NIA-98 parent and AEC82-1026 somaclone (69%). In this study, we used RAPD to investigate the somaclonal variation in sugarcane clones derived from callus cultures. (author)

  3. Sustainable management of varieties of sugarcane in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenaldo Delgado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of the appearence of atypical dry and rainy seaso ns periods in the last years, has put up with the establishment of a new conception for the evalu ation and management of sugarcane varieties, with a view to framing correctly the harvesting stage and its p ossible lengthening in certain places. Under those new premises 48 experiments in blocks totally at random were de signed and established in four contrasting regions of the country. The behavior of three representative va rieties of sugarcane of three different maturity periods (early, middle and late, harvested during the whole ye ar, with ages between 9 and 24 months, in the variable t cane/ha,% pol in cane and t pol/ha was studied. The results corroborated the approach of maturity of the studied genotypes, the counties of Camagüey and Matanzas re ached the highest values in the pol percentage in cane at the beginnig of the harvesting period, while Holguín achieves them in the period from April - July. The results of the Factorial Analysis, showed that the best results in the cultivars were reached in Camagüey, followed by Holguín with ages among 13 - 16, 17 - 20 and 21 - 2 4 months fundamentally in the periods (February - March, April - May, June - August and September - O ctober, the environmental effect was the one that bigger contributed to the total phenotypic variation

  4. Food consumption of sugarcane workers' families in the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Messias Muniz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the food intake of sugarcane workers' family members. METHODS: The food intake of 159 family members of sugarcane workers from Gameleira, Pernambuco, Brazilian Northeast, was investigated by directly weighing the foods on three non-consecutive days. The percent risk of inadequate macro- and micronutrient intakes was analyzed according to the Reference Dietary Intakes. The macronutrients were analyzed in relation to acceptable distribution intervals. The energy consumed from the various food groups was expressed as a ratio of the total energy intake. RESULTS: The median intake of carbohydrates and proteins remained above the Estimated Average Requirement, and all age groups presented a low risk of inadequate carbohydrate and protein intakes. The median intakes of riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, and iron remained above the Estimated Average Requirement for all age groups, but children aged 1-3 years presented a high percent risk of inadequate iron intake. All age groups presented high percent risk of inadequate zinc, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C intakes. Grains and derivatives had a greater participation in the total energy intake, especially in men aged 19-30 years. The group "milk and dairy products" had a greater participation in the diet of children aged 1-3 years. CONCLUSION: The low percent risk of inadequate carbohydrate and protein intakes in all age groups was opposed to the high risk of inadequate mineral and vitamin intakes, making the population vulnerable to nutritional disorders caused by excess macronutrient intake and inadequate micronutrient intake.

  5. Edafic fauna under different straw levels in sugarcane crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossiana Ribeiro Lino de Abreu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The organisms that constitute the soil fauna are highly relevant to the litter-soil compartments, because they act in important processes, such as fragmentation of the plant material, decomposition and nutrients cycling. This study aimed to evaluate the invertebrate fauna community in soil cultivated with sugarcane harvested without burning, considering the maintenance of different straw levels on the soil surface. Treatments consisted of different amounts of sugarcane straw: T0% (0 Mg ha-1; T25% (2.2 Mg ha-1; T50% (5.1 Mg ha-1; T75% (7.8 Mg ha-1; and T100% (12.0 Mg ha-1. Samples were collected in the dry season and late wet season, with "Pitfall" traps. The number of individuals per trap per day during the dry period ranged from 11.1 (T0% to 14.7 (T25% and, in the rainy season, from 15.11 (T0% to 33.15 (T75%. The highest Shannon values were observed during the rainy season, and the lowest values for diversity and equitability resulted in a higher incidence of Araneae and Formicidae groups. The amount of straw on soil showed no significant influence on ecological indices and total and average wealth. The harvest time affected the number of individuals, species wealth and Shannon and Pielou's indices. The maintenance of straw on the soil surface benefitted the soil fauna, concerning the conventional crop management.

  6. Microwave-induced torrefaction of rice husk and sugarcane residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.J.; Huang, Y.F.; Chiueh, P.T.; Kuan, W.H.; Lo, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized microwave irradiation to induce torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) of rice husk and sugarcane residues by varying different parameters, including microwave power level, processing time, water content, and particle size of biomass. Proper microwave power levels are suggested to be set between 250 and 300 W for the torrefaction of these two agricultural residues. With proper processing time, the caloric value can increase 26% for rice husk and 57% for sugarcane residue. Compared to dry rice husk, both maximum reaction temperature and mass reduction ratio increased with higher water content (not over 10%). Moreover, the particle size of biomass needs not to be very small. The mass reduction ratios were 65 wt.%, 69 wt.%, and 72 wt.%, when the sizes were 50/100 mesh, 100/200 mesh, and >200 mesh, respectively. Microwave-induced torrefaction reduces more oxygen/carbon ratio of biomass in comparison with traditional torrefaction. Microwave-induced torrefaction is considered as an efficient and promising technology with great potential. -- Highlights: ► Microwave-induced torrefaction is promising compared to conventional methods. ► Neither high microwave power nor small particle size is needed. ► High energy yield can be met under mild microwave power. ► Caloric value can increase up to about 60%.

  7. Estimations of Nitrogen Concentration in Sugarcane Using Hyperspectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonsak Miphokasap

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to estimate the spatial variation of sugarcane Canopy Nitrogen Concentration (CNC using spectral data, which were measured from a spaceborne hyperspectral image. Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR and Support Vector Regression (SVR were applied to calibrate and validate the CNC estimation models. The raw spectral reflectance was transformed into a First-Derivative Spectrum (FDS and absorption features to remove the spectral noise and finally used as input variables. The results indicate that the estimation models developed by non-linear SVR based Radial Basis Function (RBF kernel yield the higher correlation coefficient with CNC compared with the models computed by SMLR. The best model shows the coefficient of determination value of 0.78 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE value of 0.035% nitrogen. The narrow sensitive spectral wavelengths for quantifying nitrogen content in the combined cultivar environments existed mainly in the electromagnetic spectrum of the visible-red, longer portion of red edge, shortwave infrared regions and far-near infrared. The most important conclusion from this experiment is that spectral signals from the space hyperspectral data contain the meaningful information for quantifying sugarcane CNC across larger geographic areas. The nutrient deficient areas could be corrected by applying suitable farm management.

  8. Experimental study of the process of cutting of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzolaa, Nelson; Garcia, Joyner

    2015-01-01

    Biomass densification has encouraged significant interest around the world as a technique for utilization of agro and forest residues as an energy source, and pellets/briquettes production has grown rapidly in last few years. The cutting process is one of the most important steps for biomass preparation prior densification. This stage helps to homogenize the raw material and therefore facilitate handling, feeding and filling in the briquetting equipment. The aim of this work was to study the behavior of sugarcane bagasse submitted to cutting, as a function of its moisture content, angle of the blade edge and cutting speed. The specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were measure using an experimental facility developed for this series of experiments. An analysis of the results of the full factorial experimental design using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. The response surfaces and empirical models for the specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were obtained using statistical analysis system software. Low angle of the blade edge and low moisture content are, in this order, the most important experimental factors in determining a low specific cutting energy and a low peak cutting force respectively. The best cutting conditions are achieved for an angle of blade edge of 20.8° and a moisture content of 10% w. b. The results of this work could contribute to the optimal design of sugarcane bagasse pre-treatment systems. (full text)

  9. Identification, classification and expression pattern analysis of sugarcane cysteine proteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Coelho Correa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteases are peptidyl hydrolyses dependent on a cysteine residue at the active center. The physical and chemical properties of cysteine proteases have been extensively characterized, but their precise biological functions have not yet been completely understood, although it is known that they are involved in a number of events such as protein turnover, cancer, germination, programmed cell death and senescence. Protein sequences from different cysteine proteinases, classified as members of the E.C.3.4.22 sub-sub-class, were used to perform a T-BLAST-n search on the Brazilian Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tags project (SUCEST data bank. Sequence homology was found with 76 cluster sequences that corresponded to possible cysteine proteinases. The alignments of these SUCEST clusters with the sequence of cysteine proteinases of known origins provided important information about the classification and possible function of these sugarcane enzymes. Inferences about the expression pattern of each gene were made by direct correlation with the SUCEST cDNA libraries from which each cluster was derived. Since no previous reports of sugarcane cysteine proteinases genes exists, this study represents a first step in the study of new biochemical, physiological and biotechnological aspects of sugarcane cysteine proteases.Proteinases cisteínicas são peptidil-hidrolases dependentes de um resíduo de cisteína em seu sítio ativo. As propriedades físico-químicas destas proteinases têm sido amplamente caracterizadas, entretanto suas funções biológicas ainda não foram completamente elucidadas. Elas estão envolvidas em um grande número de eventos, tais como: processamento e degradação protéica, câncer, germinação, morte celular programada e processos de senescência. Diferentes proteinases cisteínicas, classificadas pelo Comitê de Nomenclatura da União Internacional de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular (IUBMB como pertencentes à sub

  10. Mechanisms of Sucrose and Non-Nutritive Sucking in Procedural Pain Management in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn Gibbins

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The administration of sucrose with and without non-nutritive sucking (NNS has been examined for relieving procedural pain in newborn infants. The calming and pain-relieving effects of sucrose are thought to be mediated by endogenous opioid pathways activated by sweet taste. The orogustatory effects of sucrose have been demonstrated in animal newborns, and in preterm and full term human infants during painful procedures. In contrast to sucrose, the analgesic effects of NNS are hypothesized to be activated through nonopioid pathways by stimulation of orotactile and mechanoreceptor mechanisms. Although there is uncertainty as to whether the effects of sucrose and NNS are synergistic or additive, there is sufficient evidence to support the efficacy of combining the two interventions for procedural pain relief in infants. In this review article, the underlying mechanisms of sucrose and NNS, separately and in combination for relieving procedural pain in preterm and full term infants, are examined. Clinical and research implications are addressed.

  11. A sucrose-rich diet induces mutations in the rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L.O.; Daneshvar, B.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    A sucrose-rich diet has repeatedly been observed to have cocarcinogenic actions in the colon and liver of rats and to increase the number of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. To investigate whether sucrose-rich diets might directly increase the genotoxic response in the rat colon or liver, we have...... or in blood plasma. We conclude that a sucrose-rich diet directly or indirectly increases the mutation frequency in rat colon in a dose-dependent manner and concomitantly decreases the level of background DNA adducts, without a direct effect on the expression of major DNA repair enzyme systems. We also...... conclude that an oxidative mechanism for this effect of sucrose is unlikely. This is the first demonstration of a genotoxic action of increased dietary sucrose in vivo. Both sucrose intake and colon cancer rates are high in the Western world, and our present results call for an examination of a possible...

  12. Study on the preparation and characterization of sucrose-LDPE sheet for radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Yup Kim; Hwang, In Ra; Kyung, Young Lee

    2008-01-01

    To improve the dosimetry performance of sucrose, we investigated the possibility of a radiation detector with the sucrose/polymer composite. For this purpose we manufactured the sucrose/polyethylene composite for dosimetry system and investigated the suitable manufacture conditions of that. The possibility of sample for dosimetry system was measured by EPR and chemiluminescence. The sample had a possibility of dosimetry system from the experimental results. (author)

  13. Varietal performance of potato on induction and development of microtuber in response to sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sadek Hossain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue culture techniques are the most momentous and extensively method to produce disease-free quality plantlets and microtubers in potato. In spite of this, there has been a lack of research information into in vitro microtuberization for seed tuber production program in Bangladesh. In this experiment, we assessed the appropriateness of different concentrations of sucrose with especial accent on their effects for induction and development of microtuber in potato varieties. In vitro plantlets of three potato varieties; Asterix, Granola, and Diamant were treated with eight level of sucrose as 0, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14% for 70 days of incubation producing microtuber. Asterix induces microtuber after 10.69 days, it was statistically shorter duration than other two varieties. Tuberization did not occur without sucrose and were required a minimum (8.92 days with 8% sucrose, while it delayed with either increasing or decreasing rate of sucrose concentration. A single number of microtuber was not formed in absence of sucrose after 28 days of incubation. Microtuber plantlet−1 was the highest more or less in all varieties at harvest with 8% sucrose concentration. Hundred percent of microtuber below 250 mg induced in 3% sucrose concentration and from then the microtuber grade induction decreased with the increase of sucrose concentration. >500 mg grade microtuber produced by Granola (47.95% with 10% sucrose while Diamant produced 50.15% above 500 mg grade microtuber with 14% sucrose. It is also noticeable by Astrerix variety where >500 mg microtuber were produced about 46.95% with 8% sucrose.

  14. Dimerization effect of sucrose octasulfate on rat FGF1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulahin, N.; Kiselyov, V.; Kochoyan, A.; Kristensen, O.; Kastrup, Jette S.; Berezin, V.; Bock, E.; Gajhede, M.

    2008-01-01

    The work describes the sucrose octasulfate-mediated dimerization of rat FGF1 by gel-filtration experiments and crystal structure determination. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a family of at least 23 structurally related heparin-binding proteins that are involved in regulation of cell growth, survival, differentiation and migration. Sucrose octasulfate (SOS), a chemical analogue of heparin, has been demonstrated to activate FGF signalling pathways. The structure of rat FGF1 crystallized in the presence of SOS has been determined at 2.2 Å resolution. SOS-mediated dimerization of FGF1 was observed, which was further supported by gel-filtration experiments. The major contributors to the sulfate-binding sites in rat FGF1 are Lys113, Lys118, Arg122 and Lys128. An arginine at position 116 is a consensus residue in mammalian FGF molecules; however, it is a serine in rat FGF1. This difference may be important for SOS-mediated FGF1 dimerization in rat

  15. Analysis of Hydraulic Flood Control Structure at Putat Boro River

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzziyatno, Ruhban

    2015-01-01

    Putat Boro River is one of the main drainage systems of Surakarta city which drains into Bengawan Solo river. The primary problem when flood occur is the higher water level of Bengawan Solo than Boro River and then backwater occur and inundates Putat Boro River. The objective of the study is to obtain operational method of Putat Boro River floodgate to control both inflows and outflows not only during flood but also normal condition. It also aims to know the Putat Boro rivers floodgate op...

  16. Biosynthesis of sucrose and mannitol as a function of leaf age in celery (Apium graveolens L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.M.; Fellman, J.K.; Loescher, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    In celery (Apium graveolens L.), the two major translocated carbohydrates are sucrose and the acyclic polyol mannitol. Their metabolism, however, is different and their specific functions are uncertain. To compare their roles in carbon partitioning and sink-source transitions, developmental changes in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling, pool sizes, and key enzyme activities in leaf tissues were examined. The proportion of label in mannitol increased dramatically with leaf maturation whereas that in sucrose remained fairly constant. Mannitol content, however, was high in all leaves and sucrose content increased as leaves developed. Activities of mannose-6-P reductase, cytoplasmic and chloroplastic fructose-1,6-bis-phosphatases, sucrose phosphate synthase, and sucrose synthase increased with leaf maturation and decreased as leaves senesced. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and nonreversible glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase activities rose as leaves developed but did not decrease. Thus, sucrose is produced in all photosynthetically active leaves whereas mannitol is synthesized primarily in mature leaves and stored in all leaves. Onset of sucrose export in celery may result from sucrose accumulation in expanding leaves, but mannitol export is clearly unrelated to mannitol concentration. Mannitol export, however, appears to coincide with increased mannitol biosynthesis. Although mannitol and sucrose arise from a common precursor in celery, subsequent metabolism and transport must be regulated separately.

  17. Body weight manipulation, reinforcement value and choice between sucrose and wheel running: a behavioral economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2009-02-01

    Twelve female Long-Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable (VR) ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement (Sucrose VR 10 Wheel VR 10; Sucrose VR 5 Wheel VR 20; Sucrose VR 20 Wheel VR 5) with predetermined budgets (number of responses). The allocation of lever pressing to the sucrose and wheel-running alternatives was assessed at high and low body weights. Results showed that wheel-running rate and lever-pressing rates for sucrose and wheel running increased, but the choice of wheel running decreased at the low body weight. A regression analysis of relative consumption as a function of relative price showed that consumption shifted toward sucrose and interacted with price differences in a manner consistent with increased substitutability. Demand curves showed that demand for sucrose became less elastic while demand for wheel running became more elastic at the low body weight. These findings reflect an increase in the difference in relative value of sucrose and wheel running as body weight decreased. Discussion focuses on the limitations of response rates as measures of reinforcement value. In addition, we address the commonalities between matching and demand curve equations for the analysis of changes in relative reinforcement value.

  18. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO) further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e., pleasure) evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation. PMID:25147536

  19. [14C]sucrose uptake and labeling of starch in developing grains of normal segl barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, F.C.; Peterson, D.M.; Nelson, O.E.

    1984-01-01

    Previous work showed that the segl mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare o Betzes) did not differ from normal Betzes in plant growth, photosynthesis, or fertility, but it produced only shrunken seeds regardless of pollen source. To determine whether defects in sucrose uptake or starch synthesis resulted in the shrunken condition, developing grains of Betzes and segl were cultured in [ 14 C]sucrose solutions after slicing transversely to expose the endosperm cavity and free space. In both young grains (before genotypes differed in dry weight) and older grains (17 days after anthesis, when segl grains were smaller than Betzes), sucrose uptake and starch synthesis were similar in both genotypes on a dry weight basis. To determine if sucrose was hydrolyzed during uptake, spikes of Betzes and segl were allowed to take up [fructose-U- 14 C]sucrose 14 days after anthesis and the radioactivity of endosperm sugars was examined during 3 hours of incubation. Whereas less total radioactivity entered the endosperm and the endosperm cavity (free space) of segl, in both genotypes over 96% of the label of endosperm sugars was in sucrose, and there was no apparent initial or progressive randomization of label among hexose moieties of sucrose as compared to the free space sampled after 1 hour of incubation. The authors conclude that segl endosperms are capable of normal sucrose uptake and starch synthesis and that hydrolysis of sucrose is not required for uptake in either genotype. Evidence suggests abnormal development of grain tissue of maternal origin during growth of segl grains

  20. Sucrose delays senescence and preserves functional compounds in Asparagus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Me-Hea

    2016-11-11

    The high metabolic rate of harvested asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.) causes rapid deterioration. To extend shelf life, we investigated the effect of sucrose treatment on asparagus during storage. Asparagus spears were treated with 3%, 5%, and 10% sucrose and stored at 2 °C for 20 h. Cellular respiration decreased, but other processes were unaltered by exogenous sucrose. The overall appearance of asparagus treated with 3% sucrose and stored at 2 °C for 18 days was rated as good and excellent, unlike that of untreated spears. Asparagus treated with sucrose maintained firmness for 15 days, while untreated spears lost firmness and showed increased water-soluble pectin content during storage. Carbohydrate levels were also higher in sucrose-treated than in control samples. Transcript levels of cell-wall-related genes, including xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET)1, XET2, and peroxidase (prx)1, prx2, and prx3 were upregulated by sucrose. Cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside and rutin levels immediately increased upon addition of sucrose and remained high relative to the control during storage. Thus, sucrose modulates asparagus cell wall components and maintains the functionality of important compounds during storage, thus effectively prolonging shelf life. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fermentation of undetoxified sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzates using a two stage hydrothermal and mechanical refining pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economical and environmentally friendly pretreatment technologies are required for commercial conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to fermentable sugars for fermentation to biofuels. In this paper, a novel pretreatment technology was developed for conversion of sugarcane bagasse into ethanol usi...

  2. River water quality in the northern sugarcane-producing regions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-16

    Feb 16, 2011 ... Sugarcane production in South Africa occurs exclusively in the eastern regions of ... transboundary rivers, making their management internation- ...... KOEGELENBERG FH (2004) Irrigation User's Manual – Chapter 5: Water.

  3. Reducing dissolved inorganic nitrogen in surface runoff water from sugarcane production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A J; Bartley, R; Armour, J D; Brodie, J E; Thorburn, P J

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) lost from farms, especially as the highly bioavailable dissolved inorganic form, may be damaging Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR). As sugarcane is the dominant cropping system in GBR catchments, its N management practises are coming under increasing scrutiny. This study measured dissolved inorganic N lost in surface runoff water and sugarcane productivity over 3 years. The experiment compared the conventional fertiliser N application rate to sugarcane (average 180kg N/ha/year) and a rate based on replacing N exported in the previous crop (average 94kg N/ha/year). Dissolved inorganic N losses in surface water were 72%, 48% and 66% lower in the three monitored years in the reduced N fertiliser treatment. There was no significant difference in sugarcane yield between the two fertiliser N treatments, nor any treatment difference in soil mineral N - both of these results are indicators of the sustainability of the lower fertiliser N applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of Sugarcane Germplasm ( Saccharum spp. complex Against Red Rot Pathogen Colletotrichum Falcatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum Went is the most important disease of sugarcane in India inflicting substantial loss to both cane industry and cane growers. To keep in view the importance of red rot disease of sugarcane, 117 accession of sugarcane germplasm including different Saccharum species and Indian and foreign commercial hybrids were tested against red rot with Cf 07, Cf 08 & Cf 09 (national pathotypes by plug method of inoculation. Out of 117, 6 were found resistant and 12 were moderately resistant against red rot and rest were moderately susceptible/susceptible/highly susceptible. Theses resistance and moderately resistant accession can be further utilize to produce resistance varieties against the most devastating pathogen of sugarcane.

  5. AMMI analysis to evaluate the adaptability and phenotypic stability of sugarcane genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio Inácio da Silveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. is one of the most important crops in Brazil. The high demand for sugarcane-derived products has stimulated the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in recent years, exploring different environments. The adaptability and the phenotypic stability of sugarcane genotypes in the Minas Gerais state, Brazil, were evaluated based on the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI method. We evaluated 15 genotypes (13 clones and two checks: RB867515 and RB72454 in nine environments. The average of two cuttings for the variable tons of pol per hectare (TPH measure was used to discriminate genotypes. Besides the check RB867515 (20.44 t ha-1, the genotype RB987935 showed a high average TPH (20.71 t ha-1, general adaptability and phenotypic stability, and should be suitable for cultivation in the target region. The AMMI method allowed for easy visual identification of superior genotypes for each set of environments.

  6. Multivariate genetic divergence among sugarcane clones by multivariate analysis associated with mixed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Rosa Lopes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work had the aim to evaluate the genetic divergence in sugarcane clones using the methodology of graphic dispersion by principal components analysis associated to linear mixed models, indentifying the more divergent and productive genotypes with more precision, for a subsequent combination. 138 sugarcane clones of the RB97 series of the Sugarcane Breeding Program of the Universidade Federal do Parana, more two standard cultivars were evaluated in three environments, with two replications. The two first components explained 96% of the total variation, sufficiently for explaining the divergence found. The variable that contributed the most to de divergence was kilogram of brix per plot (BKP followed by brix, mass of 10 stalks and number of stalks per plot. The more divergent sugarcane clones were RB975008, RB975112, RB975019, RB975153 and RB975067 and the more productive clones were RB975269, RB977533, RB975102, RB975317 and RB975038.

  7. Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changes under sugarcane expansion in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, André L.C., E-mail: andrefranco@usp.br [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Cherubin, Maurício R. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Pavinato, Paulo S.; Cerri, Carlos E.P. [Department of Soil Science, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Pádua Dias 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Six, Johan [Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Tannenstrasse 1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Davies, Christian A. [Shell Technology Centre Houston, 3333 Highway 6 South, Houston, TX 77082 (United States); Cerri, Carlos C. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    Historical data of land use change (LUC) indicated that the sugarcane expansion has mainly displaced pasture areas in Central–Southern Brazil, globally the largest producer, and that those pastures were prior established over native forests in the Cerrado biome. We sampled 3 chronosequences of land use comprising native vegetation (NV), pasture (PA), and sugarcane crop (SC) in the sugarcane expansion region to assess the effects of LUC on soil carbon, nitrogen, and labile phosphorus pools. Thirty years after conversion of NV to PA, we found significant losses of original soil organic matter (SOM) from NV, while insufficient new organic matter was introduced from tropical grasses into soil to offset the losses, reflecting in a net C emission of 0.4 Mg ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1}. These findings added to decreases in {sup 15}N signal indicated that labile portions of SOM are preserved under PA. Afterwards, in the firsts five years after LUC from PA to SC, sparse variations were found in SOM levels. After more than 20 years of sugarcane crop, however, there were losses of 40 and 35% of C and N stocks, respectively, resulting in a rate of C emission of 1.3 Mg ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1} totally caused by the respiration of SOM from C4-cycle plants. In addition, conversion of pastures to sugarcane mostly increased {sup 15}N signal, indicating an accumulation of more recalcitrant SOM under sugarcane. The microbe- and plant-available P showed site-specific responses to LUC as a function of different P-input managements, with the biological pool mostly accounting for more than 50% of the labile P in both anthropic land uses. With the projections of 6.4 Mha of land required by 2021 for sugarcane expansion in Brazil to achieve ethanol's demand, this explanatory approach to the responses of SOM to LUC will contribute for an accurate assessment of the CO{sub 2} balance of sugarcane ethanol. - Highlights: • An explanatory approach to the responses of soil C, N and P to

  8. Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changes under sugarcane expansion in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, André L.C.; Cherubin, Maurício R.; Pavinato, Paulo S.; Cerri, Carlos E.P.; Six, Johan; Davies, Christian A.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2015-01-01

    Historical data of land use change (LUC) indicated that the sugarcane expansion has mainly displaced pasture areas in Central–Southern Brazil, globally the largest producer, and that those pastures were prior established over native forests in the Cerrado biome. We sampled 3 chronosequences of land use comprising native vegetation (NV), pasture (PA), and sugarcane crop (SC) in the sugarcane expansion region to assess the effects of LUC on soil carbon, nitrogen, and labile phosphorus pools. Thirty years after conversion of NV to PA, we found significant losses of original soil organic matter (SOM) from NV, while insufficient new organic matter was introduced from tropical grasses into soil to offset the losses, reflecting in a net C emission of 0.4 Mg ha −1 yr −1 . These findings added to decreases in 15 N signal indicated that labile portions of SOM are preserved under PA. Afterwards, in the firsts five years after LUC from PA to SC, sparse variations were found in SOM levels. After more than 20 years of sugarcane crop, however, there were losses of 40 and 35% of C and N stocks, respectively, resulting in a rate of C emission of 1.3 Mg ha −1 yr −1 totally caused by the respiration of SOM from C4-cycle plants. In addition, conversion of pastures to sugarcane mostly increased 15 N signal, indicating an accumulation of more recalcitrant SOM under sugarcane. The microbe- and plant-available P showed site-specific responses to LUC as a function of different P-input managements, with the biological pool mostly accounting for more than 50% of the labile P in both anthropic land uses. With the projections of 6.4 Mha of land required by 2021 for sugarcane expansion in Brazil to achieve ethanol's demand, this explanatory approach to the responses of SOM to LUC will contribute for an accurate assessment of the CO 2 balance of sugarcane ethanol. - Highlights: • An explanatory approach to the responses of soil C, N and P to sugarcane expansion is provided.

  9. Putative bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa in immunosuppressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilimcioglu, Ali Ahmet; Havlucu, Yavuz; Girginkardesler, Nogay; Celik, Pınar; Yereli, Kor; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Flagellated protozoa that cause bronchopulmonary symptoms in humans are commonly neglected. These protozoal forms which were presumed to be "flagellated protozoa" have been previously identified in immunosuppressed patients in a number of studies, but have not been certainly classified so far. Since no human cases of bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa were reported from Turkey, we aimed to investigate these putative protozoa in immunosuppressed patients who are particularly at risk of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of 110 immunosuppressed adult patients who were admitted to the Department of Chest Diseases, Hafsa Sultan Hospital of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were examined in terms of parasites by light microscopy. Flagellated protozoal forms were detected in nine (8.2%) of 110 cases. Metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d. for 30 days) was given to all positive cases and a second bronchoscopy was performed at the end of the treatment, which revealed no parasites. In conclusion, immunosuppressed patients with bronchopulmonary symptoms should attentively be examined with regard to flagellated protozoa which can easily be misidentified as epithelial cells.

  10. Toddlers’ Duration of Attention towards Putative Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2010-01-01

    Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk for developing anxious behavior, toddlers’ attention towards a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined how attention towards an angry-looking gorilla mask in a room with alternative opportunities for play in 24-month-old toddlers predicted social inhibition when children entered kindergarten. Analyses examined attention to threat above and beyond and in interaction with both proximity to the mask and fear of novelty observed in other situations. Attention to threat interacted with proximity to the mask to predict social inhibition, such that attention to threat most strongly predicted social inhibition when toddlers stayed furthest from the mask. This relation occurred above and beyond the predictive relation between fear of novelty and social inhibition. Results are discussed within the broader literature of anxiety development and attentional processes in young children. PMID:21373365

  11. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcarde, A.R.; Walder, J.M.M.; Horii, J.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased

  12. Utilisation of sugarcane trash and other cellulosic wastes for production of oxalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, J D; Modak, H M; Ramaiah, N A; Jadhav, S J

    1988-01-01

    The nitric acid oxidation process was developed for the production of oxalic acid from sugarcane trash, groundnut shells, corn cobs and rice husks. Good yields of oxalic acid from the above raw materials were obtained under optimum conditions, with sugarcane trash as the preferable raw material. The absorption of waste nitrogen oxide gases in aqueous NaOH to get a valuable by-product, sodium nitrite, was also successful.

  13. A New Proposal Of Cellulosic Ethanol To Boost Sugarcane Biorefineries: Techno-economic Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Albarelli J.Q.; Ensinas A.V.; Silva M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial simulator Aspen Plus was used to simulate a biorefinery producing ethanol from sugarcane juice and second generation ethanol production using bagasse fine fraction composed of parenchyma cells (P-fraction). Liquid hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies were evaluated. The processes were thermal and water integrated and compared to a biorefinery producing ethanol from juice and sugarcane bagasse. The results indicated that after thermal and water integration, the ev...

  14. Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changes under sugarcane expansion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, André L C; Cherubin, Maurício R; Pavinato, Paulo S; Cerri, Carlos E P; Six, Johan; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2015-05-15

    Historical data of land use change (LUC) indicated that the sugarcane expansion has mainly displaced pasture areas in Central-Southern Brazil, globally the largest producer, and that those pastures were prior established over native forests in the Cerrado biome. We sampled 3 chronosequences of land use comprising native vegetation (NV), pasture (PA), and sugarcane crop (SC) in the sugarcane expansion region to assess the effects of LUC on soil carbon, nitrogen, and labile phosphorus pools. Thirty years after conversion of NV to PA, we found significant losses of original soil organic matter (SOM) from NV, while insufficient new organic matter was introduced from tropical grasses into soil to offset the losses, reflecting in a net C emission of 0.4 Mg ha(-1)yr(-1). These findings added to decreases in (15)N signal indicated that labile portions of SOM are preserved under PA. Afterwards, in the firsts five years after LUC from PA to SC, sparse variations were found in SOM levels. After more than 20 years of sugarcane crop, however, there were losses of 40 and 35% of C and N stocks, respectively, resulting in a rate of C emission of 1.3 Mg ha(-1)yr(-1) totally caused by the respiration of SOM from C4-cycle plants. In addition, conversion of pastures to sugarcane mostly increased (15)N signal, indicating an accumulation of more recalcitrant SOM under sugarcane. The microbe- and plant-available P showed site-specific responses to LUC as a function of different P-input managements, with the biological pool mostly accounting for more than 50% of the labile P in both anthropic land uses. With the projections of 6.4 Mha of land required by 2021 for sugarcane expansion in Brazil to achieve ethanol's demand, this explanatory approach to the responses of SOM to LUC will contribute for an accurate assessment of the CO₂ balance of sugarcane ethanol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. GENETIC VARIABILITY OF SUGARCANE-ASSOCIATED DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA CAPABLE OF INORGANIC PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING

    OpenAIRE

    Lira-Cadete, Luana; Barbosa de Farias, Andreza Raquel; de Souza Ramos, Andresa Priscila; da Costa, Diogo Paes; Freire, Fernando Jose; Kuklinsky-Sobral, Julia

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane is a culture of great importance for the Brazilian agriculture. Every year this culture consumes great amounts of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers. However, the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria can reduce the use of the chemical fertilizers, contributing to the economy and the environment conservation. So, the goal of this study was to select sugarcane-associated diazotrophic bacteria able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and to evaluate the genetic diversity of these b...

  16. Ametryn Leaching in Soils from the Sugarcane Region in Northeastern Brazilian

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, K.S.; FREITAS, F.C.L.; BRAGA, D.F.; DOMBROSKI, J.L.D.; SANTOS, A.F.B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ametryn is one of the most widely used herbicides in the sugarcane culture. Little is known about the interactions between this herbicide and the attributes of soils in the sugarcane region of northeastern Brazil. This knowledge, before recommending herbicide, will minimize the negative effects on the environment, particularly on water resources, and will ensure weed control efficacy. In this work, ametryn leaching potential was estimated through bioassays and chromatography, in five...

  17. Contribution of Root Respiration to Soil Respiration in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wilaiwan Sornpoon; Sebastien Bonnet; Poonpipope Kasemsap; Savitri Garivait

    2013-01-01

    The understanding on the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration is still very limited, especially for sugarcane. In this study, trenching experiments in sugarcane plantations were conducted to separate and investigate soil respiration for this crop. The measurements were performed for the whole growing period of 344 days to quantify root respiration. The obtained monitoring data showed that the respiration rate is increasing with the age of the plant, accounting for up to ...

  18. Epicoccum nigrum P16, a Sugarcane Endophyte, Produces Antifungal Compounds and Induces Root Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávaro, Léia Cecilia de Lima; Sebastianes, Fernanda Luiza de Souza; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is one of the most important crops in Brazil, mainly because of its use in biofuel production. Recent studies have sought to determine the role of sugarcane endophytic microbial diversity in microorganism-plant interactions, and their biotechnological potential. Epicoccum nigrum is an important sugarcane endophytic fungus that has been associated with the biological control of phytopathogens, and the production of secondary metabolites. In spite of several studies carried out to define the better conditions to use E. nigrum in different crops, little is known about the establishment of an endophytic interaction, and its potential effects on plant physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings We report an approach based on inoculation followed by re-isolation, molecular monitoring, microscopic analysis, plant growth responses to fungal colonization, and antimicrobial activity tests to study the basic aspects of the E. nigrum endophytic interaction with sugarcane, and the effects of colonization on plant physiology. The results indicate that E. nigrum was capable of increasing the root system biomass and producing compounds that inhibit the in vitro growth of sugarcane pathogens Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum falcatum, Ceratocystis paradoxa, and Xanthomomas albilineans. In addition, E. nigrum preferentially colonizes the sugarcane surface and, occasionally, the endophytic environment. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that E. nigrum has great potential for sugarcane crop application because it is capable of increasing the root system biomass and controlling pathogens. The study of the basic aspects of the interaction of E. nigrum with sugarcane demonstrated the facultative endophytism of E. nigrum and its preference for the phylloplane environment, which should be considered in future studies of biocontrol using this species. In addition, this work contributes to the knowledge of the interaction of this ubiquitous endophyte

  19. Evaluation of sugarcane introgression lines for resistance to brown rust disease caused by Puccinia melanocephala

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Wen-Feng, Li; Ying-Kun, Huang; Xin, Lu; Zhi-Ming, Luo; Jiong, Yin; Hong-Li, Shan; Rong-Yue, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane brown rust disease caused by Puccinia melanocephala is one of the important fungal diseases affecting sugarcane yield around the world. Cultivar resistance is the most appropriate control method for this disease. In this study, 62 introgression lines chosen from the crossing Saccharum officinarum L. cv. Ludashi x Erianthus rockii Yunnan 95-19 were evaluated for brown rust resistance using artificial inoculation. More than 30% of the introgression lines were identified as resistant. ...

  20. Mites associated with sugarcane crop and with native trees from adjacent Atlantic forest fragment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Mércia E; Navia, Denise; dos Santos, Lucas R; Rideiqui, Pedro J S; Silva, Edmilson S

    2015-08-01

    In some Brazilian regions the Atlantic forest biome is currently restrict to fragments occurring amid monocultures, as sugarcane crops in the Northeast region. Important influence of forest remnants over mite fauna of permanent crops have been showed, however it has been poorly explored on annual crops. The first step for understanding ecological relationship in an agricultural systems is known its composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the plant-inhabiting mite fauna associated with sugarcane crop (Saccharum officinarum L.) (Poaceae) and caboatã (Cupania oblongifolia Mart.) (Sapindaceae) trees in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Sugarcane stalks and sugarcane and caboatã apical, middle and basal leaves were sampled. A total of 2565 mites were collected from sugarcane and classified into seven families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders, with most individuals belonging to the Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae and Tarsonemidae families. Among predatory mites, the Phytoseiidae were the most common. A total of 1878 mites were found on C. oblongifolia and classified into 13 families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders. The most abundant phytophagous mite family on caboatã was also Eriophyidae. In contrast to sugarcane, Ascidae was the most common predatory mite family observed in caboatã. No phytophagous species were common to both sugarcane and C. oblongifolia. However two predatory mites were shared between host plants. Although mites associated with only one native species in the forest fragment were evaluated in this study, our preliminary results suggest Atlantic forest native vegetation can present an important role in the sugarcane agricultural system as a source of natural enemies.

  1. Influence of the catalyzer in the esterification of the sugarcane bagasse fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Tatiana F.; Mulinari, Daniella R.; Suzuki, Paulo A.

    2011-01-01

    In this work chemical modification of the sugarcane bagasse fibers by anhydride system using amount Abstract: In this work chemical modification of the sugarcane bagasse fibers by anhydride system using amount different of catalyze was studied. The chemical modification of the fibers was evaluated by techniques of X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR). Results showed that the amount of catalyze influenced in the chemical modification of the fibers. (author)

  2. Cellulose acetate nanocomposite with nanocellulose obtained from bagasse of sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Frirllei Cardozo dos

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for the extraction of nanocellulose of sugarcane bagasse for use in nanocomposites with cellulose acetate (CA). The bagasse sugarcane was treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) to remove lignin, hemicellulose, pectin and impurities. For removal of the amorphous region of cellulose microfibrils obtained from alkali treatments were submitted to acid hydrolysis with sulfuric acid under different temperature conditions. The nanocellulose obtained through acid hydrolysis heated at 45 ° C was used for the formulation of nanocomposites by smaller dimensions presented. The films were formulated at different concentrations (1, 2, 4 and 6 wt%) by the casting technique at room temperature. Each alkaline treatment was accompanied by spectrophotometry by infrared and fluorescence analysis to confirm the removal of the amorphous fraction, micrographs carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to display the fiber defibration. The efficiency of acid hydrolysis was confirmed by micrographs obtained by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The crystallinity index (CI) of the nanocrystals was determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The surface of the obtained films were characterized by SEM and AFM microscopy of. The results showed that the sugarcane bagasse is an excellent source for nanocellulose extraction, the amorphous fraction of the fiber can be removed with the suggested alkaline treatments, and hydrolysis with H_2SO_4 was efficient both in the removal of amorphous cellulose as in reducing cellulose nanoscale with a length around 250 nm and a diameter of about 10 nm. The use of heated nanocellulose obtained through hydrolysis was selected after analysis of XRD, it was confirmed that this material had higher when compared to IC hydrolysis at room temperature. The nanocomposites showed high rigidity and brittleness with high crystallinity when compared to the pure polymer film was observed by AFM and SEM

  3. Application of radiation processing to produce biotic elicitor for sugarcane in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hien; Tran, Tich Canh; Truong, Thi Hanh; Vo, Thi Kim Lang; Dang, Van Phu; Cao, Anh Duong

    2007-01-01

    Sugarcane is the main raw material for production of sugar and ethanol. In Vietnam, it was reported in 1998 that the area for sugarcane growth was about 257,000ha. Up to now, the biotic elicitor, oligosaccharide has not been used for sugarcane yet. This study has been carried out to investigate the elicitation and the growth promotion effect of irradiated chitosan (oligochitosan) for sugarcane. The field test results indicated that alpha chitosan (shrimp shell) and beta chitosan (squid pen) samples with the content of water soluble oligomer of about 70% were the most effective. The disease ratio of sugarcane tree-trunk treated with irradiated chitosan before harvesting time decreased to 30-40% compared to non-treated one (100%). In addition, the productivity of sugarcane increased to about 20%. The combination of metal ion (Zn ++ , Cu ++ ) with oligochitosan did not show the synergic elicitation effect. The results revealed that biotic elicitor made from chitosan by radiation degradation method is very promising for field application not only for protection of disease infection but also for growth promotion of plants. It is believed that this biotic elicitor could be largely used for safe and sustainable development of agriculture. (author)

  4. Physical chemical evaluation of sugarcane spirit with Anatto subjected to gamma irradiation for aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perina, Vanessa C.S.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Pires, Juliana A.; Scanholato, Mariana; Santos, Mariana R.; Bortoleto, Gisele G.

    2011-01-01

    The sugarcane spirit beverage has economic and cultural importance in Brazil, and is produced by distilling the fermented sugarcane juice. The aging process, generally done in oak barrels, consists of chemical reactions which occur slowly and continuously, leading to richer and more complex flavours. Annatto, a native fruit from tropical America is used in the production of natural dyes, in the replacement for artificial colorants, especially by the food industry. Also, the beverage industry uses it to make products resembling the natural aged ones. Nowadays, modern methods use irradiation to accelerate the aging process. There are many reasons to use it in sugarcane spirit production: sterilizing the wort, changing sensory characteristics of sugarcane liquor and aging speedup. For this study, samples of sugarcane spirit were obtained at FATEC Piracicaba and annatto was added at a ratio of 3%, when using annatto seeds, and 0.25%, when using annatto extract. The samples, except the controls, were directly irradiated in polyethylene containers with doses of 200 Gy and 300 Gy at a rate of 0.406 Gy/h. The evaluation parameters were soluble solids, pH, acidity and ashes content. For statistical purposes, the Tukey test was used with a 5% significance level. From the obtained results, the gamma radiation ages the sugarcane spirit and parameters as soluble solids and acidity can be used for aging determination. Annatto addition is allowed in the process. (author)

  5. Sustainability assessment of sugarcane biorefinery and molasses ethanol production in Thailand using eco-efficiency indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Pongpat, Patcharaporn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sugarcane biorefinery in Thailand is evaluated using the eco-efficiency concept. • Green cane along with cane trash use for electricity yields highest eco-efficiency. • Proposed biorefinery system increases eco-efficiency by 20–70%. - Abstract: The study aims to evaluate the sugarcane biorefinery and molasses ethanol production in Thailand using the combined environmental and economic sustainability indicator, so called “Eco-efficiency”. Four sugarcane biorefinery scenarios in Thailand are evaluated. The total output values (US$) and the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (kg CO_2eq) are selected as the indicators for characterizing economic and environmental performance, respectively. The results show that the biorefinery system of mechanized farming along with cane trash utilization for power generation yields the highest eco-efficiency. The benefits come from the increased value added of the biorefinery together with the decreased GHG emissions of the biorefinery system. As compared to the base case scenario, the new systems proposed result in the eco-efficiency improvement by around 20–70%. The biorefinery concept induces reduction of GHG emissions attributed to molasses ethanol. Green cane production and harvesting results in further lowering of the GHG emissions. Integration of sugarcane biomass utilization across the entire sugarcane complex would enhance the sustainability of the sugarcane production system.

  6. Analysis of the stress-inducible transcription factor SsNAC23 in sugarcane plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Fava Ditt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Stresses such as cold and drought can impair plant yield and induce a highly complex array of responses. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas and is considered a cold-sensitive plant. We previously showed that cold stress induces the expression of several genes in in vitro sugarcane plantlets. Here we characterize one of those genes, SsNAC23, a member of the NAC family of plant-specific transcription factors, which are induced by low temperature and other stresses in several plant species. The expression of SsNAC23 was induced in sugarcane plants exposed to low temperatures (4ºC. With the aim of further understanding the regulatory network in response to stress, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify sugarcane proteins that interact with SsNAC23. Using SsNAC23 as bait, we screened a cDNA expression library of sugarcane plants submitted to 4ºC for 48 h. Several interacting partners were identified, including stress-related proteins, increasing our knowledge on how sugarcane plants respond to cold stress. One of these interacting partners, a thioredoxin h1, offers insights into the regulation of SsNAC23 activity.

  7. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Two Sugarcane Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vicentini

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar and first generation ethanol production. Recently, the residue of sugarcane mills, named bagasse, has been considered a promising lignocellulosic biomass to produce the second-generation ethanol. Lignin is a major factor limiting the use of bagasse and other plant lignocellulosic materials to produce second-generation ethanol. Lignin biosynthesis pathway is a complex network and changes in the expression of genes of this pathway have in general led to diverse and undesirable impacts on plant structure and physiology. Despite its economic importance, sugarcane genome was still not sequenced. In this study a high-throughput transcriptome evaluation of two sugarcane genotypes contrasting for lignin content was carried out. We generated a set of 85,151 transcripts of sugarcane using RNA-seq and de novo assembling. More than 2,000 transcripts showed differential expression between the genotypes, including several genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. This information can give valuable knowledge on the lignin biosynthesis and its interactions with other metabolic pathways in the complex sugarcane genome.

  8. Applying functional metagenomics to search for novel lignocellulosic enzymes in a microbial consortium derived from a thermophilic composting phase of sugarcane bagasse and cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Lívia Tavares; de Oliveira, Marcelo Nagem Valério; Carneiro, Deisy Guimarães; de Souza, Robson Assis; Alvim, Mariana Caroline Tocantins; Dos Santos, Josenilda Carlos; da Silva, Cynthia Canêdo; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus Pereira; da Silveira, Wendel Batista; Passos, Flávia Maria Lopes

    2016-09-01

    Environments where lignocellulosic biomass is naturally decomposed are sources for discovery of new hydrolytic enzymes that can reduce the high cost of enzymatic cocktails for second-generation ethanol production. Metagenomic analysis was applied to discover genes coding carbohydrate-depleting enzymes from a microbial laboratory subculture using a mix of sugarcane bagasse and cow manure in the thermophilic composting phase. From a fosmid library, 182 clones had the ability to hydrolyse carbohydrate. Sequencing of 30 fosmids resulted in 12 contigs encoding 34 putative carbohydrate-active enzymes belonging to 17 glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families. One third of the putative proteins belong to the GH3 family, which includes β-glucosidase enzymes known to be important in the cellulose-deconstruction process but present with low activity in commercial enzyme preparations. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of seven selected proteins, including three β-glucosidases, showed low relatedness with protein sequences deposited in databases. These findings highlight microbial consortia obtained from a mixture of decomposing biomass residues, such as sugar cane bagasse and cow manure, as a rich resource of novel enzymes potentially useful in biotechnology for saccharification of lignocellulosic substrate.

  9. Encoding of Sucrose's Palatability in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell and Its Modulation by Exteroceptive Auditory Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Villavicencio

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the palatability of sucrose is the primary reason for why it is over consumed, it is not well understood how it is encoded in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh, a brain region involved in reward, feeding, and sensory/motor transformations. Similarly, untouched are issues regarding how an external auditory stimulus affects sucrose palatability and, in the NAcSh, the neuronal correlates of this behavior. To address these questions in behaving rats, we investigated how food-related auditory cues modulate sucrose's palatability. The goals are to determine whether NAcSh neuronal responses would track sucrose's palatability (as measured by the increase in hedonically positive oromotor responses lick rate, sucrose concentration, and how it processes auditory information. Using brief-access tests, we found that sucrose's palatability was enhanced by exteroceptive auditory cues that signal the start and the end of a reward epoch. With only the start cue the rejection of water was accelerated, and the sucrose/water ratio was enhanced, indicating greater palatability. However, the start cue also fragmented licking patterns and decreased caloric intake. In the presence of both start and stop cues, the animals fed continuously and increased their caloric intake. Analysis of the licking microstructure confirmed that auditory cues (either signaling the start alone or start/stop enhanced sucrose's oromotor-palatability responses. Recordings of extracellular single-unit activity identified several distinct populations of NAcSh responses that tracked either the sucrose palatability responses or the sucrose concentrations by increasing or decreasing their activity. Another neural population fired synchronously with licking and exhibited an enhancement in their coherence with increasing sucrose concentrations. The population of NAcSh's Palatability-related and Lick-Inactive neurons were the most important for decoding sucrose's palatability. Only the Lick

  10. Twenty putative palmitoyl-acyl transferase genes with distinct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are 20 genes containing DHHC domain predicted to encode putative palmitoyltransferase in Arabidopsis thaliana genome. However, little is known about their characteristics such as genetic relationship and expression profile. Here, we present an overview of the putative PAT genes in A. thaliana focusing on their ...

  11. Expansion of Sugarcane area for Ethanol production in Brazil: a Threat to Food Production and Environmental Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J. M.; Coutinho, H. L.; Veiga, L. B.

    2012-12-01

    The raise in fossil fuels prices and the increase in Greenhouse Gas emissions is leading nations to adopt non-fossil fuels based energy sources. Sugarcane crops for biofuel production are expanding fast in Brazil, mainly through land use change (LUC) processes, in substitution of pasturelands and grain crops plantations. Would these changes affect negatively sustainability assessments of bioethanol production in the future? We estimate the extent of sugarcane cropland needed to produce sufficient ethanol to attend to market demands. This work presents a baseline scenario for sugarcane cropping area in Brazil in 2017, taking into account market forces (supply and demand). We also comment on a policy instrument targetting sustainable sugarcane production in Brazil. The expansion scenarios took into account the demand for ethanol from 2008-2017, produced by the Energy Research Corporation, of Brazil. In order to develop the expansion scenario, we estimated the amount of sugarcane needed to attend the ethanol demand. We then calculated the area needed to generate that amount of sugarcane. The analytical parameters were: 1) one tonne of sugarcane produces an average 81.6 liters of ethanol; 2) the average sugarcane crop productivity varied linearly from 81.4 tons/hectare in 2008 to 86.2 tons/hectare in 2017. We also assumed that sugarcane productivity in 2017 as the current average productivity of sugarcane in the State of São Paulo. The results show that the requirement for 3.5 million ha in 2007 will increase to 9 million ha in 2017. The Sugarcane Agroecologic Zoning (ZAECANA), published by Embrapa (2009), is a tool that not only informs the territory occupation and use policies, but also classifies land as qualified, restricted or non-qualified for the plantation of sugarcane crops. The ZAECANA is based on soil and climate suitability assessments, and is presented in a spatially-explicit format. Adopting the precautionary principle, a national policy was established

  12. Impacts of sugarcane agriculture expansion over low-intensity cattle ranch pasture in Brazil on greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Camila Bolfarini; Filoso, Solange; Pitombo, Leonardo Machado; Cantarella, Heitor; Rossetto, Raffaella; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio; do Carmo, Janaina Braga

    2018-01-15

    Sugarcane is a widespread bioenergy crop in tropical regions, and the growing global demand for renewable energy in recent years has led to a dramatic expansion and intensification of sugarcane agriculture in Brazil. Currently, extensive areas of low-intensity pasture are being converted to sugarcane, while management in the remaining pasture is becoming more intensive, i.e., includes tilling and fertilizer use. In this study, we assessed how such changes in land use and management practices alter emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 by measuring in situ fluxes for one year after conversion from low-intensity pasture to conventional sugarcane agriculture and management-intensive pasture. Results show that CO 2 and N 2 O fluxes increased significantly in pasture and sugarcane with tillage, fertilizer use, or both combined. Emissions were highly variable for all GHGs, yet, cumulatively, it was clear that annual emissions in CO 2 -equivalent (CO 2 -eq) were higher in management-intense pasture and sugarcane than in unmanaged pasture. Surprisingly, tilled pasture with fertilizer (management-intensive pasture) resulted in higher CO 2 -eq emissions than conventional sugarcane. We concluded that intensification of pasture management and the conversion of pasture to sugarcane can increase the emission factor (EF) estimated for sugarcane produced in Brazil. The role of management practices and environmental conditions and the potential for reducing emissions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Remote Sensing Time Series to Evaluate Direct Land Use Change of Recent Expanded Sugarcane Crop in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Pupin Mello

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of biofuels to mitigate global carbon emissions is highly dependent on direct and indirect land use changes (LUC. The direct LUC (dLUC can be accurately evaluated using remote sensing images. In this work we evaluated the dLUC of about 4 million hectares of sugarcane expanded from 2005 to 2010 in the South-central region of Brazil. This region has a favorable climate for rain-fed sugarcane, a great potential for agriculture expansion without deforestation, and is currently responsible for almost 90% of Brazilian’s sugarcane production. An available thematic map of sugarcane along with MODIS and Landast images, acquired from 2000 to 2009, were used to evaluate the land use prior to the conversion to sugarcane. A systematic sampling procedure was adopted and the land use identification prior to sugarcane, for each sample, was performed using a web tool developed to visualize both the MODIS time series and the multitemporal Landsat images. Considering 2000 as reference year, it was observed that sugarcane expanded: 69.7% on pasture land; 25.0% on annual crops; 0.6% on forest; while 3.4% was sugarcane land under crop rotation. The results clearly show that the dLUC of recent sugarcane expansion has occurred on more than 99% of either pasture or agriculture land.

  14. Efficacy of Alkali-treated Sugarcane Fiber for Improving Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Meat Emulsions with Different Fat Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Setyabrata, Derico; Lee, Yong-Jae; Brad Kim, Yuan H.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of alkaline-treated sugarcane bagasse fiber on physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsion with different fat levels. Crude sugarcane bagasse fiber (CSF) was treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2)) to obtain alkaline-treated sugarcane bagasse fiber (ASF). The two types of sugarcane bagasse fiber (CSF and ASF) were incorporated at 2% levels in pork meat emulsions prepared with 5%, 10% and 20% fat levels. Alkaline-treatment markedly increased acid detergent fiber content (p=0.002), but significantly decreased protein, fat, ash and other carbohydrate contents. ASF exhibited significantly higher water-binding capacity, but lower oil-binding and emulsifying capacities than CSF. Meat emulsions formulated with 10% fat and 2% sugarcane bagasse fiber had equivalent cooking loss and textural properties to control meat emulsion (20% fat without sugarcane bagasse fiber). The two types of sugarcane bagasse fiber had similar impacts on proximate composition, cooking yield and texture of meat emulsion at the same fat level, respectively (p>0.05). Our results confirm that sugarcane bagasse fiber could be a functional food ingredient for improving physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsion, at 2% addition level. Further, the altered functional properties of alkaline-treated sugarcane bagasse fiber had no impacts on physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsions, regardless of fat level at 5%, 10% and 20%. PMID:29805281

  15. Policies, Socioeconomic, Institutional and Biophysical Factors Influencing the Change from Rice to Sugarcane in Nong Bua Lamphu Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakapunrat, Narinpat; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2017-06-01

    For the past decade, Thailand pursued a strategy of promoting biofuel crop production, including sugarcane, to meet the ever increasing energy demand and to increase the income of farmers. This study analyzed the influence of policy instruments implemented to promote the sugarcane cultivation, farm household socioeconomic levels, biophysical, and institutional factors driving the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. Primary information was collected from 230 farm households through a structured questionnaire. Relevant policy documents published by the responsible government agencies were the main sources of secondary information collected for policy analysis. The analyses revealed that farmers in the study area converted 25-75% of their rice fields into sugarcane farms as a result of implementation of policy instruments that made sugarcane financially far more attractive than rice. The results of the regression analysis showed that eight variables were found significant and positively influenced the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. These were access to extension services, information, sugarcane loading stations, and ground water for irrigation, and duration of experience in sugarcane farming as well as household head's age and education. Irrespective of landholding size, the majority of farmers were not concerned about food security. In view of the finding, if feasible, in the form of additional price supports and commercial cane sugar index-based pricing strategies to promote sugarcane production should benefit all concerned farmers. Likewise, attention should be paid to deliver essential extension and marketing services in an effective way, particularly to those farmers who are not receiving such services.

  16. Putative radioresistant bacterial isolate from sewage water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, April; Chua, Patricia; Perez, Kristine; Rey, April; Rivor Kristel; San Pablo, Czarina; Santos, Ernestine

    2001-01-01

    Sewage water was collected from a stagnant body of water in Balara, Quezon City. approximately 150 ml was aseptically transferred into eight Erlenmeyer flasks. Seven flasks were then subjected to different doses of radiation at the 60 Co irradiation facility, PNRI (Philippine Nuclear Research Institute) which are as follows: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 1 kGy, 5 kGy, 10 kGy, and 15 kGy. The remaining flask was used as the control. After irradiation, all the different treatments were subjected to colony count at the culture collection laboratory, NSRI. Results showed that the colonies from sewage water treatments irradiated at 0.01 kGy (treatment A), 0.10 kGy (treatment B), and 0.50 kGy (treatment C) exhibited a decreasing trend with colony counts 4.60 x 10 3 CFU/ml, and 1.30 x 10 3 CFU/ml, and 26 CFU/ml, respectively. Contrastingly, at 1 kGy (treatment D), high colony count of 2.95 x 10 3 CFU/ml was observed which is even higher compared to the control (1.02 x 10 3 CFU/ml). Treatment E that was irradiated at 5 kGy manifested low survival rate (25 CFU/ml) indicating the presence of few putative intermediate radioresistant bacteria. Radiation dose treatments higher than 5 kGy (i.e., 10 kGy and 15 kGy) exhibited no bacterial survival. (Author)

  17. Putative radioresistant bacterial isolate from sewage water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, April; Chua, Patricia; Perez, Kristine; Rey, April; Kristel, Rivor; San Pablo, Czarina; Santos, Ernestine

    2001-01-29

    Sewage water was collected from a stagnant body of water in Balara, Quezon City. approximately 150 ml was aseptically transferred into eight Erlenmeyer flasks. Seven flasks were then subjected to different doses of radiation at the {sup 60}Co irradiation facility, PNRI (Philippine Nuclear Research Institute) which are as follows: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 1 kGy, 5 kGy, 10 kGy, and 15 kGy. The remaining flask was used as the control. After irradiation, all the different treatments were subjected to colony count at the culture collection laboratory, NSRI. Results showed that the colonies from sewage water treatments irradiated at 0.01 kGy (treatment A), 0.10 kGy (treatment B), and 0.50 kGy (treatment C) exhibited a decreasing trend with colony counts 4.60 x 10{sup 3} CFU/ml, and 1.30 x 10{sup 3} CFU/ml, and 26 CFU/ml, respectively. Contrastingly, at 1 kGy (treatment D), high colony count of 2.95 x 10{sup 3} CFU/ml was observed which is even higher compared to the control (1.02 x 10{sup 3} CFU/ml). Treatment E that was irradiated at 5 kGy manifested low survival rate (25 CFU/ml) indicating the presence of few putative intermediate radioresistant bacteria. Radiation dose treatments higher than 5 kGy (i.e., 10 kGy and 15 kGy) exhibited no bacterial survival. (Author)

  18. The Dynamics in the Structure of Sugarcane Job Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselis Natalina Mazzuchetti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como propósito averiguar a estrutura do mercado de trabalho na atividade de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar, à luz das mudanças recentes ocorridas no setor sucroalcooleiro, levando-se em conta os principais estados produtores de cana. Para tanto, realizou-se uma análise estatística descritiva e uma análise de regressão linear simples, com base nos dados da PNAD, de 1997 a 2009. Como corolário, constatou-se que houve uma redução da informalidade no mercado de trabalho em questão, sendo que esta redução foi mais expressiva em Alagoas. Confirmou-se, também, mudanças recentes nas ocupações do setor, com acréscimos nas atividades técnicas, representadas por tratoristas e operadores de máquinas. Evidenciou-se que o mercado de trabalho do setor em questão tem sua dinâmica diretamente ligada aos fatores que ocorrem na cadeia produtiva do setor sucroalcooleiro como um todo. Palavras-Chave: Mercado de Trabalho, Tecnologia, Agronegócios e Produção de cana-de-açúcar. *** Abstract: This research aims to verify the structure of sugarcane cultivation’s job market, considering the recent changes in this sector and the states with the major production. For that, descriptive and statistical analysis were made, as well as a simplified line regression analysis, based on the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD data, for the 1997-2009 period. As corollary, it was stated that there was a reduction in the informal jobs in the sugarcane production market, showing more expressivity in the state of Alagoas. Recent changes in the sector occupation were confirmed, as an increase in technical activities, represented by tractors and machinery operators. It was evidenced that this sector’s job market has its dynamics closely linked to the sugarcane production chain as a whole. Keywords: Job Market, Agribusiness, Technology, Sugarcane production. *** Sumario: Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo investigar la

  19. Stochastic simulations of calcium contents in sugarcane area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gener T. Pereira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to quantify and to map the spatial distribution and uncertainty of soil calcium (Ca content in a sugarcane area by sequential Gaussian and simulated-annealing simulation methods. The study was conducted in the municipality of Guariba, northeast of the São Paulo state. A sampling grid with 206 points separated by a distance of 50 m was established, totaling approximately 42 ha. The calcium contents were evaluated in layer of 0-0.20 m. Techniques of geostatistical estimation, ordinary kriging and stochastic simulations were used. The technique of ordinary kriging does not reproduce satisfactorily the global statistics of the Ca contents. The use of simulation techniques allows reproducing the spatial variability pattern of Ca contents. The techniques of sequential Gaussian simulation and simulated annealing showed significant variations in the contents of Ca in the small scale.

  20. Partially acetylated sugarcane bagasse for wicking oil from contaminated wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, S. [Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd., R and D Center, Suwon, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Suidan, M.T. [University of Cincinnati, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Venosa, A.D. [NRMRL, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased hydrophobicity but not a limited capability to hold moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. Characterization results by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and surface area analyzer suggested that treated bagasse exhibited enhanced hydrophobicity and surface area. Oil wicking test results indicate that treated bagasse is more effective in wicking oil from highly saturated environments than raw bagasse and suggest that application of this material in remediation of oil spills in highly saturated wetlands is promising. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Selection in sugarcane families with artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Portela Brasileiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate Artificial Neural Networks (ANN applied in an selection process within sugarcane families. The best ANN model produced no mistake, but was able to classify all genotypes correctly, i.e., the network made the same selective choice as the breeder during the simulation individual best linear unbiased predictor (BLUPIS, demonstrating the ability of the ANN to learn from the inputs and outputs provided in the training and validation phases. Since the ANN-based selection facilitates the identification of the best plants and the development of a new selection strategy in the best families, to ensure that the best genotypes of the population are evaluated in the following stages of the breeding program, we recommend to rank families by BLUP, followed by selection of the best families and finally, select the seedlings by ANN, from information at the individual level in the best families.

  2. Sugarcane bagasse ash: new filler to natural rubber composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renivaldo José dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste recycling has been the subject of numerous scientific researches regarding the environmental care. This paper reports the redirecting of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA as new filler to natural rubber (NR/SBA. The NR/SBA composites were prepared using an opened cylinder mixer to incorporate the vulcanization agents and different proportions of residue (SBA. The ash contains about 70-90% of inorganic compounds, with silica (SiO2 being the main compound. The SBA incorporation improved the mechanical properties of the vulcanized rubber. Based on these results, a new use is proposed for the agro-industry organic waste to be implemented in the rubber vulcanization process, aimed at improving the rubber physical properties as well as decreasing the prices of natural rubber composites.

  3. VIRTUAL EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS ON CLEANING ELEMENT OF SUGARCANE HARVESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Fanglan; Li Shangping; He Yulin; Meng Yanmei; Chen Weixu

    2005-01-01

    The laws of influence of different factors have been analyzed in order to enhance the working efficiency and fatigue life of the cleaning element in brush shape of the sugarcane harvester.Based on the principle of orthogonal experiment design, the virtual-orthogonal-experimental analysis for the cleaning element is carried out on the finite element analysis (FEA) software-ANSYS after analyzing the nonlinear structural behavior in the working procedure. The results are analyzed with the overall balancing method, and then the optimal combination is got, which is made up of different levels of different factors. Also the optimal combination of design parameters of the cleaning element received from the virtual experimental analysis is conducted an experiment to confirm that the virtual analysis model and results are right, and the effect of factors on the function of the cleaning element is obtained by more analysis and further optimizing.

  4. Valorization of sugarcane bagasse ash: producing glass-ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, S R; Magalhães, R S; Arenales, A; Souza, A E; Romero, M; Rincón, J M

    2014-02-15

    Some aluminosilicates, for example mullite and wollastonite, are very important in the ceramic and construction industries. The most significant glass-ceramic for building applications has wollastonite as the main crystal phase. In this work we report on the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce glass-ceramics with silicates as the major crystalline phases. The glasses (frits) were prepared by mixing ash, limestone (calcium and magnesium carbonates) and potassium carbonate as the fluxing agent. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that glass-ceramic material can be produced with wollastonite as the major phase, at a temperature lower than 900 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies on rooting pattern of sugarcane using 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Agrawal, M.P.; Ghosh, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    Studies employing 32 P injection in sugarcane shoot and assay of 32 P activity in soil cores both in horizontal and vertical directions from the centre of the clumps revealed that most of the roots are restricted within the first 15 cm depth and their horizontal spread is confined largely to 25 cm. The technique has been standardised for use with other types of studies involving root foraging or activity. The above findings are in confirmation of the earlier data obtained by actual excavation of the roots and also observations made by exposing the roots in-situ. The advantage of the radioactive technique lies in accessing, with better precision, the zone of feeding of active roots, an information which could not be obtained by actual excavation of the roots which may include even the dead ones. (author)

  6. Inverse pH regulation of plant and fungal sucrose transporters: a mechanism to regulate competition for sucrose at the host/pathogen interface?

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    Kathrin Wippel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant sucrose transporter activities were shown to respond to changes in the extracellular pH and redox status, and oxidizing compounds like glutathione (GSSG or H(2O(2 were reported to effect the subcellular targeting of these proteins. We hypothesized that changes in both parameters might be used to modulate the activities of competing sucrose transporters at a plant/pathogen interface. We, therefore, compared the effects of redox-active compounds and of extracellular pH on the sucrose transporters UmSRT1 and ZmSUT1 known to compete for extracellular sucrose in the Ustilago maydis (corn smut/Zea mays (maize pathosystem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present functional analyses of the U. maydis sucrose transporter UmSRT1 and of the plant sucrose transporters ZmSUT1 and StSUT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or in Xenopus laevis oocytes in the presence of different extracellular pH-values and redox systems, and study the possible effects of these treatments on the subcellular targeting. We observed an inverse regulation of host and pathogen sucrose transporters by changes in the apoplastic pH. Under none of the conditions analyzed, we could confirm the reported effects of redox-active compounds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that changes in the extracellular pH but not of the extracellular redox status might be used to oppositely adjust the transport activities of plant and fungal sucrose transporters at the host/pathogen interface.

  7. Lack of Detection of Bt Sugarcane Cry1Ab and NptII DNA and Proteins in Sugarcane Processing Products Including Raw Sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cheavegatti-Gianotto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the largest sugarcane producer and the main sugar exporter in the world. The industrial processes applied by Brazilian mills are very efficient in producing highly purified sugar and ethanol. Literature presents evidence of lack of DNA/protein in these products, regardless of the nature of sugarcane used as raw material. Recently CTNBio, the Brazilian biosafety authority, has approved the first biotechnology-derived sugarcane variety for cultivation, event CTC175-A, which expresses the Cry1Ab protein to control the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis. The event also expresses neomycin-phosphotransferase type II (NptII protein used as selectable marker during the transformation process. Because of the high purity of sugar and ethanol produced from genetically modified sugarcane, these end-products should potentially be classified as “pure substances, chemically defined,” by Brazilian Biosafety Law No. 11.105. If this classification is to be adopted, these substances are not considered as “GMO derivatives” and fall out of the scope of Law No. 11.105. In order to assess sugar composition and quality, we evaluate Cry1Ab and NptII expression in several sugarcane tissues and in several fractions from laboratory-scale processing of event CTC175-A for the presence of these heterologous proteins as well as for the presence of traces of recombinant DNA. The results of these studies show that CTC175-A presents high expression of Cry1Ab in leaves and barely detectable expression of heterologous proteins in stalks. We also evaluated the presence of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase protein and DNA in the fractions of the industrial processing of conventional Brazilian sugarcane cultivars. Results from both laboratory and industrial processing were concordant, demonstrating that DNA and protein are not detected in the clarified juice and downstream processed fractions, including ethanol and raw sugar, indicating that protein

  8. Segregation analysis of microsatellite (SSR) markers in sugarcane polyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X; Zhou, H; Pan, Y-B; Chen, C Y; Zhu, J R; Chen, P H; Li, Y-R; Cai, Q; Chen, R K

    2015-12-28

    No information is available on segregation analysis of DNA markers involving both pollen and self-progeny. Therefore, we used capillary electrophoresis- and fluorescence-based DNA fingerprinting together with single pollen collection and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to investigate simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker segregation among 964 single pollens and 288 self-progenies (S1) of sugarcane cultivar LCP 85-384. Twenty SSR DNA fragments (alleles) were amplified by five polymorphic SSR markers. Only one non-parental SSR allele was observed in 2392 PCRs. SSR allele inheritance was in accordance with Mendelian laws of segregation and independent assortment. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found between frequencies of observed and expected genotypes in pollen and S1 populations. Within the S1 population, the most frequent genotype of each SSR marker was the parental genotype of the same marker. The number of genotypes was higher in pollen than S1 population. PIC values of the five SSR markers were greater in pollen than S1 populations. Eleven of 20 SSR alleles (55%) were segregated in accordance with Mendelian segregation ratios expected from pollen and S1 populations of a 2n = 10x polyploid. Six of 20 SSR alleles were segregated in a 3:1 (presence:absence) ratio and were simplex markers. Four and one alleles were segregated in 77:4 and 143:1 ratios and considered duplex and triplex markers, respectively. Segregation ratios of remaining alleles were unexplainable. The results provide information about selection of crossing parents, estimation of seedling population optimal size, and promotion of efficient selection, which may be valuable for sugarcane breeders.

  9. Fructose and Sucrose Intake Increase Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; Fuchs, Cas J.; Beelen, Milou; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Jeukendrup, Asker E.; Cermak, Naomi M.; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g·min−1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co-ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co-ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1) cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1.8 g·min−1 of glucose (GLU), 1.2 g·min−1 glucose + 0.6 g·min−1 fructose (GLU + FRU), 0.6 g·min−1 glucose + 1.2 g·min−1 sucrose (GLU + SUC), or water (WAT). Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates did not differ between GLU + FRU and GLU + SUC (1.40 ± 0.06 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07 g·min−1, respectively, p = 0.999), but were 46% ± 8% higher when compared to GLU (0.96 ± 0.06 g·min−1: p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during the latter 120 min of exercise were 46% ± 8% higher in GLU + FRU or GLU + SUC compared with GLU (1.19 ± 0.12, 1.13 ± 0.21, and 0.82 ± 0.16 g·min−1, respectively, p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. PMID:28230742

  10. Sucrose Synthase Is Associated with the Cell Wall of Tobacco Pollen Tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persia, D.; Cai, G.; Casino, C.; Willemse, M.T.M.; Cresti, M.

    2008-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus; EC 2.4.1.13) is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism in plant cells, providing carbon for respiration and for the synthesis of cell wall polymers and starch. Since Sus is important for plant cell growth, insights into its structure, localization, and features are useful for

  11. Interactions between co-expressed Arabidopsis sucrose transporters in the split-ubiquitin system

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    Lalonde Sylvie

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis genome contains nine sucrose transporter paralogs falling into three clades: SUT1-like, SUT2 and SUT4. The carriers differ in their kinetic properties. Many transport proteins are known to exist as oligomers. The yeast-based split ubiquitin system can be used to analyze the ability of membrane proteins to interact. Results Promoter-GUS fusions were used to analyze the cellular expression of the three transporter genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. All three fusion genes are co-expressed in companion cells. Protein-protein interactions between Arabidopsis sucrose transporters were tested using the split ubiquitin system. Three paralogous sucrose transporters are capable of interacting as either homo- or heteromers. The interactions are specific, since a potassium channel and a glucose transporter did not show interaction with sucrose transporters. Also the biosynthetic and metabolizing enzymes, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and sucrose synthase, which were found to be at least in part bound to the plasma membrane, did not specifically interact with sucrose transporters. Conclusions The split-ubiquitin system provides a powerful tool to detect potential interactions between plant membrane proteins by heterologous expression in yeast, and can be used to screen for interactions with membrane proteins as baits. Like other membrane proteins, the Arabidopsis sucrose transporters are able to form oligomers. The biochemical approaches are required to confirm the in planta interaction.

  12. Coordination of sucrose uptake and respiration in the yeast Debaryomyces yamadae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaliterna, J.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Castrillo, J.I.; Dijken, van J.P.; Pronk, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    Screening in batch cultures identified Debaryomyces yamadae as a yeast that exhibits the Kluyver effect for sucrose: this disaccharide can be respired but, even under oxygen-limited conditions, alcoholic fermentation of sucrose does not occur. Ethanol, glycerol and arabitol were the main

  13. Influence of concentration of sucrose on the acetone-butanol fermentation by different strains of Clostridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadue, K; Saroj, K K

    1959-01-01

    To culture media containing (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (0.34 g) and MgSO/sub 4/ (0.16 g), were added 5, 10, and 20% sucrose, respectively; the pH was adjusted to 6.4 with KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/-NaOH buffer; the volume of each medium was made up to 200 ml. The media were sterilized. After cooling, the media at the 5, 10, 20% sucrose levels were inoculated separately with C. butyricum, C. butyricum 6084, C. acetobutylicum NRRL B-527, C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598, C. butylicus NRRL B-592, and C. pasteurianum ATCC 6013. The cultures were incubated for 20 days at 35 degrees. For maximum butanol yield the 5% sucrose level was optimum for all the strains tested. At the 10% sucrose level great increase in sugar consumption occurred with C. butyricum Frolund, C. pasteurianum ATCC-6013, and C. butylicus IAL 15-152. Twice as much sucrose was consumed with C. acetobutylicum ATCC 6013, and NRRL B-572, and C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598. The increased sucrose consumption did not result in increased production of butanol or acetone. No acetone or butanol was formed with C. butyricum Frolund when the sucrose concentration was increased from 5 to 10%. With the increase in sucrose concentration, the formation of butanol and acetone decreased; acid formation was also inhibited.

  14. Influence of concentration of sucrose on the acetone-butanol fermentation by different strains of Clostridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, K; Saroj, K K

    1959-01-01

    To culture media containing (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (0.34 g) and MgSO/sub 4/ (0.16 g), were added 5, 10, and 20% sucrose, respectively; the pH was adjusted to 6.4 with KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/-NaOH buffer; the volume of each medium was made up to 200 ml. The media were sterilized. After cooling, the media at the 5, 10, 20% sucrose levels were inoculated separately with C. butyricum, C. butyricum 6084, C. acetobutylicum NRRL B-527, C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598, C. butylicus NRRL B-592, nd C. pasteurianum ATCC 6013. The cultures were incubated for 20 days at 35/sup 0/. For maximum BuOH yield the 5% sucrose level was optimum for all the strains tested. At the 10% sucrose level great increase in sugar consumption occurred with C. butyricum Frolund, C. pasteurianum ATCC-6013, and C. butylicus IAL 15-152. Twice as much sucrose was consumed with C. acetobutylicum ATCC 10132, and NRRL B-572, and C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598. The increased sucrose consumption did not result in increased production of BuOH or acetone. No acetone or BuOH was formed with C. butyricum Frolund when the sucrose concentration was increased from 5 to 10%. With the increase in sucrose concentration, the formation of BuH and acetone decreased; acid formation was also inhibited.

  15. Effect of gel texture and sucrose spatial distribution on sweetness perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Velde, van de F.; Bult, J.H.F.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Stieger, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Layered gels differing in mechanical and breakdown properties (soft, medium and hard gels) and in the distribution of sucrose in the matrix (homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions) were used to investigate the effects of texture and spatial distribution of sucrose on sweetness perception.

  16. Oxytocin differentially affects sucrose taking and seeking in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E; Reichel, Carmela M

    2015-04-15

    Oxytocin has a modulatory role in natural and drug reward processes. While the role of oxytocin in pair bonding and reproduction has been extensively studied, sex differences in conditioned and unconditioned behavioral responses to oxytocin treatment have not been fully characterized. Here, we determined whether male and female rats would show similar dose response curves in response to acute oxytocin on measures of locomotor activity, sucrose seeking, and sucrose intake. Male and freely cycling female rats received vehicle or oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3mg/kg, IP) injections before behavioral tests designed to assess general motor activity, as well as sucrose self-administration and seeking. Lower doses of oxytocin decreased motor activity in a novel environment in females relative to males. Likewise, lower doses of oxytocin in females decreased responding for sucrose during maintenance of sucrose self-administration and reinstatement to sucrose-conditioned cues. However, sucrose seeking in response to a sucrose prime was only decreased by the highest oxytocin dose in both sexes. In general, oxytocin had similar effects in both sexes. However, females were more sensitive to lower doses of oxytocin than males. These findings are consistent with the notion that oxytocin regulates many of the same behaviors in males and females, but that the effects are typically more profound in females. Therapeutic use of oxytocin should include sex as a factor in determining dose regimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence for the presence of a sucrose carrier in immature sugar-beet roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, R.; Daie, J.; Wyse, R.

    1987-01-01

    Unlike in mature sugar-beet roots, sucrose is assumed to be hydrolyzed by a wall-bound invertase prior to uptake by immature roots. To test this hypothesis, they used a sucrose analog, 1'fluorosucrose which is recognized by the carrier but is a poor substrate for invertases. Asymmetrically labeled sucrose ( 3 H-fructose) 1'fluorosucrose ( 14 C-glucose) were applied at 10 mM ( 3 H/ 14 C=1) to an attached source leaf. After 6 h, sugars from plant parts in the translocation path were separated on HPLC. 14 C-1'fluorosucrose was translocated and accumulated in the root at a higher rate than 3 H-sucrose due to greater metabolism of 3 H-sucrose in the shoot (indicated by the presence of 3 H in hexose fractions and loss of asymmetry). In the root 25% of the 3 H-sucrose was hydrolyzed to hexoses whereas no 14 C was detected in hexose fractions. The data indicate that despite high cell-wall invertase and cytoplasmic sucrose synthase activities, young sugar-beet roots import and store sucrose without hydrolysis. Therefore, the function of a group translocator at the tonoplast is unclear

  18. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa sucrose transporter gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In higher plants, sugars (mainly sucrose are produced by photosynthetically assimilated carbon in mesophyll cells of leaves and translocated to heterotrophic organs to ensure plant growth and development. Sucrose transporters, or sucrose carriers (SUCs, play an important role in the long-distance transportation of sucrose from source organs to sink organs, thereby affecting crop yield and quality. The identification, characterization, and molecular function analysis of sucrose transporter genes have been reported for monocot and dicot plants. However, no relevant study has been reported on sucrose transporter genes in Brassica rapa var. rapa, a cruciferous root crop used mainly as vegetables and fodder. We identified and cloned 12 sucrose transporter genes from turnips, named BrrSUC1.1 to BrrSUC6.2 according to the SUC gene sequences of B. rapa pekinensis. We constructed a phylogenetic tree and analyzed conserved motifs for all 12 sucrose transporter genes identified. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was conducted to understand the expression levels of SUC genes in different tissues and developmental phases of the turnip. These findings add to our understanding of the genetics and physiology of sugar transport during taproot formation in turnips.

  19. Dextran-induced depletion flocculation in oil-water emulsions in the presence of sucrose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Zoet, F.D.; Vliet, van T.; Linden, van der E.; Aken, van G.A.

    2004-01-01

    The phase behaviour and mechanical properties of 10 wt% oil-in-water emulsions, stabilised by ß-lactoglobulin (ß-lg) and flocculated by the polysaccharide dextran were studied as a function of sucrose concentration. The sucrose concentration affected neither the polysaccharide concentration above

  20. Rats' preferences for high fructose corn syrup vs. sucrose and sugar mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2011-03-28

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose in many food products, which has prompted research comparing these two sweeteners in rodents. The present study examined the relative palatability of HFCS and sucrose for rats, offering 11% carbohydrate solutions to match the content of common beverages for human consumption. The animals initially preferred HFCS to sucrose but after separate experience with each solution they switched to sucrose preference. Approximating the composition of HFCS with a mixture of fructose and glucose (55:45) yielded a solution that was less attractive than sucrose or HFCS. However, HFCS contains a small amount of glucose polymers, which are very attractive to rats. A 55:42:3 mixture of fructose, glucose and glucose polymers (Polycose) was equally preferred to HFCS and was treated similarly to HFCS in comparisons vs. sucrose. Post-oral effects of sucrose, which is 50% fructose and 50% glucose, may be responsible for the shift in preference with experience. This shift, and the relatively small magnitude of differences in preference for HFCS and sucrose, suggest that palatability factors probably do not contribute to any possible difference in weight gain responses to these sweeteners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation, Fractionation, and Identification of Sucrose Esters from Various Oriental Tobaccos Employing Supercritical Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf-Khorassani M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolation, fractionation, and identification of sucrose esters from aged oriental tobacco employing supercritical fluids have been completed. Underivatized sucrose ester-rich extracts were obtained using supercritical CO2 at densities greater than 0.73 g/mL. Lower density CO2 provided extracts with notable amounts of tobacco derived material; yet, no detectable sucrose ester content. Preparative supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC provided for an additional purification of the sucrose ester-enriched fraction after column optimization. Structural assignments of the SFC fractions were facilitated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS accompanied by N, O-bis(trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide-dimethylformamide (BSTFA-DMF derivatization of the free hydroxyl groups and high performance-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS. From a relative quantitative perspective regardless of tobacco type, sucrose esters having an acetyl group on C6 of the glucose function (Group III were in higher concentration compared to both the concentration observed for sucrose ester of Group I (acetyl group on C3 of fructose and sucrose ester of Group II (no acetyl group on either glucose or fructose. Saturated fatty acid constituents were found to range from a maximum total of 18 carbons to a minimum total of 13 carbons. Unsaturated and isomeric fatty acid homologues were detected within the Group II sucrose ester.

  2. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Virulent Yersinia enterocolitica Strains Unable To Ferment Sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiyoule, Annie; Guinet, Françoise; Martin, Liliane; Benoit, Catherine; Desplaces, Nicole; Carniel, Elisabeth

    1998-01-01

    Several atypical sucrose-negative Yersinia strains, isolated from clinical samples and sometimes associated with symptoms, proved to have full virulence potential in in vitro and in vivo testings. DNA-relatedness studies revealed that they were authentic Yersinia enterocolitica strains. Therefore, atypical sucrose-negative Yersinia isolates should be analyzed for their virulence potential. PMID:9705424

  3. Pronounced Phenotypic Changes in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Overexpressing Sucrose Synthase May Reveal a Novel Sugar Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh Anh; Luan, Sheng; Wi, Seung G.; Bae, Hanhong; Lee, Dae-Seok; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Soluble sugars not only serve as nutrients, but also act as signals for plant growth and development, but how sugar signals are perceived and translated into physiological responses in plants remains unclear. We manipulated sugar levels in transgenic plants by overexpressing sucrose synthase (SuSy), which is a key enzyme believed to have reversible sucrose synthesis and sucrose degradation functions. The ectopically expressed SuSy protein exhibited sucrose-degrading activity, which may change the flux of sucrose demand from photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic cells, and trigger an unknown sucrose signaling pathway that lead to increased sucrose content in the transgenic plants. An experiment on the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth demonstrated the existence of a novel sucrose signaling pathway, which stimulated photosynthesis, and enhanced photosynthetic synthesis of sucrose, which was the direct cause or the sucrose increase. In addition, a light/dark time treatment experiment, using different day length ranges for photosynthesis/respiration showed the carbohydrate pattern within a 24-h day and consolidated the role of sucrose signaling pathway as a way to maintain sucrose demand, and indicated the relationships between increased sucrose and upregulation of genes controlling development of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). As a result, transgenic plants featured a higher biomass and a shorter time required to switch to reproduction compared to those of control plants, indicating altered phylotaxis and more rapid advancement of developmental stages in the transgenic plants. PMID:26793204

  4. Frequency of sucrose exposure on the cariogenicity of a biofilm-caries model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Garrido, Natalia; Lozano, Carla; Giacaman, Rodrigo A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although sucrose is considered the most cariogenic carbohydrate in the human diet, the question of how many exposures are needed to induce damage on the hard dental tissues remains unclear. To approach this question, different frequencies of daily sucrose exposure were tested on a relevant biological caries model. Materials and Methods: Biofilms of the Streptococcus mutans were formed on enamel slabs and exposed to cariogenic challenges with 10% sucrose for 5 min at 0, 1, 3, 5, 8, or 10 times per day. After 5 days, biofilms were retrieved to analyze biomass, protein content, viable bacteria, and polysaccharide formation. Enamel demineralization was evaluated by percentage of microhardness loss (percentage surface hardness loss [%SHL]). Results: Biomass, protein content, polysaccharide production, acidogenicity of the biofilm, and %SHL proportionally increased with the number of daily exposures to sucrose (P 0.05). Conclusions: Higher sucrose exposure seems to increase cariogenicity, in a frequency-dependent manner, by the modification of bacterial virulent properties. PMID:27403051

  5. EPR response of sucrose and microcrystalline cellulose to measure high doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torijano, E.; Cruz, L.; Gutierrez, G.; Azorin, J.; Aguirre, F.; Cruz Z, E.

    2015-10-01

    Solid dosimeters of sucrose and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel Ph-102) were prepared, following the same process, in order to compare their EPR response against that of the l-alanine dosimeters considered as reference. All lots of dosimeters were irradiated with gamma radiation in Gamma beam irradiator with 8 kGy/h of the Nuclear Sciences Institute of UNAM. Doses ranged from 1 to 10 kGy respectively. We found that both the response of sucrose as microcrystalline cellulose were linear; however, the response intensity was, on average, twenty times more for sucrose. Comparing this against the EPR response of l-alanine in the range of doses, it was found that the response to sucrose is a third part; and microcrystalline cellulose is a sixtieth, approximately. The results agree with those found in the literature for sucrose, leaving open the possibility of investigating other dosage ranges for cellulose. (Author)

  6. Additional synthesis of starch from sucrose in leaves of arabidopsis in the light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keerberg, O.; Ivanova, H.; Keerberg, H.; Paernik, T.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Accumulating during daytime starch is converted in the night into sucrose and consumed in respiratory, biosynthetic and transport processes. However in the light the degradation and conversion of starch are blocked. In pulse chase experiments with wild type plants and starchless mutants pgm or adg1 of arabidopsis an increase of starch radioactivity during chase in nonradioactive medium in the light was detected. These findings suggest that starch was additionally synthesized from labeled cytosolic soluble photosynthates, preferentially from sucrose. Radiogasometric studies of gas exchange have revealed that sucrose is consumed also in photorespiratory decarboxylations. To be involved in photorespiration the products of sucrose degradation must be transported from cytosol into chloroplast. We presume that derived from sucrose hexoses are transported into chloroplast by hexose transporter and phosphorylated there in hexokinase reaction. The phosphorylated hexoses may be consumed either for additional synthesis of starch or incorporated into the reductive pentose phosphate cycle and, via this cycle, into the glycolate cycle. (author)

  7. Aroma volatility from aqueous sucrose solutions at low and subzero temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias-Cervantes, Marco; Champion, Dominique; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Voilley, Andrée

    2004-11-17

    The gas-liquid partition coefficients of ethyl acetate and ethyl hexanoate have been measured in water and aqueous sucrose solutions from 25 to -10 degrees C by dynamic headspace. Experiments were carried out on sucrose solutions at temperatures where no ice formation was possible. Results showed that when sucrose concentration increased, aroma volatility increased except for ethyl hexanoate and in the highest sucrose concentration solution (57.5%). A quasi-linear temperature decrease on aroma volatility was observed in sucrose solutions from 25 to around 4 and 0 degrees C. Then, from 0 to -10 degrees C, aroma volatility did not decrease: ethyl acetate volatility remained constant but that of ethyl hexanoate increased. Enthalpy of vaporization and activity coefficients of the aroma compounds were calculated.

  8. Effectiveness of sucrose during the frozen storage of arazá (Eugenia stipitata Mc. Vaugh pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Johanna Silva-Bustos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sucrose on the quality of frozen arazá pulp were investigated. Five levels of sucrose (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30% were evaluated in combination with freezing at low speed, storage during one month, and thawing at two different speeds. Sensory quality and water loss after centrifugation (WLAC were evaluated in the samples. Before freezing sucrose addition (5-30% to the pulp did not affect the sensory quality of the samples, but a negative effect on WLAC at 5-10% sucrose was observed. Furthermore, addition of 20-30% sucrose to arazá pulp, in combination with low speed-freezing, frozen storage, and low-speed-thawing, can be a useful technique to preserve the texture of arazá pulp. The described treatment gave results comparable to those obtained for the fresh pulp and much better than those obtained when freezing was done at high speed

  9. [14C]-Sucrose uptake by guard cell protoplasts of pisum sativum, argenteum mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrig, K.; Raschke, K.

    1991-01-01

    Guard cells rely on import for their supply with reduced carbon. The authors tested by silicone oil centrifugation the ability of guard cell protoplasts to accumulated [ 14 C]-sucrose. Uptake rates were corrected after measurement of 14 C-sorbitol and 3 H 2 O spaces. Sucrose uptake followed biphasic kinetics, with a high-affinity component below 1 mM external sucrose (apparent K m 0.8 mM at 25C) and a low-affinity nonsaturable component above. Uptake depended on pH (optimum at pH 5.0). Variations in the concentrations of external KCl, CCCP, and valinomycin indicated that about one-half of the sucrose uptake rate could be related to an electrochemical gradient across the plasmalemma. Total uptake rates measured at 5 mM external sucrose seem to be sufficient to replenish emptied plastids with starch within a few hours

  10. A sucrose-rich diet induces mutations in the rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars O.; Daneshvar, Bahram; Vogel, Ulla

    2002-01-01

    A sucrose-rich diet has repeatedly been observed to have cocarcinogenic actions in the colon and liver of rats and to increase the number of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. To investigate whether sucrose-rich diets might directly increase the genotoxic response in the rat colon or liver, we have...... added sucrose to the diet of Big Blue rats, a strain of Fischer rats carrying 40 copies of the lambda-phage on chromosome 4. Dietary sucrose was provided to the rats for 3 weeks at four dose levels including the background level in the purified diet [3.4% (control), 6.9%, 13.8%, or 34.5%] without...... of a sucrose-rich diet. No significant increase in mutations was observed in the liver. To seek an explanation for this finding, a variety of parameters were examined representing different mechanisms, including increased oxidative stress, changes in oxidative defense, effects on DNA repair, or changes...

  11. An integrated bio-process for production of functional biomolecules utilizing raw and by-products from dairy and sugarcane industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Kusum; Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2018-04-21

    The study investigated an integrated bioprocessing of raw and by-products from sugarcane and dairy industries for production of non-digestible prebiotic and functional ingredients. The low-priced feedstock, whey, molasses, table sugar, jaggery, etc., were subjected to transglucosylation reactions catalyzed by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508. HPLC analysis approximated production of about 11-14 g L -1 trisaccharide i.e. 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose (4-galactosyl-kojibiose) from the feedstock prepared from table sugar, jaggery, cane molasses and liquid whey, containing about 30 g L -1 sucrose and lactose each. The trisaccharide was hydrolysed into the prebiotic disaccharide, kojibiose, by employing recombinant β-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. The enzyme β-galactosidase achieved about 90% conversion of 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose into kojibiose. The D-fructose generated by catalytic reactions of dextransucrase was targeted for catalytic transformation into rare sugar, D-allulose (or D-psicose), by treating the samples with Smt3-D-psicose 3-epimerase. The catalytic reactions resulted in the conversion of ~ 25% D-fructose to D-allulose. These bioactive compounds are known to exert a plethora of benefits to human health, and therefore, are preferred ingredients for making functional foods.

  12. Induction of somaclonal variation and mutations in sugarcane calli for selecting mutants with resistance to red-rot and tolerance to water-logged conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.A.Q.; Begum, S.; Samad, M.A.; Shmsuzzaman, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Immature leaves of cv. 'Isd-16' of sugarcane were cultured on modified MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l 2,4-D for callus induction. The calli were transferred to MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/l IAA and 2.0 mg/l KIN for shoot regeneration. The shoots were rooted on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/1NAA and 70 g/l sucrose. The regenerated plants were screened against red-rot disease and water-logged condition in a field. Of the 368 plants inoculated with red-rot pathogen, only one was moderately resistant and two were moderately susceptible. In another set of 500 R 1 plants, six clones were tolerant to water-logged condition. Four week-old callus cultures were irradiated with doses of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10 Gy gamma-rays. Survival of calli decreased with increase in radiation dose and ranged from 58 to 91%. Regenerated shoots were obtained from all irradiated calli except those treated with 8 and 10 Gy. Shoot regeneration from the irradiated calli ranged from 8 to 50%, and gave 768 R 1 plants. The highest regeneration of plants was obtained from calli treated with 3 Gy. These plants are being grown in a field for screening against red-rot and water-logged conditions. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs

  13. Induction of somaclonal variation and mutations in sugarcane calli for selecting mutants with resistance to red-rot and tolerance to water-logged conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, M A.Q.; Begum, S; Samad, M A; Shmsuzzaman, K M [Bangladesh Inst. of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)

    1997-07-01

    Immature leaves of cv. `Isd-16` of sugarcane were cultured on modified MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l 2,4-D for callus induction. The calli were transferred to MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/l IAA and 2.0 mg/l KIN for shoot regeneration. The shoots were rooted on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/1NAA and 70 g/l sucrose. The regenerated plants were screened against red-rot disease and water-logged condition in a field. Of the 368 plants inoculated with red-rot pathogen, only one was moderately resistant and two were moderately susceptible. In another set of 500 R{sub 1} plants, six clones were tolerant to water-logged condition. Four week-old callus cultures were irradiated with doses of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10 Gy gamma-rays. Survival of calli decreased with increase in radiation dose and ranged from 58 to 91%. Regenerated shoots were obtained from all irradiated calli except those treated with 8 and 10 Gy. Shoot regeneration from the irradiated calli ranged from 8 to 50%, and gave 768 R{sub 1} plants. The highest regeneration of plants was obtained from calli treated with 3 Gy. These plants are being grown in a field for screening against red-rot and water-logged conditions. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs.

  14. Carbon source-sink relationship in Arabidopsis thaliana: the role of sucrose transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Mickaël; Mainson, Dany; Porcheron, Benoît; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi; Pourtau, Nathalie

    2018-03-01

    The regulation of source-to-sink sucrose transport is associated with AtSUC and AtSWEET sucrose transporters' gene expression changes in plants grown hydroponically under different physiological conditions. Source-to-sink transport of sucrose is one of the major determinants of plant growth. Whole-plant carbohydrates' partitioning requires the specific activity of membrane sugar transporters. In Arabidopsis thaliana plants, two families of transporters are involved in sucrose transport: AtSUCs and AtSWEETs. This study is focused on the comparison of sucrose transporter gene expression, soluble sugar and starch levels and long distance sucrose transport, in leaves and sink organs (mainly roots) in different physiological conditions (along the plant life cycle, during a diel cycle, and during an osmotic stress) in plants grown hydroponically. In leaves, the AtSUC2, AtSWEET11, and 12 genes known to be involved in phloem loading were highly expressed when sucrose export was high and reduced during osmotic stress. In roots, AtSUC1 was highly expressed and its expression profile in the different conditions tested suggests that it may play a role in sucrose unloading in roots and in root growth. The SWEET transporter genes AtSWEET12, 13, and 15 were found expressed in all organs at all stages studied, while differential expression was noticed for AtSWEET14 in roots, stems, and siliques and AtSWEET9, 10 expressions were only detected in stems and siliques. A role for these transporters in carbohydrate partitioning in different source-sink status is proposed, with a specific attention on carbon demand in roots. During development, despite trophic competition with others sinks, roots remained a significant sink, but during osmotic stress, the amount of translocated [U- 14 C]-sucrose decreased for rosettes and roots. Altogether, these results suggest that source-sink relationship may be linked with the regulation of sucrose transporter gene expression.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database, starch and sucrose metabolism (147, 2.40% constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS, both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research.

  16. Diurnal fluctuations in cotton leaf carbon export, carbohydrate content, and sucrose synthesizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, D L; Huber, S C

    1986-06-01

    In fully expanded leaves of greenhouse-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., cv Coker 100) plants, carbon export, starch accumulation rate, and carbon exchange rate exhibited different behavior during the light period. Starch accumulation rates were relatively constant during the light period, whereas carbon export rate was greater in the afternoon than in the morning even though the carbon exchange rate peaked about noon. Sucrose levels increased throughout the light period and dropped sharply with the onset of darkness; hexose levels were relatively constant except for a slight peak in the early morning. Sucrose synthase, usually thought to be a degradative enzyme, was found in unusually high activities in cotton leaf. Both sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthetase activities were found to fluctuate diurnally in cotton leaves but with different rhythms. Diurnal fluctuations in the rate of sucrose export were generally aligned with sucrose phosphate synthase activity during the light period but not with sucrose synthase activity; neither enzyme activity correlated with carbon export during the dark. Cotton leaf sucrose phosphate synthase activity was sufficient to account for the observed carbon export rates; there is no need to invoke sucrose synthase as a synthetic enzyme in mature cotton leaves. During the dark a significant correlation was found between starch degradation rate and leaf carbon export. These results indicate that carbon partitioning in cotton leaf is somewhat independent of the carbon exchange rate and that leaf carbon export rate may be linked to sucrose formation and content during the light period and to starch breakdown in the dark.

  17. Sucrose transporters in two members of the Scrophulariaceae with different types of transport sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, C; Voitsekhovskaja, O; Lohaus, G

    2001-05-01

    In order to study differences between sugar transport in oligosaccharide-translocating and sucrose-translocating species, two members of the Scrophulariaceae, Asarina barclaiana Pennell and Alonsoa meridionalis O. Kuntze, were analysed regarding minor-vein anatomy, sugar concentrations in leaves and phloem sap, and expression of sucrose transporters. The minor veins of Asarina barclaiana possess mainly transfer cells and modified intermediary cells and those of Alonsoa meridionalis have intermediary cells and ordinary companion cells. Phloem sap from these plants was collected by the laser-aphid-stylet technique. The main carbon transport forms in Asarina were sucrose and in Alonsoa raffinose and stachyose. The sum of the carbohydrate concentrations in the phloem sap of both species was as high as that in apoplastic phloem loaders. In Asarina the ratio of the sucrose concentration in the phloem to that in the cytosol of source cells was about 35 and the corresponding ratio in Alonsoa was about two. Sucrose transporter cDNAs were isolated from leaves of both species. By means of semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sucrose transporter mRNA was detected in different organs and also in the phloem sap. This is the first time that sucrose transporters have been found in oligosaccharide-translocating species and that the mRNA of these sucrose transporters has been localized directly in the phloem sap. Taken together, our observations indicate that Asarina is an apoplastic phloem loader, while the results for Alonsoa are ambiguous: some properties are typical of the symplastic phloem-loading mechanism, but probably a sucrose transporter is involved in loading and/or retrieval of sucrose into the phloem.

  18. Effect of Sucrose and Growth Regulator’s Level on Ginger Micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resham Babu Amgai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ginger is most important cash crop of the hilly region of Nepal. However, availability of disease free planting material (rhizome is the major problem faced by Nepalese farmers. Tissue culture is the only option to produce disease free rhizome of ginger. Suitable culture media combination is most important for the production of planting material in ginger through tissue culture. Therefore, effect of different level of sucrose and growth regulators on micro-propagation of ginger was studied using local collection ‘Kaski Local’. Early stage bud was used as explant. MS basal media with different level of sucrose and growth regulators was used as tissue culture media. 30 g/L sucrose, 30 g/L sucrose+5mg/L BA, 30 g/L sucrose+5 mg/L BA+0.5 mg/L NAA, 60 g/L sucrose+5mg/L BA, 60 g/L sucrose+5 mg/L BA+0.5mg/L NAA, 90 g/L sucrose+5 mg/L BA was used in this study. The explants were surface sterilized, cultured and incubated at 25±2°C, 90-95% relative humidity and 14:10 hours light:dark photoperiod for 8 weeks. Increased level of the sucrose increased the rhizome weight, however, addition of NAA produced more positive effect for this. MS basal media with 60 g/L sucrose+5 mg/L BA+0.5 mg/L NAA produced higher rhizome weight.

  19. The catalytic effect of honey on formation of reducing sugars during sucrose hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Mirjana N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In commercial apiculture, beekepers usually remove honey from hives and replenish food reserves with sugar syrup. When honeybees use sugar syrup (sucrose solution, they break down sucrose into glucose and fructose. These processes exhaust and weaken bees. In order to prevent bee exhaustion resulting from this processing, bees should preferably be supplied with ready made food before winter, i.e., with syrup in which sucrose has already been inverted. Feeding with inverted syrups is the most popular way of honeybee feeding. Beekeepers usually prepare inverted syrups by adding a weak organic acid (citric, oxalic, acetic or lactic acid to sucrose solution at elevated temperatures. Inverted syrup production under uncontrolled pH, temperature and time conditions can cause the formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF, a compound harmful to bees. High quality inverted syrup can be obtained through the hydrolytic decomposition of sucrose by the enzyme invertase. Due to its invertase content, honey can be used as a biocatalyst for sucrose inversion. Invertase activity depends on the type, method and time of honey storage. This study evaluates the catalytic effect of acacia honey on formation of reducing sugars during hydrolysis of 50 wt.% sucrose solution. The ratio of reducing sugars and sucrose at 40°C, after 5 days of hydrolysis at a concentration of honey and 10 wt.% was 0.30 g reducing sugars/g of sucrose. The highest content of reducing sugars was achieved at a temperature of 35°C, after 48 h of invertion. In all samples of hydrolysates obtained at different temperatures (35–65°C, HMF was detected at concentrations of less than 4.32 mg kg–1. A high degree of negative correlation (coefficient of linearity –0.94 was established between parameters of volumetric and polarimetric measurements during the hydrolysis of sucrose. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 46010

  20. Selection of Suitable Endogenous Reference Genes for Relative Copy Number Detection in Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bantong Xue

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential “single copy” genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3—high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1—medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2—low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane.

  1. Integrated production of sugarcane ethanol and soybean biodiesel: Environmental and economic implications of fossil diesel displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone P.; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sugarcane sector is responsible for around 4% of the diesel consumption in Brazil. • Soybean biodiesel can reduce the fossil diesel demand in the sugarcane sector. • The local use of biodiesel could reduce logistic problems and environmental burdens. • The sugarcane–soybean integration is likely to improve ethanol life cycle performance. • Fiscal incentives could reduce the economic uncertainties of the integration. - Abstract: The sugarcane industry in Brazil has been considered promising for the production of advanced fuels and bio-based products. However, the sugarcane crop requires high volumes of fossil fuel for cultivation and transport. The use of biodiesel as a diesel substitute could reduce the environmental burdens associated with this high consumption. This work performed a stochastic evaluation of the environmental and economic implications of the integrated production of sugarcane bioethanol and soybean biodiesel, in comparison with the traditional sugarcane-to-ethanol process. The analysis was focused on the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and São Paulo, where this integration would be particularly attractive. The environmental aspects addressed were the fossil energy use and the GHG emissions in a cradle-to-gate approach. The economic analysis comprised the evaluation of the net present value of an incremental cash flow generated by the soybean production and by the adjacent plants of oil extraction and biodiesel. Results indicate that the integrated system is likely to improve the ethanol environmental performance, especially with regard to the fossil energy use. The integration is economically feasible but highly uncertain; however, it could be significantly improved through fiscal incentives to biodiesel producers, founded on the reduction of fossil energy use and on improvements in logistics. In addition, the proposed model may also assist in the design of other integrated systems applied to the sugarcane sector in Brazil

  2. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Leite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. At all sites, in-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components, internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential-linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply and crop demand (potential yield. Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1 were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1 and N:K (0.5:1 ratios.

  3. Surplus electricity production in sugarcane mills using residual bagasse and straw as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Moises; Ponce, Gustavo H.S.F.; Silva, Maria Aparecida; Ensinas, Adriano V.

    2015-01-01

    The cogeneration system is one of the most important parts of sugarcane mills which use the bagasse as fuel. In the recent years, modern equipments and energy efficiency measures made possible to the sugarcane industry, the production of surplus electricity which become, besides the sugar and ethanol, a third product from the same renewable source, the sugarcane. This work analyses the surplus electric power systems for three different schemes of cogeneration system in the sugarcane industry through the simulator Thermoflow"®. The analysis is made considering both the available bagasse and sugarcane straw recovery as fuel in three different scenarios for the industrial process energy requirements. The results show that the CEST (Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine) system can have a surplus of electricity of up to four times higher than the BPST (Backpressure Steam Turbine) system. The system CEST can have an increase in surplus power above 23% and 102% for the rate of 10% and 50% of cane straw recovery in the field respectively. The BPST-C (Backpressure and Condensing Turbines) system can produce similar values of surplus electricity when compared with the system CEST, but may represent an opportunity of flexible operation of the cogeneration systems in harvest and off-seasons. - Highlights: • At least three cogeneration system options are available in sugarcane mills. • Nowadays, only steam-based cycle cogeneration systems are used in sugarcane mills. • BPST system is limited to 70 e kWh/t cane of surplus electricity production. • CEST system increases the surplus electricity up to four times than the BPST. • Operation during off-season of the BPST-C system is an advantage for this option.

  4. Loss of soil (macro)fauna due to the expansion of Brazilian sugarcane acreage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, André L C; Bartz, Marie L C; Cherubin, Maurício R; Baretta, Dilmar; Cerri, Carlos E P; Feigl, Brigitte J; Wall, Diana H; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-09-01

    Land use changes (LUC) from pasture to sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop are expected to add 6.4Mha of new sugarcane land by 2021 in the Brazilian Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes. We assessed the effects of these LUC on the abundance and community structure of animals that inhabit soils belowground through a field survey using chronosequences of land uses comprising native vegetation, pasture, and sugarcane along a 1000-km-long transect across these two major tropical biomes in Brazil. Macrofauna community composition differed among land uses. While most groups were associated with samples taken in native vegetation, high abundance of termites and earthworms appeared associated with pasture soils. Linear mixed effects analysis showed that LUC affected total abundance (X(2)(1)=6.79, p=0.03) and taxa richness (X(2)(1)=6.08, p=0.04) of soil macrofauna. Abundance increased from 411±70individualsm(-2) in native vegetation to 1111±202individualsm(-2) in pasture, but decreased sharply to 106±24individualsm(-2) in sugarcane soils. Diversity decreased 24% from native vegetation to pasture, and 39% from pasture to sugarcane. Thus, a reduction of ~90% in soil macrofauna abundance, besides a loss of ~40% in the diversity of macrofauna groups, can be expected when sugarcane crops replace pasture in Brazilian tropical soils. In general, higher abundances of major macrofauna groups (ants, coleopterans, earthworms, and termites) were associated with higher acidity and low contents of macronutrients and organic matter in soil. This study draws attention for a significant biodiversity loss belowground due to tropical LUC in sugarcane expansion areas. Given that many groups of soil macrofauna are recognized as key mediators of ecosystem processes such as soil aggregation, nutrients cycling and soil carbon storage, our results warrant further efforts to understand the impacts of altering belowground biodiversity and composition on soil functioning and agriculture performance

  5. microRNAs Associated with Drought Response in the Bioenergy Crop Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Romel Duarte; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Dias, Lara Isys; Endres, Laurício; Menossi, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is one of the most important crops in the world. Drought stress is a major abiotic stress factor that significantly reduces sugarcane yields. However the gene network that mediates plant responses to water stress remains largely unknown in several crop species. Although several microRNAs that mediate post-transcriptional regulation during water stress have been described in other species, the role of the sugarcane microRNAs during drought stress has not been studied. The objective of this work was to identify sugarcane miRNAs that are differentially expressed under drought stress and to correlate this expression with the behavior of two sugarcane cultivars with different drought tolerances. The sugarcane cultivars RB867515 (higher drought tolerance) and RB855536 (lower drought tolerance) were cultivated in a greenhouse for three months and then subjected to drought for 2, 4, 6 or 8 days. By deep sequencing of small RNAs, we were able to identify 18 miRNA families. Among all of the miRNAs thus identified, seven were differentially expressed during drought. Six of these miRNAs were differentially expressed at two days of stress, and five miRNAs were differentially expressed at four days. The expression levels of five miRNAs (ssp-miR164, ssp-miR394, ssp-miR397, ssp-miR399-seq 1 and miR528) were validated by RT-qPCR (quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR). Six precursors and the targets of the differentially expressed miRNA were predicted using an in silico approach and validated by RT-qPCR; many of these targets may play important roles in drought tolerance. These findings constitute a significant increase in the number of identified miRNAs in sugarcane and contribute to the elucidation of the complex regulatory network that is activated by drought stress. PMID:23071617

  6. Towards a sustainable sugarcane industry in India : baseline results on Solidaridad’s programme: Increasing water use efficiency in sugarcane growing in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, C.; Rijn, van F.; Ende, van der H.; Koster, T.

    2017-01-01

    Wageningen Economic Research conducts a study to evaluate the socioeconomic impact on sugarcane farmers of the Solidaridad programme. A pipeline approach was used, which clusters the farmers in cohorts based on the year they receive support and training: 2016, 2017 and 2018. A baseline survey was

  7. Influence of calcium oxide level and time of exposure to sugarcane on in vitro and in situ digestion kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate, using in vitro and in situ techniques, the effects of three inclusion levels of calcium oxide (0, 5, and 10 g/kg of sugarcane fresh matter) and four exposure times (0, 24, 48, and 72 h) of sugarcane to calcium oxide on the chemical composition and digestive ...

  8. Sugarcane and pine biochar as amendments for greenhouse growing media for the production of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana sugarcane farmers in 2016 harvested 11.7 million Mg of millable sugarcane from 163,000 ha, producing 1.47 million Mg of raw sugar and an estimated 3.5 million Mg of bagasse. Even though Louisiana sugar mills use 80% to 90% of the bagasse for fuel production, another 350,000 to 700,000 Mg o...

  9. Spread, genetic variation and methods for the detection of Puccinia kuehnii, the causal agent of sugarcane orange rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane is susceptible to infection by two rust pathogens, Puccinia melanocephala and P. kuehnii, causing brown and orange rust, respectively. Orange rust of sugarcane was first reported in the Western hemisphere in Florida in July 2007. The pathogen was found to be distributed widely throughout t...

  10. Screening for Resistance to Brown Rust of Sugarcane: Use of Bru1 resistance gene prospects and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rust of sugarcane caused by, Puccinia melanocephala, is a serious problem in the US sugarcane industry. A major resistance gene, Bru1 was identified and methodology for detecting it was developed by French scientists at CIRAD. The majority of the research resulting in the discovery of Bru1 res...

  11. Distribution and frequency of Bru1, a major brown rust resistance gene, in the sugarcane world collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala, is an important disease of sugarcane worldwide. Molecular markers for a major brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, were used to screen a total of 1,282 clones in the World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) to determine the distribution and...

  12. Constructing high-density genetic maps for polyploid sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and identifying quantitative trait loci controlling brown rust resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important economic crop for producing edible sugar and bioethanol. Brown rust had long been a major disease impacting sugarcane production world widely. Resistance resource and markers linked to the resistance are valuable tools for disease resistance improvement. An...

  13. CHEMOENZYMATIC SYNTHESIS OF BIODEGRADABLE POLY(1′-O-VINYLADIPOYL-SUCROSE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Des-hui Lu; Qi Wu; Xian-fu Lin

    2002-01-01

    A novel polymer containing the sucrose group was synthesized by radical polymerization from an enzymaticallyprepared monomer, 1′-O-vinyladipoyl-sucrose (VAS). Transesterification reaction of sucrose with divinyl adipate inanhydrous pyridine catalyzed by an alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis at 60℃ for 7 days gave VAS (yield 55%) withoutany blocking/deblocking steps. The vinyl sucrose ester could be polymerized with potassium persulfate and H2O2 as initiatorto give poly(1′-O-vinyladipoyl-sucrose) with Mn = 33,000 and Mw = 53,200, Mw/Mn = 1.61. The polymer was biodegradable.After 6 days in aqueous buffer (pH 7), this alkaline protease could degrade poly(1′-O-vinyladipoyl-sucrose) to Mn of ca.1080, Mw/Mn = 3.30 (37℃), and Mn of ca. 5200, Mw/Mn = 2.44 (4℃). The polymer containing the sucrose branch would be afunctional material in various application fields.

  14. Family history of alcoholism and the human brain response to oral sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiler, William J A; Dzemidzic, Mario; Soeurt, Christina M; Carron, Claire R; Oberlin, Brandon G; Considine, Robert V; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Kareken, David A

    2018-01-01

    A heightened hedonic response to sweet tastes has been associated with increased alcohol preference and alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. The principal goal of this study was to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation to high- and low-concentration sweet solutions in subjects who are either positive (FHP) or negative (FHN) for a family history of alcoholism. Seventy-four non-treatment seeking, community-recruited, healthy volunteers (22.8 ± 1.6 SD years; 43% men) rated a range of sucrose concentrations in a taste test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during oral delivery of water, 0.83 M, and 0.10 M sucrose. Sucrose compared to water produced robust activation in primary gustatory cortex, ventral insula, amygdala, and ventral striatum. FHP subjects displayed greater bilateral amygdala activation than FHN subjects in the low sucrose concentration (0.10 M). In secondary analyses, the right amygdala response to the 0.10 M sucrose was greatest in FHP women. When accounting for group differences in drinks per week, the family history groups remained significantly different in their right amygdala response to 0.10 M sucrose. Our findings suggest that the brain response to oral sucrose differs with a family history of alcoholism, and that this response to a mildly reinforcing primary reward might be an endophenotypic marker of alcoholism risk.

  15. Family history of alcoholism and the human brain response to oral sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J.A. Eiler, II

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A heightened hedonic response to sweet tastes has been associated with increased alcohol preference and alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. The principal goal of this study was to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation to high- and low-concentration sweet solutions in subjects who are either positive (FHP or negative (FHN for a family history of alcoholism. Seventy-four non-treatment seeking, community-recruited, healthy volunteers (22.8 ± 1.6 SD years; 43% men rated a range of sucrose concentrations in a taste test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during oral delivery of water, 0.83 M, and 0.10 M sucrose. Sucrose compared to water produced robust activation in primary gustatory cortex, ventral insula, amygdala, and ventral striatum. FHP subjects displayed greater bilateral amygdala activation than FHN subjects in the low sucrose concentration (0.10 M. In secondary analyses, the right amygdala response to the 0.10 M sucrose was greatest in FHP women. When accounting for group differences in drinks per week, the family history groups remained significantly different in their right amygdala response to 0.10 M sucrose. Our findings suggest that the brain response to oral sucrose differs with a family history of alcoholism, and that this response to a mildly reinforcing primary reward might be an endophenotypic marker of alcoholism risk.

  16. Physical properties and consumer liking of cookies prepared by replacing sucrose with tagatose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T P; Fasina, O; Bell, L N

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of tagatose, a minimally absorbed prebiotic monosaccharide, as a replacement for sucrose in cookies. A sucrose-containing cookie recipe was prepared as the control. Sucrose was replaced with tagatose at various levels ranging from 25% to 100%. Cookies containing fructose were also prepared for comparison due to the structural similarities between tagatose and fructose. The rheological properties of the dough were measured using texture profile analysis. The baked cookies were evaluated for spread, color, and hardness. For tagatose-containing cookies, the extent of likeness was evaluated by 53 untrained panelists using a 9-point hedonic scale. When sucrose was replaced by tagatose, doughs with similar rheological properties to the control resulted. The tagatose-containing cookies were harder and darker with a lower spread than the control. Sensory data indicated that panelists liked the brown color of the 100% tagatose cookies better than the control, but disliked their sweetness. Overall likeness scores of the control and cookies made by replacing half of the sucrose with tagatose were the same. Tagatose appears to be suitable as a partial replacer for sucrose in cookies based on similar dough properties, cookie properties, and likeness scores. Using tagatose to replace sucrose in foods would reduce the amount of metabolizeable sugars in the diet as well as provide the desirable prebiotic effect.

  17. Oral sucrose for heel lance increases adenosine triphosphate use and oxidative stress in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmerom, Yayesh; Slater, Laurel; Boskovic, Danilo S; Bahjri, Khaled; Holden, Megan S; Phillips, Raylene; Deming, Douglas; Ashwal, Stephen; Fayard, Elba; Angeles, Danilyn M

    2013-07-01

    To examine the effects of sucrose on pain and biochemical markers of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) degradation and oxidative stress in preterm neonates experiencing a clinically required heel lance. Preterm neonates that met study criteria (n = 131) were randomized into 3 groups: (1) control; (2) heel lance treated with placebo and non-nutritive sucking; and (3) heel lance treated with sucrose and non-nutritive sucking. Plasma markers of ATP degradation (hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid) and oxidative stress (allantoin) were measured before and after the heel lance. Pain was measured with the Premature Infant Pain Profile. Data were analyzed by the use of repeated-measures ANOVA and Spearman rho. We found significant increases in plasma hypoxanthine and uric acid over time in neonates who received sucrose. We also found a significant negative correlation between pain scores and plasma allantoin concentration in a subgroup of neonates who received sucrose. A single dose of oral sucrose, given before heel lance, significantly increased ATP use and oxidative stress in premature neonates. Because neonates are given multiple doses of sucrose per day, randomized trials are needed to examine the effects of repeated sucrose administration on ATP degradation, oxidative stress, and cell injury. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduced infant response to a routine care procedure after sucrose analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddio, Anna; Shah, Vibhuti; Katz, Joel

    2009-03-01

    Sucrose has analgesic and calming effects in newborns. To date, it is not known whether the beneficial effects extend to caregiving procedures that are performed after painful procedures. Our objective was to determine the effect of sucrose analgesia for procedural pain on infant pain responses during a subsequent caregiving procedure. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Healthy neonates within 2 strata (normal infants and infants of diabetic mothers) were randomly assigned to a sucrose or placebo water group before all needle procedures after birth. Pain response during a diaper change performed after venipuncture for the newborn screening test was determined by using a validated multidimensional measure, the Premature Infant Pain Profile. The study was conducted between September 15, 2003, and July 27, 2004. Altogether, 412 parents were approached; 263 consented. Twenty-three infants were not assigned, leaving 240 for participation (n = 120 per group), with an equal number in each infant strata. Of those, 186 (78%) completed the study. There were no significant differences in birth characteristics between groups. During diaper change, sucrose-treated infants had lower pain scores than placebo-treated infants. The relative risk of having pain, defined as a Premature Infant Pain Profile score of >/=6, was 0.64 with sucrose compared with placebo. This study demonstrates that when used to manage pain, sucrose reduces the pain response to a subsequent routine caregiving procedure. Therefore, the benefits of sucrose analgesia extend beyond the painful event to other aversive and potentially painful procedures.

  19. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of Emission Factors through Laboratory Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Andrade Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for the Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. However, the common practice of pre-harvest burning of sugarcane straw emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the practice of pre-harvest sugarcane burning in the near future, there is still significant environmental damage. Thus, the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess their environmental impact. Nevertheless, the official Brazilian emissions inventory does not presently include the contribution from pre-harvest sugarcane burning. In this context, this work aims to determine sugarcane straw burning emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 μm in the laboratory. Excess mixing ratios for CO2, CO, NOX, UHC (unburned hydrocarbons, and PM2.5 were measured, allowing the estimation of their respective emission factors. Average estimated values for emission factors (g kg−1 of burned dry biomass were 1,303 ± 218 for CO2, 65 ± 14 for CO, 1.5 ± 0.4 for NOX, 16 ± 6 for UHC, and 2.6 ± 1.6 for PM2.5. These emission factors can be used to generate more realistic emission inventories and therefore improve the results of air quality models.

  20. A structured approach to target starch solubilisation and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Marsha R; Rose, Ingrid; Chung, Yoo Jin; Eggleston, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial α-amylases have been used for many years to mitigate issues arising from starch in the sugarcane industry. Mixed results have prompted further studies of the behaviour of different physical forms of starch and their interactions with α-amylases during processing. By using corn starch as a reference in model juices and syrups, processing parameters, activities, and hydrolysis of insoluble, swollen, and soluble starch forms were evaluated for two commercial α-amylases with high (HT) and intermediate (IT) temperature stability, respectively. The ability of starch to solubilise across a sugarcane factory is largely limited by increased Brix values. Optimum target locations and conditions for the application of α-amylases in sugarcane processing are discussed in detail. Published by Elsevier Ltd.