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Sample records for sugar prices rankle

  1. Sugar Price Supports and Taxation

    Dilk, Abby; Savaiano, Dennis A.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar “tax” on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of “empty” calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)—sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources—is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity. There have been substantial efforts to tax sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to both reduce consumption and provide a source of funds for nutrition education, thereby emulating the tobacco tax model. Volume-based SSB taxes levy the tax rate per ounce of liquid, where some are only imposed on beverages with added sugar content exceeding a set threshold. Nonetheless, volume-based taxes have significant limitations in encouraging consumers to reduce their caloric intake due to a lack of transparency at the point of purchase. Thus, it is hypothesized that point-of-purchase, nutrient-specific excise taxes on SSBs would be more effective at reducing sugar consumption. However, all SSB taxes are limited by the possibility that consumers may compensate their decreased intake from SSBs with other high-calorie junk foods. Furthermore, there are no existing studies to provide evidence on how SSB taxes will impact obesity rates in the long term. The paradox of sugar prices is that Americans have paid higher prices for sugar to protect domestic production for more than 80 years, and now, Americans are being asked to pay even more to promote public health. The effective use of sugar taxes should be considered based on their merits in reducing sugar consumption and making available a new

  2. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there

  3. Sugar Price Supports and Taxation: A Public Health Policy Paradox.

    Dilk, Abby; Savaiano, Dennis A

    2017-05-01

    Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar "tax" on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of "empty" calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)-sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources-is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity. There have been substantial efforts to tax sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to both reduce consumption and provide a source of funds for nutrition education, thereby emulating the tobacco tax model. Volume-based SSB taxes levy the tax rate per ounce of liquid, where some are only imposed on beverages with added sugar content exceeding a set threshold. Nonetheless, volume-based taxes have significant limitations in encouraging consumers to reduce their caloric intake due to a lack of transparency at the point of purchase. Thus, it is hypothesized that point-of-purchase, nutrient-specific excise taxes on SSBs would be more effective at reducing sugar consumption. However, all SSB taxes are limited by the possibility that consumers may compensate their decreased intake from SSBs with other high-calorie junk foods. Furthermore, there are no existing studies to provide evidence on how SSB taxes will impact obesity rates in the long term. The paradox of sugar prices is that Americans have paid higher prices for sugar to protect domestic production for more than 80 years, and now, Americans are being asked to pay even more to promote public health. The effective use of sugar taxes should be considered based on their merits in reducing sugar consumption and making available a new source of

  4. Analysis of transmission elasticity of international prices for sugar prices in Brazil: an application of the Structural Model

    Mario Antonio Margarido

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine and analyze the spatial elasticity (or horizontal of price transmission between international sugar prices and the average price received by the Brazilian exporter of sugar, using the Structural Model. The data used are from January/2004 to November/2015. As a result, variations of 1% in the international sugar price are transmitted to the average price received by Brazilian sugar exporters with a magnitude of 0.3% on average, setting inelastic relationship between the two variables and, consequently, the non-occurrence of the law of one price. So, there are mechanisms in this market that are hindering the full functioning of the arbitration. This situation is not unusual, because the sugar is one of the most commercially protected product and suffer much interference.

  5. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power

    Melo, Carmem Ozana de; Silva, Gerson Henrique da; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  6. Price elasticity of the demand for sugar sweetened beverages and soft drinks in Mexico.

    Colchero, M A; Salgado, J C; Unar-Munguía, M; Hernández-Ávila, M; Rivera-Dommarco, J A

    2015-12-01

    A large and growing body of scientific evidence demonstrates that sugar drinks are harmful to health. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Mexico has one of the largest per capita consumption of soft drinks worldwide and high rates of obesity and diabetes. Fiscal approaches such as taxation have been recommended as a public health policy to reduce SSB consumption. We estimated an almost ideal demand system with linear approximation for beverages and high-energy food by simultaneous equations and derived the own and cross price elasticities for soft drinks and for all SSB (soft drinks, fruit juices, fruit drinks, flavored water and energy drinks). Models were stratified by income quintile and marginality index at the municipality level. Price elasticity for soft drinks was -1.06 and -1.16 for SSB, i.e., a 10% price increase was associated with a decrease in quantity consumed of soft drinks by 10.6% and 11.6% for SSB. A price increase in soft drinks is associated with larger quantity consumed of water, milk, snacks and sugar and a decrease in the consumption of other SSB, candies and traditional snacks. The same was found for SSB except that an increase in price of SSB was associated with a decrease in snacks. Higher elasticities were found among households living in rural areas (for soft drinks), in more marginalized areas and with lower income. Implementation of a tax to soft drinks or to SSB could decrease consumption particularly among the poor. Substitutions and complementarities with other food and beverages should be evaluated to assess the potential impact on total calories consumed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Young adults' responses to alternative messages describing a sugar-sweetened beverage price increase.

    Gollust, Sarah E; Tang, Xuyang; White, James M; French, Simone A; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Rothman, Alexander J

    2017-01-01

    Many jurisdictions in the USA and globally are considering raising the prices of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) through taxes as a strategy to reduce their consumption. The objective of the present study was to identify whether the rationale provided for an SSB price increase affects young adults' behavioural intentions and attitudes towards SSB. Participants were randomly assigned to receive one of eight SSB price increase rationales. Intentions to purchase SSB and attitudes about the product and policy were measured. A forty-six-item cross-sectional Internet survey. Undergraduate students (n 494) at a large US Midwestern university. Rationale type was significantly associated with differences in participants' purchasing intentions for the full sample (F 7,485=2·53, P=0·014). Presenting the rationale for an SSB price increase as a user fee, an effort to reduce obesity, a strategy to offset health-care costs or to protect children led to lower SSB purchasing intentions compared with a message with no rationale. Rationale type was also significantly associated with differences in perceptions of soda companies (F 7,485=2·10, P=0·043); among low consumers of SSB, messages describing the price increase as a user fee or tax led to more negative perceptions of soda companies. The rationale attached to an SSB price increase could influence consumers. However, these message effects may depend on individuals' level of SSB consumption.

  8. The Effect of Sugar Price Policy on U.S. Imports of Processed Sugar-containing foods

    Jabara, Cathy L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of sugar protection, as well as the effects of these other factors, on U.S. demand for imports of sugar-containing products. The paper also addresses two main issues: (1) whether substitution of alternative sweeteners has allowed U.S. food manufactures to reduce the competitive advantage provided to foreign manufactures by U.S. sugar policies, and (2) which countries -- developed or developing -- have been able to increase their exports of sugar-containing prod...

  9. Effect of increasing the price of sugar-sweetened beverages on alcoholic beverage purchases: an economic analysis of sales data.

    Quirmbach, Diana; Cornelsen, Laura; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa; Smith, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Taxing soft-drinks may reduce their purchase, but assessing the impact on health demands wider consideration on alternative beverage choices. Effects on alcoholic drinks are of particular concern, as many contain similar or greater amounts of sugar than soft-drinks and have additional health harms. Changes in consumption of alcoholic drinks may reinforce or negate the intended effect of price changes for soft-drinks. A partial demand model, adapted from the Almost Ideal Demand System, was applied to Kantar Worldpanel data from 31 919 households from January 2012 to December 2013, covering drink purchases for home consumption, providing ~6 million purchases aggregated into 11 groups, including three levels of soft-drink, three of other non-alcoholic drinks and five of alcoholic drinks. An increase in the price of high-sugar drinks leads to an increase in the purchase of lager, an increase in the price of medium-sugar drinks reduces purchases of alcoholic drinks, while an increase in the price of diet/low-sugar drinks increases purchases of beer, cider and wines. Overall, the effects of price rises are greatest in the low-income group. Increasing the price of soft-drinks may change purchase patterns for alcohol. Increasing the price of medium-sugar drinks has the potential to have a multiplier-effect beneficial to health through reducing alcohol purchases, with the converse for increases in the price of diet-drinks. Although the reasons for such associations cannot be explained from this analysis, requiring further study, the design of fiscal interventions should now consider these wider potential outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Trends in beverage prices following the introduction of a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Barbados.

    Alvarado, Miriam; Kostova, Deliana; Suhrcke, Marc; Hambleton, Ian; Hassell, Trevor; Samuels, T Alafia; Adams, Jean; Unwin, Nigel

    2017-12-01

    A 10% excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) was implemented in Barbados in September 2015. A national evaluation has been established to assess the impact of the tax. We present a descriptive analysis of initial price changes following implementation of the SSB tax using price data provided by a major supermarket chain in Barbados over the period 2014-2016. We summarize trends in price changes for SSBs and non-SSBs before and after the tax using year-on-year mean price per liter. We find that prior to the tax, the year-on-year growth of SSB and non-SSB prices was very similar (approximately 1%). During the quarter in which the tax was implemented, the trends diverged, with SSB price growth increasing to 3% and that of non-SSBs decreasing slightly. The growth of SSB prices outpaced non-SSBs prices in each quarter thereafter, reaching 5.9% compared to tax price changes. A continued examination of the impact of the SSB tax in Barbados will expand the evidence base available to policymakers worldwide in considering SSB taxes as a lever for reducing the consumption of added sugar at the population level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Are sweet snacks more sensitive to price increases than sugar-sweetened beverages: analysis of British food purchase data

    Smith, Richard D; Quirmbach, Diana; Jebb, Susan A

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is now advocated, and implemented, in many countries as a measure to reduce the purchase and consumption of sugar to tackle obesity. To date, there has been little consideration of the potential impact that such a measure could have if extended to other sweet foods, such as confectionery, cakes and biscuits that contribute more sugar to the diet than SSBs. The objective of this study is to compare changes in the demand for sweet snacks and SSBs arising from potential price increases. Setting Secondary data on household itemised purchases of all foods and beverages from 2012 to 2013. Participants Representative sample of 32 249 households in Great Britain. Primary and secondary outcome measures Change in food and beverage purchases due to changes in their own price and the price of other foods or beverages measured as price elasticity of demand for the full sample and by income groups. Results Chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits have similar price sensitivity as SSBs, across all income groups. Unlike the case of SSBs, price increases in these categories are also likely to prompt reductions in the purchase of other sweet snacks and SSBs, which magnify the overall impact. The effects of price increases are greatest in the low-income group. Conclusions Policies that lead to increases in the price of chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits may lead to additional and greater health gains than similar increases in the price of SSBs through direct reductions in the purchases of these foods and possible positive multiplier effects that reduce demand for other products. Although some uncertainty remains, the associations found in this analysis are sufficiently robust to suggest that policies—and research—concerning the use of fiscal measures should consider a broader range of products than is currently the case. PMID:29700100

  12. Are sweet snacks more sensitive to price increases than sugar-sweetened beverages: analysis of British food purchase data.

    Smith, Richard D; Cornelsen, Laura; Quirmbach, Diana; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa M

    2018-04-26

    Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is now advocated, and implemented, in many countries as a measure to reduce the purchase and consumption of sugar to tackle obesity. To date, there has been little consideration of the potential impact that such a measure could have if extended to other sweet foods, such as confectionery, cakes and biscuits that contribute more sugar to the diet than SSBs. The objective of this study is to compare changes in the demand for sweet snacks and SSBs arising from potential price increases. Secondary data on household itemised purchases of all foods and beverages from 2012 to 2013. Representative sample of 32 249 households in Great Britain. Change in food and beverage purchases due to changes in their own price and the price of other foods or beverages measured as price elasticity of demand for the full sample and by income groups. Chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits have similar price sensitivity as SSBs, across all income groups. Unlike the case of SSBs, price increases in these categories are also likely to prompt reductions in the purchase of other sweet snacks and SSBs, which magnify the overall impact. The effects of price increases are greatest in the low-income group. Policies that lead to increases in the price of chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits may lead to additional and greater health gains than similar increases in the price of SSBs through direct reductions in the purchases of these foods and possible positive multiplier effects that reduce demand for other products. Although some uncertainty remains, the associations found in this analysis are sufficiently robust to suggest that policies-and research-concerning the use of fiscal measures should consider a broader range of products than is currently the case. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  13. Effects of a price increase on purchases of sugar sweetened beverages. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Waterlander, W.E.; Mhurchu, C.N.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes are receiving increased political interest. However, there have been no experimental studies of the effects of price increases on SSBs or the effects on close substitutes such as diet drinks, alcohol or sugary snacks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to

  14. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile.

    Guerrero-López, Carlos M; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Colchero, M Arantxa

    2017-02-10

    Chile is the second world's largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households' consumption to changes in prices. We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012-2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. We found an own price-elasticity of -1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  15. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile

    Carlos M. Guerrero-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile is the second world’s largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households’ consumption to changes in prices. Methods We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012–2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. Results We found an own price-elasticity of −1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. Conclusions The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  16. Price and Availability of Sugar-Free, Sugar-Reduced and Low Glycemic Index Cereal Products in Northwestern México.

    Arámburo-Gálvez, Jesús G; Ontiveros, Noé; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia; Gracia-Valenzuela, Martina H; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco

    2017-12-18

    Sugar-free (SF), sugar-reduced (SR), or low-glycemic-index (low GI) cereal products could be helpful for the dietary treatment of disorders related to glucose homeostasis. However, access and economic aspects are barriers that could hamper their consumption. Thus, the availability and price of such cereal products were evaluated in Northwestern México. The products were categorized in 10 groups. The data were collected in five cities by store visitation (from November 2015 to April 2016). The availability in specialized stores and supermarkets was expressed as availability rates based on the total number of products. The price of the SF, SR, and low GI products were compared with their conventional counterparts. Availability rates were higher in supermarkets than in specialized stores by product numbers (14.29% versus 3.76%, respectively; p snacks, and tostadas/totopos) had higher prices than their conventional counterparts ( p < 0.05). In conclusion, in Northwestern Mexico, the availability of SF, SR, and low GI cereal-based foods is relatively low, and these foods are more expensive than their conventional counterparts.

  17. Price and Availability of Sugar-Free, Sugar-Reduced and Low Glycemic Index Cereal Products in Northwestern México

    Jesús G. Arámburo-Gálvez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-free (SF, sugar-reduced (SR, or low-glycemic-index (low GI cereal products could be helpful for the dietary treatment of disorders related to glucose homeostasis. However, access and economic aspects are barriers that could hamper their consumption. Thus, the availability and price of such cereal products were evaluated in Northwestern México. The products were categorized in 10 groups. The data were collected in five cities by store visitation (from November 2015 to April 2016. The availability in specialized stores and supermarkets was expressed as availability rates based on the total number of products. The price of the SF, SR, and low GI products were compared with their conventional counterparts. Availability rates were higher in supermarkets than in specialized stores by product numbers (14.29% versus 3.76%, respectively; p < 0.001 and by product categories (53.57% versus 26.92%, respectively; p < 0.001. Five categories of products labeled as SF, SR, and low GI (oats, cookies and crackers, flours, snacks, and tostadas/totopos had higher prices than their conventional counterparts (p < 0.05. In conclusion, in Northwestern Mexico, the availability of SF, SR, and low GI cereal-based foods is relatively low, and these foods are more expensive than their conventional counterparts.

  18. Higher Retail Prices of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages 3 Months After Implementation of an Excise Tax in Berkeley, California.

    Falbe, Jennifer; Rojas, Nadia; Grummon, Anna H; Madsen, Kristine A

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the short-term ability to increase retail prices of the first US 1-cent-per-ounce excise tax on the distribution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which was implemented in March 2015 by Berkeley, California. In 2014 and 2015, we examined pre- to posttax price changes of SSBs and non-SSBs in a variety of retailers in Berkeley and in the comparison cities Oakland and San Francisco, California. We examined price changes by beverage, brand, size, and retailer type. For smaller beverages (≤ 33.8 oz), price increases (cents/oz) in Berkeley relative to those in comparison cities were 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.36, 1.03) for soda, 0.47 (95% CI = 0.08, 0.87) for fruit-flavored beverages, and 0.47 (95% CI = 0.25, 0.69) for SSBs overall. For 2-liter bottles and multipacks of soda, relative price increases were 0.46 (95% CI = 0.03, 0.89) and 0.49 (95% CI = 0.21, 0.77). We observed no relative price increases for nontaxed beverages overall. Approximately 3 months after the tax was implemented, SSB retail prices increased more in Berkeley than in nearby cities, marking a step in the causal pathway between the tax and reduced SSB consumption.

  19. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power; Variacao estacional dos precos da cana-de-acucar, alcool combustivel e energia eletrica

    Melo, Carmem Ozana de; Silva, Gerson Henrique da; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Francisco Beltrao, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  20. Do High Consumers of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Respond Differently to Price Changes? A Finite Mixture IV-Tobit Approach.

    Etilé, Fabrice; Sharma, Anurag

    2015-09-01

    This study compares the impact of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) tax between moderate and high consumers in Australia. The key methodological contribution is that price response heterogeneity is identified while controlling for censoring of consumption at zero and endogeneity of expenditure by using a finite mixture instrumental variable Tobit model. The SSB price elasticity estimates show a decreasing trend across increasing consumption quantiles, from -2.3 at the median to -0.2 at the 95th quantile. Although high consumers of SSBs have a less elastic demand for SSBs, their very high consumption levels imply that a tax would achieve higher reduction in consumption and higher health gains. Our results also suggest that an SSB tax would represent a small fiscal burden for consumers whatever their pre-policy level of consumption, and that an excise tax should be preferred to an ad valorem tax. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effects of a price increase on purchases of sugar sweetened beverages. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Waterlander, Wilma Elzeline; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2014-07-01

    Sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes are receiving increased political interest. However, there have been no experimental studies of the effects of price increases on SSBs or the effects on close substitutes such as diet drinks, alcohol or sugary snacks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a price increase on SSBs on beverage and snack purchases using a randomized controlled design within a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. The trial contained two conditions: experimental condition with a 19% tax on SSBs (to reflect an increase in Dutch value added tax from 6% to 19%); and a control condition with regular prices. N = 102 participants were randomized and purchased groceries on a single occasion at a three-dimensional Virtual Supermarket. Data were analysed using independent t-tests and regression analysis. Results showed that participants in the price increase condition purchased significantly less SSBs than the control group (B = -.90; 95% CI = -1.70 to -.10 L per household per week). There were no significant effects on purchases in other beverage or snack food categories. This means that the higher VAT rate was effective in reducing SSB purchases and had no negative side-effects. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The impact of a local sugar sweetened beverage health promotion and price increase on sales in public leisure centre facilities.

    Breeze, Penny; Womack, Robert; Pryce, Robert; Brennan, Alan; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact of a local sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) health promotion and 20p price increase in leisure centre venues and estimate the impact on consumption. Monthly cold drinks sales data and attendance at leisure centres across the city of Sheffield were analysed over the period January 2015-July 2017. Interrupted time-series methods were employed to estimate changes in consumption per attendance of SSB and non-SSB cold drinks following the introduction of the SSB policy from August 2016 adjusting for seasonal variation and autocorrelation. SSB price elasticities were estimated with fixed effects log-log models by SSB product type (soda can, soda bottle, soda post mix, energy drinks, juice from concentrate). We estimated a 31% (95% CI 4%, 59%) reduction in units of SSB sold per attendance in the year since the policy was introduced. We did not observe substitution effects to fruit juice or water but found sales of other artificially sweetened non-SSB products increased by 27% (95% CI 6%, 47%) after the introduction of the tax. Price elasticity analysis identified that a 1% increase in price alongside health promotion leads to a 3.8% (95% CI 3.1% 4.4%) decrease in demand for SSB's. Price elasticity of demand was highest for child friendly and high caffeine energy drinks. Demand for SSB drinks at leisure centre venues is highly responsive to the policy, particularly for child-friendly and high caffeine energy drinks, compared with other SSB tax policy evaluations. The policy also increased purchases of carbonated non-SSB.

  3. [Changes in prices of taxed sugar-sweetened beverages and nonessential energy dense food in rural and semi-rural areas in Mexico].

    Colchero, M Arantxa; Zavala, J Alejandro; Batis, Carolina; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2017-01-01

    To estimate changes in prices associated with the implementation of the tax to sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) and to nonessential energy dense food in 2014. Price data were collected in rural and semi-rural areas in December 2013, and April and December 2014. Fixed effects models were used to estimate changes in prices of beverages and nonessential energy dense food, stratified by region, retailer and package size. The SSB tax did not pass completely through prices: prices increased on average 0.73 pesos per liter. For nonessential energy dense food, the tax passed completely or was overshifted for cookies, cereal bars and cereal boxes. The potential effect of the taxes on consumption could be attenuated in rural areas as the pass through prices was incomplete.

  4. RANK und RANKL - Vom Knochen zum Mammakarzinom

    Sigl V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RANK („Receptor Activator of NF-κB“ und sein Ligand RANKL sind Schlüsselmoleküle im Knochenmetabolismus und spielen eine essenzielle Rolle in der Entstehung von pathologischen Knochenveränderungen. Die Deregulation des RANK/RANKL-Systems ist zum Beispiel ein Hauptgrund für das Auftreten von postmenopausaler Osteoporose bei Frauen. Eine weitere wesentliche Funktion von RANK und RANKL liegt in der Entwicklung von milchsekretierenden Drüsen während der Schwangerschaft. Dabei regulieren Sexualhormone, wie zum Beispiel Progesteron, die Expression von RANKL und induzieren dadurch die Proliferation von epithelialen Zellen der Brust. Seit Längerem war schon bekannt, dass RANK und RANKL in der Metastasenbildung von Brustkrebszellen im Knochengewebe beteiligt sind. Wir konnten nun das RANK/RANKLSystem auch als essenziellen Mechanismus in der Entstehung von hormonellem Brustkrebs identifizieren. In diesem Beitrag werden wir daher den neuesten Erkenntnissen besondere Aufmerksamkeit schenken und diese kritisch in Bezug auf Brustkrebsentwicklung betrachten.

  5. The Effect of Price and Socio-Economic Level on the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB): The Case of Ecuador.

    Paraje, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to estimate the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of demand for SSB in Ecuador, as an indispensable step for predicting a reduction in the consumption of said beverages caused by the potential implementation of taxes in Ecuador. In addition, the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of sugar-free substitutes like mineral water and diet soft drinks and juices are also estimated. The data from the 2011-2012 ENIGHUR, which contains detailed information on household consumption and socioeconomic variables, was used. The estimates are done using Deaton's Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) which accounts for differences in the quality of goods purchased. This demand system is estimated for different socio-economic groups, according to total household expenditure. The results reveal own-price elasticities for SSB between -1.17 and -1.33 depending on the socio-economic group, in line with the existing evidence for developed countries. Own-price elasticity for non-SSB is between -1 and -1.24. Income elasticities reveal that both SSB and non-SSB are normal goods with elasticities decreasing for higher socio-economic groups. These results show that the consumption of SSB is sensitive to price changes, meaning that the implementation of taxes on said beverages could be effective in reducing their consumption. The fact that non-SSB are also sensitive to price changes would indicate that subsidies could be implemented for the production of some of them.

  6. Retailer-Led Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Price Increase Reduces Purchases in a Hospital Convenience Store in Melbourne, Australia: A Mixed Methods Evaluation.

    Blake, Miranda R; Peeters, Anna; Lancsar, Emily; Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Corben, Kirstan; Stevenson, Christopher E; Palermo, Claire; Backholer, Kathryn

    2018-06-01

    Limited evidence has been gathered on the real-world impact of sugar-sweetened beverage price changes on purchasing behavior over time or in community-retail settings. Our aim was to determine changes in beverage purchases, business outcomes, and customer and retailer satisfaction associated with a retailer-led sugar-sweetened beverage price increase in a convenience store. We hypothesized that purchases of less-healthy beverages would decrease compared to predicted sales. A convergent parallel mixed methods design complemented sales data (122 weeks pre-intervention, 17 weeks during intervention) with stakeholder interviews and customer surveys. Electronic beverage sales data were collected from a convenience store in Melbourne, Australia (August through November 2015). Convenience store staff completed semi-structured interviews (n=4) and adult customers exiting the store completed surveys (n=352). Beverages were classified using a state government framework. Prices of "red" beverages (eg, nondiet soft drinks, energy drinks) increased by 20%. Prices of "amber" (eg, diet soft drinks, small pure fruit juices) and "green" beverages (eg, water) were unchanged. Changes in beverage volume, item sales, and revenue during the intervention were compared with predicted sales. Sales data were analyzed using time series segmented regression while controlling for pre-intervention trends, autocorrelation in sales data, and seasonal fluctuations. Beverage volume sales of red (-27.6%; 95% CI -32.2 to -23.0) and amber (-26.7%; 95% CI -39.3 to -16.0) decreased, and volume of green beverages increased (+26.9%; 95% CI +14.1 to +39.7) in the 17th intervention week compared with predicted sales. Store manager and staff considered the intervention business-neutral, despite a small reduction in beverage revenue. Fifteen percent of customers noticed the price difference and 61% supported the intervention. A 20% sugar-sweetened beverage price increase was associated with a reduction

  7. Techno-economic analysis of the deacetylation and disk refining process: characterizing the effect of refining energy and enzyme usage on minimum sugar selling price and minimum ethanol selling price.

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Pschorn, Thomas; Sabourin, Marc; Tucker, Melvin P; Tao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    A novel, highly efficient deacetylation and disk refining (DDR) process to liberate fermentable sugars from biomass was recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The DDR process consists of a mild, dilute alkaline deacetylation step followed by low-energy-consumption disk refining. The DDR corn stover substrates achieved high process sugar conversion yields, at low to modest enzyme loadings, and also produced high sugar concentration syrups at high initial insoluble solid loadings. The sugar syrups derived from corn stover are highly fermentable due to low concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the economic feasibility of the DDR process through a techno-economic analysis (TEA). A large array of experiments designed using a response surface methodology was carried out to investigate the two major cost-driven operational parameters of the novel DDR process: refining energy and enzyme loadings. The boundary conditions for refining energy (128-468 kWh/ODMT), cellulase (Novozyme's CTec3) loading (11.6-28.4 mg total protein/g of cellulose), and hemicellulase (Novozyme's HTec3) loading (0-5 mg total protein/g of cellulose) were chosen to cover the most commercially practical operating conditions. The sugar and ethanol yields were modeled with good adequacy, showing a positive linear correlation between those yields and refining energy and enzyme loadings. The ethanol yields ranged from 77 to 89 gallons/ODMT of corn stover. The minimum sugar selling price (MSSP) ranged from $0.191 to $0.212 per lb of 50 % concentrated monomeric sugars, while the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) ranged from $2.24 to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol. The DDR process concept is evaluated for economic feasibility through TEA. The MSSP and MESP of the DDR process falls within a range similar to that found with the deacetylation/dilute acid pretreatment process modeled in NREL's 2011 design report. The DDR process is

  8. Glechoma hederacea Suppresses RANKL-mediated Osteoclastogenesis.

    Hwang, J K; Erkhembaatar, M; Gu, D R; Lee, S H; Lee, C H; Shin, D M; Lee, Y R; Kim, M S

    2014-07-01

    Glechoma hederacea (GH), commonly known as ground-ivy or gill-over-the-ground, has been extensively used in folk remedies for relieving symptoms of inflammatory disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of GH are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that GH constituents inhibit osteoclastogenesis by abrogating receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced free cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) oscillations. To evaluate the effect of GH on osteoclastogenesis, we assessed the formation of multi-nucleated cells (MNCs), enzymatic activity of tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP), expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), and [Ca(2+)]i alterations in response to treatment with GH ethanol extract (GHE) in primarily cultured bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Treatment of RANKL-stimulated or non-stimulated BMMs with GHE markedly suppressed MNC formation, TRAP activity, and NFATc1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, GHE treatment induced a large transient elevation in [Ca(2+)]i while suppressing RANKL-induced [Ca(2+)]i oscillations, which are essential for NFATc1 activation. GHE-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)]i was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) and was inhibited by 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP), inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs), but was independent of store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Notably, after transient [Ca(2+)] elevation, treatment with GHE desensitized the VGCCs, resulting in an abrogation of RANKL-induced [Ca(2+)]i oscillations and MNC formation. These findings demonstrate that treatment of BMMs with GHE suppresses RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis by activating and then desensitizing DHP-sensitive VGCCs, suggesting potential applications of GH in the treatment of bone disorders, such as periodontitis, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  9. Price

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The price terms in wheeling contracts very substantially, reflecting the differing conditions affecting the parties contracting for the service. These terms differ in the manner in which rates are calculated, the formulas used, and the philosophy underlying the accord. For example, and EEI study found that firm wheeling rates ranged from 20 cents to $1.612 per kilowatt per month. Nonfirm rates ranged from .15 mills to 5.25 mills per kilowatt-hour. The focus in this chapter is on cost-based rates, reflecting the fact that the vast majority of existing contracts are based on rate designs reflecting embedded costs. This situation may change in the future, but, for now, this fact can't be ignored

  10. Simulating the impact on health of internalising the cost of carbon in food prices combined with a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Scarborough, Peter

    2016-02-03

    Rising greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) have implications for health and up to 30 % of emissions globally are thought to arise from agriculture. Synergies exist between diets low in GHGEs and health however some foods have the opposite relationship, such as sugar production being a relatively low source of GHGEs. In order to address this and to further characterise a healthy sustainable diet, we model the effect on UK non-communicable disease mortality and GHGEs of internalising the social cost of carbon into the price of food alongside a 20 % tax on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs). Developing previously published work, we simulate four tax scenarios: (A) a GHGEs tax of £2.86/tonne of CO2 equivalents (tCO2e)/100 g product on all products with emissions greater than the mean across all food groups (0.36 kgCO2e/100 g); (B) scenario A but with subsidies on foods with emissions lower than 0.36 kgCO2e/100 g such that the effect is revenue neutral; (C) scenario A but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs; (D) scenario B but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs. An almost ideal demand system is used to estimate price elasticities and a comparative risk assessment model is used to estimate changes to non-communicable disease mortality. We estimate that scenario A would lead to 300 deaths delayed or averted, 18,900 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.0 billion tax revenue; scenario B, 90 deaths delayed or averted and 17,100 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs; scenario C, 1,200 deaths delayed or averted, 18,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.4 billion revenue; and scenario D, 2,000 deaths delayed or averted and 16,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs. Deaths averted are mainly due to increased fibre and reduced fat consumption; a SSB tax reduces SSB and sugar consumption. Incorporating the social cost of carbon into the price of food has the potential to improve health, reduce GHGEs, and raise revenue. The simple addition of a tax on SSBs can mitigate negative health consequences arising from sugar being low in GHGEs. Further

  11. Changes in Prices After an Excise Tax to Sweetened Sugar Beverages Was Implemented in Mexico: Evidence from Urban Areas.

    M Arantxa Colchero

    Full Text Available In 2014 an excise tax to non-alcoholic sweetened beverages (SSB was implemented in Mexico. The objective of this paper is to study whether and to what degree these taxes passed-through onto SSB prices in urban areas overall and by region, type of beverage and package size. Prices were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography from 2011 to 2014. We applied a pre-post quasi-experimental approach using fixed effects models. In sensitivity analysis we applied other model specifications to test the robustness of the findings and we also present weighted estimations based on household purchases. The dependent variables are real prices of a specific beverage category; the main independent variables are dummies for each month of 2014, and the models adjust for time trends and seasonality. Results suggest that the SSB tax passed along to consumers for all SSBs and we found overshifting for the carbonated SSBs. A greater effect is seen among the small package sizes, and we see heterogeneous effects by region. Estimating the effect of the tax on prices is important to understand the potential effect on consumption.

  12. Changes in Prices After an Excise Tax to Sweetened Sugar Beverages Was Implemented in Mexico: Evidence from Urban Areas.

    Colchero, M Arantxa; Salgado, Juan Carlos; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Molina, Mariana; Ng, Shuwen; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Angel

    2015-01-01

    In 2014 an excise tax to non-alcoholic sweetened beverages (SSB) was implemented in Mexico. The objective of this paper is to study whether and to what degree these taxes passed-through onto SSB prices in urban areas overall and by region, type of beverage and package size. Prices were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography from 2011 to 2014. We applied a pre-post quasi-experimental approach using fixed effects models. In sensitivity analysis we applied other model specifications to test the robustness of the findings and we also present weighted estimations based on household purchases. The dependent variables are real prices of a specific beverage category; the main independent variables are dummies for each month of 2014, and the models adjust for time trends and seasonality. Results suggest that the SSB tax passed along to consumers for all SSBs and we found overshifting for the carbonated SSBs. A greater effect is seen among the small package sizes, and we see heterogeneous effects by region. Estimating the effect of the tax on prices is important to understand the potential effect on consumption.

  13. Circulating RANKL and RANKL/OPG and Breast Cancer Risk by ER and PR Subtype: Results from the EPIC Cohort.

    Sarink, Danja; Schock, Helena; Johnson, Theron; Overvad, Kim; Holm, Marianne; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; His, Mathilde; Kvaskoff, Marina; Boeing, Heiner; Lagiou, Pagona; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Khaw, Kay Tee; Travis, Ruth; Dossus, Laure; Gunter, Mark; Rinaldi, Sabina; Merritt, Melissa; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Fortner, Renée T

    2017-09-01

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANKL) signaling promotes mammary tumor development in experimental models. Circulating concentrations of soluble RANKL (sRANKL) may influence breast cancer risk via activation of RANK signaling; this may be modulated by osteoprotegerin (OPG), the decoy receptor for RANKL. sRANKL and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype has not previously been investigated. A case-control study was nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. This study included 1,976 incident invasive breast cancer cases [estrogen receptor positive (ER+), n = 1,598], matched 1:1 to controls. Women were pre- or postmenopausal at blood collection. Serum sRANKL was quantified using an ELISA, serum OPG using an electrochemiluminescent assay. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Associations between sRANKL and breast cancer risk differed by tumor hormone receptor status ( P het = 0.05). Higher concentrations of sRANKL were positively associated with risk of ER+ breast cancer [5th vs. 1st quintile RR 1.28 (95% CI, 1.01-1.63); P trend = 0.20], but not ER- disease. For both ER+ and estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+PR+) breast cancer, results considering the sRANKL/OPG ratio were similar to those for sRANKL; we observed a suggestive inverse association between the ratio and ER-PR- disease [5th vs. 1st quintile RR = 0.60 (0.31-1.14); P trend = 0.03]. This study provides the first large-scale prospective data on circulating sRANKL and breast cancer. We observed limited evidence for an association between sRANKL and breast cancer risk. Cancer Prev Res; 10(9); 525-34. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Attenuated RANKL-induced cytotoxicity by Portulaca oleracea ethanol extract enhances RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.

    Erkhembaatar, Munkhsoyol; Choi, Eun-Joo; Lee, Hak-Yong; Lee, Choong Hun; Lee, Young-Rae; Kim, Min Seuk

    2015-07-14

    Portulaca oleracea (PO) has been widely used as traditional medicine because of its pharmacological activities. However, the effects of PO on osteoclasts that modulate bone homeostasis are still elusive. In this study, we examined the effects of PO ethanol extract (POEE) on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization, nuclear factor of activated T-cell c1 (NFATc1) amplification, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) multinucleated cell (MNC) formation, and cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that POEE suppressed RANKL-induced Ca(2+) oscillations by inhibition of Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores, resulting in reduction of NFATc1 amplification. Notably, POEE attenuated RANKL-mediated cytotoxicity and cleavage of polyadenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP), resulted in enhanced formation of TRAP+ MNCs. These results present in vitro effects of POEE on RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis and suggest the possible use of PO in treating bone disorders, such as osteopetrosis.

  15. OPG/RANKL/RANK cytokine system in renal osteodystrophy

    Ivica Avberšek-Lužnik

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renal osteodystrophy is one of the most common complications affecting patients with endstage renal disease treated with hemodialysis (HD. The action of calciotropic hormones in renal osteodystrophy is regulated by the OPG/RANKL/RANK system. Its function is modulated by interleukines, calcitriol and parathyroid hormone (PTH.The aim of our study was to confirm that this system is involved in the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy and supports the mechanism of PTH action on bone.Methods: 106 HD patients (mean age 60 years and 50 healthy volunteers (mean age 64 years were enrolled in the study. In serum samples of patients and controls we determined concentrations of OPG, RANKL, tartarat resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b, serum Cterminal telopeptide cross-links of type I collagen (CTx, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP, osteocalcin (OC and parathyroid hormone (PTH. We compared serum measurements of HD patients and controls and assessed the correlation of OPG and RANKL with bone markers. The most frequent OPG promotor gene polymorphisms were also determined. SPSS 12.1 for Windows was used for statistical analysis.Results: Median OPG concentrations were approximately three times higher in HD patients (0.804 µg/l than in healthy volunteers (0.272 µg/l. Mean serum RANKL concentrations were 1.66- fold higher in HD patients (1.36 pmol/l than in controls (0.82 pmol/l. Serum RANKL levels significantly differed between patients with and without calcitriol therapy (p = 0.001. After dividing HD patients into tertiles according to PTH, we observed significantly higher OPG values in the lower and RANKL in the upper tertile (p < 0.001. OPG did not correlate with bone resorption markers. Only weak correlation of bone formation markers with osteocalcin was noted. In contrast to OPG, RANKL correlated well with PTH, OC and CTX. OPG promoter gene polymorphisms (149 T → C, 163 A → G, 950 T → C do not influence OPG expression and

  16. RANKL signaling and osteoclastogenesis is negatively regulated by cardamonin.

    Bokyung Sung

    Full Text Available Bone loss/resorption or osteoporosis is a disease that is accelerated with aging and age-associated chronic diseases such as cancer. Bone loss has been linked with human multiple myeloma, breast cancer, and prostate cancer and is usually treated with bisphosphonates, and recently approved denosumab, an antibody against receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL. Because of the numerous side effects of the currently available drugs, the search continues for safe and effective therapies for bone loss. RANKL, a member of the TNF superfamily, has emerged as a major mediator of bone loss via activation of osteoclastogenesis. We have identified cardamonin, a chalcone isolated from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata that can affect osteoclastogenesis through modulation of RANKL. We found that treatment of monocytes with cardamonin suppressed RANKL-induced NF-κB activation and this suppression correlated with inhibition of IκBα kinase and of phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, an inhibitor of NF-κB. Furthermore, cardamonin also downregulated RANKL-induced phosphorylation of MAPK including ERK and p38 MAPK. Cardamonin suppressed the RANKL-induced differentiation of monocytes to osteoclasts in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. We also found that an inhibitor of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO blocked RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, indicating a direct link with NF-κB. Finally, osteoclastogenesis induced by human breast cancer cells or human multiple myeloma cells were completely suppressed by cardamonin. Collectively, our results indicate that cardamonin suppresses osteoclastogenesis induced by RANKL and tumor cells by suppressing activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathway.

  17. Administration of RANKL boosts thymic regeneration upon bone marrow transplantation.

    Lopes, Noella; Vachon, Hortense; Marie, Julien; Irla, Magali

    2017-06-01

    Cytoablative treatments lead to severe damages on thymic epithelial cells (TECs), which result in delayed de novo thymopoiesis and a prolonged period of T-cell immunodeficiency. Understanding the mechanisms that govern thymic regeneration is of paramount interest for the recovery of a functional immune system notably after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Here, we show that RANK ligand (RANKL) is upregulated in CD4 + thymocytes and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells during the early phase of thymic regeneration. Importantly, whereas RANKL neutralization alters TEC recovery after irradiation, ex vivo RANKL administration during BMT boosts the regeneration of TEC subsets including thymic epithelial progenitor-enriched cells, thymus homing of lymphoid progenitors, and de novo thymopoiesis. RANKL increases specifically in LTi cells, lymphotoxin α, which is critical for thymic regeneration. RANKL treatment, dependent on lymphotoxin α, is beneficial upon BMT in young and aged individuals. This study thus indicates that RANKL may be clinically useful to improve T-cell function recovery after BMT by controlling multiple facets of thymic regeneration. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  18. Expression of RANKL/OPG during bone remodeling in vivo

    Tanaka, H., E-mail: tnk@ymghp.jp [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, 77 Ohsaki, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Mine, T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Ogasa, H. [Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Taguchi, T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Liang, C.T. [Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); National Health Research Institutes, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} This is the first study to determine the relationship between osteogenic differentiation and RANKL/OPG expression during bone remodeling in vivo. {yields} The OPG expression peak occurred during the bone formation phase, whereas the marked elevation of RANKL expression was observed during the bone resorption phase. {yields} Histological analysis showed that RANKL/OPG immunoreactivity was predominantly associated with bone marrow cells in the marrow cavity. {yields} The present study confirmed that RANKL/OPG are key factors linking bone formation to resorption during the bone remodeling process. -- Abstract: The interaction between receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) plays a dominant role in osteoclastogenesis. As both proteins are produced by osteoblast lineage cells, they are considered to represent a key link between bone formation and resorption. In this study, we investigated the expression of RANKL and OPG during bone remodeling in vivo to determine the relationship between osteoclastogenic stimulation and osteoblastic differentiation. Total RNA was prepared from rat femurs after marrow ablation on days 0, 3, 6, and 9. The temporal activation patterns of osteoblast-related genes (procollagen {alpha}1 (I), alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and osteocalcin) were examined by Northern blot analysis. An appreciable increase in the expression of these osteoblast markers was observed on day 3. The peak increase in gene expression was observed on day 6 followed by a slight reduction by day 9. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the OPG mRNA expression was markedly upregulated on day 6 and slightly decreased on day 9. In contrast, RANKL mRNA expression was increased by more than 20-fold on day 9. The RANKL/OPG ratio, an index of osteoclastogenic stimulation, peaked on day 9. Histological analysis showed that RANKL and OPG immunoreactivity were predominantly associated with bone marrow cells. The

  19. Expression of RANKL/OPG during bone remodeling in vivo

    Tanaka, H.; Mine, T.; Ogasa, H.; Taguchi, T.; Liang, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This is the first study to determine the relationship between osteogenic differentiation and RANKL/OPG expression during bone remodeling in vivo. → The OPG expression peak occurred during the bone formation phase, whereas the marked elevation of RANKL expression was observed during the bone resorption phase. → Histological analysis showed that RANKL/OPG immunoreactivity was predominantly associated with bone marrow cells in the marrow cavity. → The present study confirmed that RANKL/OPG are key factors linking bone formation to resorption during the bone remodeling process. -- Abstract: The interaction between receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) plays a dominant role in osteoclastogenesis. As both proteins are produced by osteoblast lineage cells, they are considered to represent a key link between bone formation and resorption. In this study, we investigated the expression of RANKL and OPG during bone remodeling in vivo to determine the relationship between osteoclastogenic stimulation and osteoblastic differentiation. Total RNA was prepared from rat femurs after marrow ablation on days 0, 3, 6, and 9. The temporal activation patterns of osteoblast-related genes (procollagen α1 (I), alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and osteocalcin) were examined by Northern blot analysis. An appreciable increase in the expression of these osteoblast markers was observed on day 3. The peak increase in gene expression was observed on day 6 followed by a slight reduction by day 9. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the OPG mRNA expression was markedly upregulated on day 6 and slightly decreased on day 9. In contrast, RANKL mRNA expression was increased by more than 20-fold on day 9. The RANKL/OPG ratio, an index of osteoclastogenic stimulation, peaked on day 9. Histological analysis showed that RANKL and OPG immunoreactivity were predominantly associated with bone marrow cells. The expression of bone formation

  20. RANK, RANKL and osteoprotegerin in arthritic bone loss

    M.C. Bezerra

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by the presence of inflammatory synovitis and destruction of joint cartilage and bone. Tissue proteinases released by synovia, chondrocytes and pannus can cause cartilage destruction and cytokine-activated osteoclasts have been implicated in bone erosions. Rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissues produce a variety of cytokines and growth factors that induce monocyte differentiation to osteoclasts and their proliferation, activation and longer survival in tissues. More recently, a major role in bone erosion has been attributed to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL released by activated lymphocytes and osteoblasts. In fact, osteoclasts are markedly activated after RANKL binding to the cognate RANK expressed on the surface of these cells. RANKL expression can be upregulated by bone-resorbing factors such as glucocorticoids, vitamin D3, interleukin 1 (IL-1, IL-6, IL-11, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, prostaglandin E2, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Supporting this idea, inhibition of RANKL by osteoprotegerin, a natural soluble RANKL receptor, prevents bone loss in experimental models. Tumor growth factor-ß released from bone during active bone resorption has been suggested as one feedback mechanism for upregulating osteoprotegerin and estrogen can increase its production on osteoblasts. Modulation of these systems provides the opportunity to inhibit bone loss and deformity in chronic arthritis.

  1. Impacts of Sugar Import Policy on Sugar Production in Indonesia

    Suryantoro, Agustinus; Susilo, Albertus Magnus; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Production of sugar unful lled consumption of Indonesia society. The lack of consumption and productionhave ful lled by import. Assumption national consumption 2,7 million ton, Indonesia will import sugar in 2013predicted about 300.000 ton (Tempo.co, August, 21, 2012).The aims in general of this research are to understand the impact of sugar import policy on sugar production.Especially (1) to understand the factors that in uence sugar import price, (2) to understand impact of sugarimport pric...

  2. Regulation of vacuolar H+-ATPase in microglia by RANKL

    Serrano, Eric M.; Ricofort, Ryan D.; Zuo, Jian; Ochotny, Noelle; Manolson, Morris F.; Holliday, L. Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Vacuolar H + -ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPases play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κB-ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κB (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia.

  3. Estrogen inhibits RANKL-stimulated osteoclastic differentiation of human monocytes through estrogen and RANKL-regulated interaction of estrogen receptor-α with BCAR1 and Traf6

    Robinson, Lisa J.; Yaroslavskiy, Beatrice B.; Griswold, Reed D.; Zadorozny, Eva V.; Guo, Lida; Tourkova, Irina L.; Blair, Harry C.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of estrogen on osteoclast survival and differentiation were studied using CD14-selected mononuclear osteoclast precursors from peripheral blood. Estradiol at ∼ 1 nM reduced RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation by 40-50%. Osteoclast differentiation was suppressed 14 days after addition of RANKL even when estradiol was withdrawn after 18 h. In CD14+ cells apoptosis was rare and was not augmented by RANKL or by 17-β-estradiol. Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) expression was strongly down-regulated by RANKL, whether or not estradiol was present. Mature human osteoclasts thus cannot respond to estrogen via ERα. However, ERα was present in CD14+ osteoclast progenitors, and a scaffolding protein, BCAR1, which binds ERα in the presence of estrogen, was abundant. Immunoprecipitation showed rapid (∼ 5 min) estrogen-dependent formation of ERα-BCAR1 complexes, which were increased by RANKL co-treatment. The RANKL-signaling intermediate Traf6, which regulates NF-κB activity, precipitated with this complex. Reduction of NF-κB nuclear localization occurred within 30 min of RANKL stimulation, and estradiol inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB in response to RANKL. Inhibition by estradiol was abolished by siRNA knockdown of BCAR1. We conclude that estrogen directly, but only partially, curtails human osteoclast formation. This effect requires BCAR1 and involves a non-genomic interaction with ERα.

  4. Estrogen inhibits RANKL-stimulated osteoclastic differentiation of human monocytes through estrogen and RANKL-regulated interaction of estrogen receptor-{alpha} with BCAR1 and Traf6

    Robinson, Lisa J., E-mail: robinsonlj@msx.upmc.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Yaroslavskiy, Beatrice B.; Griswold, Reed D.; Zadorozny, Eva V.; Guo, Lida; Tourkova, Irina L. [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Blair, Harry C. [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Veteran' s Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15243 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The effects of estrogen on osteoclast survival and differentiation were studied using CD14-selected mononuclear osteoclast precursors from peripheral blood. Estradiol at {approx} 1 nM reduced RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation by 40-50%. Osteoclast differentiation was suppressed 14 days after addition of RANKL even when estradiol was withdrawn after 18 h. In CD14+ cells apoptosis was rare and was not augmented by RANKL or by 17-{beta}-estradiol. Estrogen receptor-{alpha} (ER{alpha}) expression was strongly down-regulated by RANKL, whether or not estradiol was present. Mature human osteoclasts thus cannot respond to estrogen via ER{alpha}. However, ER{alpha} was present in CD14+ osteoclast progenitors, and a scaffolding protein, BCAR1, which binds ER{alpha} in the presence of estrogen, was abundant. Immunoprecipitation showed rapid ({approx} 5 min) estrogen-dependent formation of ER{alpha}-BCAR1 complexes, which were increased by RANKL co-treatment. The RANKL-signaling intermediate Traf6, which regulates NF-{kappa}B activity, precipitated with this complex. Reduction of NF-{kappa}B nuclear localization occurred within 30 min of RANKL stimulation, and estradiol inhibited the phosphorylation of I{kappa}B in response to RANKL. Inhibition by estradiol was abolished by siRNA knockdown of BCAR1. We conclude that estrogen directly, but only partially, curtails human osteoclast formation. This effect requires BCAR1 and involves a non-genomic interaction with ER{alpha}.

  5. RANKL/Osteoprotegerin System and Bone Turnover in Hashimoto Thyroiditis.

    Konca Degertekin, Ceyla; Turhan Iyidir, Ozlem; Aktas Yılmaz, Banu; Elbeg, Sehri; Pasaoglu, Ozge Tugce; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Cakır, Nuri; Arslan, Metin

    2016-10-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with changes in bone metabolism. The impact of hypothyroidism and the associated autoimmunity on the mediators of bone turnover in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is not known. In this study, we assessed the levels of OPG, RANKL, and IL-6 along with markers of bone formation as osteocalcin (OC) and markers of bone resorption as type 1 collagen C telopeptide (CTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAcP 5b) in 30 hypothyroid and 30 euthyroid premenopausal HT patients and 20 healthy premenopausal controls. We found that TRAcP 5b (p = 0.006), CTX (p = 0.01), OC (p = 0.017), and IL-6 (p Thyroid autoimmunity might have a unique impact on OPG/RANKL levels apart from the resultant hypothyroidism.

  6. PRICE AND PRICING STRATEGIES

    SUCIU Titus

    2013-01-01

    In individual companies, price is one significant factor in achieving marketing success. In many purchase situations, price can be of great importance to customers. Marketers must establish pricing strategies that are compatible with the rest of the marketing mix. Management should decide whether to charge the same price to all similar buyers of identical quantities of a product (a one-price strategy) or to set different prices (a flexible price strategy). Many organizations, especially retai...

  7. Prices and Price Setting

    R.P. Faber (Riemer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis studies price data and tries to unravel the underlying economic processes of why firms have chosen these prices. It focuses on three aspects of price setting. First, it studies whether the existence of a suggested price has a coordinating effect on the prices of firms.

  8. Isoproterenol Increases RANKL Expression in a ATF4/NFATc1-Dependent Manner in Mouse Osteoblastic Cells

    Kyunghwa Baek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic nervous system stimulation-induced β-adrenergic signal transduction is known to induce bone loss and increase of osteoclast activity. Although isoproterenol, a nonspecific β-adrenergic receptor agonist, has been shown to increase receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL, the details of the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT in isoproterenol-induced RANKL expression in C2C12 and in primary cultured mouse calvarial cells. Isoproterenol increased nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1 and RANKL expressions at both mRNA and protein levels and increased NFAT reporter activity. NFATc1 knockdown blocked isoproterenol-mediated RANKL expression. Isoproterenol also promoted cAMP response element-binding protein 1 (CREB1 and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 phosphorylation. Isoproterenol-mediated transcriptional activation of NFAT was blocked by protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor H89. Isoproterenol-induced CREB1, ATF4, NFATc1, and RANKL expressions were suppressed by H89. Mutations in cAMP response element-like or NFAT-binding element suppressed isoproterenol-induced RANKL promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that isoproterenol increased NFAT-binding and ATF4-binding activities on the mouse RANKL promoter, but did not increase CREB1-binding activity. Association of NFATc1 and ATF4 was not observed in a co-immunoprecipitation study. ATF4 knockdown suppressed isoproterenol-induced NFAT binding to the RANKL promoter, whereas NFATc1 knockdown did not suppress isoproterenol-induced ATF4 binding to the RANKL promoter. ATF4 knockdown suppressed isoproterenol-induced expressions of NFATc1 and RANKL. These results suggest that isoproterenol increases RANKL expression in an ATF4/NFATc1-dependent manner.

  9. RANKL release from self-assembling nanofiber hydrogels for inducing osteoclastogenesis in vitro.

    Xing, James Z; Lu, Lei; Unsworth, Larry D; Major, Paul W; Doschak, Michael R; Kaipatur, Neelambar R

    2017-02-01

    To develop a nanofiber hydrogel (NF-hydrogel) for sustained and controlled release of the recombinant receptor activator of NF-kB ligand; (RANKL) and to characterize the release kinetics and bioactivity of the released RANKL. Various concentrations of fluorescently-labelled RANKL protein were added to NF-hydrogels, composed of Acetyl-(Arg-Ala-Asp-Ala) 4 -CONH 2 [(RADA) 4 ] of different concentrations, to investigate the resulting in vitro release rates. The nano-structures of NF-hydrogel, with and without RANKL, were determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Released RANKL was further analyzed for changes in secondary and tertiary structure using CD spectroscopy and fluorescent emission spectroscopy, respectively. Bioactivity of released RANKL protein was determined using NFATc1 gene expression and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity of osteoclast cells as biomarkers. NF-hydrogel concentration dependent sustained release of RANKL protein was measured at concentrations between 0.5 and 2%(w/v). NF-hydrogel at 2%(w/v) concentration exhibited a sustained and slow-release of RANKL protein up to 48h. Secondary and tertiary structure analyses confirmed no changes to the RANKL protein released from NF-hydrogel in comparison to native RANKL. The results of NFATc1 gene mRNA expression and TRAP activities of osteoclast, showed that the release process did not affect the bioactivity of released RANKL. This novel study is the first of its kind to attempt in vitro characterization of NF-hydrogel based delivery of RANKL protein to induce osteoclastogenesis. We have shown the self-assembling NF-hydrogel peptide system is amenable to the sustained and controlled release of RANKL locally; that could in turn increase local concentration of RANKL to induce osteoclastogenesis, for application to the controlled mobilization of tooth movement in orthodontic procedures. Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) occurs through controlled application of light forces to teeth

  10. Changes in prices, sales, consumer spending, and beverage consumption one year after a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Berkeley, California, US: A before-and-after study.

    Silver, Lynn D; Ng, Shu Wen; Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Induni, Marta; Miles, Donna R; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-04-01

    Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) meant to improve health and raise revenue are being adopted, yet evaluation is scarce. This study examines the association of the first penny per ounce SSB excise tax in the United States, in Berkeley, California, with beverage prices, sales, store revenue/consumer spending, and usual beverage intake. Methods included comparison of pre-taxation (before 1 January 2015) and first-year post-taxation (1 March 2015-29 February 2016) measures of (1) beverage prices at 26 Berkeley stores; (2) point-of-sale scanner data on 15.5 million checkouts for beverage prices, sales, and store revenue for two supermarket chains covering three Berkeley and six control non-Berkeley large supermarkets in adjacent cities; and (3) a representative telephone survey (17.4% cooperation rate) of 957 adult Berkeley residents. Key hypotheses were that (1) the tax would be passed through to the prices of taxed beverages among the chain stores in which Berkeley implemented the tax in 2015; (2) sales of taxed beverages would decline, and sales of untaxed beverages would rise, in Berkeley stores more than in comparison non-Berkeley stores; (3) consumer spending per transaction (checkout episode) would not increase in Berkeley stores; and (4) self-reported consumption of taxed beverages would decline. Main outcomes and measures included changes in inflation-adjusted prices (cents/ounce), beverage sales (ounces), consumers' spending measured as store revenue (inflation-adjusted dollars per transaction) in two large chains, and usual beverage intake (grams/day and kilocalories/day). Tax pass-through (changes in the price after imposition of the tax) for SSBs varied in degree and timing by store type and beverage type. Pass-through was complete in large chain supermarkets (+1.07¢/oz, p = 0.001) and small chain supermarkets and chain gas stations (1.31¢/oz, p = 0.004), partial in pharmacies (+0.45¢/oz, p = 0.03), and negative in independent corner stores and

  11.  Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, osteoprotegerin and its soluble ligand sRANKL and bone metabolism in girls with anorexia nervosa

    Zofia Ostrowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background:Only scarce data exist concerning the relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and/or its sulfate form DHEAS and bone status in adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN.Aim:We investigated whether a relationship existed between DHEAS and bone metabolism (as assessed based on serum osteocalcin [OC], and collagen type I cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide [CTx]. We also aimed to establish whether the above mentioned relationship might be affected by osteoprotegerin (OPG and its soluble ligand sRANKL.Material/Methods:Fifty-six female patients with AN and 21 healthy female subjects aged 13 to 16 years participated in the study. Serum DHEAS, OC, CTx, OPG and sRANKL were measured by ELISA.Results:Our female patients with AN demonstrated significant suppression of DHEAS and bone markers, an increase in OPG and sRANKL levels, and a reduction of the OPG/sRANKL ratio. DHEAS, CTx and the OPG/sRANKL ratio correlated positively with BMI. A significant positive correlation was also observed between DHEAS and the OPG/sRANKL ratio, OC and the OPG/sRANKL ratio, and CTx and sRANKL. The correlation was negative in the case of DHEAS and CTx, DHEAS and sRANKL, CTx and the OPG/sRANKL ratio, and sRANKL and the OPG/sRANKL ratio.Discussion/DHEAS suppression in girls with anorexia nervosa was associated with a decrease in the levels of bone markers, an increase in OPG and sRANKL concentrations and a significant decrease in the OPG/sRANKL ratio. DHEAS suppression in girls with anorexia nervosa might have a harmful effect on their bone tissue, probably via a shift in the OPG/RANKL ratio toward a functional excess of sRANKL.

  12. Managing your blood sugar

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... sugar ( hypoglycemia ) Recognize and treat high blood sugar ( hyperglycemia ) Plan healthy meals Monitor your blood sugar (glucose) ...

  13. RANKL/RANK: from bone loss to the prevention of breast cancer.

    Sigl, Verena; Jones, Laundette P; Penninger, Josef M

    2016-11-01

    RANK and RANKL, a receptor ligand pair belonging to the tumour necrosis factor family, are the critical regulators of osteoclast development and bone metabolism. Besides their essential function in bone, RANK and RANKL have also been identified as the key factors for the formation of a lactating mammary gland in pregnancy. Mechanistically, RANK and RANKL link the sex hormone progesterone with stem cell expansion and proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. Based on their normal physiology, RANKL/RANK control the onset of hormone-induced breast cancer through the expansion of mammary progenitor cells. Recently, we and others were able to show that RANK and RANKL are also critical regulators of BRCA1-mutation-driven breast cancer. Currently, the preventive strategy for BRCA1-mutation carriers includes preventive mastectomy, associated with wide-ranging risks and psychosocial effects. The search for an alternative non-invasive prevention strategy is therefore of paramount importance. As our work strongly implicates RANK and RANKL as key molecules involved in the initiation of BRCA1-associated breast cancer, we propose that anti-RANKL therapy could be a feasible preventive strategy for women carrying BRCA1 mutations, and by extension to other women with high risk of breast cancer. © 2016 The Authors.

  14. RANKL downregulates cell surface CXCR6 expression through JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis

    Li, Changhong; Zhao, Jinxia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhongqiang; Liu, Rui [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Huang, Jiansheng [Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Liu, Xiangyuan, E-mail: liu-xiangyuan@263.net [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-12-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 is down-regulated during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 reduction was nearly reversed by inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL16 alone does not positively regulate osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: The receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL), as a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, plays an essential role in osteoclast differentiation and function. Chemokines and their receptors have recently been shown to play critical roles in osteoclastogenesis, however, whether CXCL16-CXCR6 plays role in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we first reported that RANKL decreased CXCR6 in a dose-dependent manner, which may be through deactivation of Akt and STAT3 signaling induced by CXCL16. Interestingly, RANKL-mediated CXCR6 reduction may be associated to the activation of STAT3 by phosphorylation. When STAT3 activation was blocked by JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor AG490, RANKL failed to shut down CXCR6 expression during osteoclastogenesis. However, CXCL16 alone did not augment RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and did not alter RANKL-receptor RANK mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that reduction of CXCL16-CXCR6 is critical in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, which is mainly through the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling. CXCL16-CXCR6 axis may become a novel target for the therapeutic intervention of bone resorbing diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.

  15. Generation mechanism of RANKL(+) effector memory B cells: relevance to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Ota, Yuri; Niiro, Hiroaki; Ota, Shun-Ichiro; Ueki, Naoko; Tsuzuki, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Mishima, Koji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Jabbarzadeh-Tabrizi, Siamak; Mitoma, Hiroki; Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Arinobu, Yojiro; Kukita, Akiko; Yamada, Hisakata; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Akashi, Koichi

    2016-03-16

    The efficacy of B cell-depleting therapies for rheumatoid arthritis underscores antibody-independent functions of effector B cells such as cognate T-B interactions and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) is a key cytokine involved in bone destruction and is highly expressed in synovial fluid B cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this study we sought to clarify the generation mechanism of RANKL(+) effector B cells and their impacts on osteoclast differentiation. Peripheral blood and synovial fluid B cells from healthy controls and patients with rheumatoid arthritis were isolated using cell sorter. mRNA expression of RANKL, osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and Blimp-1 was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Levels of RANKL, CD80, CD86, and CXCR3 were analyzed using flow cytometry. Functional analysis of osteoclastogenesis was carried out in the co-culture system using macrophage RAW264 reporter cells. RANKL expression was accentuated in CD80(+)CD86(+) B cells, a highly activated B-cell subset more abundantly observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Upon activation via B-cell receptor and CD40, switched-memory B cells predominantly expressed RANKL, which was further augmented by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) but suppressed by interleukin-21. Strikingly, IFN-γ also enhanced TNF-α expression, while it strongly suppressed osteoprotegerin expression in B cells. IFN-γ increased the generation of CXCR3(+)RANKL(+) effector B cells, mimicking the synovial B cell phenotype in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Finally, RANKL(+) effector B cells in concert with TNF-α facilitated osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Our current findings have shed light on the generation mechanism of pathogenic RANKL(+) effector B cells that would be an ideal therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis in the future.

  16. Imbalanced expression of RANKL and osteoprotegerin mRNA in pannus tissue of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Ainola, M; Mandelin, J; Liljeström, M; Konttinen, Y T; Salo, J

    2008-01-01

    To test if the pannus tissue is characterized by a high receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand to osteoprotegerin (RANKL:OPG) ratio, which could explain local osteoclastogenesis and formation of bony erosions. Messenger RNA and protein expressions of RANKL and OPG in rheumatoid and osteoarthritic tissue samples were measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot/densitometry. Pannus and synovitis fibroblasts explanted from tissue samples were cultured in vitro without and with TNF-alpha, IL-1Beta or IL-17 and analyzed quantitatively for RANKL expression. The ability of pannus fibroblasts to induce formation of multinuclear osteoclast-like cells from human monocytes, with macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) but without RANKL added, was tested. Histochemical staining was used to assess the eventual presence of RANKL and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase positive osteoclast-like cells at the pannus-bone interface. RANKL:OPG ratios of messenger RNA (ppannus (2.06+/-0.73 and 2.2+/-0.65) compared to rheumatoid (0.62+/-0.13 and 1.31+/-0.69) and osteoarthritis (0.62+/-0.32 and 0.52+/-0.16) synovial membranes. Resting and stimulated (p dependent on the cytokine used) pannus fibroblasts produced RANKL in excess (p=0.0005) and unstimulated pannus fibroblasts also effectively induced osteoclast-like cell formation from monocytes in vitro without any exogenous RANKL added. Compatible with these findings, multinuclear osteoclasts-like cells were frequent in the fibroblast- and macrophage-rich pannus tissue at the soft tissue-to-bone interface. The high RANKL:OPG ratio, together with close fibroblast-to-monocyte contacts in pannus tissue, probably favor local generation of bone resorbing osteoclasts at the site of erosion in rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. The true Price of Chocolate?

    Ingram, V.J.; Chocoloney, T.

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate prices generally do not incorporate many of the environmental and social externalities, costs which are incurred as the main ingredients such as cocoa and sugar move from farms, to factories to consumers. Nor do prices reflect the benefits of non-conventional production and alternative

  18. Sweeteners - sugars

    ... of added sugar in soda. However, popular "vitamin-type" waters, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks also contain ... include: Drink water instead of regular soda, "vitamin-type" water, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks. Eat less ...

  19. Changes in prices, sales, consumer spending, and beverage consumption one year after a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Berkeley, California, US: A before-and-after study.

    Lynn D Silver

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs meant to improve health and raise revenue are being adopted, yet evaluation is scarce. This study examines the association of the first penny per ounce SSB excise tax in the United States, in Berkeley, California, with beverage prices, sales, store revenue/consumer spending, and usual beverage intake.Methods included comparison of pre-taxation (before 1 January 2015 and first-year post-taxation (1 March 2015-29 February 2016 measures of (1 beverage prices at 26 Berkeley stores; (2 point-of-sale scanner data on 15.5 million checkouts for beverage prices, sales, and store revenue for two supermarket chains covering three Berkeley and six control non-Berkeley large supermarkets in adjacent cities; and (3 a representative telephone survey (17.4% cooperation rate of 957 adult Berkeley residents. Key hypotheses were that (1 the tax would be passed through to the prices of taxed beverages among the chain stores in which Berkeley implemented the tax in 2015; (2 sales of taxed beverages would decline, and sales of untaxed beverages would rise, in Berkeley stores more than in comparison non-Berkeley stores; (3 consumer spending per transaction (checkout episode would not increase in Berkeley stores; and (4 self-reported consumption of taxed beverages would decline. Main outcomes and measures included changes in inflation-adjusted prices (cents/ounce, beverage sales (ounces, consumers' spending measured as store revenue (inflation-adjusted dollars per transaction in two large chains, and usual beverage intake (grams/day and kilocalories/day. Tax pass-through (changes in the price after imposition of the tax for SSBs varied in degree and timing by store type and beverage type. Pass-through was complete in large chain supermarkets (+1.07¢/oz, p = 0.001 and small chain supermarkets and chain gas stations (1.31¢/oz, p = 0.004, partial in pharmacies (+0.45¢/oz, p = 0.03, and negative in independent corner stores and

  20. Changes in prices, sales, consumer spending, and beverage consumption one year after a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Berkeley, California, US: A before-and-after study

    Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Induni, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Background Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) meant to improve health and raise revenue are being adopted, yet evaluation is scarce. This study examines the association of the first penny per ounce SSB excise tax in the United States, in Berkeley, California, with beverage prices, sales, store revenue/consumer spending, and usual beverage intake. Methods and findings Methods included comparison of pre-taxation (before 1 January 2015) and first-year post-taxation (1 March 2015–29 February 2016) measures of (1) beverage prices at 26 Berkeley stores; (2) point-of-sale scanner data on 15.5 million checkouts for beverage prices, sales, and store revenue for two supermarket chains covering three Berkeley and six control non-Berkeley large supermarkets in adjacent cities; and (3) a representative telephone survey (17.4% cooperation rate) of 957 adult Berkeley residents. Key hypotheses were that (1) the tax would be passed through to the prices of taxed beverages among the chain stores in which Berkeley implemented the tax in 2015; (2) sales of taxed beverages would decline, and sales of untaxed beverages would rise, in Berkeley stores more than in comparison non-Berkeley stores; (3) consumer spending per transaction (checkout episode) would not increase in Berkeley stores; and (4) self-reported consumption of taxed beverages would decline. Main outcomes and measures included changes in inflation-adjusted prices (cents/ounce), beverage sales (ounces), consumers’ spending measured as store revenue (inflation-adjusted dollars per transaction) in two large chains, and usual beverage intake (grams/day and kilocalories/day). Tax pass-through (changes in the price after imposition of the tax) for SSBs varied in degree and timing by store type and beverage type. Pass-through was complete in large chain supermarkets (+1.07¢/oz, p = 0.001) and small chain supermarkets and chain gas stations (1.31¢/oz, p = 0.004), partial in pharmacies (+0.45¢/oz, p = 0.03), and

  1. Blood sugar test

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  2. Evaluation of the osteoclastogenic process associated with RANK / RANK-L / OPG in odontogenic myxomas

    González-Galván, María del Carmen; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Setien-Olarra, Amaia; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Aguirre-Urizar, José-Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Background Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a benign intraosseous neoplasm that exhibits local aggressiveness and high recurrence rates. Osteoclastogenesis is an important phenomenon in the tumor growth of maxillary neoplasms. RANK (Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κappa B) is the signaling receptor of RANK-L (Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand) that activates the osteoclasts. OPG (osteoprotegerin) is a decoy receptor for RANK-L that inhibits pro-osteoclastogenesis. The RANK / RANKL / OPG system participates in the regulation of osteolytic activity under normal conditions, and its alteration has been associated with greater bone destruction, and also with tumor growth. Objectives To analyze the immunohistochemical expression of OPG, RANK and RANK-L proteins in odontogenic myxomas (OMs) and their relationship with the tumor size. Material and Methods Eighteen OMs, 4 small ( 3cm) and 18 dental follicles (DF) that were included as control were studied by means of standard immunohistochemical procedure with RANK, RANKL and OPG antibodies. For the evaluation, 5 fields (40x) of representative areas of OM and DF were selected where the expression of each antibody was determined. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were performed with the obtained data. Results There are significant differences in the expression of RANK in OM samples as compared to DF (p = 0.022) and among the OMSs and OMLs (p = 0.032). Also a strong association is recognized in the expression of RANK-L and OPG in OM samples. Conclusions Activation of the RANK / RANK-L / OPG triad seems to be involved in the mechanisms of bone balance and destruction, as well as associated with tumor growth in odontogenic myxomas. Key words:Odontogenic myxoma, dental follicle, RANK, RANK-L, OPG, osteoclastogenesis. PMID:29680857

  3. Schisantherin A suppresses osteoclast formation and wear particle-induced osteolysis via modulating RANKL signaling pathways

    He, Yi; Zhang, Qing; Shen, Yi; Chen, Xia; Zhou, Feng; Peng, Dan, E-mail: xyeypd@163.com

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • Schisantherin A suppresses osteoclasts formation and function in vitro. • Schisantherin A impairs RANKL signaling pathway. • Schisantherin A suppresses osteolysis in vivo. • Schisantherin A may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases. - Abstract: Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) plays critical role in osteoclastogenesis. Targeting RANKL signaling pathways has been a promising strategy for treating osteoclast related bone diseases such as osteoporosis and aseptic prosthetic loosening. Schisantherin A (SA), a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from the fruit of Schisandra sphenanthera, has been used as an antitussive, tonic, and sedative agent, but its effect on osteoclasts has been hitherto unknown. In the present study, SA was found to inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. The osteoclastic specific marker genes induced by RANKL including c-Src, SA inhibited OSCAR, cathepsin K and TRAP in a dose dependent manner. Further signal transduction studies revealed that SA down-regulate RANKL-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling activation by suppressing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, and subsequently preventing the NF-κB transcriptional activity. Moreover, SA also decreased the RANKL-induced MAPKs signaling pathway, including JNK and ERK1/2 posphorylation while had no obvious effects on p38 activation. Finally, SA suppressed the NF-κB and MAPKs subsequent gene expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos. In vivo studies, SA inhibited osteoclast function and exhibited bone protection effect in wear-particle-induced bone erosion model. Taken together, SA could attenuate osteoclast formation and wear particle-induced osteolysis by mediating RANKL signaling pathways. These data indicated that SA is a promising therapeutic natural compound for the treatment of osteoclast-related prosthesis loosening.

  4. Oxidized lipids enhance RANKL production by T lymphocytes: implications for lipid-induced bone loss.

    Graham, Lucia S; Parhami, Farhad; Tintut, Yin; Kitchen, Christina M R; Demer, Linda L; Effros, Rita B

    2009-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disease that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Whereas osteoclasts and osteoblasts are the main regulators of bone homeostasis, recent studies underscore a key role for the immune system, particularly via activation-induced T lymphocyte production of receptor activator of NFkappaB ligand (RANKL). Well-documented as a mediator of T lymphocyte/dendritic cell interactions, RANKL also stimulates the maturation and activation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Given that lipid oxidation products mediate inflammatory and metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis and atherosclerosis, and since oxidized lipids affect several T lymphocyte functions, we hypothesized that RANKL production might also be subject to modulation by oxidized lipids. Here, we show that short term exposure of both unstimulated and activated human T lymphocytes to minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL), but not native LDL, significantly enhances RANKL production and promotes expression of the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). The effect, which is also observed with 8-iso-Prostaglandin E2, an inflammatory isoprostane produced by lipid peroxidation, is mediated via the NFkappaB pathway, and involves increased RANKL mRNA expression. The link between oxidized lipids and T lymphocytes is further reinforced by analysis of hyperlipidemic mice, in which bone loss is associated with increased RANKL mRNA in T lymphocytes and elevated RANKL serum levels. Our results suggest a novel pathway by which T lymphocytes contribute to bone changes, namely, via oxidized lipid enhancement of RANKL production. These findings may help elucidate clinical associations between cardiovascular disease and decreased bone mass, and may also lead to new immune-based approaches to osteoporosis.

  5. Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress

    Mazière, Cécile, E-mail: maziere.cecile@chu-amiens.fr [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France); Salle, Valéry [Internal Medicine, North Hospital University, Place Victor Pauchet, Amiens 80000 (France); INSERM U1088 (EA 4292), SFR CAP-Santé (FED 4231), University of Picardie – Jules Verne (France); Gomila, Cathy; Mazière, Jean-Claude [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 μg/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level in a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NFκB inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.

  6. Role of periodontal pathogenic bacteria in RANKL-mediated bone destruction in periodontal disease.

    Kajiya, Mikihito; Giro, Gabriela; Taubman, Martin A; Han, Xiaozhe; Mayer, Marcia P A; Kawai, Toshihisa

    2010-11-08

    Accumulated lines of evidence suggest that hyperimmune responses to periodontal bacteria result in the destruction of periodontal connective tissue and alveolar bone. The etiological roles of periodontal bacteria in the onset and progression of periodontal disease (PD) are well documented. However, the mechanism underlying the engagement of periodontal bacteria in RANKL-mediated alveolar bone resorption remains unclear. Therefore, this review article addresses three critical subjects. First, we discuss earlier studies of immune intervention, ultimately leading to the identification of bacteria-reactive lymphocytes as the cellular source of osteoclast-induction factor lymphokine (now called RANKL) in the context of periodontal bone resorption. Next, we consider (1) the effects of periodontal bacteria on RANKL production from a variety of adaptive immune effector cells, as well as fibroblasts, in inflamed periodontal tissue and (2) the bifunctional roles (upregulation vs. downregulation) of LPS produced from periodontal bacteria in a RANKL-induced osteoclast-signal pathway. Future studies in these two areas could lead to new therapeutic approaches for the management of PD by down-modulating RANKL production and/or RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in the context of host immune responses against periodontal pathogenic bacteria.

  7. Expression of osteoprotegerin, RNAK and RANKL genes in femoral head avascular necrosis and related signaling pathway.

    Miao, Qingtang; Hao, Sibin; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Fang; Wang, Xueling

    2015-01-01

    Femoral head avascular necrosis (AVN) causes the damage of hip joint and related dysfunctions, thus consisting of a clinical challenge. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) and its ligand (RANKL) all regulate the formation of bones via gene transcriptional regulation for the balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This study thus investigated the expressional profiles of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes in AVN patients, and explored related molecular mediating pathways. Real-time qPCR was used to measure the gene expression of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes in AVN femoral head tissue samples from 42 patients, along with normal tissues. Western blotting analysis was performed to quantify protein levels of OPG and RANKL. There was a trend but not statistically significant elevation of mRNA levels of OPG in femoral head AVN tissues compared to normal tissues (P>0.05). The expression of RNAK and RNAKL, however, was significantly elevated in necrotic tissues (P<0.05). No significant difference in protein levels of OPG or RANKL between groups. The expression of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes exert a crucial role in the progression of AVN, suggesting their roles in mediating bone homeostasis and potential effects on bone destruction.

  8. Global sugar market – the analysis of factors influencing supply and demand

    Lenka Rumánková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with an analysis of the world sugar market, and specifically focuses on the supply and demand of refined sugar and their main determinants. The article first identifies the main determinants of the world supply of and demand for sugar, and further, their effect on such variables is quantified. Further, the component correlations on the selected market are analyzed. This consists of the identification of the factors affecting the production of refined sugar, as one of the main elements of the supply of sugar, as well as an analysis of the world price of sugar, as one of the significant factors affecting the world sugar market. The said correlations are quantified with the utilization of regression analysis on the basis of time series of the individual variables within the years 1980–2010. On the basis of the conducted analysis, the main determinants of the sugar supply on the world market within the analyzed period, for which an effect has been established both from an economic viewpoint, as well as from a statistical viewpoint, can be considered to be sugar reserves, its price and the acreage of sugarcane. The main determinant of the demand for sugar is, according to the conducted analysis, the global GDP on a new value level, as well as converted to one inhabitant. Further, the analysis also established the effect of the price of sugar and its reserves on the world production of refined sugar, and, last but not least, also the long-term tendency in the development of the world price of sugar. The analysis has proven significant influence of refined sugar supply, reserves of refined sugar, its price and area of sugar cane on sugar supply. Then, the analysis detected GDP as the main determinant of the sugar demand and the long memory in sugar prices. Finally, the influence of delayed price, reserves and delayed reserves on production has been proven.

  9. How intrinsic values influence wines prices

    Gál Péter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hedonic price indices is quite common in the wine economics literature, yet they mainly include scores of organoleptic tests and some dummy variables representing varieties and quality signs as geographical indications. This study focuses on the relation between the composition and the price of wines on the example of Hungarian wines. In Hungary, the wine law renders chemical analysis compulsory for all wines released to the market. The study includes five main compounds: actual alcoholic strength, total sugars, total acidity, sugar free extract and pH value and is based on hedonic price indices calculated on a sample of 2,453 wines. Results of several regressions – using different model specifications – consistently show that actual alcoholic strength, sugar content, sugar free extract and pH value are related with the price. Some characteristics have an optimal level, while in other cases the relation is linear.

  10. RANKL-Targeted Therapies: The Next Frontier in the Treatment of Male Osteoporosis

    Alicia K. Morgans

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Male osteoporosis is an increasingly recognized problem in aging men. A common cause of male osteoporosis is hypogonadism. Thousands of men with prostate cancer are treated with androgen deprivation therapy, a treatment that dramatically reduces serum testosterone and causes severe hypogonadism. Men treated with androgen deprivation therapy experience a decline in bone mineral density and have an increased rate of fracture. This paper describes prostate cancer survivors as a model of hypogonadal osteoporosis and discusses the use of RANKL-targeted therapies in osteoporosis. Denosumab, the only RANKL-targeted therapy currently available, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture rate in men with prostate cancer. Denosumab is also associated with delayed time to first skeletal-related event and an increase in bone metastasis-free survival in these men. It is reasonable to investigate the use of RANKL-targeted therapy in male osteoporosis in the general population.

  11. An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar

    Negar Seyed Soleimany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households by using time series of 1984-2008, which is taken from central bank of Iran. In this paper, first independent and dependent variables of household sugar demand model are chosen based on the literature review and theory of demand. Then, sugar demand is estimated by OLS technique and linear regression. The preliminary statistical observations such as Durbin-Watson, F statistic and R2 indicate that the regression is admissible. The results seem plausible and consistent with theory and show that sugar demand in Iranian households is associated with household expenditure, relative sugar price, family size and indicate that demand of sugar is affected during the war time. The results also show the income elasticity is 0.8 and price elasticity is -0.2 which means sugar is essential good for Iranian households and is inelastic to price.

  12. Monosodium Urate in the Presence of RANKL Promotes Osteoclast Formation through Activation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase

    Jung-Yoon Choe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify the role of monosodium urate (MSU crystals in receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand- (RANKL- RANK-induced osteoclast formation. RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were incubated with MSU crystals or RANKL and differentiated into osteoclast-like cells as confirmed by staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP and actin ring, pit formation assay, and TRAP activity assay. MSU crystals in the presence of RANKL augmented osteoclast differentiation, with enhanced mRNA expression of NFATc1, cathepsin K, carbonic anhydrase II, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, in comparison to RAW 264.7 macrophages incubated in the presence of RANKL alone. Treatment with both MSU crystals and RANKL induced osteoclast differentiation by activating downstream molecules in the RANKL-RANK pathway including tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF-6, JNK, c-Jun, and NFATc1. IL-1b produced in response to treatment with both MSU and RANKL is involved in osteoclast differentiation in part through the induction of TRAF-6 downstream of the IL-1b pathway. This study revealed that MSU crystals contribute to enhanced osteoclast formation through activation of RANKL-mediated pathways and recruitment of IL-1b. These findings suggest that MSU crystals might be a pathologic causative agent of bone destruction in gout.

  13. Expression profile of osteoprotegerin, RANK and RANKL genes in the femoral head of patients with avascular necrosis.

    Samara, Stavroula; Dailiana, Zoe; Chassanidis, Christos; Koromila, Theodora; Papatheodorou, Loukia; Malizos, Konstantinos N; Kollia, Panagoula

    2014-02-01

    Femoral head avascular necrosis (AVN) is a recalcitrant disease of the hip that leads to joint destruction. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B (RANK) and RANK ligand (RANKL) regulate the balance between osteoclasts-osteoblasts. The expression of these genes affects the maturation and function of osteoblasts-osteoclasts and bone remodeling. In this study, we investigated the molecular pathways leading to AVN by studying the expression profile of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes. Quantitative Real Time-PCR was performed for evaluation of OPG, RANK and RANKL expression. Analysis was based on parallel evaluation of mRNA and protein levels in normal/necrotic sites of 42 osteonecrotic femoral heads (FHs). OPG and RANKL protein levels were estimated by western blotting. The OPG mRNA levels were higher (insignificantly) in the necrotic than the normal site (p > 0.05). Although the expression of RANK and RANKL was significantly lower than OPG in both sites, RANK and RANKL mRNA levels were higher in the necrotic part than the normal (p < 0.05). Protein levels of OPG and RANKL showed no remarkable divergence. Our results indicate that differential expression mechanisms for OPG, RANK and RANKL that could play an important role in the progress of bone remodeling in the necrotic area, disturbing bone homeostasis. This finding may have an effect on the resulting bone destruction and the subsequent collapse of the hip joint. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Fisetin antagonizes cell fusion, cytoskeletal organization and bone resorption in RANKL-differentiated murine macrophages.

    Kim, Yun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Lye; Lee, Eun-Jung; Park, Sin-Hye; Han, Seon-Young; Kang, Soon Ah; Kang, Young-Hee

    2014-03-01

    Osteoclastogenesis is comprised of several stage s including progenitor survival, differentiation to mononuclear preosteoclasts, cell fusion to multinuclear mature osteoclasts, and activation to osteoclasts with bone resorbing activity. Botanical antioxidants are now being increasingly investigated for their health-promoting effects on bone. This study investigated that fisetin, a flavonol found naturally in many fruits and vegetables, suppressed osteoclastogenesis by disturbing receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated signaling pathway and demoting osteoclastogenic protein induction. Nontoxic fisetin at ≤10 μM inhibited the induction of RANK, tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and the activation of NF-κB in RANKL-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In RANKL-differentiated osteoclasts cell fusion protein of E-cadherin was induced, which was dampened by fisetin. The formation of tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated osteoclasts was suppressed by adding fisetin to RANKL-exposed macrophages. It was also found that fisetin reduced actin ring formation and gelsolin induction of osteclasts enhanced by RANKL through disturbing c-Src-proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 signaling. Fisetin deterred preosteoclasts from the cell-cell fusion and the organization of the cytoskeleton to seal the resorbing area and to secret protons for bone resorption. Consistently, the 5 day-treatment of fisetin diminished RANKL-induced cellular expression of carbonic anhydrase II and integrin β3 concurrently with a reduction of osteoclast bone-resorbing activity. Therefore, fisetin was a natural therapeutic agent retarding osteoclast fusion and cytoskeletal organization such as actin rings and ruffled boarder, which is a property of mature osteoclasts and is required for osteoclasts to resorb bone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Price fairness

    Diller, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to integrate the various strands of fair price research into a concise conceptual model. Design/methodology/approach – The proposed price fairness model is based on a review of the fair pricing literature, incorporating research reported in not only English but also German. Findings – The proposed fair price model depicts seven components of a fair price: distributive fairness, consistent behaviour, personal respect and regard for the partner, fair dea...

  16. Regulation of vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase in microglia by RANKL

    Serrano, Eric M.; Ricofort, Ryan D.; Zuo, Jian [Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Ochotny, Noelle [Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 1G6 (Canada); Manolson, Morris F. [Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 1G6 (Canada); Holliday, L. Shannon, E-mail: sholliday@dental.ufl.edu [Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

    2009-11-06

    Vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPases play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor {kappa}B-ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor {kappa}B (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia.

  17. Curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast formation by attenuating the JNK signaling pathway

    Yu, Mingxiang; Chen, Xianying; Lv, Chaoyang; Yi, Xilu; Zhang, Yao; Xue, Mengjuan; He, Shunmei; Zhu, Guoying; Wang, Hongfu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Curcumol suppresses osteoclasts differentiation in vitro. • Curcumol impairs JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway. • Curcumol may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases. - Abstract: Osteoclasts, derived from hemopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, have a unique role in bone resorption, and are considered a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of such pathologic bone diseases as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. In the present study, we demonstrate that curcumol, one of the major components of the essential oil of Rhizoma Curcumae, exhibits an inhibitory effect on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation with both bone marrow-derived macrophages and RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, RANKL-induced mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, and cathepsin K, is prominently reduced in the presence of curcumol. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of action was investigated, and curcumol inhibited osteoclastogenesis by specifically impairing RANKL-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling, which was further identified in rescue studies by means of anisomycin, a JNK signaling-specific activator. Taken together, these findings suggest that curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation through the JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway, and may be useful as a therapeutic treatment for bone resorption-associated diseases

  18. Curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast formation by attenuating the JNK signaling pathway

    Yu, Mingxiang, E-mail: yu.mingxiang@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Xianying [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hainan Provincial Nong Ken Hospital, Hainan (China); Lv, Chaoyang [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yi, Xilu [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Songjiang District Central Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Yao; Xue, Mengjuan; He, Shunmei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Guoying [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Hongfu, E-mail: hfwang@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Curcumol suppresses osteoclasts differentiation in vitro. • Curcumol impairs JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway. • Curcumol may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases. - Abstract: Osteoclasts, derived from hemopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, have a unique role in bone resorption, and are considered a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of such pathologic bone diseases as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. In the present study, we demonstrate that curcumol, one of the major components of the essential oil of Rhizoma Curcumae, exhibits an inhibitory effect on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation with both bone marrow-derived macrophages and RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, RANKL-induced mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, and cathepsin K, is prominently reduced in the presence of curcumol. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of action was investigated, and curcumol inhibited osteoclastogenesis by specifically impairing RANKL-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling, which was further identified in rescue studies by means of anisomycin, a JNK signaling-specific activator. Taken together, these findings suggest that curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation through the JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway, and may be useful as a therapeutic treatment for bone resorption-associated diseases.

  19. Parallel Assessment of Bone Mineral Density and RANKL/OPG Ratio in Saudi Females

    AI Hassan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a significant risk factor for morbidity, and its high prevalence among Saudi women should be considered to be a public health problem. Quantitative ultrasound was recommended for bone mineral density (BMD screening. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG and their ratio are critical for physiological bone remodelling, and related abnormalities may lead to several osteopathies. Methods: The BMD of 499 Saudi females aged 20 to 65 years was measured using quantitative ultrasound from the beginning of October 2013 to the end of March 2014 at the female medical unit of Taibah University, Madinah, KSA. Possible associated risk factors for low BMD were studied. Blood RANKL and OPG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: No significant differences were found between participants with normal and low BMD regarding the studied risk factors. However, there was a significant association (p < 0.05 between BMD and regular physical activity among participants aged 20 years to less than 35 years, and women aged 35–50 years with higher body mass index (BMI had higher BMD. The RANKL/OPG ratio was inversely associated (p = 0.04 with BMD. Conclusions: Regular physical activity is crucial for maximizing BMD in young females and decreasing the possibility of developing osteoporosis with ageing. The RANKL/OPG ratio might be considered a useful and easy-to-use tool for the prediction of low BMD.

  20. The inhibitory effect of vitamin K on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption.

    Wu, Wei-Jie; Kim, Min Seuk; Ahn, Byung-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To further understand the correlation between vitamin K and bone metabolism, the effects of vitamins K1, menaquinone-4 (MK-4), and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were comparatively investigated. Vitamin K2 groups (MK-4 and MK-7) were found to significantly inhibit RANKL-medicated osteoclast cell formation of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner, without any evidence of cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression of specific osteoclast differentiation markers, such as c-Fos, NFATc1, OSCAR, and TRAP, as well as NFATc1 protein expression and TRAP activity in RANKL-treated BMMs were inhibited by vitamin K2, although MK-4 exhibited a significantly greater efficiency compared to MK-7. In contrast, the same dose of vitamin K1 had no inhibitory effect on RANKL-induced osteoclast cell formation, but increased the expression of major osteoclastogenic genes. Interestingly, vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 all strongly inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption (p vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 have anti-osteoporotic properties, while their regulation effects on osteoclastogenesis are somewhat different.

  1. Periapical fluid RANKL and IL-8 are differentially regulated in pulpitis and apical periodontitis.

    Rechenberg, Dan-K; Bostanci, Nagihan; Zehnder, Matthias; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2014-09-01

    The dental pulp space can become infected due to a breach in the surrounding hard tissues. This leads to inflammation of the pulp (pulpitis), soft tissue breakdown, and finally to bone loss around the root apex (apical periodontitis). The succession of the molecular events leading to apical periodontitis is currently not known. The main inflammatory mediator associated with neutrophil chemotaxis is interleukin-8 (IL-8), and with bone resorption the dyad of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The levels of RANKL, OPG and IL-8 were studied in periapical tissue fluid of human teeth (n = 48) diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP) and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP). SIP represents the starting point, and AAP an established steady state of the disease. Periapical tissue fluid samples were collected using paper points and then evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Target protein levels per case were calibrated against the corresponding total protein content, as determined fluorometrically. RANKL was expressed at significantly higher levels in SIP compared to AAP (P apical periodontitis, periapical bone resorption signaling, as determined by RANKL, occurs prior to inflammatory cell recruitment signaling, as determined by IL-8. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Food versus fuel: What do prices tell us?

    Zhang Zibin; Lohr, Luanne; Escalante, Cesar; Wetzstein, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Sorting out the impacts of biofuels on global agricultural commodity prices is impossible without turning to data and distinguishing between the short-run versus the long-run impacts. Using time-series prices on fuels and agricultural commodities, the aim is to investigate the long-run cointegration of these prices simultaneously with their multivariate short-run interactions. Results indicate no direct long-run price relations between fuel and agricultural commodity prices, and limited if any direct short-run relationships. In terms of short-run price movements, sugar prices are influencing all the other agricultural commodity prices except rice. With sugar the number one world input for ethanol, results indicate increased ethanol production is potentially influencing short-run agricultural commodity prices. Overall, results support the effect of agricultural commodity prices as market signals which restore commodity markets to their equilibria after a demand or supply event (shock).

  3. Clinical prognostic significance and pro-metastatic activity of RANK/RANKL via the AKT pathway in endometrial cancer.

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Yao; Wang, Lihua; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yudong

    2016-02-02

    RANK/RANKL plays a key role in metastasis of certain malignant tumors, which makes it a promising target for developing novel therapeutic strategies for cancer. However, the prognostic value and pro-metastatic activity of RANK in endometrial cancer (EC) remain to be determined. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of RANK on the prognosis of EC patients, as well as the pro-metastatic activity of EC cells. The results indicated that those with high expression of RANK showed decreased overall survival and progression-free survival. Statistical analysis revealed the positive correlations between RANK/RANKL expression and metastasis-related factors. Additionally, RANK/RANKL significantly promoted cell migration/invasion via activating AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway in vitro. However, RANK/RANKL-induced AKT activation could be suppressed after osteoprotegerin (OPG) treatment. Furthermore, the combination of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and RANKL could in turn attenuate the effect of RANKL alone. Similarly, MPA could partially inhibit the RANK-induced metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model via suppressing AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway. Therefore, therapeutic inhibition of MPA in RANK/RANKL-induced metastasis was mediated by AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a potential target of RANK for gene-based therapy for EC.

  4. Home blood sugar testing

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal or ...

  5. Pricing effects on food choices.

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations.

  6. Involvement of the G-protein-coupled receptor 4 in RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment

    Okito, Asuka [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Orthodontic Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Nakahama, Ken-ichi, E-mail: nakacell@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Akiyama, Masako [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, Takashi [Department of Orthodontic Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Morita, Ikuo [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-03-06

    Osteoclast activity is enhanced in acidic environments following systemic or local inflammation. However, the regulatory mechanism of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoblasts under acidic conditions is not fully understood. In the present paper, we detected the mRNA expression of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) proton sensors GPR4 and GPR65 (T-cell death-associated gene 8, TDAG8), in osteoblasts. RANKL expression and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) level in osteoblasts were up-regulated under acidic culture conditions. Acidosis-induced up-regulation of RANKL was abolished by the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. To clarify the role of GPR4 in RANKL expression, GPR4 gain and loss of function experiments were performed. Gene knockdown and forced expression of GPR4 caused reduction and induction of RANKL expression, respectively. These results suggested that, at least in part, RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment was mediated by cAMP/PKA signaling resulting from GPR4 activation. A comprehensive microarray analysis of gene expression of osteoblasts revealed that, under acidic conditions, the phenotype of osteoblasts was that of an osteoclast supporting cell rather than that of a mineralizing cell. These findings will contribute to a molecular understanding of bone disruption in an acidic environment. - Highlights: • RANKL expression was increased in osteoblasts under acidosis via cAMP/PKA pathway. • GRP4 knockdown resulted in decrease of RANKL expression. • GRP4 overexpression resulted in increase of RANKL expression. • Osteoblast mineralization was reduced under acidic condition.

  7. Dynamic Pricing

    Sharifi, Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Fathi, S. Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic pricing scheme, also known as real-time pricing (RTP), can be more efficient and technically beneficial than the other price-based schemes (such as flat-rate or time-of-use (TOU) pricing) for enabling demand response (DR) actions. Over the past few years, advantages of RTP-based schemes h...... of dynamic pricing can lead to increased willingness of consumers to participate in DR programs which in turn improve the operation of liberalized electricity markets.......Dynamic pricing scheme, also known as real-time pricing (RTP), can be more efficient and technically beneficial than the other price-based schemes (such as flat-rate or time-of-use (TOU) pricing) for enabling demand response (DR) actions. Over the past few years, advantages of RTP-based schemes...

  8. Effect Of Import Tariff Implementation Policy On Refined Sugar ...

    economization, are influenced by the import tariff and elasticity price toward supply and demand. It also showed that sugar product competitiveness in Indonesia is higher than the same product from other countries as the value of DRC is less than one. Key word: Sugar, Welfare Distribution, Domestic Resource Cost (DRC), ...

  9. Study of factors affecting demand and supply of sugar in Indonesia ...

    This study is aimed at determining: (a) the factors influencing the demand of national sugar, and the price elasticity of demand (ep) and; (b) the factors influencing the supply of national sugar, and the price elasticity of supply (es). The data comprised a time series of 1990-2006, taken from the Central Statistics Bureau, The ...

  10. Transfer Pricing

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  11. Gold prices

    Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    The price of gold commands attention because it serves as an indicator of general price stability or inflation. But gold is also a commodity, used in jewelry and by industry, so demand and supply affect its pricing and need to be considered when gold is a factor in monetary policy decisions.

  12. 25 CFR 141.55 - Price monitoring and control.

    2010-04-01

    ... be made a survey of the prices of flour, sugar, fresh eggs, lard, coffee, ground beef, bread, cheese... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Price monitoring and control. 141.55 Section 141.55... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Enforcement Powers, Procedures and Remedies § 141.55 Price...

  13. Immunolocalization of RANK and RANKL along the root surface and in the periodontal membrane of human primary and permanent teeth

    Bille, Marie-Louise Bastholm; Thomsen, Bjarke; Andersen, Thomas Levin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Root resorption, impaired tooth eruption and early tooth loss have been described in relation to diseases that involve defects in the RANK-RANKL-OPG-expression. The aim of the present immunhistochemical study was to localize and compare the reactions for RANK and membrane...... in odontoblasts and in cells along denticles in one primary tooth. RANK was located in mononuclear cells in the pulp and in multinucleated odontoclasts along resorbed root surfaces and along resorbed dentin surfaces in the pulp in primary teeth and one permanent tooth. Conclusions. This study demonstrated RANK...... positivity in resorption areas in primary and permanent teeth. RANKL was positive in the pulp of one primary tooth. RANK expression in odontoclasts and RANKL expression in the pulp may indicate that RANK/RANKL play a role during resorption....

  14. Sugar beet breeding

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  15. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    2010-01-01

    ... planted. The first occurrence that land is considered as planted acreage for the crop year. Local market price. The price per pound for raw sugar offered by buyers in the area in which you normally market the...) November 25 in Ohio; (5) December 31 in New Mexico and Texas; and (6) November 15 in all other States and...

  16. The feasibility of direct processing of sugar beets in Slovenia: a quick scan

    Jongeneel, R.A.; Smit, A.L.; Bakker, Tom; Jager, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a quick scan of the economic feasibility of direct processing of sugar beet for ethanol production in Slovenia, using the Betaprocess technology. The outcome is that given the prices for sugar, sugar beets, ethanol and other relevant arable crops that are expected to prevail

  17. Role of periodontal pathogenic bacteria in RANKL-mediated bone destruction in periodontal disease

    Mikihito Kajiya; Gabriela Giro; Martin A. Taubman; Xiaozhe Han; Marcia P.A. Mayer; Toshihisa Kawai

    2010-01-01

    Accumulated lines of evidence suggest that hyperimmune responses to periodontal bacteria result in the destruction of periodontal connective tissue and alveolar bone. The etiological roles of periodontal bacteria in the onset and progression of periodontal disease (PD) are well documented. However, the mechanism underlying the engagement of periodontal bacteria in RANKL-mediated alveolar bone resorption remains unclear. Therefore, this review article addresses three critical subjects. First, ...

  18. Bone metabolism and RANKL/RANK/OPG trail in periodontal disease

    Czupkallo Lukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology. In order for it to appear there must come to an imbalance between the effects of pathogens and host defense mechanisms. As a result of its course the destruction of structures supporting the teeth appears (periodontium, cement, bone, and consequently leads to teeth loosening and loss. In recent years, the participation of RANKL/RANK/OPG in bone remodeling process was highligted.

  19. Parallel Assessment of Bone Mineral Density and RANKL/OPG Ratio in Saudi Females

    AI Hassan; SA Eltarhouny; HE Hashem; SA Algaidi; AR Abdallah; AM Sandokji

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a significant risk factor for morbidity, and its high prevalence among Saudi women should be considered to be a public health problem. Quantitative ultrasound was recommended for bone mineral density (BMD) screening. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and their ratio are critical for physiological bone remodelling, and related abnormalities may lead to several osteopathies. Methods: The BMD of 499 Saudi female...

  20. Fucoidan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide, Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation and Function by Modulating RANKL Signaling

    Young Woo Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Multinucleated osteoclasts differentiate from hematopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Because of its pivotal role in bone resorption, regulation of osteoclast differentiation is a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of erosive bone disease. In this study, we have found that fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, inhibited osteoclast differentiation. In particular, addition of fucoidan into the early stage osteoclast cultures significantly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, thus suggesting that fucoidan affects osteoclast progenitors. Furthermore, fucoidan significantly inhibited the activation of RANKL-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs such as JNK, ERK, and p38, and also c-Fos and NFATc1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis. In addition, the activation of NF-κB, which is an upstream transcription factor modulating NFATc1 expression, was alleviated in the fucoidan-treated cells. These results collectively suggest that fucoidan inhibits osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow macrophages by inhibiting RANKL-induced p38, JNK, ERK and NF-κB activation, and by downregulating the expression of genes that partake in both osteoclast differentiation and resorption.

  1. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase regulates RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis via AMPK/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling

    Oh, Se Jeong [Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Gu, Dong Ryun [Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Metabolic Function Regulation (CMFR), School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Su Hyun [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation (CMFR), School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Keun Ha [Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Metabolic Function Regulation (CMFR), School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seoung Hoon, E-mail: leesh2@wku.ac.kr [Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Metabolic Function Regulation (CMFR), School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Wonkwang Institute of Biomaterials and Implant, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-17

    Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (malate dehydrogenase 1, MDH1) plays pivotal roles in the malate/aspartate shuttle that might modulate metabolism between the cytosol and mitochondria. In this study, we investigated the role of MDH1 in osteoclast differentiation and formation. MDH1 expression was induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) treatment. Knockdown of MDH1 by infection with retrovirus containing MDH1-specific shRNA (shMDH1) reduced mature osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. Moreover, the expression of marker genes associated with osteoclast differentiation was downregulated by shMDH1 treatment, suggesting a role of MDH1 in osteoclast differentiation. In addition, intracellular ATP production was reduced following the activation of adenosine 5′ monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor and negative regulator of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, in shMDH1-infected osteoclasts compared to control cells. In addition, the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a critical transcription factor of osteoclastogenesis, was decreased with MDH1 knockdown during RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. These findings provide strong evidence that MDH1 plays a critical role in osteoclast differentiation and function via modulation of the intracellular energy status, which might affect AMPK activity and NFATc1 expression.

  2. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase regulates RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis via AMPK/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling

    Oh, Se Jeong; Gu, Dong Ryun; Jin, Su Hyun; Park, Keun Ha; Lee, Seoung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (malate dehydrogenase 1, MDH1) plays pivotal roles in the malate/aspartate shuttle that might modulate metabolism between the cytosol and mitochondria. In this study, we investigated the role of MDH1 in osteoclast differentiation and formation. MDH1 expression was induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) treatment. Knockdown of MDH1 by infection with retrovirus containing MDH1-specific shRNA (shMDH1) reduced mature osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. Moreover, the expression of marker genes associated with osteoclast differentiation was downregulated by shMDH1 treatment, suggesting a role of MDH1 in osteoclast differentiation. In addition, intracellular ATP production was reduced following the activation of adenosine 5′ monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor and negative regulator of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, in shMDH1-infected osteoclasts compared to control cells. In addition, the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a critical transcription factor of osteoclastogenesis, was decreased with MDH1 knockdown during RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. These findings provide strong evidence that MDH1 plays a critical role in osteoclast differentiation and function via modulation of the intracellular energy status, which might affect AMPK activity and NFATc1 expression.

  3. The Truth about Sugar.

    Yeung, C Albert; Goodfellow, Ashley; Flanagan, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Sugars are used by the industry to enhance the attractiveness of foods and drinks. These added sugars, or 'free sugars', are not easily identified in food or drink labels. Certain manufactured foods and drinks with 'safe' names, such as dried fruit and fruit juice, still contain free sugars and can be confusing. Guidance states that daily consumption of free sugars should be less than 10% of total energy intake (no more than 5% in the UK). However, it is found that both tooth decay and obesity are associated with consumption of free sugars in large quantities and at inappropriate times.

  4. Transfer Pricing

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...... the determination of transfer price will affect the size of the profit or loss in the organizational units and thus have an impact on the evaluation of managers‟ performance. In some instances the determination of transfer prices may lead to a disagreement between coordination of the organizational units...

  5. [Correlation of RANKL/OPG, dickkopf-1 and bone marrow edema in rheumatoid arthritis with the complaint of knee pain].

    Li, Min; Wu, Xiao-hui; Yin, Geng; Xie, Qi-bing

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the correlation of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) system, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) and bone marrow edema (BME) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with the complaint of knee pain. The clinical data of 50 cases of RA with the complaint of knee pain were collected. According to MRI finding, half of them (25 cases) had bone marrow edema (BME). Each patient received the measurement of serum OPG, RANKL, DKK-1, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), anti cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (CCP), rheumatoid factort(RF). The clinical symptoms, disease activity score 28 (DAS28), were compared between BME and non-BME griups, and the correlation between RANKL/OPG system, DKK-1 and BME of RA was analyzed. Compared with non BME group, BME group had shorter course (P=0.000), higher DAS28 score (P=0.009), CRP (P=0:000), RF (P=0.033) and CCP (P=0.012). lower level of serum OPG (P=0.000), higher level of RANKL (P=0.000), RANKL/OPG (P=0.000), and DKK-1 (P=0.001). The severity of bone marrow edema was correlated with the serum RANKL (volume r(s)=0.31, P=0.027; degree r(s)=0.33, P=0.022), RANKL/OPG (volume r(s)=0.29, P=0.039; degree r(s)=0.28, P=0.043), DKK-1 (volume r(s)=0.33, P=0.021; degree r(s)=0.34, P=0.019). BME is one of the early signs of bone erosion in RA, there were more active inflammation, autoantibodies, and osteocasts in RA patients with BME.

  6. Low blood sugar - newborns

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also ...

  7. Petroleum price

    Chevallier, B.

    2009-01-01

    The 'AFTP' conference on 'petroleum prices' organized by Total last March, tries to explain the different aspects of the crisis we undergo for July 2007 and its consequential effects on the petroleum markets (supply, demand evolvements, impacts on reserves, prices, refining...). (O.M.)

  8. Echinocystic acid inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by regulating NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways

    Yang, Jian-hui, E-mail: jianhui_yangxa@163.com [Rehabilitation Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710061, Shaanxi Province (China); Li, Bing [Department of Dermatology, the 451st Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Xi’an 710054, Shaanxi Province (China); Wu, Qiong; Lv, Jian-guo; Nie, Hui-Yong [Rehabilitation Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710061, Shaanxi Province (China)

    2016-09-02

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is a key factor in the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. Echinocystic acid (EA), a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from the fruits of Gleditsia sinensis Lam, was reported to prevent reduction of bone mass and strength and improve the cancellous bone structure and biochemical properties in ovariectomy rats. However, the molecular mechanism of EA on the osteoclast formation has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of EA on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Our results showed that EA inhibited the formation of osteoclast, as well as the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker proteins in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). At molecular levels, EA inhibited RANKL-induced NF-κB activation and ERK phosphorylation in BMMs. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that EA can suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Moreover, we clarified that these inhibitory effects of EA occur through suppression of NF-κB and ERK activation. Therefore, EA may be a potential agent in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. - Highlights: • EA inhibited the formation of osteoclast in BMMs. • EA inhibits the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker proteins in BMMs. • EA inhibits RANKL-induced NF-κB activation in BMMs. • EA inhibits RANKL-induced ERK phosphorylation in BMMs.

  9. Assessing the effect of oil price on world food prices: Application of principal component analysis

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Shokoohi, Zainab

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the co-movement of food prices and the macroeconomic index, especially the oil price, by principal component analysis to further understand the influence of the macroeconomic index on food prices. We examined the food prices of seven major products: eggs, meat, milk, oilseeds, rice, sugar and wheat. The macroeconomic variables studied were crude oil prices, consumer price indexes, food production indexes and GDP around the world between 1961 and 2005. We use the Scree test and the proportion of variance method for determining the optimal number of common factors. The correlation coefficient between the extracted principal component and the macroeconomic index varies between 0.87 for the world GDP and 0.36 for the consumer price index. We find the food production index has the greatest influence on the macroeconomic index and that the oil price index has an influence on the food production index. Consequently, crude oil prices have an indirect effect on food prices. - Research Highlights: →We investigate the co-movement of food prices and the macroeconomic index. →The crude oil price has indirect effect on the world GDP via its impacts on food production index. →The food production index is the source of causation for CPI and GDP is affected by CPI. →The results confirm an indirect effect among oil price, food price principal component.

  10. Gas prices and price process

    Groenewegen, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    On a conference (Gas for Europe in the 1990's) during the Gasexpo '91 the author held a speech of which the Dutch text is presented here. Attention is paid to the current European pricing methods (prices based on the costs of buying, transporting and distributing the natural gas and prices based on the market value, which is deducted from the prices of alternative fuels), and the transparency of the prices (lack of information on the way the prices are determined). Also attention is paid to the market signal transparency and gas-gas competition, which means a more or less free market of gas distribution. The risks of gas-to-gas competition for a long term price stability, investment policies and security of supply are discussed. Opposition against the Third Party Access (TPA), which is the program to implement gas-to-gas competition, is caused by the fear of natural gas companies for lower gas prices and lower profits. Finally attention is paid to government regulation and the activities of the European Commission (EC) in this matter. 1 fig., 6 ills., 1 tab

  11. Price increase

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  12. Price increase

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  13. RANKL regulates differentiation of microfold cells in mouse nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT).

    Mutoh, Mami; Kimura, Shunsuke; Takahashi-Iwanaga, Hiromi; Hisamoto, Meri; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Iida, Junichiro

    2016-04-01

    Murine nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), located at the base of the nasal cavity, serves as a major site for the induction of mucosal immune responses against airway antigens. The follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering the luminal surface of NALT is characterized by the presence of microfold cells (M cells), which take up and transport luminal antigens to lymphocytes. Glycoprotein 2 (GP2) has recently been identified as a reliable marker for M cells in Peyer's patches of the intestine. However, the expression of GP2 and other functional molecules in the M cells of NALT has not yet been examined. We have immunohistochemically detected GP2-expressing cells in the FAE of NALT and the simultaneous expression of other intestinal M-cell markers, namely Tnfaip2, CCL9, and Spi-B. These cells have been further identified as M cells because of their higher uptake capacity of luminal microbeads. Electron microscopic observations have shown that GP2-expressing cells on the FAE display morphological features typical of M cells: they possess short microvilli and microfolds on the luminal surface and are closely associated with intraepithelial lymphocytes. We have also found that the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) is expressed by stromal cells underneath the FAE, which provides its receptor RANK. The administration of RANKL markedly increases the number of GP2(+)Tnfaip2(+) cells on the NALT FAE and that of intestinal M cells. These results suggest that GP2(+)Tnfaip2(+) cells in NALT are equivalent to intestinal M cells, and that RANKL-RANK signaling induces their differentiation.

  14. Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Hae-Dong, E-mail: haedong@hnu.kr

    2015-02-15

    Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos–nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)–cSrc–phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. - Highlights: • Scoparone dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. • Scoparone diminished general ROS and superoxide anions in a dose-dependent manner. • Scoparone inhibited Nox1 expression and

  15. Individual and combining effects of anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody and teriparatide in ovariectomized mice

    Naoto Tokuyama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the individual and combined effects of teriparatide and anti-RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand monoclonal antibody in ovariectomized mice. Three-month-old female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized (OVX or sham operated. Four weeks after OVX, they were assigned to 3 different groups to receive anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody (Ab alone (5 mg/kg single injection at 4 weeks after OVX, Ab group, teriparatide alone (80 μg/kg daily injection for 4 weeks from 4 weeks after OVX, PTH group, or mAb plus teriparatide (Ab + PTH group. Mice were sacrificed 8 weeks after OVX. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at the femur and lumbar spine. Hind limbs were subjected to histological and histomorphometric analysis. Serum osteocalcin and CTX-I levels were measured to investigate the bone turnover. Compared with Ab group, Ab + PTH group showed a significant increase in BMD at distal femur and femoral shaft. Cortical bone volume was significantly increased in PTH and Ab + PTH groups compared with Ab group. Bone turnover in Ab + PTH group was suppressed to the same degree as in Ab group. The number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells was markedly reduced in Ab and Ab + PTH groups. These results suggest that combined treatment of teriparatide with anti-RANKL antibody has additive effects on BMD in OVX mice compared with individual treatment.

  16. Safflower bud inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice.

    Choi, Joo-Hee; Lim, Seul-Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Park, Min-Jung; Kim, Young-Kuk; Lee, An-Chul; Kim, Young-Min; Yang, Soo-Jin; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2017-10-15

    The powder and extract of safflower seeds are known to be effective in the prevention of bone loss in ovariectomized animals. However, the inhibitory effect and molecular mechanisms of safflower bud (SB), the germinated safflower, on bone destruction is unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect and molecular mechanism of SB on osteoclastic differentiation and on bone loss in ovarietomized (OVX) mice. Osteoclastogenesis was determined by TRAP staining, F-actin ring formation, and bone resorption assay. NF-κB and MAPKs activation was analyzed by transfection assay and Western blot, respectively. Real-time PCR was performed to examine the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes. Histological changes, increases in TRAP-positive cells, and cathepsin K expression were examined in the metaphysis of OVX mice. Density of bone marrow was evaluated by µCT. SB inhibited the RANKL-induced differentiation of BMDMs into osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. F-actin ring formation and bone resorption were also reduced by SB in RANKL-treated BMDMs. In addition, SB decreased the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs and the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes in BMDMs treated with RANKL. Feeding of SB-included diet prevented bone loss in OVX mice. The number of TRAP-positive cells and level of protein expression of cathepsin K was reduced and bone mineral density was increased in the metaphysis of mice fed SB compared with OVX mice. These findings suggest that SB can be a preventive and therapeutic candidate for destructive bone diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Freemium Pricing

    Runge, Julian; Wagner, Stefan; Claussen, Jörg

    Firms commonly run field experiments to improve their freemium pricing schemes. However, they often lack a framework for analysis that goes beyond directly measurable outcomes and focuses on longer term profit. We aim to fill this gap by structuring existing knowledge on freemium pricing...... into a stylized framework. We apply the proposed framework in the analysis of a field experiment that contrasts three variations of a freemium pricing scheme and comprises about 300,000 users of a software application. Our findings indicate that a reduction of free product features increases conversion as well...... as viral activity, but reduces usage – which is in line with the framework’s predictions. Additional back-of-the-envelope profit estimations suggest that managers were overly optimistic about positive externalities from usage and viral activity in their choice of pricing scheme, leading them to give too...

  18. Petroleum price

    Maurice, J.

    2001-01-01

    The oil market is the most volatile of all markets, with the exception of the Nasdaq. It is also the biggest commodity market in the world. Therefore one cannot avoid forecasting oil prices, nor can one expect to avoid the forecasting errors that have been made in the past. In his report, Joel Maurice draws a distinction between the short term and the medium-long term in analysing the outlook for oil prices. (author)

  19. Comportamento dos preços dos insumos agrícolas da cana-de-açúcar: safra 2016/17 = Agricultural inputs prices behavior of sugar cane: harvest 2016/17

    Aline Bigaton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Esta publicação apresenta as variações de preços dos produtos utilizados como insumos agrícolas na produção de cana-de-açúcar nas principais regiões produtoras do estado de São Paulo, entre os meses de dezembro de 2016 e janeiro de 2016. As variações de preços mais expressivas foram representadas pela classe dos inseticidas, no painel de Barretos e pelos corretivos, no painel de Araçatuba. Apesar disso, a classe de fertilizantes também apresenta variações expressivas em todos os painéis, sendo que estes insumos foram os mais representativos na composição dos custos de produção. A representatividade dos custos com insumos para a produção da cultura com relação ao total recebido por hectare apresentou uma média próxima dos 14%, sendo a região de Paulo de Faria a que apresenta maior representatividade (25%. = This publication presents the price variations of the products used as agricultural inputs in the production of sugarcane in the main producing regions of the state of São Paulo, between December 2016 and January 2016. The most significant price variations were represented by the class of insecticides, in the panel of Barretos and by the corrective ones, in the panel of Araçatuba. Nevertheless, the fertilizer class also presents significant variations in all panels, and these inputs are the most representative in the composition of production costs. The representativeness of input costs for crop production in relation to the total received per hectare showed an average around 14%, with the region of Paulo de Faria being the most representative (25%.

  20. IL-33 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation through the regulation of Blimp-1 and IRF-8 expression

    Kiyomiya, Hiroyasu [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Science of Physical Functions, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Ariyoshi, Wataru; Okinaga, Toshinori [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Kaneuji, Takeshi [Division of Oral Medicine, Department of Science of Physical Functions, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Mitsugi, Sho [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Science of Physical Functions, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Sakurai, Takuma [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Science of Physical Functions, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Habu, Manabu [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Science of Physical Functions, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Yoshioka, Izumi [Division of Oral Medicine, Department of Science of Physical Functions, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Tominaga, Kazuhiro [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Science of Physical Functions, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); and others

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is a recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the IL-1 family. Several studies have reported that IL-33 inhibits osteoclast differentiation. However, the mechanism of IL-33 regulation of osteoclastogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of IL-33 on osteoclast formation in vitro. IL-33 suppressed osteoclast formation in both mouse bone marrow cells and monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and/or macrophage stimulating factor (M-CSF). IL-33 also inhibited the expression of RANKL-induced nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), thereby decreasing the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker genes, including Cathepsin K, Osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (Oc-stamp) and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap). Blockage of IL-33-ST2 binding suppressed the IL-33-mediated inhibition of NFATc1. RANKL-induced B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) expression was also suppressed by IL-33, which was followed by the stimulation of anti-osteoclastic genes such as interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8). These results suggest that IL-33-ST2 interactions down-regulate both RANKL-induced NFATc1 activation and osteoclast differentiation via the regulation of Blimp-1 and IRF-8 expression. - Highlights: • IL-33 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. • IL-33 has inhibitory effect on the RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression. • IL-33-induced NFATc1 suppression depends on the regulation of Blimp-1 and IRF-8.

  1. IL-33 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation through the regulation of Blimp-1 and IRF-8 expression

    Kiyomiya, Hiroyasu; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Okinaga, Toshinori; Kaneuji, Takeshi; Mitsugi, Sho; Sakurai, Takuma; Habu, Manabu; Yoshioka, Izumi; Tominaga, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is a recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the IL-1 family. Several studies have reported that IL-33 inhibits osteoclast differentiation. However, the mechanism of IL-33 regulation of osteoclastogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of IL-33 on osteoclast formation in vitro. IL-33 suppressed osteoclast formation in both mouse bone marrow cells and monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and/or macrophage stimulating factor (M-CSF). IL-33 also inhibited the expression of RANKL-induced nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), thereby decreasing the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker genes, including Cathepsin K, Osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (Oc-stamp) and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap). Blockage of IL-33-ST2 binding suppressed the IL-33-mediated inhibition of NFATc1. RANKL-induced B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) expression was also suppressed by IL-33, which was followed by the stimulation of anti-osteoclastic genes such as interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8). These results suggest that IL-33-ST2 interactions down-regulate both RANKL-induced NFATc1 activation and osteoclast differentiation via the regulation of Blimp-1 and IRF-8 expression. - Highlights: • IL-33 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. • IL-33 has inhibitory effect on the RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression. • IL-33-induced NFATc1 suppression depends on the regulation of Blimp-1 and IRF-8

  2. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, YM529/ONO-5920 (a novel minodronic acid), inhibits RANKL expression in a cultured bone marrow stromal cell line ST2

    Nishida, Shozo; Tsubaki, Masanobu; Hoshino, Mayumi; Namimatsu, Ayumi; Uji, Hiromi; Yoshioka, Shohei; Tanimori, Yoshihiro; Yanae, Masashi; Iwaki, Masahiro; Irimajiri, Kiyohiro

    2005-01-01

    Increase in bone resorption by osteoclasts can cause metabolic bone diseases, such as osteoporosis. Recent attention has been paid to the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand (RANKL), an accelerator of osteoclast differentiation. RANKL is expressed on the bone marrow-derived stromal cell membrane and induces the differentiation of osteoclasts by binding to RANK expressed on the osteoclast precursor cell membrane. Since the inhibition of RANKL expression can lead to the inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption, the clinical application of RANKL inhibition could be expected to have a major effect on metabolic bone disease therapy. In this study, we investigated whether or not YM529/ONO-5920, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (a novel minodronic acid), inhibits RANKL expression in a bone marrow-derived stromal cell line (ST2 cells). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the administration of YM529/ONO-5920 to ST2 cells inhibited RANKL mRNA expression and reduced RANKL proteins as assessed by Western blot analysis. The inhibition of RANKL mRNA expression was reversed when geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), an intermediate in the mevalonate pathway, was used in combination. Furthermore, YM529/ONO-5920 reduced phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and similarly, U0126, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 inhibitor, inhibited RANKL expression. Pretreatment with GGPP reversed the YM529/ONO-5920-induced decrease in phosphorylation of ERK. Furthermore, YM529/ONO-5920 decreased TRAP-positive cells in co-culture of ST2 cells and an osteoclast cell line, C7 cells, and this decrease was inhibited by pretreatment with GGPP. This indicates that YM529/ONO-5920 inhibits GGPP biosynthesis in the mevalonate pathway and then signal transduction in the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, thereby inhibiting RANKL expression on ST2 cells. These results suggest a newly elucidated action of bisphosphonates in

  3. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...... and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue...... that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates...

  4. Sugar from Palms

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  5. Porphyromonas gingivalis decreases osteoblast proliferation through IL-6-RANKL/OPG and MMP-9/TIMPs pathways

    Le Xuan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important periodontal pathogen, is closely associated with inflammatory alveolar bone resorption. This bacterium exerts its pathogenic effect indirectly through multiple virulence factors, such as lipopolysaccharides, fimbriae, and proteases. Another possible pathogenic path may be through a direct interaction with the host′s soft and hard tissues (e.g., alveolar bone, which could lead to periodontitis. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the direct effect of live and heat-inactivated P gingivalis on bone resorption, using an in vitro osteoblast culture model. Results: Optical microscopy and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide MTT assay revealed that live P gingivalis induced osteoblast detachment and reduced their proliferation. This effect was specific to live bacteria and was dependent on their concentration. Live P gingivalis increased IL-6 mRNA expression and protein production and downregulated RANKL and OPG mRNA expression. The effect of live P gingivalis on bone resorption was strengthened by an increase in MMP-9 expression and its activity. This increase was accompanied by an increase in TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA expression and protein production by osteoblasts infected with live P gingivalis. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that direct contact of P gingivalis with osteoblasts induces bone resorption through an inflammatory pathway that involves IL-6, RANKL/OPG, and MMP-9/TIMPs.

  6. The Effect of RANKL/OPG Balance on Reducing Implant Complications

    Elizabeth R. Kapasa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the phenomenal success of implants particularly in the realms of dentistry and orthopaedics, there are still challenges to overcome. The failure of implants resulting from infection, prosthetic loosening, and non-union continue to be the most notorious examples. The cascade of fracture healing and bone repair, especially with the presence of an implant, is complex because it involves a multifaceted immune response alongside the intricate process of bone formation and remodelling. Bone loss is a serious clinical problem that is frequently accompanied by chronic inflammation, illustrating that there is a convoluted relationship between inflammation and bone erosion. The effects of pro-inflammatory factors play a significant role in initiating and maintaining osteoclastogenesis that results in bone resorption by osteoclasts. This is because there is a disruption of the relative ratio between Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κB-Ligand (RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG, which is central to modulating bone repair and remodelling. This review aims to provide a background to the bone remodelling process, the bone repair cascade post-implantation, and the associated complications. Furthermore, current clinical solutions that can influence bone formation via either internal or extrinsic mechanisms will be described. These efficacious treatments for osteolysis via targeting the RANKL/OPG ratio may be crucial to reducing the incidence of related implant failures in the future.

  7. RANK/RANKL/OPG Signalization Implication in Periodontitis: New Evidence from a RANK Transgenic Mouse Model

    Bouchra Sojod

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is based on a complex inflammatory over-response combined with possible genetic predisposition factors. The RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling pathway is implicated in bone resorption through its key function in osteoclast differentiation and activation, as well as in the inflammatory response. This central element of osteo-immunology has been suggested to be perturbed in several diseases, including periodontitis, as it is a predisposing factor for this disease. The aim of the present study was to validate this hypothesis using a transgenic mouse line, which over-expresses RANK (RTg and develops a periodontitis-like phenotype at 5 months of age. RTg mice exhibited severe alveolar bone loss, an increased number of TRAP positive cells, and disorganization of periodontal ligaments. This phenotype was more pronounced in females. We also observed dental root resorption lacunas. Hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium, including Malassez epithelial rests, was visible as early as 25 days, preceding any other symptoms. These results demonstrate that perturbations of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system constitute a core element of periodontitis, and more globally, osteo-immune diseases.

  8. RANK/RANKL/OPG Signalization Implication in Periodontitis: New Evidence from a RANK Transgenic Mouse Model

    Sojod, Bouchra; Chateau, Danielle; Mueller, Christopher G.; Babajko, Sylvie; Berdal, Ariane; Lézot, Frédéric; Castaneda, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is based on a complex inflammatory over-response combined with possible genetic predisposition factors. The RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling pathway is implicated in bone resorption through its key function in osteoclast differentiation and activation, as well as in the inflammatory response. This central element of osteo-immunology has been suggested to be perturbed in several diseases, including periodontitis, as it is a predisposing factor for this disease. The aim of the present study was to validate this hypothesis using a transgenic mouse line, which over-expresses RANK (RTg) and develops a periodontitis-like phenotype at 5 months of age. RTg mice exhibited severe alveolar bone loss, an increased number of TRAP positive cells, and disorganization of periodontal ligaments. This phenotype was more pronounced in females. We also observed dental root resorption lacunas. Hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium, including Malassez epithelial rests, was visible as early as 25 days, preceding any other symptoms. These results demonstrate that perturbations of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system constitute a core element of periodontitis, and more globally, osteo-immune diseases. PMID:28596739

  9. Marketplace pricing

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    As discussed in this chapter, interest in marketplace pricing has been increasing in recent years, reflecting the societal trend toward substituting competition for regulation where appropriate. Competition is valuable because it encourages utilities to make efficient decisions with a minimum of regulatory intervention. It enhances efficiency through the incentive for innovation by the regulated companies and by increasing the likelihood they will come forward with proposals for better services, lower prices or both. Ultimately, consumers are beneficiaries. Marketplace pricing is emblematic of the view that the degree of regulation should reflect the degree of market power, that workably competitive markets should be allowed to operate with as little regulatory interference as possible. The Edison Electric Institute has made perhaps the most detailed proposal on marketplace pricing. It and others perceive numerous benefits from this method of pricing transmission services. Given the undeniable market power resulting from line ownership, FERC has emphasized the need to find a workably competitive market before approving such proposals. The ability to make this distinction without a full-blown antitrust review for every transaction is questionable, and FERC has yet to provide generic guidance. Finally, FERC's legal ability to depart from cost-based standards is questionable

  10. Price generating process and volatility in the Nigerian agricultural ...

    The study examined the price generating process and volatility of Nigerian agricultural commodities market using secondary data for price series on meat, cereals, sugar, dairy and food for the period of January 1990 to February 2014. The data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive ...

  11. Electricity pricing

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity pricing in most countries, especially in the developing world, has been determined by traditional accounting criteria where it raises revenue requirements to cover the operating costs and a return on past and future capital investments in possible power systems. The use of economic principles to improve the total economic efficiency in the electricity industry is discussed. Basic marginal cost theory, long run marginal costing (LRMC) cost categories and rating periods, marginal capacity costs, marginal energy costs, consumer costs, short run marginal costing (SRMC), marginal cost of fuel, marginal cost of network losses, market clearing price, value of unserved energy and network quality of supply cost are discussed

  12. Irreversible inhibition of RANK expression as a possible mechanism for IL-3 inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis

    Khapli, Shruti M.; Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Gupta, Navita; Yogesha, S.D.; Pote, Satish T. [National Center for Cell Science, University of Pune Campus, Pune 411 007 (India); Wani, Mohan R., E-mail: mohanwani@nccs.res.in [National Center for Cell Science, University of Pune Campus, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} IL-3 inhibits receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. {yields} IL-3 inhibits RANKL-induced JNK activation. {yields} IL-3 down-regulates expression of c-Fos and NFATc1 transcription factors. {yields} IL-3 down-regulates RANK expression posttranscriptionally and irreversibly. {yields} IL-3 inhibits in vivo RANK expression. -- Abstract: IL-3, a cytokine secreted by activated T lymphocytes, stimulates the proliferation, differentiation and survival of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of inhibitory action of IL-3 on osteoclast differentiation. We show here that IL-3 significantly inhibits receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK) ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). IL-3 down-regulates expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1) transcription factors. In addition, IL-3 down-regulates RANK expression posttranscriptionally in both purified osteoclast precursors and whole bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of IL-3 on RANK expression was irreversible. Interestingly, IL-3 inhibits in vivo RANK expression in mice. Thus, we provide the first evidence that IL-3 irreversibly inhibits RANK expression that results in inhibition of important signaling molecules induced by RANKL.

  13. Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells.

    Wu, Song-Hui; Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Chen, Jian-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the key participants in regulation of bone mass. Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) has been found to be anabolic to bone in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the effect of LMHFV on osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Murine monocyte cell line RAW264.7 cells in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) were treated with or without LMHFV at 45 Hz (0.3 g) for 15 min day(-1). Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells (MNCs) and actin ring formation were evaluated. Expression of the osteoclast-specific genes, such as cathepsin K, matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) and TRAP, were analyzed using real time-PCR. c-Fos, an osteoclast-specific transcription factor, was determined using Western blot. We found that LMHFV significantly decreased the number of RANKL-induced TRAP-positive MNCs (P<0.01), and inhibited the actin ring formation. The mRNA expression of the cathepsin K, MMP-9 and TRAP were down-regulated by LMHFV intervention (all P<0.001). Furthermore, LMHFV also inhibited the expression of c-Fos protein in the RANKL-treated RAW264.7 cells (P<0.05). Our results suggest that LMHFV can inhibit the RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells, which give some new insight into the anabolic effects of LMHFV on bone.

  14. Irreversible inhibition of RANK expression as a possible mechanism for IL-3 inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis

    Khapli, Shruti M.; Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Gupta, Navita; Yogesha, S.D.; Pote, Satish T.; Wani, Mohan R.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → IL-3 inhibits receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. → IL-3 inhibits RANKL-induced JNK activation. → IL-3 down-regulates expression of c-Fos and NFATc1 transcription factors. → IL-3 down-regulates RANK expression posttranscriptionally and irreversibly. → IL-3 inhibits in vivo RANK expression. -- Abstract: IL-3, a cytokine secreted by activated T lymphocytes, stimulates the proliferation, differentiation and survival of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of inhibitory action of IL-3 on osteoclast differentiation. We show here that IL-3 significantly inhibits receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). IL-3 down-regulates expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1) transcription factors. In addition, IL-3 down-regulates RANK expression posttranscriptionally in both purified osteoclast precursors and whole bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of IL-3 on RANK expression was irreversible. Interestingly, IL-3 inhibits in vivo RANK expression in mice. Thus, we provide the first evidence that IL-3 irreversibly inhibits RANK expression that results in inhibition of important signaling molecules induced by RANKL.

  15. Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharides induce RANKL by mouse osteoblast in a way different from that of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    Tang, Yin; Sun, Feifei; Li, Xiaoting; Zhou, Yuan; Yin, Shihai; Zhou, Xuedong

    2011-12-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to have a high positive rate in infected root canals and symptomatic apical periodontitis. It may play an integral role as a potent stimulator of inflammatory cytokines involved in apical lesions. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) has been proven to be the key regulator of bone remodeling. This study investigated P. endodontalis LPS-induced RANKL production and LPS signaling in mouse osteoblasts. LPS-induced RANKL production in mouse osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells was measured by Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were determined by the blocking test using anti-TLRs antibodies. In addition, specific inhibitors were used to analyze the intracellular signaling pathways. Escherichia coli LPS was used as the control. Both of the anti-TLR2 and anti-TLR4 antibodies significantly (P endodontalis LPS; only anti-TLR2 antibody had a significant (P endodontalis LPS-infected osteoblasts (P endodontalis LPS has the ability to promote the expression of RANKL in mouse osteoblasts, and this induction was mainly through the TLR2/4-JNK signaling pathway, a situation quite different from that of typical bacterial endotoxin (E. coli LPS). Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in RANKL during the first two years after cART initiation in HIV-infected cART naïve adults

    Mathiesen, Inger Hee Mabuza; Salem, Mohammad; Gerstoft, Jan

    2017-01-01

    accelerated bone loss could be mediated by increased soluble RANKL (sRANKL) levels associated with CD4+ T cell recovery. METHODS: We used multiplex immunoassays to determine sRANKL and OPG concentrations in plasma from 48 HIV patients at baseline and 12, 24, 48 and 96 weeks after cART initiation. RESULTS......: Soluble RANKL changed significantly over time (overall p = 0.02) with 25% decrease (95% CI: -42 to -5) at week 24 compared to baseline and stabilized at a lower level thereafter. We found no correlation between CD4+ T cell count increment and changes in sRANKL or between percentage change in BMD...... and changes in sRANKL. CONCLUSION: In this study there was no indication that the accelerated bone loss after cART initiation was mediated by early changes in sRANKL due to CD4+ T cell recovery. Future studies should focus on the initial weeks after initiation of cART. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical...

  17. Constitutive expression of TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE/receptor activating NF-κB ligand (RANK-L by rat plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Thomas Anjubault

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs are a subset of DCs whose major function relies on their capacity to produce large amount of type I IFN upon stimulation via TLR 7 and 9. This function is evolutionary conserved and place pDC in critical position in the innate immune response to virus. Here we show that rat pDC constitutively express TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE also known as Receptor-activating NF-κB ligand (RANKL. TRANCE/RANKL is a member of the TNF superfamily which plays a central role in osteoclastogenesis through its interaction with its receptor RANK. TRANCE/RANK interaction are also involved in lymphoid organogenesis as well as T cell/DC cross talk. Unlike conventional DC, rat CD4(high pDC were shown to constitutively express TRANCE/RANKL both at the mRNA and the surface protein level. TRANCE/RANKL was also induced on the CD4(low subsets of pDC following activation by CpG. The secreted form of TRANCE/RANKL was also produced by rat pDC. Of note, levels of mRNA, surface and secreted TRANCE/RANKL expression were similar to that observed for activated T cells. TRANCE/RANKL expression was found on pDC in all lymphoid organs as well blood and BM with a maximum expression in mesenteric lymph nodes. Despite this TRANCE/RANKL expression, we were unable to demonstrate in vitro osteoclastogenesis activity for rat pDC. Taken together, these data identifies pDC as novel source of TRANCE/RANKL in the immune system.

  18. EFFECT OF INFLIXIMAB ON PARAMETERS OF REMODELING OF ARTERIAL BLOODSTREAM, RANKL AND OSTEOPROTEGERIN LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Larisa Aleksandrovna Knyazeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the effect of infliximab (INF on serum levels of RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG, as well as on structural and functional properties of the vascular wall in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Material and Methods. A total of 79 RA patients who corresponded to the classification criteria ACR (1987 or ACR/EULAR (2010 and were seronegative for IgM rheumatoid factor (RF were examined. The mean age of patients was 43.6±8.5 years. The serum levels of OPG and RANKL were determined by ELISA (Biomedica, Austria; the common carotid arteries (CCAs were visualized using an Acuson X/10 ultrasonic complex equipped with a 7 MHz linear sensor in the β-mode prior to therapy and after 12-month therapy with INF.Results and Discussion. An increased OPG level was observed mostly in patients with RA duration up to 1 year; an increase in RANKL level was pronounced stronger in patients with PA duration over 2 years. The disturbance of structural and functional properties of the arterial bloodstream was revealed, manifesting itself as an increase in the intimamedia complex thickness, diameter and rigidity index of CCA that were stronger pronounced in patients with late onset RA. A correlation analysis showed the presence of reliable relationship between the RANKL and OPG levels and CCA remodeling parameters. INF therapy showed high clinical effectiveness and correction effect on the RANKL/OPG system. In addition, it was accompanied by a reduction of signs of CCA remodeling, which was stronger pronounced in patients with early RA.Conclusion. The results prove the reasonability of using INF at early stages of RA in order to optimize the therapy and achieve more efficient control of cardiovascular complications.

  19. Osteoprotegerin inhibits bone resorption and prevents tumor development in a xenogenic model of Ewing's sarcoma by inhibiting RANKL

    Picarda, Gaëlle; Matous, Etienne; Amiaud, Jérôme; Charrier, Céline; Lamoureux, François; Heymann, Marie-Françoise; Tirode, Franck; Pitard, Bruno; Trichet, Valérie; Heymann, Dominique; Redini, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) associated with high osyeolytic lesions typically arises in the bones of children and adolescents. The development of multi-disciplinary therapy has increased current long-term survival rates to greater than 50% but only 20% for high risk group patients (relapse, metastases, etc.). Among new therapeutic approaches, osteoprotegerin (OPG), an anti-bone resorption molecule may represent a promising candidate to inhibit RANKL-mediated osteolytic component of ES and consequently to limit the tumor development. Xenogenic orthotopic models of Ewing's sarcoma were induced by intra-osseous injection of human TC-71 ES cells. OPG was administered in vivo by non-viral gene transfer using an amphiphilic non ionic block copolymer. ES bearing mice were assigned to controls (no treatment, synthetic vector alone or F68/empty pcDNA3.1 plasmid) and hOPG treated groups. A substantial but not significant inhibition of tumor development was observed in the hOPG group as compared to control groups. Marked bone lesions were revealed by micro-computed tomography analyses in control groups whereas a normal bone micro-architecture was preserved in the hOPG treated group. RANKL over-expressed in ES animal model was expressed by tumor cells rather than by host cells. However, TRAIL present in the tumor microenvironment may interfere with OPG effect on tumor development and bone remodeling via RANKL inhibition. In conclusion, the use of a xenogenic model of Ewing's sarcoma allowed discriminating between the tumor and host cells responsible for the elevation of RANKL production observed in this tumor and demonstrated the relevance of blocking RANKL by OPG as a promising therapy in ES. PMID:26909278

  20. Biogas from sugar beet press pulp as substitute of fossil fuel in sugar beet factories.

    Brooks, L; Parravicini, V; Svardal, K; Kroiss, H; Prendl, L

    2008-01-01

    Sugar beet press pulp (SBP) accumulates as a by-product in sugar factories and it is generally silaged or dried to be used as animal food. Rising energy prices and the opening of the European Union sugar market has put pressure on the manufacturers to find alternatives for energy supply. The aim of this project was to develop a technology in the treatment of SBP that would lead to savings in energy consumption and would provide a more competitive sugar production from sugar beets. These goals were met by the anaerobic digestion of SBP for biogas production. Lab-scale experiments confirmed the suitability of SBP as substrate for anaerobic bacteria. Pilot-scale experiments focused on process optimization and procedures for a quick start up and operational control. Both single-stage and two-stage process configurations showed similar removal efficiency. A stable biogas production could be achieved in single-stage at a maximum volumetric loading rate of 10 kgCSB/(m(3) x d). Degradation efficiency was 75% for VS and 72% for COD. Average specific gas production reached 530 NL/kgCOD(SBP) or 610 NL/kgVS(SBP). (CH(4): 50 to 53%). The first large-scale biogas plant was put into operation during the sugar processing period 2007 at a Hungarian sugar factory. Digesting approximately 50% of the SBP (800 t/d, 22%TS), the biogas produced could substitute about 40% of the natural gas required for the thermal energy supply within the sugar processing. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  1. Opportunities for small-scale biorefinery for production of sugar and ethanol in the Netherlands

    Kolfschoten, R.C.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Developments such as the Common Agricultural Policy reform, growth of the bio-based economy, increasing energy prices, increasing sustainability demands, and expected growth of global sugar demand change the environment in which the sugar producing industry operates. In order to remain competitive

  2. Andrographolide Inhibits Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss via the Suppression of RANKL Signaling Pathways

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Lin; Yuan, Jin Bo; Lin, Xixi; Zeng, Rong; Liang, Xiaonan; Zhao, Jinmin; Xu, Jiake

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a debilitating skeletal disorder with an increased risk of low-energy fracture, which commonly occurs among postmenopausal women. Andrographolide (AP), a natural product isolated from Andrographis paniculata, has been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-asthmatic, and neuro-protective properties. However, its therapeutic effect on osteoporosis is unknown. In this study, an ovariectomy (OVX) mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of AP on post-menopausal osteoporosis by using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Bone marrow-derived osteoclast culture was used to examine the inhibitory effect of AP on osteoclastogenesis. Real time PCR was employed to examine the effect of AP on the expression of osteoclast marker genes. The activities of transcriptional factors NF-κB and NFATc1 were evaluated using a luciferase reporter assay, and the IκBα protein level was analyzed by Western blot. We found that OVX mice treated with AP have greater bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular number (Tb.N) compared to vehicle-treated OVX mice. AP inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, the expression of osteoclast marker genes including cathepsin K (Ctsk), TRACP (Acp5), and NFATc1, as well as the transcriptional activities of NF-κB and NFATc1. In conclusion, our results suggest that AP inhibits estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice via the suppression of RANKL-induced osteoclastogensis and NF-κB and NFATc1 activities and, thus, might have therapeutic potential for osteoporosis. PMID:26593901

  3. Andrographolide Inhibits Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss via the Suppression of RANKL Signaling Pathways

    Tao Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a debilitating skeletal disorder with an increased risk of low-energy fracture, which commonly occurs among postmenopausal women. Andrographolide (AP, a natural product isolated from Andrographis paniculata, has been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-asthmatic, and neuro-protective properties. However, its therapeutic effect on osteoporosis is unknown. In this study, an ovariectomy (OVX mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of AP on post-menopausal osteoporosis by using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. Bone marrow-derived osteoclast culture was used to examine the inhibitory effect of AP on osteoclastogenesis. Real time PCR was employed to examine the effect of AP on the expression of osteoclast marker genes. The activities of transcriptional factors NF-κB and NFATc1 were evaluated using a luciferase reporter assay, and the IκBα protein level was analyzed by Western blot. We found that OVX mice treated with AP have greater bone volume (BV/TV, trabecular thickness (Tb.Th, and trabecular number (Tb.N compared to vehicle-treated OVX mice. AP inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, the expression of osteoclast marker genes including cathepsin K (Ctsk, TRACP (Acp5, and NFATc1, as well as the transcriptional activities of NF-κB and NFATc1. In conclusion, our results suggest that AP inhibits estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice via the suppression of RANKL-induced osteoclastogensis and NF-κB and NFATc1 activities and, thus, might have therapeutic potential for osteoporosis.

  4. Andrographolide Inhibits Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss via the Suppression of RANKL Signaling Pathways.

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Lin; Yuan, Jin Bo; Lin, Xixi; Zeng, Rong; Liang, Xiaonan; Zhao, Jinmin; Xu, Jiake

    2015-11-17

    Osteoporosis is a debilitating skeletal disorder with an increased risk of low-energy fracture, which commonly occurs among postmenopausal women. Andrographolide (AP), a natural product isolated from Andrographis paniculata, has been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-asthmatic, and neuro-protective properties. However, its therapeutic effect on osteoporosis is unknown. In this study, an ovariectomy (OVX) mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of AP on post-menopausal osteoporosis by using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Bone marrow-derived osteoclast culture was used to examine the inhibitory effect of AP on osteoclastogenesis. Real time PCR was employed to examine the effect of AP on the expression of osteoclast marker genes. The activities of transcriptional factors NF-κB and NFATc1 were evaluated using a luciferase reporter assay, and the IκBα protein level was analyzed by Western blot. We found that OVX mice treated with AP have greater bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular number (Tb.N) compared to vehicle-treated OVX mice. AP inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, the expression of osteoclast marker genes including cathepsin K (Ctsk), TRACP (Acp5), and NFATc1, as well as the transcriptional activities of NF-κB and NFATc1. In conclusion, our results suggest that AP inhibits estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice via the suppression of RANKL-induced osteoclastogensis and NF-κB and NFATc1 activities and, thus, might have therapeutic potential for osteoporosis.

  5. Effect of Import Tariff Implementation Policy on Refined Sugar ...

    ... economic net loss in production, consumption and exchange gain economization, are influenced by the import tariff and elasticity price toward supply and demand, such that the welfare distribution value will be bigger; (b) sugar product competitiveness in Indonesia by knowing that cane field calculation in East Java in the ...

  6. Low blood sugar

    ... a medical emergency. It can cause seizures and brain damage. Severe low blood sugar that causes you to become unconscious is called hypoglycemic or insulin shock. Even one episode of severe low blood ...

  7. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages

    ... Mass Health Promotion Clearinghouse Massachusetts Department of Public Health Fasting Blood Sugar Test - español (Spanish) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Ukrainian (українська ) Expand Section Fasting Blood ...

  8. High blood sugar

    ... Alternative Names Hyperglycemia - self care; High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar References American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2017: 4. Lifestyle management and 6. Glycemic targets. Diabetes Care . 2017;40( ...

  9. Sweeteners - sugar substitutes

    ... exposed to heat. It is best used in beverages rather than baking. Well-studied, and hasn't ... sweeteners, such as saccharin, in carbonated low-calorie beverages and other products. Most similar to table sugar ...

  10. Alcohol from sugar beets

    Malchenko, A L; Verzhbitskaya, V A

    1962-01-01

    The factor which determines the economy in the EtOH industry which uses sugar beets as raw materials is the rapid and complete recovery of the sugar contained in the beets for fermentation purposes. It is best to extract the beets at 70 to 75/sup 0/. Thorough shredding of the beets then need no longer form part of the operation, and the protein compounds, which give rise to fuel oils, are extracted in small amounts only.

  11. The Sugar Tax in Holland

    Ajjaji, Fadoua

    2016-01-01

    This inquiry supports the theory of a sugar tax has a positive influence on the sugar consumption of Dutch individuals. Once a tax is implemented, the sugar consumption declines. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis claiming that children have a positive influence on their parental sugar

  12. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  13. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    Takeshita, Harunori; Kitano, Masayasu; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto; Miyazawa, Keiji; Hla, Timothy; Sano, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► MH7A cells and CD4 + T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. ► S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4 + T cells. ► The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4 + T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4 + T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4 + T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-α in MH7A cells and CD4 + T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4 + T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  14. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    Takeshita, Harunori [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Kitano, Masayasu, E-mail: mkitano6@hyo-med.ac.jp [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi [Department of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima Kobe, Hyogo 650-8530 (Japan); Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Miyazawa, Keiji [Discovery Research III, Research and Development, Kissei Pharmaceutical Company, 4365-1 Hodakakashiwara, Azumino, Nagano 399-8304 (Japan); Hla, Timothy [Center for Vascular Biology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, Box 69, NY 10065 (United States); Sano, Hajime [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4{sup +} T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-{alpha} in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  15. Effect of Bisphosphonates on the Levels of Rankl and Opg in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Patients With Periodontal Disease and Post-menopausal Osteoporosis.

    Verde, María E; Bermejo, Daniela; Gruppi, Adriana; Grenón, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    The Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/RANK/Osteoprotegerine (OPG) system has been proposed as essential for osteoclast biology and identified as key part in regulating the physiology and pathology of the skeletal system. The study of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system has increased the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the bone remodeling process, especially in postmenopausal osteoporosis and periodontal disease. Bisphosphonates have become the mainstay of the treatment and prevention of post-menopausal osteoporosis. They inhibit the formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate crystals in bone and also osteoclasts, thus reducing bone turnover.Current investigations relate osteoporosis with the appearance and progression of periodontal disease. Although the etiology of both is different, the bone loss present in both shares several characteristics. Thus, therapy used for osteoporosis can be considered of value in the treatment of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of RANKL, OPG and their relationship in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in patients with periodontal disease and postmenopausal osteoporosis/ osteopenia in relation to consumption of bisphosphonates. We studied 66 periodontal active sites obtained from 17 post- menopausal women patients aged between 45-70 years old with osteoporosis/osteopenia and periodontal disease. GCF samples were collected using sterile filter paper strips. To determine the concentration of RANKL and OPG, a commercial ELISA assay was used. The values of RANKL, OPG and their ratio (RANKL/ OPG) were compared with Mann-Whitney U Test. The values of RANKL, OPG and their ratio obtained in patients with osteoporosis/osteopenia and periodontal disease with or without bisphosphonates treatment showed no differences. Bisphosphonates do not alter the concentration of RANKL and OPG and their ratio in the GCF of patients with osteoporosis/ osteopenia and periodontal disease

  16. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Inhibits the RANKL Pathway and Impacts on the Production of Pathway-Associated Cytokines in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Jing Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH2D3 on RANKL signaling pathway and pathway-associated cytokines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Methods. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-4 were examined in 54 patients with incipient RA using a cytometric bead array (CBA or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. After 72 hours of incubation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs with 1,25(OH2D3 in RA patients, the levels of RANKL, TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-6 significantly decreased compared to those of the control. 1,25(OH2D3 had no significantly impact on the levels of OPG, RANKL/OPG, and IL-4. Conclusions. The present study demonstrated that 1,25(OH2D3 reduced the production of RANKL and the secretion of TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-6 in PBMCs of RA patients, which indicated that 1,25(OH2D3 might be able to decrease damage of cartilage and bone in RA patients by regulating the expression of RANKL signaling pathway and pathway-associated cytokines.

  17. Biotechnological approach for systemic delivery of membrane Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand (RANKL) active domain into the circulation

    Cappariello, Alfredo; Paone, Riccardo; Maurizi, Antonio; Capulli, Mattia; Rucci, Nadia; Muraca, Maurizio; Teti, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency of Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand (RANKL) prevents osteoclast formation causing osteopetrosis. RANKL is a membrane-bound protein cleaved into active soluble (s)RANKL by metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14). We created a bio-device that harbors primary osteoblasts, cultured on 3D hydroxyapatite scaffolds carrying immobilized MMP14 catalytic domain. Scaffolds were sealed in diffusion chambers and implanted in RANKL-deficient mice. Mice received 1 or 2 diffusion chambers, once or twice and were sacrificed after 1 or 2 months from implants. A progressive increase of body weight was observed in the implanted groups. Histological sections of tibias of non-implanted mice were negative for the osteoclast marker Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAcP), consistent with the lack of osteoclasts. In contrast, tibias excised from implanted mice showed TRAcP-positive cells in the bone marrow and on the bone surface, these latter morphologically similar to mature osteoclasts. In mice implanted with 4 diffusion chambers total, we noted the highest number and size of TRAcP-positive cells, with quantifiable eroded bone surface and significant reduction of trabecular bone volume. These data demonstrate that our bio-device delivers effective sRANKL, inducing osteoclastogenesis in RANKL-deficient mice, supporting the feasibility of an innovative experimental strategy to treat systemic cytokine deficiencies. PMID:25678116

  18. Inhibitory effects of methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-epi-quinate on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation.

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Ihn, Hye Jung; Kim, Kiryeong; Cho, Hye-Sung; Shin, Hong-In; Bae, Yong Chul; Park, Eui Kyun

    2018-04-09

    In this study, we have shown that methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-epi-quinate, a naturally occurring compound isolated from Ainsliaea acerifolia, inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced formation of multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts and the expression of osteoclast marker genes. Methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-epi-quinate also inhibited RANKL-induced activation of p38, Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) as well as the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFATc1), the key regulator of osteoclast differentiation. Negative regulators for osteoclast differentiation was upregulated by methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-epi-quinate. Collectively, our results suggested that methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-epi-quinate suppresses osteoclast differentiation via downregulation of RANK signaling pathways and NFATc1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Osteocytes, not Osteoblasts or Lining Cells, are the Main Source of the RANKL Required for Osteoclast Formation in Remodeling Bone.

    Jinhu Xiong

    Full Text Available The cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL, encoded by the Tnfsf11 gene, is essential for osteoclastogenesis and previous studies have shown that deletion of the Tnfsf11 gene using a Dmp1-Cre transgene reduces osteoclast formation in cancellous bone by more than 70%. However, the Dmp1-Cre transgene used in those studies leads to recombination in osteocytes, osteoblasts, and lining cells making it unclear whether one or more of these cell types produce the RANKL required for osteoclast formation in cancellous bone. Because osteoblasts, osteocytes, and lining cells have distinct locations and functions, distinguishing which of these cell types are sources of RANKL is essential for understanding the orchestration of bone remodeling. To distinguish between these possibilities, we have now created transgenic mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of regulatory elements of the Sost gene, which is expressed in osteocytes but not osteoblasts or lining cells in murine bone. Activity of the Sost-Cre transgene in osteocytes, but not osteoblast or lining cells, was confirmed by crossing Sost-Cre transgenic mice with tdTomato and R26R Cre-reporter mice, which express tdTomato fluorescent protein or LacZ, respectively, only in cells expressing the Cre recombinase or their descendants. Deletion of the Tnfsf11 gene in Sost-Cre mice led to a threefold decrease in osteoclast number in cancellous bone and increased cancellous bone mass, mimicking the skeletal phenotype of mice in which the Tnfsf11 gene was deleted using the Dmp1-Cre transgene. These results demonstrate that osteocytes, not osteoblasts or lining cells, are the main source of the RANKL required for osteoclast formation in remodeling cancellous bone.

  20. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Stimulation of Osteoblasts Mediates Staphylococcus Aureus Induced Bone Resorption and Osteoclastogenesis through Enhanced RANKL

    Kassem, Ali; Lindholm, Catharina; Lerner, Ulf H

    2016-01-01

    Severe Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections pose an immense threat to population health and constitute a great burden for the health care worldwide. Inter alia, S. aureus septic arthritis is a disease with high mortality and morbidity caused by destruction of the infected joints and systemic bone loss, osteoporosis. Toll-Like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune cell receptors recognizing a variety of microbial molecules and structures. S. aureus recognition via TLR2 initiates a signaling cascade resulting in production of various cytokines, but the mechanisms by which S. aureus causes rapid and excessive bone loss are still unclear. We, therefore, investigated how S. aureus regulates periosteal/endosteal osteoclast formation and bone resorption. S. aureus stimulation of neonatal mouse parietal bone induced ex vivo bone resorption and osteoclastic gene expression. This effect was associated with increased mRNA and protein expression of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) without significant change in osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression. Bone resorption induced by S. aureus was abolished by OPG. S. aureus increased the expression of osteoclastogenic cytokines and prostaglandins in the parietal bones but the stimulatory effect of S. aureus on bone resorption and Tnfsf11 mRNA expression was independent of these cytokines and prostaglandins. Stimulation of isolated periosteal osteoblasts with S. aureus also resulted in increased expression of Tnfsf11 mRNA, an effect lost in osteoblasts from Tlr2 knockout mice. S. aureus stimulated osteoclastogenesis in isolated periosteal cells without affecting RANKL-stimulated resorption. In contrast, S. aureus inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in bone marrow macrophages. These data show that S. aureus enhances bone resorption and periosteal osteoclast formation by increasing osteoblast RANKL production through TLR2. Our study indicates the importance of using different in vitro approaches for studies of how S

  1. Vertical price transmission in the Danish food chain

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Møller, Anja Skadkær

    2005-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to investigate price transmission patterns through selected Danish food chains – from primary production to processing, from processing to wholesale and from wholesale to retail prices. Specifically, the study addresses the following research questions: To what extent...... are commodity prices transmitted from one stage to another in the food chain? What is the time horizon in the price transmission? Is price transmission symmetric – in the short run and in the long run? Is the degree of price transmission affected by the degree of concentration in the supply and demand stage...... considered? These questions are analysed theoretically and empirically using econometric analysis. 6 food chains are investigated: pork, chicken, eggs, milk, sugar and apples. Preliminary empirical results suggest that for most commodities, price transmission tends to be upward asymmetric, i.e. stronger...

  2. Energy prices and taxes

    2004-01-01

    Energy Prices and Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices at all market levels: import prices, industry prices and consumer prices. The statistics cover main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity, giving for imported products an average price both for importing country and country of origin. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country

  3. MARKET ECONOMICS PRICING PARTICULARS

    V. I. Parshin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The price performs several economic functions: accounting, stimulation, distribution, demand and offer balancing, serving as production site rational choice criterion, information. Most important pricing principles are: price scientific and purpose-aimed substantiation, single pricing and price control process. Pricing process factors are external, internal, basic (independent on money-market, market-determined and controlling. Different pricing methods and models are to be examined, recommendations on practical application of those chosen are to be written.

  4. STAT6 silencing induces hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cell apoptosis and growth inhibition by decreasing the RANKL expression.

    Qing, Tian; Yamin, Zhang; Guijie, Wang; Yan, Jin; Zhongyang, Shen

    2017-08-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription-6 (STAT6) is highly expressed in various human cancers and considered a regulator of multiple biological processes in cancers, including cell apoptosis. Evidence has indicated that STAT6 predicts a worse prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of STAT6 in human HCC cells. We found that STAT6 silencing significantly inhibited HepG2 and Hep3B cell survival and proliferation. We observed that depletion of STAT6 increased HepG2 and Hep3B cell apoptosis by using a histone DNA ELISA detection kit. STAT6 silencing induced expression of apoptosis-associated genes Bax and caspase-3/7 and inhibited anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2 levels. We also observed that STAT6 silencing downregulated the expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Our results demonstrated that treatment with pcDNA3.1-RANKL abolished STAT6 depletion-induced HepG2 and Hep3B cell apoptosis and growth inhibition. Based on these findings, we believe that RANKL plays a major role in STAT6-induced HCC cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Picrasidine I from Picrasma Quassioides Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis via Inhibition of RANKL Induced Signaling Pathways and Attenuation of ROS Production

    Lingbo Kong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder that tortures about millions of people worldwide. Recent study demonstrated agents derived from picrasma quassioides is a promising drug for targets multiple signaling pathways. However its potential in treatment of bone loss has not been fully understood. Methods: The bone marrow macrophages (BMMs were cultured and induced with M-CSF and RANKL followed by picrasidine I (PI treatment. Then the effects of PI on osteoclast formation were evaluated by counting tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive multinucleated cells. Moreover, effects of PI on bone resorption activity of mature osteoclast were studied through bone resorption pit counting and actin ring structure analysis. Further, the involved potential signaling pathways cross-talking were investigated by performed Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR examination. Results: Results demonstrated PI strongly inhibited RANKL induced osteoclast formation from its precursors. Mechanistically, the inhibitory effect of PI on osteoclast differentiation was due to the suppression of osteoclastogenic transcription factors, c-Fos and NFATc1. Moreover, PI markedly blocked the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by attenuating MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways. In addition, PI decreased the ROS generation in osteoclast and osteoblast. Conclusion: Taken together our data demonstrate that PI has antiosteoclastogenic effect by inhibiting inflammation induced activation of MAPKs, NF-κB and ROS generation followed by suppressing the gene expression of c-Fos and NFATc1 in osteoclast precursors.

  6. Polymorphisms in the RANK/RANKL Genes and Their Effect on Bone Specific Prognosis in Breast Cancer Patients

    Alexander Hein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK pathway is involved in bone health as well as breast cancer (BC pathogenesis and progression. Whereas the therapeutic implication of this pathway is established for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone metastases, the application in adjuvant BC is currently investigated. As genetic variants in this pathway have been described to influence bone health, aim of this study was the prognostic relevance of genetic variants in RANK and RANKL. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in RANK(L (rs1054016/rs1805034/rs35211496 were genotyped and analyzed with regard to bone metastasis-free survival (BMFS, disease-free survival, and overall survival for a retrospective cohort of 1251 patients. Cox proportional hazard models were built to examine the prognostic influence in addition to commonly established prognostic factors. The SNP rs1054016 seems to influence BMFS. Patients with two minor alleles had a more favorable prognosis than patients with at least one common allele (HR 0.37 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.84, whereas other outcome parameters remained unaffected. rs1805034 and rs35211496 had no prognostic relevance. The effect of rs1054016(RANKL adds to the evidence that the RANK pathway plays a role in BC pathogenesis and progression with respect to BMFS, emphasizing the connection between BC and bone health.

  7. Protective effect of zinc supplementation against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance in the bone tissue of rats

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M.; Rogalska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    It was investigated whether protective influence of zinc (Zn) against cadmium (Cd)-induced disorders in bone metabolism may be related to its antioxidative properties and impact on the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κΒ (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system. Numerous indices of oxidative/antioxidative status, and Cd and Zn were determined in the distal femur of the rats administered Zn (30 and 60 mg/l) or/and Cd (5 and 50 mg/l) for 6 months. Soluble RANKL (sRANKL) and OPG were measured in the bone and serum. Zn supplementation importantly protected from Cd-induced oxidative stress preventing protein, DNA, and lipid oxidation in the bone. Moreover, Zn protected from the Cd-induced increase in sRANKL concentration and the sRANKL/OPG ratio, and decrease in OPG concentration in the bone and serum. Numerous correlations were noted between indices of the oxidative/antioxidative bone status, concentrations of sRANKL and OPG in the bone and serum, as well as the bone concentrations of Zn and Cd, and previously reported by us in these animals (Brzóska et al., 2007) indices of bone turnover and bone mineral density. The results allow us to conclude that the ability of Zn to prevent from oxidative stress and the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance may be implicated in the mechanisms of its protective impact against Cd-induced bone damage. This paper is the first report from an in vivo study providing evidence that beneficial Zn impact on the skeleton under exposure to Cd is related to the improvement of the bone tissue oxidative/antioxidative status and mediating the RANK/RANKL/OPG system. - Highlights: • Cd induces oxidative stress in the bone tissue. • Cd disturbs bone metabolism via disorder of the RANK/RANKL/OPG system balance. • Zn supplementation protects from Cd-induced oxidative stress in the bone tissue. • Zn protects from the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance caused by Cd in the bone tissue. • Enhanced Zn intake protects from Cd

  8. Protective effect of zinc supplementation against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance in the bone tissue of rats

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M., E-mail: Malgorzata.Brzoska@umb.edu.pl; Rogalska, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    It was investigated whether protective influence of zinc (Zn) against cadmium (Cd)-induced disorders in bone metabolism may be related to its antioxidative properties and impact on the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κΒ (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system. Numerous indices of oxidative/antioxidative status, and Cd and Zn were determined in the distal femur of the rats administered Zn (30 and 60 mg/l) or/and Cd (5 and 50 mg/l) for 6 months. Soluble RANKL (sRANKL) and OPG were measured in the bone and serum. Zn supplementation importantly protected from Cd-induced oxidative stress preventing protein, DNA, and lipid oxidation in the bone. Moreover, Zn protected from the Cd-induced increase in sRANKL concentration and the sRANKL/OPG ratio, and decrease in OPG concentration in the bone and serum. Numerous correlations were noted between indices of the oxidative/antioxidative bone status, concentrations of sRANKL and OPG in the bone and serum, as well as the bone concentrations of Zn and Cd, and previously reported by us in these animals (Brzóska et al., 2007) indices of bone turnover and bone mineral density. The results allow us to conclude that the ability of Zn to prevent from oxidative stress and the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance may be implicated in the mechanisms of its protective impact against Cd-induced bone damage. This paper is the first report from an in vivo study providing evidence that beneficial Zn impact on the skeleton under exposure to Cd is related to the improvement of the bone tissue oxidative/antioxidative status and mediating the RANK/RANKL/OPG system. - Highlights: • Cd induces oxidative stress in the bone tissue. • Cd disturbs bone metabolism via disorder of the RANK/RANKL/OPG system balance. • Zn supplementation protects from Cd-induced oxidative stress in the bone tissue. • Zn protects from the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance caused by Cd in the bone tissue. • Enhanced Zn intake protects from Cd

  9. Genetic deletion of muscle RANK or selective inhibition of RANKL is not as effective as full-length OPG-fc in mitigating muscular dystrophy.

    Dufresne, Sébastien S; Boulanger-Piette, Antoine; Bossé, Sabrina; Argaw, Anteneh; Hamoudi, Dounia; Marcadet, Laetitia; Gamu, Daniel; Fajardo, Val A; Yagita, Hideo; Penninger, Josef M; Russell Tupling, A; Frenette, Jérôme

    2018-04-24

    Although there is a strong association between osteoporosis and skeletal muscle atrophy/dysfunction, the functional relevance of a particular biological pathway that regulates synchronously bone and skeletal muscle physiopathology is still elusive. Receptor-activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), its ligand RANKL and the soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) are the key regulators of osteoclast differentiation and bone remodelling. We thus hypothesized that RANK/RANKL/OPG, which is a key pathway for bone regulation, is involved in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) physiopathology. Our results show that muscle-specific RANK deletion (mdx-RANK mko ) in dystrophin deficient mdx mice improves significantly specific force [54% gain in force] of EDL muscles with no protective effect against eccentric contraction-induced muscle dysfunction. In contrast, full-length OPG-Fc injections restore the force of dystrophic EDL muscles [162% gain in force], protect against eccentric contraction-induced muscle dysfunction ex vivo and significantly improve functional performance on downhill treadmill and post-exercise physical activity. Since OPG serves a soluble receptor for RANKL and as a decoy receptor for TRAIL, mdx mice were injected with anti-RANKL and anti-TRAIL antibodies to decipher the dual function of OPG. Injections of anti-RANKL and/or anti-TRAIL increase significantly the force of dystrophic EDL muscle [45% and 17% gains in force, respectively]. In agreement, truncated OPG-Fc that contains only RANKL domains produces similar gains, in terms of force production, than anti-RANKL treatments. To corroborate that full-length OPG-Fc also acts independently of RANK/RANKL pathway, dystrophin/RANK double-deficient mice were treated with full-length OPG-Fc for 10 days. Dystrophic EDL muscles exhibited a significant gain in force relative to untreated dystrophin/RANK double-deficient mice, indicating that the effect of full-length OPG-Fc is in part independent of the RANKL

  10. PRICE GENERATING PROCESS AND VOLATILITY IN NIGERIAN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES MARKET

    Osaihiomwan Ojogho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature on agricultural commodity price volatility in Nigeria has constantly reflected that an excessive price movement is harmful for both producers and consumers, particularly for those who are not able to cope with that new source of economic uncertainty. It has also raised an extensive debate on the main determinants behind the large agricultural commodity price swings observed in the last years without recourse for the price generating process. To narrow this gap, the study examined the price generating process and volatility in the Nigerian agricultural commodities market using secondary data for price series on meat, cereals, sugar, dairy and aggregate food for the period of January 1990 to February 2014. The data were analysed using the linear Gaussian State-Space (SS model. The results of the descriptive statistics showed that the coefficients of variation for cereals (39.88%, food (32.65% and dairy price (43.08% were respectively higher during the overall time period (January 1990 to February 2014 than during the first (January 1990 to January 2002 and second (February 2002 to February 2014 sub-time periods. The results of the inferential statistics showed that authoregressive moving average (ARMA model is the most selected Nigeria agricultural commodity price generating model for the time periods, that a unit increase in the past price state of cereals, dairy, sugar, meat and aggregate food would increase the future price of sugar, meat and aggregate food by N0.14, N0.28 and N0.15 respectively but decrease future price of cereals and dairy by about N1.00 and N0.21 respectively, and that the one-step ahead predicted value for the first out-ofsample period for cereals, meat, dairy and sugar price were 6317.86, 10.24 and 2.06 respectively. The Nigerian agricultural commodity prices have experienced high variability over the period, and such volatility, price-generating process and the determinants of the Nigerian food commodities

  11. A-Type Cranberry Proanthocyanidins Inhibit the RANKL-Dependent Differentiation and Function of Human Osteoclasts

    Amy B. Howell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs on osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. The differentiation of human pre-osteoclastic cells was assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining, while the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs was measured by ELISA. Bone resorption activity was investigated by using a human bone plate coupled with an immunoassay that detected the release of collagen helical peptides. AC-PACs up to 100 µg/mL were atoxic for osteoclastic cells. TRAP staining evidenced a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. More specifically, AC-PACs at 50 µg/mL caused a 95% inhibition of RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation. This concentration of AC-PACs also significantly increased the secretion of IL-8 (6-fold and inhibited the secretion of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. Lastly, AC-PACs (10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml affected bone degradation mediated by mature osteoclasts by significantly decreasing the release of collagen helical peptides. This study suggests that AC-PACs can interfere with osteoclastic cell maturation and physiology as well as prevent bone resorption. These compounds may be considered as therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis.

  12. Sugar, Pressure and Pregnancy

    2017.v33i1.337. 1. Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 2001;345(19):1359-1367. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa011300. 2. The NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators. Intensive ...

  13. The Maple Sugar Festival

    Johnston, Basil

    1978-01-01

    Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

  14. Sugars, exercise and health.

    Codella, Roberto; Terruzzi, Ileana; Luzi, Livio

    2017-12-15

    There is a direct link between a variety of addictions and mood states to which exercise could be relieving. Sugar addiction has been recently counted as another binge/compulsive/addictive eating behavior, differently induced, leading to a high-significant health problem. Regularly exercising at moderate intensity has been shown to efficiently and positively impact upon physiological imbalances caused by several morbid conditions, including affective disorders. Even in a wider set of physchiatric diseases, physical exercise has been prescribed as a complementary therapeutic strategy. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE databases (search terms: sugar addiction, food craving, exercise therapy, training, physical fitness, physical activity, rehabilitation and aerobic). Seeking high-sugar diets, also in a reward- or craving-addiction fashion, can generate drastic metabolic derangements, often interpolated with affective disorders, for which exercise may represent a valuable, universal, non-pharmachological barrier. More research in humans is needed to confirm potential exercise-mechanisms that may break the bond between sugar over-consumption and affective disorders. The purpose of this review is to address the importance of physical exercise in reversing the gloomy scenario of unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles in our modern society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Demand and Tax Simulation for Federal Food Assistance Participants: A Case of Two New England States.

    Jithitikulchai, Theepakorn; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2018-06-19

    Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is a major concern in the efforts to improve diet and reduce obesity in USA, particularly among low-income populations. One of the most commonly proposed strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is increasing beverage prices through taxation. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether and how price-based policies could reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among participants in the federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. Using point-of-sale data from a regional supermarket chain (58 stores), we estimated the responsiveness of demand to sugar-sweetened beverage price changes among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-participating families with young children. Own-price and cross-price elasticities for non-alcoholic beverages were estimated using a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System model. The study found evidence that a tax-induced sugar-sweetened beverage price increase would reduce total sugar-sweetened beverage purchases among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants, who were driven by purchase shifts away from taxed sodas and sports drinks to non-taxed beverages (bottled water, juice, milk). The substitution of non-taxed caloric beverages decreases the marginal effects of the sugar-sweetened beverage tax, yet the direct tax effects are large enough to reduce the overall caloric intake, with the average net reduction in monthly calories from sugar-sweetened beverages estimated at around 8% for a half-cent per ounce tax and 16% for a one cent per ounce tax. A beverage price increase in the form of an excise tax would reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and increase healthier beverage purchases among low-income families.

  16. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    ... and NutritionHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversHigh Homocysteine Level: How It Affects Your Blood VesselsUnderstanding Your Medical ... Health Resources Healthcare Management Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level Share Print What ...

  17. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  18. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    2011-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation... the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and...

  19. Pricing and Trust

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    -competitive (monopolistic) markets. We then introduce a regulated intermediate price above the oligopoly price and below the monopoly price. The effect in monopolies is more or less in line with standard intuition. As price falls volume increases and so does quality, such that overall efficiency is raised by 50%. However......We experimentally examine the effects of flexible and fixed prices in markets for experience goods in which demand is driven by trust. With flexible prices, we observe low prices and high quality in competitive (oligopolistic) markets, and high prices coupled with low quality in non...

  20. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing... advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent butterfat, component prices, and advanced pricing factors shall be as follows. The prices and pricing factors described...

  1. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    ... carbs are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): including fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... sugar, check the ingredients list for sugar, corn syrup, or other sweeteners, such as dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  2. Global Trends in the Affordability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, 1990-2016.

    Blecher, Evan; Liber, Alex C; Drope, Jeffrey M; Nguyen, Binh; Stoklosa, Michal

    2017-05-04

    The objective of this study was to quantify changes in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, a product implicated as a contributor to rising rates of obesity worldwide, as a function of product price and personal income. We used international survey data in a retrospective analysis of 40 high-income and 42 low-income and middle-income countries from 1990 to 2016. Prices of sugar-sweetened beverages were from the Economist Intelligence Unit's World Cost of Living Survey. Income and inflation data were from the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Database. The measure of affordability was the average annual percentage change in the relative-income price of sugar-sweetened beverages, which is the annual rate of change in the proportion of per capita gross domestic product needed to purchase 100 L of Coca-Cola in each country in each year of the study. In 79 of 82 countries, the proportion of income needed to purchase sugar-sweetened beverages declined on average (using annual measures) during the study period. This pattern, described as an increase in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, indicated that sugar-sweetened beverages became more affordable more rapidly in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries, a fact largely attributable to the higher rate of income growth in those countries than to a decline in the real price of sugar-sweetened beverages. Without deliberate policy action to raise prices, sugar-sweetened beverages are likely to become more affordable and more widely consumed around the world.

  3. Global Trends in the Affordability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, 1990–2016

    Blecher, Evan; Liber, Alex C.; Nguyen, Binh; Stoklosa, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to quantify changes in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, a product implicated as a contributor to rising rates of obesity worldwide, as a function of product price and personal income. Methods We used international survey data in a retrospective analysis of 40 high-income and 42 low-income and middle-income countries from 1990 to 2016. Prices of sugar-sweetened beverages were from the Economist Intelligence Unit’s World Cost of Living Survey. Income and inflation data were from the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook Database. The measure of affordability was the average annual percentage change in the relative-income price of sugar-sweetened beverages, which is the annual rate of change in the proportion of per capita gross domestic product needed to purchase 100 L of Coca-Cola in each country in each year of the study. Results In 79 of 82 countries, the proportion of income needed to purchase sugar-sweetened beverages declined on average (using annual measures) during the study period. This pattern, described as an increase in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, indicated that sugar-sweetened beverages became more affordable more rapidly in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries, a fact largely attributable to the higher rate of income growth in those countries than to a decline in the real price of sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusion Without deliberate policy action to raise prices, sugar-sweetened beverages are likely to become more affordable and more widely consumed around the world. PMID:28472607

  4. Competitive Pricing by a Price Leader

    Abhik Roy; Dominique M. Hanssens; Jagmohan S. Raju

    1994-01-01

    We examine the problem of pricing in a market where one brand acts as a price leader. We develop a procedure to estimate a leader's price rule, which is optimal given a sales target objective, and allows for the inclusion of demand forecasts. We illustrate our estimation procedure by calibrating this optimal price rule for both the leader and the follower using data on past sales and prices from the mid-size sedan segment of the U.S. automobile market. Our results suggest that a leader-follow...

  5. ACCOUNTING ASPECTS OF PRICING AND TRANSFER PRICING

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from management accounting aspects to show out the role of the accounting system in the short term and long term pricing and transfer pricing decisions.

  6. The impact of further tariff reduction on the EU sugar sector in the forthcoming multilateral round

    E. HUAN-NIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper indicates the need for reform in the EU sugar sector due to the erosion of "border protection" in the view of further reduction in import tariffs for sugar. Three tariff reduction methods are assessed to project the "border protection" for EU sugar: Swiss formula proposed by the Cairns Group, "Harbinson" Proposal by the World Trade Organization and Uruguay Round formula proposed by the EU. In the assumed forthcoming multilateral round for agriculture, the EU would need to lower the support price for sugar by 67%, if the Cairns Group tariff reduction method is used. However, if the "Harbinson" method is used, the EU would need to lower the support price for sugar by at least 35%. On the contrary, the EU may avoid lowering the support price for sugar with three conditions occurring simultaneously: 1 the Uruguay Round formula is used as the reduction method in the assumed new WTO round and the EU can use the minimum reduction rate of 15% for sugar

  7. Relation of soluble RANKL and osteoprotegerin levels in blood and gingival crevicular fluid to the degree of root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement

    Tyrovola, J.B.; Halazonetis, D.J.; Makou, M.; Perrea, D.; Dontas, I.; Vlachos, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the determination of the levels of osteoprotegerin and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-(KB) ligand (RANKL) in blood serum and in gingival crevicular fluid relative to the degree of orthodontic root resorption in a rat model. Blood samples and gingival crevicular fluid were collected from fourteen 6-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 350-500 g. A 25-g closed orthodontic coil spring was inserted between each upper right first molar and the upper incisors. After 21 days of loading, both upper first molars (treated and control) were extracted and studied under microcomputed tomography scanning. Statistical analysis demonstrated a positive linear correlation between the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and the degree of root resorption. The ratio of the initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin to RANKL in blood serum proved to be an independent prognostic factor of the degree of root resorption. The initial concentration of RANKL in gingival crevicular fluid showed a negative correlation to the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and for a finite range of initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin in gingival crevicular fluid, the dental root seemed protected against extreme external root resorption. Finally, the concentration of osteoprotegerin in blood serum decreased significantly in cases of severe root resorption. (author)

  8. Niclosamide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents LPS-induced bone loss

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Young [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); So, Hong-Seob, E-mail: jeanso@wku.ac.kr [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jaemin, E-mail: jmoh@wku.ac.kr [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-05

    Niclosamide (5-chloro-salicyl-(2-chloro-4-nitro) anilide) is an oral anthelmintic drug used for treating intestinal infection of most tapeworms. Recently, niclosamide was shown to have considerable efficacy against some tumor cell lines, including colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers, and acute myelogenous leukemia. Specifically, the drug was identified as a potent inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is associated with osteoclast differentiation and function. In this study, we assessed the effect of niclosamide on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro study showed that receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was inhibited by niclosamide, due to inhibition of serine–threonine protein kinase (Akt) phosphorylation, inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (IκB), and STAT3 serine{sup 727}. Niclosamide decreased the expression of the major transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1, and thereafter abrogated the mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, OSCAR, αv/β3 integrin (integrin αv, integrin β3), and cathepsin K (CtsK). In an in vivo model, niclosamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss by diminishing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results show that niclosamide is effective in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and may be considered as a new and safe therapeutic candidate for the clinical treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the anti-osteoclastogenic effects of niclosamide in vitro and in vivo. • Niclosamide impairs the activation of the Akt-IκB-STAT3 ser{sup 727} signaling axis. • Niclosamide acts a negative regulator of actin ring formation during osteoclast differentiation. • Niclosamide suppresses LPS-induced bone loss in vivo. • Niclosamide deserves new evaluation as a potential treatment target in various bone diseases.

  9. Acute effects of dietary fatty acids on osteclastogenesis via RANKL/RANK/OPG system.

    Naranjo, M Carmen; Garcia, Indara; Bermudez, Beatriz; Lopez, Sergio; Cardelo, Magdalena P; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio

    2016-11-01

    Postprandial state is directly linked with chronic diseases. We hypothesized that dietary fats may have acute effects on health status by modulating osteoclast differentiation and activation in a fatty acid-dependent manner. In healthy subjects, a fat-enriched meal increased plasma levels of the RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand)/OPG (osteoprotegerin) ratio (SFAs > MUFAs = PUFAs) in the postprandial state. Postprandial TRL-SFAs enhanced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and the expression of osteoclast marker genes (TRAP, OSCAR, RANK, and CATHK) while downregulated the expression of OPG gene in human monocyte-derived osteoclasts. These effects were not observed with monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-enriched postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). Moreover, postprandial TRL-SFAs increased the release of osteoclastogenic cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) meanwhile TRL-MUFAs and TRL-PUFAs increased the release of anti-osteoclastogenic cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in the medium of human monocyte-derived osteoclasts. For the first time, we show that postprandial TRLs are metabolic entities with osteoclastogenic activity and that this property is related to the type of dietary fatty acid in the meal. The osteoclastogenic potency was as follows: SFAs > MUFAs = PUFAs. These exciting findings open opportunities for developing nutritional strategies with olive oil as the principal dietary source of MUFAs, notably oleic acid, to prevent development and progression of osteoclast-related diseases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A rapid review examining purchasing changes resulting from fiscal measures targeted at high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks.

    Roberts, Katharine E; Ells, Louisa J; McGowan, Victoria J; Machaira, Theodora; Targett, Victoria C; Allen, Rachel E; Tedstone, Alison E

    2017-12-15

    To aim of the review was to examine the most recent (2010 onwards) research evidence on the health and behavioural impacts, in adults and children, of fiscal strategies that target high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks (SSDs). A pragmatic rapid review was undertaken using a systematic search strategy. The review was part of a programme of work to support policy development in relation to high sugar food and SSDs. A total of 11 primary research publications were included, describing evidence from France (n = 1), the Netherlands (n = 3), and the United States of America (n = 7), assessed through a variety of study designs, with the majority in adult populations (n = 10). The evidence reviewed focused on consumer behaviour outcomes and suggested that fiscal strategies can influence purchases of high sugar products. Although the majority of studies (n = 10), including three field studies, demonstrated that an increase in the price of high sugar foods and SSDs resulted in a decrease in purchases, eight studies were conducted in a laboratory or virtual setting which may not reflect real-life situations.Findings from this review support evidence from the broader literature that suggests that fiscal measures can be effective in influencing the purchasing of high sugar foods and SSDs.

  11. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  12. Heterogeneity and option pricing

    Benninga, Simon; Mayshar, Joram

    2000-01-01

    An economy with agents having constant yet heterogeneous degrees of relative risk aversion prices assets as though there were a single decreasing relative risk aversion pricing representative agent. The pricing kernel has fat tails and option prices do not conform to the Black-Scholes formula.

  13. Paracrine-mediated osteoclastogenesis by the osteosarcoma MG63 cell line: is RANKL/RANK signalling really important?

    Costa-Rodrigues, J; Teixeira, C A; Fernandes, M H

    2011-08-01

    Although in the past little attention has been paid to the influence of osteosarcoma cells in osteoclast function, recent studies suggest a close relationship between osteosarcoma aggressiveness and osteoclastic activity. The present study addresses the paracrine effects of MG63 cells, a human osteosarcoma-derived cell line, on the differentiation of peripheral blood osteoclast precursor cells (PBMC). PBMC were cultured for 21 days in the presence of conditioned media from MG63 cell cultures (CM) collected at 48 h (CM_MG1), 7 days (CM_MG2) and 14 days (CM_MG3). MG63 cell cultures displayed the expression of ALP and BMP-2 and, also, the osteoclastogenic genes M-CSF and RANKL, although with a low expression of RANKL. PBMC cultures supplemented with CM presented an evident osteoclastogenic behavior, which was dependent on the culture period of the MG63 cells. The inductive effect appeared to be more relevant for the differentiation and activation genes, c-myc and c-src, and lower for genes associated with osteoclast function. In addition, PBMC cultures displayed increased functional parameters, including calcium phosphate resorbing activity. Assessment of the PBMC cultures in the presence of U0126, PDTC, and indomethacin suggested that in addition to MEK and NFkB pathways, other signaling mechanisms, probably not involving RANKL/RANK interaction, might be activated in the presence of conditioned medium from MG63. In conclusion, MG63 cell line appears to induce a significant paracrine-mediated osteoclastogenic response. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the interaction of osteosarcoma cells and osteoclasts may contribute to the development of new potential approaches in the treatment of such bone metabolic diseases.

  14. Geraniin suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ameliorates wear particle-induced osteolysis in mouse model

    Xiao, Fei; Zhai, Zanjing; Jiang, Chuan; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei; Qu, Xinhua [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Ouyang, Zhengxiao [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Department of Orthopaedics, Hunan Provincial Tumor Hospital and Tumor Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410013 (China); Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Qin, An, E-mail: dr.qinan@gmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Gu, Dongyun, E-mail: dongyungu@gmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Engineering Research Center of Digital Medicine and Clinical Translation, Ministry of Education of PR China (China); School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening remains the most common complication that limits the longevity of prostheses. Wear particle-induced osteoclastogenesis is known to be responsible for extensive bone erosion that leads to prosthesis failure. Thus, inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption may serve as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that geraniin, an active natural compound derived from Geranium thunbergii, ameliorated particle-induced osteolysis in a Ti particle-induced mouse calvaria model in vivo. We also investigated the mechanism by which geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. Geraniin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, evidenced by reduced osteoclast formation and suppressed osteoclast specific gene expression. Specially, geraniin inhibited actin ring formation and bone resorption in vitro. Further molecular investigation demonstrated geraniin impaired osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of the RANKL-induced NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways, as well as suppressed the expression of key osteoclast transcriptional factors NFATc1 and c-Fos. Collectively, our data suggested that geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and suppresses Ti particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Geraniin is therefore a potential natural compound for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis in prostheses failure. - Highlights: • Geraniin suppresses osteoclasts formation and function in vitro. • Geraniin impairs RANKL-induced nuclear factor-κB and ERK signaling pathway. • Geraniin suppresses osteolysis in vivo. • Geraniin may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases.

  15. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    On April 1, 2005, Denmark changed the way references prices, a main determinant of reimbursements for pharmaceutical purchases, are calculated. The previous reference prices, which were based on average EU prices, were substituted to minimum domestic prices. Novel to the literature, we estimate...... the joint eects of this reform on prices and quantities. Prices decreased more than 26 percent due to the reform, which reduced patient and government expenditures by 3.0 percent and 5.6 percent, respectively, and producer revenues by 5.0 percent. The prices of expensive products decreased more than...

  16. Anti-RANKL treatment inhibits erosive joint destruction and lowers inflammation but has no effect on bone formation in the delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis (DTHA) model

    Atkinson, Sara Marie; Bleil, Janine; Maier, Rene

    2016-01-01

    . Periarticular bone formation was observed from day 10. Induction of new bone formation indicated by enhanced Runx2, collagen X, osteocalcin, MMP2, MMP9, and MMP13 mRNA expression was observed only between days 8 and 11. Anti-RANKL treatment resulted in a modest reduction in paw and ankle swelling...... and bone formation were analyzed by mRNA deep sequencing. Serum concentrations of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, carboxy-terminal telopeptide I (CTX-I), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), and serum amyloid P component (SAP) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anti......-RANKL monoclonal antibody treatment was initiated at the time of immunization. Results: Bone destruction (MMP3 serum levels, cathepsin B activity, and RANKL mRNA) peaked at day 3 after arthritis induction, followed by a peak in cartilage destruction and bone erosion on day 5 after arthritis induction...

  17. One TV, One Price?

    Jean Imbs; Haroon Mumtaz; Morten O. Ravn; Hélène Rey

    2009-01-01

    We use a unique dataset on television prices across European countries and regions to investigate the sources of differences in price levels. Our findings are as follows: (i) Quality is a crucial determinant of price differences. Even in an integrated economic zone as Europe, rich economies tend to consume higher quality goods. This effect accounts for the lion’s share of international price dispersion. (ii) Sizable international price differentials subsist even for the same television sets. ...

  18. Value-based pricing

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  19. The ultrasound-assisted sugar extraction from sugar beet cossettes

    Stasiak, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the ultrasound-assisted water extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes. The ultrasound bath device (25 kHz, 200 W) was used. The sonication accelerated sugar diffusion at both temperatures 18 deg C and 77.6 deg C and gave the higher level of dry matter content SS (4-6 percent) and sugar content CK (7-22 percent) in juice. The SS and CK depended on time of exposition, time and temperature of extraction. In particular, the effects of 5 min ultrasound-assisted extraction were equal to 20 min extraction in traditional conditions. The shorter time, lower temperature, higher efficiency and purity of juice could be the effects of sugar extraction with ultrasound. The change of thickness of diffusion membrane, microflows in tissue as well as it's environment caused by ultrasound was the reason of acceleration of sugar extraction

  20. ACCOUNTING ASPECTS OF PRICING AND TRANSFER PRICING

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from m...

  1. Free Sugar Profile in Cycads

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  2. Etude de l'influence du TNFSF11 (RANKL) sur le développment et homéostasie des organes lymphoïdes secondaires

    Cordeiro , Olga

    2015-01-01

    RANKL and RANK are members of the TNF-superfamily and TNF-receptor superfamily, respectively. They are known to play an important role in the regulation of bone mass and in the development and the function of the immune system. However questions still remain. We have used genetically modified mice to address some of these questions, in particular by using a mouse whose lymph node marginal reticular stromal cells lack RANKL. The results obtained during this PhD provide important new insights i...

  3. Sap-Sugar Content of Grafted Sugar Maple Trees

    Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt; Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt

    1985-01-01

    In March and April 1983, 289 and 196 young grafted sugar maple trees were tapped and evaluated for sap-sugar content. In April, sap was collected from taps both above and below the graft union. Diameter of all tapped trees at 18 inches above the ground was measured. Analysis of the data revealed that: (1) trees selected for high sugar yield cannot be reproduced by...

  4. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RAW SUGAR MATERIAL FOR SUGAR PRODUCER COMPLEX

    A. A. Gromkovskii; O. I. Sherstyuk

    2015-01-01

    Summary. In the article examines the statistical data on the development of average weight and average sugar content of sugar beet roots. The successful solution of the problem of forecasting these raw indices is essential for solving problems of sugar producing complex control. In the paper by calculating the autocorrelation function demonstrated that the predominant trend component of the growth raw characteristics. For construct the prediction model is proposed to use an autoregressive fir...

  5. The effect of proportional v. value pricing on fountain drink purchases: results from a field experiment.

    Gollust, Sarah E; Tang, Xuyang; Runge, Carlisle Ford; French, Simone A; Rothman, Alexander J

    2018-05-15

    Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is a public health priority, yet finding an effective and acceptable policy intervention is challenging. One strategy is to use proportional pricing (a consistent price per fluid ounce) instead of the typical value-priced approach where large beverages offer better value. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether proportional pricing affects the purchasing of fountain beverages at a university cinema concession stand. Four price strategies for beverages were evaluated over ten weekends of film screenings. We manipulated two factors: the price structure (value pricing v. proportional pricing) and the provision of information about the price per fluid ounce (labels v. no labels). The key outcomes were the number and size of beverages purchased. We analysed data using regression analyses, with standard errors clustered by film and controlling for the day and time of purchase. A university cinema concession stand in Minnesota, USA, in spring 2015. University students. Over the study period (360 beverages purchased) there were no significant effects of the proportional pricing treatment. Pairing a label with the standard value pricing increased the likelihood of purchasing large drinks but the label did not affect purchasing when paired with proportional pricing. Proportional prices did not significantly affect the size of beverages purchased by students at a university cinema, but adding a price-per-ounce label increased large drink purchases when drinks were value-priced. More work is needed to address whether pricing and labelling strategies might promote healthier beverage purchases.

  6. Exporter Price Premia?

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Sørensen, Allan

    This paper provides new evidence on manufacturing firms' output prices: in Denmark, on average, exported varieties are sold at a lower price (i.e. a negative exporter price premium) relative to only domestically sold varieties. This finding stands in sharp contrast to previous studies, which have...... found positive exporter price premia. We also document that the exporter price premium varies substantially across products (both in terms of sign and magnitude). We show that in a standard heterogeneous firms model with heterogeneity in quality as well as production efficiency there is indeed no clear......-cut prediction on the sign of the exporter price premium. However, the model unambiguously predicts a negative exporter price premium in terms of quality-adjusted prices, i.e. prices per unit of quality. This prediction is broadly borne out in the Danish data: while the magnitude of the premium varies across...

  7. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  8. RANKL/RANK/OPG cytokine receptor system: mRNA expression pattern in BPH, primary and metastatic prostate cancer disease.

    Christoph, Frank; König, Frank; Lebentrau, Steffen; Jandrig, Burkhard; Krause, Hans; Strenziok, Romy; Schostak, Martin

    2018-02-01

    The cytokine system RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand), its receptor RANK and the antagonist OPG (osteoprotegerin) play a critical role in bone turnover. Our investigation was conducted to describe the gene expression at primary tumour site in prostate cancer patients and correlate the results with Gleason Score and PSA level. Seventy-one samples were obtained from prostate cancer patients at the time of radical prostatectomy and palliative prostate resection (n = 71). Patients with benign prostate hyperplasia served as controls (n = 60). We performed real-time RT-PCR after microdissection of the samples. The mRNA expression of RANK was highest in tumour tissue from patients with bone metastases (p BPH or locally confined tumours, also shown in clinical subgroups distinguished by Gleason Score (BPH tissue but did not exceed as much as in the tumour tissue. We demonstrated that RANK, RANKL and OPG are directly expressed by prostate cancer cells at the primary tumour site and showed a clear correlation with Gleason Score, serum PSA level and advanced disease. In BPH, mRNA expression is also detectable, but RANK expression does not exceed as much as compared to tumour tissue.

  9. Valuation Struggles over Pricing

    Pallesen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    of creating political markets, and political prices, here understood as market distortion. This paper studies the ‘politics’ of pricing by following the adoption of the first feed-in tariff in France. Pricing as a way of achieving non-economic ends, such as climate mitigation, brings the values of several...... public goods into play, all the while prompting a translation of these values into a single price. Following the struggles over the pricing of wind power in the early 2000s, the study illustrates that rather than a pollution of the market sphere by that of politics, a politics of pricing can be observed...

  10. I Mend It With Sugar

    Lindvall, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    I mend it with sugar         Abstract   "Gluttony" and "sloth" is the sugar addictions best friend, or could it be that the addiction comes out of a disturbed hormone production caused by the environment that surrounds us? Trying to understand my own sugar addiction I weave in my personal story into my artistic research around this subject. The sugar might be the cause of the pandemic obesity and that's why it has to bee brought up into the light from its darkness down the basement of the fo...

  11. The economic feasibility of sugar beet biofuel production in central North Dakota

    Maung, Thein A.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the financial feasibility of producing ethanol biofuel from sugar beets in central North Dakota. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, biofuel from sugar beets uniquely qualifies as an 'advanced biofuel'. EISA mandates production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels annually by 2022. A stochastic simulation financial model was calibrated with irrigated sugar beet data from central North Dakota to determine economic feasibility and risks of production for 0.038 hm 3 y -1 (or 10 MGY (Million Gallon per Year) and 0.076 hm 3 y -1 (or 20 MGY) ethanol plants. Study results indicate that feedstock costs, which include sugar beets and beet molasses, account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. The estimated breakeven ethanol price for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $400 m -3 ($1.52 per gallon) and $450 m -3 ($1.71 per gallon) for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Breakeven prices for feedstocks are also estimated and show that the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant can tolerate greater ethanol and feedstock price risks than the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Our results also show that one of the most important factors that affect investment success is the price of ethanol. At an ethanol price of $484.21 m -3 ($1.84 per gallon), and assuming other factors remain unchanged, the estimated net present value (NPV) for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $41.54 million. By comparison, the estimated NPV for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant is only $8.30 million. Other factors such as changes in prices of co-products and utilities have a relatively minor effect on investment viability. -- Highlights: → Sugar beets and beet molasses costs account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. → The estimated breakeven ethanol prices for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 and 0.038 hm 3 y -1 ethanol plants are $400 m -3 and $450 m -3 respectively. → The price of ethanol will be one of the most important factors for determining the future feasibility of a

  12. Anaerobic Treatment of Cane Sugar Effluent from Muhoroni Sugar ...

    It was therefore concluded that anaerobic treatment, particularly with pH control and seeding shows potential in first stage management of sugar mill wastewater. Keywords: cane sugar mill effluent, anaerobic treatment, batch reactor, waste stabilization ponds. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  13. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    Murillo Villela Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane.

  14. PRICES IN COMPETITIVE SYSTEM

    VADUVA MARIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of competitive market determine rules for determining prices and their dynamics. Orientation prices to competition (competitive pricing is the strategy most frequently used in countries with market economies and especially for exports. Moreover, in an economy dominated by market competition it cannot be ignored without certain risks the prices resulting from competition between products bidders. Companies that use this type of strategy seek to maintain a level of prices linked to that charged by other competitors (or exporting producers generally no longer covering production costs or demand, relying on the assumption that the average market price is a reasonable basis of costs. But the way how practical guidance and reporting to the competition in every price strategy, will be determined by the company's market position, by the available power and enjoyed prestige, objectives and prospects of its market share etc. according to these elements, there may be several versions of pricing strategies oriented to competitors.

  15. Retail Price Model

    The Retail Price Model is a tool to estimate the average retail electricity prices - under both competitive and regulated market structures - using power sector projections and assumptions from the Energy Information Administration.

  16. Natural gas pricing

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  17. Drug Pricing Reforms

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  18. NUKEM adjusts price definitions

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the October-November 1994 market report, providing trading volume and prices in the Uranium market. During this period, there were five deals in the spot concentrates market, five deals in the medium and long-term market, one deal in the conversion market, and two deals in the enrichment market. Restricted prices strengthened while unrestricted prices held steady. Price re-definitions were also announced

  19. Delegating Pricing Decisions

    Pradeep Bhardwaj

    2001-01-01

    An outstanding problem in marketing is why some firms in a competitive market delegate pricing decisions to agents and other firms do not. This paper analyzes the impact of competition on the delegation decision and, in turn, the impact of delegation on prices and incentives. The theory builds on the simplest framework of competition in two dimensions: prices and (sales agents') effort. Specifically, we are interested in answering the following questions: (1) Does competition affect the price...

  20. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  1. The Effects of Aronia melanocarpa ‘Viking’ Extracts in Attenuating RANKL-Induced Osteoclastic Differentiation by Inhibiting ROS Generation and c-FOS/NFATc1 Signaling

    Mithun Ghosh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the anti-osteoclastogenic effects of extracts from Aronia melanocarpa ‘Viking’ (AM and identify the underlying mechanisms in vitro. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are signal mediators in osteoclast differentiation. AM extracts inhibited ROS production in RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner and exhibited strong radical scavenging activity. The extracts also attenuated the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts. To attain molecular insights, the effect of the extracts on the signaling pathways induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL were also investigated. RANKL triggers many transcription factors through the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and ROS, leading to the induction of osteoclast-specific genes. The extracts significantly suppressed RANKL-induced activation of MAPKs, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 and consequently led to the downregulation of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1 protein expression which ultimately suppress the activation of the osteoclast-specific genes, cathepsin K, TRAP, calcitonin receptor and integrin β3. In conclusion, our findings suggest that AM extracts inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by downregulating ROS generation and inactivating JNK/ERK/p38, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB-mediated c-Fos and NFATc1 signaling pathway.

  2. The Effects of Aronia melanocarpa 'Viking' Extracts in Attenuating RANKL-Induced Osteoclastic Differentiation by Inhibiting ROS Generation and c-FOS/NFATc1 Signaling.

    Ghosh, Mithun; Kim, In Sook; Lee, Young Min; Hong, Seong Min; Lee, Taek Hwan; Lim, Ji Hong; Debnath, Trishna; Lim, Beong Ou

    2018-03-08

    This study aimed to determine the anti-osteoclastogenic effects of extracts from Aronia melanocarpa 'Viking' (AM) and identify the underlying mechanisms in vitro. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are signal mediators in osteoclast differentiation. AM extracts inhibited ROS production in RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner and exhibited strong radical scavenging activity. The extracts also attenuated the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated osteoclasts. To attain molecular insights, the effect of the extracts on the signaling pathways induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) were also investigated. RANKL triggers many transcription factors through the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and ROS, leading to the induction of osteoclast-specific genes. The extracts significantly suppressed RANKL-induced activation of MAPKs, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun- N -terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 and consequently led to the downregulation of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1) protein expression which ultimately suppress the activation of the osteoclast-specific genes, cathepsin K, TRAP, calcitonin receptor and integrin β₃. In conclusion, our findings suggest that AM extracts inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by downregulating ROS generation and inactivating JNK/ERK/p38, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated c-Fos and NFATc1 signaling pathway.

  3. Comparison of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and pulsed electromagnetic field treatments on OPG and RANKL expression in human osteoblast-like cells

    Borsje, Manon A.; Ren, Yijin; de Haan-Visser, H. Willy; Kuijer, Roel

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two clinically applied treatments to stimulate bone healing-low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF)-for their effects on RANKL and OPG expression in osteoblast-like cells in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LIPUS or PEMF was applied to

  4. Arctigenin suppresses receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    Kim, A-Ram; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Lee, Jeong Min; Choi, Jung Ho; Kim, Se Na; Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Mun, Se Hwan; Kim, Jie Wan; Jeon, Hyun Soo; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2012-05-05

    Osteoclasts, multinucleated bone-resorbing cells, are closely associated with bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Osteoclasts are derived from hematopoietic precursor cells, and their differentiation is mediated by two cytokines, including macrophage colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Previous studies have shown that arctigenin exhibits an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effect of arctigenin on osteoclast differentiation is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we found that arctigenin inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed RANKL-mediated bone resorption. Additionally, the expression of typical marker proteins, such as NFATc1, c-Fos, TRAF6, c-Src, and cathepsin K, were significantly inhibited. Arctigenin inhibited the phosphorylation of Erk1/2, but not p38 and JNK, in a dose-dependent manner. Arctigenin also dramatically suppressed immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-mediated costimulatory signaling molecules, including Syk and PLCγ2, and Gab2. Notably, arctigenin inhibited the activation of Syk through RANKL stimulation. Furthermore, arctigenin prevented osteoclast differentiation in the calvarial bone of mice following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Our results show that arctigenin inhibits osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, arctigenin may be useful for treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Involvement of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand (RANKL)-induced Incomplete Cytokinesis in the Polyploidization of Osteoclasts*

    Takegahara, Noriko; Kim, Hyunsoo; Mizuno, Hiroki; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Tomura, Michio; Kanagawa, Osami; Ishii, Masaru; Choi, Yongwon

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclasts are specialized polyploid cells that resorb bone. Upon stimulation with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), myeloid precursors commit to becoming polyploid, largely via cell fusion. Polyploidization of osteoclasts is necessary for their bone-resorbing activity, but the mechanisms by which polyploidization is controlled remain to be determined. Here, we demonstrated that in addition to cell fusion, incomplete cytokinesis also plays a role in osteoclast polyploidization. In in vitro cultured osteoclasts derived from mice expressing the fluorescent ubiquitin-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci), RANKL induced polyploidy by incomplete cytokinesis as well as cell fusion. Polyploid cells generated by incomplete cytokinesis had the potential to subsequently undergo cell fusion. Nuclear polyploidy was also observed in osteoclasts in vivo, suggesting the involvement of incomplete cytokinesis in physiological polyploidization. Furthermore, RANKL-induced incomplete cytokinesis was reduced by inhibition of Akt, resulting in impaired multinucleated osteoclast formation. Taken together, these results reveal that RANKL-induced incomplete cytokinesis contributes to polyploidization of osteoclasts via Akt activation. PMID:26670608

  6. Involvement of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand (RANKL)-induced Incomplete Cytokinesis in the Polyploidization of Osteoclasts.

    Takegahara, Noriko; Kim, Hyunsoo; Mizuno, Hiroki; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Tomura, Michio; Kanagawa, Osami; Ishii, Masaru; Choi, Yongwon

    2016-02-12

    Osteoclasts are specialized polyploid cells that resorb bone. Upon stimulation with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), myeloid precursors commit to becoming polyploid, largely via cell fusion. Polyploidization of osteoclasts is necessary for their bone-resorbing activity, but the mechanisms by which polyploidization is controlled remain to be determined. Here, we demonstrated that in addition to cell fusion, incomplete cytokinesis also plays a role in osteoclast polyploidization. In in vitro cultured osteoclasts derived from mice expressing the fluorescent ubiquitin-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci), RANKL induced polyploidy by incomplete cytokinesis as well as cell fusion. Polyploid cells generated by incomplete cytokinesis had the potential to subsequently undergo cell fusion. Nuclear polyploidy was also observed in osteoclasts in vivo, suggesting the involvement of incomplete cytokinesis in physiological polyploidization. Furthermore, RANKL-induced incomplete cytokinesis was reduced by inhibition of Akt, resulting in impaired multinucleated osteoclast formation. Taken together, these results reveal that RANKL-induced incomplete cytokinesis contributes to polyploidization of osteoclasts via Akt activation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. The effect of leptin replacement on parathyroid hormone, RANKL-osteoprotegerin axis, and Wnt inhibitors in young women with hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Foo, Joo-Pin; Polyzos, Stergios A; Anastasilakis, Athanasios D; Chou, Sharon; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2014-11-01

    Recombinant leptin (metreleptin) treatment restores bone mineral density in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), a condition characterized by hypoleptinemia, which has adverse impact on bone health. The objective of the study was to investigate how metreleptin exerts its positive effect on bone metabolism in humans. This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. The study was conducted at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (Boston, Massachusetts). Women (n = 18) with HA and hypoleptinemia for at least 6 months were randomized to receive either metreleptin or placebo for 36 weeks. Serum samples were obtained at baseline and 12, 24, and 36 weeks of treatment. Circulating levels of leptin, intact PTH (iPTH), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), sclerostin, dickkopf-1, and fibroblast growth factor-23. Metreleptin administration significantly increased leptin levels throughout the treatment period (P = .001). iPTH decreased over the 36 weeks of treatment (P = .01). There was a trend toward a decrease in serum RANKL and increase in serum OPG in the metreleptin-treated group. The RANKL to OPG ratio was significantly decreased within the metreleptin (P = .04) but not the placebo group. Metreleptin had no effect on serum sclerostin, dickkopf-1, and fibroblast growth factor-23. Metreleptin treatment over 36 weeks decreases iPTH and RANKL to OPG ratio levels in hypoleptinemic women with HA.

  8. Price competition on graphs

    Soetevent, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial

  9. Press point on prices

    Schilansky, J.L.

    2005-06-01

    This document presents information and statistical data on the prices of the crude oils, refining and petroleum products, at the date of the 28 June 2005: evolution of the barrel price, supply and demand, geo-policy, consumption, diesel and gasoline, prices at the service station. (A.L.B.)

  10. Price control and macromarketing

    Kancir Rade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Price control at macro level is part of integral macro marketing strategic control system, or more precisely, part of social marketing mix control. Price impact is direct, if it is regarded in the context of needs satisfaction, and indirect, within the context of resource allocation. These two patterns of price impact define control mechanism structuring. Price control in sense of its direct impact at process of need satisfaction should comprise qualitative and quantitative level of needs satisfaction at a given price level and its structure, informational dimension of price and different disputable forms of corporate pricing policies. Control of price allocation function is based at objectives of macro marketing system management in the area of resource allocation and the role of price as allocator in contemporary market economies. Control process is founded, on one hand, at theoretical models of correlation between price and demand in different market structures, and on the other hand, at complex limits that price as allocator has, and which make whole control process even more complex because of reduction of the degree of determinism in functioning of contemporary economic systems. Control of price allocation function must be continuous and dynamic process if it is to provide for convergence with environmental changes and if it is to provide for placing control systems at micro marketing levels in the function of socially valid objectives.

  11. Simulating Price-Taking

    Engelhardt, Lucas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a price-takers' market simulation geared toward principles-level students. This simulation demonstrates that price-taking behavior is a natural result of the conditions that create perfect competition. In trials, there is a significant degree of price convergence in just three or four rounds. Students find this…

  12. Dutch house price fundamentals

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price

  13. Analyzing the effects of past prices on reference price formation

    van Oest, R.D.; Paap, R.

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new reference price framework for brand choice. In this framework, we employ a Markov-switching process with an absorbing state to model unobserved price recall of households. Reference prices result from the prices households are able to remember. Our model can be used to learn how many prices observed in the past are used for reference price formation. Furthermore, we learn to what extent households have sufficient price knowledge to form an internal reference price...

  14. Sugar Sugar – don’t be misled / laat je niet misleiden

    Toebes, Brigit

    2017-01-01

    NRC Handelsblad’s Saturday 25 November issue contains an entry of eleven pages entirely devoted to sugar. It discusses a broad range of topics related to sugar, including the role of sugar throughout the centuries, sugar consumption in the Netherlands, the amount of sugar in bread, and sugar

  15. The plant limonoid 7-oxo-deacetoxygedunin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing activation of the NF-{kappa}B and MAPK pathways

    Wisutsitthiwong, Chonnaree; Buranaruk, Chayanit [Graduate Program in Industrial Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pudhom, Khanitha [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Center for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Palaga, Tanapat, E-mail: tanapat.p@chula.ac.th [Graduate Program in Industrial Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A gedunin type limonoid from seeds of mangroves, 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin, exhibits strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with this limonoid results in significant decrease in expression of NFATc1 and osteoclast-related genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mode of action of this limonoid is by inhibiting activation of the NF-{kappa}B and MAPK pathways which are activated by RANKL. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts together with osteoblasts play pivotal roles in bone remodeling. Aberrations in osteoclast differentiation and activity contribute to osteopenic disease. Osteoclasts differentiate from monocyte/macrophage progenitors, a process that is initiated by the interaction between receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL. In this study, we identified 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin (7-OG), a gedunin type limonoid from seeds of the mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis, as a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Additionally, 7-OG showed strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity with low cytotoxicity against the monocyte/macrophage progenitor cell line, RAW264.7. The IC50 for anti-osteoclastogenic activity was 4.14 {mu}M. Treatment with 7-OG completely abolished the appearance of multinucleated giant cells with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with RANKL. When the expression of genes related to osteoclastogenesis was investigated, a complete downregulation of NFATc1 and cathepsin K and a delayed downregulation of irf8 were observed upon 7-OG treatment in the presence of RANKL. Furthermore, treatment with this limonoid suppressed RANKL-induced activation of p38, MAPK and Erk and nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B p65. Taken together, we present evidence indicating a plant limonoid as a novel osteoclastogenic inhibitor that could be used for osteoporosis and related conditions.

  16. The plant limonoid 7-oxo-deacetoxygedunin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways

    Wisutsitthiwong, Chonnaree; Buranaruk, Chayanit; Pudhom, Khanitha; Palaga, Tanapat

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► A gedunin type limonoid from seeds of mangroves, 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin, exhibits strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity. ► Treatment with this limonoid results in significant decrease in expression of NFATc1 and osteoclast-related genes. ► The mode of action of this limonoid is by inhibiting activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways which are activated by RANKL. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts together with osteoblasts play pivotal roles in bone remodeling. Aberrations in osteoclast differentiation and activity contribute to osteopenic disease. Osteoclasts differentiate from monocyte/macrophage progenitors, a process that is initiated by the interaction between receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL. In this study, we identified 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin (7-OG), a gedunin type limonoid from seeds of the mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis, as a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Additionally, 7-OG showed strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity with low cytotoxicity against the monocyte/macrophage progenitor cell line, RAW264.7. The IC50 for anti-osteoclastogenic activity was 4.14 μM. Treatment with 7-OG completely abolished the appearance of multinucleated giant cells with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with RANKL. When the expression of genes related to osteoclastogenesis was investigated, a complete downregulation of NFATc1 and cathepsin K and a delayed downregulation of irf8 were observed upon 7-OG treatment in the presence of RANKL. Furthermore, treatment with this limonoid suppressed RANKL-induced activation of p38, MAPK and Erk and nuclear localization of NF-κB p65. Taken together, we present evidence indicating a plant limonoid as a novel osteoclastogenic inhibitor that could be used for osteoporosis and related conditions.

  17. Interleukin-4 inhibits RANKL-induced expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos: A possible mechanism for downregulation of osteoclastogenesis

    Kamel Mohamed, Saad Gad; Sugiyama, Eiji; Shinoda, Kouichiro; Hounoki, Hiroyuki; Taki, Hirofumi; Maruyama, Muneharu; Miyahara, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Masashi

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, has been shown to inhibit osteoclast differentiation. Therefore, this cytokine is considered to be a promising therapeutic applicant for bone-resorbing diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently NFATc1, a transcription factor, has been shown to play critical roles in osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of IL-4 on the intracellular signaling of NFATc1. A RAW264.7 monocyte/macrophage cell line and murine bone marrow precursors were differentiated into osteoclasts in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and/or macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and a pit assay using dentine were used for the identification of activated osteoclasts. The protein expression of IL-4 receptor, NFATc1, and c-Fos was determined by Western blot analysis. In addition, the gene expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos was determined by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. The IL-4 receptor was constitutively expressed in RAW264.7 cells. RANKL induced osteoclast generation, as determined by TRAP staining and pit assay. IL-4 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis at low concentrations of 10 ng/ml and more. Interestingly, IL-4 potently inhibited RANKL-induced expression of NFATc1 at mRNA level. Furthermore, IL-4 inhibited c-Fos expression, which is shown to be responsible for NFATc1 expression, in time- and dose-dependent manners. In addition, IL-4 inhibited the RANKL-induced expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos in murine bone marrow cells. Thus, we suggest that IL-4 may downregulate osteoclastogenesis in part through inhibition of the expression of transcription factors, NFATc1 and c-Fos. These findings provide new insight into development of new medication for osteoporosis and RA

  18. Effects of interleukin-7/interleukin-7 receptor on RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and ovariectomy-induced bone loss by regulating c-Fos/c-Jun pathway.

    Zhao, Ji-Jun; Wu, Zhao-Feng; Yu, Ying-Hao; Wang, Ling; Cheng, Li

    2018-09-01

    To explore the effects of IL-7/IL-7R on the RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in vitro and OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. BMMs and RAW264.7 were transfected with IL-7, IL-7R siRNA, c-Fos siRNA, and c-jun siRNA and later stimulated by RANKL. TRAP and toluidine blue staining were used to observe osteoclast formation and bone resorption, respectively. HE and TRAP staining were used to detect trabecular bone microstructure and osteoclasts of mice, respectively. qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis were used to examine expression. IL-7 unregulated the expression of CTSK, NFATc1, MMP9, and the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt by activating the c-Fos/c-Jun pathway, which increased osteoclast numbers and bone resorption in RANKL-stimulated macrophages. While IL-7R siRNA and c-Fos siRNA decreased the expression, as well as and the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt.IL-7 decreased the BMD and OPG expression in OVX-induced mice and increased the TRAP positive cells, the mRNA expression of c-fos, c-jun, and RANKL, which was contradictory to IL-7R siRNA, and c-Fos siRNA. Furthermore, IL-7R siRNA and c-Fos siRNA caused thicker trabeculae, increased trabecular number, and decreased osteolysis in OVX mice. IL-7/IL-7R can promote RANKL-mediated osteoclast formation and bone resorption by activating the c-Fos/c-Jun pathway, as well as inducing bone loss in OVX mice. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Internet resource pricing models

    Xu, Ke; He, Huan

    2013-01-01

    This brief guides the reader through three basic Internet resource pricing models using an Internet cost analysis. Addressing the evolution of service types, it presents several corresponding mechanisms which can ensure pricing implementation and resource allocation. The authors discuss utility optimization of network pricing methods in economics and underline two classes of pricing methods including system optimization and entities' strategic optimization. The brief closes with two examples of the newly proposed pricing strategy helping to solve the profit distribution problem brought by P2P

  20. Value-based pricing

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  1. When Blood Sugar Is Too Low

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español When Blood Sugar Is Too Low KidsHealth / For Kids / When Blood ... get too low. The Causes of Low Blood Sugar Low blood sugar levels can happen to kids ...

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison...... will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...... obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar...

  3. Bayesian Estimation and Selection of Nonlinear Vector Error Correction Models: The Case of the Sugar-Ethanol-Oil Nexus in Brazil

    Kelvin Balcombe; George Rapsomanikis

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear adjustment toward long-run price equilibrium relationships in the sugar-ethanol-oil nexus in Brazil is examined. We develop generalized bivariate error correction models that allow for cointegration between sugar, ethanol, and oil prices, where dynamic adjustments are potentially nonlinear functions of the disequilibrium errors. A range of models are estimated using Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithms and compared using Bayesian model selection methods. The results suggest ...

  4. Maintaining Growth and Sustainable Strategy in Brown Sugar Business, and the Investment Financing Alternative Decision (Case Study: CV. Delovry Sukses Gemilang)

    Ariyani, Laurentia Nindita; Siahaan, Uke MMP

    2013-01-01

    CV. Delovry Sukses Gemilang (CV. DSG) is a brown sugar supplier from manufacturers in Maron Village, Blitar, to the warehouse of distributors which is located in Tambun, Bekasi. In doing the business, CV. DSG provides the working capital to the collectors in Blitar to produce and pack the brown sugar. Fluctuating commodity prices of sugar cane leads CV. DSG to be difficult to continually maintain the business and shipping costs which is a way further from Blitar to Bekasi. These issues lead C...

  5. Targeted deletion of RANKL in M cell inducer cells by the Col6a1-Cre driver.

    Nagashima, Kazuki; Sawa, Shinichiro; Nitta, Takeshi; Prados, Alejandro; Koliaraki, Vasiliki; Kollias, George; Nakashima, Tomoki; Takayanagi, Hiroshi

    2017-11-04

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs), including Peyer's patches (PPs), cryptopatches (CPs) and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs), establish a host-microbe symbiosis by the promotion of immune reactions against gut microbes. Microfold cell inducer (MCi) cells in GALTs are the recently identified mesenchymal cells that express the cytokine RANKL and initiate bacteria-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) production via induction of microfold (M) cell differentiation. In the previous study, the Twist2-Cre driver was utilized for gene deletion in mesenchymal cells including MCi cells. In order to investigate MCi cells more extensively, it will be necessary to develop experimental tools in addition to the Twist2-Cre driver mice and characterize such drivers in specificity and efficiency. Here we show that M cell differentiation and IgA production are impaired in the targeted deletion of RANKL by the Col6a1-Cre driver. We compared Col6a1-Cre with Twist2-Cre in terms of the specificity for mesenchymal cells in GALTs. Col6a1-Cre CAG-CAT-EGFP mice exhibited EGFP expression in podoplanin + CD31 - cells including MCi cells, while Twist2-Cre mice were shown to target endothelial cells and podoplanin + CD31 - cells. Tnfsf11 fl/Δ Col6a1-Cre mice exhibited the absence of M cells and severe IgA reduction together with an alteration in gut microbial composition. Moreover, we analyzed germ free mice to test whether changes in the microbiota are the cause of M cell deficiency. M cell differentiation was normal in the CPs/ILFs of germ free mice, indicating that MCi cells induce M cells independently of microbial colonization. This study demonstrates that Col6a1-Cre driver mice are as useful as Twist2-Cre driver mice for functional analyses of GALT-resident mesenchymal cells, including MCi cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Feeding blueberry diets to young rats dose-dependently inhibits bone resorption through suppression of RANKL in stromal cells.

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that weanling rats fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry (BB powder for two weeks beginning on postnatal day 21 (PND21 significantly increased bone formation at PND35. However, the minimal level of dietary BB needed to produce these effects is, as yet, unknown. The current study examined the effects of three different levels of BB diet supplementation (1, 3, and 5% for 35 days beginning on PND25 on bone quality, and osteoclastic bone resorption in female rats. Peripheral quantitative CT scan (pQCT of tibia, demonstrated that bone mineral density (BMD and content (BMC were dose-dependently increased in BB-fed rats compared to controls (P<0.05. Significantly increased bone mass after feeding 5% BB extracts was also observed in a TEN (total enteral nutrition rat model in which daily caloric and food intake was precisely controlled. Expression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand a protein essential for osteoclast formation was dose-dependently decreased in the femur of BB animals. In addition, expression of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ which regulates bone marrow adipogenesis was suppressed in BB diet rats compared to non-BB diet controls. Finally, a set of in vitro cell cultures revealed that the inhibitory effect of BB diet rat serum on RANKL expression was more profound in mesenchymal stromal cells compared to its effect on mature osteoblasts, pre-adipocytes and osteocytes. These results suggest that inhibition of bone resorption may contribute to increased bone mass during early development after BB consumption.

  7. Young People\\'s Relationships with Sugar Daddies and Sugar ...

    s relationships with sugar daddies and mummies. It considers definitional, measurement and analytical issues involved in assessing these relationships, their magnitude, patterns, determinants and consequences. The review compares and ...

  8. 75 FR 29969 - Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Sugar Beet Genetically...

    2010-05-28

    ... glyphosate affect the socioeconomic value of food or feed or its nutritional quality? What are the impacts, if any, on food or feed socioeconomic value or its nutritional quality from the use of glyphosate... of establishing, growing, harvesting, and marketing sugar beet, including selling prices and premiums...

  9. Estimating the potential of taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages to reduce consumption and generate revenue.

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Chaloupka, Frank J; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-06-01

    Beverage taxes came into light with increasing concerns about obesity, particularly among youth. Sugar-sweetened beverages have become a target of anti-obesity initiatives with increasing evidence of their link to obesity. Our paper offers a method for estimating revenues from an excise tax on sugar-sweetened beverages that governments of various levels could direct towards obesity prevention. We construct a model projecting beverage consumption and tax revenues based on best available data on regional beverage consumption, historic trends and recent estimates of the price elasticity of sugar-sweetened beverage demand. The public health impact of beverage taxes could be substantial. An estimated 24% reduction in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption from a penny-per-ounce sugar-sweetened beverage tax could reduce daily per capita caloric intake from sugar-sweetened beverages from the current 190-200 cal to 145-150 cal, if there is no substitution to other caloric beverages or food. A national penny-per-ounce tax on sugar-sweetened beverages could generate new tax revenue of $79 billion over 2010-2015. A modest tax on sugar-sweetened beverages could both raise significant revenues and improve public health by reducing obesity. To the extent that at least some of the tax revenues get invested in obesity prevention programs, the public health benefits could be even more pronounced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 7 CFR 1131.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1131.53 Section 1131.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  11. 7 CFR 1005.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1005.53 Section 1005.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  12. 7 CFR 1124.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1124.53 Section 1124.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  13. 7 CFR 1126.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1126.53 Section 1126.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  14. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  15. 7 CFR 1030.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1030.53 Section 1030.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  16. 7 CFR 1033.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1033.53 Section 1033.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  17. 7 CFR 1001.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1001.53 Section 1001.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  18. 7 CFR 1007.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1007.53 Section 1007.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  19. 7 CFR 1006.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1006.53 Section 1006.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  20. Arbitrage Pricing, Capital Asset Pricing, and Agricultural Assets

    Louise M. Arthur; Colin A. Carter; Fay Abizadeh

    1988-01-01

    A new asset pricing model, the arbitrage pricing theory, has been developed as an alternative to the capital asset pricing model. The arbitrage pricing theory model is used to analyze the relationship between risk and return for agricultural assets. The major conclusion is that the arbitrage pricing theory results support previous capital asset pricing model findings that the estimated risk associated with agricultural assets is low. This conclusion is more robust for the arbitrage pricing th...

  1. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  2. STS pricing policy

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  3. Target Price Accuracy

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  4. Feasibility of converting a sugar beet plant to fuel ethanol production

    Hammaker, G S; Pfost, H B; David, M L; Marino, M L

    1981-04-01

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  5. Economic feasibility of the sugar beet-to-ethylene value chain.

    Althoff, Jeroen; Biesheuvel, Kees; De Kok, Ad; Pelt, Henk; Ruitenbeek, Matthijs; Spork, Ger; Tange, Jan; Wevers, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    As part of a long-term strategy toward renewable feedstock, a feasibility study into options for the production of bioethylene by integrating the sugar beet-to-ethanol-to-ethylene value chain. Seven business cases were studied and tested for actual economic feasibility of alternative sugar-to-ethanol-to-ethylene routes in comparison to fossil-fuel alternatives. An elaborate model was developed to assess the relevant operational and financial aspects of each business case. The calculations indicate that bioethylene from sugar beet is not commercially viable under current market conditions. In light of expected global energy and feedstock prices it is also reasonable to expect that this will not change in the near future. To consider biorenewable sources as starting material, they need to be low in cost (compared to sugar beets) and also require less capital and energy-intensive methods for the conversion to chemicals. In general, European sugar prices will be too high for many chemical applications. Future efforts for in sugar-to-chemicals routes should, therefore, focus on integrated process routes and process intensification and/or on products that contain a significant part of the original carbohydrate backbone. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Closing the Yield Gap of Sugar Beet in the Netherlands-A Joint Effort.

    Hanse, Bram; Tijink, Frans G J; Maassen, Jurgen; van Swaaij, Noud

    2018-01-01

    The reform of the European Union's sugar regime caused potential decreasing beet prices. Therefore, the Speeding Up Sugar Yield (SUSY) project was initiated. At the start, a 3 × 15 target was formulated: in 2015 the national average sugar yield in the Netherlands equals 15 t/ha (60% of the sugar beet potential) and the total variable costs 15 euro/t sugar beet, aspiring a saving on total variable costs and a strong increase in sugar yield. Based on their average sugar yield in 2000-2004, 26 pairs of "type top" (high yielding) and "type average" (average yielding) growers were selected from all sugar beet growing regions in the Netherlands. On the fields of those farmers, all measures of sugar beet cultivation were investigated, including cost calculation and recording phytopathological, agronomical and soil characteristics in 2006 and 2007. Although there was no significant difference in total variable costs, the "type top" growers yielded significantly 20% more sugar in each year compared to the "type average" growers. Therefore, the most profitable strategy for the growers is maximizing sugar yield and optimizing costs. The difference in sugar yield between growers could be explained by pests and diseases (50%), weed control (30%), soil structure (25%) and sowing date (14%), all interacting with each other. The SUSY-project revealed the effect of the grower's management on sugar yield. As a follow up for the SUSY-project, a growers' guide "Suikerbietsignalen" was published, Best Practice study groups of growers were formed and trainings and workshops were given and field days organized. Further, the benchmarking and feedback on the crop management recordings and the extension on variety choice, sowing performance, foliar fungi control and harvest losses were intensified. On the research part, a resistance breaking strain of the Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus (BNYVV) and a new foliar fungus, Stemphylium beticola , were identified and options for control were

  7. Exogenous IFN-beta regulates the RANKL-c-Fos-IFN-beta signaling pathway in the collagen antibody-induced arthritis model.

    Zhao, Rong; Chen, Ni-Nan; Zhou, Xiao-Wei; Miao, Ping; Hu, Chao-Ying; Qian, Liu; Yu, Qi-Wen; Zhang, Ji-Ying; Nie, Hong; Chen, Xue-hua; Li, Pu; Xu, Rong; Xiao, Lian-Bo; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Jian-Ren; Zhang, Dong-Qing

    2014-12-10

    Although a variety of drugs have been used to treat the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), none of them are able to cure the disease. Interferon β (IFN-β) has pleiotropic effects on RA, but whether it can be used to treat RA remains globally controversial. Thus, in this study we tested the effects of IFN-β on RA patients and on collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) model mice. The cytokine and auto-antibody expression profiles in the serum and synovial fluid (SF) from RA patients were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared with the results from osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Exogenous IFN-β was administered to RA patients and CAIA model mice, and the therapeutic effects were evaluated. Endogenous IFN-β expression in the joint bones of CAIA model mice was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The effects of exogenous IFN-β on CAIA model mice were assessed using a clinical scoring system, hematoxylin eosin and safranin-O with fast green counterstain histology, molybdenum target X-ray, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. The RANKL-RANK signaling pathway was analyzed using qRT-PCR. The RAW 264.7 cell line was differentiated into osteoclasts with RANKL stimulation and then treated with exogenous IFN-β. The expression of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17, MMP-3, and RANKL) and auto-antibodies (CII antibodies, RF-IgM, and anti-CCP/GPI) were significantly higher in RA compared with OA patients. After IFN-β intervention, some clinical symptoms in RA patients were partially alleviated, and the expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, MMP-3, and OPG) returned to normal levels. In the CAIA model, the expression of endogenous IFN-β in the joint bones was decreased. After IFN-β administration, the arthritis scores were decreased; synovial inflammation, cartilage, and bone destruction were clearly attenuated; and the expression of c-Fos and NFATc1 were reduced, while RANKL and TRAF6 expression was

  8. Melittin inhibits osteoclast formation through the downregulation of the RANKL-RANK signaling pathway and the inhibition of interleukin-1β in murine macrophages.

    Choe, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2017-03-01

    Melittin is a major toxic component of bee venom (Apis mellifera). It is not known whether melittin is involved in bone metabolism and osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of melittin in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. In vitro osteoclastogenesis assays were performed using mouse RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Morphologic and functional analyses for osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs) were performed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, F-actin staining and pit formation methods. The gene expression of TRAP, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and carbonic anhydrase II was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The protein expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), c-Fos, c-Jun, nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), TNF receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were assessed by western blot analysis. Melittin inhibited the mRNA expression of TRAP, cathepsin K, MMP-9 and carbonic anhydrase II in RANKL-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The increased protein expression of TRAF6, p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p-JNK, p-p65, p-c-Fos and NFATc1 induced by RANKL was significantly suppressed in the RAW 264.7 cells treated with melittin. A synergistic effect of IL-1β on the formation of RANKL-induced osteoclast-like MNCs was found in two experimental cells. The increased expression of IL-1β following the stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with RANKL activated TRAF6, p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p65, p-c-Fos and NFATc1. These effects were attenuated by the downregulation of IL-1β using siRNA against IL-1β, and also by treatment with melittin. On the whole, the findings of this study demonstrate that melittin

  9. Pricing of new vaccines

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine targe...

  10. Land Prices and Fundamentals

    Koji Nakamura; Yumi Saita

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term relationship between macro economic fundamentals and the weighted-average land price indicators, which are supposed to be more appropriate than the official land price indicators when analyzing their impacts on the macro economy. In many cases, we find the cointegrating relationships between the weighted-average land price indicators and the discounted present value of land calculated based on the macro economic fundamentals indicators. We also find that the ...

  11. Introduction to pricing issues

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of pricing issues the proper pricing of transmission services is essential to efficient operation of the grid. Wheeling rights have little meaning if capacity on existing lines is scarce and there is no incentive to build new lines. Depending on the type of transmission pricing policies FERC adopts, the Commission may be able to encourage more voluntary wheeling service, and to influence decisions to build or upgrade the supply of facilities

  12. Cost and Price Collaboration

    2016-04-30

    described below which relies on questionnaires administered to subject matter experts in both cost analysis and price analysis to determine the value of...additional reports or data that the price analyst used in determining their final negotiated position. The cost analyst section of the questionnaire...an analysis at the individual element level rather than at a total price level to determine the major changes from the awarded contract to the new

  13. Cuba's transition to market-based energy prices

    Perez-Lopez, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1960 the Soviet Union has been, for all practical purposes, Cuba's exclusive supplier of energy products. For certain time periods, Soviet sales of oil and oil products to Cuba were made at concessional prices; prior to 1991, they were priced using transferable rubles and were essentially bartered for Cuban goods, especially sugar. Effective January 1, 1991, the Soviet Union shifted to world market prices and convertible currency payments for all traded commodities, including energy products. The shift to market prices and convertible currencies in Cuban-Soviet energy trade has already brought - or is likely to bring - a number of adjustments in four areas: (1) the trade balance; (2) the ability to reexport oil and oil products; (3) energy consumption patterns; (4) and the structure of energy supplies. 33 refs., 8 tabs

  14. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  15. Sugar beet processing into alcohol

    Malchenko, A L; Chistyakov, M P; Verzhbitskaya, V A; Tereshchenko, N R

    1963-08-28

    To produce a juice with high sugar content suitable for manufacture of alcohol, sugar beet is subjected to multistage pressing with an extraction following each pressing operation. The solvent in the first extraction is the juice obtained after the second pressing; hot water is used for the second extraction and vinasse for the third. The latter, after pressing, combined with molasses is used for manufacture of yeast.

  16. Assessing the economic impacts of drought from the perspective of profit loss rate: a case study of the sugar industry in China

    Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Chen, H.

    2015-07-01

    Natural disasters have enormous impacts on human society, especially on the development of the economy. To support decision-making in mitigation and adaption to natural disasters, assessment of economic impacts is fundamental and of great significance. Based on a review of the literature on economic impact evaluation, this paper proposes a new assessment model of the economic impacts of droughts by using the sugar industry in China as a case study, which focuses on the generation and transfer of economic impacts along a simple value chain involving only sugarcane growers and a sugar-producing company. A perspective of profit loss rate is applied to scale economic impact. By using "with and without" analysis, profit loss is defined as the difference in profits between disaster-hit and disaster-free scenarios. To calculate profit, analysis of a time series of sugar price is applied. With the support of a linear regression model, an endogenous trend in sugar price is identified and the time series of sugar price "without" disaster is obtained, using an autoregressive error model to separate impact of disasters from the internal trend in sugar price. Unlike the settings in other assessment models, representative sugar prices, which represent value level in disaster-free conditions and disaster-hit conditions, are integrated from a long time series that covers the whole period of drought. As a result, it is found that in a rigid farming contract, sugarcane growers suffer far more than the sugar company when impacted by severe drought, which may promote reflections among various economic bodies on economic equality related to the occurrence of natural disasters. Further, sensitivity analysis of the model built reveals that sugarcane purchase price has a significant influence on profit loss rate, which implies that setting a proper sugarcane purchase price would be an effective way of realizing economic equality in future practice of contract farming.

  17. 1988 coal price negotiation

    Senmura, Akira

    1988-12-01

    In the negotiation on raw coal price for 1988, which began at the end of 1987, Australia requested price rise of 4 - 5 dollars for the reason of rise of Australian dollars, conditions of mines, price drop in the past five years, and world supply/demand of coal. Japan insisted to maintain the price of preceding year. The talk ended in a dead lock which could last a long time. Negotiation on the Canadian coal price also encountered difficulties but an agreement was obtained in March as Japan accepted the increased price. After which, Japan and Australia agreed to raise the price by 2.90 dollars and an increase over last year. Producing countries also requested a wide price rise as 7.50 dollars for general coal, making in this area very difficult to progress. Finally, they agreed to raise the price by 6.30 dollars and the electric power utility in Japan responded by importing of U.S. coal, which has a lower heat output but is also cheaper. It depends on Australia for 70% of coal supply but started to diversify the source. 3 tabs.

  18. Are internet prices sticky?

    Lünnemann, Patrick; Wintr, Ladislav

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the behaviour of Internet prices. It compares price rigidities on the Internet and in traditional brick-and-mortar stores and provides a cross-country perspective. The data set covers a broad range of items typically sold over the Internet. It includes more than 5 million daily price quotes downloaded from price comparison web sites in France, Germany, Italy, the UK and the US. The following results emerge from our analysis. First, and contrary to the recent findings for co...

  19. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Méndez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find...... that while our estimated consumer compensating variation is small, the reform led to substantial reductions in list and reference prices as well as co-payments, and to sizeable decreases in overall producer revenues, health care expenditures, and co-payments. These effects differ markedly between branded...

  20. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Méndez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find...... that while our estimated consumer compensating variation is small, the reform led to substantial reductions in list and reference prices as well as co-payments, and to sizeable decreases in overall producer revenues, health care expenditures, and co-payments. These effects differ markedly between branded...

  1. Alternative pricing methodologies

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    With the increased interest in competitive market forces and growing recognition of the deficiencies in current practices, FERC and others are exploring alternatives to embedded cost pricing. A number of these alternatives are discussed in this chapter. Marketplace pricing, discussed briefly here, is the subject of the next chapter. Obviously, the pricing formula may combine several of these methodologies. One utility of which the authors are aware is seeking a price equal to the sum of embedded costs, opportunity costs, line losses, value of service, FERC's percentage adder formula and a contract service charge

  2. Determinants of contractor pricing strategy

    Moses, O. Douglas

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates pricing strategies used by major defense contractors. Two pricing strategies are identified and discussed: penetration, which calls for a relatively low initial price followed by little reduction in price over time, and skimming, which calls for a relatively high initial price coupled with greater reduction in price over time. It is argued that contractor pricing strategy will depend on features of the defense program under consideration and featur...

  3. Customizing Prices in Online Markets

    Werner Reinartz

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic pricing is the dynamic adjustment of prices to consumers depending on the value these customers attribute to a good. Underlying the concept of dynamic pricing is what marketers call price customization. Price customization is the charging of different prices to end consumers based on a discriminatory variable. Internet technology will serve as a great enabling tool for making dynamic pricing accessible to many industries.

  4. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    2011-08-12

    ... for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the... quantity of the tariff-rate quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar...

  5. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    2012-09-17

    ... Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States... quantity of the tariff-rate quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar... imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional U.S. Note 8 to Chapter 17 of the HTS...

  6. Relating price strategies and price-setting practices

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This article addresses the relationship between price strategies and price-setting practices. The first derive from a normative tradition in the pricing literature and the latter from a descriptive tradition. Price strategies are visible in the market, whereas price-setting practices are

  7. Intranational Price Convergence and Price Stickiness

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Heebøll, Christian; Hansen, Niels Lynggaard

    2017-01-01

    We show that estimates of the half-life of deviations from LOOP are biased when not taking into account the precision when aggregating over types of goods. Using a comprehensive dataset with monthly price data for 124 homogeneous products across regions in Denmark over the period 1997–2010 we find...... a large positive aggregation bias. On average, we find that the half-life is 8.4 months when taking the bias into account compared to 28.7 months when applying the standard method. The heterogeneity in estimated half-life can be explained by price stickiness, distance between regions and whether the good...

  8. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  9. Price learning during grocery shopping

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    Many attempts have been made to measure consumers' price knowledge for groceries. However, the results have varied considerably and conflict with results of reference price research. This is the first study to examine price knowledge before, during, and after store visit, thus enabling a study...... of what consumers learn about prices during grocery shopping. Three measures of price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information processing were applied. Results indicate that price learning does take place and that episodic price knowledge after store exit is far more widespread...... than expected. Consequently, a new view of how consumer price knowledge evolves during grocery shopping is presented....

  10. Assessing Asset Pricing Anomalies

    W.A. de Groot (Wilma)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOne of the most important challenges in the field of asset pricing is to understand anomalies: empirical patterns in asset returns that cannot be explained by standard asset pricing models. Currently, there is no consensus in the academic literature on the underlying causes of

  11. Poverty and price transmission

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...

  12. Essays on asset pricing

    Nazliben, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    The dissertation consists of three chapters that represent separate papers in the area of asset pricing. The first chapter studies investors optimal asset allocation problem in which mean reversion in stock prices is captured by explicitly modeling transitory and permanent shocks. The second chapter

  13. Pricing transmission services

    Haaden, E.

    1995-01-01

    The price structure for transmission of electric power through the main lines in Sweden is analyzed. After deregulation of the electricity market, the main transmission lines are owned by a separate national company, with no interests from the power producers. Comparisons are made to ideal marginal price structures. 6 refs

  14. Selecting Lower Priced Items.

    Kleinert, Harold L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A program used to teach moderately to severely mentally handicapped students to select the lower priced items in actual shopping activities is described. Through a five-phase process, students are taught to compare prices themselves as well as take into consideration variations in the sizes of containers and varying product weights. (VW)

  15. Petroleum: Price trends

    Babusiaux, Denis; Pierru, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC), some political leaders and financiers have mainly attributed the price spike of oil in 2008 - followed by a just as spectacular drop in prices - to the speculative moves made by financial investors on the futures market instead of to market fundamentals

  16. Pricing Mechanism in Information Goods

    Li, Xinming; Wang, Huaqing

    2018-01-01

    We study three pricing mechanisms' performance and their effects on the participants in the data industry from the data supply chain perspective. A win-win pricing strategy for the players in the data supply chain is proposed. We obtain analytical solutions in each pricing mechanism, including the decentralized and centralized pricing, Nash Bargaining pricing, and revenue sharing mechanism.

  17. Price Formation by Bargaining and Posted Prices

    Kultti, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    We study markets with two types of agents. Sellers have an indivisible good for sale, and their reservation value is zero. Buyers are randomly matched with sellers, and they value the good at unity. Sellers may be matched with any positive number of buyers, and they may choose to determine the price

  18. How to Find the Price That's Right.

    Crompton, John L.

    1981-01-01

    Five primary methods used by recreation and park agencies to establish a price are reviewed: (1) going-rate pricing; (2) demand oriented pricing; (3) variable cost pricing; (4) partial overhead pricing; and (5) average cost pricing. (CJ)

  19. Policy on energy pricing

    Webb, M. G.

    1977-10-15

    Some economic principles of energy pricing in a market type economy in which there is consumer sovereignty are discussed. Thus resources will be allocated via the production processes in line with the preferences of consumers as revealed by their purchases of goods and services. Prices play the crucial role of coordinating instruments in this allocative process. It is assumed that all the energy industries are in the public sector. The following topics are discussed: the specification of objectives for the energy sector; marginal cost pricing; problems associated with the measurement of marginal costs; some aspects of the environmental costs associated with energy production and use, and some issues related to time differentiated tariffs; the modification of prices to achieve financial targets; and the use of energy prices to achieve income distribution objectives.

  20. Combined Inhibition of the BMP pathway and the RANK-RANKL axis in a Mixed Lytic/blastic Prostate Cancer Lesion

    Virk, Mandeep S.; Alaee, Farhang; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Sugiyama, Osamu; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Stout, David; Dougall, William C.; Lieberman, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of combined inhibition of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) activity in a mixed lytic/blastic prostate cancer lesion in bone. Human prostate cancer cells (C4 2b) were injected into immunocompromised mice using an intratibial injection model to create mixed lytic/blastic lesions. RANK-Fc, a recombinant RANKL antagonist, was injected subcutaneously three times a week (10mg/kg) to inhibit RANKL and subsequent formation, function and survival of osteoclasts. Inhibition of BMP activity was achieved by transducing prostate cancer cells ex vivo with a retroviral vector expressing noggin (retronoggin; RN). There were three treatment groups (RANK-Fc treatment, RN treatment and combined RN and RANK-Fc treatment) and two control groups (untreated control and empty vector control for the RN treatment group). The progression of bone lesion and tumor growth was evaluated using plain radiographs, hind limb tumor size, 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose and 18F-fluoride micro PET-CT, histology and histomorphometry. Treatment with RANK-Fc alone inhibited osteolysis and transformed a mixed lytic/blastic lesion into an osteoblastic phenotype. Treatment with RN alone inhibited the osteoblastic component in a mixed lytic/blastic lesion and resulted in formation of smaller osteolytic bone lesion with smaller soft tissue size. The animals treated with both RN and RANK-Fc demonstrated delayed development of bone lesions, inhibition of osteolysis, small soft tissue tumors and preservation of bone architecture with less tumor induced new bone formation. This study suggests that combined inhibition of the RANKL and the BMP pathway may be an effective biologic therapy to inhibit the progression of established mixed lytic/blastic prostate cancer lesions in bone. PMID:21073986

  1. Oil prices and the stock prices of alternative energy companies

    Henriques, Irene; Sadorsky, Perry

    2008-01-01

    Energy security issues coupled with increased concern over the natural environment are driving factors behind oil price movements. While it is widely accepted that rising oil prices are good for the financial performance of alternative energy companies, there has been relatively little statistical work done to measure just how sensitive the financial performance of alternative energy companies are to changes in oil prices. In this paper, a four variable vector autoregression model is developed and estimated in order to investigate the empirical relationship between alternative energy stock prices, technology stock prices, oil prices, and interest rates. Our results show technology stock prices and oil prices each individually Granger cause the stock prices of alternative energy companies. Simulation results show that a shock to technology stock prices has a larger impact on alternative energy stock prices than does a shock to oil prices. These results should be of use to investors, managers and policy makers. (author)

  2. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  3. Mind your pricing cues.

    Anderson, Eric; Simester, Duncan

    2003-09-01

    For most of the items they buy, consumers don't have an accurate sense of what the price should be. Ask them to guess how much a four-pack of 35-mm film costs, and you'll get a variety of wrong answers: Most people will underestimate; many will only shrug. Research shows that consumers' knowledge of the market is so far from perfect that it hardly deserves to be called knowledge at all. Yet people happily buy film and other products every day. Is this because they don't care what kind of deal they're getting? No. Remarkably, it's because they rely on retailers to tell them whether they're getting a good price. In subtle and not-so-subtle ways, retailers send signals to customers, telling them whether a given price is relatively high or low. In this article, the authors review several common pricing cues retailers use--"sale" signs, prices that end in 9, signpost items, and price-matching guarantees. They also offer some surprising facts about how--and how well--those cues work. For instance, the authors' tests with several mail-order catalogs reveal that including the word "sale" beside a price can increase demand by more than 50%. The practice of using a 9 at the end of a price to denote a bargain is so common, you'd think customers would be numb to it. Yet in a study the authors did involving a women's clothing catalog, they increased demand by a third just by changing the price of a dress from $34 to $39. Pricing cues are powerful tools for guiding customers' purchasing decisions, but they must be applied judiciously. Used inappropriately, the cues may breach customers' trust, reduce brand equity, and give rise to lawsuits.

  4. Value based pricing: the least valued pricing strategy

    Hoenen, Bob

    2017-01-01

    Pricing has been one of the least researched topics in marketing, although within these pricing strategies: cost-plus pricing is considered as the leading pricing strategy worldwide. Why should companies use such an unprofitable strategy, where fighting for a higher market share due to low prices is more a rule than exception? VBP is one of the most underestimated strategies by organizations. The definition of VBP is: 'value pricing applies to products that have the potential of being differe...

  5. Azilsartan increases levels of IL-10, down-regulates MMP-2, MMP-9, RANKL/RANK, Cathepsin K and up-regulates OPG in an experimental periodontitis model.

    Aurigena Antunes de Araújo

    Full Text Available AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of azilsartan (AZT on bone loss, inflammation, and the expression of matrix metallo proteinases (MMPs, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK, osteoprotegerin (OPG, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, and cathepsin K in periodontal tissue in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 rats each: (1 nonligated, water; (2 ligated, water; (3 ligated, 1 mg/kg AZT; (4 ligated, 5 mg/kg AZT; and (5 ligated, 10 mg/kg AZT. All groups were treated with saline or AZT for 10 days. Periodontal tissues were analyzed by histopathology and immunohistochemical detection of MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, RANKL, RANK, OPG, and cathepsin K. Levels of IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, myeloperoxidase (MPO, and glutathione (GSH were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: Treatment with 5 mg/kg AZT resulted in reduced MPO (p<0.05 and IL-1β (p<0.05, increased levels of IL-10 (p<0.05, and reduced expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, RANK, RANKL, cathepsin K, and increased expression of OPG. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal that AZT increases anti-inflammatory cytokines and GSH and decreases bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats.

  6. Tenuigenin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by down-regulating NF-κB activation and suppresses bone loss in vivo

    Yang, Shuo [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Department of Orthopedics, Hunan Cancer Hospital and The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410012 (China); Li, Xianan [Department of Orthopedics, Hunan Cancer Hospital and The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410012 (China); Cheng, Liang [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Wu, Hongwei [Department of Orthopedics, Hunan Cancer Hospital and The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410012 (China); Zhang, Can [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Li, Kanghua, E-mail: lkh8738@sina.com [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Tenuigenin, a major active component of polygala tenuifolia root, has been used to treat patients with insomnia, dementia, and neurosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of tenuigenin on osteoclastogenesis and clarify the possible mechanism. We showed that tenuigenin inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption without cytotoxicity, which was further demonstrated by reduced osteoclast specific gene expression such as TRAP, c-Src, ATP6v0d2, etc. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of tenuigenin was associated with impaired NF-κB activity owing to delayed degradation/regeneration of IkBa and inhibition of p65 nuclear translocation. Consistent with the in vitro results, micro-ct scanning and analysis data showed that tenuigenin suppressed RANKL-induced bone loss in an animal model. Taken together, our data demonstrate that tenuigenin inhibit osteoclast formation and bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo, and comprise a potential therapeutic alternative for osteoclast-related disorders such as osteoporosis and cancer-induced bone destruction. - Highlights: • Tenuigenin suppresses osteoclasts formation, survival and function in vitro. • Tenuigenin impairs NF-κB activation. • Tenuigenin suppresses RANKL-induced bone lose in vivo. • Tenuigenin may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases.

  7. Tenuigenin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by down-regulating NF-κB activation and suppresses bone loss in vivo

    Yang, Shuo; Li, Xianan; Cheng, Liang; Wu, Hongwei; Zhang, Can; Li, Kanghua

    2015-01-01

    Tenuigenin, a major active component of polygala tenuifolia root, has been used to treat patients with insomnia, dementia, and neurosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of tenuigenin on osteoclastogenesis and clarify the possible mechanism. We showed that tenuigenin inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption without cytotoxicity, which was further demonstrated by reduced osteoclast specific gene expression such as TRAP, c-Src, ATP6v0d2, etc. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of tenuigenin was associated with impaired NF-κB activity owing to delayed degradation/regeneration of IkBa and inhibition of p65 nuclear translocation. Consistent with the in vitro results, micro-ct scanning and analysis data showed that tenuigenin suppressed RANKL-induced bone loss in an animal model. Taken together, our data demonstrate that tenuigenin inhibit osteoclast formation and bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo, and comprise a potential therapeutic alternative for osteoclast-related disorders such as osteoporosis and cancer-induced bone destruction. - Highlights: • Tenuigenin suppresses osteoclasts formation, survival and function in vitro. • Tenuigenin impairs NF-κB activation. • Tenuigenin suppresses RANKL-induced bone lose in vivo. • Tenuigenin may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases.

  8. ADA-deficient SCID is associated with a specific microenvironment and bone phenotype characterized by RANKL/OPG imbalance and osteoblast insufficiency.

    Sauer, Aisha V; Mrak, Emanuela; Hernandez, Raisa Jofra; Zacchi, Elena; Cavani, Francesco; Casiraghi, Miriam; Grunebaum, Eyal; Roifman, Chaim M; Cervi, Maria C; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Carlucci, Filippo; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Villa, Anna; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2009-10-08

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a disorder of the purine metabolism leading to combined immunodeficiency and systemic alterations, including skeletal abnormalities. We report that ADA deficiency in mice causes a specific bone phenotype characterized by alterations of structural properties and impaired mechanical competence. These alterations are the combined result of an imbalanced receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin axis, causing decreased osteoclastogenesis and an intrinsic defect of osteoblast function with subsequent low bone formation. In vitro, osteoblasts lacking ADA displayed an altered transcriptional profile and growth reduction. Furthermore, the bone marrow microenvironment of ADA-deficient mice showed a reduced capacity to support in vitro and in vivo hematopoiesis. Treatment of ADA-deficient neonatal mice with enzyme replacement therapy, bone marrow transplantation, or gene therapy resulted in full recovery of the altered bone parameters. Remarkably, untreated ADA-severe combined immunodeficiency patients showed a similar imbalance in RANKL/osteoprotegerin levels alongside severe growth retardation. Gene therapy with ADA-transduced hematopoietic stem cells increased serum RANKL levels and children's growth. Our results indicate that the ADA metabolism represents a crucial modulatory factor of bone cell activities and remodeling.

  9. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  10. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2013-01-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k 0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  11. Identifying Financially Sustainable Pricing Interventions to Promote Healthier Beverage Purchases in Small Neighborhood Stores.

    Nau, Claudia; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Gittelsohn, Joel; Adam, Atif; Wong, Michelle S; Mui, Yeeli; Lee, Bruce Y

    2018-01-25

    Residents of low-income communities often purchase sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) at small, neighborhood "corner" stores. Lowering water prices and increasing SSB prices are potentially complementary public health strategies to promote more healthful beverage purchasing patterns in these stores. Sustainability, however, depends on financial feasibility. Because in-store pricing experiments are complex and require retailers to take business risks, we used a simulation approach to identify profitable pricing combinations for corner stores. The analytic approach was based on inventory models, which are suitable for modeling business operations. We used discrete-event simulation to build inventory models that use data representing beverage inventory, wholesale costs, changes in retail prices, and consumer demand for 2 corner stores in Baltimore, Maryland. Model outputs yielded ranges for water and SSB prices that increased water demand without loss of profit from combined water and SSB sales. A 20% SSB price increase allowed lowering water prices by up to 20% while maintaining profit and increased water demand by 9% and 14%, for stores selling SSBs in 12-oz cans and 16- to 20-oz bottles, respectively. Without changing water prices, profits could increase by 4% and 6%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that stores with a higher volume of SSB sales could reduce water prices the most without loss of profit. Various combinations of SSB and water prices could encourage water consumption while maintaining or increasing store owners' profits. This model is a first step in designing and implementing profitable pricing strategies in collaboration with store owners.

  12. 7 CFR 1124.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1124.50 Section 1124.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  13. 7 CFR 1030.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1030.50 Section 1030.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  14. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... advanced pricing factors. 1000.53 Section 1000.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture..., component prices, and advanced pricing factors. (a) On or before the 5th day of the month, the market... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices and pricing factors for...

  15. Steel: Price and Policy Issues

    Cooney, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Steel prices remain at historically elevated levels. The rapid growth of steel production and demand in China is widely considered as a major cause of the increases in both steel prices and the prices of steelmaking inputs...

  16. Pricing American and Asian Options

    Pat Muldowney

    2015-01-01

    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.

  17. Pricing of new vaccines.

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  18. Prospects for oil prices

    Stevens, P.

    1992-01-01

    The basic argument presented is that the oil price is set in an administrated market. The administration is undertaken by the controllers of excess capacity to produce crude oil. The extent to which the administrated price matches the market price is a function, first, of the strength and effectiveness of the market controller and, secondly, of the state of supply and demand and expectations in the market. Currently, the market is operating close to capacity, what limited excess capacity exists is located mainly in Saudi Arabia and the Saudi Arabians appear to be following a low price objective. While the Saudi Arabians pursue volume, the short term project, in the balance of a political upheaval, is that oil prices will remain below the $21 per barrel agreed in July 1990. There is a view that Saudi Arabia would take quick action to reverse a price collapse, but attention is drawn to previous miscalculations with respect to price collapse. Should political circumstances allow the return of Iraq to the oil market, then excess capacity within the Gulf members of OPEC will return and control will be much more difficult. (UK)

  19. Pricing of new vaccines

    McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; (4) Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; (5) Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; (6) Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; (7) Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); (8) Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer and competitor factors; (9) Consider the overall product portfolio; (10) Set pricing objectives; (11) Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area. PMID:20861678

  20. Prospects for oil prices

    Caddy, P.

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that the wave in oil prices which occurred in 1991, although appearing to suggest price instability, in fact shows the opposite. Steady oscillation between a low price level that leads to new customers and a high price that encourages customers to switch to alternatives is a sign of a stable market. This relative stability was achieved against the background of the political upheaval in the USSR and Eastern Europe and its unpredictable consequences. Such political uncertainties to one side, the difficulties of assessing demand trends in the light of the imponderables of the state of the world economy and the weather are stressed. Despite these problems, the view is expressed that correct reading of signals up the supply chain by producers should ensure continued relative price stability. This is not to say that prices will stay exactly the same, just that they will be bound within a trading range set by anticipated consumer and producer responses to the fluctuating prices. (UK)

  1. Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties

    Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

    Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

  2. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  3. Asset Pricing - A Brief Review

    Li, Minqiang

    2010-01-01

    I first introduce the early-stage and modern classical asset pricing and portfolio theories. These include: the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), the arbitrage pricing theory (APT), the consumption capital asset pricing model (CCAPM), the intertemporal capital asset pricing model (ICAPM), and some other important modern concepts and techniques. Finally, I discuss the most recent development during the last decade and the outlook in the field of asset pricing.

  4. Feasibility study of energy conservation and greenhouse gases mitigation in the sugar industry in Poland

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Upon the request from the Ministry of Agriculture of the Polish Government, a survey has been performed on three sugar production factories (Lesmierz, Lapy and Werbkowice) in Poland in relation with conservation of energy and reduction of warming gas emission. The survey has been made from the following two aspects: improvement of energy utilization efficiency in the sugar production processes, and efficiency improvement and fuel conversion in the boilers being the energy supplying source. As a result of the discussions on the sugar production process improvement, annual fuel conservation of 304,495 GJ (or 12,688 tons as converted to coal) in total for the three factories, or the energy saving rate of 28% was obtained. Regarding the greenhouse gas emission, an effect of reducing 25,235 tons, or a reduction rate of 27% was achieved. In the combination of the sugar production process improvement and the boiler improvement, the fuel conservation will be 18,363 tons as converted into coal, and the reduction of the greenhouse gas emission will be 56,107 tons. However, when based on the present coal price and natural gas price, the improvement efforts will not be realizable economically for both of Lesmierz and Werbkowice factories, hence comprehensive judgment is required from the viewpoint of the fuel price and environment preservation expense in the future. (NEDO)

  5. Price Competition on Graphs

    Adriaan R. Soetevent

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand may occur. I show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs. I conjecture that this non-existence result holds...

  6. Price Competition on Graphs

    Pim Heijnen; Adriaan Soetevent

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. We derive an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. These graph models of price competition may lead to spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand. We show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs and conjecture that this non-existence result holds more general...

  7. House Prices and Taxes

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household...... capitalization from earlier studies. Furthermore, we find no effect of property taxes on house prices. We attribute this to the low levels of Danish municipal property tax rates compared to income tax rates....

  8. 25-hydroxycholesterol promotes RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through coordinating NFATc1 and Sp1 complex in the transcription of miR-139-5p

    Zhang, Lishan; Lv, Yinping; Xian, Guozhe; Lin, Yanliang

    2017-01-01

    25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) is implicated in many processes, including lipid metabolism and the immune response. However, the role of 25-HC in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis remains largely unknown. Our results showed that 25-HC inhibited miR-139-5p expression in mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) cultured in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and monocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Further investigation suggested that 25-HC promoted the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and Sp1, especially in the presence of RANKL and M-CSF. Meanwhile, 25-HC induced nuclear translocation of NFATc1, resulting in the interaction between NFATc1 and Sp1 that was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that Sp1 could bind to miR-139-5p promoter, but NFATc1 had no binding capacity. Although forming NFATc1/Sp1 complex increased its binding to miR-139-5p promoter, the complex inhibited the transcriptional activity of Sp1. Inhibition of NFATc1 increase the expression of miR-139-5p, which might be due to the release of free Sp1 that could bind to the promoter of miR-139-5p. Enforced expression of miR-139-5p impaired osteoclastogenesis induced by co-treatment with 25-HC and RANKL. These results suggested that 25-HC induced the interaction between NFATc1 and Sp1, reducing the level of free Sp1 to inhibit miR-139-5p expression and promote osteoclastogenesis. - Highlights: • 25-hydroxycholesterol inhibited miR-139-5p expression in bone marrow macrophages. • 25-hydroxycholesterol promoted the expression of NFATc1 and Sp1. • 25-hydroxycholesterol induced the interaction between NFATc1 and Sp1. • NFATc1/Sp1 complex inhibited the transcription of miR-139-5p. • MiR-139-5p impaired osteoclastogenesis induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol and RANKL.

  9. Impaired bone remodeling in children with osteogenesis imperfecta treated and untreated with bisphosphonates: the role of DKK1, RANKL, and TNF-α.

    Brunetti, G; Papadia, F; Tummolo, A; Fischetto, R; Nicastro, F; Piacente, L; Ventura, A; Mori, G; Oranger, A; Gigante, I; Colucci, S; Ciccarelli, M; Grano, M; Cavallo, L; Delvecchio, M; Faienza, M F

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the bone cell activity in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) treated and untreated with neridronate. We demonstrated the key role of Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in regulating bone cell of untreated and treated OI subjects. These cytokines could represent new pharmacological targets for OI. Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) with the objective of reducing the risk of fractures. Although bisphosphonates increase bone mineral density in OI subjects, the effects on fracture incidence are conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying bone cell activity in subjects with mild untreated forms of OI and in a group of subjects with severe OI treated with cycles of intravenous neridronate. Sclerostin, DKK1, TNF-α, RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and bone turnover markers were quantified in serum of 18 OI patients (12 females, mean age 8.86 ± 3.90), 8 of which were receiving cyclic intravenous neridronate, and 21 sex- and age-matched controls. The effects on osteoblastogenesis and OPG expression of media conditioned by the serum of OI patients and anti-DKK1 neutralizing antibody were evaluated. Osteoclastogenesis was assessed in cultures from patients and controls. DKK1 and RANKL levels were significantly increased both in untreated and in treated OI subjects with respect to controls. The serum from patients with high DKK1 levels inhibited both osteoblast differentiation and OPG expression in vitro. High RANKL and low OPG messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were found in lymphomonocytes from patients. High amounts of TNF-α were expressed by monocytes, and an elevated percentage of circulating CD11b-CD51/CD61+ osteoclast precursors was observed in patients. Our study demonstrated the key role of DKK1, RANKL, and TNF-α in regulating bone cell activity of subjects

  10. Effects of Wenyangbushen formula on the expression of VEGF, OPG, RANK and RANKL in rabbits with steroid-induced femoral head avascular necrosis.

    Song, Hong-Mei; Wei, Ying-Chen; Li, Nan; Wu, Bin; Xie, Na; Zhang, Kun-Mu; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Wang, He-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Wenyangbushen formula on the mRNA and protein expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)‑κβ ligand (RANK), and RANK ligand (RANKL) in a rabbit model of steroid‑induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (SANFH). The present study also aimed to examine the potential mechanism underlying the effect of this formula on the treatment of SANFH. A total of 136 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: Normal group, model group, and three groups treated with the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Wenyangbushen decoction, at a low, moderate and high dose, respectively. The normal group and positive control group were intragastrically administered with saline. The TCM groups were treated with Wenyangbushen decoction at the indicated dosage. Following treatment for 8 weeks, the mRNA and protein expression levels of VEGF, OPG, RANK and RANKL in the femoral head tissues were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, respectively. The data revealed that Wenyangbushen decoction effectively promoted the growth of bone cells, osteoblasts and chondrocytes, and prevented cell apoptosis in the SANFH. The mRNA and protein expression levels of OPG and VEGF were increased, while the levels of RANK and RANKL were reduced in the necrotic tissue of the model group, compared with those in the normal rabbits. Wenyangbushen treatment prevented these changes, manifested by an upregulation in the expression levels of VEGF and OPG, and downregulation in the expression levels of RANK and RANKL in a dose‑dependent manner. It was concluded that treatment with Wenyangbushen formula alleviated necrosis of the femoral head induced by steroids. It was observed to promote bone cell, osteoblast and chondrocyte growth, as well as prevent cell apoptosis. In addition, it

  11. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    ... closer to the levels seen in people without diabetes) your child's HbA1c, the better controlled the blood sugars have ... Diabetes Hypoglycemia Diabetes Control: Why It's Important Your Child's Diabetes Health Care Team Helping Kids Deal With Injections ...

  12. Assessment of the relationship between melatonin, hormones of the pituitary-ovarian, -thyroid and -adrenocortical axes, and osteoprotegerin and its ligand sRANKL in girls with anorexia nervosa

    Zofia Ostrowska

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested that disturbances in melatonin (MEL secretion might play a role in osteoporosis development in females with anorexia nervosa (AN. It might be hypothesized that changes in the levels of hormones of the pituitary-ovarian, -thyroid and -adrenocortical axes might mediate the potential relationship between MEL and bone tissue.Aim: We investigated whether a relationship existed between MEL and LH, FSH-E2, TSH-FT3, FT4 and ACTH-cortisol axes in girls with AN. We also aimed to establish whether such a relationship might adversely affect the balance of the OPG/sRANKL system.Material/Methods: Eighty-six girls with AN and 21 healthy subjects aged 12.6 to 18.2 years participated in the study. The serum levels of hormones as well as OPG and sRANKL were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA, immunoradiometric assay (IRMA or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA methods.Discussion: Our study participants with AN showed a significant reduction in body mass and body mass index (BMI, a decrease in LH, E2 and FT3 concentrations, increased MEL concentration at 02.00 hours and increased amplitude between its nocturnal and morning levels (Δ MEL2.00/9.00 as well as an increase in cortisol concentration. These changes were associated with a significant increase of OPG and sRANKL levels and a decrease in the OPG/sRANKL ratio. BMI values correlated positively with LH, FSH, E2, FT3 and the OPG/sRANKL ratio while the correlation between BMI and cortisol was negative. Δ MEL2.00/9.00 correlated positively with cortisol and negatively with LH, FSH, E2, FT3 concentrations and the OPG/sRANKL ratio. A positive correlation was observed between LH, E2 and the OPG/sRANKL ratio as well as between cortisol and sRANKL while the correlation between LH and OPG as well as between cortisol and the OPG/sRANKL ratio was negative. E2 and LH were shown to be significant and independent predictors of Δ MEL2.00/9.00. LH turned out to be a

  13. Sugar holograms with erioglaucine and tartrazine

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-09-01

    An artificial green colorant, composed by erioglaucine (Blue 1) and tartrazine (Yellow 5), was employed in a sugar matrix to improve the material sensibility and to make a comparative analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter, for holograms replications, the holographic pattern was obtained by a computer and recorded in sugar films and in modified sugar (sugar-colorant). Conventional lithography and UV radiation were used. The results show that the behavior diffraction efficiency of the sugar-colorant films is slightly larger than in the sugar matrix under the same recording conditions.

  14. Effects of a Mikania laevigata extract on bone resorption and RANKL expression during experimental periodontitis in rats

    Bruno B. Benatti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Mikania laevigata extract (MLE (popularly known in Brazil as "guaco" possesses anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study we tested the effects of MLE in a periodontitis experimental model in rats. We also investigated possible mechanisms underlying such effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Periodontal disease was induced by a ligature placed around the mandibular first molars of each animal. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: non-ligated animals treated with vehicle; non-ligated animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily; ligature-induced animals treated with vehicle and ligature-induced animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily. Thirty days after the induction of periodontal disease, the animals were euthanized and mandibles and gingival tissues removed for further analysis. RESULTS: Morphometric analysis of alveolar bone loss demonstrated that MLE-treated animals presented a decreased alveolar bone loss and a lower expression of the activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL measured by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, gingival tissues from the MLE-treated group showed decreased neutrophil migration myeloperoxidase (MPO assay. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that MLE may be useful to control bone resorption during progression of experimental periodontitis in rats.

  15. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  16. Pepsi and Coca Cola in Delhi, India: availability, price and sales.

    Taylor, FC; Satija, A; Khurana, S; Singh, G; Ebrahim, S

    2010-01-01

    : India is experiencing increased consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks, consumption that may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. The aim of the study was to determine the availability, price and quantity sold of 'Pepsi' and 'Coca Cola' in their 'regular' and 'diet' forms in Delhi and London. : A questionnaire about the availability, price and quantity sold per day of both regular and diet Pepsi and Coca Cola was devised and piloted. Using this, a surv...

  17. Effects of high glucose and advanced glycation end products on the expressions of sclerostin and RANKL as well as apoptosis in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4-A2 cells

    Tanaka, Ken-ichiro, E-mail: ken1nai@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, Toru, E-mail: yamaguch@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Kanazawa, Ippei, E-mail: ippei.k@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu, E-mail: sugimoto@med.shimane-u.ac.jp

    2015-05-29

    In diabetes mellitus (DM), high glucose (HG) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in bone quality deterioration. Osteocytes produce sclerostin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) and regulate osteoblast and osteoclast function. However, whether HG or AGEs directly affect osteocytes and regulate sclerostin and RANKL production is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of HG, AGE2, and AGE3 on the expression of sclerostin and RANKL and on apoptosis in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4-A2 cells. Treatment of the cells with 22 mM glucose, 100 μg/mL either AGE2 or AGE3 significantly increased the expression of sclerostin protein and mRNA; however, both AGEs, but not glucose, significantly decreased the expression of RANKL protein and mRNA. Moreover, treatment of the cells with HG, AGE2, or AGE3 for 72 h induced significant apoptosis. These detrimental effects of HG, AGE2, and AGE3 on sclerostin and RANKL expressions and on apoptosis were antagonized by pretreatment of the cells with 10{sup −8} M human parathyroid hormone (PTH)-(1–34). Thus, HG and AGEs likely suppress bone formation by increasing sclerostin expression in osteocytes, whereas AGEs suppress bone resorption by decreasing RANKL expression. Together, these processes may cause low bone turnover in DM. In addition, HG and AGEs may cause cortical bone deterioration by inducing osteocyte apoptosis. PTH may effectively treat these pathological processes and improve osteocyte function. - Highlights: • AGEs are involved in bone quality deterioration in diabetes mellitus (DM). • AGEs increased sclerostin as well as apoptosis, and decreased RANKL in osteocytes. • The effects of AGEs on osteocyte function were antagonized by human PTH-(1–34). • AGEs may cause low bone turnover and cortical porosity in DM. • PTH may be effective in bone quality deterioration by improving osteocyte function.

  18. Edgeworth Price Cycles, Cost-Based Pricing, and Sticky Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets

    Michael D. Noel

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines dynamic pricing behavior in retail gasoline markets for 19 Canadian cities over 574 weeks. I find three distinct retail pricing patterns: 1. cost-based pricing, 2. sticky pricing, and 3. steep, asymmetric retail price cycles that, while seldom documented empirically, resemble those of Maskin & Tirole[1988]. Using a Markov switching regression, I estimate the prevalence of patterns and the structural characteristics of the cycles. Retail price cycles prevail in over 40% of ...

  19. Uranium price reporting systems

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the systems for uranium price reporting currently available to the uranium industry. The report restricts itself to prices for U 3 O 8 natural uranium concentrates. Most purchases of natural uranium by utilities, and sales by producers, are conducted in this form. The bulk of uranium in electricity generation is enriched before use, and is converted to uranium hexafluoride, UF 6 , prior to enrichment. Some uranium is traded as UF 6 or as enriched uranium, particularly in the 'secondary' market. Prices for UF 6 and enriched uranium are not considered directly in this report. However, where transactions in UF 6 influence the reported price of U 3 O 8 this influence is taken into account. Unless otherwise indicated, the terms uranium and natural uranium used here refer exclusively to U 3 O 8 . (author)

  20. AKRO: Standard Prices

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard prices are generated for cost recovery programs in the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) halibut and sablefish, BSAI Rationalized crab, and Central Gulf of...

  1. Price of military uranium

    Klimenko, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical results about optimum strategy of use of military uranium confirmed by systems approach accounts are received. The numerical value of the system approach price of the highly enriched military uranium also is given

  2. Pricing and Fee Management.

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    Defines key terms and discusses things to consider when setting fees for a continuing education program. These include (1) the organization's philosophy and mission, (2) certain key variables, (3) pricing strategy options, and (4) the test of reasonableness. (CH)

  3. The price of pollution

    Bleijenberg, A.N.; Davidson, M.D.; Wit, R.

    1998-06-01

    The market does not create a price for environmental pollution for the simple reason that there is no market for the environment. What can be done is to calculate shadow prices for environmental pollution, which is achieved by calculating the price that would arise if there would be a market for the environment. In applying this method, it generally proves to be necessary to base calculations on government environmental targets. Using available research data, the method is used to calculate shadow prices for a number of key pollutants. The present report is based on the CE studies 'Schaduwprijzen Prioriterings Methodiek (SPM)' (1997), commissioned by ICI Holland BV, and 'De prijs van Milieuvervuiling' (1997), commissioned by KNP BT Packaging

  4. Variable Pricing Feasibility Assessment

    2004-01-01

    ...) and Willard Bishop Consulting (Barrington, IL) to evaluate the practicality of using a variable pricing system within DeCA to maintain an average of 30 percent customer savings and lower appropriated fund costs...

  5. Market News Price Dataset

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Real-time price data collected by the Boston Market News Reporter. The NOAA Fisheries' "Fishery Market News" began operations in New York City on February 14, 1938....

  6. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    Kokholm, Thomas

    . With the existence of a liquid market for derivatives with variance as underlying, such as VIX options, VIX futures and a well-developed over-the-counter market for options on variance swaps, it is important to consider models that are able to fit these markets while consistently pricing vanilla options...... financial models, and most importantly, to be aware of their limitations. Following that belief, this thesis consists of three independent and self-contained papers, all dealing with topics in derivatives pricing. The first paper considers the pricing of traffic light options, which are appropriate...... the market for multivariate credit instruments, we take a step back and focus on single-name default modeling and introduce two new model classes for modeling of the default time of a company. Finally, in the third paper we propose a consistent pricing model for index and volatility derivatives...

  7. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1991

    Patrick E. Miller

    1993-01-01

    The average delivered price for a cord of Midsouth roundwood in 1991 was $56.39, an increase of 6.5 percent since 1990. Softwood roundwood averaged $58.24 and hardwoods, $50.48 per standard cord, up 2.8 and 7.9 percent, respectively. Chipped residue prices were $26.52 for softwood and $21.0l for hardwood per green ton. The expenditure for wood fiber in the Midsouth...

  8. Energy price risk management

    Evans, J.W.G.

    1998-01-01

    While long term, fixed price contracts for fuel procurement and export of excess power may lock in the economics of a CHP plant, these do not necessarily give the best pricing opportunities that may exist during the life of those contracts. A more prudent approach may be to vary the length of the contracts and markets are now developing in gas and electricity to assist in the management of such a portfolio. (Author)

  9. New product pricing

    Wilkinson, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most uncertain elements in budget planning is estimating production costs of items that have heretofore only been produced in prototype configurations and quantities. This paper examines the design and development of a mathematical model which computes appropriate prices for new and unique products. The resulting model offers a producer a fair return on his investment and the consumer a fair purchase price

  10. Corporate debt pricing I.

    Ilya, Gikhman

    2007-01-01

    In this article we discuss fundamentals of the debt securities pricing. We begin with a generalization of the present value concept. Though the present value is the base valuation method in the modern finance we will illustrate that this concept does not sufficiently accurate in producing instrument pricing. The incompleteness of the unique present value approach stems from variability of the interest rates. Admitting variability of the interest rates we define two present values one for buye...

  11. Oil price volatility and the asymmetric response of gasoline prices to oil price increases and decreases

    Radchenko, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of volatility in oil prices on the degree of asymmetry in the response of gasoline prices to oil price increases and decreases. Several time series measures of the asymmetry between the responses of gasoline prices to oil price increases and decreases and several measures of the oil price volatility are constructed. In all models, the degree of asymmetry in gasoline prices declines with an increase in oil price volatility. The results support the oligopolistic coordination theory as a likely explanation of the observed asymmetry and are not consistent with the standard search theory and the search theory with Bayesian updating. (author)

  12. Price Recall, Bertrand Paradox and Price Dispersion With Elastic Demand

    Carvalho, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the consequence of an imprecise recall of the price by the consumers in the Bertrand price competition model for a homogeneous good. It is shown that firms can exploit this weakness and charge prices above the competitive price. This markup increases for rougher recall of the

  13. Why do stumpage prices increase more than lumber prices?

    William G. Luppold; John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    1998-01-01

    Every sawmiller who has been in business more than 5 years realizes that hardwood stumpage prices tend to increase faster than lumber prices, decreasing the margin between these two prices. Although increases in stumpage versus lumber prices are readily apparent, the reason for the decrease in the margin is not. Recent research findings indicate that the stumpage/...

  14. Analyzing the effects of past prices on reference price formation

    R.D. van Oest (Rutger); R. Paap (Richard)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new reference price framework for brand choice. In this framework, we employ a Markov-switching process with an absorbing state to model unobserved price recall of households. Reference prices result from the prices households are able to remember. Our model can be used to

  15. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1976 Supplement.

    Halstead, Kent D.

    The 1976 supplement presents higher education price index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1976. The basic study, "Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes" (ED 123 996) presents complete descriptions of the indexes together with index values and price data for fiscal years 1961 through 1974. Indexes are presented for research and development,…

  16. Forecasting Day-Ahead Electricity Prices : Utilizing Hourly Prices

    E. Raviv (Eran); K.E. Bouwman (Kees); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe daily average price of electricity represents the price of electricity to be delivered over the full next day and serves as a key reference price in the electricity market. It is an aggregate that equals the average of hourly prices for delivery during each of the 24 individual

  17. Philippines sugar cane ethanol plant

    1981-03-06

    The Philippines' National Alcohol Commission has called for international tenders for the construction of ethanol from sugar cane plants. Interested companies have been asked to quote for capacities of 60,000, 120,000 and 180,000 litre per day. The initial tender calls for three plants but the figure could rise to ten which would then be worth about $20 million.

  18. Smut resistance in sugar cane

    1989-01-01

    Full text: From a mutation breeding programme with the popular early maturing sugar cane variety CoC 671 fourteen clones could be selected which were found to be free of smut infection after three successive years of artificial testing. Smut resistance was also found after in-vitro culture propagation of susceptible cultivars G80-454 and CoC 671. (author)

  19. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  20. Estimating the commodity market price of risk for energy prices

    Kolos, Sergey P.; Ronn, Ehud I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the ''market price of risk'' (MPR) for energy commodities, the ratio of expected return to standard deviation. The MPR sign determines whether energy forward prices are upward- or downward-biased predictors of expected spot prices. We estimate MPRs using spot and futures prices, while accounting for the Samuelson effect. We find long-term MPRs generally positive and short-term negative, consistent with positive energy betas and hedging, respectively. In spot electricity markets, MPRs in Day-Ahead Prices agree with short-dated futures. Our results relate risk premia to informed hedging decisions, and futures prices to forecast/expected prices. (author)

  1. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    2010-10-01

    ... marketing allotment and the associated production history will be transferred from MDFC to WSG, effective... Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit... publish the modifications to the fiscal year 2010 (FY 2010) State sugar marketing allotments and company...

  2. Output Price Risk, Material Input Price Risk, and Price Margins: Evidence from the US Catfish Industry.

    David Bouras

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - To develop a conceptual model for analyzing the impact of output price risk and material input price risk on price margins. Design/methodology/approach - To analyze the combined effect of output price risk and material input risk on price margins, we use a series of comparative static analyses, GARCH models, and data ranging from 1990/01 to 2012/12. Findings - The theoretical results indicate that the impact of output price risk and the impact of material input price risk on price margins are ambiguous and, to a great extent, hinge on the correlation between output price and material input price. The empirical results show that whole frozen catfish price risk and live catfish price risk negatively affect the price margin for frozen catfish. The empirical results, however, indicate that the risk of the price of live catfish affects markedly the price margin for frozen whole catfish in contrast to the impact of the risk of the price of frozen whole catfish. Research implications/limitations - The empirical results have significant implications for managerial decision-making especially when crafting strategies for improving price margins. Accordingly, in order to beef up the price margin for frozen whole catfish, catfish processors may consider engaging in vertical integration. This paper has some limitations: first, it assumes that firms operate in competitive markets; second, it assumes that firms produce and sell a single product. Originality/value/contribution - Unlike earlier studies that focused solely on the effect of output price risk on price margins, this paper analyzes theoretically and empirically the impact of output price risk and material input price risk on price margins.

  3. Fermentation of sugar-beet molasses

    Malchenko, A L; Krishtul, F B

    1956-08-25

    Sugar-beet molasses is fermented with yeast separated from the mash, sterilized, and reactivated. To reduce sugar losses and hasten fermentation, the yeast is removed from the mash as the cells fall to the bottom during the fermentation process.

  4. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  5. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth / For Teens / When Blood ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  6. Drug-induced low blood sugar

    Drug-induced low blood sugar is low blood glucose that results from taking medicine. ... Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is common in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or other medicines to control their diabetes. ...

  7. Delivered Pricing, FOB Pricing, and Collusion in Spatial Markets

    Maria Paz Espinosa

    1992-01-01

    This article examines price discrimination and collusion in spatial markets. The problem is analyzed in the context of a repeated duopoly game. I conclude that the prevailing pricing systems depend on the structural elements of the market. Delivered pricing systems emerge in equilibrium in highly monopolistic and highly competitive industries, while FOB is used in intermediate market structures. The fact driving this result is that delivered pricing policies allow spatial price discrimination...

  8. Forecasting Day-Ahead Electricity Prices: Utilizing Hourly Prices

    Raviv, Eran; Bouwman, Kees E.; van Dijk, Dick

    2013-01-01

    This discussion paper led to a publication in 'Energy Economics' , 2015, 50, 227-239. The daily average price of electricity represents the price of electricity to be delivered over the full next day and serves as a key reference price in the electricity market. It is an aggregate that equals the average of hourly prices for delivery during each of the 24 individual hours. This paper demonstrates that the disaggregated hourly prices contain useful predictive information for the daily average ...

  9. Energy markets and price relations

    Bergendahl, P.A.

    1986-10-01

    The aim of the report is to elucidate the way and extent of the dependence of the price of different energy species of one another and particularly of crude oil prices. Oil, coal and natural gas can substitute each other at many applications. The prices are dependent on mining, processing and transporting. Forecasting of prices and future trends are discussed

  10. THE PROBLEMS OF TRANSFER PRICING

    Tursunova Nargiza

    2015-01-01

    Each item has a price, but not every company is able to independently set the price at which it wants to sell its goods. Firms need to have a streamlined method of setting prices for their goods, and their financial condition depends on it. When choosing a method of pricing, there must be considered and internal and external constraints. The paper discusses the stages of formation of prices in a continuous process of pricing, as well as methods of pricing, their advantages and disadvantages. ...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous...

  12. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  13. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  14. Quantity precommitment and price matching

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    We revisit the question of whether price matching is anti-competitive in a capacity constrained duopoly setting. We show that the effect of price matching depends on capacity. Specifically, price matching has no effect when capacity is relatively low, but it benefits the firms when capacity...... is relatively high. Interestingly, when capacity is in an intermediate range, price matching benefits only the small firm but does not affect the large firm in any way. Therefore, one has to consider capacity seriously when evaluating if price matching is anti-competitive. If the firms choose their capacities...... simultaneously before pricing decisions, then the effect of price matching is either pro-competitive or ambiguous. We show that if the cost of capacity is high, then price matching can only (weakly) decrease the market price. On the other hand, if the cost of capacity is low, then the effect of price matching...

  15. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    2011-06-22

    ... imports. The OAQ was increased due to an increase in estimated sugar demand since the FY 2011 OAQ was... sugar imports, as required by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations relative to their FY 2011 expected raw sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane...

  16. Ray tissues as an indirect measure of relative sap-sugar concentration in sugar maple

    Peter W. Garrett; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kenneth R. Dudzik

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to correlate ray tissue as a percentage of total wood volume with sap-sugar concentrations of sugar maple progenies were unsuccessful. These results raise doubts about our ability to use a relatively constant value such as ray-tissue volume in a selection program designed to increase the sap-sugar concentration of sugar maple seedlings.

  17. Role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration of sugar beet

    Sugar is obtained from root of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in addition to other sources. Three important economic parameters are often considered and these are root yield, sugar concentration in root juice and total sugar yield. All the three are affected by cropping period and use of fertilisers. Existing literature suggests the ...

  18. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy's sugar process (CLE Sugar).

    Gao, Johnway; Anderson, Dwight; Levie, Benjamin

    2013-01-28

    Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy's Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has

  19. Developments in Global Food Prices

    Vanessa Rayner; Emily Laing; Jamie Hall

    2011-01-01

    Global food prices have increased significantly since the early 2000s, reversing the long-run trend decline in relative food prices over previous decades. A range of supply disruptions in key food-producing countries have contributed to higher food prices, along with strong demand from developing countries as per capita incomes rise and consumption patterns change. Rising commodity prices are leading to higher headline consumer price inflation in many countries though, at this stage, core mea...

  20. Rational Asset Pricing Bubbles Revisited

    Jan Werner

    2012-01-01

    Price bubble arises when the price of an asset exceeds the asset's fundamental value, that is, the present value of future dividend payments. The important result of Santos and Woodford (1997) says that price bubbles cannot exist in equilibrium in the standard dynamic asset pricing model with rational agents as long as assets are in strictly positive supply and the present value of total future resources is finite. This paper explores the possibility of asset price bubbles when either one of ...

  1. The oil price

    Alba, P.

    2000-01-01

    Statistical analysis cannot, alone, provide an oil price forecast. So, one needs to understand the fundamental phenomena which control the past trends since the end of world war II After a first period during which oil, thanks to its abundance, was able to increase its market share at the expense of other energies, the first oil shock reflects the rarefaction of oil resource with the tilting of the US production curve from growth to decline. Since then, the new situation is that of a ''cohabitation'' between oil and the other energies with the oil price, extremely volatile, reflecting the trial and error adjustment of the market share left to the other energies. Such a context may explain the recent oil price surge but the analogy between the US oil situation at the time of the first shock and that existing today for the world outside Middle East suggest another possibility, that of a structural change with higher future oil prices. The authors examine these two possibilities, think that the oil price will reflect both as long as one or the other will not become proven, and conclude with a series of political recommendations. (authors)

  2. "Photographing money" task pricing

    Jia, Zhongxiang

    2018-05-01

    "Photographing money" [1]is a self-service model under the mobile Internet. The task pricing is reasonable, related to the success of the commodity inspection. First of all, we analyzed the position of the mission and the membership, and introduced the factor of membership density, considering the influence of the number of members around the mission on the pricing. Multivariate regression of task location and membership density using MATLAB to establish the mathematical model of task pricing. At the same time, we can see from the life experience that membership reputation and the intensity of the task will also affect the pricing, and the data of the task success point is more reliable. Therefore, the successful point of the task is selected, and its reputation, task density, membership density and Multiple regression of task positions, according to which a nhew task pricing program. Finally, an objective evaluation is given of the advantages and disadvantages of the established model and solution method, and the improved method is pointed out.

  3. 7 CFR 1033.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1033.50 Section 1033.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  4. 7 CFR 1005.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1005.50 Section 1005.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  5. 7 CFR 1001.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1001.50 Section 1001.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  6. 7 CFR 1006.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1006.50 Section 1006.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  7. 7 CFR 1126.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1126.50 Section 1126.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  8. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  9. 7 CFR 1131.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1131.50 Section 1131.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  10. 7 CFR 1007.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1007.50 Section 1007.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  11. Reducing Added Sugars in the Food Supply Through a Cap-and-Trade Approach

    Lewis, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effect of a simulated cap-and-trade policy to reduce added sugar in the food supply. Methods. Using nationally representative data on added-sugar content and consumption, we constructed a mathematical model of a cap-and-trade policy and compared its health implications to those of proposals to tax sugar sweetened beverages or added sugars. Results. Capping added-sugar emissions into the food supply by food manufacturers at a rate of 1% per year would be expected to reduce the prevalence of obesity by 1.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9, 2.4; a 4.6% decline) and the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 21.7 cases per 100 000 people (95% CI = 12.9, 30.6; a 4.2% decline) over 20 years, averting approximately $9.7 billion in health care spending. Racial and ethnic minorities would be expected to experience the largest declines. By comparison, equivalent price penalties through excise taxes would be expected to generate smaller health benefits. Conclusions. A cap-and-trade policy to reduce added-sugar intake may reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes to a greater extent than currently-proposed excise taxes. PMID:25365146

  12. Price smarter on the Net.

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  13. TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) induced by RANKL negatively regulates osteoclasts survival and function.

    Wu, Mengrui; Wang, Yiping; Deng, Lianfu; Chen, Wei; Li, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the principle bone-resorbing cells. Precise control of balanced osteoclast activity is indispensable for bone homeostasis. Osteoclast activation mediated by RANK-TRAF6 axis has been clearly identified. However, a negative regulation-machinery in osteoclast remains unclear. TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) is induced by about 10 folds during osteoclastogenesis, according to a genome-wide analysis of gene expression before and after osteoclast maturation, and confirmed by western blot and quantitative RT-PCR. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) transduced with lentivirus carrying tank-shRNA were induced to form osteoclast in the presence of RANKL and M-CSF. Tank expression was downregulated by 90% by Tank-shRNA, which is confirmed by western blot. Compared with wild-type (WT) cells, osteoclastogenesis of Tank-silenced BMMs was increased, according to tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain on day 5 and day 7. Number of bone resorption pits by Tank-silenced osteoclasts was increased by 176% compared with WT cells, as shown by wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) stain and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) analysis. Survival rate of Tank-silenced mature osteoclast is also increased. However, acid production of Tank-knockdown cells was not changed compared with control cells. IκBα phosphorylation is increased in tank-silenced cells, indicating that TANK may negatively regulate NF-κB activity in osteoclast. In conclusion, Tank, whose expression is increased during osteoclastogenesis, inhibits osteoclast formation, activity and survival, by regulating NF-κB activity and c-FLIP expression. Tank enrolls itself in a negative feedback loop in bone resorption. These results may provide means for therapeutic intervention in diseases of excessive bone resorption.

  14. Enhanced fermentable sugar production from kitchen waste using various pretreatments.

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Rahman, Nor'Aini Abdul; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom; Baharudin, Azhari Samsu

    2015-06-01

    The kitchen waste fraction in municipal solid waste contains high organic matter particularly carbohydrate that can contribute to fermentable sugar production for subsequent conversion to bioethanol. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of single and combination pretreatments of kitchen waste by liquid hot water, mild acid pretreatment of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and enzymatic hydrolysis (glucoamylase). The maximum total fermentable sugar produced after combination pretreatment by 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase consisted of 93.25 g/L glucose, 0.542 g/L sucrose, 0.348 g/L maltose, and 0.321 g/L fructose. The glucose released by the combination pretreatment method was 0.79 g glucose/g KW equivalent to 79% of glucose conversion. The effects of the pre-treatment on kitchen waste indicated that the highest solubilization was 40% by the combination method of 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase. The best combination pre-treatment gave concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid of 11.74 g/L, 6.77 g/L, and 1.02 g/L, respectively. The decrease of aliphatic absorbance bands of polysaccharides at 2851 and 2923 cm(-1) and the increase on structures of carbonyl absorbance bands at 1600 cm(-1) reflects the progress of the kitchen waste hydrolysis to fermentable sugars. Overall, 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase treatment was the most profitable process as the minimum selling price of glucose was USD 0.101/g kitchen waste. Therefore, the combination pretreatment method was proposed to enhance the production of fermentable sugar, particularly glucose from kitchen waste as the feedstock for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  16. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    Mark L Siegal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  17. Water Integration In Sugar Industry

    Wafa Hatim Balla

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The sugar industry uses much water and produces a significant amount of wastewater for disposal. Efficient utilization of water is vital in the process industries not only to reduce the cost of the supply and discharge of freshwater associated with the process but also to minimize environmental problems associated with the use and discharge of water. This paper presents the analysis of fresh water used and wastewater discharged in a sugar manufacturing process. In order to reduce the load of the cooling water system. The system was modified to an open recirculation cooling water system. Also the excess condensate internal water and the discharged water from cooling water system were analyzed and optimized using pinch analysis and mathematical optimization techniques by Resource Conversation Networks spreadsheet software.

  18. [Evolution of the relative prices of food groups between 1939 and 2010 in the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil].

    Yuba, Tania Yuka; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Campino, Antonio Carlos Coelho; Carmo, Heron Carlos Esvael do

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the evolution of relative prices of food groups and its influence on public healthy eating policies. Data from the municipality of Sao Paulo between 1939 and 2010 were analyzed based on calculating index numbers. Data from the Economic Researches Foundation Institute price database and weight structures (1939 to 1988) and from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (1989 to 2010) were used to. The price database was organized, its consistency tested and prices were deflated using the consumer price index. Relative prices were calculated and associated to food categories and groups, according to the food pyramid guide adapted for the Brazilian population. The price indices for each group were calculated according to Laspeyres modified formula. The general food price index was compared with the indices for each food group and respective category: fresh food, processed food, beverages, meat, legumes, milk and eggs, cereals and root vegetables and eating out. Price indices for fat, oil, spices, sugars and sweets and processed food showed relative price reduction. Fresh food, such as fruit and vegetables, showed an increase in relative prices. Other food groups, such as cereals, flour and pasta, meat, milk and egg, showed a steadier long term trend in relative prices. The evolution of relative prices of food in the city of Sao Paulo demonstrates a negative trend towards healthy eating at household level in the long run.

  19. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Are the Main Sources of Added Sugar Intake in the Mexican Population.

    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Batis, Carolina; Lutter, Chessa K; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Sugar intake has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, other noncommunicable diseases, and dental caries. The WHO recommends that free sugars should be ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Survey) 2012], which represents 3 geographic regions and urban and rural areas. Dietary information was obtained by administering a 24-h recall questionnaire to 10,096 participants. Total sugar intake was estimated by using the National Institute of Public Health (INSP) food-composition table and an established method to estimate added sugars. The mean intakes of total, intrinsic, and added sugars were 365, 127, and 238 kcal/d, respectively. Added sugars contributed 13% of TEI. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) were the main source of sugars, contributing 69% of added sugars. Food products high in saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) were the second main sources of added sugars, contributing 25% of added sugars. The average intake of added sugars in the Mexican diet is higher than WHO recommendations, which may partly explain the high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Mexico. Because SSBs and HSFAS contribute >94% of total added sugars, strategies to reduce their intake should be strengthened. This includes stronger food labels to warn the consumer about the content of added sugars in foods and beverages. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. List prices vs. bargain prices: which solution to estimate consumer price indices?

    Carlo De Gregorio

    2010-01-01

    Alternative approaches to CPI surveys are here evaluated, in markets where final prices are based on some sort of price listing. Three types of surveys are compared: local surveys (LOC), with small samples and a local price collection; list price surveys (LIS), with huge samples and centralised collection; mixed surveys (MXD), in which LOC and LIS are jointly used. Based on a multiplicative pricing model, some conditions are derived to establish the relative efficiency of these approaches. Th...

  1. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in vivo: Impact on oxidative stress and RANKL/OPG signals

    Tolba, Mai F.; El-Serafi, Ahmed T.; Omar, Hany A.

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) is one of the most common causes of secondary osteoporosis. Given that glucocorticoids are considered as a main component of the treatment protocols for a variety of inflammation and immune-mediated diseases besides its use as adjuvant to several chemotherapeutic agents, it is crucial to find ways to overcome this critical adverse effect. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), which is a natural compound derived from honeybee propolis displayed promising antiosteoporotic effects against mechanical bone injury in various studies. The current work aimed at investigating the potential protective effect of CAPE against GIO in vivo with emphasis on the modulation of oxidative status and receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegrin (OPG) signaling. The results showed that CAPE opposed dexamethasone (DEX)-mediated alterations in bone histology and tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. In addition, CAPE restored oxidative balance, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RunX2) expression and reduced caspase-3 activity in femur tissues. Co-administration of CAPE with DEX normalized RANKL/OPG ratio and Akt activation indicating a reduction in DEX-osteoclastogenesis. In conclusion, concurrent treatment of CAPE with DEX exhibited promising effects in the protection against DEX-induced osteoporosis through opposing osteoclastogenesis and protecting osteoblasts. The potent antioxidant activity of CAPE is, at least in part, involved in its anti-apoptotic effects and modulation of RunX2 and RANKL/OPG signals. The use of CAPE-enriched propolis formulas is strongly recommended for patients on chronic glucocorticoid therapy to help in the attenuation of GIO. - Highlights: • Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) counteracts DEX-induced osteoporosis. • CAPE hinders DEX-induced alterations in oxidation parameters as GSH, SOD and MDA. • CAPE opposes osteoclastogenesis via suppressing RANL/OPG ratio and Akt signals.

  2. Histomorphometric analysis and immunolocalization of RANKL and OPG during the alveolar healing process in female ovariectomized rats treated with oestrogen or raloxifene.

    Luvizuto, Eloá Rodrigues; Queiroz, Thallita Pereira; Dias, Sheila Mônica Damásio; Okamoto, Tetuo; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati; Garcia, Idelmo Rangel; Okamoto, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of bone-resorption inhibitors (oestrogen and raloxifene) on the RANKL/OPG balance during the chronology of the alveolar healing process in ovariectomized (OVX) rats by means of immunocolocalization and histomorphometric analysis. One hundred sixty female Wistar rats at 70 days of age were either OVX or sham-operated and divided into four groups: sham, OVX/Oil, OVX with E(2) replacement (17beta-estradiol, 400 microg/month), OVX with RLX treatment (1mg/kg bw/day). The 60-day treatment started 8 days after ovariectomy. The incisors were extracted to allow analysis of 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days of wound healing. After obtaining the histological samples, slides were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or subjected to immunocolocalization reaction for RANKL and OPG. Results were quantitatively evaluated. Histomorphometric analysis showed that the sham group presented the highest and OVX/Oil group the lowest mean bone formation value in the post-extraction period. The immunocolocalization analysis showed a larger increase in bone turnover at 7 postoperative days in OVX/Oil and sham groups and decreasing bone turnover in the other periods. The OVX/Oil group showed a large decrease in bone turnover at 14 postoperative days, a period demonstrated by mild cellular activity. OVX/E(2) and sham groups showed a decreased bone turnover at 28 postoperative days while OVX/RLX group showed a decreased bone turnover at 21 postoperative days. On the 42nd postoperative day, sham and OVX/RLX groups showed an established alveolar bone healing process. Ovariectomy delays the alveolar healing process and interferes with bone turnover through the balance between RANKL and OPG. Oestrogen replacement or raloxifene treatment did not totally recover the oestrogen-deficient state. However raloxifene treatment showed more satisfactory results than oestrogen replacement. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in vivo: Impact on oxidative stress and RANKL/OPG signals

    Tolba, Mai F. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566 (Egypt); Chapman University, Irvine 92618, CA (United States); El-Serafi, Ahmed T. [Sharjah Institute for Medical Research, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272 (United Arab Emirates); Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Omar, Hany A., E-mail: hanyomar@sharjah.ac.ae [Sharjah Institute for Medical Research, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272 (United Arab Emirates); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt)

    2017-06-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) is one of the most common causes of secondary osteoporosis. Given that glucocorticoids are considered as a main component of the treatment protocols for a variety of inflammation and immune-mediated diseases besides its use as adjuvant to several chemotherapeutic agents, it is crucial to find ways to overcome this critical adverse effect. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), which is a natural compound derived from honeybee propolis displayed promising antiosteoporotic effects against mechanical bone injury in various studies. The current work aimed at investigating the potential protective effect of CAPE against GIO in vivo with emphasis on the modulation of oxidative status and receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegrin (OPG) signaling. The results showed that CAPE opposed dexamethasone (DEX)-mediated alterations in bone histology and tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. In addition, CAPE restored oxidative balance, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RunX2) expression and reduced caspase-3 activity in femur tissues. Co-administration of CAPE with DEX normalized RANKL/OPG ratio and Akt activation indicating a reduction in DEX-osteoclastogenesis. In conclusion, concurrent treatment of CAPE with DEX exhibited promising effects in the protection against DEX-induced osteoporosis through opposing osteoclastogenesis and protecting osteoblasts. The potent antioxidant activity of CAPE is, at least in part, involved in its anti-apoptotic effects and modulation of RunX2 and RANKL/OPG signals. The use of CAPE-enriched propolis formulas is strongly recommended for patients on chronic glucocorticoid therapy to help in the attenuation of GIO. - Highlights: • Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) counteracts DEX-induced osteoporosis. • CAPE hinders DEX-induced alterations in oxidation parameters as GSH, SOD and MDA. • CAPE opposes osteoclastogenesis via suppressing RANL/OPG ratio and Akt signals.

  4. Logistics: Price Rises Incurred by High Oil Price

    Lai Zhihui

    2011-01-01

    @@ "When the oil price grows by 100%, the logistic indus-try will see a price growth of 40%, while the logistics in-dustry a price rise of 35%, which means every price increase of 5% in the oil price will bring along that of 2% in this industry." said Liu Zongsheng, General Manager of Itochu Logistics Co., Ltd., on the seminar "Focusing on the eco-nomic consequences of raising oil price, interest rate and deposit reserve ratio", which was held recently.

  5. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  6. Wireless network pricing

    Huang, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    Today's wireless communications and networking practices are tightly coupled with economic considerations, to the extent that it is almost impossible to make a sound technology choice without understanding the corresponding economic implications. This book aims at providing a foundational introduction on how microeconomics, and pricing theory in particular, can help us to understand and build better wireless networks. The book can be used as lecture notes for a course in the field of network economics, or a reference book for wireless engineers and applied economists to understand how pricing

  7. Sugar in Infants, Children and Adolescents

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply...... and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects. The term 'free sugars', includes all monosaccharides/disaccharides added to foods/beverages by the manufacturer/cook/consumer, plus sugars naturally present...

  8. Sugar in infants, children and adolescents

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply...... and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects. The term 'free sugars', includes all monosaccharides/disaccharides added to foods/beverages by the manufacturer/cook/consumer, plus sugars naturally present...

  9. Price knowledge during grocery shopping

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    applying a multi-point, multi-measure approach, consumers appear to know more aboutprices than suggested by past research. Determinants of price knowledge are also examined and the results indicate that price knowledge buildsup not only because of active search but also due to accidental exposure to prices......Past research on consumer price knowledge has varied considerably partly due to differences in how and when price knowledge is measured.This paper applies a multi-point, multi-measure approach to reconcile differences in past price knowledge research by examining systematicrelationships between...... time of measurement and type of measures applied. Examination of consumer price knowledge before, during, and afterstore visit sheds light on what is measured at the individual points in time: episodic price knowledge and/or reference prices? With a between-subjects design interviewing 1...

  10. The key role of proinflammatory cytokines, matrix proteins, RANKL/OPG and Wnt/β-catenin in bone healing of hip arthroplasty patients.

    Cassuto, Jean; Folestad, Agnetha; Göthlin, Jan; Malchau, Henrik; Kärrholm, Johan

    2018-02-01

    We still lack understanding of why some implants fail while most remain stable after decades of use. Proinflammatory cytokines, matrix proteins and bone regulating cytokines of the RANKL/OPG (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin) and Wnt/β-catenin pathways are mandatory for normal bone repair but their spatial and temporal role in the healing of primary total hip arthroplasties (THA) has not been previously shown. Twenty-four osteoarthritis patients with one-sided well-fixed primary THA were prospectively monitored during 18years (18Y) with repeated blood samples, clinical variables and radiographs. Eighty-one healthy donors divided in three age- and gender-matched groups and twenty osteoarthritis patients awaiting THA and serving as control of the validity of stored plasma in THA patients, were included. Plasma was analyzed for C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, osteopontin (OPN), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC/osteonectin), osteocalcin (OC), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), N-terminal propeptide of collagen type I (P1NP), RANKL, OPG, the Wnt agonistic ligands (Wnt)-1 and Wnt-3a, and the Wnt antagonists sclerostin, Dickkopf (Dkk)-1, Dkk-3, Dkk-4, secreted frizzled related protein (sFRP)-1, sFRP-3 and Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (Wif-1). Inflammatory mediators in arthroplasty patients (CRP, IL-6, OPN) increased significantly on day one after surgery vs preoperative value (PR) and healthy subjects and returned to baseline at 6W. TNF-α did not change relative preoperative level or healthy subjects. SPARC and OC increased in a biphasic fashion with the primary phase beginning shortly after surgery and lasting 3M (SPARC) and 2Y (OC) while the secondary phase peaked at 1Y (SPARC) and 13Y (OC), with both returning to basal level at 15Y. BALP peaked at 3M after surgery with a return to basal level at 2Y followed by a continuous increase from 5Y until 18Y. P

  11. Influence of Simultaneous Targeting of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathway and RANK-RANKL Axis in Osteolytic Prostate Cancer Lesion in Bone

    Virk, Mandeep S.; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Liu, Nancy Q.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Stout, David; Kang, Christine O.; Dougall, William C.; Lieberman, Jay R.

    2009-01-01

    Metastasis to bone is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in advanced prostate cancer patients. Considering the complex reciprocal interactions between the tumor cells and the bone microenvironment, there is increasing interest in developing combination therapies targeting both the tumor growth and the bone microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the effect of simultaneous blockade of BMP pathway and RANK-RANKL axis in an osteolytic prostate cancer lesion in bone. We used a retroviral vector encoding noggin (Retronoggin) to antagonize the effect of BMPs and RANK: Fc, which is a recombinant RANKL antagonist was used to inhibit RANK-RANKL axis. The tumor growth and bone loss were evaluated using plain radiographs, hind limb tumor measurements, micro PET-CT (18F- fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG] and 18F-fluoride tracer), and histology. Tibias implanted with PC-3 cells developed pure osteolytic lesions at 2 weeks with progressive increase in cortical bone destruction at successive time points. Tibias implanted with PC-3 cells over expressing noggin (Retronoggin) resulted in reduced tumor size and decreased bone loss compared to the implanted tibias in untreated control animals. RANK: Fc administration inhibited the formation of osteoclasts, delayed the development of osteolytic lesions, decreased bone loss and reduced tumor size in tibias implanted with PC-3 cells. The combination therapy with RANK: Fc and noggin over expression effectively delayed the radiographic development of osteolytic lesions, and decreased the bone loss and tumor burden compared to implanted tibias treated with noggin over expression alone. Furthermore, the animals treated with the combination strategy exhibited decreased bone loss (micro CT) and lower tumor burden (FDG micro PET) compared to animals treated with RANK: Fc alone. Combined blockade of RANK-RANKL axis and BMP pathway resulted in reduced tumor burden and decreased bone loss compared to inhibition of either individual

  12. IS THE PRICE RIGHT? PRICING FOR LONG TERM PROFITABILITY

    Andrea Erika NYÁRÁDI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The way how we choose our pricing strategy has a significant impact on company’s success. Nowadays companies more and more adopt a new way of thinking in pricing, namely pricing for a long term period in order to bring higher profitability, to build an efficient pricing strategy. Marketers have only recently begun to focus seriously on effective pricing. These companies are the so called progressive companies. They have begun doing more than just worrying about pricing. To increase profitability many are abandoning traditional reactive pricing procedures in favor of proactive pricing, making explicit corporate decisions to change their focus to growth in top-line sales to growth in profitability. The long-term implications of price strategies are still under-researched, and managers should be aware of shifts in customer reactions that may result from frequent adoption of certain strategies. The company pricing strategy should be seen in relation to developments in the company variables, internal ones (capital strength, competencies, organizational conditions, efficiency of the work force etc. as well as external ones (customers, competitors, the technological development etc., adopting strategic pricing. In this paper I will present the most effective pricing strategies leading to long term profitability, and also suggest practical conditions for pricing strategies to maximize profit in the long run.

  13. By Ounce or By Calorie: The Different Effects of Alternative Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Strategies

    Zhen, Chen; Brissette, Ian; Ruff, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The obesity epidemic and excessive consumption of sugary beverages has led to proposals of economics-based interventions to promote healthy eating. We quantify the differential effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages by calories and by ounce on consumer demand, using a fully modified distance metric model of differentiated product demand that endogenizes the representation of group and rival product prices. The novel demand model outperformed the conventional distance metric model in both...

  14. A lignocellulosic ethanol strategy via nonenzymatic sugar production: process synthesis and analysis.

    Han, Jeehoon; Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Alonso, David Martin; Dumesic, James A; Maravelias, Christos T

    2015-04-01

    The work develops a strategy for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. In this strategy, the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions are simultaneously converted to sugars using a γ-valerolactone (GVL) solvent containing a dilute acid catalyst. To effectively recover GVL for reuse as solvent and biomass-derived lignin for heat and power generation, separation subsystems, including a novel CO2-based extraction for the separation of sugars from GVL, lignin and humins have been designed. The sugars are co-fermented by yeast to produce ethanol. Furthermore, heat integration to reduce utility requirements is performed. It is shown that this strategy leads to high ethanol yields and the total energy requirements could be satisfied by burning the lignin. The integrated strategy using corn stover feedstock leads to a minimum selling price of $5 per gallon of gasoline equivalent, which suggests that it is a promising alternative to current biofuels production approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  16. Energy drinks available in Ireland: a description of caffeine and sugar content.

    Keaver, Laura; Gilpin, Susannah; Fernandes da Silva, Joana Caldeira; Buckley, Claire; Foley-Nolan, Cliodhna

    2017-06-01

    To describe the caffeine and sugar content of all energy drinks available on the island of Ireland. Two retail outlets were selected from each of: multinational, convenience and discount stores in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, and all available single-serve energy drinks were purchased. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in February 2015 and brand name, price, volume, caffeine and sugar content were recorded for each product. Descriptive analysis was performed. Seventy-eight products were identified on the island of Ireland (regular, n 59; diet/sugar-free/light, n 19). Caffeine and sugar content was in the range of 14-35 mg and 2·9-15·6 g per 100 ml, respectively. Mean caffeine content of 102·2 mg per serving represents 25·6 % of the maximum intake advised for adults by the European Food Safety Authority. Per serving, mean sugar content of regular energy drinks was 37 g. This exceeds WHO recommendations for maximum daily sugar intake of energy intake (25 g for adults consuming 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) diet). If displaying front-of-pack labelling, fifty-seven of the fifty-nine regular energy drinks would receive a Food Standards Agency 'red' colour-coded label for sugar. Energy drinks are freely available on the island of Ireland and all products surveyed can be defined as highly caffeinated products. This has potential health issues particularly for children and adolescents where safe limits of caffeine have not been determined. Energy drinks surveyed also contained high levels of sugar and could potentially contribute to weight gain and adverse dental health effects.

  17. Economical impact of the BIG/CC technology use on the sugar cane industry

    Queiroz, L.C. de; Nascimento, M.J.M. do [Brascep Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The use of biomass as primary fuel for power and steam production using modern conversion technology such as the Biomass Integrated Gas Turbine/Combined Cycle (BIG/CC) has both technical and commercial potential. Brazil is implementing a BIG/CC Demonstration Plant to burn wood from eucalyptus short rotation forest and to test sugar cane bagasse as feedstock. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of using biomass as a feedstock for power generation, its suitability for applications in developing countries, and the possibilities it offers for commercial activities in regions which currently have a low level of economic activities. The purpose of this paper is to show the potential applicability of this technology in the sugar cane industries of Developing Countries such as Brazil. The same quantity of sugar cane already processed in each sugar mill can produce sizable quantities of electric power at competitive costs, in addition to the traditional products -- sugar and/or ethanol, which will cause an economical impact, duplicating the revenue of these industries. The application of the BIG/CC technology in the Sugar Cane Industry may lead to the following scenario in developing countries: (1) power shall be produced at very competitive prices by specialized private firms associated with sugar mills; (2) plant sizes will be smaller -- 15 to 100 MW -- when based on biomass, a compared to large fossil fuel plants now prevailing; (3) ethanol and sugar production costs will be reduced due to more efficient and economical processes and due to the additional revenue from power production; (4) becoming more competitive with gasoline, ethanol production tends to increase, which will influence the automobile industry and improve the quality of life in big cities.

  18. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    2010-08-30

    ... for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY... August 17, 2010 concerning Fiscal Year 2011 tariff-rate quota allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the effective date of that notice to...

  19. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  20. Nonlinear Pricing of Information Goods

    Arun Sundararajan

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes optimal pricing for information goods under incomplete information, when both unlimited-usage (fixed-fee) pricing and usage-based pricing are feasible, and administering usage-based pricing may involve transaction costs. It is shown that offering fixed- fee pricing in addition to a non-linear usage-based pricing scheme is always profit-improving in the presence of any non-zero transaction costs, and there may be markets in which a pure fixed-fee is optimal. This implies th...

  1. Energy pricing policy in Iran

    Davood Manzoor

    1995-01-01

    Low energy prices in Iran do not reflect economic costs. Further distortions exist in the tariff structures of most energy sources and in their relative prices. Price reform is a key policy element for achieving increased energy conservation and economic substitution. Subsidies should be made transparent and explained by the Government, and, when eliminated, they could be compensated by target measures or direct subsidies for low income households. Price reforms are under way, with some caution though, because of possible political and inflationary consequences. In order to better understand the need for price reforms a brief analysis of the current energy pricing policy is provided there. (author)

  2. Pricing offshore wind power

    Levitt, Andrew C.; Kempton, Willett; Smith, Aaron P.; Musial, Walt; Firestone, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind offers a very large clean power resource, but electricity from the first US offshore wind contracts is costlier than current regional wholesale electricity prices. To better understand the factors that drive these costs, we develop a pro-forma cash flow model to calculate two results: the levelized cost of energy, and the breakeven price required for financial viability. We then determine input values based on our analysis of capital markets and of 35 operating and planned projects in Europe, China, and the United States. The model is run for a range of inputs appropriate to US policies, electricity markets, and capital markets to assess how changes in policy incentives, project inputs, and financial structure affect the breakeven price of offshore wind power. The model and documentation are made publicly available. - Highlights: → We calculate the Breakeven Price (BP) required to deploy offshore wind plants. → We determine values for cost drivers and review incentives structures in the US. → We develop 3 scenarios using today's technology but varying in industry experience. → BP differs widely by Cost Scenario; relative policy effectiveness varies by stage. → The low-range BP is below regional market values in the Northeast United States.

  3. Carbon pricing comes clean

    De Wit, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Together with the Clean Energy Bill, the implications of the Australian Federal Government's climate change legislative package are far reaching. Norton Rose gives business a heads-up in this breakdown of the draft legislation underpinning the carbon pricing and clean energy scheme. It is a summary of Norton Rose's full analysis.

  4. Road pricing policy implementation

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas suffer from the negative externalities of road transport like congested road networks, air pollution and road traffic accidents. A measure to reduce these negative externalities is road pricing, meaning policies that impose direct charges on road use (Jones and Hervik, 1992). Since the

  5. 2050: A Pricing Odyssey

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2006-10-15

    The author uses the Rip Van Winkle approach favored by marketers to gaze, clear-eyed, into the future - say, the year 2050 - to visualize alternative demand-response possibilities. Dare we go California Dreamin' of a distant utopia - or is it inevitable that pricing myopia will keep us from attaining the fulfillment of many of our career goals? (author)

  6. Pricing methodologies and approaches

    Petrov, K.

    2002-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Role of regulatory control in the electric power market; Price regulation; Market monitoring; Quality of supply regulation; Regulatory challenges in Central and Eastern Europe. The findings of these questions are summarized in the Summary. (R.P.)

  7. On Storekeepers' Pricing Behavior.

    B. Bode (Ben); J. Koerts (Johan); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis research note deals with a quantitative analysis of differences in percentage gross margin between individual stores in the retail trade. A number of hypotheses on pricing behavior of storekeepers are tested using Dutch survey data from nine different types of retail stores. We

  8. Price of Prejudice

    Hedegaard, Morten; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2018-01-01

    We present a new type of field experiment to investigate ethnic prejudice in the workplace. Our design allows us to study how potential discriminators respond to changes in the cost of discrimination. We find that ethnic discrimination is common but highly responsive to the “price of prejudice”, i...

  9. Coal prices rise

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  10. Sentiment and art prices

    Penasse, J.N.G.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    We hypothesize the existence of a slow-moving fad component in art prices. Using unique panel survey data on art market participants’ confidence levels in the outlook for a set of artists, we find that sentiment indeed predicts short-term returns.

  11. The Price Is Right?

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    There's something about textbook prices that generates outrage in ways that other college expenses, such as housing and technology fees, don't. Maybe it's the shock felt by new students when faced with a $900 bill after getting their textbooks for free in K-12. Maybe it's the awful realization that $40,000 in tuition and board doesn't even cover…

  12. Option Pricing and Momentum

    Rodriguez, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    If managers are reluctant to fully adjust dividends to changes in earnings, stock returns and changes in the dividend yield will tend to be negatively correlated. When this is the case, stock returns will exhibit positive autocorrelation, or mo- mentum. This paper studies the pricing of options in

  13. Transfer Pricing Principles

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    Konferencebidraget indeholder en kritisk analyse af transfer pricing reglerne på henholdsvis moms og indkomstskatterettens område med henblik på en diskussion af, det er hensigtsmæssigt med en harmonisering af reglerne på tværs af de to retsområder...

  14. Pricing Mining Concessions Based on Combined Multinomial Pricing Model

    Chang Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined multinomial pricing model is proposed for pricing mining concession in which the annualized volatility of the price of mineral products follows a multinomial distribution. First, a combined multinomial pricing model is proposed which consists of binomial pricing models calculated according to different volatility values. Second, a method is provided to calculate the annualized volatility and the distribution. Third, the value of convenience yields is calculated based on the relationship between the futures price and the spot price. The notion of convenience yields is used to adjust our model as well. Based on an empirical study of a Chinese copper mine concession, we verify that our model is easy to use and better than the model with constant volatility when considering the changing annualized volatility of the price of the mineral product.

  15. Complete oxidative conversion of lignocellulose derived non-glucose sugars to sugar acids by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Yao, Ruimiao; Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Non-glucose sugars derived from lignocellulose cover approximately 40% of the total carbohydrates of lignocellulose biomass. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars to the target products is an important task of lignocellulose biorefining research. Here we report a fast and complete conversion of the total non-glucose sugars from corn stover into the corresponding sugar acids by whole cell catalysis and aerobic fermentation of Gluconobacter oxydans. The conversions include xylose to xylonate, arabinose to arabonate, mannose to mannonate, and galactose to galactonate, as well as with glucose into gluconate. These cellulosic non-glucose sugar acids showed the excellent cement retard setting property. The mixed cellulosic sugar acids could be used as cement retard additives without separation. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars not only makes full use of lignocellulose derived sugars, but also effectively reduces the wastewater treatment burden by removal of residual sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adults Who Order Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Taksler, Glen B.; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 30% of adults consume sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) daily, many at fast food restaurants. Researchers examined fast food purchases to better understand which consumers order SSBs, particularly large SSBs. Methods Fast food customers in New York City and New Jersey provided receipts and participated in a survey during 2013–2014 (N=11,614). Logistic regression analyses predicted three outcomes: ordering no beverage or a non-SSB, a small/medium SSB, or a large SSB. Among respondents who ordered a beverage (n=3,775), additional analyses predicted number of beverage calories and odds of ordering an SSB. Covariates included demographic and behavioral factors. Results Respondents aged 18–29 years were 88% more likely to order a large SSB than a non-SSB or no beverage, as compared with respondents aged ≥50 years (pbeverage, respondents ordered more beverage calories with a large combination meal (+85.13 kcal, p=0.001) or if the restaurant had a large cup size >30 ounces (+36.07 kcal, p=0.001). Hispanic and Asian respondents were less likely to order a large SSB (AOR=0.49 and 0.52, respectively, both p≤0.026) than non-Hispanic white respondents. Odds of ordering a large SSB were higher for respondents who ate in the restaurant (AOR=1.66, pbeverage based on price (AOR=2.02, pbeverage calories increased with meal size. Increased understanding of these factors is an important step toward limiting unhealthy SSB consumption. PMID:27662697

  17. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price or...

  18. BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES OF CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION FROM SUGAR SUBSTRATES IN CUBA

    Omar Pérez Navarro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A proposal for opportunities of citric acid production in Cuba, using sources of sugar substrates such as refined sugar, molasses and whey, by submerged fermentation with Aspergillus niger, where a technology is established from the selected substrate which is provided and the microorganism used. This is a demanding process in terms of investment costs and operation where the best combinations of productivity and cost are achieved with molasses followed by refined sugar and whey. For the selected substrate, the mass and energy balance in each of the steps in the process of obtaining citric acid for different productive capacities of citric acid was made and the minimum economic size of 2.5 t / day was determined. A production capacity of 8 t / day of granulated acid (2 640 t / a, with estimated total investment of $ 9,068,713, NPV = $ 1,401,561, IRR = 27% and DPP = 3 years was selected. The project is resistant to the rising price of raw materials and the cost of electricity and is favored when the process is integrated into a sugar mill cogeneration, while it is sensitive to a reduction in the selling price of the product.

  19. The future of sugar cane in China and India - Supply constraints and expansion potential

    Kostka, Genia; Polzin, Christine; Scharrer, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    The last decade has seen a surging demand for biofuels in the wake of increasing oil prices and rising environmental concerns. The most common biofuel is bio-ethanol accounting for more than 90% of total biofuel usage. It is increasingly produced from sugar cane making cane a strategic crop for biofuels. Given the growing demand for 'green' fuels, bio-ethanol production has been supported by energy policies in the past decade, which have consequently been accused of contributing to the global trend of rising food prices and thus jeopardising food security. However, while biofuel policies are an important driver, prices as much as food security will ultimately be determined by supply constraints of strategic crops. This paper hence investigates drivers of and constraints to sugar cane production in China and India and shows that supply side constraints vary significantly in the two countries. China and India both face serious limitations with regard to suitable available land for the further expansion of sugar cane production. Equally they are both faced with challenges to increasing yield output per hectare, albeit different ones. With regard to productivity, China achieved 2.7% annual yield growth since 1997, while India has seen yield decreases of -0.1% p.a. over the same period. The authors conclude that cane used as a feedstock to meet the rising energy demand will come at the expense of converting fertile land for non-food purposes.

  20. Consistent Estimation of Pricing Kernels from Noisy Price Data

    Vladislav Kargin

    2003-01-01

    If pricing kernels are assumed non-negative then the inverse problem of finding the pricing kernel is well-posed. The constrained least squares method provides a consistent estimate of the pricing kernel. When the data are limited, a new method is suggested: relaxed maximization of the relative entropy. This estimator is also consistent. Keywords: $\\epsilon$-entropy, non-parametric estimation, pricing kernel, inverse problems.

  1. Oil price prospects

    Toalster, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, four different, popular approaches to the analysis of oil price movements will be considered and an alternative method will be proposed. Whilst we await the development of a rigorous theoretical framework within which to evaluate the phenomenon of oil price movements some progress may be effected by an amalgam of approaches, with the traditional supply and demand model being supplemented by observations regarding political and social developments in particular countries or regions, together with an assessment of emerging and prospective technological achievements. In this way it should be possible to identify the critical influences at work, from which it should also be possible to select either the single most important variable or combination of variables, affecting the oil price. Moreover, it is my belief that the crucial variables influencing the oil price almost certainly, are more likely to be political and social, rather than economic. In this context and notwithstanding the fact that there is only a minimal level of surplus productive capacity in the world oil industry at present (perhaps 1-2 million b/d albeit rising rapidly), it is reasonable to conclude that oil prices will average around $18-19 a barrel for North Sea Brent in 1992 and 1993, with oscillations of $2-4 a barrel either side, rising slightly in 1994 to $19-20 a barrel and to $20-21 a barrel in 1995. Thereafter, the most likely outcome is for a rise in line with inflation (say $ a barrel/annum) with no prospect of an upward spike, because demand will be weaker than most commentators expect up to the year 2000, whilst OPEC oil supplies will be substantially higher than the consensus forecast. (author)

  2. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sugar addiction: the state of the science.

    Westwater, Margaret L; Fletcher, Paul C; Ziauddeen, Hisham

    2016-11-01

    As obesity rates continue to climb, the notion that overconsumption reflects an underlying 'food addiction' (FA) has become increasingly influential. An increasingly popular theory is that sugar acts as an addictive agent, eliciting neurobiological changes similar to those seen in drug addiction. In this paper, we review the evidence in support of sugar addiction. We reviewed the literature on food and sugar addiction and considered the evidence suggesting the addictiveness of highly processed foods, particularly those with high sugar content. We then examined the addictive potential of sugar by contrasting evidence from the animal and human neuroscience literature on drug and sugar addiction. We find little evidence to support sugar addiction in humans, and findings from the animal literature suggest that addiction-like behaviours, such as bingeing, occur only in the context of intermittent access to sugar. These behaviours likely arise from intermittent access to sweet tasting or highly palatable foods, not the neurochemical effects of sugar. Given the lack of evidence supporting it, we argue against a premature incorporation of sugar addiction into the scientific literature and public policy recommendations.

  4. Export pricing objectives and factors influencing them

    Snieškienė, Gabrielė; Pridotkienė, Jūratė

    2010-01-01

    Pricing is recognized as one of the most important tools to achieve a successful export operation. The starting point in every pricing effort is the process of creating pricing objectives. Pricing objectives are the strategic and economic goals desired by management in pricing the product. Pricing objectives constitute the basis on which pricing methods and policies are formulated. Therefore, a better understanding of the pricing objectives should direct the company’s overall pricing process....

  5. Price performance following stock's IPO in different price limit systems

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yue; Li, Ming-Xia

    2018-01-01

    An IPO burst occurred in China's stock markets in 2015, while price limit trading rules usually help to reduce the short-term trading mania on individual stocks. It is interesting to make clear the function of the price limits after IPOs. We firstly make a statistical analysis based on all the IPO stocks listed from 1990 to 2015. A high dependency exists between the activities in stock's IPO and various market environment. We also focus on the price dynamics in the first 40 trading days after the stock listed. We find that price limit system will delay the price movement, especially for the up-trend movements, which may lead to longer continuous price limit hits. Similar to our previous work, many results such as ;W; shape can be also observed in the future daily return after the price limit open. At last, we find most IPO measures show evident correlations with the following price limit hits. IPO stocks with lower first-day turnover and earning per share will be followed with a longer continuous price limit hits and lower future daily return under the newest trading rules, which give us a good way to estimate the occurrence of price limit hits and the following price dynamics. Our analysis provides a better understanding of the price dynamics after IPO events and offers potential practical values for investors.

  6. Option pricing: Stock price, stock velocity and the acceleration Lagrangian

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Bhanap, Jitendra

    2014-12-01

    The industry standard Black-Scholes option pricing formula is based on the current value of the underlying security and other fixed parameters of the model. The Black-Scholes formula, with a fixed volatility, cannot match the market's option price; instead, it has come to be used as a formula for generating the option price, once the so called implied volatility of the option is provided as additional input. The implied volatility not only is an entire surface, depending on the strike price and maturity of the option, but also depends on calendar time, changing from day to day. The point of view adopted in this paper is that the instantaneous rate of return of the security carries part of the information that is provided by implied volatility, and with a few (time-independent) parameters required for a complete pricing formula. An option pricing formula is developed that is based on knowing the value of both the current price and rate of return of the underlying security which in physics is called velocity. Using an acceleration Lagrangian model based on the formalism of quantum mathematics, we derive the pricing formula for European call options. The implied volatility of the market can be generated by our pricing formula. Our option price is applied to foreign exchange rates and equities and the accuracy is compared with Black-Scholes pricing formula and with the market price.

  7. Reducing the Burden of Price.

    Hansen, Janet S.

    1984-01-01

    Setting prices for undergraduate education and assessing their effects on consumers and institutions is complicated by widespread price discounting. Student aid programs, credit, subsidized employment, and tax policy can reduce the actual costs paid by students and their families. (MSE)

  8. Pricing strategies for information goods

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    gaming, and education. ... Traditional cost-based pricing ... traditional optimisation models (for instance, the integer programming model described in ...... (1998), many of the key results that shaped modern reasoning about price and product ...

  9. cAMP/PKA regulates osteogenesis, adipogenesis and ratio of RANKL/OPG mRNA expression in mesenchymal stem cells by suppressing leptin.

    Der-Chih Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a pluripotent cell type that can differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and other cells. The reciprocal relationship between adipogenesis and osteogenesis was previously demonstrated; however, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We report that activation of PKA by 3-isobutyl-1 methyl xanthine (IBMX and forskolin enhances adipogenesis, the gene expression of PPARgamma2 and LPL, and downregulates the gene expression of Runx2 and osteopontin, markers of osteogenesis. PKA activation also decreases the ratio of Receptor Activator of the NF-kappaB Ligand to Osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG gene expression - the key factors of osteoclastogenesis. All these effects are mediated by the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway by suppressing leptin, and may contribute to PKA stimulators-induced in vivo bone loss in developing zebrafish. CONCLUSIONS: Using MSCs, the center of a newly proposed bone metabolic unit, we identified cAMP/PKA signaling, one of the many signaling pathways that regulate bone homeostasis via controlling cyto-differentiation of MSCs and altering RANKL/OPG gene expression.

  10. Furosin, an ellagitannin, suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and function through inhibition of MAP kinase activation and actin ring formation

    Park, Eui Kyun; Kim, Myung Sunny; Lee, Seung Ho; Kim, Kyung Hee; Park, Ju-Young; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, In-Seon; Woo, Je-Tae; Jung, Jae-Chang; Shin, Hong-In; Choi, Je-Yong; Kim, Shin-Yoon

    2004-01-01

    Phenolic compounds including tannins and flavonoids have been implicated in suppression of osteoclast differentiation/function and prevention of bone diseases. However, the effects of hydrolysable tannins on bone metabolism remain to be elucidated. In this study, we found that furosin, a hydrolysable tannin, markedly decreased the differentiation of both murine bone marrow mononuclear cells and Raw264.7 cells into osteoclasts, as revealed by the reduced number of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells and decreased TRAP activity. Furosin appears to target at the early stage of osteoclastic differentiation while having no cytotoxic effect on osteoclast precursors. Analysis of the inhibitory mechanisms of furosin revealed that it inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activating protein-1 (AP-1). Furthermore, furosin reduced resorption pit formation in osteoclasts, which was accompanied by disruption of the actin rings. Taken together, these results demonstrate that naturally occurring furosin has an inhibitory activity on both osteoclast differentiation and function through mechanisms involving inhibition of the RANKL-induced p38MAPK and JNK/AP-1 activation as well as actin ring formation

  11. Sugar recognition by human galactokinase

    Timson David J

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactokinases from different sources have a range of substrate specificities and a diversity of kinetic mechanisms. Therefore only studies on the human enzyme are likely to be of value in the design of therapeutically useful inhibitors. Results Using recombinant human galactokinase expressed in and purified from E. coli we have investigated the sugar specificity of the enzyme and the kinetic consequences of mutating residues in the sugar-binding site in order to improve our understanding of substrate recognition by this enzyme. D-galactose and 2-deoxy-D-galactose are substrates for the enzyme, but N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, L-arabinose, D-fucose and D-glucose are all not phosphorylated. Mutation of glutamate-43 (which forms a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl group attached to carbon 6 of galactose to alanine results in only minor changes in the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. Mutation of this residue to glycine causes a ten-fold drop in the turnover number. In contrast, mutation of histidine 44 to either alanine or isoleucine results in insoluble protein following expression in E. coli. Alteration of the residue that makes hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl attached to carbons 3 and 4 (aspartate 46 results in an enzyme that although soluble is essentially inactive. Conclusions The enzyme is tolerant to small changes at position 2 of the sugar ring, but not at positions 4 and 6. The results from site directed mutagenesis could

  12. Pricing objectives in nonprofit hospitals.

    Bauerschmidt, A D; Jacobs, P

    1985-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of 60 financial managers of nonprofit hospitals in the eastern United States relating to the importance of a number of factors which influence their pricing decisions and the pricing objectives which they pursue. Among the results uncovered by the responses: that trustees are the single most important body in the price-setting process (doctors play a relatively unimportant role); that hospital pricing goals are more related to target net revenue than profit ma...

  13. Immigration and Swiss House Prices

    Kathrin Degen; Andreas M. Fischer

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the behavior of Swiss house prices to immigration flows for 85 districts from 2001 to 2006. The results show that the nexus between immigration and house prices holds even in an environment of low house price inflation, nationwide rent control, and modest immigration flows. An immigration inflow equal to 1% of an area's population is coincident with an increase in prices for single-family homes of about 2.7%: a result consistent with previous studies. The overall immigrati...

  14. Brand the Pricing: Critical Critique

    Alam Kazmi, Syed Hasnain

    2015-01-01

    Brand pricing decision models and established theories in the marketing and econometrics focus typically on assuming the symmetric competing businesses. The empirical generalities are key for strategic marketplace planning. The significance of pricing to customer store and brand choices are always regarded as a widely known truth among marketing scholars and explains consumer’s role responding to their psychological representations of price rather than price itself. Scholars have ...

  15. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  16. Strategic pricing of equity issues

    Klaus Ritzberger; Frank Milne

    2002-01-01

    Consider a general equilibrium model where agents may behave strategically. Specifically, suppose some firm issues new shares. If the primary market price is controlled by the issuing institution and investors' expectations on future equity prices are constant in their share purchases, the share price on the primary market cannot exceed the secondary market share price. In certain cases this may imply strict underpricing of newly issued shares. If investors perceive an influence on future sha...

  17. Pricing of Asian temperature risk

    Benth, Fred; Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; López Cabrera, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Weather derivatives (WD) are different from most financial derivatives because the underlying weather cannot be traded and therefore cannot be replicated by other financial instruments. The market price of risk (MPR) is an important parameter of the associated equivalent martingale measures used to price and hedge weather futures/options in the market. The majority of papers so far have priced non-tradable assets assuming zero MPR, but this assumption underestimates WD prices. We study the MP...

  18. Increase The Sugar Concentration of The Solution Sugar by Reverse Osmotic Membrane

    Redjeki, S.; Hapsari, N.; Iriani

    2018-01-01

    Sugar is one of the basic needs of people and food and drink industry. As technology advances and the demand for efficient usage of sugar rises, crystal sugar is seen as less advantageous than liquid sugar. If sugar is always dissolved in water before use, then it will be more efficient and practical for consumers to use sugar in liquid form than in crystal form. Other than that, liquid sugar is also attractive to consumers because it is economical, hygienic, instantly soluble in hot and cold water, fresher and longer-lasting, able to thicken and enrich the texture of foods and drinks, and functions as sweetener, syrup, and flavor enhancer. Liquid sugar is also more beneficial for sugar producers because of simpler production process, cheaper production cost, and similar yield with no extra cost. In sugar production, separation process is found in most of its stages and therefore the use of membrane technology for separating solute and water content has a good potential. In this research, water content reduction of sugar solution was done in order to increase the sugar concentration of the solution. The parameters of this research were 4%, 5%, and 6% starting concentration of sugar solution; 20, 40, and 60 minutes of process time; and 85 and 60 PSI ΔP. The best result was acquired on 4% starting concentration, 60 PSI ΔP, and 60 minutes process time.

  19. Sugar-free medicines are counterproductive.

    Sundar, S

    2012-09-01

    Sugar in food and drinks is responsible for the poor dental health of many children and adults. On the other hand, there is no evidence that the small amount of sugar in medicines has been responsible for any dental problems. A recent British Heart Foundation survey found that nearly one in three UK children are eating sweets, chocolate and crisps three or more times a day. Hence it is futile administering sugar-free medicine to a child consuming lot of sweets. Moreover, sugar in medicines makes them palatable and bitter medicines inevitably affect compliance with the prescribed treatment. Poor compliance leads to inadequate treatment of illness and consequently increases the risk of complications from illness. Hence sugar-free medicines promoted as a public health policy could have actually caused more harm than any meaningful net benefit. There is an urgent need for a healthy debate and a fresh look at the policy of promoting sugar-free medicines.

  20. Price Regulations in a Multi-unit Uniform Price Auction

    Boom, Anette

    not exceed the price cap whereas a selective bid cap for only the larger firms, does not guarantee this outcome. A sufficiently high bid floor always destroys pure strategy equilibria with equilibrium prices above the marginal costs, no matter whether the floor applies to all or only to relatively small......Inspired by recent regulations in the New York ICAP market we examine the effect of different price regulations on a multi-unit uniform price auction. We investigate a bid cap and a bid foor. Given suffciently high total capacities general bid caps always ensure that the market price does...

  1. Price Regulations in a Multi-unit Uniform Price Auction

    Boom, Anette

    Inspired by recent regulations in the New York ICAP market we examine the effect of different price regulations on a multi-unit uniform price auction. We investigate a bid cap and a bid foor. Given suffciently high total capacities general bid caps always ensure that the market price does...... not exceed the price cap whereas a selective bid cap for only the larger firms, does not guarantee this outcome. A sufficiently high bid floor always destroys pure strategy equilibria with equilibrium prices above the marginal costs, no matter whether the floor applies to all or only to relatively small...

  2. Asymmetric Price Effects of Competition

    Lach, S.; Moraga Gonzalez, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    When price dispersion is prevalent, a relevant question is what happens to the whole distribution of equilibrium prices when the number of firms changes. Using data from the gasoline market in the Netherlands, we find, first, that markets with N competitors have price distributions that first-order

  3. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  4. The Pricing of Economics Books.

    Laband, David; Hudson, John

    2003-01-01

    Examines the pricing and other characteristics of books. Notes substantial increases in book prices between 2000 and 1985 data. Suggests a major factor is the increasing importance of foreign presses that sell books at higher prices. Indicates that discount on paperbacks appear to have been relatively stable in the two years studied. (JEH)

  5. Asymmetric price effects of competition

    Lach, S.; Moraga González, José

    2017-01-01

    When price dispersion is prevalent, a relevant question is what happens to the whole distribution of equilibrium prices when the number of firms changes. Using data from the gasoline market in the Netherlands, we find, first, that markets with N competitors have price distributions that first‐order

  6. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  7. Patients' views on price shopping and price transparency.

    Semigran, Hannah L; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Sinaiko, Anna D; Cowling, David; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the growth of high deductibles and price transparency initiatives, patients are being encouraged to search for prices before seeking care, yet few do so. To understand why this is the case, we interviewed individuals who were offered access to a widely used price transparency website through their employer. Qualitative interviews. We interviewed individuals enrolled in a preferred provider organization product through their health plan about their experience using the price transparency tool (if they had done so), their past medical experiences, and their opinions on shopping for care. All interviews were transcribed and manually coded using a thematic coding guide. In general, respondents expressed frustration with healthcare costs and had a positive opinion of the idea of price shopping in theory, but 2 sets of barriers limited their ability to do so in reality. The first was the salience of searching for price information. For example, respondents recognized that due to their health plan benefits design, they would not save money by switching to a lower-cost provider. Second, other factors were more important than price for respondents when choosing a provider, including quality and loyalty to current providers. We found a disconnect between respondents' enthusiasm for price shopping and their reported use of a price transparency tool to shop for care. However, many did find the tool useful for other purposes, including checking their claims history. Addressing the barriers to price shopping identified by respondents can help inform ongoing and future price transparency initiatives.

  8. The relation between food price, energy density and diet quality

    Margareta Bolarić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low energy density diet, high in fruits and vegetables, is related to lower obesity risk and to better health status, but is more expensive. High energy density diet, high in added sugar and fats, is more affordable, but is related to higher obesity and chronic diseases risk. The aim of this study was to report prices according to energy density (low vs. high of food items and to show how food affordability could affect food choice and consumers’ health. Data was collected for 137 raw and processed foods from three purchase sites in Zagreb (one representative for supermarket, one smaller shop and green market. Results showed that low energy density food is more expensive than high energy density food (for example, the price of 1000 kcal from green zucchini (15 kcal/100 g is 124.20 kn while the price of 1000 kcal from sour cream (138 kcal/100 g is 13.99 kn. Food energy price was significantly different (p<0.05 between food groups with highest price for vegetable products (159.04 ± 36.18 kn/1000 kcal and raw vegetables (97.90 ± 50.13 kn/1000 kcal and lowest for fats (8.49 ± 1.22 kn/1000 kcal and cereals and products (5.66 ± 0.76 kn/1000 kcal. Negative correlation (Spearman r=-0.72, p<0.0001 was observed for energy density (kcal/100 g and price of 1000 kcal. Therefore, it is advisable to develop strategies in order to reduce price of low energy density food and encourage its intake since it would improve diet quality, which could lead to better costumers’ health.

  9. Uranium price forecasting methods

    Fuller, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again

  10. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry

    Diaz Riso, O.; Griffith Martinez, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

  11. Albania Residential Prices

    Luciana Koprencka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The real estate market is complex and influenced by too many factors. Real Estate market in Albania has experienced a boom after the 1990. We have inherited from the communist system a very poor market of housing. The number of dwellings in 1990 in Albania was 219 dwellings per 1000 inhabitants and the useful floor space was 5 m² per person, but in Bulgaria number of dwellings per 1,000 people varies 465 and in Romania average useful floor space per person was 37 sq. The data used in this study are derived from the database of the World Bank, the Institute of Statistics, reports of Bank of Albania also from information provided individually on the ground and different sources. In this study is analyzed the relationship that exists between economic growth, remittances and the price of dwellings in Albania. The dependent variable is the average price of housing in major cities of Albania. Independent variables in the model are GDP per capita and the remittances. The Econometric model is a Linear Regress equation and the period are the years from 1998 to 2013. The model used is the statistical program EViews 6.0. Unfortunately the information let the desired, so we do not have an official detailed information on prices of Albanian real estate market. In Albania few researchers have been studying real estate market in Albania.

  12. Record prices [crude oil

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    Crude oil prices climbed to new record levels on fears of a future loss of supplies from Iran as Washington stepped up its efforts to persuade Tehran to abandon its programme to produce nuclear fuel. IPE's December Brent contract set a new record for the exchange by trading at $75.80/bbl on 21st April. On the same day October WTI reached an all-time high of $77.30/bbl on Nymex. US product prices gained as refiners struggled to produce sufficient middle distillate. Alarmed by the rising retail price of gasoline, the US Senate debated a reduction in the already low US tax rate on motor spirit. The House of Representatives passed a measure to prohibit overcharging for petrol, diesel and heating oil, but Democrats rejected a Republican proposal to speed-up the process for approving new refineries. President George W Bush announced a temporary easing of new gasoline and diesel specifications (see 'Focus', March 2006) to allow more fuel to be produced. He also agreed to delay the repayment of some 2.1 mn bbl of crude oil lent to companies after last year's hurricanes from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. California announced an inquiry into alleged overcharging for fuel by oil companies operating in the state. (author)

  13. Price Competition or Tacit Collusion

    Yano, Makoto; Komatsubara, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Every now and then, we observe a fierce price war in a real world market, through which competing firms end up with a Bertrand-like price competition equilibrium. Despite this, very little has been known in the existing literature as to why a price competition market is formed. We address this question in the context of a choice between engaging in price competition and holding a price leader. Focusing on a duopoly market, we demonstrate that if supply is tight relative to demand, and if the ...

  14. Chaotic structure of oil prices

    Bildirici, Melike; Sonustun, Fulya Ozaksoy

    2018-01-01

    The fluctuations in oil prices are very complicated and therefore, it is unable to predict its effects on economies. For modelling complex system of oil prices, linear economic models are not sufficient and efficient tools. Thus, in recent years, economists attached great attention to non-linear structure of oil prices. For analyzing this relationship, GARCH types of models were used in some papers. Distinctively from the other papers, in this study, we aimed to analyze chaotic pattern of oil prices. Thus, it was used the Lyapunov Exponents and Hennon Map to determine chaotic behavior of oil prices for the selected time period.

  15. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  16. The impact of electricity price changes on industrial prices and the general price level in Korea

    Lim, Seul-Ye; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Electricity has played an important role in the economic development of Korea and, thus, has become a critical factor in sustaining the well-being of the Korean people. This study attempts to investigate the impact of electricity price changes on industrial prices and the general price level using input–output (I–O) analysis. To this end, we apply the I–O price model to the 2011 I–O table recently produced by the Bank of Korea, paying particular attention to the electricity sector by considering it as exogenous and then investigating its impacts. The impacts of the electricity price changes on each industrial sector's prices and the general price level are quantitatively derived. For example, the overall impact of a 10% increase in electricity price on the Korean national economy is estimated to be 0.4367%. We also report the results from the model with the electricity sector endogenous and the model with endogenous electricity and labor sectors. This information can be usefully utilized in decision-making regarding price management for electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the impact of electricity price changes on the Korean economy. • We use the input–output (I–O) analysis specifying the electricity sector as exogenous. • We apply the I–O price model to 2010 I–O table produced by the Bank of Korea. • The impact of a 10% increase in electricity price on the Korean economy is 0.2176%

  17. Price floors for emissions trading

    Wood, Peter John; Jotzo, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Price floors in greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes can guarantee minimum abatement efforts if prices are lower than expected, and they can help manage cost uncertainty, possibly as complements to price ceilings. Provisions for price floors are found in several recent legislative proposals for emissions trading. Implementation however has potential pitfalls. Possible mechanisms are government commitments to buy back permits, a reserve price at auction, or an extra fee or tax on acquittal of emissions permits. Our analysis of these alternatives shows that the fee approach has budgetary advantages and is more compatible with international permit trading than the alternatives. It can also be used to implement more general hybrid approaches to emissions pricing. - Research highlights: → Price floors for emissions trading schemes guarantee a minimum carbon price. → Price floors mean that emissions can be less than specified by the ETS cap. → We examine how price floors can relate to different policy objectives. → We compare different mechanisms for implementing a price floor. → We find that a mechanism where there is an extra tax or fee has advantages.

  18. Conversion of yellow crude sugar into alcohol. Conversion of yellow crude sugar in a mixture with sugar beet molasses

    Krishtul, F B; Malchenko, A L; Poluyanova, M T; Gromovich, V F; Maskimova, E A; Golodovskaya, A I; Pal' gova, L S

    1963-01-01

    Crude sugar (96.5 to 98.4% sucrose) in a mixture with molasses can be converted into alcohol by either batchwise or continuous fermentation processes with good process characteristics. Best yields are obtained when the amount of crude sugar is not more than 50% of the total weight of fermenting material. The bakers' yeast and alcohol produced are of good quality.

  19. A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children

    de Ruyter, Janne C; Olthof, Margreet R; Seidell, Jacob C; Katan, Martijn B

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The consumption of beverages that contain sugar is associated with overweight, possibly because liquid sugars do not lead to a sense of satiety, so the consumption of other foods is not reduced. However, data are lacking to show that the replacement of sugar-containing beverages with

  20. Effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar ...

    To investigate the effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar metabolism related enzymes in Qingzhong loquat fruit development, the contents of sucrose, glucose and soluble solids as well as the activities of sugar metabolism related enzymes were evaluated. The content of sucrose, glucose and ...

  1. Trading network predicts stock price.

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  2. Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While it is possi...... of all countries, independently of whether world prices change and independently of the relative numbers of goods and countries.......We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While...... it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare...

  3. Price setting in turbulent times

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Pétursdóttir, Ásgerdur; Vignisdóttir, Karen Á.

    This price setting survey among Icelandic firms aims to make two contributions to the literature. First, it studies price setting in an advanced economy within a more turbulent macroeconomic environment than has previously been done. The results indicate that price adjustments are to a larger...... extent driven by exchange rate fluctuations than in most other advanced countries. The median Icelandic firm reviews its prices every four months and changes them every six months. The main sources of price rigidity and the most commonly used price setting methods are the same as in most other countries....... A second contribution to the literature is our analysis of the nexus between price setting and exchange rate movements, a topic that has attracted surprisingly limited attention in this survey-based literature. A novel aspect of our approach is to base our analysis on a categorisation of firms...

  4. Oil price uncertainty in Canada

    Elder, John [Department of Finance and Real Estate, 1272 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)

  5. Industrial Pricing: Theory and Managerial Practice

    Peter M. Noble; Thomas S. Gruca

    1999-01-01

    We organize the existing theoretical pricing research into a new two-level framework for industrial goods pricing. The first level consists of four pricing situations: New Product, Competitive, Product Line, and Cost-based. The second level consists of the pricing strategies appropriate for a given situation. For example, within the new product pricing situation, there are three alternative pricing strategies: Skim, Penetration, and Experience Curve pricing. There are a total of ten pricing s...

  6. ASSESSING THE GOVERNANCE FOR COMMODITY PRICE STABILIZATION - A RETROSPECTIVE LOOK

    Pop Larisa Nicoleta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The volatility of commodity prices has become once again a matter of profound and controversial debates for both political and academic spheres worldwide in the framework of the global economy severely distressed by the recent economic turbulences. Although commodity markets were already notorious for their price instability, the events the world economy experienced in the years 2000s offered new connotations to this phenomenon. In the first decade of this millennium, the commodity markets have struggled with high volatility, with prices reaching historical peaks just to crash dramatically some months later and very soon to restart their rise. The significant increase in volatility generated many debates about its triggering factors, the implications in terms of risk exposure of economic actors, but also the need for reconfiguring regulatory policy frameworks. The quest for the most appropriate means to deal with commodity price turbulences has known different stages over the years. Decision makers worldwide have sought alternatives, formulated and tested various mechanisms whose central aim was to mitigate price fluctuations. Governments formulate and implement consistent regulatory policies whose international coordination is a ‘sine qua non’ condition for stabilizing these markets. However, the turbulences on commodity markets often generate policy responses that sometimes exacerbate rather than mitigate the price instability. The purpose of this paper is to assess the subject of governance regarding commodity price stabilization, offering a retrospective look at the mechanisms implemented over the years, with a central focus on the International Commodity Agreements – instruments through which in the previous decades the producer and consumer governments worldwide pursued price stabilization for some key commodities like sugar, coffee, cocoa, tin and natural rubber. After analyzing the effectiveness of the International Agreements and

  7. Enhancing medicine price transparency through price information mechanisms.

    Hinsch, Michael; Kaddar, Miloud; Schmitt, Sarah

    2014-05-08

    Medicine price information mechanisms provide an essential tool to countries that seek a better understanding of product availability, market prices and price compositions of individual medicines. To be effective and contribute to cost savings, these mechanisms need to consider prices in their particular contexts when comparing between countries. This article discusses in what ways medicine price information mechanisms can contribute to increased price transparency and how this may affect access to medicines for developing countries. We used data collected during the course of a WHO project focusing on the development of a vaccine price and procurement information mechanism. The project collected information from six medicine price information mechanisms and interviewed data managers and technical experts on key aspects as well as observed market effects of these mechanisms.The reviewed mechanisms were broken down into categories including objective and target audience, as well as the sources, types and volumes of data included. Information provided by the mechanisms was reviewed according to data available on medicine prices, product characteristics, and procurement modalities. We found indications of positive effects on access to medicines resulting from the utilization of the reviewed mechanisms. These include the uptake of higher quality medicines, more favorable results from contract negotiations, changes in national pricing policies, and the decrease of prices in certain segments for countries participating in or deriving data from the various mechanisms. The reviewed mechanisms avoid the methodological challenges observed for medicine price comparisons that only use national price databases. They work with high quality data and display prices in the appropriate context of procurement modalities as well as the peculiarities of purchasing countries. Medicine price information mechanisms respond to the need for increased medicine price transparency and have the

  8. Ex-vessel Fish Price Database: Disaggregating Prices for Low-Priced Species from Reduction Fisheries

    Travis C. Tai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ex-vessel fish prices are essential for comprehensive fisheries management and socioeconomic analyses for fisheries science. In this paper, we reconstructed a global ex-vessel price database with the following areas of improvement: (1 compiling reported prices explicitly listed as “for reduction to fishmeal and fish oil” to estimate prices separately for catches destined for fishmeal and fish oil production, and other non-direct human consumption purposes; (2 including 95% confidence limit estimates for each price estimation; and (3 increasing the number of input data and the number of price estimates to match the reconstructed Sea Around Us catch database. Our primary focus was to address this first area of improvement as ex-vessel prices for catches destined for non-direct human consumption purposes were substantially overestimated, notably in countries with large reduction fisheries. For example in Peru, 2010 landed values were estimated as 3.8 billion real 2010 USD when using separate prices for reduction fisheries, compared with 5.8 billion using previous methods with only one price for all end-products. This update of the price database has significant global and country-specific impacts on fisheries price and landed value trends over time.

  9. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  10. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and…

  11. Engineering of sugar metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    Pool, Weia Arianne

    2008-01-01

    Short English Summary Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium used in the dairy industry. This thesis decribes the genetic engineering performed on the sugar metabolism of L. lactis. Besides our fundamental interest for sugar metabolism and its regulation in L. lactis, this project had the

  12. Blood Sugar Testing: Why, When and How

    ... exercise affect blood sugar levels Understand how other factors, such as illness or stress, affect blood sugar levels Monitor the effect of ... appropriate device for you. Your doctor or diabetes educator can also help you ... how the process works: Wash and dry your hands well. Insert a ...

  13. Sugar amino acids and related molecules

    Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature's molecular arsenal. In recent years, sugar amino acids have been used extensively in the area of ...

  14. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp.

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative

  15. A sugar maple planting study in Vermont

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Clayton M. Carl

    1970-01-01

    Past attempts to establish sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by planting have generally met with little success. The failures have been blamed mainly on competition by other vegetation and on damage done by animals. Finding an effective way to establish sugar maple seedlings is a key part in the research being carried on in Vermont by the USDA Forest Service to...

  16. Sugar maple: its characteristics and potentials

    Ralph D. Nyland

    1999-01-01

    Sugar maple dominates the northern hardwood forest, but grows over a broader geographic area. Conditions of soil and climate largely limit its distribution, and account for its less continuous cover along fringes of the range. Sugar maple regenerates readily following a wide range of overstory treatments. Success depends upon its status as advance regeneration,...

  17. Grading sugar pine saw logs in trees.

    John W. Henley

    1972-01-01

    Small limbs and small overgrown limbs cause problems when grading saw logs in sugar pine trees. Surface characteristics and lumber recovery information for 426 logs from 64 sugar pine trees were examined. Resulting modifications in the grading specification that allow a grader to ignore small limbs and small limb indicators do not appear to decrease the performance of...

  18. Substance P Promotes the Proliferation, but Inhibits Differentiation and Mineralization of Osteoblasts from Rats with Spinal Cord Injury via RANKL/OPG System.

    Hai-Juan Liu

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI causes a significant amount of bone loss, which results in osteoporosis (OP. The neuropeptide substance P (SP and SP receptors may play important roles in the pathogenesis of OP after SCI. To identify the roles of SP in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived osteoblasts (BMSC-OB in SCI rats, we investigated the expression of neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R in BMSC-OB and the effects of SP on bone formation by development of BMSC-OB cultures. Sixty young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: SHAM and SCI. The expression of NK1R protein in BMSC-OB was observed using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The dose- and time-dependent effects of SP on the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of BMSC-OB and the expression of osteoblastic markers by in vitro experiments. The expression of NK1R in BMSC-OB was observed on plasma membranes and in cytoplasm. One week after osteogenic differentiation, the expression of NK1R was significantly increased after SCI at mRNA and protein levels. However, this difference was gradually attenuated at 2 or 3 weeks later. SP have the function to enhance cell proliferation, inhibite cell differentiation and mineralization at a proper concentration and incubation time, and this effect would be inhibited by adding SP or NK1R antagonist. The expression of RANKL/OPG was significantly increased in tibiae after SCI. Similarly, the RANKL/OPG expression in SCI rats was significantly increased when treating with 10-8 M SP. SP plays a very important role in the pathogenesis of OP after SCI. The direct effect of SP may lead to increased bone resorption through the RANKL/OPG axis after SCI. In addition, high expression of SP also results in the suppression of osteogenesis in SCI rats. Then, the balance between bone resorption and bone formation was broken and finally osteoporosis occurred.

  19. Price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores.

    Powell, Lisa M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Zenk, Shannon N; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage price promotions may be potential targets for public health initiatives but have not been well documented. We assessed prevalence and patterns of price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores by store type, product package size, and product healthfulness. We also assessed associations of price promotions with community characteristics and product prices. In-store data collected in 2010-2012 from 8959 food stores in 468 communities spanning 46 U.S. states were used. Differences in the prevalence of price promotions were tested across stores types, product varieties, and product package sizes. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations of presence of price promotions with community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and with product prices. The prevalence of price promotions across all 44 products sampled was, on average, 13.4% in supermarkets (ranging from 9.1% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 18.2% for sugar-sweetened beverages), 4.5% in grocery stores (ranging from 2.5% for milk to 6.6% for breads and cereals), and 2.6% in limited service stores (ranging from 1.2% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 4.1% for breads and cereals). No differences were observed by community characteristics. Less-healthy versus more-healthy product varieties and larger versus smaller product package sizes generally had a higher prevalence of price promotion, particularly in supermarkets. On average, in supermarkets, price promotions were associated with 15.2% lower prices. The observed patterns of price promotions warrant more attention in public health food environment research and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The sugar industry in Peru

    Klaren, Peter F.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North». In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.

    La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista». La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.