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Sample records for suckling period improves

  1. Intermittent suckling during an extended lactation period: Effects on piglet behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkeveld, M.; Langendijk, P.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Koets, A.P.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Taverne, M.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine how intermittent suckling (IS) affects nursing behavior, litter activity, and general behavioral patterns during lactation, and whether IS during an extended lactation period results in behavioral patterns associated with piglet distress.

  2. Feeding a Diet Enriched in Docosahexaenoic Acid to Lactating Dams Improves the Tolerance Response to Egg Protein in Suckled Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Richard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one of two nutritionally adequate diets throughout the suckling period: control (N = 12, 0% DHA or DHA (N = 8, 0.9% DHA diet. At 11 days, pups from each dam were randomly assigned to a mucosal OT challenge: the placebo or the ovalbumin (OVA treatment. At three weeks, plasma immunoglobulins and splenocyte cytokine production ex vivo were measured. OVA-tolerized pups had a lower Th2 (IL-13 response to OVA despite the presence of more activated T cells and memory cells (CD27+, all p < 0.05. Feeding a high DHA diet improved the ability of splenocytes to respond to mitogens toward a skewed Th1 response and led to a higher IL-10 and a lower TGF-β production after stimulation with OVA (all p < 0.05. Untolerized DHA-fed pups had lower plasma concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (p for interaction < 0.05. Overall, feeding a high DHA maternal diet improves the tolerance response in untolerized suckled pups in a direction that is thought to be beneficial for the establishment of OT.

  3. Influence Of Summer Season On Some Biochemical And Hormonal Changes In Crossbred Cows During Suckling Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teama, F.E.I.; Gad, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    According to the seasonal variations in environmental conditions in post-partum cows, some biochemical and physiological changes which affect the productive efficiency of farm animals may occur. This study was conducted in the bovine farm of Experimental Farms Project of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt, to evaluate some blood biochemical and some hormonal changes during the suckling period in crossbred cows under winter and summer conditions. Alterations in metabolites and metabolic hormones during the first 10 weeks post-partum in both winter and summer during a period of suckling were analyzed on a total of 13 crossbred (Brown Swiss X Balady) cows (winter, n=7; summer, n=6). The blood samples were taken at 2 weeks intervals, 5 times in each season to determine the concentrations and changes in glucose, urea, total cholesterol, total proteins and some hormones including leptin, T4 and progesterone (P4) under winter and summer conditions. The data indicated that total protein (P<0.01), glucose (P<0.05), leptin (P<0.01), total cholesterol (P<0.01), and T4 (P<0.01) had significant seasonal differences between the two calving groups. A positive correlation coefficient was observed between leptin and T4 hormone. From the obtained data, it could be concluded that in summer season, certain biochemical and hormonal levels of calving cows may enhanced but not enough to affect the levels of urea and progesterone. The positive correlation between leptin and T4 may indicate association in the rate of metabolism.

  4. Arginine Deficiency Causes Runting in the Suckling Period by Selectively Activating the Stress Kinase GCN2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marion, Vincent; Sankaranarayanan, Selvakumari; de Theije, Chiel; van Dijk, Paul; Lindsey, Patrick; Lamers, Marinus C.; Harding, Heather P.; Ron, David; Lamers, Wouter H.; Koehler, S. Eleonore

    2011-01-01

    Suckling "F/A2" mice, which overexpress arginase-I in their enterocytes, develop a syndrome (hypoargininemia, reduced hair and muscle growth, impaired B-cell maturation) that resembles IGF1 deficiency. The syndrome may result from an impaired function of the GH-IGF1 axis, activation of the

  5. IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF SUCKLING LAMBS BY SUPPLEMENTATION THEIR DIETS WITH SOME NUTRIENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SALEH, S.A.; SALEH, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-two newly born lambs were randomly divided into four similar groups; their weights were recorded at birth then every two weeks. Lambs in the groups were left to suckle their mothers, in addition to one of the experimental diets (as creep feeding). First group (G1) fed diet without any supplemental nutrients and served as a control diet, second group (G2) fed the same control diet with muscle injection of 2 ml vitamins AD 3 E for two days consecutively per twice weeks, third group (G3) fed diet contained 0.5% mineral mixture and fourth group (G4) fed diet contained 0.5% mineral mixture and muscle injection with 2 ml vitamins AD 3 E for two days consecutive per twice weeks. The concentrate feed mixture was offered daily started at 7 th days of age until weaning. Blood samples were taken at 7, 40 and 70 days of age. The results showed that the averages daily body weight gain and weaning weight of lambs were higher significantly in G3 and G4 than G1 and G2. The highest means of serum total proteins, albumin and globulin were recorded in G3 and G4 followed by G1 and G2. Means of serum glucose were significantly decreased with age while means of serum urea-N were increased. Blood serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, serum cholesterol and T3 were not affected by treatments. It is concluded that minerals mixture have better effect than vitamins AD 3 E when added to creep feeding diets. So, it improved growth of suckling lambs without any side effects on physiological body function of lambs

  6. Intermittent suckling improves post-weaning feed uptake but does not change functional gut characteristics of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas; Gudbergsen, C.; Bresson, Sven

    2007-01-01

    Suckling pigs were separated from their dam for 24 h on day 21 (1x24 h fasting, n=10) or day 21 and 24 (2x24 h fasting, n=10). Pigs in the control group (n=10) were not fasted before weaning.......Suckling pigs were separated from their dam for 24 h on day 21 (1x24 h fasting, n=10) or day 21 and 24 (2x24 h fasting, n=10). Pigs in the control group (n=10) were not fasted before weaning....

  7. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation during the Suckling Period on Auditory Neural Conduction in n-3 Fatty Acid-Deficient Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vida rahimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Omega 3 fatty acid especially in the form of fish oil, has structural and biological role in the body's various systems especially nervous system. Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory is one of the affected systems. Omega 3 deficiency can have devastating effects on the nervous system and auditory. This study aimed to evaluate neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil consumption during the suckling period Materials and Methods: In this interventional and experimental study, one sources of omega3 fatty acid (fish oil were fed to rat pups of n-3 PUFA-deficient dams to compare changes in their auditory neural conduction with that of control and n-3 PUFA-deficient groups, using Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR. The parameters of interest were P1, P3, P4 absolute latency, P1-P3, P1-P4 and P3-P4 IPL , P4/P1 amplitude ratio . The rat pups were given oral fish oil, 5 Ml /g weight for 17 days, between the age of 5 and 21 days. Results There were no significant group differences in P1 and P3 absolute latency (p > 0.05. but the result in P4 was significant(P ≤ 0.05 . The n-3 PUFA deficient +vehicle had the most prolonged (the worst P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL compared with control and n-3 PUFA deficient + FO groups. There was no significant difference in P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between n-3 PUFA deficient + FO and control groups (p > 0.05.There was a significant effect of diet on P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between groups (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results of present study showed the effect of omega3 deficiency on auditory neural structure during pregnancy and lactation period. Additionally, we observed the reduced devastating effects on neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil during the suckling period

  8. Influence of nutrition and suckling patterns on the postpartum cyclic activity of swamp buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongsrikeao, W.; Boon-Ek, L.; Wanapat, M.; Taesakul, S.

    1990-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of nutrition and suckling patterns on the ovarian cyclicity of postpartum buffaloes. In Study 1, which was conducted on an institutional farm, two different diets were fed to 24 buffaloes during late gestation and postpartum period. Restricted (twice daily) suckling began on day 30 postpartum in half the animals on each diet. The body weight of both ad libitum suckled and twice daily suckled groups declined during the postpartum period, irrespective of the diet fed. Buffaloes subjected to restricted suckling lost less body weight and re-established ovarian cyclicity earlier than those suckled ad libitum. In Study 2, which was conducted under village conditions, temporary calf removal for 72 hours on days 91-93 postpartum in anoestrous buffaloes induced the re-establishment of ovarian cyclicity within 14 days. (author). 11 refs, 7 tabs

  9. An improved test for periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    I discuss two widely used methods of testing for periodicity, phase dispersion minimization and epoch-folding. Using an analysis of variance approach, I demonstrate the close relationship between these two methods. I also show that the significance test sometimes used in phase dispersion minimization is statistically inaccurate, and that the test used in epoch-folding is an approximation valid only for large sample sizes. I propose a new test statistic, applicable to either epoch-folding or PDM, which is statistically sound for all sample sizes, and which is also more sensitive to periodicity than the test statistics previously used with these two methods. (author)

  10. Fatty acid composition of meat of Sarda suckling lamb

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fat has an important role in human nutrition because can help to reduce the risk of appearance of some diseases. In this work fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb was studied in order to improve meat fat quality in relation to human health. Aim of this thesis was firstly to assess the effect of different management systems, indoor vs. outdoor, on fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb. Lambs which followed their mother on pasture h...

  11. Extending the duration of treatment with progesterone and equine chorionic gonadotropin improves fertility in suckled beef cows with low body condition score subjected to timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, M G; Massara, N; Ramos, S; Zapata, L O; Farcey, M F; Pesoa, J; Turic, E; Vázquez, M I; Bartolome, J A

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an extended progesterone treatment on follicular development and fertility in postpartum, suckled beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI). In experiment 1, cows (n = 24) with body condition score (BCS) ≥4.5 received either a 2-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -23 or a 0.558-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -9. Then, all cows received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate on Day -9; removal of the device, 1-mg estradiol cypionate, and PGF2α on Day -2; and TAI on Day 0. Metabolic status was assessed between Days -9 and -2. Ovarian structures and plasma progesterone were determined weekly from Day -23 to -9, daily from Day -9 to 0, and weekly until Day 28. In experiment 2, cows (n = 302) with BCS ≥4.5 received identical treatment to cows in experiment 1, but on Day -2, cows received 400 IU of two different commercial preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Ovarian structures were determined on Days -23 and -9 on a subset of cows (n = 40). Pregnancy was determined 39 days after TAI. In experiment 3, multiparous cows (n = 244) with BCS cows in experiment 1 initiated on Day -18, and on Day -2, cows received 400 IU of eCG or no treatment. Ovarian structures were determined in a subset of cows (n = 31) on Days -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, and on Day 10. Pregnancy was determined 39 days after TAI. The results indicated that in experiment 1, plasma progesterone was higher in treated than nontreated (control cows) during the first 14 days (P = 0.0001). The extended progesterone treatment increased the size of the largest follicle between Days -23 and Day -5 (Group by Day, P = 0.04) and tended to increase the size of the dominant follicle from Day -5 to Day -1 (Group by Day, P = 0.06). There was no effect of metabolic status or interaction between metabolic status and day on follicular growth. In experiment 2, extended progesterone treatment tended to increase the

  12. Effects of restricted and free suckling

    OpenAIRE

    Fröberg, Sofie

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study the effects of restricted and free suckling in comparison with non-suckling on production and behaviour of cow and calf in dairy production systems. In the first and second study cows of Zebu × Holstein (n=24) and Holstein breed (n=27) and their calves were allocated to two treatments, restricted suckling (RS) and artificial rearing (AR) and studied during eight weeks. In the first study calves were present during milking and RS calves suckled after milking...

  13. Artificial suckling in Martina Franca donkey foals: effect on in vivo performances and carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palo, Pasquale; Maggiolino, Aristide; Milella, Paola; Centoducati, Nicola; Papaleo, Alessandro; Tateo, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest on donkey milk production, on its characteristics, and also on breeding techniques. Donkey milk is characterized by high economic value, although the productive level of jennies is poor. During the milking process, foals are usually separated from their dams, allowing the milk collection in the mammary gland of jennies before milking session. This takes 8 h per day of fastening period for lactating donkey foals. During this period, it could be possible to apply a partial artificial suckling system (artificial suckling during daytime and natural suckling during the night). The aim of the work is the evaluation of the effect of this innovative technique on in vivo performances and on meat production traits of Martina Franca donkey foals. Forty Martina Franca jennies with their foals were used for the trial. After colostrum assumption, 20 foals were partially artificially suckled (AS) during each day, and 20 foals were naturally suckled (NS). From 8.00 to 20.00, both groups were separated from their mothers in order to allow the milking procedures of the jennies. The AS group was in a stall equipped with an automatic calf-suckling machine. For each group, 10 foals were slaughtered at 12 months and 10 foals at 18 months. Artificial suckling system positively affected the growth rate of donkey foals, particularly in the first 6 months from birth, with higher weekly weight gain (P  0.05). Artificial suckling system permitted to extend the time of foal separation from their mothers increasing milk collection time per day, awarding fastening periods in foals.

  14. Effect of creep-fed supplement on the susceptibility of pasture-grazed suckling lambs to gastrointestinal helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Gleice Kelli Ayardes; Ítavo, Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira; Monteiro, Kedma Leonora Silva; da Silva, Jonilson Araújo; da Silva, Pâmila Carolini Gonçalves; Ítavo, Luís Carlos Vinhas; Borges, Dyego Gonçalves Lino; de Almeida Borges, Fernando

    2017-05-30

    This study evaluated the effect of creep feeding a protein supplement on the susceptibility of suckling lambs to infection with gastrointestinal helminths. Male and female lambs were grazed on Brachiaria spp. pastures next to their mothers. Animals were allocated to one of two treatments: creep feeding (261g/d) and control (no supplementation). The trial period was the suckling of lambs during two years of study: May-October 2013 and March-July 2014. Supplementary creep feeding of lambs improved animal performance (PCreep-fed lambs reached 18kg body weight in 64 d, but unsupplemented lambs required 77 d to reach the same weight. Lambs were susceptible to helminth infection during lactation; lambs in both treatments had high fecal egg counts (FECs), with means >1000 eggs per gram, as early as 45days of age, when the daily grazing time per animal increased. Creep feeding reduced the FECs of suckling lambs >60days of age in infections dominated by Haemonchus contortus. Totals of 20 and 48 anthelmintic treatments were administered to the supplemented and unsupplemented animals, respectively. The effect of this variable, however, was significant (P0.05) between the two treatments, indicating similar challenges by infective larvae to both groups. The supplementation of lambs by creep feeding can thus be a strategy for the sustainable control of helminth infection, because it reduces the dependence on anthelmintic treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Survey of biochemical and oxidative profile in donkey foals suckled with one natural and one semi-artificial technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale De Palo

    Full Text Available Dairy donkey milking procedures require separating foals from their dams for a few hours a day. Artificial suckling in this species is a good technique for improving milk production and foal welfare. The aim of the work is to compare the effect of two different diets on donkey foals when separated from jennies for milking procedures with and without a milk replacer. Forty newborn Martina Franca donkey foals were subdivided into two experimental groups. Both groups were separated from their respective dams from 8.00to 20.00to allow the jennies to be milked. During the separation, all the foals had access ad libitum to water, hay and feed. During the separation period, one group had the availability of a mechanical milk replacer dispenser, so foals were partially artificially suckled (AS, while the other group had no milk replacer available, and so were totally naturally suckled (NS. The AS group had milk replacer availability until 120±7d of life. Both groups were naturally weaned at 168±7d. Blood samples were collected weekly starting from birth until two wks after weaning (i.e. at 182d, from all the foals included in the trial. Almost all the analytes were influenced by suckling technique and age of foals. Alanine-aminotransferase, aspartate-aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, NEFA, lipid hydroperoxides, serum proteins showed the greatest differences between the two experimental groups. Separating foals from their dams for 12hdaily for 24 weeks does not lead to pathological subclinical and metabolic conditions, thus confirming the high rusticity and resistance of the donkey.

  16. Postpartum anoestrus in the suckled swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jainudeen, M.R.; Sharifuddin, W.; Yap, K.C.; Bakar Dahari, A.

    1984-01-01

    Postpartum anoestrus is a serious cause of infertility in the swamp buffalo. Our studies have revealed that it is due to a failure in the resumption of ovarian cyclicity. Parity was inversely related to the calving interval being longer in primiparous than multiparous suckled buffaloes. This effect may be partly due to the higher nutrient demands for growth as well as for lactation in the primiparous animal. The effects of suckling on ovarian and pituitary function of postpartum buffaloes were investigated with the aid of radioimmunoassays for progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as rectal palpation and laparoscopic inspection of the ovaries. The incidence of postpartum anoestrus was higher in suckled than non-suckled buffaloes. Weaning buffalo calves at 30 d postpartum resulted in the resumption of normal ovarian cycles within 60 d postpartum. LH release in response to a single injection of a synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) indicated that pituitary responsiveness to GnRH was restored by Day 30 postpartum in suckled buffaloes whereas anoestrous buffaloes were able to release levels of LH comparable to that of the preovulatory surge. A progesterone-releasing intra-vaginal device (PRID) induced an anovulatory oestrus in the anoestrous suckled buffalo which was partially overcome by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administered at the induced oestrus. However, a 72 h separation of the calf from its dam combined with PRID was the most effective substitute to weaning in initiating ovarian cycles in the suckled buffalo. Our data suggest that suckling inhibits ovarian function not by an effect on the pituitary gland but rather on GnRH release by the hypothalamus. (author)

  17. Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture l. Suckling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture l. Suckling behaviour lona B. Stewart. and B.P. Louw. Department of Agricultural Development: Natal Region, Private Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg,. 3200 Republic of South Africa. A.W. Lishman. Department of Animal Science and Poultry Science, University ol Natal, ...

  18. Laterality of suckling behaviour in three zebra species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluháček, Jan; Olléová, Michaela; Bartošová, Jitka; Pluháčková, Jana; Bartoš, Luděk

    2013-01-01

    Although side preference while suckling is an easily characterised lateralised behaviour, few studies have been conducted. We observed laterality in suckling behaviour in three captive zebra species to test two hypotheses: laterality affected by the foal (motor laterality) and laterality affected by the mother. In total we observed 35 foals of Grevy's, plains, and mountain zebra in two zoos and recorded 5128 successful suckling bouts and 9095 unsuccessful suckling attempts. At the population level the only factor affecting side preference of suckling bouts and attempts was the identity of the individual foal. Ten foals showed individual preferences: seven foals preferred suckling from the left side of the mother, three preferred suckling from the right side of the mother. The individual preferences increased with increasing age of the foal. Only one foal was refused more often from the opposite side than the preferred side used for suckling whereas three other foals were refused from the preferred side. Foals that preferred suckling either from left or right side were refused by the mare more often than foals which showed non-preference. Thus lateral preferences in suckling behaviour of zebra foals seem to be in line with the motor laterality hypotheses.

  19. Utilization of milk energy by suckling mink kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Kirsten Bislev

    2004-01-01

    A total of 36 mink dams and their litters of 3, 6 or 9 kits were used for determination of milk intake of the suckling young by means of deuterium dilution technique, and chemical composition of milk and of kit bodies. Measurements were performed during lactation weeks 1-4, each week with 3 dams...... with each litter size. Milk intake was determined over a 48 h measurement period, and by the end of this milk samples were collected and 2 kits (litters of 6 and 9) or 1 kit per litter (litters of 3) were killed for body chemical composition. Based on the results, different models were applied...... for calculation of the energetic efficiency of milk. Dam milk yield increased steadily from week 1 until week 3 but only slightly from week 3 to 4. The increase declined with increasing litter size, and for dams suckling 9 kits the increment from week 3 to week 4 was only 2 g. The dry matter content of milk...

  20. Growth of Cinta Senese piglets as affected by location of the suckled teat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Bianchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental animals were 18 Cinta Senese sows (7 primiparous and 11 multiparous and relative purebred off-  spring. Individual weight of piglets was recorded at birth (or shortly afterwards to the nearest 50 g and subsequently  every 3-5 days up to weaning. At each recording, piglets were ranked in decreasing order according to weight within their  respective litters. The behavior of a subsample of 8 sows and litters was observed during suckling, by recording the  teat–piglet coupling. The sows had 12 functional teats, equally distributed in the two symmetric rows, that were num-  bered as pairs in the antero-posterior direction.  Starting from the third week, piglets of multiparous sows showed a faster growth rate than those of the primiparous ones.  Repeatability of the piglets’ weight during the suckling period was high (r = 0.56 and repeatability of rank was even  higher, but decreased up to weaning. Anterior teats were the most occupied and showed the highest suckling fidelity  (consistency of suckling position. Various statistical analyses about the dependence of piglet weight (or weight rank with-  in litter on teat order indicated the highest milk productivity of the first teats and the lowest of the 5th & 6th teat pairs.

  1. Individual risk factors for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs at the age of weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, the occurrence and the relevance of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs has been examined in several studies. Whereas most of these studies were focused on sole prevalence estimation within different age groups, follow-up of infected piglets or assessment of pathological findings, none of the studies included a detailed analysis of individual and environmental risk factors. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs of endemically infected herds and to identify individual risk factors potentially influencing the infection status of suckling pigs at the age of weaning. Results The animal level prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs examined in three conventional pig breeding herds was 3.6% (41/1127) at the time of weaning. A prevalence of 1.2% was found in the same pigs at the end of their nursery period. In a multivariable Poisson regression model it was found that incidence rate ratios (IRR) for suckling pigs are significantly lower than 1 when teeth grinding was conducted (IRR: 0.10). Moreover, high temperatures in the piglet nest during the first two weeks of life (occasionally >40°C) were associated with a decrease of the probability of an infection (IRR: 0.23-0.40). Contrary, the application of PCV2 vaccines to piglets was associated with an increased infection risk (IRR: 9.72). Conclusions Since single infected piglets are supposed to act as initiators for the transmission of this pathogen in nursery and fattening pigs, the elimination of the risk factors described in this study should help to reduce the incidence rate of M. hyopneumoniae infections and thereby might contribute to a reduced probability of high prevalences in older pigs. PMID:23731650

  2. Uptake of trace elements in adult and suckling rat lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Ito, Yoshimasa; Minami, Takeshi; Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of trace elements in the lens was compared in adult and suckling rat lenses. Multitracers, including 15 trace elements, As, Be, Co, Fe, Mn, Rb, Rh, Ru, Sc, Se, Sr, Y, V, Zn, and Zr, were incubated with the lenses for 4 hr and their concentrations in the lens were measured. A high uptake rate of Zn was observed in the lenses of both adult and suckling rats in comparison with those of the other elements, and the Zn concentration in the lens of suckling rats was higher than that of adult rats. The uptake rate of Sr was higher in adult rats than in suckling rats. On the other contrary, Rb and Se concentrations in the lens were higher in suckling rats than in adult rats. The present study suggests that the different mechanisms depending on development serve to transport trace elements into the lens. (author)

  3. Mercury Disposition in Suckling Rats: Comparative Assessment Following Parenteral Exposure to Thiomersal and Mercuric Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanuša, Maja; Orct, Tatjana; Vihnanek Lazarus, Maja; Sekovanić, Ankica; Piasek, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Due to the facts that thiomersal-containing vaccine is still in use in many developing countries, and all forms of mercury have recognised neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, and other toxic effects, studies on disposition of ethylmercury and other mercury forms are still justified, especially at young age. Our investigation aimed at comparing mercury distribution and rate of excretion in the early period of life following exposure to either thiomersal (TM) or mercuric chloride (HgCl2) in suckling rats. Three experimental groups were studied: control, TM, and HgCl2, with 12 to18 pups in each. Both forms of mercury were administered subcutaneously in equimolar quantities (0.81 μmol/kg b.w.) three times during the suckling period (on the days of birth 7, 9, and 11) to mimic the vaccination regimen in infants. After the last administration of TM or HgCl2, total mercury retention and excretion was assessed during following six days. In TM-exposed group mercury retention was higher in the brain, enteral excretion was similar, and urinary excretion was much lower compared to HgCl2-exposed sucklings. More research is still needed to elucidate all aspects of toxicokinetics and most harmful neurotoxic potential of various forms of mercury, especially in the earliest period of life. PMID:22899883

  4. Marked Response in Microbial Community and Metabolism in the Ileum and Cecum of Suckling Piglets After Early Antibiotics Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In modern swine husbandry systems, antibiotics have been used as growth promoters for piglets during suckling or weaning period. However, while early colonization of intestinal microbiota has been regarded crucial for the host’s later life performance and well-being, little is known about the impact of antibiotics on intestinal microbiota in suckling piglets. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of early antibiotics exposure on gut microbiota and microbial metabolism of suckling piglets. Sixteen litters of suckling piglets were fed a creep feed diet with (Antibiotic or without (Control antibiotics from postnatal days 7–23 (n = 8. The ileal and cecal digesta were obtained for microbial composition and microbial metabolites analysis. The results showed that the antibiotics significantly altered the bacterial community composition by decreasing (P < 0.05 the diversity and richness in the ileum. The antibiotics significantly reduced the abundance of Lactobacillus in both the ileum and cecum, increased the abundance of Streptococcus, unclassified Enterococcaceae, unclassified Fusobacteriales, and Corynebacterium in the ileum, and the abundance of unclassified Ruminococcaceae and unclassified Erysipelotrichaceae in the cecum. The antibiotics decreased (P < 0.05 ileal lactate concentration and cecal concentration of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs. But the antibiotics enhanced protein fermentation (P < 0.05 in the ileum and cecum, as ileal concentrations of putrescine and cadaverine, and cecal concentrations of isobutyrate, isovalerate, putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, and spermidine were significantly increased (P < 0.05. These results indicated that early antibiotics exposure significantly altered the microbial composition of suckling piglets toward a vulnerable and unhealthy gut environment. The findings provide a new insight on the antibiotics impact on neonates and may provide new framework for designing alternatives to the

  5. Feeding manipulation elicits different proliferative responses in the gastrointestinal tract of suckling and weanling rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanch A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Food deprivation has been found to stimulate cell proliferation in the gastric mucosa of suckling rats, whereas the weanling period has been reported to be unresponsive in terms of proliferative activity. In the present study we analyze regional differences in the effect of milk or food deprivation on cell proliferation of the epithelia of the esophagus and of five segments of small intestine in suckling, weanling and newly weaned Wistar rats of both sexes. DNA synthesis was determined using tritiated thymidine to obtain labeling indices (LI; crypt depth and villus height were also determined. Milk deprivation decreased LI by 50% in the esophagus (from 15 to 8.35% and small intestine (from 40 to 20% of 14-day-old rats. In 18-day-old rats, milk and food deprivation decreased LI in the esophagus (from 13 to 5% and in the distal segments of the small intestine (from 36-40 to 24-32%. In contrast, the LI of the epithelia of the esophagus (5% and of all small intestine segments (around 30% of 22-day-old rats were not modified by food deprivation. Crypt depth did not change after treatment (80 to 120 µm in 14- and 22-day-old rats, respectively. Villus height decreased in some small intestine segments of unfed 14- (from 400 to 300 µm and 18-day-old rats (from 480 to 360 µm. The results show that, contrary to the stomach response, milk deprivation inhibited cell proliferation in the esophagus and small intestine of suckling rats, demonstrating the regional variability of each segment of the gastrointestinal tract in suckling rats. In newly weaned rats, food deprivation did not alter the proliferation of these epithelia, similarly to the stomach, indicating that weanling is a period marked by the insensitivity of gastrointestinal epithelia to dietary alterations

  6. Improved nonparametric inference for multiple correlated periodic sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2013-08-26

    This paper proposes a cross-validation method for estimating the period as well as the values of multiple correlated periodic sequences when data are observed at evenly spaced time points. The period of interest is estimated conditional on the other correlated sequences. An alternative method for period estimation based on Akaike\\'s information criterion is also discussed. The improvement of the period estimation performance is investigated both theoretically and by simulation. We apply the multivariate cross-validation method to the temperature data obtained from multiple ice cores, investigating the periodicity of the El Niño effect. Our methodology is also illustrated by estimating patients\\' cardiac cycle from different physiological signals, including arterial blood pressure, electrocardiography, and fingertip plethysmograph.

  7. Breastfeeding practices: Positioning, attachment (latch-on and effective suckling - A hospital-based study in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram C Goyal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/Objective: To assess the correct position, attachment and effective suckling in the breastfeeding of infants as practiced by mothers attending hospitals at Benghazi. Materials and Methods : An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was done at AlJamahiriya and AlFateh Hospital in Benghazi, Libya, from November 2009 to February 2010. One hundred ninety-two mother-neonate units were observed for mother′s and baby′s position, attachment and effective suckling using WHO B-R-E-A-S-T- Feed observation form. Grading of positioning, attachment and suckling was done according to the score of various characteristics. Data thus collected were analyzed using software SPSS 11.5 version. Results: About 15% of the infants were about a week old (early neonatal period and 85% were in the late neonatal period. There was poorer positioning among primipara (24.0% than multipara (8.9-12.5%mothers. Poorer attachment was also more evident among primipara (30.0% compared to multipara (20.9% mothers. Parity was significantly associated with poor position (P = 0.028 and attachment (P = 0.002. Poor attachment was related to cracked nipples and mastitis. Preterm and low birth weight were significantly associated with poor attachment and poor effective suckling. Poor suckling was more (42.8% in the early neonatal period than late neonatal period (32.9%. Conclusions and Recommendations: Young (<20 years and primipara mothers were more in need of support and guidance for appropriate breastfeeding techniques. It is recommended that each mother should be observed for mother′s and infant′s positioning and attachment at the onset of breastfeeding and if needed subsequent counseling should be given on correct positioning and attachment.

  8. Weaning strategies to improve the performance of sows and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weaning all piglets attaining 6 kg body weight and a control in which suckling was ... allow two 30 min periods of suckling per day, 3) reduction in litter size by .... Table 3 Mean piglet body weights and mortality under different suckling regimens.

  9. Weaning strategies to improve the performance of sows and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Restricted suckling resulted in an increased creep feed intake by the piglets. Piglets that were suckled once a day consumed 8.76 kg creep feed during the experimental period compared to 8.49, 8.35 and 8.21 kg for split weaning, twice a day suckling and the control, respectively. All intakes were significantly different.

  10. Dose dependent transfer of 203lead to milk and tissue uptake in suckling offspring studied in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palminger Hallen, I.; Oskarsson, A.

    1993-01-01

    The dose-dependent transfer of 203 Pb to milk and uptake in suckling rats and mice during a three-day nursing period was studied. On day 14 of lactation, the dams were administered a single intravenous dose of lead, labelled with 203 Pb, in four or five doses from 0.0005 to 2.0 mg Pb/kg b.wt. There was a linear relationship between Pb levels in plasma and milk of both species. The Pb milk: plasma ratios at 24 hr after administration were 119 and 89 in mice and rats, respectively. At 72 hr the Pb milk: plasma ratio had decreased to 72 in mice and 35 in rats. The tissue levels of lead in the suckling rats and mice were also linearly correlated with lead concentration in milk at 72 hr, showing that milk could be used as an indicator of lead exposure to the suckling offspring. It is concluded that lead is transported into rat and mouse milk to a very high extent and the excretion into milk is more efficient in mice than in rats. On the other hand, rat pups had higher lead levels in tissues than mice pups, which might be due to a higher bioavailability and/or a lower excretion of lead in rat pups. Thus, lead in breast milk could be used as a biological indicator of lead exposure in the mother as well as in the suckling offspring. (au) (38 refs.)

  11. Intramuscular versus Subcutaneous Administration of Iron Dextran in Suckling Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Svoboda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the development of red blood cell indices after subcutaneous versus intramuscular administration of iron dextran to suckling piglets during early postnatal period. The piglets in group I (n = 17 were injected subcutaneously (into groin with 200 mg Fe3+ as iron dextran on day 3 of life. In group II (n = 16, the piglets received intramuscular injection (into gluteal muscles of 200 mg Fe3+ as iron dextran on day 3 of life. In group III (n = 10, the piglets did not receive any iron till the age of 3 days. The blood was taken and analyzed (Hb, PCV, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, Fe on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Haematological indices of piglets in group III were characteristic for hypochromic anaemia. Anaemia in group III had a detrimental effect on the growth rate of piglets. The development of red blood cell indices and iron concentration in blood plasma in subcutaneously treated piglets did not differ significantly from that of intramuscularly-treated group. Both treatments prevented development of anaemia.

  12. Improved acceptance of Chromonaela odorata by goat kids after weaning is triggered by in utero exposure but nog consumption of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hai, P.V.; Schonewille, J.T.; Tien, D.V.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine whether the improved post-weaning intake of Chromonaela odorata by goat kids is related to either the in utero period of the goat kids or the subsequent suckling period. It was hypothesized that kids born to dams fed C. odorata during pregnancy and

  13. Some effects of partial suckling on milk yield, reproduction and calf growth in crossbred dairy cattle in north east coastal Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, M.J.; Msanga, Y.N.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments are described where a progeny of Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbred cows were reared by partial suckling or bucket rearing (Experiment I), and partially suckled calves were weaned at 12 or 24 weeks of age (Experiment II). The results of Experiment I suggest that calf rearing method had no significant effect in the yield of milk extracted from the cows by hand milking although there were effects on the shape of the lactation curve. Cows showed similar patterns of live weight and body condition losses and gains and there were no significant effects on the length of the post partum interval. Suckled calves were lighter at weaning (P <0.01) but there were no differences in live weight between treatments at 52 weeks of age. The main advantage of partial suckling was that the calves took advantage of residual milk which was estimated as 28-29% of the total yield. The results from Experiment II suggest that there were no advantages in terms of milk yield or calf growth by extending the suckling period to 24 weeks. The post partum intervals observed in Experiment II were substantially longer than those in Experiment I, possibly because of greater live weight/body condition losses experienced by cows in the second experiment. (author)

  14. Some effects of partial suckling on milk yield, reproduction and calf growth in crossbred dairy cattle in north east coastal Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, M J [Department of Agriculture, University of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom); Msanga, Y N [Livestock Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Tanga (Tanzania)

    1999-07-01

    Two experiments are described where a progeny of Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbred cows were reared by partial suckling or bucket rearing (Experiment I), and partially suckled calves were weaned at 12 or 24 weeks of age (Experiment II). The results of Experiment I suggest that calf rearing method had no significant effect in the yield of milk extracted from the cows by hand milking although there were effects on the shape of the lactation curve. Cows showed similar patterns of live weight and body condition losses and gains and there were no significant effects on the length of the post partum interval. Suckled calves were lighter at weaning (P <0.01) but there were no differences in live weight between treatments at 52 weeks of age. The main advantage of partial suckling was that the calves took advantage of residual milk which was estimated as 28-29% of the total yield. The results from Experiment II suggest that there were no advantages in terms of milk yield or calf growth by extending the suckling period to 24 weeks. The post partum intervals observed in Experiment II were substantially longer than those in Experiment I, possibly because of greater live weight/body condition losses experienced by cows in the second experiment. (author) 22 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Oral iron administration in suckling piglets – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Svoboda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is presently a serious problem in suckling piglets on pig farms. The most often used method of anaemia prevention in piglets is parenteral administration of iron dextran. Oral iron represents an alternative to this method. The goal of this article is to review current knowledge on oral iron administration in suckling piglets. The substances that can be used for this purpose include iron dextran, iron salts, iron chelates, carbonyl iron, an iron polymaltose complex and iron microparticles. The different methods of oral iron administration in piglets are discussed.

  16. Effect of creep feeding system on performance of suckling lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh S, A.; Saleh, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty seven newly born Barki Lambs of about 3.84 kg live body weight were randomly divided into three groups of nine lambs each. Their weights were recorded at birth. Lambs in the first group were served as controls and fed on their dam's milk only (milk basis) > The second group was fed on their dam's milk in addition to concentrate feed mixture (CFM) as creep feeding> Group three was fed on their dam's milk; concentrate feed mixture and lactic acid producing bacteria. Concentrate feed mixture was offered daily in the morning for lambs under creep feeding system, started at 7 days from birth. Lambs were kept with their mothers in the same pens. Blood samples were collected at 7.30 and 60 days old from the jugular vein of each animal. Total gain, average daily gain and weaning weight of lambs were higher (P<0.05) in groups II and III than control group. Both groups II and III showed no significant difference in weight gain. The higher values serum total proteins were recorded in groups II and III. Values of serum total proteins were recorded in groups II and III . Values of serum albumin were similar in all different groups. However, group III recorded the highest values of globin. Blood serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities were not affected by treatment. It was clearly observed that GPT values were increased with age in all groups. Values for serum glucose were decreased with age until weaning, while serum urea nitrogen was increased with age. The differences among treatments in creatinine concentrations were not significant. Total triiodothyronine (T4) and total thyroxine (T4) concentrations were not significantly different between experimental groups. It is concluded that creep feeding promotes growth in lambs during suckling period and can be successfully used for a short fattening period

  17. Milk glucosidase activity enables suckled pup starch digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch requires six enzymes for digestion to free glucose: two amylases (salivary and pancreatic) and four mucosal maltase activities; sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase. All are deficient in suckling rodents. The objective of this study is to test (13)C-starch digestion before weaning by m...

  18. Supplementation of the sow diet with chitosan oligosaccharide during late gestation and lactation affects hepatic gluconeogenesis of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunyan; Guo, Xiaoyun; Long, Cimin; Fan, Zhiyong; Xiao, Dingfu; Ruan, Zheng; Deng, Ze-yuan; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2015-08-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) has a blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic rats and is widely used as a dietary supplement. However, the effect of COS on the offspring of supplemented mothers is unknown. This experiment investigates the effect of supplementing sows during gestation and lactation on the levels of plasma glucose on suckling piglets. From day 85 of gestation to day 14 of lactation, 40 pregnant sows were divided into two treatment groups and fed either a control diet or a control diet containing 30mgCOS/kg. One 14 day old piglet per pen was selected to collect plasma and tissue (8pens/diet). Performance, hepatic gluconeogenesis genes and proteins expression, amino acids contents in sow milk, hepatic glycogen and free fatty acid were determined. Results showed that supplementation of the maternal diet with COS improved daily gain and weaning weight (Pgluconeogenesis and improved the growth rate of suckling piglets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Luminal digestion of lactoferrin in suckling and weanling rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, J.R.; Koldovsky, O.

    1987-01-01

    The development of luminal digestion of lactoferrin was evaluated in vitro by incubating 125 I-labeled lactoferrin with fluid flushed from the stomach and small intestine of 12-day-old suckling and 31-day-old weanling rats, followed by measurement of radioactivity in trichloroacetic acid-soluble material. Gastric hydrolysis of lactoferrin at pH 3.2 in the weanling was 20-fold greater than that in the suckling. In the small intestine at neutral pH, luminal degradation of lactoferrin was minimal in the suckling but increased significantly after weaning, with maximal degradative capacity demonstrable in the midjejunum. Sephadex G-75 chromatography of intestinal acid-soluble breakdown products revealed two peaks of radioactivity, each comprising 40-45% of the total product; analysis of intestinal acid-precipitable products by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis yielded several discrete lower molecular weight species. Food deprivation for 12 h/100 g body wt decreased lactoferrin degradation in the weanling jejunum and midjejunum. The findings suggest that lactoferrin digestion may vary with respect to postnatal age of the organism, segment of the gastrointestinal tract, and dietary state. In the young animal, lactoferrin degradation is minimal, and consequently its potential for biological function may be high

  20. Kinetics of lead retention and distribution in suckling and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momcilovic, B.; Kostial, K.

    1974-01-01

    The kinetics of lead distribution was studied in suckling and adult rats 8 days after a single intraperitoneal injection of 203 Pb. Marked differences were observed in the kinetics of lead retention and distribution in suckling as compared to adult rats. The rate of 203 Pb disappearance was lower in the whole body, blood and kidneys, but higher in the liver, while the deposition processes predominated in the brain, femur and teeth of sucklings as compared to adult animals. (auth)

  1. Metabolic kinetics and absorbed doses of 137Cs in lactating rats and progeny during suckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyaginskaya, A.M.; Osipov, V.A.; Dement'ev, S.I.; Ermalitskij, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The transfer of 137 Cs with maternal milk to progeny was studied in rats The rats were administered with 25 kBq/g of 137 Cs nitrate (pH = 6) in a single oral dose immediately after delivery. Nonpregnant females served as control. Absorbed doses per activity unit to lactating rats were 23 % lover than to nonlactating ones. Over the suckling period absorbed doses to young rats amounted to about 35 % of the absorbed dose to the nursing female. For nonlactating females the internal dose approximately equalled the sum of doses to the nursing female and young rats. Lactating is the effective way for removal of 1 '3 7 Cs from organism of the rats. Content of 1 '3 7 Cs in lactating rat becomes on 42.9 % lower than in organism of nonlactating rat during period of lactating (near 20 days) [ru

  2. Improved nonparametric inference for multiple correlated periodic sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Hart, Jeffrey D.; Genton, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    cross-validation method to the temperature data obtained from multiple ice cores, investigating the periodicity of the El Niño effect. Our methodology is also illustrated by estimating patients' cardiac cycle from different physiological signals

  3. Transplacental passage of {sup 26}Al from pregnant rats to fetuses and {sup 26}Al transfer through maternal milk to suckling rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Tada, W.; Ohki, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Kobayashi, K

    2000-10-01

    Aluminium (Al) is toxic to the growth of fetuses and sucklings. However, the incorporation of Al into fetuses and sucklings in the periods of gestation and lactation has not been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for a tracer experiment. In this study, we used {sup 26}Al (a radioisotope of Al with half-life of 716,000 yr) as a tracer, and measured {sup 26}Al incorporation into fetuses and sucklings by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To investigate Al incorporation into fetuses through transplacental passage, {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}AlCl{sub 3}) was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation. {sup 26}Al was also subcutaneoulsy injected into lactating rats from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. By day 20 of gestation, 0.2% of the {sup 26}Al injected into a pregnant rat had been transferred to the fetuses, and {sup 26}Al was detected in the brain and liver of the fetuses. On day 9 postpartum, high levels of {sup 26}Al were demonstrated in the brain, liver, kidneys and blood of suckling rats. It is concluded that {sup 26}Al subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats and/or lactating rats is incorporated into their offspring through transplacental passage and/or maternal milk.

  4. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Karin; English, Patti; Vera, Raúl R.; Briones, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at rand...

  5. 26Al incorporation into the tissues of suckling rats through maternal milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Tada, W.; Horikawa, T.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) is highly neurotoxic and inhibits prenatal and postnatal development of the brain in humans and experimental animals. However, Al incorporation into the brain of sucklings through maternal milk has not yet been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for radioactive tracer experiments. Using 26 Al as a tracer, we measured 26 Al incorporation into the brain of suckling rats by accelerator mass spectrometry. Lactating rats were subcutaneously injected with 26 AlCl 3 from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. Suckling rats were weaned from day 21 postpartum. From day 5 to day 20 postpartum, the 26 Al levels measured in the brain, liver, kidneys and bone of suckling rats increased significantly. After weaning, the amounts of 26 Al in the liver and kidneys decreased remarkably. However, the 26 Al amount in the brain had diminished only slightly up to 140 days after weaning

  6. {sup 26}Al incorporation into the tissues of suckling rats through maternal milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, S. E-mail: yumoto-s@viola.ocn.ne.jp; Nagai, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Tada, W.; Horikawa, T.; Matsuzaki, H

    2004-08-01

    Aluminium (Al) is highly neurotoxic and inhibits prenatal and postnatal development of the brain in humans and experimental animals. However, Al incorporation into the brain of sucklings through maternal milk has not yet been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for radioactive tracer experiments. Using {sup 26}Al as a tracer, we measured {sup 26}Al incorporation into the brain of suckling rats by accelerator mass spectrometry. Lactating rats were subcutaneously injected with {sup 26}AlCl{sub 3} from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. Suckling rats were weaned from day 21 postpartum. From day 5 to day 20 postpartum, the {sup 26}Al levels measured in the brain, liver, kidneys and bone of suckling rats increased significantly. After weaning, the amounts of {sup 26}Al in the liver and kidneys decreased remarkably. However, the {sup 26}Al amount in the brain had diminished only slightly up to 140 days after weaning.

  7. Conception rate of beef cows and growth of suckling calves as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    optimizing preweaning growth of suckling calves and reconcep- tion of the lactating cow. ... daily requirements of a lactating beef cow grazing spring grass. ...... buffalo cows which had the greatest mass at calving also lost most thereafter, when ...

  8. Effect of hay on performance of Holstein calves at suckling and post-weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Kyoshi Ueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves in suckling and post-weaning phases, intensively managed during suckling in the absence or presence of hay. Twenty-four male Holstein calves, at an average age of 15 days and initial weight of 43 kg were used in the experiment. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of two treatments and six replications. The treatments were as follows: 1 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum + temperate grass hay (oat/ryegrass, ad libitum; 2 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum. No significant difference was found between treatments for weight gain and feed conversion. However, the supply of hay caused an increase in daily dry matter intake (2.127 vs 1.894 kg. The intake of hay promoted greater stimulus to consumption of concentrate and greater weight at weaning.

  9. Suckling induced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) release in mother rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lékó, András H; Cservenák, Melinda; Dobolyi, Árpád

    2017-12-01

    Lactation involves significant neuroendocrine changes. The elevated prolactin (PRL) release from the pituitary, induced markedly by suckling, is the most relevant example. Suckling also causes a significant and rapid elevation in growth hormone (GH) levels. GH is necessary for milk synthesis as milk yield is stopped completely in the absence of PRL and GH, while the absence of PRL alone causes only a 50% reduction. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays an important role in the GH axis. GH exerts its effects through IGF-1 in the periphery, for example in the mammary gland. In addition, IGF-1 is responsible for the long-loop feedback control of GH secretion. IGF-1 secretion has not been established yet in mothers. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of suckling on serum IGF-1 level in rat mothers and correlated it with serum PRL levels. We examined a potential mechanism of the regulation of IGF-1 level during suckling by administering IGF-1 into the lateral ventricle of rat mothers continuously for 12days, or acutely, right before the start of suckling. We described that suckling affected IGF-1 release based on one-way repeated measures ANOVA (F=10.8 and pIGF-1 level 30min after the start of suckling (pIGF-1 release. The prolonged central IGF-1 administration diminished the suckling-induced IGF-1 surge (F=9.19 and pIGF-1 release either by elevating PRL or GH. Long-loop feedback via IGF-1 in the GH axis can diminish this action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Artificially suckled I.H.D.H. (Italian Heavy Draught Horse foals: in vivo performances and ethograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Centoducati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on 6 “Italian Heavy Draught Horse” orphan foals ar- tificially suckled by an automatic milk feeder. The purpose of the research was to show that artificial weaning does not have a negative effect on a foal’s growth and welfare. The foals were reared in an indoor box, weighed every 3 weeks from day 4 after birth and observed for 24 consecutive hours at the age of 4, 10, 47, 114, 142 and 176 days, to compile an ethogram which includes biorhythms, and social, alimentary and eliminative behavioural patterns. During the study, “daily weight gains” were greater than 1610 g/d; but between 26 and 46 days and after weaning, values were lower than 1230 g/d, and between 172 and 193 days, prior to slaughtering, they were of 1090 g/d. Age had a significant (P<0.001 on almost all the ethological parameters considered, above all for the time spent lying down above all for the time spent lying down and the licking structures (P<0.01, and for the drinking bouts (P<0.05. The period of adaptation to artificial feeding certainly lasted at least two weeks. These results suggest that the technique of artificial suckling can be applied to horses without negative effects on growth and welfare, any subjects showed abnormal behaviour.

  11. Activation and odor conditioning of suckling behavior in 3-day-old albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, P E; Williams, C L; Blass, E M

    1982-10-01

    The circumstances under which a novel odor could elicit nipple attachment behavior in 3-day-old albino rats were investigated. In Experiment 1, rats suckled washed nipples scented with citral (a lemon odor) only if they either had received tactile stimulation (by stroking with a soft artist's brush) or had been administered amphetamine in the presence of citral prior to the suckling test. Pups stimulated in citral's absence or simply exposed to citral without stimulation failed to suckle such nipples. In Experiment 2, rats stimulated in a benzaldehyde (an almond odor) ambience suckled washed nipples scented with benzaldehyde but not those with citral scent. The opposite held for rats stimulated in a citral-rich environment. The stimulus conditions that support this conditioning were investigated in Experiment 3. Simultaneously increasing citral concentration and raising ambient temperature markedly attenuated the phenomenon. Experiment 4 demonstrated that not all classes of stimulation produced conditioning. Caffeine, in a wide range of doses, did not allow citral to elicit suckling on washed nipples. These findings are discussed within a framework of higher order conditioning. They may provide a mechanism by which naturally occurring stimuli come to elicit the species- and age-typical behavior of suckling.

  12. Catalytic performance improvement of styrene hydrogenation in trickle bed reactor by using periodic operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongkia, Atittahn; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai; Suriye, Kongkiat; Nonkhamwong, Anuwat

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the catalytic performance improvement of styrene hydrogenation in a trickle bed reactor by using periodic operation. The effects of cycle period and split on relative conversion, which is defined as styrene conversion obtained from periodic operation over that from steady state operation, were examined at various operating conditions including gas and average liquid flow rates, pressure and temperature. The experimental results reveal that both cycle period and split have strong influence on the catalytic performance. The fast mode (short cycle period) is a favorable condition. The improvement by the periodic operation becomes less pronounced for operations at high average liquid flow rate, pressure and temperature. From this study, a maximum improvement of styrene conversion of 18% is observed

  13. Catalytic performance improvement of styrene hydrogenation in trickle bed reactor by using periodic operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongkia, Atittahn; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai [Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Suriye, Kongkiat; Nonkhamwong, Anuwat [SCG Chemicals Co. Ltd., Bangkok (Thailand)

    2013-03-15

    We investigated the catalytic performance improvement of styrene hydrogenation in a trickle bed reactor by using periodic operation. The effects of cycle period and split on relative conversion, which is defined as styrene conversion obtained from periodic operation over that from steady state operation, were examined at various operating conditions including gas and average liquid flow rates, pressure and temperature. The experimental results reveal that both cycle period and split have strong influence on the catalytic performance. The fast mode (short cycle period) is a favorable condition. The improvement by the periodic operation becomes less pronounced for operations at high average liquid flow rate, pressure and temperature. From this study, a maximum improvement of styrene conversion of 18% is observed.

  14. Effects of doe-litter separation on intestinal bacteria, immune response and morphology of suckling rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukun Zhang

    2018-03-01

    vermiform appendix (P<0.05 at the end of the trial. Furthermore, separating kits from the doe had a negative effect on their average daily gain at 3rd wk and 4th wk (P<0.05. Limiting the microbiological contact with the mother during suckling period affected the kits’ intestinal flora and could negatively affect the development of intestinal digestive and immune system and growth performance of kits.

  15. Linking suckling biomechanics to the development of the palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingtao; Johnson, Chelsey A.; Smith, Andrew A.; Hunter, Daniel J.; Singh, Gurpreet; Brunski, John B.; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-02-01

    Skulls are amongst the most informative documents of evolutionary history but a complex geometry, coupled with composite material properties and complicated biomechanics, have made it particularly challenging to identify mechanical principles guiding the skull’s morphogenesis. Despite this challenge, multiple lines of evidence, for example the relationship between masticatory function and the evolution of jaw shape, nonetheless suggest that mechanobiology plays a major role in skull morphogenesis. To begin to tackle this persistent challenge, cellular, molecular and tissue-level analyses of the developing mouse palate were coupled with finite element modeling to demonstrate that patterns of strain created by mammalian-specific oral behaviors produce complementary patterns of chondrogenic gene expression in an initially homogeneous population of cranial neural crest cells. Neural crest cells change from an osteogenic to a chondrogenic fate, leading to the materialization of cartilaginous growth plate-like structures in the palatal midline. These growth plates contribute to lateral expansion of the head but are transient structures; when the strain patterns associated with suckling dissipate at weaning, the growth plates disappear and the palate ossifies. Thus, mechanical cues such as strain appear to co-regulate cell fate specification and ultimately, help drive large-scale morphogenetic changes in head shape.

  16. Effects of suckling duration on growth, slaughtering and carcass quality characteristics of Kivircik lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiz, Bulent; Kocak, Omur; Yalcintan, Hulya; Yilmaz, Alper

    2016-02-01

    Effects of suckling length (45, 75 and 120 days) and birth type (single and twin) on lamb growth, slaughtering and carcass quality characteristics were investigated using 40 Kivircik lambs. SC-45 and SC-75 lambs were weaned at 45 and 75 days of age, respectively, whilst SC-120 lambs remained with their mothers until the end of the experimental period. Lambs from all studied groups were slaughtered at 120 days of age. Weaning treatment caused a decrease in average daily gain in SC-45 and SC-75 lambs, and therefore, final weight was higher in SC-120 lambs than lambs from weaned groups. SC-120 lambs had higher empty body weight, cold carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass measurements, carcass fatness (proportions of the kidney knob and channel fat, subcutaneous and intramuscular fat in pelvic limb) and non-carcass fatness (omental and mesenteric fat proportion) than weaned lambs. As a conclusion, the potential losses in meat production due to weaning should be considered before deciding the weaning of lambs at early ages.

  17. Effect of ageing time on suckling lamb meat quality resulting from different carcass chilling regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C; Fernández, A M

    2014-02-01

    The effect of ageing on suckling lamb carcasses subjected to three chilling treatments was studied: Conventional (2 °C for 24h), ultra-fast (-20 °C for 3.5h then 2 °C until 24h post mortem) and slow chilling (12 °C for 7h then 2 °C until 24h post mortem) treatments. Meat quality measurements were carried out in carcasses at 24h post mortem and also after 5 days of ageing. Carcass chilling losses were not affected by a chilling regime. Aged meat showed higher cooking losses than non-aged meat (p<0.05). Sarcomere length of ultra-fast t was shorter (p<0.05) than conventional and conventional was shorter than slow chilling treatment (p<0.05), at 24h and after 5 days of ageing. Conventional and ultra-fast chilling treatments resulted in higher shear force values at 24h post mortem (p<0.05) compared to slow treatment. All treatments improved sensory scores with ageing (p<0.05), but ultra-fast chilling treatment did not attain higher values as the other two treatments. © 2013.

  18. Effects of lead on lactating rats and their sucklings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roels, H; Lauwerys, R; Buchet, J P; Hubermont, G

    1977-08-01

    Lead was administered to lactating rats in drinking water (0, 1, 10, and 100 ppM) from the day of delivery up to day 21 after delivery, at which time the mothers and their newborns were sacrificed. Various parameters of blood: lead concentration (Pb-B), hematocrit (Htc), hemoglobin (Hb), free erythrocyte porphyrin concentration (FEP), delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity (ALAD)--and of tissue: ALAD activity, free tissue porphyrin concentration (FTP) and lead concentration (Pb-T) were determined. In mothers, a significant increase of Pb-B and a reduction of ALAD activity of blood were found in the 100 ppM group. In tissues Pb was significantly increased in liver of the 100 ppM group and in kidney of the 10 and 100 ppM groups. None of the biochemical parameters measured in tissues was significantly modified. In suckling rats an increase in Pb-B and a reduction of ALAD activity in blood were found in the 10 and 100 ppM lead groups. Pb concentration was significantly increased in liver, kidney and brain of the 100 ppM group and in kidney of the 10 ppM group. Lead storage in kidney of the 100 ppM group was associated with a marked increase in FTP and a slight reduction in ALAD activity. On the basis of the biochemical parameters studied in the newborn rats, the ''no-effect'' level of lead administered in drinking water during lactation is around 1 ppM, which is rather similar to that found when lead was administered to the mother before and/or during pregnancy.

  19. D-penicillamine exhibits a higher radioprotective effect in suckling mice than in grown-up animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oroszlan, Gy.; Lakatos, L.; Dezsi, Z.; Hatvani, I.; Pintye, E.; Karmazsin, L.; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Debrecen; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Debrecen

    1982-01-01

    Grown-up and suckling mice were exposed to whole-body 60 Co-irradiation of 6-10 Gy. The survival time was significantly increased in suckling animals by 3000 mg per kg body weight D-penicillamine applied intraperitoneally 60 min before irradiation, whereas the same treatment had no significant effect in grown-up animals. (L.E.)

  20. Addition of chromic oxide to creep feed as a fecal marker for selection of creep feed-eating suckling pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuller, W.I.; Beers-Schreurs, van H.M.G.; Soede, N.M.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective-To determine whether the addition of chromic oxide (Cr2O3) to creep feed could be used as a visual marker in feces for selection of creep feed-eating suckling pigs. Animals-20 suckling pigs. Procedures-Via syringe, 5 pigs (2 to 3 days old on day 0; 1 pig/treatment) from each of 4 litters

  1. Body condition and suckling as factors influencing the duration of postpartum anestrus in cattle: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, F; Ahuja, C

    2005-01-01

    Prolonged postpartum anestrus is a main factor limiting reproductive efficiency in cattle, particularly in Bos indicus and Bos taurus/Bos indicus cows from tropical regions, because it prevents achievement of a 12 month calving interval. During anestrus, ovulation does not occur despite ovarian follicular development, because growing follicles do not mature. Although many factors affect postpartum anestrus, nutrition and suckling are the major factors influencing the resumption of postpartum ovarian cycles, as they affect hypothalamic, pituitary and ovarian activity and thus inhibit follicular development. Under-nutrition contributes to prolonged postpartum anestrus, particularly among cows dependent upon forages to meet their feed requirements and it apparently interacts with genetic, environmental or management factors to influence the duration of anestrus. The nutritional status or balance of an animal is evaluated through body condition score (BCS), as it reflects the body energy reserves available for metabolism, growth, lactation and activity. There is a converse relationship between energy balance and time to resumption of postpartum ovarian activity; inadequate nutrient intake results in loss of weight and BCS and finally cessation of estrous cycles. Suckling interferes with hypothalamic release of GnRH, provoking a marked suppression in pulsatile LH release, resulting in extended postpartum anestrus. The effects of suckling on regulation of tonic LH release are determined by the ability of the cow to identify a calf as her own or as unrelated. Vision and olfaction play critical roles in the development of the maternal-offspring bond, allowing the cow to identify her own calf, and abolition of both senses attenuates the negative effects of suckling on LH secretion. Thus, the maternal-offspring bond is essential for prolonged postpartum suckling-induced anovulation, and the suppressive influence of suckling is independent of neurosensory pathways within the

  2. Effects of a reduced dose of injected iron on health, iron status and growth of suckling piglets with access to iron enriched soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanner, S; Gutzwiller, A

    2018-02-01

    The effects of the recommended dose of 200 mg iron and of half that dose injected on the first day of life on health, iron status and performance during the 4 week suckling period were studied in 2'123 piglets. All piglets received creep feed and soil which was supplemented with 14 g iron per kg. Neither mortality nor the prevalence of arthritis, meningitis and foot abscess (each disease affecting about 1% of the piglets) differed between the two groups. The low dose of 100 mg iron decreased blood haemoglobin concentration at weaning (110 ± 19 vs.120 ± 15 g/l), but did not affect growth rate.

  3. Lead transfer in maternal milk, and the absorption, retention, distribution and excretion of lead in suckling mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Charles Arthur [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Biology and Biophysics

    1980-01-01

    Suckling mice were found to absorb and retain a greater fraction of an oral lead dose than did adult mice. Pinocytotic activity and lead uptake (in vivo) were found to be greatest in the distal small intestinal tissue. Cortisone pretreatment results in precocious cessation of pinocytotic activity in the intestine of suckling mice. Cortisone pretreatment of adult mice had no effect on whole body lead retention or intestinal tissue content of lead following an oral dose. The data indicate that the distal small intestine is the site of active pinocytosis of lead, and that pinocytosis is the major mechanism involved in lead absorption in suckling mice. Developmental differences were also observed in the percentage of lead retained in the whole body. Both groups exhibited dose-independent lead retention, indicating a first-order absorption process for each age group. Lead distribution and elimination from organs also differed between suckling and adult mice. Developmental differences were observed in organ lead concentration for kidneys and brain following oral doses. Relative distribution of lead to the brains of suckling mice were greater than to adult brains. Whole body and bone lead elimination rates were reduced in suckling compared to adult mice. Brain lead elimination rates did not differ in suckling and adult mice. A lactating mouse model was developed to study lead transfer to suckling offspring. Lead was transferred in milk to suckling offspring from mothers which had previously ingested lead in the drinking water. Relative lead transfer to suckled offspring during lactation greatly exceeded transfer to fetuses during gestation. Lactation resulted in an increased rate of maternal lead elimination. Lead concentration in milk exceeded plasma concentration by a factor of approximately 25. (ERB)

  4. Periodate and hypobromite modification of Southern pine wood to improve sorption of copper ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. McSweeny; Roger M. Rowell; George C. Chen; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Min Soo-Hong

    2008-01-01

    Milled southern pine wood was modified with sequential treatments of sodium periodate and sodium hypobromite for the purpose of improving copper ion (Cu2+) sorption capacity of the wood when tested in 24-h equilibrium batch tests. The modified wood provided additional carboxyl groups to those in the native wood and substantially increased Cu2+ uptake over that of...

  5. Inferences of body energy reserves on conception rate of suckled Zebu beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination followed by natural mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, H; Ferreira, R M; Torres-Júnior, J R S; Demétrio, C G B; Sá Filho, M F; Gimenes, L U; Penteado, L; D'Occhio, M J; Baruselli, P S

    2014-09-01

    was highest in cows that had an improvement in RFAT and BCS during the dry period. Therefore, assuring a good nutritional status in the dry period (BCS ≥ 3.0 at 165 ± 14 days prepartum and ≥3.25 at parturition) is an important aim to optimize the postpartum conception rate of suckled Zebu beef cows subjected to TAI followed by natural mating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Improved Adaptive Silence Period Algorithm over Time-Variant Channels in the Cognitive Radio System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of cognitive radio spectrum sensing, the adaptive silence period management mechanism (ASPM has improved the problem of the low time-resource utilization rate of the traditional silence period management mechanism (TSPM. However, in the case of the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, the ASPM algorithm will increase the probability of missed detection for the primary user (PU. Focusing on this problem, this paper proposes an improved adaptive silence period management (IA-SPM algorithm which can adaptively adjust the sensing parameters of the current period in combination with the feedback information from the data communication with the sensing results of the previous period. The feedback information in the channel is achieved with frequency resources rather than time resources in order to adapt to the parameter change in the time-varying channel. The Monte Carlo simulation results show that the detection probability of the IA-SPM is 10–15% higher than that of the ASPM under low SNR conditions.

  7. Feeding Value of Corn Gluten Meal as a Source of Protein in Creep Feeding Diets of Suckling Lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, S.A.; Mustafa, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Forty-two newly born lambs were randomly divided into three similar groups, their weights were recorded at birth then each two weeks. Lambs in the groups were left to suckle their mothers, in addition to one of the experimental diets (as creep feeding), which found in Table (1). First group (Gl) fed diet contains 13% soybean meal (SBM) and served as a control diet, second group (G2) fed diet contains 6.5% SBM and 6.5% corn gluten meal (CGM), and third group (G3) fed diet contains 13% CGM. The concentrate feed mixture was offered daily started at 7th days of age until weaning. Blood samples were taken at 7, 40 and 80 days of age. The results showed that averages daily body weight gain and weaning weight of lambs were higher significantly with G2 than G3 then Gl. In addition, male lambs had higher weaning weight and average daily weight gain than female lambs in the three groups. The highest means of serum total proteins, albumin and globulin recorded with G2 followed by G3 then Gl o Means of serum glucose significantly decrease with age. Blood serum aspartate amino -transferase (AST) and alanine amino - transferase (ALT) creatinine concentration and T3 level were not affected by treatments. Serum triglyceride and serum cholesterol levels were higher recorded for Gl and G2 than G3. It is concluded that adding corn gluten meal to creep feeding diets improves growth of suckling lambs without any side effects on physiological body function of lambs

  8. Dependence of the immune response to coccidiosis on the age of rabbit suckling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pakandl, Michal; Hlásková, Lenka; Poplštein, M.; Chromá, V.; Vodička, T.; Salát, Jiří; Mucksová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 6 (2008), s. 1265-1271 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/2328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : suckling rabbits * coccidiosis * immune response Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.473, year: 2008

  9. Martina Franca donkey meat quality: Influence of slaughter age and suckling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palo, P; Tateo, A; Maggiolino, A; Marino, R; Ceci, E; Nisi, A; Lorenzo, J M

    2017-12-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of suckling technique and slaughter age on Martina Franca donkey meat quality. Twenty Martina Franca male foals were involved in the trial. Foals naturally assumed colostrum within 4h from birth. Afterwards, 10 foals were partially artificially suckled (AS), and 10 foals were naturally suckled (NS). All the foals were weaned at 180d, then housed indoors and fed the same diet. Ten donkeys were slaughtered at 12months and the other 10 at the age of 18months. Samples of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) were taken from each foal for chemical analysis, then rheological parameters, oxidative profile, colorimetric parameters and fatty acid profile were assessed. Older donkeys (18months) fed with natural milk presented the highest intramuscular fat (IMF) and meat protein content. From a dietary view point, IMF acid composition showed a more favourable profile in meat from artificially-reared donkeys compared to naturally-suckled ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of supplementary feeding to ewes and suckling lambs on ewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was conducted to determine the effects on the performance of creep feeding suckling lambs and supplementing ewes that were grazing wheat stubble. Eight experimental units of South African Mutton Merino (SAMM) ewes and lambs were used in a 2 (supplementing ewes or not) x 2 (creep feeding lambs or not) ...

  11. Morphological changes in the small intestine after application of gluten during suckling period in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánková, Renata; Tlaskalová, Helena; Kofroňová, Olga; Šinkora, Jiří

    1995-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 1 (1995), s. S50 ISSN 0090-1229. [International Congress of Mucosal Immunology. San Diego, 17.07.1995-20.07.1995] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/93/1093; GA ČR GA311/94/1880; GA AV ČR IAA720401 Impact factor: 2.088, year: 1995

  12. Animal Production Performance and Herd Management in Suckling Farms on Réunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Choisis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In Réunion, because of the insularity and the small size of farms, improving cattle farm productivity involves increas­ing technical management aspects. To analyze relationships between herd management practices and animal perform­ances, a survey was conducted in ten suckling farms, located in the Highlands, from 1999 to 2002. Three sets of 4, 8 and 3 variables, respectively, were thus extracted from the moni­toring database: animal performances (calving interval, fertil­ity rate, body weight at standard age, live meat production, farmers’ practices (grazing time per hectare and paddock, time interval between two passages, paddock size, stocking rate, feed complementation of weaned animals and lactating cows, culling rate, and environment (rainfall, herbage production, body condition score of cows. An analysis of co-inertia was carried out on the first two tables to analyze relationships between animal production performances and practices. A significant correlation was observed between the two tables. The results of the co-inertia analysis were interpreted for each farm. Beyond specific constraints, they revealed proximities between farms and herd management based on various strat­egies, which were relevant with the observed performances. A STATICO analysis was performed to assess relationships between performance parameters and environment parameters for the four studied years. It revealed that there was a stable costructure between the environment and performance tables. This suggests that practices had a highly structuring effect on animal production and that some system adjustments miti­gated the climate effects.

  13. The effects of prenatal exposure to a 'junk food' diet on offspring food preferences and fat deposition can be mitigated by improved nutrition during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugusheff, J R; Vithayathil, M; Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to a maternal junk food (JF) diet in utero and during the suckling period has been demonstrated to increase the preference for palatable food and increase the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in adult offspring. We aimed to determine whether the effects of prenatal exposure to JF could be ameliorated by cross-fostering offspring onto dams consuming a standard rodent chow during the suckling period. We report here that when all offspring were given free access to the JF diet for 7 weeks from 10 weeks of age, male offspring of control (C) or JF dams that were cross-fostered at birth onto JF dams (C-JF, JF-JF), exhibited higher fat (C-C: 12.3 ± 0.34 g/kg/day; C-JF: 14.7 ± 1.04 g/kg/day; JF-C: 11.5 ± 0.41 g/kg/day; JF-JF: 14.0 ± 0.44 g/kg/day; P food intake, had increased fat mass as percentage of body weight (C-C: 19.9 ± 1.33%; C-JF: 22.8 ± 1.57%; JF-C: 17.4 ± 1.03%; JF-JF: 22.0 ± 1.0%; P food preferences in females and susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in males can be prevented by improved nutrition during the suckling period.

  14. Improved long-term outcomes after resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a comparison between two time periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Pablo E; Cleary, Sean P; Dhani, Neesha; Kim, Peter T W; Greig, Paul D; Leung, Kenneth; Moulton, Carol-Anne; Gallinger, Steven; Wei, Alice C

    2015-04-01

    Despite reduced perioperative mortality and routine use of adjuvant therapy following pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), improvement in long-term outcome has been difficult to ascertain. This study compares outcomes in patients undergoing resection for PDAC within a single, high-volume academic institution over two sequential time periods. Retrospective review of patients with resected PDAC, in two cohorts: period 1 (P1), 1991-2000; and period 2 (P2), 2001-2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model were performed to determine prognostic factors associated with long-term survival. Survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analyses. A total of 179 pancreatectomies were performed during P1 and 310 during P2. Perioperative mortality was 6.7 % (12/179) in P1 and 1.6 % (5/310) in P2 (p = 0.003). P2 had a greater number of lymph nodes resected (17 [0-50] vs. 7 [0-31]; p P2 (p P2 (p < 0.001). Factors associated with improved long-term survival remain comparable over time. Short- and long-term survival for patients with resected PDAC has improved over time due to decreased perioperative mortality and increased use of adjuvant therapy, although the proportion of 5-year survivors remains small.

  15. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, Karin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at random as they exited the abattoir, cooled and packed following industry practices. Beef cuts were selected based on an earlier, unreplicated analysis of 21 common cuts, to represent a wide range of cuts currently available to consumers. Large and significant differences were observed in fat content with a mean of 2.12%, ranging between 4.23% for sirloin strip and 0.68% for butcher’s roast. The cholesterol content did not differ between cuts (mean 44.7 mg/100 mg meat and was unrelated to fat percentage. A stringent discriminant analysis of the fatty acid profiles detected highly significant differences between cuts and correctly classified 37 of the 40 samples. The n6:n3 ratio did not differ between cuts and ranged between 1.9 for sirloin strip and 2.6 for rib roast and silverside’s end. Significant differences between cuts were detected for most fatty acids, and for the atherogenicity index. Nevertheless, the latter only varied between 0.60 and 1.07 for topside and sirloin strip respectively. The results are compared with literature values. Notwithstanding differences between cuts, all beef samples were lean and had lipid profiles compatible with human health as part of a balanced diet.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el contenido de grasa, colesterol y perfil de ácidos grasos de ocho cortes provenientes de terneros lactantes, de 7-8 meses de edad y engordados en prados permanentes de la VII Region de Chile, por productores pequeños. Se

  16. Improving the environment for weaned piglets using polypropylene fabrics above the animals in cold periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, Noé; Babot, Daniel; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Forcada, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of polypropylene fabrics in weaned pig facilities (5-10 weeks of age) during the winter period to improve thermal environment and energy saving for heating. Two experiments were conducted to validate the effects of fabrics (F) compared to control (C) in three 2-week periods using natural ventilation (assay 1, 2013) and forced ventilation (assay 2, 2014). Air temperature was greater in F than in C compartments in both years, particularly during the first 2-week periods (2 °C of mean difference). Natural ventilation was not enough to maintain relative humidity levels below 70 % at the end of the postweaning period (9-10 weeks of age) in both groups (F and C), whereas forced ventilation allowed controlling daily mean relative humidity levels <60 %. About 12-26 % of the radiant heat was transmitted through the fabrics cover, depending on the wavelength. There were no differences on growth performance of piglets in the two compartments in both years. The use of polypropylene fabrics was associated with a significant electric energy saving for heating during the first (data available only in 2014) and second 2-week period in both years. In conclusion, polypropylene fabrics may be an interesting tool to provide optimal environmental conditions for weaned piglets in winter, especially during the two first weeks after weaning. Their transmittance properties allow trapping infrared emission produced by the piglets and heating, avoiding heat losses through the roof, and therefore saving heating energy.

  17. Periodization of the early postnatal development in the rat with particular attention to the weaning period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ošťádalová, Ivana; Babický, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, Suppl.1 (2012), S1-S7 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : rat * ontogenic development * presuckling period * suckling period * weaning period Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  18. A study on the competitiveness improvement of the OPR1000 through reduction of the construction period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deuck Soo

    2009-02-01

    Current world's nuclear power plant markets change will provide variety opportunities to the Korean nuclear power plant industries. The economic competitiveness is the most significant issue to utilize the forthcoming 'Renaissance of Nuclear Power' as a chance of exporting OPR1000. To improve the competitiveness of the OPR1000, the capital cost which is the key factor of the generating cost of the nuclear power plant should be reduced. Reduction of the construction period is more important than the design improvement or facility change regarding capital cost perspectives. The aim of this study, therefore, is to introduce the parallel installation method for reducing the construction period to achieve the economic competitiveness. The parallel installation path was selected among critical paths by analyzing the construction schedules of the nuclear power plants built in Korea. Reactor Coolant Loop Installation and Reactor Vessel Internal Installation were selected for the parallel installation method in this study. Conventional installation method installs reactor vessel internal after finishing reactor coolant loop installation. Therefore it needs about twenty (20) months from the reactor vessel settings to the completion of the reactor vessel internal installation. The parallel installation methodology proposed in this study can reduce the construction period about two (2) months by installing reactor vessel internals in parallel with the welding process of the cross-over leg between the steam generator and the reactor coolant pump. ANSYS Codes was utilized to show the deformation impacts on the reactor vessel caused by the shrinkage force imposed by the welding process of the cross-over leg. The code analysis results lead the deformation impact is negligible. And it confirms the parallel installation of the reactor vessel internal with the cross-over leg can be applied for the OPR1000 construction. The economic improvement by the parallel installation was also

  19. Usefulness of panoramic radiograph for the improvement of periodic oral examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, MinJung; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and utility of panoramic radiograph for the improvement of the periodic oral examinations. Clinical examinations and panoramic examinations were done for the 242 subjects of oral examinations. The results of panoramic radiograph interpretation were compared with the clinical findings. Two questionnaires were created. One was carried out before the panoramic examination and the other done afterwards, to find out the subjects cognition and satisfaction for the clinical and panoramic examinations. Results : 1. Panoramic findings showed a higher detection rate of 31.9% for periodontal diseases, and 23.1% for dental caries than clinical findings. 2. The additional abnormalities detected through panoramic examinations were impacted tooth in 81 subjects (33.6%), maxillary sinus abnormalities in 28 subjects (11.6%), condylar abnormalities in 5 subjects (2.1%), congenital and acquired dental anormalies in 59 subjects (24.5%), and other miscellaneous abnormalities in 34 subjects (14.1%). 3. 164 subjects (67.8%) were satisfied with the current periodic oral examination, and 75 subjects (31.1%) hoped for better accuracy. 4. In the first and second questionnaire, 154 subjects (67.0%) and 163 subjects (70.6%) responded respectively that panoramic examination was necessary, and 193 subjects (83.2%) responded that it actually helped. The panoramic examination was revealed to improve the effectiveness of the periodic oral examination and to increase the satisfaction of the subjects of examination.

  20. An Improved Isotropic Periodic Sum Method That Uses Linear Combinations of Basis Potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Kazuaki Z.

    2012-11-13

    Isotropic periodic sum (IPS) is a technique that calculates long-range interactions differently than conventional lattice sum methods. The difference between IPS and lattice sum methods lies in the shape and distribution of remote images for long-range interaction calculations. The images used in lattice sum calculations are identical to those generated from periodic boundary conditions and are discretely positioned at lattice points in space. The images for IPS calculations are "imaginary", which means they do not explicitly exist in a simulation system and are distributed isotropically and periodically around each particle. Two different versions of the original IPS method exist. The IPSn method is applied to calculations for point charges, whereas the IPSp method calculates polar molecules. However, both IPSn and IPSp have their advantages and disadvantages in simulating bulk water or water-vapor interfacial systems. In bulk water systems, the cutoff radius effect of IPSn strongly affects the configuration, whereas IPSp does not provide adequate estimations of water-vapor interfacial systems unless very long cutoff radii are used. To extend the applicability of the IPS technique, an improved IPS method, which has better accuracy in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems has been developed and named the linear-combination-based isotropic periodic sum (LIPS) method. This improved IPS method uses linear combinations of basis potentials. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of bulk water and water-vapor interfacial systems to evaluate the accuracy of the LIPS method. For bulk water systems, the LIPS method has better accuracy than IPSn in estimating thermodynamic and configurational properties without the countercharge assumption, which is used for IPSp. For water-vapor interfacial systems, LIPS has better accuracy than IPSp and properly estimates thermodynamic and configurational properties. In conclusion, the LIPS method can successfully estimate

  1. An Improved Isotropic Periodic Sum Method That Uses Linear Combinations of Basis Potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Kazuaki Z.; Narumi, Tetsu; Suh, Donguk; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Isotropic periodic sum (IPS) is a technique that calculates long-range interactions differently than conventional lattice sum methods. The difference between IPS and lattice sum methods lies in the shape and distribution of remote images for long-range interaction calculations. The images used in lattice sum calculations are identical to those generated from periodic boundary conditions and are discretely positioned at lattice points in space. The images for IPS calculations are "imaginary", which means they do not explicitly exist in a simulation system and are distributed isotropically and periodically around each particle. Two different versions of the original IPS method exist. The IPSn method is applied to calculations for point charges, whereas the IPSp method calculates polar molecules. However, both IPSn and IPSp have their advantages and disadvantages in simulating bulk water or water-vapor interfacial systems. In bulk water systems, the cutoff radius effect of IPSn strongly affects the configuration, whereas IPSp does not provide adequate estimations of water-vapor interfacial systems unless very long cutoff radii are used. To extend the applicability of the IPS technique, an improved IPS method, which has better accuracy in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems has been developed and named the linear-combination-based isotropic periodic sum (LIPS) method. This improved IPS method uses linear combinations of basis potentials. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of bulk water and water-vapor interfacial systems to evaluate the accuracy of the LIPS method. For bulk water systems, the LIPS method has better accuracy than IPSn in estimating thermodynamic and configurational properties without the countercharge assumption, which is used for IPSp. For water-vapor interfacial systems, LIPS has better accuracy than IPSp and properly estimates thermodynamic and configurational properties. In conclusion, the LIPS method can successfully estimate

  2. Characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone in primiparous, postpartum, anovular, suckled, beef cows exposed acutely to bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauck Shaun A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological mechanism by which bulls stimulate resumption of ovarian cycling activity in postpartum, anovular, suckled cows after calving may involve the concurrent activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian (HPO axis and hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal (HPA axis. Thus, the objectives of this experiment were to determine if characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH in postpartum, anovular, beef cows are influenced by acute exposure to bulls. The null hypotheses were that daily, temporal characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns do not differ between cows exposed acutely to bulls or steers. Methods Sixteen cows were assigned randomly 67 +/- 4 (+/- SE after calving to be exposed to bulls (EB, n = 8 or steers (ES, n = 8 5 h daily for 9 d (D 0 to 8. Blood samples were collected daily from each cow via jugular catheters at 15-min intervals for 6 h from 1000 to 1600 h each day. The 5-h exposure period began 1 h after the start of the intensive bleeding period. Characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns (mean, baseline, pulse frequency, pulse amplitude, and pulse duration were identified by PULSAR analyses. Results Mean cortisol concentrations decreased (P 0.10 between EB and ES cows. The decrease in mean cortisol concentrations in EB and ES cows from D 0 to D 2 was attributed to cows acclimatizing to intensive blood sampling and handling procedures. Consequently, analyses for characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns included D 2 through 8 only. Cortisol mean and baseline concentrations, and pulse amplitude did not differ (P > 0.10 between EB and ES cows. However, cortisol pulse duration tended to be longer (P = 0.09 and pulse frequency was lower (P = 0.05 in EB than ES cows. LH pulse frequency was greater (P = 0.06 in EB than ES cows. All other characteristics of LH concentration patterns did not differ (P > 0.10 between EB and ES cows

  3. Improving the training process of highly skilled bodybuilders in the preparatory period, general preparatory phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr Tyhorskyy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve the method of training highly skilled bodybuilders. Material and Methods: the study involved eight highly skilled athletes, members of the team of Ukraine on bodybuilding. Results: comparative characteristics of the most commonly used methods of training process in bodybuilding. Developed and substantiated the optimal method of training highly skilled bodybuilders during the general preparatory phase of the preparatory period, which can increase body weight through muscle athletes component. Conclusions: dynamic load factor to raise the intensity of training loads allows orientation help to increase volumes shoulder muscles

  4. Improving the training process of highly skilled bodybuilders in the preparatory period, general preparatory phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr Tyhorskyy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve the method of training highly skilled bodybuilders during the general preparatory phase. Material and Methods: the study involved eight highly skilled athletes, members of the team of Ukraine on bodybuilding. Results: comparative characteristics of the most commonly used methods of training process in bodybuilding. Developed and substantiated the optimal method of training highly skilled bodybuilders during the general preparatory phase of the preparatory period, which can increase body weight through muscle athletes component. Conclusions: based on studies, recommended the optimum method of training highly skilled bodybuilders depending on mezotsykles and microcycles general preparatory phase

  5. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Improving prediction accuracy of GPS satellite clocks with periodic variation behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Youn Jeong; Cho, Jeongho; Heo, Moon Beom

    2010-07-01

    The broadcast ephemeris and IGS ultra-rapid predicted (IGU-P) products are primarily available for use in real-time GPS applications. The IGU orbit precision has been remarkably improved since late 2007, but its clock products have not shown acceptably high-quality prediction performance. One reason for this fact is that satellite atomic clocks in space can be easily influenced by various factors such as temperature and environment and this leads to complicated aspects like periodic variations, which are not sufficiently described by conventional models. A more reliable prediction model is thus proposed in this paper in order to be utilized particularly in describing the periodic variation behaviour satisfactorily. The proposed prediction model for satellite clocks adds cyclic terms to overcome the periodic effects and adopts delay coordinate embedding, which offers the possibility of accessing linear or nonlinear coupling characteristics like satellite behaviour. The simulation results have shown that the proposed prediction model outperforms the IGU-P solutions at least on a daily basis.

  6. Meat quality of suckling lambs supplemented with contents of crude glycerin in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Ribeiro Sanquetta de Pellegrin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of meat from suckling lambs kept in pasture ryegrass. Thirty two suckling lambs, sixteen male and sixteen female, were distributed into 4 diets with different concentrations of crude glycerin: 0, 10, 20 and 30% crude glycerin, in the replacement of corn, in the isoproteic supplement (18% CP provided daily in amounts equivalent to 2% of body weight. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with each variable data submitted to analysis of variance at 5% significance and the significant results subjected to regression analysis. There was no effect (P>0,05 of contents of crude glycerin on the chemical composition and cholesterol content of lamb meat. On the other hand, there was increased linearly (P>0,05 pH and cooking losses by the use of crude glycerin. No influence (P>0,05 of crude glycerin concentration on the texture profile analysis (TPA, sensorial analysis by triangular test and even when was evaluated attributes color, tenderness and juiciness of lamb meat. Up to 30% of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding for suckling lambs grazing ryegrass do not compromise the physical-chemical and sensorial quality of the lamb meat.

  7. Improving the training process of skilled bodybuilders in specially-preparatory phase of the preparatory period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Dzhym

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study methods of improving the training process of skilled bodybuilders in a specially-preparatory phase of the preparatory period. Materials and Methods: the study involved 18 skilled bodybuilders are included in the team of the Kharkiv region of bodybuilding. Results: a comparative characteristic of the most commonly used methods of training process in bodybuilding. Developed and justified the optimal technique for skilled bodybuilders, depending on the initial form of the athlete at the beginning of a specially-preparatory phase of training. Shows the dependence of changes in body weight bodybuilder from the training process. Conclusions: on the basis of the research the author proposes an optimal method of training depending on the training microcycle in the run specially-preparatory stage.

  8. Prenatal Diagnosis of Transposition of the Great Arteries over a 20-Year Period: Improved but Imperfect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Diaz, Maria C; Freud, Lindsay R; Bueno, Alejandra; Brown, David W; Friedman, Kevin; Schidlow, David; Emani, Sitaram; del Nido, Pedro; Tworetzky, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate temporal trends in prenatal diagnosis of transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum (TGA/IVS) and its impact on neonatal morbidity and mortality. Methods Newborns with TGA/IVS referred for surgical management to our center over a 20-year period (1992 – 2011) were included. The study time was divided into 5 four-year periods, and the primary outcome was rate of prenatal diagnosis. Secondary outcomes included neonatal pre-operative status and perioperative survival. Results Of the 340 patients, 81 (24%) had a prenatal diagnosis. Prenatal diagnosis increased over the study period from 6% to 41% (p<0.001). Prenatally diagnosed patients underwent a balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) earlier than postnatally diagnosed patients (0 vs. 1 day, p<0.001) and fewer required mechanical ventilation (56% vs. 69%, p=0.03). There were no statistically significant differences in pre-operative acidosis (16% vs. 26%, p=0.1) and need for preoperative ECMO (2% vs. 3%, p=1.0). There was also no significant mortality difference (1 pre-operative and no post-operative deaths among prenatally diagnosed patients, as compared to 4 pre-operative and 6 post-operative deaths among postnatally diagnosed patients). Conclusion The prenatal detection rate of TGA/IVS has improved but still remains below 50%, suggesting the need for strategies to increase detection rates. The mortality rate was not statistically different between pre- and postnatally diagnosed patients; however, there were significant pre-operative differences with regard to earlier BAS and less mechanical ventilation. Ongoing study is required to elucidate whether prenatal diagnosis confers long-term benefit. PMID:25484180

  9. Template-mediated synthesis of periodic membranes for improved liquid-phase separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groger, H.

    1997-01-01

    Solid/liquid separations of particulates in waste streams will benefit from design and development of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with uniform, tailorable pore size and chemical, thermal, and mechanical stability. Such membranes will perform solid/liquid separations with high selectivity, permeance, lifetime, and low operating costs. Existing organic and inorganic membrane materials do not adequately meet all these requirements. An innovative solution to the need for improved inorganic membranes is the application of mesoporous ceramics with narrow pore-size distributions and tailorable pore size (1.5 to 10 nm) that have recently been shown to form with the use of organic surfactant molecules and surfactant assemblies as removable templates. This series of porous ceramics, designated MCM-41, consists of silica or aluminosilicates distinguished by periodic arrays of uniform channels. In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, American Research Corporation of Virginia will demonstrate the use of supported MCM-41 thin films deposited by a proprietary technique, as UF membranes. Technical objectives include deposition in thin, defect-free periodic mesoporous MCM-41 membranes on porous supports; measurement of membrane separation factors, permeance, and fouling; and measurement of membrane lifetime as part of an engineering and economic analysis

  10. Template-mediated synthesis of periodic membranes for improved liquid-phase separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groger, H. [American Research Corp. of Virginia, Radford, VA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Solid/liquid separations of particulates in waste streams will benefit from design and development of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with uniform, tailorable pore size and chemical, thermal, and mechanical stability. Such membranes will perform solid/liquid separations with high selectivity, permeance, lifetime, and low operating costs. Existing organic and inorganic membrane materials do not adequately meet all these requirements. An innovative solution to the need for improved inorganic membranes is the application of mesoporous ceramics with narrow pore-size distributions and tailorable pore size (1.5 to 10 nm) that have recently been shown to form with the use of organic surfactant molecules and surfactant assemblies as removable templates. This series of porous ceramics, designated MCM-41, consists of silica or aluminosilicates distinguished by periodic arrays of uniform channels. In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, American Research Corporation of Virginia will demonstrate the use of supported MCM-41 thin films deposited by a proprietary technique, as UF membranes. Technical objectives include deposition in thin, defect-free periodic mesoporous MCM-41 membranes on porous supports; measurement of membrane separation factors, permeance, and fouling; and measurement of membrane lifetime as part of an engineering and economic analysis.

  11. Aggregate analysis of regulatory authority assessors' comments to improve the quality of periodic safety update reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullian, Sandra; Jaskiewicz, Lukasz; Pfannkuche, Hans-Jürgen; Parker, Jeremy; Lalande-Luesink, Isabelle; Lewis, David J; Close, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Marketing authorization holders (MAHs) are expected to provide high-quality periodic safety update reports (PSURs) on their pharmaceutical products to health authorities (HAs). We present a novel instrument aiming at improving quality of PSURs based on standardized analysis of PSUR assessment reports (ARs) received from the European Union HAs across products and therapeutic areas. All HA comments were classified into one of three categories: "Request for regulatory actions," "Request for medical and scientific information," or "Data deficiencies." The comments were graded according to their impact on patients' safety, the drug's benefit-risk profile, and the MAH's pharmacovigilance system. A total of 476 comments were identified through the analysis of 63 PSUR HA ARs received in 2013 and 2014; 47 (10%) were classified as "Requests for regulatory actions," 309 (65%) as "Requests for medical and scientific information," and 118 (25%) comments were related to "Data deficiencies." The most frequent comments were requests for labeling changes (35 HA comments in 19 ARs). The aggregate analysis revealed commonly raised issues and prompted changes of the MAH's procedures related to the preparation of PSURs. The authors believe that this novel instrument based on the evaluation of PSUR HA ARs serves as a valuable mechanism to enhance the quality of PSURs and decisions about optimization of the use of the products and, therefore, contributes to improve further the MAH's pharmacovigilance system and patient safety. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Improved orbits of two periodic comets: Tsuchinshan 1 and Tsuchinshan 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szutowicz, S.

    1986-01-01

    The observations made during four apparitions of two comets were collected and the orbits of the comets were improved; 86 observations of Comet Tsuchinshan 1 and 50 observations of Comet Tsuchinshan 2 made in the period 1965-1985 were used. The orbit of Comet Tsuchinshan 1 was improved taking into account nongravitational effects in its motion as well as a displacement of the photometric center from the center of mass. The following values of nongravitational parameters and of observational parameter D were obtained: A 1 = 0.75953 x 10 -8 , A 2 0.00375 x 10 -8 , D = 0.34698 x 10 -3 . To link all observations of Comet Tsuchinshan 2 by one system of elements it was sufficient to add observational effects as a displacement of the photometric center from the center of mass. The following value of parameter D was obtained: D = 1.00200 x 10 -3 . The equations of motion of both comets were integrated backwards and forwards till 1992. Ephemerides for their next returns were computed. 6 refs., 5 tabs. (author)

  13. Effects of farm management practices and transport duration on stress response and meat quality traits of suckling goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, M J; Suárez, M D; Rodero, E; Álvarez, R; Sáez, M I; Martínez, T F

    2017-09-01

    Studies aimed to assess up to what extent farming and transport previous to slaughtering might affect physiology and meat quality in young goat kids are needed, with the ultimate purpose of promoting practices that minimize stress in these animals. In this regard the effects of on-farm management and transport duration on some physiological responses and meat quality parameters in goat kids were assessed. Two farms representing 'high' and 'low' welfare-friendly management practices were selected. In total, 32 suckling kids were withdrawn from each farm, transported by road for 2 or 6 h, and then slaughtered. Blood samples were collected both on-farm and in the slaughterhouse, and biochemistry, cell counts and haematocrit were determined. After slaughtering, carcass quality parameters were measured. Longissimus dorsi muscle was dissected and pH, colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force were measured throughout 8-day ageing period. Results indicate that, regardless its duration, transport caused significant effects on some blood parameters suggesting stress in live animals, like glucose, cortisol or creatine kinase. Despite the marked stress status in animals, this condition was not decisively reflected on L. dorsi quality parameters, but some effects were observed regarding fat cover in carcasses and colour parameters. The results suggest that postmortem changes throughout ageing were more decisive in terms of meat quality than stressful management either on-farm or during transport.

  14. Time trends, improvements and national auditing of rectal cancer management over an 18-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodeda, K; Johansson, R; Zar, N; Birgisson, H; Dahlberg, M; Skullman, S; Lindmark, G; Glimelius, B; Påhlman, L; Martling, A

    2015-09-01

    The main aims were to explore time trends in the management and outcome of patients with rectal cancer in a national cohort and to evaluate the possible impact of national auditing on overall outcomes. A secondary aim was to provide population-based data for appraisal of external validity in selected patient series. Data from the Swedish ColoRectal Cancer Registry with virtually complete national coverage were utilized in this cohort study on 29 925 patients with rectal cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2012. Of eligible patients, nine were excluded. During the study period, overall, relative and disease-free survival increased. Postoperative mortality after 30 and 90 days decreased to 1.7% and 2.9%. The 5-year local recurrence rate dropped to 5.0%. Resection margins improved, as did peri-operative blood loss despite more multivisceral resections being performed. Fewer patients underwent palliative resection and the proportion of non-operated patients increased. The proportions of temporary and permanent stoma formation increased. Preoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy became more common as did multidisciplinary team conferences. Variability in rectal cancer management between healthcare regions diminished over time when new aspects of patient care were audited. There have been substantial changes over time in the management of patients with rectal cancer, reflected in improved outcome. Much indirect evidence indicates that auditing matters, but without a control group it is not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the possible impact of a quality control registry on faster shifts in time trends, decreased variability and improvements. Registry data were made available for reference. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Efficacy of sulfonamides and Baycox(®) against Isospora suis in experimental infections of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Anja; Mundt, Hans-Christian

    2011-12-01

    Sulfonamide treatment of piglets against neonatal coccidiosis has frequently been suggested in the literature. In order to evaluate the efficacy of sulfonamides against experimental Isospora suis infections in suckling piglets (oral infection with 1,500 sporulated oocysts of I. suis per piglet on the fourth day of life), two trials were conducted. In trial I, oral sulfadimidine (group Sulfa-Oral) was applied in doses of 100 mg/kg of body weight (BW) 1 day before infection and 75 mg/kg BW daily for the following 5 days, and sulfamethoxypyrimidine (SMP) was applied parenterally in daily doses of 75 mg/kg BW for the same time period. In trial II, SMP was applied parenterally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW (a) from the day of infection daily for 7 days (SMP-Standard), (b) for 2 days starting on the day of infection (SMP-Early), (c) for 3 days starting 2 days post-infection (d.p.i.; SMP-Middle), (d) for 2 days starting 5 d.p.i. (SMP-Late), and (e) every other day from the day of infection until 6 d.p.i. (SMP-Alternating), as well as (f) orally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW from the day of infection for 7 days (SMP-Oral). The sulfonamide-treated groups were compared to a toltrazuril-treated group (single oral treatment with Baycox® 5% suspension, 20 mg/kg BW 2 d.p.i.) and to a water-treated Control group. Each group consisted of seven to nine piglets. The parameters evaluated were oocyst excretion and fecal consistency/diarrhea from 4 to 15 d.p.i. Sulfa-Oral, SMP-Early, and SMP-Late had no significant effect in reduction of oocyst excretion and diarrhea, whereas treatment for 3-7 days with SMP reduced both parasite shedding and diarrhea significantly. Oral treatment with SMP was comparable to parenteral application. Baycox® in a single application had the most pronounced effect and completely suppressed oocyst excretion and diarrhea during the examination period. It could be shown that repeated application of sulfonamides, provided that the appropriate time period after infection

  16. APPLICATION OF PULSE-PERIODICAL MODE FOR IMPROVEMENT OF LASER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Apollonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to estimate an application of pulse-periodical mode for improvement of laser treatment efficiency. Laser technologies have been widely used in the processes of material treatment with the purpose to provide them the required surface properties and also for high accuracy cutting of sheet materials. Application of complex treatment is of great interest and especially when it is used for worn-out surfaces with formation of a coating by gas-flame laying of powder mixture of specific composition and subsequent laser fusion.Increase of laser unit capacity is very important task for higher efficiency of laser technology application in mechanical engineering. Nowadays technological processes using lasers with high average power (more than 100 W have been applying only sources that are working in two modes, namely: continuous and pulse- periodical (P-P with pulse repetition rate from some units to several hundred hertz and pulse duration within dozens to hundreds of microseconds and even within milliseconds. On the other hand, in some cases shielding effect of plasma cloud formed during laser alloying, cladding or welding reduces the efficiency of laser treatment up to 50 % depending on plasma composition and laser beam length. High frequency P-P laser systems with high average power working in mode of Q-factor modulation allow to realize principally other mechanism of irradiation interaction with materials that is an ablation. In this case it is possible to provide local energy release both in space and time.The performed analysis has revealed that P-P mode of laser operation for a majority of treatment processes is much better and more efficient from energetic point of view in comparison with the continuous mode. On the basis of the developments it is possible to make a conclusion that there is a possibility to create laser systems working in high frequency P-P mode with high average power above hundreds watt.

  17. Major role of suckling stimulation for inhibition of estrous behaviors in lactating rabbits: acute and chronic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Dalmán, Cipatli; González-Mariscal, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Lactation in rabbits induces anestrus: sexual receptivity and scent-marking (chinning) are reduced despite the brevity of suckling (one daily nursing bout, lasting around 3 min). The mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown but, as chinning, lordosis, and ambulation in an open field are immediately inhibited by the peripheral stimulation received during mating we hypothesized that, across lactation, suckling stimulation would provoke a similar effect. To test this possibility we provided litters of 1, 3, 5, or 10 pups across lactation days 1-15 and quantified chinning and ambulation frequencies, the lordosis quotient, and milk output. Baseline chinning frequency, determined before the daily nursing bout, was low across lactation days 1-15 in does nursing 3, 5 or 10 pups but it increased steadily across days 1-10 in rabbits suckling one pup. Yet, a single young was sufficient to abolish chinning for about 1h, after which this behavior rose again. Suckling litters of all sizes reduced (but did not abolish) ambulation frequency, both chronically (baseline levels declined across days 1-5) and acutely. Sexual receptivity was significantly reduced on lactation day 15 only in does that had nursed 10 pups. Large litter size promoted a larger milk output and a normal duration of nursing episodes. Results support a major role of suckling stimulation for the suppression of estrous behaviors and ambulation through as yet unidentified mechanisms. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Innovative dairy cow management to improve resistance to metabolic and infectious diseases during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, P; Vanacker, N; Ollier, S; Ster, C

    2018-02-01

    The incidence of metabolic and infectious diseases varies greatly during the lactation cycle. Most new cases of clinical mastitis appear at the beginning of lactation, and the incidence increases with the level of milk production. In addition to mastitis, many other infectious diseases become clinically apparent during the first 2weeks of lactation. During this time, cows are in a negative energy balance and must mobilize body reserves to balance the deficit between food energy intake and energy required for milk production. The relationships between energy deficit and metabolic diseases, such as ketosis and hepatic lipidosis, are well known. Furthermore, cows in energy deficit have a weakened immune system and are therefore more susceptible to infections. There is now good evidence that the increase in circulating non-esterified fatty acids impairs immune cell functions. Therefore, management approaches that reduce the negative energy balance and the increase in non-esterified fatty acids at the beginning of lactation are likely to improve resistance to infection. Improving the nutrient supply through periparturient nutritional management has been the subject of considerable research. However, another way to reduce the imbalance between nutrient supply and demand is to temporarily decrease the latter. In this review, we examine how management strategies such as conjugated linoleic acid feeding, prepartum milking, or limiting postpartum milk production could be used to reduce metabolic perturbations and immunosuppression during the transition period. At this stage, it appears that reducing the amount of milk harvested postpartum by means of partial milking in the first days after calving is the most promising approach to reduce metabolic stress and immunosuppression without compromising the productivity of high-yielding dairy cows. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Administration of N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, or N'-nitrosonornicotine to nursing rats: their interactions with liver and kidney nucleic acids from sucklings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Gomez, M.I.; Tamayo, D.; Castro, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    When nursing Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with [ 14 C]N-nitrosodimethylamine [(NDMA) CAS: 62-75-9], N-nitrosopyrrolidine (CAS:930-55-2), or N'-nitrosonornicotine (CAS: 16543-55-8), the liver and kidney DNA from their 14-day-old offspring that had been nursed over a 24-hour period became labeled. Upon analysis, liver DNA from sucklings whose nursing mothers were treated with [ 14 C]NDMA showed N7-methylguanine- and O6-methylguanine-altered bases. The results suggest that these nitrosamines, which are present in food, tobacco smoke, and in different environmental sources, are a risk not only for lactating mothers but also for the nursing infants

  20. Hepatic adaptation compensates inactivation of intestinal arginine biosynthesis in suckling mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Marion

    Full Text Available Suckling mammals, including mice, differ from adults in the abundant expression of enzymes that synthesize arginine from citrulline in their enterocytes. To investigate the importance of the small-intestinal arginine synthesis for whole-body arginine production in suckling mice, we floxed exon 13 of the argininosuccinate synthetase (Ass gene, which codes for a key enzyme in arginine biosynthesis, and specifically and completely ablated Ass in enterocytes by crossing Ass (fl and Villin-Cre mice. Unexpectedly, Ass (fl/fl /VilCre (tg/- mice showed no developmental impairments. Amino-acid fluxes across the intestine, liver, and kidneys were calculated after determining the blood flow in the portal vein, and hepatic and renal arteries (86%, 14%, and 33%, respectively, of the transhepatic blood flow in 14-day-old mice. Relative to control mice, citrulline production in the splanchnic region of Ass (fl/fl /VilCre (tg/- mice doubled, while arginine production was abolished. Furthermore, the net production of arginine and most other amino acids in the liver of suckling control mice declined to naught or even changed to consumption in Ass (fl/fl /VilCre (tg/- mice, and had, thus, become remarkably similar to that of post-weaning wild-type mice, which no longer express arginine-biosynthesizing enzymes in their small intestine. The adaptive changes in liver function were accompanied by an increased expression of genes involved in arginine metabolism (Asl, Got1, Gpt2, Glud1, Arg1, and Arg2 and transport (Slc25a13, Slc25a15, and Slc3a2, whereas no such changes were found in the intestine. Our findings suggest that the genetic premature deletion of arginine synthesis in enterocytes causes a premature induction of the post-weaning pattern of amino-acid metabolism in the liver.

  1. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Churra and Assaf suckling lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, J; Caro, I; Carballo, D E; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Arranz, J J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B

    2018-05-01

    Suckling lamb meat is traditionally produced in Mediterranean Europe. Breed can affect the quality of the lamb carcass and meat. This study is aimed at comparing the carcass and meat quality between suckling lambs from a local and a non-native dairy breed, Churra and Assaf. Churra is included in the Spanish Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) 'Lechazo de Castilla y León', whereas Assaf is not. However, Assaf breeders have requested the inclusion of the breed in the PGI. Carcasses and meat from 16 male lambs (eight Churra and eight Assaf) were used in this study. The lambs were all raised under an intensive rearing system and fed on a milk substitute to minimise maternal influence. The carcasses were evaluated for conformation, fatness, joint and leg tissue proportions and the meat was analysed for composition (i.e. proximate composition, iron, haematin, fatty acids and volatiles) and technological quality traits (i.e. texture, water holding capacity, colour and lipid stability). Churra carcasses were larger than Assaf carcasses. However, the proportions of commercial joints and main tissues did not differ between breeds. Cavity and intermuscular leg fat, but not total leg fat, were higher in Churra carcasses. Churra meat showed a higher proportion of n-6 fatty acids, higher redness and better colour stability during aerobic storage. In contrast, Assaf lamb was more resistant to lipid oxidation after cooking. This is a preliminary study to measure the influence of breed on a wide range of quality characteristics in Churra and Assaf suckling lamb carcass and meat. It may be of relevance for breeders, consumers and food policy makers, setting the basis for future studies that include larger commercial populations.

  2. Influence of ewe feeding systems on meat quality of suckling lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Scerra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years interest has grown in the zootechnical exploitation of environmental feeding resources, above all in marginal areas. The survival of these areas is linked to the development of the limited available resources. Of these, natural pastures represent one of the most important, not only because their zootechnical utilisation permits savings in alimentary costs, but above all because it results in better quality dairy and meat products. The aim of this study is to verify if and to what level ewe feeding systems influence the meat quality of suckling lambs.

  3. Herd specific risk factors for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs at the age of weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, Heiko; Woeste, Henrike; Doehring, Stefanie; Fahrion, Anna S; Doherr, Marcus G; Beilage, Elisabeth grosse

    2013-04-12

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of enzootic pneumonia mainly occurring in fattening pigs. It is assumed that horizontal transmission of the pathogen during nursery and growing phase starts with few suckling pigs vertically infected by the sow. The aim of the present study was the exploration of the herd prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs followed by an investigation of various herd specific factors for their potential of influencing the occurrence of this pathogen at the age of weaning. In this cross-sectional study, 125 breeding herds were examined by taking nasal swabs from 20 suckling pigs in each herd. In total, 3.9% (98/2500) of all nasal swabs were tested positive for M. hyopneumoniae by real-time PCR. Piglets tested positive originated from 46 different herds resulting in an overall herd prevalence of 36.8% (46/125) for M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs at the age of weaning. While the herds were epidemiologically characterized, the risk for demonstration of M. hyopneumoniae was significantly increased, when the number of purchased gilts per year was more than 120 (OR: 5.8), and when the number of farrowing pens per compartment was higher than 16 (OR: 3.3). In herds with a planned and segregated production, where groups of sows entered previously emptied farrowing units, the risk for demonstration of M. hyopneumoniae in piglets was higher in herds with two or four weeks between batches than in herds with one or three weeks between batches (OR: 2.7). In this cross-sectional study, several risk factors could be identified enhancing the probability of breeding herds to raise suckling pigs already infected with M. hyopneumoniae at the time of weaning. Interestingly, some factors (farrowing rhythm, gilt acclimatisation issues) were overlapping with those also influencing the seroprevalences among sows or the transmission of the pathogen between older age groups. Taking the multifactorial character of enzootic pneumonia

  4. Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, fecal bacterial population and intestinal morphology of suckling pigs challenged with F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayan, Harutai; Assavacheep, Pornchalit; Angkanaporn, Kris; Assavacheep, Anongnart

    2018-04-12

    Gut health improvements were monitored with respect to growth performance, diarrhea incidence, fecal bacterial population and intestinal morphology of suckling pigs orally supplemented with live Lactobacillus salivarius oral suspensions and challenged with F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Two groups of newborn pigs from 18 multiparous sows were randomly designated as non-supplemented (control: n=114 piglets) and L. salivarius supplemented groups (treatment: n=87 piglets). Treatment pigs were orally administered with 2 ml of 109 CFU/ml L. salivarius on days 1 - 3, then they were orally administered with 5 ml of 109 CFU/ml L. salivarius on days 4 - 10, while those in control group received an equal amount of phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS). On day 24 (2 weeks post supplementation), one pig per replicate of both groups was orally administered with 108 CFU/ml F4+ ETEC, then they were euthanized on day 29 of experiment. Results revealed that pigs in treatment group had statistically significant in average daily gain (ADG), body weight and weight gain, and tended to lower diarrhea throughout the study. Numbers of Lactobacillus population in feces of treatment pigs were higher than control pigs, especially on day 10 of study. Numbers of total bacteria in intestinal contents of control pigs were also increased, but not Coliform and Lactobacillus populations. Histological examination revealed statistically significant improvement of villous height and villous/crypt ratio of duodenum, proximal jejunum and distal jejunum parts of treatment pigs better than control. Duodenal pH of treatment group was significantly decreased. Oral supplementation of live L. salivarius during the first 10 days of suckling pig promoted growth performance and guts health, reduced diarrhea incidence, and increased fecal Lactobacillus populations, and improved intestinal morphology.

  5. A short period of high-intensity interval training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary V̇O2 kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age: 26 ± 2; mean ± SD) performed six HIT...

  6. The decrease in hypothalamic dopamine secretion induced by suckling: comparison of voltammetric and radioisotopic methods of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotsky, P.M.; Neill, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Previous in situ voltammetric microelectrode measurements of median eminence dopamine release during mammary nerve stimulation of anesthetized lactating rats revealed a transient (1-3 min) 70% decline of dopamine concentrations. This dopamine was believed to be destined for secretion into the hypophysial portal circulation, but direct experimental support for this supposition was lacking. Thus, in the present study, [3H]dopamine release into brief sequential samples of hypophysial portal blood was compared with dopamine release in the median eminence measured by voltammetry. Lactating female rats were urethane anesthetized, and the median eminence pituitary region was exposed. [3H]Tyrosine was injected into a jugular cannula (100 microCi) followed by continuous infusion (5 microCi/min). In a preliminary experiment, this regimen produced a steady state level of [3H]dopamine in the portal blood within 45 min. In subsequent experiments, portal blood was collected as sequential 3-min samples, and electrochemical sampling from a microelectrode placed in the median eminence occurred at 1-min intervals. Electrochemical current resulting from the oxidation of dopamine in the medial median eminence was unvarying throughout the 75-min experiment in control rats (n . 4) and during the 30-min control period preceding mammary nerve stimulation in the other group (n . 4). These results were paralled by [3H] dopamine levels in portal blood during the same periods of time. All animals showed simultaneous decreases in oxidation current and [3H]dopamine levels within 1-4 min after initiation of mammary nerve stimulation. These and earlier results demonstrate that mammary nerve stimulation (and by extension, suckling) induces a momentary, but profound, decrease in hypothalamic dopamine secretion which precedes or accompanies the rise in PRL secretion evoked by the same stimulus

  7. Periodic nanostructures formed on a poly-methyl methacrylate surface with a femtosecond laser for biocompatibility improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Keisuke; Tsukamoto, Masahiro; Sato, Yuji; Ooga, Takahiro; Asai, Satoru; Murai, Kensuke

    2018-06-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is widely used as a biomaterial. The formation of periodic nanostructures on the surface is necessary to improve the biocompatibility. A method was proposed and developed to form periodic nanostructures on a PMMA surface. A PMMA plate was placed on titanium (Ti) plate, and then the Ti plate was irradiated with a laser through the PMMA plate. We try to effectively produce periodic nanostructures on PMMA with a femtosecond laser at a fundamental wavelength by increasing the contact pressure and using titanium (Ti) plate. The contact pressure between PMMA and Ti required to form a periodic nanostructure is 300 kPa, and for a contact pressure of 2400 kPa, periodic nanostructures are formed in 62% of the laser-irradiated area on the PMMA surface. These results suggest that the formation efficiency of the periodic nanostructure depends on the laser conditions and the contact pressure.

  8. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sexed pig embryos during post-hatching development in primiparous sows exposed to differing intermittent suckling and breeding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Tsoi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of commercial pig breeding programs is to maximize the number of pigs produced per sow per year. Given that sows exhibit an estrus during lactation is a potential means of increasing productivity of a pig breeding herd without reducing in lactation length, conventionally, weaning of piglets at a relatively young age is often related to post-weaning piglet performance which compromises piglet welfare. Therefore, intermittent suckling (IS is a management technique in which lactating sows are separated from their piglets for a fixed period of the days and allowing sows to continue nursing piglets while exhibiting estrus and being breed during lactation, thereby promoting both piglet well-being and sow reproductive performance [1]. For this study, primiparous sows (PP were exposed to 28 day (D28 lactation with intermittent suckling (IS during the final week prior to weaning. The sows detected to be in estrus during lactation were either bred at this first estrus (FE during lactation (IS21FE, or were “skipped” and bred at their second estrus which occurred after final weaning at D28 (IS21SE. Despite the benefits of IS, the effects of the maternal physiology related to breeding during lactation on embryonic transcriptome are largely unknown. Recent advances in the ability to assess embryonic gene expression in both sexes have made these analyses possible. Here, we describe the experimental procedures of two color microarray analyses and annotation of differentially expressed (DE genes in detail corresponding to data deposited at NCBI in the Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE53576 and GSE73020 for day 9 embryos (D9E and day 30 embryos (D30E respectively. Although only a few DE genes were discovered between IS21FE and IS21SE in both sexes from D9E or D30E, the raw data are still valuable for future use to understand the gene expression profiling from two different developmental stages.

  9. Copper absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas using a suckling rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerdal, B.B.; Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Since copper deficiency is known to occur during infancy, it becomes important to assess copper uptake from various infant diets. The authors have investigated the uptake of copper from human milk, cow's milk, cow's milk formulas, cereal/milk formula and soy formula, compensating for the decay of 64 Cu and using the suckling rat as a model. Radiocopper was added to the diet in trace amounts. Ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, and gel filtration were used to show that the added 64 Cu bound to milk fractions and individual binding compounds in a manner analogous to the distribution of native copper, thus validating the use of extrinsically labeled diets. Labeled diets were intubated into 14-day-old suckling rats. Animals were killed after 6 h and tissues removed and counted. Liver copper uptake was 25% from human milk, 23% from cow's milk formula, 18% from cow's milk, 17% from premature (cow's milk based) infant formula, 17% from cereal/milk formula and 10% from soy formula. These results show that the rat pup model may provide a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive method to assay bioavailability of copper from infant foods

  10. Structural Modulation of Gut Microbiota during Alleviation of Suckling Piglets Diarrhoea with Herbal Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether the traditional Chinese herbal formula of Shen Ling Baizhu (SLB could modulate the composition of the gut microbiota and alleviate diarrhoea in suckling piglets, twenty-four newly born piglets (Large White × Landrace × Duroc were selected and allocated to 4 groups (control group and experimental groups I, II, and III randomly. Faecal microbiome composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. The result indicated that experimental groups I and II exhibited significantly different gut microbiota from the control group. Most notably, the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were significantly elevated in experimental group II compared with the control group (P<0.05. Collinsella and Faecalibacterium were also enhanced in experimental group II compared with the control group (P<0.05. The results showed that SLB treatment could modulate the gut microbiota composition of suckling piglets, enriching the amount of beneficial bacteria in particular. The observed changes in the gut microbiota could provide the basis for further research on the pharmacological mechanism of the tested Chinese herbal formula.

  11. Knowledge and behavior of mothers about the way of suckling their babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titi S. Sularyo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Background A good and proper knowledge and behavior of mothers as to how they breast-feed their young is supposed to enhance the health of the community. Objective To find out the knowledge and behavior of mothers of under-fives about the technique of nursing and its related factors. Methods The study was perionned from September 20 to October 15, 1999 at Kelurahan Pisangan Baru, East Jakarta. The respondents were 101 mothers owning under-fives, attained by the multi-stage cluster random sampling method. Questionnaires were used and observation was made only on mothers who were suckling their child during the interview. Results Mother's knowledge about the way of suckling was found unsatisfactory in 46.5% although 51.5% of mothers revealed a good behavior. Statistical analysis showed no significant relationships between factors such as age, educational level, occupation, family income and mother's activity with mother's knowledge and behavior about the way of nursing their child. Conclusions There was no significant relationship between mother's knowledge and behavior about breastfeeding. Other factors beyond this studied factors should be taken into account.

  12. Effect of dose on lead retention and distribution in suckling and adult female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.A.; Doherty, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Single doses of lead (trace to 445 mg/kg) were administered per os to suckling and adult mice. Both groups exhibited dose-independent lead retention when doses of 4 to 445 mg/kg were administered. However, developmental differences in the fraction of initial dose (FID) retained were evident for all doses administered. A much larger FID was retained in both age groups following administration of carrier-free 203 Pb. The results are consistent with a mechanism of gastrointestinal lead absorption comprising two or more processes. Developmental differences were also observed in organ lead concentration relative to whole body concentration for kidneys, skull and brain 6 days following lead administration. Lead retentions (relative to whole body retention) in brain and in bone were linearly related to dose of lead administered in both suckling and adult age groups. Though uptake of lead into brain and into femur was observed to be directly related to dose over a wide range, relative blood lead concentrations were not linearly correlated with dose administered. The relationships between lead concentrations of blood and organ(s) were also shown to be nonlinear relative to dose. However, blood lead concentration was found to be a reliable indicator of kidney and liver lead concentrations following an acute lead exposure

  13. State updating and calibration period selection to improve dynamic monthly streamflow forecasts for an environmental flow management application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Matthew S.; McInerney, David; Humphrey, Greer; Thyer, Mark A.; Maier, Holger R.; Dandy, Graeme C.; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2018-02-01

    Monthly to seasonal streamflow forecasts provide useful information for a range of water resource management and planning applications. This work focuses on improving such forecasts by considering the following two aspects: (1) state updating to force the models to match observations from the start of the forecast period, and (2) selection of a shorter calibration period that is more representative of the forecast period, compared to a longer calibration period traditionally used. The analysis is undertaken in the context of using streamflow forecasts for environmental flow water management of an open channel drainage network in southern Australia. Forecasts of monthly streamflow are obtained using a conceptual rainfall-runoff model combined with a post-processor error model for uncertainty analysis. This model set-up is applied to two catchments, one with stronger evidence of non-stationarity than the other. A range of metrics are used to assess different aspects of predictive performance, including reliability, sharpness, bias and accuracy. The results indicate that, for most scenarios and metrics, state updating improves predictive performance for both observed rainfall and forecast rainfall sources. Using the shorter calibration period also improves predictive performance, particularly for the catchment with stronger evidence of non-stationarity. The results highlight that a traditional approach of using a long calibration period can degrade predictive performance when there is evidence of non-stationarity. The techniques presented can form the basis for operational monthly streamflow forecasting systems and provide support for environmental decision-making.

  14. 78 FR 29139 - Medicare Program; Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Model 1 Open Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    .... Beneficiaries can experience improved health outcomes and encounters in the health care system when providers... providers that are working to redesign care to meet these goals. Payment approaches that reward providers... Care Improvement initiative. Acute care hospitals paid under the inpatient prospective payment systems...

  15. Effect of pretreatment female lactating rats with albendazole on preventing developmental and neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin in suckling pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Shindala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluated the effect of treated female lactating rats with enrofloxacin alone and itsinteraction with albendazole on the occurrence of developmental and neurobehavioral toxicity in suckling pups by usingpercentage of survival of pups to weaning as well as neurobehavioral test (surface righting reflex. The exposure of sucklingpups to enrofloxacin alone through the milk caused sever toxic effects manifested by significant decrease in percentage ofsurvival in pups to weaning to (0% as result from death all pups from dams were treated with enrofloxacin at high dose (480mg/kg, i.m. during the first 5 days of lactation. Whereas, treated lactating female rats with albendazole at (300 mg/kg, orally,1 hour before enrofloxacin (480 mg/kg, i.m. during the first 5 days of lactation protected suckling pups from developmentaltoxic effects of enrofloxacin which mainly appeared as a significant increase in percentage of survival of pups to 100% asresult from survival all suckling pups to weaning, accompanied by preventing the neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin insuckling pups manifested by highly significant decreased response time to surface righting reflex to (2.64 ± 0.57 minuets inthe postnatal day 3 in compared with pups from dams that treated with enrofloxacin alone which reached to (15.82 ± 0.27minuets. In conclusion, our results suggest that pretreatment of female lactating rats with albendazole protecte suckling pupsfrom developme-ntal and neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin.

  16. Chelating extractants of improved selectivity. Progress report for period November 1, 1977--July 31 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiser, H.

    1978-08-01

    During the current contract period, the high susceptibility of lanthanide chelate stability to steric hindrance was confirmed. The increase in coordination number of lanthanides from lanthanum to ytterbium as evidenced from extraction equilibria serves to increase their separability. 8-Quinolinol immobilized on silica can separate lanthanide ions

  17. Improving the Quality of Care for Patients Diagnosed With Glioma During the Perioperative Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riblet, Natalie B.V.; Schlosser, Evelyn M.; Homa, Karen; Snide, Jennifer A.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Simmons, Nathan E.; Sargent, David H.; Mason, Linda P.; Cooney, Tobi J.; Kennedy, Nancy L.; Fadul, Camilo E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although there is agreement on the oncologic management of patients with glioma, few guidelines exist to standardize other aspects of care, including supportive care. Methods: A quality improvement (QI) project was chartered to improve the care provided to patients with glioma. A multidisciplinary team was convened and identified 10 best-practice measures. Using a plan-do-study-act framework, the team brainstormed and implemented various improvement interventions between June 2011 and October 2012. Statistical process control charts were used to evaluate progress. A dashboard of quality measures was generated to allow for ongoing measurement and reporting. Results: The retrospective assessment phase consisted of 43 patients with diagnosis of glioma. A manual medical record review for these patients showed that compliance with 10 best-practice measures ranged from 23% to 100%. Several factors contributed to less-than-ideal process performance, including poor communication among disciplines and lack of familiarity with the larger system of care. After implementing improvement interventions, performance was measured in 96 consecutive patients with glioma. The proportion of patients who met criteria for 10 practice measures significantly improved (pre-QI work, 63%; post-QI work, 85%; P = .003). The largest improvement was observed in the measure assessing for preoperative notification of the neuro-oncology program (pre-QI work, 39%; post-QI work, 97%; P sustaining process improvements. PMID:25294392

  18. Roles of outer capsid proteins as determinants of pathogenicity and host range restriction of avian rotaviruses in a suckling mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yoshio; Borgan, Mohammed Ali; Takayama, Mutsuyo; Ito, Naoto; Sugiyama, Makoto; Minamoto, Nobuyuki

    2003-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that a pigeon rotavirus, PO-13, but not turkey strains Ty-3 and Ty-1 and a chicken strain, Ch-1, induced diarrhea in heterologous suckling mice. In this study, it was suggested that these avirulent strains, but not PO-13, were inactivated immediately in gastrointestinal tracts of suckling mice when they were orally inoculated. To determine which viral proteins contribute to the differences between the pathogenicitiy and the inactivation of PO-13 and Ty-3 in suckling mice, six PO-13 x Ty-3 reassortant strains that had the genes of the outer capsid proteins, VP4 and VP7, derived from the opposite strain were prepared and were orally inoculated to suckling mice. A single strain that had both PO-13 VP4 and VP7 with the genetic background of Ty-3 had an intermediate virulence for suckling mice. Three strains with Ty-3 VP7, regardless of the origin of VP4, rapidly disappeared from gastrointestinal tracts of suckling mice. These results indicated that the difference between the pathogenicity of PO-13 and that of Ty-3 was mainly dependent on both their VP4 and VP7. In particular, VP7 was found to be related to the inactivation of Ty-3 in gastrointestinal tracts of suckling mice

  19. HIT maintains performance during the transition period and improves next season performance in well-trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Askestad, Arild; Hansen, Joar

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effects of combining low-intensity endurance training (LIT) with one high-intensity endurance training (HIT) session every 7-10 days (EXP, n = 7) vs. traditional approach focusing on LIT (TRAD, n = 6) during the transition period. The effects of different training strategies during the transition period were investigated after the transition period and at the beginning of the subsequent competition season. Well-trained cyclists were tested after the competition season, after an 8-week transition period, and after a 16-week preparatory period, before the subsequent competition season. The only difference between groups was a larger time with HIT during the transition phase in EXP. It was very likely that EXP had a larger impact on power output at 4 mmol L(-1) [la(-)] after both the transition period and after the preparatory period than TRAD [between-group change (90% CI): 10.6% (8.2%) and 12.9% (11.9%), respectively]. It was very likely that EXP had a larger impact on mean power output in the 40-min all-out trial after the transition period than TRAD [between-group change 12.4% (7.6%)]. EXP was also likely to have a larger improvement in the 40-min trial performance from pre-test to after the preparatory period than TRAD [between-group change 6.0% (6.6%)]. The present findings suggest that HIT sessions should be incorporated during the transition phase to avoid reduction in fitness and performance level and thereby increase the likelihood of improved performance from the end of one season to the beginning of the subsequent season.

  20. Halofuginone alleviates acute viral myocarditis in suckling BALB/c mice by inhibiting TGF-β1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiao-Hua [Department of Emergency, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi' an, 710003, Shanxi (China); Fu, Jia [Department of Infection, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi' an, 710003, Shanxi (China); Sun, Da-Qing, E-mail: daqingsuncd@163.com [Department of Respiration, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, NO. 69 Xijuyuan Lane, Xi' an 710003, Shanxi (China)

    2016-04-29

    Viral myocarditis (VMC) is an inflammation of heart muscle in infants and young adolescents. This study explored the function of halofuginone (HF) in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) -treated suckling mice. HF-treated animal exhibited higher survival rate, lower heart/body weight, and more decreased blood sugar concentration than CVB3 group. HF also reduced the expressions of interleukin(IL)-17 and IL-23 and the numbers of Th17 cells. Moreover, HF downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. The expressions of transforming growth factor(TGF-β1) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NF-κB) p65/ tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) proteins were decreased by HF as well. Finally, the overexpression of TGF-β1 counteracted the protection effect of HF in CVB3-treated suckling mice. In summary, our study suggests HF increases the survival of CVB3 suckling mice, reduces the Th17 cells and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and may through downregulation of the TGF-β1-mediated expression of NF-κB p65/TNF-α pathway proteins. These results offer a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of VMC. - Highlights: • Halofuginone (HF) increases the survival of suckling BALB/c mice infected with acute CVB3. • HF reduces the expression of Th17 cell markers (IL-17 and IL-23) and the number of CD4{sup +} IL17{sup +} cells. • Pro-inflammatory cytokines levels associated with myocarditis were reduced by HF in CVB3-treated suckling mice. • HF alleviates VMC via inhibition of TGF-β1-mediated NF-κB p65/TNF-α pathway.

  1. 3-D periodic mesoporous nickel oxide for nonenzymatic uric acid sensors with improved sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Yang; Chen, Yong; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Qingyou

    2015-12-01

    3-D periodic mesoporous nickel oxide (NiO) particles with crystalline walls have been synthesized through the microwave-assisted hard template route toward the KIT-6 silica. It was investigated as a nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for the detection of uric acid. 3-D periodic nickel oxide matrix has been obtained by the hard template route from the KIT-6 silica template. The crystalline nickel oxide belonged to the Ia3d space group, and its structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analysis results showed that the microwave-assisted mesoporous NiO materials were more appropriate to be electrochemical sensors than the traditional mesoporous NiO. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) revealed that 3-D periodic NiO exhibited a direct electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of uric acid in sodium hydroxide solution. The enzyme-less amperometric sensor used in the detection of uric acid with detection limit of 0.005 μM (S/N = 3) over wide linear detection ranges up to 0.374 mM and with a high sensitivity of 756.26 μA mM-1 cm-2, and a possible mechanism was also given in the paper.

  2. Use of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in suckling and weaned pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanasit, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of stevia supplementation in the diet of suckling pigs with combination of two feeding methods in weaned pigs were studied. Twenty litters with nine piglets each were allocated to four groups and fed four dietary stevia supplementations (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% from 7 days old to 21 days, weanling age. Two male weanlings of average weight of each litter were selected and alloted to one of two feeding methods, one male was fed basal diet 1 continuously while the other was fed by alternating basal diet 2 and basal diet 1 for 35 days of experiment, according to the split plot in randomized complete block design.The results showed that piglets fed with 0.2 and 0.4% stevia in suckling diets had double daily feed intake compared to those fed 0% stevia in the diet (12.36 vs 5.93 g/d, but this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. The daily feed intake and average daily gain decreased when suckling pigs were fed with 0.6% stevia in the diet. Continuous or alternating feeding had no effect (P>0.05 on feed intake and growth performance of weaned pigs (aged 21-56 days fed with various levels of stevia supplementation in the diets. However, daily feed intake of weaned pigs fed with 0.4% stevia (748 g/d was significantly (P<0.01 higher than that of pigs fed with 0, 0.2 and 0.6% stevia in the diets (617, 649 and 589 g/d, respectively. Average daily gain followed the same pattern (507 vs 419, 455 and 401 g/d, respectively, P<0.01. Moreover, although feed cost per gain of piglets fed with 0.2 and 0.4% stevia in the diets were higher, the income was higher than those fed with 0% stevia in the diet.

  3. 3-D periodic mesoporous nickel oxide for nonenzymatic uric acid sensors with improved sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Yang; Chen, Yong; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The enzyme-less amperometric sensor based on 3-D periodic mesoporous NiO nanomaterials used in the detection of uric acid with detection limit of 0.005 μM (S/N = 3) over wide linear detection ranges up to 0.374 mM and with a high sensitivity of 756.26 μA mM"−"1 cm"−"2. - Highlights: • Microwave-assisted method was used to fabricate the 3-D periodic mesoporous NiO particles. • The mesoporous nickel oxide was applied to nonenzymatic uric acid biosensor. • The detection limit is 0.005 μM over wide linear detection ranges up to 0.374 mM. • The sensitivity is 756.26 μA mM"−"1 cm"−"2. - Abstract: 3-D periodic mesoporous nickel oxide (NiO) particles with crystalline walls have been synthesized through the microwave-assisted hard template route toward the KIT-6 silica. It was investigated as a nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for the detection of uric acid. 3-D periodic nickel oxide matrix has been obtained by the hard template route from the KIT-6 silica template. The crystalline nickel oxide belonged to the Ia3d space group, and its structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N_2 adsorption–desorption, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analysis results showed that the microwave-assisted mesoporous NiO materials were more appropriate to be electrochemical sensors than the traditional mesoporous NiO. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) revealed that 3-D periodic NiO exhibited a direct electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of uric acid in sodium hydroxide solution. The enzyme-less amperometric sensor used in the detection of uric acid with detection limit of 0.005 μM (S/N = 3) over wide linear detection ranges up to 0.374 mM and with a high sensitivity of 756.26 μA mM"−"1 cm"−"2, and a possible mechanism was also given in the paper.

  4. 3-D periodic mesoporous nickel oxide for nonenzymatic uric acid sensors with improved sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Yang, E-mail: caowang507@163.com; Chen, Yong; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Qingyou

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: The enzyme-less amperometric sensor based on 3-D periodic mesoporous NiO nanomaterials used in the detection of uric acid with detection limit of 0.005 μM (S/N = 3) over wide linear detection ranges up to 0.374 mM and with a high sensitivity of 756.26 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. - Highlights: • Microwave-assisted method was used to fabricate the 3-D periodic mesoporous NiO particles. • The mesoporous nickel oxide was applied to nonenzymatic uric acid biosensor. • The detection limit is 0.005 μM over wide linear detection ranges up to 0.374 mM. • The sensitivity is 756.26 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. - Abstract: 3-D periodic mesoporous nickel oxide (NiO) particles with crystalline walls have been synthesized through the microwave-assisted hard template route toward the KIT-6 silica. It was investigated as a nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for the detection of uric acid. 3-D periodic nickel oxide matrix has been obtained by the hard template route from the KIT-6 silica template. The crystalline nickel oxide belonged to the Ia3d space group, and its structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analysis results showed that the microwave-assisted mesoporous NiO materials were more appropriate to be electrochemical sensors than the traditional mesoporous NiO. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) revealed that 3-D periodic NiO exhibited a direct electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of uric acid in sodium hydroxide solution. The enzyme-less amperometric sensor used in the detection of uric acid with detection limit of 0.005 μM (S/N = 3) over wide linear detection ranges up to 0.374 mM and with a high sensitivity of 756.26 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and a possible mechanism was also given in the paper.

  5. Dynamic optimization of maintenance and improvement planning for water main system: Periodic replacement approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Choi, Go Bong; Lee, Jong Min [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Chul [Samchully Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) based approach to derive an optimal schedule of maintenance, rehabilitation and replacement of the water main system. The scheduling problem utilizes auxiliary information of a pipe such as the current state, cost, and deterioration model. The objective function and detailed algorithm of dynamic programming are modified to solve the periodic replacement problem. The optimal policy evaluated by the proposed algorithm is compared to several existing policies via Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed decision framework provides a systematic way to obtain an optimal policy.

  6. Improved harmonic balance approach to periodic solutions of non-linear jerk equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, B.S.; Lim, C.W.; Sun, W.P.

    2006-01-01

    An analytical approximate approach for determining periodic solutions of non-linear jerk equations involving third-order time-derivative is presented. This approach incorporates salient features of both Newton's method and the method of harmonic balance. By appropriately imposing the method of harmonic balance to the linearized equation, the approach requires only one or two iterations to predict very accurate analytical approximate solutions for a large range of initial velocity amplitude. One typical example is used to verify and illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed approach

  7. Utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink (Mustela vison) kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Niels E

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink kits from small (n = 3), medium (n = 6) and large litters (n = 9) was investigated by using 36 mink dams and their litters for measurements during lactation weeks 1 through 4. Measurements on each dam and litter were...... performed once, hence three dams per litter size each week (n = 9). Individual milk intake of kits was determined, milk samples were collected and kits were killed for determination of amino acid composition. The most abundant amino acids in milk were glutamate, leucine and aspartate making up about 40......% of total amino acids. Branched chained amino acids made up slightly more than 20% and sulphur containing amino acids less than 5% of total milk amino acids. In kit bodies the sum of glutamate, aspartate and leucine made up about 32% of amino acids, branched chain amino acids about 16% and sulphur...

  8. Effects of milk intake on forage intake and performance of suckling range calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansotegui, R P; Havstad, K M; Wallace, J D; Hallford, D M

    1991-03-01

    A study to examine the relationships between milk intake, forage intake, and performance of Hereford-Angus suckling range calves was conducted during July, August, and September of 1984 and 1985. Twenty calves were used each year. The study was conducted at the Red Bluff Research Ranch located 56 km west of Bozeman, Montana. Average daily gain, milk intake (MI), forage digestibility, and fecal output (FO) were measured at 28-d intervals, beginning when the average calf age was 66 +/- 4 d. Milk intake was estimated using weigh-suckle-weigh techniques. Total fecal collections were used to measure FO. Forage digestibility and rates of passage were determined using nylon bag in situ techniques and external markers in ruminally cannulated calves of the same age. Fecal output by calves increased as body weight and age increased. Milk intake was higher (P less than .05) in 1985 than in 1984, but FO was higher (P less than .01) in 1984 than in 1985. Fecal output by calves was negatively correlated to MI in July (r = -.62; P less than .05) and August (r = -.56; P less than .05). No significant correlations were detected between MI and ADG (P greater than .10). Forage intake estimates were derived from FO, rate of passage, and in situ digestibility values. During July, calves consumed .3 kg more forage for each kilogram of reduction in fluid MI (P less than .05). In both August and September, calves consumed .6 kg more forage for each kilogram of reduction in fluid MI (P less than .10). Calves maintained similar digestible energy (DE) intake both years, although the source of DE varied.

  9. Improved methodology to assess modification and completion of landfill gas management in the aftercare period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Jeremy W.F.; Crest, Marion; Barlaz, Morton A.; Spokas, Kurt A.; Åkerman, Anna; Yuan, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Performance-based evaluation of landfill gas control system. ► Analytical framework to evaluate transition from active to passive gas control. ► Focus on cover oxidation as an alternative means of passive gas control. ► Integrates research on long-term landfill behavior with practical guidance. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste landfills represent the dominant option for waste disposal in many parts of the world. While some countries have greatly reduced their reliance on landfills, there remain thousands of landfills that require aftercare. The development of cost-effective strategies for landfill aftercare is in society’s interest to protect human health and the environment and to prevent the emergence of landfills with exhausted aftercare funding. The Evaluation of Post-Closure Care (EPCC) methodology is a performance-based approach in which landfill performance is assessed in four modules including leachate, gas, groundwater, and final cover. In the methodology, the objective is to evaluate landfill performance to determine when aftercare monitoring and maintenance can be reduced or possibly eliminated. This study presents an improved gas module for the methodology. While the original version of the module focused narrowly on regulatory requirements for control of methane migration, the improved gas module also considers best available control technology for landfill gas in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, and emissions of odoriferous compounds. The improved module emphasizes the reduction or elimination of fugitive methane by considering the methane oxidation capacity of the cover system. The module also allows for the installation of biologically active covers or other features designed to enhance methane oxidation. A methane emissions model, CALMIM, was used to assist with an assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of landfill covers.

  10. Improved methodology to assess modification and completion of landfill gas management in the aftercare period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Jeremy W.F., E-mail: jmorris@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, 10220 Old Columbia Road, Suite A, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Crest, Marion, E-mail: marion.crest@suez-env.com [Suez Environnement, 38 rue du President Wilson, 78230 Le Pecq (France); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Spokas, Kurt A., E-mail: kurt.spokas@ars.usda.gov [United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, 439 Borlaug Hall, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Akerman, Anna, E-mail: anna.akerman@sita.fr [SITA France, Tour CB 21, 16 Place de l' Iris, 92040 Paris La Defense Cedex (France); Yuan, Lei, E-mail: lyuan@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, 10220 Old Columbia Road, Suite A, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance-based evaluation of landfill gas control system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical framework to evaluate transition from active to passive gas control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Focus on cover oxidation as an alternative means of passive gas control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrates research on long-term landfill behavior with practical guidance. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste landfills represent the dominant option for waste disposal in many parts of the world. While some countries have greatly reduced their reliance on landfills, there remain thousands of landfills that require aftercare. The development of cost-effective strategies for landfill aftercare is in society's interest to protect human health and the environment and to prevent the emergence of landfills with exhausted aftercare funding. The Evaluation of Post-Closure Care (EPCC) methodology is a performance-based approach in which landfill performance is assessed in four modules including leachate, gas, groundwater, and final cover. In the methodology, the objective is to evaluate landfill performance to determine when aftercare monitoring and maintenance can be reduced or possibly eliminated. This study presents an improved gas module for the methodology. While the original version of the module focused narrowly on regulatory requirements for control of methane migration, the improved gas module also considers best available control technology for landfill gas in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, and emissions of odoriferous compounds. The improved module emphasizes the reduction or elimination of fugitive methane by considering the methane oxidation capacity of the cover system. The module also allows for the installation of biologically active covers or other features designed to enhance methane oxidation. A methane emissions model, CALMIM, was used to assist with an assessment of the methane oxidation

  11. Agronomic evaluation of four improved rice varieties in different sowing periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genry Hernández Carrillo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the agronomic performance of four rice varieties in different seasons, on flooded soil, using direct plantation, was developed at the Local Station for Grain Research, in the municipality of Vertientes, province of Camaguey, Cuba. A block random design was used in the study, with five replicas, through a bifactorial experiment with four treatments (Prosequisa 4, IA Cuba 31, IACuba 40, and Jucarito 104, as control, the sowing period included January, February, March, April, May, June, July, and August. The parameters evaluated were, cycle (days from germination to harvest, final plant height, fertile panicles per m2, filled grain per panicle, 1000-grain mass (14% humidity, crop yields and industrial quality. The highest yields were accomplished in February and June (pattern variety and Prosequisa 4, with 8.2 t/ha-1, in each month. Concerning industrial yields, the best results were achieved in IACuba 31 (66.4; 66.1; and 63.3% full white grain in February, June and July. The most profitable varieties were Prosequisa 4, Jucarito 104, and IACuba 31, in the different seasons evaluated.

  12. Material efficiency improvement for European packaging in the period 2000-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkert, M.; Joosten, L.; Worrell, E. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the current material consumption for packaging making in Europe is described. Per packaging type (food bottles, non-food bottles, boxes for primary packaging, flexible packaging, carrier bags, industrial boxes and pallets) options for improved material efficiency are described. The options are in the field of using thinner materials, using less material by changing the shape of the package, using recycled material and using refillable packages. This paper shows that many options are available to reduce the future material input for packaging and that a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions by this sector with a factor 2 is possible. A substantial share of this reduction can be achieved without any changes in consumer behavior. 57 refs.

  13. Deformable Hollow Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanocapsules for Significantly Improved Cellular Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zhaogang; Wang, Chunyan; Tang, Yuxia; Li, Wei; Bao, Lei; Zhang, Xuehua; Su, Xiaodan; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Junjie; Wang, Shouju; Zhao, Dongyuan; Lu, Guangming

    2018-01-31

    Mesoporous solids have been widely used in various biomedical areas such as drug delivery and tumor therapy. Although deformability has been recognized as a prime important characteristic influencing cellular uptake, the synthesis of deformable mesoporous solids is still a great challenge. Herein, deformable thioether-, benzene-, and ethane-bridged hollow periodic mesoporous organosilica (HPMO) nanocapsules have successfully been synthesized for the first time by a preferential etching approach. The prepared HPMO nanocapsules possess uniform diameters (240-310 nm), high surface areas (up to 878 m 2 ·g -1 ), well-defined mesopores (2.6-3.2 nm), and large pore volumes (0.33-0.75 m 3 ·g -1 ). Most importantly, the HPMO nanocapsules simultaneously have large hollow cavities (164-270 nm), thin shell thicknesses (20-38 nm), and abundant organic moiety in the shells, which endow a lower Young's modulus (E Y ) of 3.95 MPa than that of solid PMO nanoparticles (251 MPa). The HPMOs with low E Y are intrinsically flexible and deformable in the solution, which has been well-characterized by liquid cell electron microscopy. More interestingly, it is found that the deformable HPMOs can easily enter into human breast cancer MCF-7 cells via a spherical-to-oval morphology change, resulting in a 26-fold enhancement in cellular uptake (43.1% cells internalized with nanocapsules versus 1.65% cells with solid counterparts). The deformable HPMO nanocapsules were further loaded with anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), which shows high killing effects for MCF-7 cells, demonstrating the promise for biomedical applications.

  14. Na+,K+-pump stimulation improves contractility in isolated muscles of mice with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Torben; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard; Clausen, Johannes D; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Hayward, Lawrence J

    2011-07-01

    In patients with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HyperKPP), attacks of muscle weakness or paralysis are triggered by K(+) ingestion or rest after exercise. Force can be restored by muscle work or treatment with β(2)-adrenoceptor agonists. A missense substitution corresponding to a mutation in the skeletal muscle voltage-gated Na(+) channel (Na(v)1.4, Met1592Val) causing human HyperKPP was targeted into the mouse SCN4A gene (mutants). In soleus muscles prepared from these mutant mice, twitch, tetanic force, and endurance were markedly reduced compared with soleus from wild type (WT), reflecting impaired excitability. In mutant soleus, contractility was considerably more sensitive than WT soleus to inhibition by elevated [K(+)](o). In resting mutant soleus, tetrodotoxin (TTX)-suppressible (22)Na uptake and [Na(+)](i) were increased by 470 and 58%, respectively, and membrane potential was depolarized (by 16 mV, P Na(+),K(+) pump-mediated (86)Rb uptake was 83% larger than in WT. Salbutamol stimulated (86)Rb uptake and reduced [Na(+)](i) both in mutant and WT soleus. Stimulating Na(+),K(+) pumps with salbutamol restored force in mutant soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Increasing [Na(+)](i) with monensin also restored force in soleus. In soleus, EDL, and tibialis anterior muscles of mutant mice, the content of Na(+),K(+) pumps was 28, 62, and 33% higher than in WT, respectively, possibly reflecting the stimulating effect of elevated [Na(+)](i) on the synthesis of Na(+),K(+) pumps. The results confirm that the functional disorders of skeletal muscles in HyperKPP are secondary to increased Na(+) influx and show that contractility can be restored by acute stimulation of the Na(+),K(+) pumps. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) restored force in mutant soleus but caused no detectable increase in (86)Rb uptake. Repeated excitation and capsaicin also restored contractility, possibly because of the release of endogenous CGRP from nerve endings in the isolated

  15. Periodic 48 h feed withdrawal improves glucose tolerance in growing pigs by enhancing adipogenesis and lipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Priya S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipocyte numbers and peroxisome proliferators activated receptorγ (PPARγ expression of retroperitoneal tissue increased while area under the curve (AUC during the glucose tolerance test (GTT was reduced in rats subjected to certain feed withdrawal (FW regimens. Thus, using pigs as the experimental model, the hypothesis that FW regimens influence glucose tolerance by influencing fat cell function was evaluated with the objective of determining the effect of a single (FWx1; at age of 19 wk for 48 h or periodic, multiple (FWx4; 24 h FW at 7 and 11 wk of age and 48 h FW at 15 and 19 wk of age FW on AUC of glucose and insulin during the GTT relative to pigs that did not experience FW (Control. Methods Growth, body composition, adipocyte numbers, PPARγ expression, lipogenic potential as glucose uptake into fat of adipocytes of varying diameter in omental (OM and subcutaneous (SQ fat as affected by FW regimens were determined in pigs initiated into the study at 5 wk of age and fed the same diet, ad libitum. Results Blood glucose concentrations for prior to and 120 min post glucose meal tended to be lower (p = 0.105 and 0.097, respectively in pigs in FW treatments. In OM fat; cell numbers, glucose Universal14C [U14C] incorporation into fat and rate of incorporation per 104 cells was greatest for cells with diameters of 90-119 μm. Pigs undergoing FWx4 tended to have greater (p = 0.0685; by 191% number of adipocytes, increased (p = 0.0234 glucose U14C incorporation into adipocytes and greater (p = 0.0872 rate of glucose uptake into cells of 119-150 μm diameter than of cells from control or FWx1 pigs. Subcutaneous adipocyte numbers in 22-60 and 61-90 μm diameter ranges from pigs in FWx1 tended to be greater (p = 0.08 and 0.06, respectively than for those in FWx4 treatment, yet PPARγ expression and total cell number were not affected by treatment. Conclusions Results suggest that FW regimens influence fat cell function or

  16. Improving the beam quality of high-power laser diodes by introducing lateral periodicity into waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Grzegorz; DÄ browska, ElŻbieta; Teodorczyk, Marian; Kalbarczyk, Joanna; MalÄ g, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Low quality of the optical beam emitted by high-power laser diodes is the main disadvantage of these devices. The two most important reasons are highly non-Gaussian beam profile with relatively wide divergence in the junction plane and the filamentation effect. Designing laser diode as an array of narrow, close to each other single-mode waveguides is one of the solutions to this problem. In such devices called phase locked arrays (PLA) there is no room for filaments formation. The consequence of optical coupling of many single-mode waveguides is the device emission in the form of few almost diffraction limited beams. Because of losses in regions between active stripes the PLA devices have, however, somewhat higher threshold current and lower slope efficiencies compared to wide-stripe devices of similar geometry. In this work the concept of the high-power laser diode resonator consisted of joined PLA and wide stripe segments is proposed. Resulting changes of electro-optical characteristics of PLA are discussed. The devices are based on the asymmetric heterostructure designed for improvement of the catastrophic optical damage threshold as well as thermal and electrical resistances. Due to reduced distance from the active layer to surface in this heterostructure, better stability of current (and gain) distribution with changing drive level is expected. This could lead to better stability of optical field distribution and supermodes control. The beam divergence reduction in the direction perpendicular of the junction plane has been also achieved.

  17. Intracranial dialysis measurement of oxytocin, monoamine and uric acid release from the olfactory bulb and substantia nigra of sheep during parturition, suckling, separation from lambs and eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, K M; Keverne, E B; Chapman, C; Baldwin, B A

    1988-01-26

    Intracranial dialysis was used to measure the release of oxytocin (OXY), monoamines and their metabolites and uric acid (UA) from the substantia nigra (SN) and olfactory bulb (OB) of sheep during parturition, suckling, separation from lambs and eating. Results showed that OXY concentrations increased significantly during parturition, suckling and eating in the SN and during parturition and suckling in the OB. Concentrations of dopamine (DA) increased significantly in the SN during suckling and eating and in the OB during parturition and suckling. The dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid, also increased significantly in the SN during parturition. Concentrations of the noradrenaline metabolite, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethan-1,2-diol (MHPG) and the purine metabolite, UA, were significantly raised during parturition, suckling and separation from the lambs in the SN and increased UA levels were also found during eating. In a separate experiment it was confirmed that OXY was detectable in homogenates of both the SN and the OB. These results show that, in the sheep, OXY and DA release in the SN is associated with maternal and ingestive behaviour whereas similar release in the OB may only be related to maternal behaviour. Release of MHPG in the SN may be associated with maternal behaviour and/or stress.

  18. The content of docosahexaenoic acid in the suckling and the weaning diet beneficially modulates the ability of immune cells to response to stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Caroline; Lewis, Erin D; Goruk, Susan; Field, Catherine J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study was to isolate the effect of feeding a diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during the suckling and/or the weaning period on immune system development and function in offspring. Dams were randomized to one of two nutritionally adequate diets: control diet (N=12, 0% DHA) or DHA diet (N=8, 0.9% DHA). Diets were fed to dams throughout lactation, and then at weaning (21d), two pups per dam were randomly assigned to continue on the same diet as the dam or consume the other experimental diet for an additional 21d. At 6 weeks, splenocyte phenotypes and ex vivo cytokine production after stimulation with concanavalin A (ConA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or ovalbumin were assessed. Pups who received the control diet during both periods had the lowest production of IL-2 after ConA (Pdiet (Pdiet, resulted in a lower production of IL-1β and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated splenocytes and a higher proportion of total CD27+ cells (all Pdiet during weaning led to a lower TNF-α and IL-1β response to a bacterial antigen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth rate, health and welfare in a dairy herd with natural suckling until 6–8 weeks of age: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdell Cecilie

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over a period of two years, growth rate and health were measured for dairy calves allowed to suckle their mothers up to 6–8 weeks of age. Thirty-one calves were weighted weekly, and the mean daily growth rate was 1.2 ± 0.03 kg from birth up to 13 weeks of age. Illness in calves and young stock was not observed. In the cows, the mean incidences of ketosis, displaced abomasum, puerperal paresis, mastitis, teat injury and retained placenta were 0, 0, 8, 22, 1 and 1%, respectively, during a 6-year period. The mean daily gain of 56 growing bulls was 1.4 kg when slaughtered at 15 months of age, which is higher than the mean daily gain of 0.95 kg in the population. Probiotics, hormones and vaccines were not used, and antibiotics were only used for treating illness. The present study indicates many advantages and few problems when dairy calves are penned together with the cows and allowed natural feeding up to 6–8 weeks of age. This production system was easy to manage, preferred by the farmer, and may satisfy the public concern regarding the practice of immediate separation of cow and calf in commercial milk production.

  20. Investigation on genetically modified soybean (RoundUp Ready in goat nutrition: DNA detection in suckling kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Infascelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of plant DNA fragments in blood, kidney, hearth, liver, spleen and muscle tissue from suckling kids was investigated by using PCR approach. Fragments of high copy number chloroplast and low copy soybean lectin genes were found in several samples of kids whose mother were fed diet containing conventional (control or transgenic soybean (treated. Only in treated group, fragments of 35S and CP4 epsps soybean genes were found in several samples.

  1. Comparison between carcasses of artificially suckled I.H.D.H. (Italian Heavy Draught Horse foals slaughtered at 6 months and traditional carcasses obtained by foals slaughtered at 11 and 18 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Tateo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was the evaluation of a innovative I.H.D.H. carcass production sys- tem in order to improve the conditions for mare’s milk production. In the trial were used 18 foals, subdi- vided in three randomized groups of 6 animals each. Every group was slaughtered at a different age: 6 months (artificially suckled, 11 months and 18 months (naturally suckled, following traditional rearing systems. Six months old foals carcasses were characterized by 75.59 % of lean, 12.79 % of fat and 11.64 % of bone. Six months foals carcasses showed the lean end the fact respectively higher (P<0.001 end lower (P<0.001 than 18 months ones (P<0.001, and the bone higher than 11 months foals (P<0.001. Six months hind quarter incidence was 65.00 %, more than found for 18 months carcasses (P<0.001. Moreo- ver, 6 months carcasses showed an first quality cuts incidence higher than 11 months foals (P<0.01.

  2. Effects of goat milk or milk replacer diet on meat quality and fat composition of suckling goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañón, S; Vila, R; Price, A; Ferrandini, E; Garrido, M D

    2006-02-01

    The effects of a diet with goat milk "GM" or milk replacer "MR" on the meat quality and fat composition of suckling Murciano-Granadina kids were studied. MR consisted of powdered skimmed milk, coconut oil and fat, and cereal products and by-products. Raw meat quality (moisture, protein, lipids, ash, collagen, cholesterol, haem pigments, CIELab colour, pH and water retention capacity), fatty acid "FA" composition and eating quality of cooked meat (odour, flavour and texture) were determined. Diet had only a slight effect on raw meat quality but had a pronounced effect on fatty acid composition and eating quality of cooked meat. MR diet increased the water/protein proportion in the muscle. The saturated/unsaturated FA ratio in GM and MR fat was 0.94 and 2.27, respectively. The major FA in GM and MR fat were C16:0 and C18:1, respectively. Short-chain C4-C12 hardly accumulated in the adipose tissue of suckling kid, increasing the relative percentages of C14-C20. This effect was more pronounced in MR fat, due to the fact that MR contained more short-chain fatty acids than GM. MR diet gave cooked meat a more intense characteristic goat meat odour and flavour, more tenderness and more juiciness than the natural suckling diet. This fact could be related to differences in meat and fat composition.

  3. Dating an actively exhuming metamorphic core complex, the Suckling Dayman Massif in SE Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, J.; Seward, D.; Little, T.; Stockli, D. F.; Mizera, M.

    2016-12-01

    Low-temperature thermochronology is a powerful tool for revealing the thermal and kinematic evolution of metamorphic core complexes (MCCs). Most globally studied MCCs are ancient, partially eroded, and have been modified by deformation events that postdate their origin. The Mai'iu Fault is a rapidly slipping active low-angle normal fault (LANF) in the Woodlark Rift in Papua New Guinea that has exhumed a >25 km-wide (in the slip direction), and over 3 km-high domal fault surface in its footwall called the Suckling-Dayman massif. Some knowledge of the present-day thermal structure in the adjacent Woodlark Rift, and the pristine nature of this active MCC make it an ideal candidate for thermochronological study of a high finite-slip LANF. To constrain the thermal and kinematic evolution of this MCC we apply the U/Pb, fission-track (FT) and (U-Th)/He methods. Zircon U/Pb analyses from the syn-extensional Suckling Granite that intrudes the footwall of the MCC yield an intrusion age of 3.3 Ma. Preliminary zircon FT ages from the same body indicate cooling below 300 °C at 2.7 Ma. Ages decrease to 2.0 Ma with increasing proximity to the Mai'iu Fault and imply cooling controlled by tectonic exhumation. Almost coincident zircon U/Pb and FT ages from the nearby syn-extensional Mai'iu Monzonite, on the other hand, record extremely rapid cooling from magmatic temperatures to 300 °C at 2 Ma. As apparent from the preliminary He extraction stage, these syn-extensional plutons have young zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He ages. These initial results suggest that the Mai'iu Fault was initiated as an extensional structure by 3.3 Ma. We infer that it reactivated an older ophiolitic suture that had emplaced the Papuan Ultramafic body in the Paleogene. Rapid cooling of the Mai'iu Monzonite indicates that it was intruded into a part of the MCC's footwall that was already shallow in the crust by 2 Ma. This inference is further supported by the mineral andalusite occurring in the contact

  4. Effect of type of suckling and polyunsaturated fatty acid use on lamb production. 2. Chemical and fatty acid composition of raw and cooked meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Toteda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to examine the chemical and fatty acid composition of raw and cooked meat obtained fromlambs raised under mothers or reared by artificial suckling with acidified milk replacers with or without polyunsaturated fattyacid (PUFA supplementation. Meat samples were taken from twenty Gentile di Puglia male lambs subjected to the followingfeeding treatments: the control group received only maternal milk (MM, n.=6 while two groups were reared by artificial sucklingwith an acidified milk replacer (MR, n.=7 or with an acidified milk replacer supplemented with 10 ml/l of a PUFA enrichedoil (MR+PUFA, n.=7. Lambs were slaughtered at 45 days of age. After 24 hours of refrigeration at 4 °C, the lumbar regionwas dissected from each right half-carcass and split into pieces, one of which was used raw while the other was cooked in aventilated electric oven at 180 °C until an internal temperature of 75 °C was reached. Chemical and fatty acid analysis wereperformed on raw and cooked meat, while only raw meat was assessed for cholesterol. Cooking losses were also evaluated.Meat obtained from MR+PUFA fed lambs contained more fat (Punder mothers increased the total amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA, compared with both the MR group (Pthe MR+PUFA one (Pcomparison with both MR diets. The highest PUFA/SFA ratio of meat was recorded for the MR+PUFA group (0.27, with statisticaldifferences respect to the MR group (0.21; Pmilk produced meat containing more cholesterol than the MR+PUFA group (85.89 vs 76.26 mg/100 g; Pindex of meat was higher following natural rearing in comparison with the MR+PUFA treatment (1.34 vs 1.05;Pand 0.76, respectively; Pparameters evaluated. In conclusion, artificial suckling with acidified milk replacers improves some meat quality features.Supplementation of milk replacers with PUFAs, although in a limited way, may improve the dietetic properties of lamb meat.

  5. Decline in faecal worm egg counts in lambs suckling ewes treated with lipophilic anthelmintics: implications for hastening development of anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, M L; Kahn, L P

    2015-04-30

    The aim for this experiment was to look for evidence of milk transfer of anthelmintic actives from ewes to their suckling lambs by reference to lambs' faecal worm egg count (WEC). The hypothesis was that WEC will decline in lambs suckling ewes treated with anthelmintics known to be lipophilic. One group of lactating Border Leicester×Merino ewes were treated (TX) with a combination of short (2.5mg/kg monepantel) and long-acting (1mg/kg moxidectin long-acting injection and a sustained release of 4.62g albendazole over 100 days) anthelmintics to remove gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) burden on day 0. The other group of lactating ewes (UTX) and all lambs (White Suffolk sires) were not treated. Ewes and lambs grazed as a single group and were exposed to GIN (predominately Haemonchus contortus) infection from pasture. Measurements were taken on days 0 and 7. WEC of lambs suckling UTX ewes increased from 6441 to 10,341 eggs per gram (epg) between days 0 and 7, while there was a 51% reduction in WEC for lambs suckling TX ewes. Packed cell volume (PCV) was significantly higher for lambs suckling TX ewes on day 7 compared to lambs suckling UTX ewes (28.5% vs. 24.9%, p=0.039). These results suggest that lambs suckling ewes treated with lipophilic anthelmintics received a sub-therapeutic dose via milk which would increase selection within the GIN (H. contortus) population for anthelmintic resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of different gas stunning methods on Manchega suckling lamb meat packed under different modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bórnez, R; Linares, M B; Vergara, H

    2010-04-01

    Forty-nine Manchega breed male suckling lambs were used in this experiment. The effect of CO(2) concentration and exposure time at stunning [80% CO(2) for 90 s (G1); 90% CO(2) for 90 s (G2); 90% CO(2) for 60 s (G3); 80% CO(2) for 60 s (G4)] plus an electrically stunned control group (G5) was assessed for pH, colour (L(*), a(*), b(*), C(*) and h(*)), water holding capacity (WHC), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL) and shear force (SF) in samples packed under two different types of modified atmospheres (MA: MA A: 70%O(2)+30%CO(2); MA B: 69.3%N(2)+30%CO(2)+0.7%CO) at 7, 14 and 21 d post-packaging. The lowest pH was found in G4 and in G5. The highest WHC and the lowest CL were found in G2 and G3 groups (P<0.05). Modified atmospheres did not affect on pH, WHC, CL and DL, although a significant effect (P<0.001) on colour was found at all the analysis times. Both the type of stunning and the modified atmosphere affected SF values. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of stunning with different carbon dioxide concentrations and exposure times on suckling lamb meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bórnez, R; Linares, M B; Vergara, H

    2009-03-01

    Forty-nine Manchega breed male suckling lambs were used to determine the effect of different stunning methods (using two different CO2 concentrations and exposure times) on lamb meat quality. The lambs were allocated to five stunning treatments including four CO2 treatments [80% CO2 for 90s (G1); 90% CO2 for 90s (G2); 90% CO2 for 60s (G3); 80% CO2 for 60s (G4)] and an electrically stunned control group (G5). The gas-stunning treatments did not cause neither haematomas nor blood splash in the carcasses. Meat quality was evaluated by testing pH, colour (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), chroma, hue values), water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (CL), shear force (SF), drip loss (DL) and total aerobic bacteria. Statistical differences in pH at 24h post-mortem, colour, WHC and CL were not found among groups. After 7 days post-mortem, there were statistical differences among groups in pH (highest in G4 and G5) and in DL (highest in G1). There were differences in SF due to stunning method evident after 72h and 7 days ageing. The statistical differences (Plambs since a highest stability with ageing time on meat quality was found using 90% CO2.

  8. Supplementation of suckling beef calves with different levels of crude protein on tropical pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Sidnei Antonio; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Valente, Eriton Egídio Lisboa; Barros, Lívia Vieira; Cardenas, Javier Enrique Garces; Almeida, Daniel Mageste; Martins, Leandro Soares; Silva, Aline Gomes

    2014-02-01

    The effects of supplementation with different levels of crude protein on performance, intake and nutrient digestibility and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in suckling beef calves on pasture were assessed. Fifty-five calves, with an average age of 100 days and an initial average body weight of 110 ± 7.5 kg and their respective dams, were used. The experimental design was completely randomised with five treatments and 11 replications. The experimental treatments for calves were as follows: control = calves received only mineral mixture; supplementation levels = calves received supplement containing 8, 19, 30 or 41% of crude protein (CP, at a rate of 0.5% of body weight (BW)). The cows received only mineral mixture ad libitum. Supplemented calves had higher (P calves. There was no difference in total dry matter (DM) intake (P > 0.1). However, intake of dry matter forage (DMF) presented cubic profiles (P calves on creep feeding. The intake of supplements with CP levels between 8 and 30% partially replaces of the pasture ingested by calves and increases the digestibility of the diet.

  9. Effect of the dam’s feeding regimen on the meat quality of light suckling lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Molle

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the effect of the introduction of concentrates without GMO risk and at low aflatoxin risk in the diet of grazing milk ewes on the quanti-qualitative production of meat of their milk-fed light lambs, two trials were carried out - in Sicily, on 32 Comisana lambs, slaughtered at 49±4 days (trial 1; and in Sardinia, on 28 Sarda lambs, slaughtered at 31±4 days(trial 2 - comparing the following grazing dams’ feeding regimes: High stocking rate + Organic (barley – tickbean or pea Concentrate (HO; High stocking rate + Conventional (maize-soybean Concentrate (HC; Low stocking rate + Organic Concentrate (LO; Low stocking rate + Conventional Concentrate (LC. Lamb performances, carcass quality, meat colour and lipid content were not modified by dam’s feeding regimen. However, significant differences were observed in the fatty acid (FA composition of the intramuscular fat of the older suckling lambs of trial 1. The main variation concerned n-3 polyunsaturated FAs and conjugated linoleic acids.

  10. Reproduction in female yaks (Bos grunniens) and opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Xiang-Dong

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews seasonal breeding, puberty, postpartum anestrus, embryonic loss and calf survival and their constraints in female yaks. Methods for improving fertility in postpartum yak cows are also considered. Yaks are seasonal breeders with mating and conception restricted in the warm season. Puberty generally occurs in the 2nd to the 4th warm season following birth, i.e. between 13 and 36 months of age. The cows usually have a long postpartum anestrus period; only a small proportion of the cows return to estrus in the 1st breeding season after calving, most come into estrus in the 2nd and 3rd years. Nutritional status is the most important determinant of reproduction in female yaks. Reproductive success is a direct result of the availability of pasture determined by climate, season, and management practices. Milking delays puberty by reducing milk intake (restricted suckling) and growth rate for the calf. Milking interferes with grazing and prolongs the duration of postpartum acyclicity in cows. Calves born early in the season have a longer suckling season than those born later in the season before the onset of winter. Thus, they can have their first cycle in the breeding season of the following year, while those born late in the season may not have their first estrus until 25 or 26 months of age. Cows calving early in the season are more likely to return to estrus in the year of calving because they have a longer period to recover from the demand on body reserves before the onset of winter. Inbreeding in smallholder yak farms is also discussed and minimizing inbreeding by exchanging bulls among different herds is suggested. Reproductive efficiency can be improved by nutritional supplementation during the winter, however, the most cost-effective and practical strategy for this needs to be determined. Early weaning or restricted suckling may shorten the duration of postpartum acyclicity, however, it is impractical due to reduced growth rates and increased

  11. Transfer of /sup 109/Cd in the mother's body to the suckling infant mice through the milk and its distribution in their whole bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K [National Defence Medical Coll., Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan). Dept. of Public Health

    1978-10-01

    To point out the transfer of injected /sup 109/Cd in mothers, body to suckled infant mice through the milk and its distribution in their whole bodies, the following experiments were performed. Pregnant mice received 8..mu.. Ci of /sup 109/Cd by intravenous injection 7 days before parturition. After the delivery, the suckled infant mice were killed and fixed by momentary freezing in the refrigerated room of -15 deg C every day from 1 to 5 days and 10 days after the births. /sup 109/Cd was found in the intestines of the suckled infant mice from 1 to 5 days after the births, but no trace of /sup 109/Cd was confirmed there 10 days after the births. Mother mice had been given the same dose of /sup 109/Cd shortly after the parturition, and gave suck to her infants. The suckled infants were killed and fixed 7 and 10 days after the births by the same method. All specimens were investigated by whole body autoradiography. /sup 109/Cd was observed in the gastrointestinal tract of the suckled infant mice 7 and 10 days after the births. No clear evidence was obtained in the experiments to support that /sup 109/Cd had been absorbed from the gastrointestinal tracts. However, final conclusion cannot be drawn from these small number of samples, and further work is needed.

  12. Effects of different n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio on reproductive performance, fecal microbiota and nutrient digestibility of gestation-lactating sows and suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jia; Lee, Kwang Yong; Kim, Jong Keun; Kim, In Ho

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on reproductive performance, fecal microbiota and nutrient digestibility of gestation-lactating sows and suckling piglets. Fifteen primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly allotted into three treatments. Fed diets contained different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA, including 20:1, 15:1 and 10:1. No differences were detected among the treatments for average daily feed intake (ADFI) of sows and the back fat levels during lactation (P > 0.05). Body weight (BW) loss of sows after farrowing to weanling was greater in the 10:1 treatment compared with 15:1 or 20:1 (P  0.05). A great significant difference for fecal microbiota was in the 10:1 treatment compared with 20:1 and 15:1 treatments (P < 0.01). In conclusion, altering the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in gestation-lactating sow diet had no difference on nutrient digestibility in gestation-lactating sows, but it can partially improve reproductive performance. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of organic and conventional Blanca Andaluza suckling kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De la Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of autochthonous breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat (meat breed, raised under grazing-based management, has recently increased among Spanish farmers. A study of the possibilities of transformation to organic production needs to analyze the quality of their products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid (FA composition of muscle and adipose tissues of Blanca Andaluza goat kids under organic and conventional grazing–based management system. Twenty-four twin kids (12 males, 12 females were selected from each system. The FA profile was determined in the longissimus thoracis muscle, kidney and pelvic fat. The percentages of C17:0, C17:1, C20:1, C20:4 n-6, C22:2 and several n-3 FAs were higher in organic meat; C12:0, C18:1 trans-11, CLA and C20:5 n-3 were lower in organic meat. The fat depots from the conventional kids showed lower percentages of C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:3 n-3 and atherogenicity index, and higher percentage of C18:0. In the pelvic fat, the conventional kids displayed lower percentages of C16:0, C18:2 n-6 cis, PUFA, n-3 and n-6 FAs, and greater percentages of C18:1 n-9 cis and MUFA. The conventional kids displayed a major n6:n3 ratio in the kidney fat. No gender differences were observed. Significant differences were found only in some FA percentages of muscle and adipose tissues of suckling kids raised in organic and conventional livestock production systems, and due to this reason conventional grazing–based management farms could easily be transformed into organic production.

  14. Evaluation of oestrus observation and conception rates in suckling beef cows using whole milk progesterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Lourens

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2-sample regime was used to measure whole milk progesterone concentration on the day of oestrus and insemination (Day 0 and 6 days later (Day 6 in a sample of 50 primiparous and 100 multiparous suckling beef cows. Exposure to teaser bulls and observation by cattlemen identified the occurrence of oestrus. Three sets of criteria used to define ovulatory oestrus were compared : a milk progesterone concentration less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 ; b milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6; c milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6, or cow diagnosed pregnant to 1st insemination. Using only a single milk sample on Day 0 (criterion a would have resulted in the positive predictive value of heat detection being estimated at 98.7%. Using a paired measurement (criterion b resulted in a significantly lower estimate of 84.7%. The inclusion of cows that conceived despite not showing a marked rise in milk progesterone concentration (criterion c resulted in a more accurate estimate of 89.3%. Use of a 2-sample regime also allowed calculation of conception rates while eliminating the effect of heat detection errors. In the cows sampled, of those in ovulatory oestrus that were inseminated, 73.1% conceived to the 1st insemination. These results demonstrate that artificial insemination within a limited breeding season can be successful if nutrition is optimal and management is intensive. The use of a 2-sample milk progesterone test may be a valuable tool in investigating heat detection and conception problems in beef herds in which artificial insemination is used.

  15. Type of corn and grinding degree in a concentrate supplied to suckling calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Santos Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effects of a concentrate consisting of two types of corn: flint and dent, with three different grinding degrees (1, 3 and 5 mm, as a function of intake, performance and digestibility of three crossbred dairy suckling heifers. A randomized block design involving 54 crossbred heifers in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement was used to assess intake and performance patterns. In order to assess digestibility, the experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of 24 crossbred heifers. Weighting and measurements of height at withers and thoracic perimeter were performed. There was no significant interaction between grinding degree and corn type for any of the studied variables. The daily intake of concentrate dry matter was higher for flint corn (243 g/day as compared with dent corn (160 g/day. The grinding degree caused difference in the dry matter, crude protein and ether extract intake, with higher intake when 3 and 5 mm sieves were used in the process. There was no difference regarding average daily gain and increased withers, croup and thoracic perimeter. Likewise, feed conversion did not differ. Regarding dry matter digestibility, there was an effect resulting from the hardness of corn (78.9% for dent, and 84.3% and for flint corn. As for the grinding degree, the highest value of dry matter digestibility was found when using 5 mm sieves (84.2%, whereas the percentage values found for 1 mm and 3 mm mesh sieves were 79.1% and 78.1%, respectively. It is recommended that heifer calves in the early stage of growth be fed flint corn ground through 3 or 5 mm mesh sieves.

  16. Gene expression profiles in rat mesenteric lymph nodes upon supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid during gestation and suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivero Montserrat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done on the effects of CLA on gene expression, and even less regarding immune system development in early life. Results The expression profile of mesenteric lymph nodes from animals supplemented with CLA during gestation and suckling through dam's milk (Group A or by oral gavage (Group B, supplemented just during suckling (Group C and control animals (Group D was determined with the aid of the specific GeneChip® Rat Genome 230 2.0 (Affymettrix. Bioinformatics analyses were performed using the GeneSpring GX software package v10.0.2 and lead to the identification of 89 genes differentially expressed in all three dietary approaches. Generation of a biological association network evidenced several genes, such as connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp1, galanin (Gal, synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1, growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2, actin gamma 2 (Actg2 and smooth muscle alpha actin (Acta2, as highly interconnected nodes of the resulting network. Gene underexpression was confirmed by Real-Time RT-PCR. Conclusions Ctgf, Timp1, Gal and Syt1, among others, are genes modulated by CLA supplementation that may have a role on mucosal immune responses in early life.

  17. Milk production in sows from a teat in second parity is influenced by whether it was suckled in first parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, Chantal; Palin, M-F; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2012-01-01

    ) different teats suckled in 2 subsequent lactations (treated, TRT; n = 25). In the first lactation, over half of the teats (Teats 1, 2, 5, 6, and 7 from 1 side of the udder, and Teats 3, 4, and 7 from the other side) were sealed with tape so that they were nonfunctional. During the next lactation, the CTL...... group had the same teats sealed as in the first lactation, whereas the opposite teats were sealed for the TRT group. In both parities, litters were standardized to 7 piglets around birth and to 6 piglets (1 piglet per available teat) at 48 h postpartum. During the second lactation, piglets were weighed...

  18. Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris lectin stimulation increases the number of enterochromaffin cells in the small intestine of suckling piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharko-Siembida Anna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantities and distribution patterns of serotonin-immunoreactive (serotonin-IR enterochromaffin cells (EC were studied immunohistochemically in the small intestine of suckling piglets stimulated with red kidney bean lectin, and in nonstimulated, control animals. The co-expression patterns of serotonin with somatostatin (SOM or corticotropin releasing-factor (CRF were also studied. After the lectin treatment, the increased numbers of EC were noted in the duodenum of experimental animals. Lectin stimulation did not change the proportions of EC in the jejunum and ileum. In the duodenal epithelium of the lectin-stimulated piglets, the vast majority of serotonin-IR EC were distributed at the basis of crypts. After the lectin administration, the proportions of serotonin-IR/SOM-IR EC were statistically similar in all sections of the small intestine. No upregulation of CRF was found in duodenal, jejunal, and ileal EC of lectin-treated animals. The findings demonstrated that red kidney bean lectin increased the serotonin reservoir in the duodenum, and thus may be an effective stimulant of the gut maturation in suckling mammals.

  19. Chitosan can stop or postpone the death of the suckling mice challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the study, a method called "hardening in liquid phase" for preparing chitosan granules with glutaraldehyde as crosslinker and Tween 80 as surfactant and paraffin liquid as dispersant was established. The chitosan granules were light yellow and insoluble in water or oil, but they swelled in acid solution and narrowed in neutral or alkaline solution. Furthermore, some of characteristics of the chitosan granules were revealed. (a Stability: Their shapes were stable at pH 7.0 and pH 8.0 and -30°C~120°C. The shelf life is at least one year in vitro at room temperature. (b Safety: Some experiments of their lethal effect to suckling mice and pathogenicity to mature mice proved the chitosan granules were harmless. (c Antiviral activity: Some suckling mice injected with chitosan granules were still alive or delayed death compared with control group when they challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. Such anti-FMDV capacity could maintain 1 week and was the strongest on the third day.

  20. Consumer visual appraisal and shelf life of leg chops from suckling kids raised with natural milk or milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Guillermo; Alcalde, María J; Argüello, Anastasio; Córdoba, María G; Panea, Begoña

    2018-05-01

    The use of milk replacers to feed suckling kids could affect the shelf life and appearance of the meat. Leg chops were evaluated by consumers and the instrumental color was measured. A machine learning algorithm was used to relate them. The aim of this experiment was to study the shelf life of the meat of kids reared with dam's milk or milk replacers and to ascertain which illuminant and instrumental color variables are used by consumers as criteria to evaluate that visual appraisal. Meat from kids reared with milk replacers was more valuable and had a longer shelf life than meat from kids reared with natural milk. Consumers used the color of the whole surface of the leg chop to assess the appearance of meat. Lightness and hue angle were the prime cues used to evaluate the appearance of meat. Illuminant D65 was more useful for relating the visual appraisal with the instrumental color using a machine learning algorithm. The machine learning algorithms showed that the underlying rules used by consumers to evaluate the appearance of suckling kid meat are not at all linear and can be computationally schematized into a simple algorithm. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Depressive and anxiety disorders in the postpartum period: how prevalent are they and can we improve their detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Marie-Paule V; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Priest, Susan R; Reilly, Nicole; Wilhelm, Kay; Saint, Karen; Parker, Gordon

    2010-10-01

    (approximately two thirds with comorbid depression) and 37.7% of women with a major depressive episode (MDE) had a comorbid anxiety disorder. The estimated 6- to 8-month prevalence rate for a CIDI diagnosis of anxiety or depression (major or minor) was 29.2% (95% CI 26.7%-31.7%). The use of the "interval symptom" question alone was 1.7 times more likely to identify positive CIDI cases than the EPDS alone. Almost 40% of postnatal women with a diagnosis of MDE have a comorbid diagnosis of anxiety disorder. The estimated 6- to 8-month period prevalence for CIDI cases of anxiety and depression was 29.2%. Screening for anxiety and depression using the EPDS alone was associated with a lesser capacity to identify CIDI caseness than a simple "interval symptom" question (for the 2 months prior) which almost doubled the yield. This paper demonstrates that combining the EPDS with the "interval symptom" question improves detection of CIDI caseness.

  2. Improvement of the nutritional value and growth of rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis by different enrichment period with Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutia Budi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachionus plicatilis is a widely used as natural feed in hatchery. Characteristics of rotifers as biocapsule can improve the quality of rotifers in a practical way. Bacillus sp. is capable of improving the nutrition rotifers to produce vitamins, food detoxication or through enzymatic activity such as protease, lipase, and amylase. This research aimed at observing the influence of the enrichment length of Bacillus sp. on the quality of nutrition and growth of rotifers. The research container was a polyearbonate vessel of one ton volume which contained Nannochloropsis sp. with the density of 105 cell/mL, it was then scattered with rotifer with the density of 1,000 ind./mL. The types of bacteria used were Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus and B. licheformis with the density of 2x1010 cfu/g. The experiments tried with different enrichment length were A = 0 hour, B = 5 hours, C = 10 hours and D = 10 hours with triplicate. As the comparing data, rotifer culture experiment was carried out with Nannochlorophsis sp.as the control. The number of containers were 24 which consists of 12 for threatment and 12 pieces as control. Variables measured were proximate to each treatment and the growth of rotifers. The result of the research revealed the enrichment length of rotifers with Bacillus sp. has significantly (P Key words: rotifers, Bacillus, enrichment period, proximate   ABSTRAK Brachionus plicatilis merupakan pakan alami yang banyak digunakan dalam pembenihan. Karakteristik rotifer sebagai biokapsul secara praktis dapat meningkatkan kualitas rotifer. Bacillus sp. mampu memperbaiki nutrisi rotifer dengan memproduksi vitamin, detoksikasi pangan maupun melalui aktivitas enzimatis seperti protease, lipase, dan amilase. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh pengkayaan Bacillus sp. terhadap kualitas nutrisi dan pertumbuhan rotifer. Wadah penelitian menggunakan bak fiber volume 1 ton yang berisikan Nannochloropsis sp. dengan kepadatan 105 cell

  3. Characterization by culture-dependent and culture-1 independent methods of the 2 bacterial population of suckling-lamb packaged in different atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oses, S.M.; Diez, A.M.; Melero, B.; Luning, P.A.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study offers insight into the dynamics of bacterial populations in fresh cuts of suckling lamb under four different atmospheric conditions: air (A), and three Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) environments, 15%O2/30%CO2/55%N2 (C, commercial), 70%O2/30%CO2 (O), and 15%O2/85%CO2 (H) for 18

  4. Immunization with cholera toxin B subunit induces high-level protection in the suckling mouse model of cholera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Price

    Full Text Available Cholera toxin (CT is the primary virulence factor responsible for severe cholera. Vibrio cholerae strains unable to produce CT show severe attenuation of virulence in animals and humans. The pentameric B subunit of CT (CTB contains the immunodominant epitopes recognized by antibodies that neutralize CT. Although CTB is a potent immunogen and a promising protective vaccine antigen in animal models, immunization of humans with detoxified CT failed to protect against cholera. We recently demonstrated however that pups reared from mice immunized intraperitoneally (IP with 3 doses of recombinant CTB were well protected against a highly lethal challenge dose of V. cholerae N16961. The present study investigated how the route and number of immunizations with CTB could influence protective efficacy in the suckling mouse model of cholera. To this end female mice were immunized with CTB intranasally (IN, IP, and subcutaneously (SC. Serum and fecal extracts were analyzed for anti-CTB antibodies by quantitative ELISA, and pups born to immunized mothers were challenged orogastrically with a lethal dose of V. cholerae. Pups from all immunized groups were highly protected from death by 48 hours (64-100% survival. Cox regression showed that percent body weight loss at 24 hours predicted death by 48 hours, but we were unable to validate a specific amount of weight loss as a surrogate marker for protection. Although CTB was highly protective in all regimens, three parenteral immunizations showed trends toward higher survival and less weight loss at 24 hours post infection. These results demonstrate that immunization with CTB by any of several routes and dosing regimens can provide protection against live V. cholerae challenge in the suckling mouse model of cholera. Our data extend the results of previous studies and provide additional support for the inclusion of CTB in the development of a subunit vaccine against V. cholerae.

  5. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly ( P Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes.

  6. Tools for improving safety management in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet occupational accidents analysis period of 1998-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasjord, Halvard L

    2006-01-01

    Reporting of human accidents in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet has always been very difficult because there has been no tradition in making reports on all types of working accidents among fishermen, if the accident does not seem to be very serious or there is no economical incentive to report. Therefore reports are only written when the accidents are serious or if the fisherman is reported sick. Reports about an accident are sent to the insurance company, but another report should also be sent to the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD). Comparing of data from one former insurance company and NMD shows that the real numbers of injuries or serious accidents among Norwegian fishermen could be up to two times more than the numbers reported to NMD. Special analyses of 1690 accidents from the so called PUS-database (NMD) for the period 1998-2002, show that the calculated risk was 23.6 accidents per 1000 man-years. This is quite a high risk level, and most of the accidents in the fishing fleet were rather serious. The calculated risks are highest for fishermen on board the deep sea fleet of trawlers (28.6 accidents per 1000 man-years) and also on the deep sea fleet of purse seiners (28.9 accidents per 1000 man-years). Fatal accidents over a longer period of 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006 are also roughly analysed. These data from SINTEF's own database show that the numbers of fatal accidents have been decreasing over this long period, except for the two periods 1980-84 and 1990-94 where we had some casualties with total losses of larger vessels with the loss of most of the crew, but also many others typical work accidents on smaller vessels. The total numbers of registered Norwegian fishermen and also the numbers of man-years have been drastically reduced over the 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006. The risks of fatal accidents have been very steady over time at a high level, although there has been a marked risk reduction since 1990-94. For the last 8.5-year period of January 1998

  7. Level and period of realimentation to assess improvement in body condition and carcass quality in cull ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Randhir Singh; Soren, Nira Manik; Sahoo, Artabandhu; Karim, Shaikh Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in body condition was assessed in 40 cull ewes (>6 years), equally distributed in two groups and realimented with ad libitum roughage (gram straw) and two levels of concentrate feeding, i.e., 2.5 % (T(1)) of live weight (LW) and ad libitum (T(2)). Five representative animals from an initial 45 were slaughtered at the initiation of the study (0 day) and five animals from each treatment at 44, 67, and 90 days of experiment for carcass attributes. Improvement in body condition score (BCS), nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were assessed at 44, 67, and 90 days. Metabolism trial of 6-day collection of feed, feces, and urine samples was conducted on five representative ewes from each group after 60 days of feeding. The level of concentrate feeding on LW gain and BCS was significant, and the duration of realimentation showed a linear improvement (P body condition of cull ewes for quality mutton production.

  8. Significant survival improvement of patients with recurrent breast cancer in the periods 2001-2008 vs. 1992-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimura Sumiko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether individualized treatments based on biological factors have improved the prognosis of recurrent breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the survival improvement of patients with recurrent breast cancer after the introduction of third generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs and trastuzumab. Methods A total of 407 patients who received first diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer and treatment at National Kyushu Cancer Center between 1992 and 2008 were retrospectively evaluated. As AIs and trastuzumab were approved for clinical use in Japan in 2001, the patients were divided into two time cohorts depending on whether the cancer recurred before or after 2001. Cohort A: 170 patients who were diagnosed between 1992 and 2000. Cohort B: 237 patients who were diagnosed between 2001 and 2008. Tumor characteristics, treatments, and outcome were compared. Results Fourteen percent of cohort A and 76% of cohort B received AIs and/or trastuzumab (P Conclusions The prognosis of patients with recurrent breast cancer was improved over time following the introduction of AIs and trastuzumab and the survival improvement was apparent in HR- and/or HER-2-positive tumors.

  9. Introduction of distillate rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat: transfer of polyphenolic compounds to goats' milk and the plasma of suckling goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Maria José; Moñino, María Inmaculada; Martínez, Cristina; Lafuente, Arturo; Sotomayor, José Antonio

    2010-07-28

    The effect of the introduction of distilled rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat on the polyphenolic profile of the goats' milk during the physiological stages of gestation and lactation was studied. The inclusion of rosemary leaves into the animal diet modified neither animal productivity (milk yield) nor milk quality. The following components were found in increased concentration (P goats' milk after the introduction of rosemary leaves into their diet: flavonoids hesperidin, naringin, and genkwanin; gallic acid; and phenolic diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid. With regard to the transfer of polyphenols to the plasma of the suckling goat kid, a statistically significant increase (P goats' milk and allow for an increased concentration of polyphenolic components in the goats' milk and in the plasma of the suckling goat kid.

  10. improvement of the programs of formation of Asco in the period 2010-2015. achievements and actions in March

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Heredia, R.

    2015-01-01

    The improvement plan is one of the plans of action included in the Strategic Plan of ANAV and is focused on achieving and consolidating the commitment of managers with the training, being them the training program for their unit owners. also the gradual implementation of the methodology Systematic Approach to Training and consolidate the structure of committees of training as a tool of management of training programmes. (Author)

  11. Impact of improved neonatal care on the profile of retinopathy of prematurity in rural neonatal centers in India over a 4-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinekar, Anand; Jayadev, Chaitra; Kumar, Siddesh; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Dogra, Mangat Ram; Bauer, Noel J; Shetty, Bhujang

    2016-01-01

    To report the reduction in the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in rural India over a 4-year period following the introduction of improved neonatal care practices. The Karnataka Internet Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity program (KIDROP), is a tele-medicine network that screens for ROP in different zones of Karnataka state in rural India. North Karnataka is the most underdeveloped and remote zone of this program and did not have any ROP screening programs before the intervention of the KIDROP in 2011. Six government and eleven private neonatal centers in this zone were screened weekly. Specific neonatal guidelines for ROP were developed and introduced in these centers. They included awareness about risk factors, oxygen regulation protocols, use of pulse oxymetry, monitoring postnatal weight gain, nutritional best practices, and management of sepsis. The incidence and severity of ROP were compared before the guidelines were introduced (Jan 2011 to Dec 2012) and after the guidelines were introduced (July 2013 to June 2015). During this 4-year period, 4,167 infants were screened over 11,390 imaging sessions. The number of enrolled infants increased from 1,825 to 2,342 between the two periods ( P large, unscreened burden of ROP. Improving neonatal care in these centers can positively impact the incidence and severity of ROP even in a relatively short period. A combined approach of a robust ROP screening program and improved neonatal care practices is required to address the challenge.

  12. Improvement in health expectancy at ages 50 and 65 in Denmark during the period 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeune, Bernard; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2015-01-01

    was even longer in both genders and it increased by 1.5-4.0 years depending on age, gender and health indicator. Consequently, expected lifetime in an unhealthy state decreased and the proportions of lifetime in a healthy state increased. The disability effect of the health gain was stronger than......-2011. METHODS: The study was based on nationwide register data on mortality and data on health status from the SHARE surveys carried out in 2004/2005, 2006/2007 and 2010/2011. Expected lifetime in various health states was estimated by Sullivan's method. Changes from 2004 to 2011 were decomposed...... into contributions from changes in mortality and prevalence of activity limitations. RESULTS: During the period 2004-2011 LE increased by about 1 year at both age 50 and age 65. However, the increase in expected lifetime in self-rated good health, without long-term health problems and without activity limitations...

  13. Periodic TiO2 Nanostructures with Improved Aspect and Line/Space Ratio Realized by Colloidal Photolithography Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Berthod

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents substantial improvements of the colloidal photolithography technique (also called microsphere lithography with the goal of better controlling the geometry of the fabricated nano-scale structures—in this case, hexagonally arranged nanopillars—printed in a layer of directly photopatternable sol-gel TiO2. Firstly, to increase the achievable structure height the photosensitive layer underneath the microspheres is deposited on a reflective layer instead of the usual transparent substrate. Secondly, an increased width of the pillars is achieved by tilting the incident wave and using multiple exposures or substrate rotation, additionally allowing to better control the shape of the pillar’s cross section. The theoretical analysis is carried out by rigorous modelling of the photonics nanojet underneath the microspheres and by optimizing the experimental conditions. Aspect ratios (structure height/lateral structure size greater than 2 are predicted and demonstrated experimentally for structure dimensions in the sub micrometer range, as well as line/space ratios (lateral pillar size/distance between pillars greater than 1. These nanostructures could lead for example to materials exhibiting efficient light trapping in the visible and near-infrared range, as well as improved hydrophobic or photocatalytic properties for numerous applications in environmental and photovoltaic systems.

  14. Thyroid function in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the thyroid and pituitary hormone levels in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling (21 days. The dams and pups were divided into 2 groups: a control group fed a diet containing 22% protein that supplies the necessary amount of protein for the rat and is the usual content of protein in most commercial rat chow, and a diet group fed a low-protein (8% diet in which the protein was substituted by an isocaloric amount of starch. After weaning all dams and pups received the 22% protein diet. Two hours before sacrifice of pups aged 21, 30 and 60 days, a tracer dose (0.6 µCi of 125I was injected (ip into each animal. Blood and thyroid glands of pups were collected for the determination of serum T4, T3 and TSH and radioiodine uptake. Low protein diet caused a slight decrease in radioiodine uptake at 21 days, and a significant decrease in T3 levels (128 ± 14 vs 74 ± 9 ng/dl, P<0.05, while T4 levels did not change and TSH was increased slightly. At 30 days, T3 and TSH did not change while there was a significant increase in both T4 levels (4.8 ± 0.3 vs 6.1 ± 0.2 µg/dl, P<0.05 and in radioiodine uptake levels (0.34 ± 0.02 vs 0.50 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. At 60 days serum T3, T4 and TSH levels were normal, but radioiodine uptake was still significantly increased (0.33 ± 0.02 vs 0.41 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. Thus, it seems that protein malnutrition of the dams during suckling causes hypothyroidism in the pups at 21 days that has a compensatory mechanism increasing thyroid function after refeeding with a 22% protein diet. The radioiodine uptake still remained altered at 60 days, when all the hormonal serum levels returned to the normal values, suggesting a permanent change in the thyroid function

  15. DYNAMIC OF CHANGES OF BLOOD PLASMA ENERGY METABOLISM PARAMETERS IN SUCKLING COWS DURING CALVING INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pavlik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of environmental condition changes during gazing period on energy metabolism parameters was investigated. Totally 40 Aberdeen Angus cows were selected for observation. Calving all of cows was situated into March. The feeding ration for the animals was comprised by pasture during the grazing period and corn silage, hay and granulated distiller’s grains during the winter period. At average age 9 days before calving, and subsequently 10, 81, 151, 189 and 273 days after calving, blood was sampled and analysed for glucose and NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on KONELAB T20xt automatic analyser (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Finland and currently available commercial kits (Biovendor-Laboratorni medicina, Czech Republic. A rapid increase (p < 0.05 of glucose concentration was detected in blood plasma of cows in period before calving to 81 days post partum. Average value of glucose concentration at 273 days postpartum was significant (p < 0.05 lower comparing to day 189. The highest concentrations of NEFA in blood plasma of cows were found at 10 day postpartum. After that, during the persisted higher temperature period the NEFA concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.01 till 189 days postpartum. At the end of monitored period concentration of NEFA in blood plasma significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Changes of hot and cold season during the grazing period probably according to forage quality and had significant effects on blood plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations.

  16. An improved model to determine the inception of positive upward leader–streamer system considering the leader propagation during dark period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Shijun; He Junjia; Chen Weijiang

    2013-01-01

    Stem–leader transition and front-streamer inception are two essential conditions for the inception of positive upward leader–streamer system (LSS). Previous models have not considered the initial-leader propagation during dark period and have not been verified systematically. In this paper, a series of positive upward discharge simulation experiments was designed and carried out. Characteristic parameters of the discharge process related to the inception of positive upward LSS, namely, the first-corona inception voltage, the first-corona charge, the dark period, and the LSS inception voltage, were obtained. By comparing these experiment results with simulation results calculated using previous models, it was found that it is improper to assume that the length of the initial leader is a fixed value. Finally, an improved inception model of positive upward LSS considering the leader propagation during dark period was developed and verified with experiment results.

  17. Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture 2. Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hour calf separation on interval to first oestrus after onset of mating period lona B. Stewart* and B.P. Louw. Department of Agricuhural Development: Natal Region, Private Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg,. 3200 Republic of South Africa.

  18. Can Periodical Examinations of Employees Be Useful in Detection of Glycaemia Impairment and Improving Patients’ Adherence to Medical Recommendations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Marcinkiewicz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide epidemiological data indicates insufficient diagnosis of diabetes as an increasing public health problem. In the search for solutions to this disadvantageous situation, occupational medicine health services seem to open up a unique opportunity to recognize some abnormalities in the early stages, especially among the asymptomatic working-age population. 316 workers underwent obligatory prophylactic examinations. In patients with twice assayed FGL ≥ 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L an additional intervention was implemented, including further diagnostic processes and therapy in General Practice (GP, followed by examination by an occupational health specialist within 3 months. The diagnosis of previously unknown diabetes was established among 2.5% of examined workers. All patients referred to the GP due to detected glycaemia impairment visited their doctor and finished the diagnostic process, took up therapy constrained by the occupational health physician to show the effects of intervention within 3 months. Prophylactic medical check-ups allow improved compliance and medical surveillance over glycaemia impairment in patients with prediabetes states, unknown diabetes or uncontrolled clinical course of diabetes. Considering fasting glucose level during mandatory prophylactic examination helps effective prevention of diabetes and its complications and thus provides public health system benefits.

  19. Fatores de risco relacionados com o desempenho de leitões lactentes em granjas de suínos da região norte do Paraná The relation of the risk factors on the suckling piglets performance in farms of north Parana state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Abércio da Silva

    1998-12-01

    maximizar a produtividade na fase de maternidade.Eighteen farms of swine from North of Parana State, Brazil, were evaluated during the year of 1994. In the herd, at least six sows and her litters were evaluated from the birth up to weaning by four objetive variables (diarrhoea in the suckling, mortality rate, weight variation coefficient at weaning and average daily weight gain in the period, and were observed sixteen explainatory variables: (daily thermal amplitude, % area of the windows in the pant, pen 's area, corporal status of the sow, creep presence, farrowing assistance, weight at birth, onfalite presence, internal minimal temperature in the plant, litter size at birth, colibacilosis vaccination, sows per plant, coletive suckling, roof presence in the plant, intestinal parasites presence and sanitary breack utilization. The variables were evaluated by the ECOSUI program developed by EMBRAPA/CNPSA. The main risk factors observed were: high internal minimal temperature, high thermal amplitude, sanitary break absence, roof absence, high sows per plant, insufficient pen's area, onfalite and intestinal parasites presence and colibacilosis vaccination absence (founded in 50% of farms. The rates of the objetive variables were insatisfatory. The relation of diarrhoea presence was 8/18; to mortality rate the relation was 5/17; to weight variation coefficient, 0/18; and to the average daily weight gain, 9/17. The results indicate that the preventive veterinary medicine is very importam to reduce these risk factors to improve the suckling pigs performance.

  20. The Improvement of the Methodological Approaches to Calculating the Payback Period for Investment in order to Estimate Expenses on Establishing the Economic Security Service of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melikhova Tetiana O.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to improve the methodological approaches to calculating the payback period for investment in order to determine the payback period for expenses on establishing the economic security service of an enterprise. It is found that the source of payback of investment at the enterprise level is cash flow product. These revenues (the result go to formation of a cash flow (expenses used to finance investment and financial activities. There proposed methods for determining the gross, net, actual, and specified payback periods for advanced investments in the long-term, which use the accumulated product of cash flow or accumulated cash flow as a source of financing. Analytic relationships between the gross, net, current, and specified payback periods for advanced investments that take into account the relationship between the accumulated gross, net, current and specified cash flows are proposed. The considered options for payback of advanced investment at the enterprise level will provide an opportunity to develop methods for determining the payback period for expenses on establishing the economic security service of an enterprise.

  1. The Effect of Centering Pregnancy versus Traditional Prenatal Care Models on Improved Adolescent Health Behaviors in the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman, Gylynthia; Chhatre, Gayatri; Darolia, Renuka; Tefera, Eshetu; Damle, Lauren; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2015-10-01

    To determine if the CenteringPregnancy model of prenatal care improves maternal health behaviors in adolescent pregnancy. We conducted a retrospective chart review comparing 150 pregnant adolescents who received prenatal care between 2008 to 2012 with CenteringPregnancy to those receiving care in traditional prenatal care models with either multiprovider or single-provider visits. Outcome measures included weight gain during pregnancy, compliance to prenatal care appointments, infant feeding method, postpartum follow up and contraceptive use postpartum. A χ(2) analysis was used to compare outcomes between the 3 groups at a 2-tailed α of .05. Fifty individuals were evaluated in each group. Adolescents in the CenteringPregnancy group were more likely to comply with prenatal and postpartum visits and to meet the 2009 Institute of Medicine gestational weight guidelines for weight gain in pregnancy than were adolescents in either multiprovider (62.0% vs 38.0%, P = .02) or single-provider (62.0% vs 38.0%, P = .02) groups. The CenteringPregnancy group was also more likely to solely breastfeed compared with adolescents in the multiprovider group (40.0% vs 20.0%, P = .03) and include breastfeeding in addition to bottle-feeding compared with both multiprovider (32.0% vs 14.0%, P = .03) and single-provider (32.0% vs 12.0%, P = .03) patient groups. Additionally, the CenteringPregnancy group had increased uptake of long-acting reversible contraception and were less likely to suffer from postpartum depression. CenteringPregnancy Prenatal Care program aids in compliance to prenatal visits, appropriate weight gain, increased uptake of highly effective contraception, and breastfeeding among adolescent mothers. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Body burden of hexachlorobenzene in suckling rats and its effects on various organs and on liver porphyrin accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, C E; Grant, D L; Shields, J B

    1975-01-01

    The hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and porphyrin accumulation in the organs of 18-day-old Wistar rats, whose mothers were fed a diet containing 80 ppM HCB, were studied. Among the organs examined, the highest HCB residue was in the liver greater than kidney greater than or equal to lung greater than brain greater than spleen greater than heart. The porphyrin level in the liver of the HCB-treated group was approximately 2.5 fold greater than that in the control liver. About equal porphyrin concentrations were found in the male and female pups. The analysis of variance indicated the liver weight was significantly increased by the HCB-treatment. On the contrary, the weights of the kidney, brain, spleen, and heart were significantly reduced. Sex did not influence the organ weight except that of the brain. The results suggested that accumulation of HCB in different organs and porphyrin in the liver of suckling Wistar rats was about equal for the males and females.

  3. A combination of scGOS/lcFOS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V protects suckling rats from rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Adrover, M; Saldaña-Ruíz, S; van Limpt, K; Knipping, K; Garssen, J; Knol, J; Franch, A; Castell, M; Pérez-Cano, F J

    2017-06-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children, and although more standardized studies are needed, there is evidence that probiotics can help to fight against RV and other infectious and intestinal pathologies. On the other hand, the effects of prebiotics have not been properly addressed in the context of an RV infection. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a protective role for a specific scGOS/lcFOS 9:1 prebiotic mixture (PRE) separately, the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (PRO) separately and the combination of the prebiotic mixture and the probiotic (synbiotic, SYN) in a suckling rat RV infection model. The animals received the intervention from the 3rd to the 21st day of life by oral gavage. On day 7, RV was orally administered. Clinical parameters and immune response were evaluated. The intervention with the PRO reduced the incidence, severity and duration of the diarrhoea (p Bifidobacterium breve M-16V or a combination of both is highly effective in modulating RV-induced diarrhoea in this preclinical model.

  4. Desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte em lactação e solteiras submetidas à indução/sincronização de estro Reproductive performance of suckling beef and non-suckling beef cows submitted to estrus induction/synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Cassal Brauner

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar o desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo de duas categorias de vacas de corte submetidas à indução/sincronização de estro, foram utilizadas 42 vacas em lactação e 60 vacas solteiras da raça Aberdeen Angus, de tamanho similar e condição corporal moderada (CC3, escala de 1 a 5, manejadas exclusivamente em campo nativo, no período de setembro de 2005 a abril de 2006 no município de Aceguá/RS. Para os exames ginecológicos durante o experimento, foi utilizado aparelho de ultra-som e palpação retal. Como fator fixo, foi considerada a categoria das vacas (CATV, considerando-se três grupos, vacas solteiras cíclicas (VSC, ou seja, fêmeas que falham em conceber e permanecem na propriedade até o próximo acasalamento, vacas em lactação em anestro superficial (VLAS e vacas em lactação em anestro profundo (VLAP. Como variáveis resposta, foram considerados peso das vacas pré-acasalamento (PPRA, pós-acasalamento (PPOA, à concepção (PC, o ganho de peso médio diário durante o acasalamento (GMD, resposta ao protocolo de indução/sincronização de cio (RISC e gestação. A categoria da vaca demonstrou efeito (PThe objective of this study was to characterize the reproductive performance of two cow categories submitted to estrus induction/synchronization. Forty two suckling and sixty non-suckling, Aberdeen Angus cows classified by uniformity of size and moderate body condition score (CC3 in a 1 to 5 scale, raised under range conditions in Aceguá/RS county, were evaluated between September 2005 and April 2006. The gynecological examination was made by ultrasonography and rectal palpation. Fixed factors analyzed were cow category alocated in one of three groups: cyclical non-suckling (VSC, cows that fail to conceive and remain in the farm until the next breeding season showing cyclical conditions, suckling light anestrus cow (VLAS and suckling strong anestrus cows (VLAP. The following variables were

  5. Influence of the water quality improvement on fish population in the Seine River (Paris, France) over the 1990-2013 period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Sam; Rocher, Vincent

    2016-01-15

    Over the past 20 years, rules concerning wastewater treatment and quality of water discharged into the environment have changed considerably. Huge investments have been made in Paris conurbation to improve waste water treatment processes in accordance with the European Water Framework Directive. The interdepartmental association for sewage disposal in Paris conurbation (SIAAP) carried out a monitoring of both fish assemblages and water quality in the Seine River around the Paris conurbation (France) since the early 90's. The main goal of this study was to estimate the influence of the water quality improvement on fish. On one hand, the study confirmed the improvement of the water quality (dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, organic matter) in the Seine River, mostly focused downstream of Paris conurbation. On the other hand, an increase of the number of species occurred from 1990 (14) to 2013 (21). Moreover, changes in the river Seine assemblages happened over that 23-year period with emergence of sensitive species (ruffe, scalpin and pike-perch). The improvement of the water quality was also reported with respect to the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI). However, no variation of pollutant concentrations in roach, eel and chub muscles has been observed. An exceedance of the environmental quality standards have even been reported all over this period as regards mercury and organochlorine.

  6. Impact of improved neonatal care on the profile of retinopathy of prematurity in rural neonatal centers in India over a 4-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinekar, Anand; Jayadev, Chaitra; Kumar, Siddesh; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Dogra, Mangat Ram; Bauer, Noel J; Shetty, Bhujang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the reduction in the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in rural India over a 4-year period following the introduction of improved neonatal care practices. Methods The Karnataka Internet Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity program (KIDROP), is a tele-medicine network that screens for ROP in different zones of Karnataka state in rural India. North Karnataka is the most underdeveloped and remote zone of this program and did not have any ROP screening programs before the intervention of the KIDROP in 2011. Six government and eleven private neonatal centers in this zone were screened weekly. Specific neonatal guidelines for ROP were developed and introduced in these centers. They included awareness about risk factors, oxygen regulation protocols, use of pulse oxymetry, monitoring postnatal weight gain, nutritional best practices, and management of sepsis. The incidence and severity of ROP were compared before the guidelines were introduced (Jan 2011 to Dec 2012) and after the guidelines were introduced (July 2013 to June 2015). Results During this 4-year period, 4,167 infants were screened over 11,390 imaging sessions. The number of enrolled infants increased from 1,825 to 2,342 between the two periods (P<0.001). The overall incidence of any stage ROP reduced significantly from 26.8% to 22.4% (P<0.001). The incidence of treatment-requiring ROP reduced from 20.7% to 16% (P=0.06), and of the treated disease, aggressive posterior ROP reduced from 20.8% to 13.1% (P=0.23) following introduction of the guidelines. Discussion Rural neonatal centers in middle-income countries have a large, unscreened burden of ROP. Improving neonatal care in these centers can positively impact the incidence and severity of ROP even in a relatively short period. A combined approach of a robust ROP screening program and improved neonatal care practices is required to address the challenge. PMID:28539801

  7. Iron Supplementation in Suckling Piglets: How to Correct Iron Deficiency Anemia without Affecting Plasma Hepcidin Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starzynski, R.R.; Laarakkers, C.M.; Tjalsma, H.; Swinkels, D.W.; Pieszka, M.; Stys, A.; Mickiewicz, M.; Lipinski, P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning),

  8. Characterization and evaluation of femtosecond laser-induced sub-micron periodic structures generated on titanium to improve osseointegration of implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bryan E. J.; Exir, Hourieh; Weck, Arnaud; Grandfield, Kathryn

    2018-05-01

    Reproducible and controllable methods of modifying titanium surfaces for dental and orthopaedic applications are of interest to prevent poor implant outcomes by improving osseointegration. This study made use of a femtosecond laser to generate laser-induced periodic surface structures with periodicities of 300, 620 and 760 nm on titanium substrates. The reproducible rippled patterns showed consistent submicron scale roughness and relatively hydrophobic surfaces as measured by atomic force microscopy and contact angle, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy identified a thicker oxide layer on ablated surfaces compared to controls. In vitro testing was conducted using osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells. Cell metabolism on the laser-ablated surfaces was comparable to controls and alkaline phosphatase activity was notably increased at late time points for the 620 and 760 nm surfaces compared to controls. Cells showed a more elongated shape on laser-ablated surfaces compared to controls and showed perpendicular alignment to the periodic structures. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of generating submicron features on an implant material with the ability to influence cell response and improve implant outcomes.

  9. [Periods for growth and quality improvement of fish in context of animal welfare compliant management of commercial fish ponds--a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrock, Michael; Brämick, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, management of commercial fish ponds requires consideration of animal welfare legislation. In particular, it is forbidden to immediately catch fish that have recently been stocked into put-and-take fishponds. Rather, after stocking is completed, a short-term fishing ban period needs to be adhered to that allows the fishes the opportunity to grow and/or significantly improve in overall quality. The duration of the fishing ban varies considerably among German federal states. A literature review, therefore, was undertaken to identify the amount of time required by adult fish to reach changes in various parameters of quality (proximate composition, fillet colour, odour/taste, stress response), and growth.The literature search revealed that some of the selected parameters (odour/taste, stress response) can change within 24 hours, potentially resulting in improved fish flesh quality. With a time span of about four weeks, feeding-induced changes in proximate composition took the longest among the parameters tested to realize significant changes in fish flesh quality. Transportation-related reductions in body mass are overcome and succeeded by net growth within one to two weeks depending on food availability. Maintaining the fish under species-specific conditions and providing the optimal environment to meet their physiological demands, however, are critical prerequisites for growth and quality improvement. In conclusion there is science-based justification for fishing ban periods ranging from 24 hours to four weeks. Final determination of its duration, therefore, remains a careful balancing of values.

  10. Why did the breast cancer lymph node status distribution improve in Denmark in the pre-mammography screening period of 1978-1994?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, K.; Vaeth, M.; Rootzen, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Background. Danish breast cancer patients diagnosed in 1978-1994 experienced a trend over time towards a more favourable distribution of lymph node status at time of diagnosis, which was not due to mammography screening. We investigated how this trend could be explained by patient characteristics...... at diagnosis: age (biological processes), calendar period (e.g. environmental changes), birth cohort (living conditions over a life time), post-menopausal status (a predictor of less favourable nodal status), and tumour diameter (a marker of detection time). Material and methods. The data set consisted of 22...... using an EM algorithm in order to reduce misclassification. Results and discussion. We found that the improved lymph node status distribution was most likely a period effect due to a combination of earlier detection of clinical tumours, explaining most of the trend in node-positive breast cancer...

  11. Saturated or unsaturated fat supplemented maternal diets influence omental adipose tissue proteome of suckling goat-kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restelli, Laura; Marques, Andreia T; Savoini, Giovanni; Invernizzi, Guido; Carisetti, Michela; Lecchi, Cristina; Bendixen, Emoke; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2017-11-03

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how maternal diet can influence the adipose tissue of goat kids. Omental adipose tissue proteomes of goat-kids from mothers fed with diet enriched with stearic acid (ST-kids), fish oil (FO-kids) and standard diets (CTRL) were determined by quantitative iTRAQ 2D-LC-MS/MS analysis. Twenty proteins were found to be differentially expressed in suckling kids' omental adipose tissue. Stearic acid induces changes in a higher number of proteins when compared to fish oil. Eleven proteins, namely AARS, ECl1, PMSC2, CP, HSPA8, GPD1, RPL7, OGDH, RPL24, FGA and RPL5 were decreased in ST-kids only. Four proteins, namely DLST, EEF1G, BCAP31 and RALA were decreased in FO-kids only, and one, NUCKS1, was increased. Four proteins, namely PMSC1, PPIB, TUB5×2 and EIF5A1, were be less abundant in both ST- and FO- kids. Most of the protein whose abundance was decreased in ST kids (10 out of 15) are involved in protein metabolism and catabolism pathways. Qualitative gene expression analysis confirmed that all the proteins identified by mass spectrometry, with the exception of FGA, were produced by adipose tissue. Quantitative gene expression analysis demonstrated that two proteins, namely CP, a minor acute phase protein, and ECl1, involved in fatty acid beta oxidation, were downregulated at mRNA level as well. ECl1 gene expression was downregulated in ST-kids AT as compared to Ctrl-kids and CP was downregulated in both ST- and FO-kids. The present results demonstrate that it is possible to influence adipose goat-kid proteome by modifying the maternal diet. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF CALF STARTER AND CONVENTIONAL RATIONS IN BUFFALO SUCKLING CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmad, M. A. Jabbar1, I. Ahmad2 , M. Rafique and I. Ahmad3

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four buffalo calves, having similar age and initial body weight, were divided into two groups with equal number of calves of both sexes in each group to study the effect of calf starter ration on feed intake and weight gain. Calf starter and conventional dairy rations with crude protein 18% and total digestible nutrients 75–80% along with green fodder were offered ad libitum to calves of respective groups for a period of 113 days. The average daily feed intakes were 0.95 and 0.57 kg, average daily weight gains were 0.47 and 0.34 kg and feed conversion ratio averaged 2.00 and 1.70 in calf starter and conventional groups respectively. On the overall performance, calf starter group was found better than the conventional ration.

  13. The hepatic transcriptome of young suckling and aging intrauterine growth restricted male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freije, William A; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Lee, Regina; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of adult onset obesity/metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis. Continued postnatal growth restriction has been shown to ameliorate many of these sequelae. To further our understanding of the mechanism of how intrauterine and early postnatal growth affects adult health we have employed Affymetrix microarray-based expression profiling to characterize hepatic gene expression of male offspring in a rat model of maternal nutrient restriction in early and late life. At day 21 of life (p21) combined intrauterine and postnatal calorie restriction treatment led to expression changes in circadian, metabolic, and insulin-like growth factor genes as part of a larger transcriptional response that encompasses 144 genes. Independent and controlled experiments at p21 confirm the early life circadian, metabolic, and growth factor perturbations. In contrast to the p21 transcriptional response, at day 450 of life (d450) only seven genes, largely uncharacterized, were differentially expressed. This lack of a transcriptional response identifies non-transcriptional mechanisms mediating the adult sequelae of intrauterine growth restriction. Independent experiments at d450 identify a circadian defect as well as validate expression changes to four of the genes identified by the microarray screen which have a novel association with growth restriction. Emerging from this rich dataset is a portrait of how the liver responds to growth restriction through circadian dysregulation, energy/substrate management, and growth factor modulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effectiveness of an extended period of flashing lights and strategic signage to increase the salience of alcohol-gel dispensers for improving hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Babak; Li, Aimee; Patel, Rakesh; Harmsen, Irene E; Sabri, Elham; Kyeremanteng, Kwadwo; D'Egidio, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    Multiple factors affect compliance with hand hygiene, including conspicuity of alcohol-gel dispensers. Previous studies have shown that flashing lights increase hand hygiene compliance; however, the durability of this effect has not been studied. We affixed flashing lights to hand sanitizer dispensers for a total of 6 weeks. Regression analysis was used to compare compliance rates between the beginning and end of the intervention. Our secondary objective was to determine whether compliance rates in cold weather could be improved by adding a sign separated in time and space from the dispensers. Flashing lights improved hand hygiene compliance from 11.8% to 20.7%, and this effect was unchanged over the 6-week study period. Fully charged lights resulted in a greater compliance increase. A preemptive sign did not have a significant effect on hand hygiene rates nor did absolute temperatures. Flashing lights are a simple, inexpensive way of improving hand hygiene. Brighter lights appear to have a greater effect; however, this must be balanced with annoyance in specific settings. Temperature did not have a significant effect; however, this may be because the relationship does not fit a linear model. Other interventions, such as signs, may need to be tailored specifically to individual hospital environments. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-intensity preoperative training improves physical and functional recovery in the early post-operative periods after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Casaña, Jose; Ezzatvar, Yasmin

    2017-01-01

    the preoperative period reduces pain and improves lower limb muscle strength, ROM and functional task performance before surgery, resulting in a reduced length of stay at the hospital and a faster physical and functional recovery after TKA. The present training programme can be used by specialists to speed up......-four subjects (7 men, 37 women) scheduled for unilateral TKA for osteoarthritis (OA) during 2014 participated in this randomized controlled trial. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Physical Functioning Scale of the Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36), a 10-cm visual...... analogue scale (VAS), isometric knee flexion, isometric knee extension, isometric hip abduction, active knee range of motion and functional tasks (Timed Up and Go test and Stair ascent-descent test) were assessed at 8 weeks before surgery (T1), after 8 weeks of training (T2), 1 month after TKA (T3...

  16. Improving a Complement-fixation Test for Equine Herpesvirus Type-1 by Pretreating Sera with Potassium Periodate to Reduce Non-specific Hemolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    BANNAI, Hiroshi; NEMOTO, Manabu; TSUJIMURA, Koji; YAMANAKA, Takashi; KONDO, Takashi; MATSUMURA, Tomio

    2013-01-01

    Non-specific hemolysis has often been observed during complement-fixation (CF) tests for equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1), even when the sera have virus-specific CF antibodies. This phenomenon has also been reported in CF tests for various infectious diseases of swine. We found that the sera from 22 of 85 field horses (25.9%) showed non-specific hemolysis during conventional CF testing for EHV-1. Because pretreatment of swine sera with potassium periodate (KIO4) improves the CF test for swine influenza, we applied this method to horse sera. As we expected, horse sera treated with KIO4 did not show non-specific hemolysis in the EHV-1 CF test, and precise determination of titers was achieved. PMID:24834005

  17. Why did the breast cancer lymph node status distribution improve in Denmark in the pre-mammography screening period of 1978-1994?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostgaard, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth; Vaeth, Michael; Rootzen, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Background. Danish breast cancer patients diagnosed in 1978-1994 experienced a trend over time towards a more favourable distribution of lymph node status at time of diagnosis, which was not due to mammography screening. We investigated how this trend could be explained by patient characteristics at diagnosis: age (biological processes), calendar period (e.g. environmental changes), birth cohort (living conditions over a life time), post-menopausal status (a predictor of less favourable nodal status), and tumour diameter (a marker of detection time). Material and methods. The data set consisted of 22 955 patients aged 30-69 years at time of diagnosis with known lymph node status, known tumour diameter, known menopausal status, and clinically detected tumours, available from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG). Age, period, cohort, menopausal status, and tumour diameter were used as predictors in generalised linear models with either node-positive status (at least one of the excised lymph nodes being tumour-positive) or severely node-positive status (at least half of the excised lymph nodes being tumour-positive) as outcomes. Lymph node status was assessed both empirically and estimated using an EM algorithm in order to reduce misclassification. Results and discussion. We found that the improved lymph node status distribution was most likely a period effect due to a combination of earlier detection of clinical tumours, explaining most of the trend in node-positive breast cancer and half of the trend in severely node-positive breast cancer, and some unknown factor affecting lymph node status but not necessarily other tumour characteristics

  18. Electronic simulation of the supported liquid membrane in electromembrane extraction systems: Improvement of the extraction by precise periodical reversing of the field polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazami, Hamid Reza; Nojavan, Saeed; Zahedi, Pegah; Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple equivalent circuit has been proposed for a supported liquid membrane. • A dual charge transfer mechanism was proposed for electromembrane extraction. • An improvement was observed by precise periodical reversing of the field polarity. - Abstract: In order to understand the limitations of electromebrane extraction procedure better, a simple equivalent circuit has been proposed for a supported liquid membrane consisting of a resistor and a low leakage capacitor in series. To verify the equivalent circuit, it was subjected to a simulated periodical polarity changing potential and the resulting time variation of the current was compared with that of a real electromembrane extraction system. The results showed a good agreement between the simulated current patterns and those of the real ones. In order to investigate the impact of various limiting factors, the corresponding values of the equivalent circuit were estimated for a real electromembrane extraction system and were attributed to the physical parameters of the extraction system. A dual charge transfer mechanism was proposed for electromembrane extraction by combining general migration equation and fundamental aspects derived from the simulation. Dual mechanism comprises a current dependent contribution of analyte in total current and could support the possibility of an improvement in performance of an electromembrane extraction by application of an asymmetric polarity changing potential. The optimization of frequency and duty cycle of the asymmetric polarity exchanging potential resulted in a higher recovery (2.17 times greater) in comparison with the conventional electromebrane extraction. The simulation also provided more quantitative approaches toward the investigation of the mechanism of extraction and contribution of different limiting factors in electromembrane extraction. Results showed that the buildup of the double layer is the main limiting factor and the Joule heating has

  19. Improvement of the management of infants, children and adults with a molecular diagnosis of Enterovirus meningitis during two observational study periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Archimbaud

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses (EVs are a major cause of aseptic meningitis, and RNA detection using molecular assay is the gold standard diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an EV positive diagnosis on the clinical management of patients admitted for meningitis over the course of two observational study periods (2005 and 2008-09 in the same clinical departments. We further investigated in multivariate analysis various factors possibly associated with hospital length of stay (LOS in all age groups (infants, children, and adults. The results showed an overall improvement in the management of patients (n = 142 between the study periods, resulting in a significantly shorter hospital LOS for adults and children, and a shorter duration of antibiotic use for adults and infants. In multivariate analysis, we observed that the time from molecular test results to discharge of patients and the median duration of antibiotic treatment were associated with an increase in LOS in all age groups. In addition, among adults, the turnaround time of the molecular assay was significantly correlated with LOS. The use of CT scan in children and hospital admission outside the peak of EV prevalence in infants tended to increase LOS. In conclusion, the shorter length of stay of patients with meningitis in this study was due to various factors including the rapidity of the EV molecular test (particularly in adults, greater physician responsiveness after a positive result (in adults and children, and greater experience on the part of physicians in handling EV meningitis, as evidenced by the shorter duration of antibiotic use in adults and infants.

  20. Improvement of the Management of Infants, Children and Adults with a Molecular Diagnosis of Enterovirus Meningitis during Two Observational Study Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archimbaud, Christine; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Mirand, Audrey; Chambon, Martine; Demeocq, François; Labbé, André; Laurichesse, Henri; Schmidt, Jeannot; Clavelou, Pierre; Aumaître, Olivier; Regagnon, Christel; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Henquell, Cécile; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are a major cause of aseptic meningitis, and RNA detection using molecular assay is the gold standard diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an EV positive diagnosis on the clinical management of patients admitted for meningitis over the course of two observational study periods (2005 and 2008–09) in the same clinical departments. We further investigated in multivariate analysis various factors possibly associated with hospital length of stay (LOS) in all age groups (infants, children, and adults). The results showed an overall improvement in the management of patients (n = 142) between the study periods, resulting in a significantly shorter hospital LOS for adults and children, and a shorter duration of antibiotic use for adults and infants. In multivariate analysis, we observed that the time from molecular test results to discharge of patients and the median duration of antibiotic treatment were associated with an increase in LOS in all age groups. In addition, among adults, the turnaround time of the molecular assay was significantly correlated with LOS. The use of CT scan in children and hospital admission outside the peak of EV prevalence in infants tended to increase LOS. In conclusion, the shorter length of stay of patients with meningitis in this study was due to various factors including the rapidity of the EV molecular test (particularly in adults), greater physician responsiveness after a positive result (in adults and children), and greater experience on the part of physicians in handling EV meningitis, as evidenced by the shorter duration of antibiotic use in adults and infants. PMID:23874676

  1. Vitamin D and Calcium Addition during Denosumab Therapy over a Period of Four Years Significantly Improves Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Osteoporosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Suzuki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether or not vitamin D and calcium supplementation affected bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD over a period of four years of denosumab therapy in patients with primary osteoporosis. Patients were divided into a denosumab monotherapy group (22 cases or a denosumab plus vitamin D and calcium supplementation group (combination group, 21 cases. We measured serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP-5b, urinary N-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTX, and BMD of the lumbar 1–4 vertebrae (L-BMD and bilateral hips (H-BMD at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months of treatment. There were no significant differences in patient background. Serum BAP, TRACP-5b, and urinary NTX were significantly and comparably inhibited in both groups from 12 to 48 months versus baseline values. L-BMD was significantly increased at every time point in both groups, while H-BMD was significantly increased at every time point in the combination group only. There were significant differences between the groups for L-BMD at 24, 36, and 48 months (P < 0.05 and for H-BMD at 12 months (P < 0.05. Compared with denosumab monotherapy, combination therapy of denosumab plus vitamin D and calcium significantly increased H-BMD at 12 months and L-BMD from 24 to 48 months. These findings indicate that continuous vitamin D and calcium supplementation is important, especially for 12 months to improve H-BMD and from 24 to 48 months to improve L-BMD.

  2. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  3. Integrated approaches to improve birth outcomes: perinatal periods of risk, infant mortality review, and the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shin Margaret; Donatoni, Giannina; Bemis, Cathleen; Donovan, Kevin; Harding, Cynthia; Davenport, Deborah; Gilbert, Carol; Kasehagen, Laurin; Peck, Magda G

    2010-11-01

    This article provides an example of how Perinatal Periods of Risk (PPOR) can provide a framework and offer analytic methods that move communities to productive action to address infant mortality. Between 1999 and 2002, the infant mortality rate in the Antelope Valley region of Los Angeles County increased from 5.0 to 10.6 per 1,000 live births. Of particular concern, infant mortality among African Americans in the Antelope Valley rose from 11.0 per 1,000 live births (7 cases) in 1999 to 32.7 per 1,000 live births (27 cases) in 2002. In response, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Maternal, Child, and Adolescent Health Programs partnered with a community task force to develop an action plan to address the issue. Three stages of the PPOR approach were used: (1) Assuring Readiness; (2) Data and Assessment, which included: (a) Using 2002 vital records to identify areas with the highest excess rates of feto-infant mortality (Phase 1 PPOR), and (b) Implementing Infant Mortality Review (IMR) and the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Project, a population-based study to identify potential factors associated with adverse birth outcomes. (Phase 2 PPOR); and (3) Strategy and Planning, to develop strategic actions for targeted prevention. A description of stakeholders' commitments to improve birth outcomes and monitor infant mortality is also given. The Antelope Valley community was engaged and ready to investigate the local rise in infant mortality. Phase 1 PPOR analysis identified Maternal Health/Prematurity and Infant Health as the most important periods of risk for further investigation and potential intervention. During the Phase 2 PPOR analyses, IMR found a significant proportion of mothers with previous fetal loss (45%) or low birth weight/preterm (LBW/PT) birth, late prenatal care (39%), maternal infections (47%), and infant safety issues (21%). After adjusting for potential confounders (maternal age, race, education level, and marital status), the

  4. Suckling in litters with different sizes, and early and late swimming exercise differentially modulates anxiety-like behavior, memory and electrocorticogram potentiation after spreading depression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Silva-Gondim, Mariana Barros; de Souza, Thays Kallyne Marinho; Rodrigues, Marcelo Cairrão Araújo; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2017-11-28

    Analyze the hypothesis that swimming exercise, in rats suckled under distinct litter sizes, alters behavioral parameters suggestive of anxiety and recognition memory, and the electrocorticogram potentiation that occurs after the excitability-related phenomenon that is known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). Male Wistar rats were suckled in litters with six or 12 pups (L 6 and L 12 groups). Animals swam at postnatal days (P) 8-23, or P60-P75 (early-exercised or late-exercised groups, respectively), or remained no-exercised. Behavioral tests (open field - OF and object recognition - OR) were conducted between P77 and P80. Between P90 and P120, ECoG was recorded for 2 hours. After this 'baseline' recording, CSD was elicited every 30 minutes over the course of 2 hours. Early swimming enhanced the number of entries and the percentage of time in the OF-center (P < 0.05). In animals that swam later, this effect occurred in the L6 group only. Compared to the corresponding sedentary groups, OR-test showed a better memory in the L6 early exercised rats, and a worse memory in all other groups (P < 0.05). In comparison to baseline values, ECoG amplitudes after CSD increased 14-43% for all groups (P < 0.05). In the L 6 condition, early swimming and late swimming, respectively, reduced and enhanced the magnitude of the post-CSD ECoG potentiation in comparison with the corresponding L 6 no-exercised groups (P < 0.05). Our data suggest a differential effect of early- and late-exercise on the behavioral and electrophysiological parameters, suggesting an interaction between the age of exercise and the nutritional status during lactation.

  5. Oral administration of an HSP90 inhibitor, 17-DMAG, intervenes tumor-cell infiltration into multiple organs and improves survival period for ATL model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikebe, E; Kawaguchi, A; Tezuka, K; Taguchi, S; Hirose, S; Matsumoto, T; Mitsui, T; Senba, K; Nishizono, A; Hori, M; Hasegawa, H; Yamada, Y; Ueno, T; Tanaka, Y; Sawa, H; Hall, W; Minami, Y; Jeang, K T; Ogata, M; Morishita, K; Hasegawa, H; Fujisawa, J; Iha, H

    2013-01-01

    In the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from the carriers of the human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) or the patients with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB)-mediated antiapoptotic signals are constitutively activated primarily by the HTLV-1-encoded oncoprotein Tax. Tax interacts with the I κB kinase regulatory subunit NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) to activate NF-κB, and this interaction is maintained in part by a molecular chaperone, heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), and its co-chaperone cell division cycle 37 (CDC37). The antibiotic geldanamycin (GA) inhibits HSP90's ATP binding for its proper interaction with client proteins. Administration of a novel water-soluble and less toxic GA derivative, 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin hydrochloride (17-DMAG), to Tax-expressing ATL-transformed cell lines, C8166 and MT4, induced significant degradation of Tax. 17-DMAG also facilitated growth arrest and cellular apoptosis to C8166 and MT4 and other ATL cell lines, although this treatment has no apparent effects on normal PBLs. 17-DMAG also downregulated Tax-mediated intracellular signals including the activation of NF-κB, activator protein 1 or HTLV-1 long terminal repeat in Tax-transfected HEK293 cells. Oral administration of 17-DMAG to ATL model mice xenografted with lymphomatous transgenic Lck-Tax (Lck proximal promoter-driven Tax transgene) cells or HTLV-1-producing tumor cells dramatically attenuated aggressive infiltration into multiple organs, inhibited de novo viral production and improved survival period. These observations identified 17-DMAG as a promising candidate for the prevention of ATL progression

  6. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....

  7. Improved Spectral Resolution of Long-Period Fiber Grating Sensors for Ultra-High Temperature Environments Using Narrow Interferences between Regenerated Gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Russell, J; Gao, Shaorui

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of D-shape fiber in combination with an optical analog of Ramsey fringes using LPGs are presented. The mode-profiles of the sensor were characterized experimentally to provide deeper knowledge about improved functionality.......The advantages of D-shape fiber in combination with an optical analog of Ramsey fringes using LPGs are presented. The mode-profiles of the sensor were characterized experimentally to provide deeper knowledge about improved functionality....

  8. Improvement of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Mulyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of the methodology of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle. Material & Methods: in the study participated 18 qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding, included in the Kharkov region team of bodybuilding. Results: comparative characteristic of the most frequently used methodology of the training process in bodybuilding are shows. An optimal methodology for qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding has been developed and justified, depending on the initial form of the athlete at the beginning of the general preparatory stage of the training. The dependence of the change in the body weight of female athletes from the training process is shows. Conclusion: on the basis of the study, the author suggests an optimal training methodology depending on the mesocycle of training in the preparatory period in the general preparatory stage.

  9. Nitrogen Nutrition Improves the Potential of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Alleviate the Effects of Drought Stress during Vegetative Growth Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Muhammad; Tian, Zhongwei; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Cui, Yakun; Liu, Yang; Zahoor, Rizwan; Jiang, Dong; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Efficient nitrogen (N) nutrition has the potential to alleviate drought stress in crops by maintaining metabolic activities even at low tissue water potential. This study was aimed to understand the potential of N to minimize the effects of drought stress applied/occur during tillering (Feekes stage 2) and jointing (Feekes stage 6) growth stages of wheat by observing the regulations and limitations of physiological activities, crop growth rate during drought periods as well as final grain yields at maturity. In present study, pot cultured plants of a wheat cultivar Yangmai-16 were exposed to three water levels [severe stress at 35-40% field capacity (FC), moderate stress at 55-60% FC and well-watered at 75-80% FC] under two N rates (0.24 g and 0.16 g/kg soil). The results showed that the plants under severe drought stress accompanied by low N exhibited highly downregulated photosynthesis, and chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence during the drought stress periods, and showed an accelerated grain filling rate with shortened grain filling duration (GFD) at post-anthesis, and reduced grain yields. Severe drought-stressed plants especially at jointing, exhibited lower Chl and Rubisco contents, lower efficiency of photosystem II and greater grain yield reductions. In contrast, drought-stressed plants under higher N showed tolerance to drought stress by maintaining higher leaf water potential, Chl and Rubisco content; lower lipid peroxidation associated with higher superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities during drought periods. The plants under higher N showed delayed senescence, increased GFD and lower grain yield reductions. The results of the study suggested that higher N nutrition contributed to drought tolerance in wheat by maintaining higher photosynthetic activities and antioxidative defense system during vegetative growth periods.

  10. Pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli have improved feed efficiency and indicators of inflammation with dietary supplementation of tryptophan and methionine in the immediate post-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capozzalo, Meeka M; Kim, Jae Cheol; Htoo, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that pigs challenged with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli (ETEC) will improve performance by dietary supplementation of sulfur amino acids (SAA) and tryptophan (Trp) above the current recommended levels in the immediate post-weaning period. Male pigs (n ...... of inflammation and SAA supplementation decreased the pro-inflammatory interferon-gamma response and improved protein utilisation, as measured by PU, whereas supplementation with both Trp and SAA improved feed conversion ratio....... interferon-gamma regardless of dietary Trp or day of sampling (P = 0.043). Increasing dietary SAA decreased plasma urea (PU) levels on Days 5, 8 and 14 (P

  11. Neonatal taurine and alanine modulate anxiety-like behavior and decelerate cortical spreading depression in rats previously suckled under different litter sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Elian da Silva; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2015-11-01

    The amino acids taurine and alanine play a role in several physiological processes, including behavior and the electrical activity of the brain. In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment with taurine or alanine on anxiety-like behavior and the excitability-dependent phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD), using rats suckled in litters with 9 and 15 pups (groups L9 and L15). From postnatal days 7 to 27, the animals received per gavage 300 mg/kg/day of taurine or alanine or both. At 28 days, we tested the animals in the elevated plus maze, and at 33-35 days, we recorded CSD and analyzed its velocity of propagation, amplitude, and duration. Compared with water-treated controls, the L9 groups treated with taurine or alanine displayed anxiolytic behavior (higher number of entries in the open arms; p taurine, alanine, or both) treated at adulthood (90-110 days). The L15 condition resulted in smaller durations and higher CSD velocities compared with the L9 condition. Besides reinforcing previous evidence of behavioral modulation by taurine and alanine, our data are the first confirmation that treatment with these amino acids decelerates CSD regardless of lactation conditions (normal versus unfavorable lactation) or age at amino acid administration (young versus adult). The results suggest a modulating role for both amino acids on anxiety behavior and neuronal electrical activity.

  12. Failure to demonstrate morphologically the presence of colostral or milk cells in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract of the suckling neonatal mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility that intact cells may migrate from ingested colostrum and milk into the gut wall of the nursing neonate has been tested directly by means of radioautographic techniques. [ 3 H]Thymidine was continuously infused into female mice throughtout the last 6 days of their pregnancy. Upon delivery, their fully [ 3 H]thymidine-labelled litters were removed and given to nurse from unlabelled surrogate mothers whose own litters were borne simultaneously. These unlabelled litters were similarly removed immediately upon birth and given to the [ 3 H]thymidine-infused mothers to nurse. Infants labelled during gestation and mothers labelled during pregnancy continued to receive thrice-daily injections of isotope for 1-14 days and 1-18 h, respectively, after delivery. The stomach and adjacent portion of small intestine were removed from unlabelled infants nursing from labelled surrogate mothers at intervals of 1-18 h after beginning to suckle, the same tissues were removed from labelled infants nursing from unlabelled surrogate mothers and similarly prepared for radioautography. The results indicate that transepithelial migration of intact cells of the colostrum and milk does not appear to be the method by which immunological functions are adoptively transferred to the nursing neonatal mouse. (Auth.)

  13. Recovery of infectious type Asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus from suckling mice directly inoculated with an RNA polymerase I/II-driven unidirectional transcription plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Kaiqi; Yang, Fan; Zhu, Zixiang; Cao, Weijun; Jin, Ye; Li, Dan; Zhang, Keshan; Guo, Jianhong; Zheng, Haixue; Liu, Xiangtao

    2015-10-02

    We developed an RNA polymerase (pol) I- and II-driven plasmid-based reverse genetics system to rescue infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from cloned cDNA. In this plasmid-based transfection, the full-length viral cDNA was flanked by hammerhead ribozyme (HamRz) and hepatitis delta ribozyme (HdvRz) sequences, which were arranged downstream of the two promoters (cytomegalovirus (CMV) and pol I promoter) and upstream of the terminators and polyadenylation signal, respectively. The utility of this method was demonstrated by the recovery of FMDV Asia1 HN/CHA/06 in BHK-21 cells transfected with cDNA plasmids. Furthermore, infectious FMDV Asia1 HN/CHA/06 could be rescued from suckling mice directly inoculated with cDNA plasmids. Thus, this reverse genetics system can be applied to fundamental research and vaccine studies, most notably to rescue those viruses for which there is currently an absence of a suitable cell culture system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neonatal L-glutamine modulates anxiety-like behavior, cortical spreading depression, and microglial immunoreactivity: analysis in developing rats suckled on normal size- and large size litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Denise Sandrelly Cavalcanti; Francisco, Elian da Silva; Lima, Cássia Borges; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2017-02-01

    In mammals, L-glutamine (Gln) can alter the glutamate-Gln cycle and consequently brain excitability. Here, we investigated in developing rats the effect of treatment with different doses of Gln on anxiety-like behavior, cortical spreading depression (CSD), and microglial activation expressed as Iba1-immunoreactivity. Wistar rats were suckled in litters with 9 and 15 pups (groups L 9 and L 15 ; respectively, normal size- and large size litters). From postnatal days (P) 7-27, the animals received Gln per gavage (250, 500 or 750 mg/kg/day), or vehicle (water), or no treatment (naive). At P28 and P30, we tested the animals, respectively, in the elevated plus maze and open field. At P30-35, we measured CSD parameters (velocity of propagation, amplitude, and duration). Fixative-perfused brains were processed for microglial immunolabeling with anti-IBA-1 antibodies to analyze cortical microglia. Rats treated with Gln presented an anxiolytic behavior and accelerated CSD propagation when compared to the water- and naive control groups. Furthermore, CSD velocity was higher (p litter sizes, and for microglial activation in the L 15 groups. Besides confirming previous electrophysiological findings (CSD acceleration after Gln), our data demonstrate for the first time a behavioral and microglial activation that is associated with early Gln treatment in developing animals, and that is possibly operated via changes in brain excitability.

  15. Effective Suckling C57BL/6, Kunming, and BALB/c Mouse Models with Remarkable Neurological Manifestation for Zika Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuling; Ke, Changwen; Wu, Qinghua; Lu, Weizhi; Qin, Zhiran; He, Xiaoen; Liu, Yujing; Deng, Jieli; Xu, Suiqi; Li, Ying; Zhu, Li; Wan, Chengsong; Xiao, Weiwei; Xie, Qian; Zhang, Bao; Zhao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Since 2015, 84 countries and territories reported evidence of vector-borne Zika Virus (ZIKV) transmission. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared that ZIKV and associated consequences especially the neurological autoimmune disorder Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly will remain a significant enduring public health challenge requiring intense action. We apply a standardization of the multi-subcutaneous dorsal inoculation method to systematically summarize clinical neurological manifestation, viral distribution, and tissue damage during the progress of viremia and systemic spread in suckling mouse models. We found that C57BL/6 and Kunming mice (KM) both showed remarkable and uniform neurologic manifestations. C57BL/6 owned the highest susceptibility and pathogenicity to the nervous system, referred to as movement disorders, with 100% incidence, while KM was an economic model for a Chinese study characterized by lower limb weakness with 62% morbidity. Slight yellow extraocular exudates were observed in BALB/c, suggesting the association with similar ocular findings to those of clinical cases. The virus distribution and pathological changes in the sera, brains, livers, kidneys, spleens, and testes during disease progression had strong regularity and uniformity, demonstrating the effectiveness and plasticity of the animal models. The successful establishment of these animal models will be conducive to expound the pathogenic mechanism of GBS. PMID:28661429

  16. Improvement of quality service in Uruguay - plans developed and its results in the period 93-95. Fault statistic as a parameter of measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Rondoni, A.; Pardo, A. [U.T.E. (Uruguay)

    1997-12-31

    The present paper aims to describe the improvement process of the quality of the product and the technical service that has been undertaken in UTE since 1990 and to show the results obtained so far as well as the actions foreseen in the future. In addition the system for the quality control is developed. It is structured based on global and individual indexes supported by the corporate centralised and distributed informatic tools that the company possess. This control system has allowed us to carry out a pursuit of the relative evolution of the quality year to year and to establish absolute comparisons with companies from the region and from Europe. The current situation and the improvements for Montevideo, are described. (author)

  17. Revision of failed hip resurfacing to total hip arthroplasty rapidly relieves pain and improves function in the early post operative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muirhead-Allwood Sarah K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reviewed the results of 25 consecutive patients who underwent revision of a hip resurfacing prosthesis to a total hip replacement. Revisions were performed for recurrent pain and effusion, infection and proximal femoral fractures. Both components were revised in 20 cases. There were 12 male and 13 female patients with average time to revision of 34.4 and 26.4 months respectively. The mean follow up period was 12.7 months (3 to 31. All patients reported relief of pain and excellent satisfaction scores. Two patients experienced stiffness up to three months post operatively. Pre operative Oxford, Harris and WOMAC hip scores were 39.1, 36.4 and 52.2 respectively. Mean post operative scores at last follow up were 17.4, 89.8 and 6.1 respectively (p

  18. The use of hormonal treatments to improve reproductive performance of anestrous beef cattle in tropical climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruselli, P S; Reis, E L; Marques, M O; Nasser, L F; Bó, G A

    2004-07-01

    Most of the world's bovine herd is found in tropical regions. Bos indicus predominates, due to their adaptation to the climate and management conditions. Anestrous is the main factor that negatively affects reproductive performance of animals bred in these regions of the globe. Several factors affect postpartum anestrous, including suckling and maternal-offspring bond, and pre- and postpartum nutritional status. The short duration of estrus and the tendency to show estrus during the night, greatly affect the efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) programs in B. indicus cattle managed in tropical areas. Several restricted suckling or weaning procedures (temporary or permanent), and hormonal treatments have been used to induce ovulation and cyclicity in postpartum cows. Most hormonal treatments are based on progesterone/progestogen (P4) releasing devices associated with estradiol benzoate (EB), or a combination of GnRH/PGF(2alpha)/GnRH (Ovsynch). Treatments with GnRH/PGF(2alpha)/GnRH has presented inconsistent results, probably due to the variable number of cows in anestrous. Treatments using P4 devices and EB have resulted in apparently more consistent results than Ovsynch programs in B. indicus cattle; however, pregnancy rates are low in herds presenting high anestrous rates and moderate to low body condition. The addition of an eCG treatment at the time of device removal, which increased plasma progesterone concentrations and pregnancy rates in anestrous postpartum suckled B. indicus cows, may be useful to improve reproductive performance of beef cattle in tropical climates.

  19. Dietary tea polyphenol supplementation improved egg production performance, albumen quality, and magnum morphology of Hy-Line Brown hens during the late laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Cui; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Wu, Shu-Geng; Qi, Guang-Hai

    2018-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary supplementation of tea polyphenols (TP) and tea catechins (TC) affect laying performance, albumen quality, ovomucin composition, and magnum morphology of laying hens in the late phase of production. Two hundred seventy Hy-Line Brown laying hens (64 wk old) were assigned to a basal diet (the control), the basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg tea polyphenols (TP200) or 200 mg/kg tea catechins (TC200). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 15 hens each. The feeding trial lasted 10 wks. Over the course of the trial, dietary supplementation with TP200 significantly increased the egg production (EP) and improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) in wk 6 to 10 and wk 1 to 10 (P hens fed TP200 were higher than those of hens fed the control diet at wks 8 and 10 (P 0.05). The SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that bands of the ovomucin fractions in the TP200 group had the highest intensity compared with those of the control and TC200 groups. Compared with the control, there was a significant increase in protein sulfhydryl (SH) content of the albumen in the TP200 group at the end of experiment, while a significant decrease in protein carbonyl content and protein surface hydrophobicity (P hens. In addition, TP rather than TC could improve the health status of the magnum for aged layers.

  20. A new anti-microbial combination prolongs the latency period, reduces acute histologic chorioamnionitis as well as funisitis, and improves neonatal outcomes in preterm PROM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JoonHo; Romero, Roberto; Kim, Sun Min; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Park, Chan-Wook; Park, Joong Shin; Jun, Jong Kwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Antibiotic administration is a standard practice in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Specific anti-microbial agents often include ampicillin and/or erythromycin. Anaerobes and genital mycoplasmas are frequently involved in preterm PROM, but are not adequately covered by antibiotics routinely used in clinical practice. Our objective was to compare outcomes of PROM treated with standard antibiotic administration versus a new combination more effective against these bacteria. A retrospective study compared perinatal outcomes in 314 patients with PROM 23 ng/mL). (1) Patients treated with regimen 2 had a longer median antibiotic-to-delivery interval than those with regimen 1 [median (interquartile range) 23 d (10-51 d) versus 12 d (5-52 d), p acute histologic chorioamnionitis (50.5% versus 66.7%, p hemorrhage (IVH) and cerebral palsy (CP) were significantly lower in patients allocated to regimen 2 than regimen 1 (IVH: 2.1% versus 19.0%, p acute histologic chorioamnionitis/funisitis, and improved neonatal outcomes in patients with preterm PROM. These findings suggest that the combination of anti-microbial agents (ceftriaxone, clarithromycin, and metronidazole) may improve perinatal outcome in preterm PROM.

  1. Effect of Harvest Period on the Proximate Composition and Functional and Sensory Properties of Gari Produced from Local and Improved Cassava (Manihot esculenta Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Laya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at evaluating the proximate composition and functional and sensory characteristics of gari obtained from five cassava varieties (EN, AD, TMS92/0326, TMS96/1414, and IRAD4115. These cassavas were harvested during the dry season 12 months after planting (12MAP and in the rainy season (15MAP. Results showed that the characteristics of gari varied significantly (p<0.05 with the variety and the harvest period. Gari from EN cassava harvested at 12MAP had the highest total carbohydrates (78.07% dry weight, starch (61%, and proteins content, while gari from TMS 96/1414 variety (12MAP had high amino acids (10.25 mg/g and phenolic compounds (9.31 mg/g content. The gari from IRAD4115 had the highest value of ash content (20.62 mg/g at 12MAP. The soluble sugar content was high in the gari from cassava harvested at 12MAP while free cyanide reduced significantly in gari from cassava harvested at 12MAP. The water absorption capacity, swelling power, and bulk density were significantly (p<0.05 high in the gari from EN cassava variety at 12MAP. Compared to commercial gari (3.30, gari from EN local cassava had the best overall acceptability (4.35 followed by those obtained from TMS92/0326 and TMS92/1414 varieties, respectively.

  2. Long-term mortality benefits of air quality improvement during the twelfth five-year-plan period in 31 provincial capital cities of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Cai, Yuanyuan; Feng, Baixiang; Cao, Ganxiang; Lin, Hualiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Liu, Sha; Pei, Lei; Fu, Li; Yang, Xinyi; Zhang, Bo; Ma, Wenjun

    2018-01-01

    The severe air pollution across China in the past several years has made the Chinese government recognize its significant impacts on public health and society, and take enormous efforts to improve the air quality all over the country, especially during the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (12th FYP). However, the overall effectiveness of these air pollution control policies remains unclear. In this study, we selected the 31 municipalities and provincial capital cities in mainland China as study settings. We collected the annual average population size, mortality rates (total mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, total cancer, lung cancer and breast cancer) and concentrations of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NO2) in each capital city from 2010 to 2015 from national or local Statistical Yearbooks. The effect sizes of air pollutants on mortality were obtained from previously published meta analyses or cohort studies. We first estimated the annual mortality rates attributed to the changes in air pollutant concentrations for every city in each year. Then, we further estimated the mortality benefits in the scenarios where the air quality had reached the grade II levels of Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. In most capital cities, we observed dominant decreases in air pollutant concentrations during the 12th FYP, particularly from 2013 to 2015, which has led to significant mortality benefits for the public. A total of 121,658 deaths (0.441‰) have been prevented due to the decrease of PM2.5concentrations from 2013 to 2015 in all included cities. The morality benefits were larger in capital cities located in the key regions (the three main regions and ten city groups) than the other cities. In addition, more mortality benefits could be obtained in the future if the air quality reaches the grade II levels of Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) or WHO guidelines. We

  3. Can a brief period of double J stenting improve the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi sized 1 to 2 cm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Das, Ranjit Kumar; Basu, Supriya; Dey, Ranjan Kumar; Gupta, Rupesh; Deb, Partha Pratim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is an established modality for renal calculi. Its role for large stones is being questioned. A novel model of temporary double J (DJ) stenting followed by ESWL was devised and outcomes were assessed. Materials and Methods The study included 95 patients with renal calculi sized 1 to 2 cm. Patients were randomized into 3 groups. Group 1 received ESWL only, whereas group 2 underwent stenting followed by ESWL. In group 3, a distinct model was applied in which the stent was kept for 1 week and then removed, followed by ESWL. Procedural details, analgesic requirements, and outcome were analyzed. Results Eighty-eight patients (male, 47; female, 41) were available for analysis. The patients' mean age was 37.9±10.9 years. Stone profile was similar among groups. Group 3 received fewer shocks (mean, 3,155) than did group 1 (mean, 3,859; p=0.05) or group 2 (mean, 3,872; p=0.04). The fragmentation rate was similar in group 3 (96.7%) and groups 1 (81.5%, p=0.12) and 2 (87.1%, p=0.16). Overall clearance in group 3 was significantly improved (83.3%) compared with that in groups 1 (63.0%, p=0.02) and 2 (64.5%, p=0.02) and was maintained even in lower pole stones. The percentage successful outcome in groups 1, 2, and 3 was 66.7%, 64.5%, and 83.3%, respectively (p=0.21). The analgesic requirement in group 2 was higher than in the other groups (p=0.00). Group 2 patients also had more grade IIIa (2/3) and IIIB (1/2) complications. Conclusions Stenting adversely affects stone clearance and also makes the later course uncomfortable. Our model of brief stenting followed by ESWL provided better clearance, comfort, and a modest improvement in outcome with fewer sittings and steinstrasse in selected patients with large renal calculi. PMID:28261679

  4. Can a brief period of double J stenting improve the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi sized 1 to 2 cm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sharma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is an established modality for renal calculi. Its role for large stones is being questioned. A novel model of temporary double J (DJ stenting followed by ESWL was devised and outcomes were assessed. Materials and Methods: The study included 95 patients with renal calculi sized 1 to 2 cm. Patients were randomized into 3 groups. Group 1 received ESWL only, whereas group 2 underwent stenting followed by ESWL. In group 3, a distinct model was applied in which the stent was kept for 1 week and then removed, followed by ESWL. Procedural details, analgesic requirements, and outcome were analyzed. Results: Eighty-eight patients (male, 47; female, 41 were available for analysis. The patients’ mean age was 37.9±10.9 years. Stone profile was similar among groups. Group 3 received fewer shocks (mean, 3,155 than did group 1 (mean, 3,859; p=0.05 or group 2 (mean, 3,872; p=0.04. The fragmentation rate was similar in group 3 (96.7% and groups 1 (81.5%, p=0.12 and 2 (87.1%, p=0.16. Overall clearance in group 3 was significantly improved (83.3% compared with that in groups 1 (63.0%, p=0.02 and 2 (64.5%, p=0.02 and was maintained even in lower pole stones. The percentage successful outcome in groups 1, 2, and 3 was 66.7%, 64.5%, and 83.3%, respectively (p=0.21. The analgesic requirement in group 2 was higher than in the other groups (p=0.00. Group 2 patients also had more grade IIIa (2/3 and IIIB (1/2 complications. Conclusions: Stenting adversely affects stone clearance and also makes the later course uncomfortable. Our model of brief stenting followed by ESWL provided better clearance, comfort, and a modest improvement in outcome with fewer sittings and steinstrasse in selected patients with large renal calculi.

  5. Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

  6. Long-term effect of altered nutrition induced by litter size manipulation and cross-fostering in suckling male rats on development of obesity risk and health complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozeš, Stefan; Sefčíková, Zuzana; Raček, L'ubomír

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the long-term effect of pre-weaning nutrition on positive and/or adverse regulation of obesity risk and health complications in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two experimental models were used in the present work: (1) To induce postnatal over- or normal nutrition, the litter size was adjusted to 4 (small litters-SL) and to 10 pups (normal litters-NL) in the nest, (2) in suckling pups at day 10, we used cross-fostering to identify the effect of altered dietary environment on their future body fat regulation, food intake, blood pressure, and the duodenal and jejunal alkaline phosphatase activity. After weaning, these control (NL, SL) and cross-fostered (NL-SL, SL-NL) groups were exposed to standard laboratory diet. On day 50, the SL in comparison with NL rats became heavier and displayed enhanced adiposity accompanied by significantly increased systolic blood pressure (19%) and duodenal (16%) and jejunal (21%) alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. The impact of pre-weaning over-nutrition of NL-SL pups was associated with long-lasting positive effect on obesity. In contrast, SL-NL rats submitted until weaning to the opposite normalized feeding condition on day 50 showed significantly decreased fat deposition (21%), systolic blood pressure (20%), and AP activity in duodenum and jejunum (14%). These results contribute to a better understanding of how early-acquired dietary habits determine the attenuation or prevention of obesity development in later life and can provide some benefit for optimizing the future dietary strategies in young and adult obese individuals.

  7. Effect of sequence of insemination after simultaneous thawing of multiple semen straws on conception rate to timed AI in suckled multiparous Nelore cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L Z; Arruda, R P; de Andrade, A F C; Santos, R M; Beletti, M E; Peres, R F G; Martins, J P N; de Lima, V F M Hossepian

    2012-11-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of sequence of insemination after simultaneous thawing of multiple 0.5 mL semen straws on conception rate in suckled multiparous Nelore cows. The effect of this thawing procedure on in vitro sperm characteristics was also evaluated. All cows (N = 944) received the same timed AI protocol. Ten straws (0.5 mL) of frozen semen from the same batch were simultaneously thawed at 36 °C, for a minimum of 30 sec. One straw per cow was used for timed AI. Frozen semen from three Angus bulls was used. Timed AI records included sequence of insemination (first to tenth) and time of semen removal from thawing bath. For laboratory analyses, the same semen batches used in the field experiment were evaluated. Ten frozen straws from the same batch were thawed simultaneously in a thawing unit identical to that used in the field experiment. The following sperm characteristics were analyzed: sperm motility parameters, sperm thermal resistance, plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation, chromatin structure, and sperm morphometry. Based on logistic regression, there were no significant effects of breeding group, body condition score, AI technician, and sire on conception rate, but there was an interaction between sire and straw group (P = 0.002). Semen from only one bull had decreased (P conception rates at timed AI, depending on the sire used. Nevertheless, the effects of this thawing environment on in vitro sperm characteristics, remain to be further investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid acquisition of operant conditioning in 5-day-old rat pups: a new technique articulating suckling-related motor activity and milk reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos; Molina, Agustin; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2007-09-01

    Newborn rats are capable of obtaining milk by attaching to a surrogate nipple. During this procedure pups show a gradual increase in head and forelimb movements oriented towards the artificial device that are similar to those observed during nipple attachment. In the present study the probability of execution of these behaviors was analyzed as a function of their contingency with intraoral milk infusion using brief training procedures (15 min). Five-day-old pups were positioned in a smooth surface having access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Physical contact with the sensor activated an infusion pump which served to deliver intraoral milk reinforcement (Paired group). Yoked controls received the reinforcer when Paired neonates touched the sensor. Paired pups trained under a continuous reinforcement schedule emitted significantly more responses than Yoked controls following two (Experiment 1) or one training session (Experiment 2). These differences were also observed during an extinction session conducted immediately after training. The level of maternal deprivation before training (3 or 6 hr) or the volume of milk delivered (1.0 or 1.5 microl per pulse) did not affect acquisition or extinction performances. In addition, it was observed that the rate of responding of Paired pups during the early phase of the extinction session significantly predicted subsequent levels of acceptance of the reinforcer. These results indicate that the frequency of suckling-related behaviors can be rapidly modified by means of associative operant processes. The operant procedure here described represents an alternative tool for the ontogenetic analysis of self-administration or behavior processes of seeking. .

  9. Immune activation in lactating dams alters sucklings' brain cytokines and produces non-overlapping behavioral deficits in adult female and male offspring: A novel neurodevelopmental model of sex-specific psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arad, Michal; Piontkewitz, Yael; Albelda, Noa; Shaashua, Lee; Weiner, Ina

    2017-07-01

    Early immune activation (IA) in rodents, prenatal through the mother or early postnatal directly to the neonate, is widely used to produce behavioral endophenotypes relevant to schizophrenia and depression. Given that maternal immune response plays a crucial role in the deleterious effects of prenatal IA, and lactation is a critical vehicle of immunological support to the neonate, we predicted that immune activation of the lactating dam will produce long-term abnormalities in the sucklings. Nursing dams were injected on postnatal day 4 with the viral mimic poly-I:C (4mg/kg) or saline. Cytokine assessment was performed in dams' plasma and milk 2h, and in the sucklings' hippocampus, 6h and 24h following poly-I:C injection. Male and female sucklings were assessed in adulthood for: a) performance on behavioral tasks measuring constructs considered relevant to schizophrenia (selective attention and executive control) and depression (despair and anhedonia); b) response to relevant pharmacological treatments; c) brain structural changes. Maternal poly-I:C injection caused cytokine alterations in the dams' plasma and milk, as well as in the sucklings' hippocampus. Lactational poly-I:C exposure led to sex-dimorphic (non-overlapping) behavioral abnormalities in the adult offspring, with male but not female offspring exhibiting attentional and executive function abnormalities (manifested in persistent latent inhibition and slow reversal) and hypodopaminergia, and female but not male offspring exhibiting despair and anhedonia (manifested in increased immobility in the forced swim test and reduced saccharine preference) and hyperdopaminergia, mimicking the known sex-bias in schizophrenia and depression. The behavioral double-dissociation predicted distinct pharmacological profiles, recapitulating the pharmacology of negative/cognitive symptoms and depression. In-vivo imaging revealed hippocampal and striatal volume reductions in both sexes, as found in both disorders. This is

  10. Improved survival for women with stage I breast cancer in south-east Sweden: A comparison between two time periods before and after increased use of adjuvant systemic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Patrik; Fohlin, Helena; Arnesson, Lars-Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. Continuous minor steps of improvement in the management of breast cancer have resulted in decreased mortality rates during the last decades. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of patients with stage I breast cancer diagnosed during two time periods that differed with respect to adjuvant systemic therapy. Material and methods. The studied population consisted of all women < 60 years of age, who were diagnosed breast cancer stage I between 1986 and 1999 in south-east Sweden, a total of 1 407 cases. The cohort was divided into two groups based on the management programmes of 1986 and 1992, hereafter referred to as Period 1 and Period 2. Before 1992 the only adjuvant systemic therapy recommended was tamoxifen for hormone receptor positive patients aged 50 years or older. During Period 2 the use of adjuvant treatment was extended to younger patients at high risk, identified by a high tumour S-phase fraction, with either hormonal or cytotoxic treatment. Results. The estimated distant recurrence-free survival rate was significantly higher during Period 2 than during Period 1 (p = 0.008). Subgroup analysis showed that the most evident reduction of distant recurrence risk was among hormone receptor-negative patients (HR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-1.09, p = 0.09) and among patients with a high tumour S-phase fraction (HR = 0.53, 0.30-0.93, p = 0.028). The risk reduction between the periods was still statistically significant in multivariate analysis when adjusting for different tumour characteristics and treatment modalities, indicating an influence of other factors not controlled for. One such factor may be the duration of tamoxifen treatment, which likely was more frequently five years during Period 2 than during Period 1. Conclusions. We conclude that the causes of the increase in distant recurrence free survival for women with breast cancer stage I are complex. The results support though that high-risk subgroups of stage I breast cancer patients

  11. Milk yield and composition of crossbred Sahelian × Anglo-Nubian goats in the semi-intensive system in Mali during the preweaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanogo, Souleymane; Shaker, Mohamed Momani; Nantoumé, Hamidou; Salem, Abdel-Fattah Z M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate milk yield and its composition during the preweaning period for Sahelian goats (SG) and Anglo-Nubian (AN) crossbred depending on some factors. The experiments were conducted from January to December 2008 for 44 suckled and hand-milked does, randomized, and divided into two equal groups: SG (n = 22) and F(1) Anglo-Nubian × Sahelian goats (1/2AN; n = 22). The does and their offsprings were kept in a pen where they stayed indoors for 45 days before they were allowed outdoors when the weather was suitable. Each category received supplemental feeds depending on the season (rainy season, dry cold season, and dry hot season). The average daily milk yield was recorded weekly from parturition to 100 days of age. Individual milk samples were taken for chemical analysis in connection with the yield measurements twice per month from the fourth week of lactation throughout the different seasons (rainy, cold dry, and hot dry). The daily milk yield differed between breed types (P = 0.001) during the preweaning, while the effect of kids' sex on daily milk production was not significant. Litter size affected milk yield up to day 60 (P = 0.032) where does with twins producing more milk than those with single kid. However, at day 100, both groups had similar (P = 0.001) milk production. Total milk yield at weaning increased by 103 % in 1/2AN over SG. The highest concentration of total solids of milk was (12.76 %) recorded in the hot dry season. The results of this study indicate that crossbreeding native Sahelian goats with high potential Anglo-Nubian buck improved milk production and its composition.

  12. Illthrift in Suckling Lambs Secondary to Umbilical Infections and Possible Implication of Cryptosporidiosis as a Risk Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektarios D. Giadinis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Illthrift was observed in 20/60 lambs aged 40–45 days in a dairy sheep flock in Greece. Cryptosporidiosis had been diagnosed and successfully treated with halofuginone lactate a month earlier. Parasitological examinations were negative for endoparasites while hematology and biochemistry were unremarkable. Necropsy of 5 lambs revealed lung and liver abscessation, presumably secondary to umbilical infections due to poor farm hygiene, though umbilical lesions were not observed. No new cases were observed following treatment of the umbilicus of newborn lambs with chlorexidine. Although umbilical infections are common, this is the first reported case of illthrift in lambs attributed to umbilical infection; illthrift may be the only clinical manifestation of such infections. The prior presence of cryptosporidiosis may have contributed to the severity of the infection through the reduction of local immunity. Recognition of this possibly underdiagnosed or underappreciated condition may improve medical, production, and welfare standards in the sheep industry.

  13. Effect of Maternal Administration of Edible Bird’s Nest on the Learning and Memory Abilities of Suckling Offspring in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although human brains continue developing throughout the underage developmental stages, the infancy period is considered the most important one for the whole life. It has been reported that sialic acid from edible bird’s nest (EBN can facilitate the development of brain and intelligence. In this study, by oral administration of EBN to female mice during the pregnancy or lactation period, the effects of EBN on the levels of sialic acid in mouse milk were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Furthermore, the spatial learning performances of their offspring were assessed using the Morris water maze test. Additionally, cerebral malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE in cubs nursed by the female mice given the EBN homogenate were examined, while BDNF immunohistochemical staining and neuron count in hippocampi were investigated as well. These results showed that administration with EBN in maternal mice during pregnancy or lactation period can improve the learning and memory functions in their offspring, possibly by increasing the activities of SOD and ChAT and, at the meantime, decreasing the levels of MDA and activities of AChE. Moreover, BDNF levels for CA1, CA2, and CA3 regions in hippocampi and the numbers of dyed neurons in CA1, CA2, CA3, and DG regions among the offspring were significantly enhanced due to the intake of EBN by the maternal mice. We concluded that maternal administration of EBN during the pregnancy and lactation periods can improve the spatial learning performances in the offspring.

  14. Dietary Tributyrin Supplementation Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Abnormal Lipid Metabolism in Suckling Piglets with Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jintian; Dong, Li; Xu, Wen; Bai, Kaiwen; Lu, Changhui; Wu, Yanan; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with insulin resistance and lipid disorder. Tributyrin (TB), a pro-drug of butyrate, can attenuate dysfunctions in body metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of TB supplementation on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in neonatal piglets with IUGR. Eight neonatal piglets with normal birth weight (NBW) and 16 neonatal piglets with IUGR were selected, weaned on the 7th day, and fed basic milk diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic milk diets supplemented with 0.1% tributyrin (IT group, IUGR piglets) until day 21 (n = 8). Relative parameters for lipid metabolism and mRNA expression were measured. Piglets with IUGR showed higher (P insulin in the serum, higher (P insulin, HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, and the concentrations of TG and NEFA in the liver, and increased (P insulin signal transduction pathway and hepatic lipogenic pathway (including transcription factors and nuclear factors) was significantly (P insulin resistance and abnormal lipid metabolism in IUGR piglets by increasing enzyme activities and upregulating mRNA expression, leading to an early improvement in the metabolic efficiency of IUGR piglets. PMID:26317832

  15. Medicare and Medicaid programs: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment and Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment Systems and Quality Reporting Programs; electronic reporting pilot; Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities Quality Reporting Program; revision to Quality Improvement Organization regulations. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2013 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates and refines the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program, the ASC Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program, and the Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility (IRF) Quality Reporting Program. We are continuing the electronic reporting pilot for the Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program, and revising the various regulations governing Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs), including the secure transmittal of electronic medical information, beneficiary complaint resolution and notification processes, and technical changes. The technical changes to the QIO regulations reflect CMS' commitment to the general principles of the President's Executive Order on Regulatory Reform, Executive Order 13563 (January 18, 2011).

  16. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  17. Kinking and Torsion Can Significantly Improve the Efficiency of Valveless Pumping in Periodically Compressed Tubular Conduits. Implications for Understanding of the Form-Function Relationship of Embryonic Heart Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Hiermeier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Valveless pumping phenomena (peristalsis, Liebau-effect can generate unidirectional fluid flow in periodically compressed tubular conduits. Early embryonic hearts are tubular conduits acting as valveless pumps. It is unclear whether such hearts work as peristaltic or Liebau-effect pumps. During the initial phase of its pumping activity, the originally straight embryonic heart is subjected to deforming forces that produce bending, twisting, kinking, and coiling. This deformation process is called cardiac looping. Its function is traditionally seen as generating a configuration needed for establishment of correct alignments of pulmonary and systemic flow pathways in the mature heart of lung-breathing vertebrates. This idea conflicts with the fact that cardiac looping occurs in all vertebrates, including gill-breathing fishes. We speculate that looping morphogenesis may improve the efficiency of valveless pumping. To test the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, we analyzed the pumping performance of a Liebau-effect pump in straight and looped (kinked configurations. Compared to the straight configuration, the looped configuration significantly improved the pumping performance of our pump. This shows that looping can improve the efficiency of valveless pumping driven by the Liebau-effect. Further studies are needed to clarify whether this finding may have implications for understanding of the form-function relationship of embryonic hearts.

  18. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. End of budget period report, August 3, 1994--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.R.; Hinterlong, G.; Watts, G.; Justice, J.; Brown, K.; Hickman, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Oxy West Welch project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. The research and design phase primarily involves advanced reservoir characterization and accelerating the production response. The demonstration phase will implement the reservoir management plan based on an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood as designed in the initial phase. During Budget Period 1, work was completed on the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments and the hydraulic fracture design. Analysis of the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatment provided a methodology for predicting results. The hydraulic fracture treatment proved up both the fracture design approach a and the use of passive seismic for mapping the fracture wing orientation. Although the 3-D seismic interpretation is still being integrated into the geologic model and interpretation of borehole seismic is still underway, the simulator has been enhanced to the point of giving good waterflood history matches. The simulator-forecasted results for an optimal designed miscible CO{sub 2} flood in the demonstration area gave sufficient economics to justify continuation of the project into Budget Period 2.

  19. USO DA PGF2? NO PUERPÉRIO PARA REDUZIR O ANESTRO PÓS-PARTO DE CABRAS EM ALEITAMENTO CONTÍNUO E CONTROLADO USE OF PGF2? ON THE PUERPERIO TO REDUCE THE POS-PARTUM ANESTROUS OF CONTINUOS OR CONTROLLED SUCKLING GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernandes Lima

    2008-07-01

    study the effect of PGF2α administration on anestrous post-partum period in 80 goats, with continuos or controlled suckled, rised in semi-extensive system with water and mineral salt ad libitum. The females, with age between two and six years, were randomly distributed in three groups (GI, GII, GIII. The females of GI (n = 30 received 250µg of PGF2α in vulvar muscle on days 6th and 12th after delivery. The females of GII (n = 30 received the same treatment of Group I, but every day from days 6th to 10th after delivery. The GIII (n = 20 was the control group. The estrous detection was made by using teasers and the mating with bucks with confirmed fertility. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and by analysis of standard errors of difference among proportions. Difference in the occurrence of estrous among the three experimental groups was not observed (P > 0.05, however the average time of post partum anestrous was significantly reduced (P < 0.05 in animals treated with PGF2α. It was also detected a relevant reduction (P < 0.05 of post-partum anestrous in females with controlled suckled. Difference was not registered (P > 0.05 on pregnant percentages among the different groups. It may be concluded that the administration of PGF in the beginning of puerperium in caprine is efficient to reduce the anestrous pos-partum period, specially in females controlled suckled; however do not influence the fertility in meat goats.

    KEY WORDS: Caprine, estrus, puerperium, prostaglandine.

  20. Pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli have improved feed efficiency and indicators of inflammation with dietary supplementation of tryptophan and methionine in the immediate post-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capozzalo, Meeka M; Kim, Jae Cheol; Htoo, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that pigs challenged with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli (ETEC) will improve performance by dietary supplementation of sulfur amino acids (SAA) and tryptophan (Trp) above the current recommended levels in the immediate post-weaning period. Male pigs (n...... arrangement of treatments with two levels of SID SAA : Lys ratio (0.52 vs 0.60) and two levels of SID Trp : Lys ratio (0.16 vs 0.24). Diets did not contain any antimicrobial compounds. Pigs were individually housed and were fed diets for 14 days after weaning. Pigs were infected with ETEC (3.44 × 108 CFU....../mL, serotype O149 : K91 : K88) on Days 5, 6, and 7 after weaning. Pigs were bled on Days 5, 8 and 14 and subsequently analysed for plasma levels of acute-phase proteins, urea, cytokines (Days 5 and 8 only) and amino acids (Days 5 and 8 only). Increasing Trp (P = 0.036) and SAA (P = 0.028) improved feed...

  1. Produção de leite e comportamento de amamentação em cinco sistemas de produção de gado de corte Milk yield and suckling behavior in five beef cattle production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Espasandin

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados a produção de leite de vacas Nelore e o comportamento de amamentação em diferentes sistemas de produção: NR-Nelore Referência, sob manejo extensivo (manejo tradicional; NI-Nelore, sob manejo intensivo; e três cruzamentos CN-Canchim x Nelore, AN-Angus x Nelore e SN-Simental x Nelore, sob manejo intensivo. Em três momentos da lactação (60, 120 e 180 dias após o parto, foram medidos, nos bezerros, o número e a duração das mamadas, o ganho diário de peso (kg/dia e o peso à desmama. O momento da lactação e a interação sistema de produção x momento da lactação apresentaram efeito significativo sobre a produção de leite. A produção de leite não apresentou corrrelação com o comportamento de amamentação nem com o ganho de peso dos bezerros dos diferentes sistemas de produção. Condições deficientes de alimentação não resultaram em menores produções de leite de vacas Nelore, mas sim em acentuadas perdas de peso (80 kg durante a estação de monta no sistema NR. O tempo diário de amamentação apresentou diminuições significativas no sistema extensivo com o decorrer da lactação, enquanto os sistemas intensivos não mudaram ou aumentaram os minutos de amamentação por dia. Para as condições nas quais o experimento foi desenvolvido, os bezerros cruzados apresentaram os melhores desempenhos durante a fase pré-desmama, em comparação com os bezerros Nelore.Milk yield in Nellore cows and suckling behavior of their calves of different production systems: NR- Extensive Nellore, NI- Intensive Nellore; and three crossbreeding systems (CN- Canchim-Nellore, AN-Angus-Nellore and SN-Simmental-Nellore in intensive management, were studied. Milk production of cows and number and length of suckles, and daily gain (kg/day of calves were obtained in three moments of lactation (60, 120 and 180 days after calving. Moment of lactation and production system by lactation moment interaction had a significant

  2. The Periodic Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  3. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  4. Improving anxiety regulation in patients with breast cancer at the beginning of the survivorship period: a randomized clinical trial comparing the benefits of single-component and multiple-component group interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckaert, Isabelle; Lewis, Florence; Delevallez, France; Herman, Sophie; Caillier, Marie; Delvaux, Nicole; Libert, Yves; Liénard, Aurore; Nogaret, Jean-Marie; Ogez, David; Scalliet, Pierre; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Van Houtte, Paul; Razavi, Darius

    2017-08-01

    To compare in a multicenter randomized controlled trial the benefits in terms of anxiety regulation of a 15-session single-component group intervention (SGI) based on support with those of a 15-session multiple-component structured manualized group intervention (MGI) combining support with cognitive-behavioral and hypnosis components. Patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer were randomly assigned at the beginning of the survivorship period to the SGI (n = 83) or MGI (n = 87). Anxiety regulation was assessed, before and after group interventions, through an anxiety regulation task designed to assess their ability to regulate anxiety psychologically (anxiety levels) and physiologically (heart rates). Questionnaires were used to assess psychological distress, everyday anxiety regulation, and fear of recurrence. Group allocation was computer generated and concealed till baseline completion. Compared with patients in the SGI group (n = 77), patients attending the MGI group (n = 82) showed significantly reduced anxiety after a self-relaxation exercise (P = .006) and after exposure to anxiety triggers (P = .013) and reduced heart rates at different time points throughout the task (P = .001 to P = .047). The MGI participants also reported better everyday anxiety regulation (P = .005), greater use of fear of recurrence-related coping strategies (P = .022), and greater reduction in fear of recurrence-related psychological distress (P = .017) compared with the SGI group. This study shows that an MGI combining support with cognitive-behavioral techniques and hypnosis is more effective than an SGI based only on support in improving anxiety regulation in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Availability of periodically tested systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    There is at the present time a need in accurate models to asess the availability of periodically tested stand-by systems. This paper shows how to improve the well known 'saw-tooth curve' model in order to take into account various reliability parameters. A model is developed to assess the pointwise and the mean availabilities of periodically tested stand-by systems. Exact and approxination formulae are given. In addition, the model developed herein leads to optimize the test interval in order to minimize the mean unavailability. A safety diesel in a nuclear power plant is given as an example

  6. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  7. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim o...

  8. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  9. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  10. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  11. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  12. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  13. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  14. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  15. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  16. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  17. Supersymmetrically transformed periodic potentials

    OpenAIRE

    C, David J. Fernandez

    2003-01-01

    The higher order supersymmetric partners of a stationary periodic potential are studied. The transformation functions associated to the band edges do not change the spectral structure. However, when the transformation is implemented for factorization energies inside of the forbidden bands, the final potential will have again the initial band structure but it can have bound states encrusted into the gaps, giving place to localized periodicity defects.

  18. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan; Suresh Rama Chandran; Geetha Thirumalnesan; Nedumaran Doraisamy

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recove...

  19. Differences in night-time and daytime ambulatory blood pressure when diurnal periods are defined by self-report, fixed-times, and actigraphy: Improving the Detection of Hypertension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, John N; Muntner, Paul; Abdalla, Marwah; Diaz, Keith M; Viera, Anthony J; Reynolds, Kristi; Schwartz, Joseph E; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether defining diurnal periods by self-report, fixed-time, or actigraphy produce different estimates of night-time and daytime ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). Over a median of 28 days, 330 participants completed two 24-h ABP and actigraphy monitoring periods with sleep diaries. Fixed night-time and daytime periods were defined as 0000-0600 h and 1000-2000 h, respectively. Using the first ABP period, within-individual differences for mean night-time and daytime ABP and kappa statistics for night-time and daytime hypertension (systolic/diastolic ABP≥120/70 mmHg and ≥135/85 mmHg, respectively) were estimated comparing self-report, fixed-time, or actigraphy for defining diurnal periods. Reproducibility of ABP was also estimated. Within-individual mean differences in night-time systolic ABP were small, suggesting little bias, when comparing the three approaches used to define diurnal periods. The distribution of differences, represented by 95% confidence intervals (CI), in night-time systolic and diastolic ABP and daytime systolic and diastolic ABP was narrowest for self-report versus actigraphy. For example, mean differences (95% CI) in night-time systolic ABP for self-report versus fixed-time was -0.53 (-6.61, +5.56) mmHg, self-report versus actigraphy was 0.91 (-3.61, +5.43) mmHg, and fixed-time versus actigraphy was 1.43 (-5.59, +8.46) mmHg. Agreement for night-time and daytime hypertension was highest for self-report versus actigraphy: kappa statistic (95% CI) = 0.91 (0.86,0.96) and 1.00 (0.98,1.00), respectively. The reproducibility of mean ABP and hypertension categories was similar using each approach. Given the high agreement with actigraphy, these data support using self-report to define diurnal periods on ABP monitoring. Further, the use of fixed-time periods may be a reasonable alternative approach.

  20. Periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  1. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly.

  2. How periodic are terahertz quantum cascade lasers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, T; Vogl, P

    2009-01-01

    We apply a novel non-equilibrium Green's function method for open quantum devices to analyze quantum cascade lasers. We find the carrier distribution in typical resonant phonon THz-QCLs to develop a periodicity that differs from the geometric periodicity of the QCL. We propose a design improvement that thermalizes electrons at threshold bias and thereby pins the electron density to the QCL periodicity.

  3. How periodic are terahertz quantum cascade lasers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, T; Vogl, P, E-mail: tillmann.kubis@wsi.tum.d [Walter Schottky Institute, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    We apply a novel non-equilibrium Green's function method for open quantum devices to analyze quantum cascade lasers. We find the carrier distribution in typical resonant phonon THz-QCLs to develop a periodicity that differs from the geometric periodicity of the QCL. We propose a design improvement that thermalizes electrons at threshold bias and thereby pins the electron density to the QCL periodicity.

  4. The decreasing period of AG Phe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerruti, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Seven UBV photoelectric times of minimum light are presented. They shift the photographically known period 0 . d 613 to 0 . d 380. The improvement of the light elements leads to a reliable shortening of the period. A rough determination of the mass-ratio permitted to give an estimate of the mass transfer in the system. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (author)

  5. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  6. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  7. Almost periodic Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.; Lima, R.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures are devoted to recent developments in the theory of almost-periodic Schroedinger Operators. We specially describe the algebraic point of view, with applications to gap-labelling theorems. Particular models are also presented which exhibit various spectral properties. (orig.)

  8. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed

  9. Periodic Table of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  10. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  11. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself

  12. Post-weaning social and cognitive performance of piglets raised pre-weaning either in a complex multi-suckling group housing system or in a conventional system with a crated sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwamerongen, S E; Mendl, M; Held, S; Soede, N M; Bolhuis, J E

    2017-09-01

    We studied the social and cognitive performance of piglets raised pre-weaning either in a conventional system with a sow in a farrowing crate (FC) or in a multi-suckling (MS) system in which 5 sows and their piglets could interact in a more physically enriched and spacious environment. After weaning at 4 weeks of age, 8 groups of 4 litter-mates per pre-weaning housing treatment were studied under equal and enriched post-weaning housing conditions. From each pen, one pair consisting of a dominant and a submissive pig was selected, based on a feed competition test (FCT) 2 weeks post-weaning. This pair was used in an informed forager test (IFT) which measured aspects of spatial learning and foraging strategies in a competitive context. During individual training, submissive (informed) pigs learned to remember a bait location in a testing arena with 8 buckets (the same bucket was baited in a search visit and a subsequent relocation visit), whereas dominant (non-informed) pigs always found the bait in a random bucket (search visits only). After learning their task, the informed pigs' individual search visit was followed by a pairwise relocation visit in which they were accompanied by the non-informed pig. Effects of pre-weaning housing treatment were not distinctly present regarding the occurrence of aggression in the FCT and the learning performance during individual training in the IFT. During paired visits, informed and non-informed pigs changed their behaviour in response to being tested pairwise instead of individually, but MS and FC pigs showed few distinct behavioural differences.

  13. Maternal exposure to a Western-style diet causes differences in intestinal microbiota composition and gene expression of suckling mouse pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steegenga, Wilma T; Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V; Lendvai, Agnes; Pruis, Maurien G M; Verkade, Henkjan J; van de Heijning, Bert J M; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Plösch, Torsten; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J E J

    2017-01-01

    The long-lasting consequences of nutritional programming during the early phase of life have become increasingly evident. The effects of maternal nutrition on the developing intestine are still underexplored. In this study, we observed (1) altered microbiota composition of the colonic luminal content, and (2) differential gene expression in the intestinal wall in 2-week-old mouse pups born from dams exposed to a Western-style (WS) diet during the perinatal period. A sexually dimorphic effect was found for the differentially expressed genes in the offspring of WS diet-exposed dams but no differences between male and female pups were found for the microbiota composition. Integrative analysis of the microbiota and gene expression data revealed that the maternal WS diet independently affected gene expression and microbiota composition. However, the abundance of bacterial families not affected by the WS diet (Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Lachnospiraceae) correlated with the expression of genes playing a key role in intestinal development and functioning (e.g. Pitx2 and Ace2). Our data reveal that maternal consumption of a WS diet during the perinatal period alters both gene expression and microbiota composition in the intestinal tract of 2-week-old offspring. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Maternal exposure to a Western‐style diet causes differences in intestinal microbiota composition and gene expression of suckling mouse pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Lendvai, Agnes; Pruis, Maurien G. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M.; Plösch, Torsten; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Scope The long‐lasting consequences of nutritional programming during the early phase of life have become increasingly evident. The effects of maternal nutrition on the developing intestine are still underexplored. Methods and results In this study, we observed (1) altered microbiota composition of the colonic luminal content, and (2) differential gene expression in the intestinal wall in 2‐week‐old mouse pups born from dams exposed to a Western‐style (WS) diet during the perinatal period. A sexually dimorphic effect was found for the differentially expressed genes in the offspring of WS diet‐exposed dams but no differences between male and female pups were found for the microbiota composition. Integrative analysis of the microbiota and gene expression data revealed that the maternal WS diet independently affected gene expression and microbiota composition. However, the abundance of bacterial families not affected by the WS diet (Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Lachnospiraceae) correlated with the expression of genes playing a key role in intestinal development and functioning (e.g. Pitx2 and Ace2). Conclusion Our data reveal that maternal consumption of a WS diet during the perinatal period alters both gene expression and microbiota composition in the intestinal tract of 2‐week‐old offspring. PMID:27129739

  15. improvement of the programs of formation of Asco in the period 2010-2015. achievements and actions in March; Mejora de los programas de Formacion de Asco en el periodo 2010-2015. Logros conseguidos y acciones en marcha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Heredia, R.

    2015-07-01

    The improvement plan is one of the plans of action included in the Strategic Plan of ANAV and is focused on achieving and consolidating the commitment of managers with the training, being them the training program for their unit owners. also the gradual implementation of the methodology Systematic Approach to Training and consolidate the structure of committees of training as a tool of management of training programmes. (Author)

  16. Polysheroidal periodic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truskova, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given

  17. Deciphering Periodic Methanol Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Bringfried; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Hopp, Ulrich; Kraus, Alex; Linz, Hendrik; Sanna, Alberto; Sobolev, Andrej; Wolf, Verena

    2018-05-01

    Impressive progress has been made in recent years on massive star formation, yet the involved high optical depths even at submm/mm wavelengths make it difficult to reveal its details. Recently, accretion bursts of massive YSOs have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers (methanol masers for short) due to enhanced mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to protostellar accretion variability, and implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion. Pinning down the cause of the periodicity requires joint IR and radio monitoring. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol and water masers which flare every 34.5 days. Our recent joint K-band and radio observations yielded first but marginal evidence for a phase lag between the rise of IR and maser emission, respectively, and revealed that both NEOWISE and K-band light curves are strongly affected by the light echo from the ambient dust. Both the superior resolution of IRAC over NEOWISE and the longer wavelengths compared to our ground-based imaging are required to inhibit the distractive contamination by the light echo. Thus, we ask for IRAC monitoring of G107 to cover one flare cycle, in tandem with 100-m Effelsberg and 2-m Wendelstein radio and NIR observations to obtain the first high-quality synoptic measurements of this kind of sources. The IR-maser phase lag, the intrinsic shape of the IR light curves and their possible color variation during the cycle allow us to constrain models for the periodic maser excitation. Since methanol masers are signposts of intermediate-mass and massive YSOs, deciphering their variability offers a clue to the dynamics of the accretion-mediated growth of massive stars and their feedback onto the immediate natal environment. The Spitzer light curve of such a maser-hosting YSO would be a legacy science product of the mission.

  18. Periodically modulated dark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  19. Formação do enfermeiro para detecção precoce de desvios psicomotores em lactentes - Fortaleza, estado do Ceará, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2230 Nurse formation for precocious detection of psychomotor deviations in suckling - Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2230

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Moreno Valdés

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar a formação dos enfermeiros para detecção precoce dos desvios psicomotores em lactentes, os fatores que interferem na atuação profissional e elaborar um roteiro para subsidiá-lo. Trata-se de estudo exploratório-descritivo realizado em cinco Unidades do Programa de Saúde da Família (Fortaleza - CE. Foram entrevistados 17 enfermeiros que realizam consulta em puericultura. A coleta dos dados ocorreu de julho a outubro de 2001, por meio de observação e entrevista semi - estruturada. Os dados foram analisados, discutidos e apresentados por meio de Tabelas. Onze enfermeiros consideram-se despreparados para a detecção precoce de tais desvios. Os obstáculos apontados foram: falta de treinamento, tempo reduzido para aperfeiçoamento e carga horária excessiva de trabalho. Os enfermeiros sugerem aperfeiçoamento profissional, associado à melhoria das condições de trabalho e aquisição de material didático e audiovisual para implementação de programas preventivos. Conclui-se ser necessária a implementação de um plano com ações que capacitem o enfermeiro para a detecção precoce desses desvios.This paper aimed to identify nurses formation for precocious detection of psychomotor deviations in suckling, the factors that interfere in their performance and to make a proposal of a schedule to subsidize them. Exploratory-descriptive study was carried out in five Units of Family Health Program, in the city of Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil. Seventeen nurses who had accomplished consultation in puericulture were interviewed. Data were collected from July to October 2001, through observation and semi-structured interview. The data were analyzed, debated, and presented through tables. Eleven nurses considered themselves unprepared for precocious identification of such deviations. The obstacles pointed were: insufficient training, reduced time to improvement and excessive work routine. The nurses suggest the

  20. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  1. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Hart, Jeffrey D.; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both

  2. Effect of type of suckling and polyunsaturated fatty acid use on lamb production. 1. Productive performances and quanti-qualitative characteristics of the carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bozzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of artificial rearing and of the addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids(PUFA to an acidified milk replacer on the productive performances and on the quanti-qualitative characteristics of thecarcass. Fifty one twin-born Gentile di Puglia lambs were subdivided into three homogenous groups (9 females and 8males assigned the following feeding treatments: maternal milk (MM; acidified milk replacer (MR; acidified milk replacer+ 10 ml/l of a mixture of linseed and fish oil rich in PUFA (MR+PUFA.Milk consumptions and live weights were recorded weekly. Seven males from each group were slaughtered at 45 days ofage and the net warm dressing percentage, the composition of the carcass and the colorimetric characteristics of theLongissimus lumborum muscle were estimated. Artificial rearing improved the daily weight gain (0.182-0.172 vs 0.128Kg; PThe addition of omega-3 fatty acids to the diet did not influence the weight gain, the feed conversion index, the net warmdressing percentage and the incidence of the different meat cuts of the half carcass. However, it significantly increasedthe half carcass length (37.86 vs 35.0 cm; Pto the MR group reduced the proportion of lean (63.21 vs 53.98 %; PP<0.01 in the lumbar region.

  3. Log-periodic dipole antenna with low cross-polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    In this work, log-periodic antennas with improved cross-polarization level were studied. It was found that some modifications of the traditional design lead to an essential improvement of the co-to-cross polarization ratio up to 40 dB. An improved design of a log-periodic dipole antenna with low...

  4. Efectos del masaje en el recién nacido y el lactante Massage effects at the newborn and suckling baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Márquez Doren

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: masaje infantil, técnica relativamente nueva en occidente, importada desde India por el Dr. Leboyer, quien observó sus beneficios para los niños. Diseño: revisión bibliográfica de 10 estudios, cuyos límites de búsqueda fueron "infant massage", "infant tactile stimulation", ensayos clínicos randomizados, con menos de 7 años de antigüedad, de bases de datos Pubmed, Cinhal, Medline y Cochrane. Propósito: determinar el efecto del masaje en el recién nacido y lactante, considerando niños de pretérmino y término, con o sin patologías, que recibieron masaje. Resultados: mejor ganancia de peso, mejor desarrollo neurosensorial, periodos de alerta prolongados, aumento del tono vagal y motilidad gástrica, efectos analgésicos. También, mejor organización del sueño, disminución de hormonas del stress y recepción precoz de alimentos por vía oral, menos días de hospitalización y se observó una interacción madre hijo positiva. El masaje no mostró resultados significativos en disminuir cólicos en niños normales ni disminución del llanto en niños con lesiones cerebrales. Conclusiones: el masaje infantil demostró tener múltiples beneficios para el niño, su madre y su interacción, pero existen situaciones especiales en las que no fue efectivo.Background: infant massage is a relatively new technic in the western society, concerned from India by Dr. Leboyer, who observed his benefits for the children. Design: bibliographical review of 10 studies, whose limits search were infant massage, infant tactile stimulation, with just of 6 years of antiquity, randomized control trail, of data bases Pubmed, Cinhal, Medline and Cochrane. Intention: to determine the effect of the massage in new born and child, considering of preterm and term babys, with or without pathologies, that received massage. Main results: better gain of weight, better neurosensorial development, prolonged periods of alert, increase in vagal tone and

  5. Would Be Prophylactic Administrations of Low Concentration of Alendronate an Alternative for Improving the Craniofacial Bone Repair? A Preliminary Study Focused in the Period of Cellular Differentiation and Tissue Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhringer, Isabella; Muller, Carmem L Storrer; Cunha, Emanuelle Juliana; Passoni, Giuliene Nunes De Souza; Vieira, Juliana Souza; Zielak, João Cesar; Scariot, Rafaela; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda; Giovanini, Allan Fernando

    2017-10-01

    Alendronate (ALN) is a nitrogen-bisphosphonate that may induce an anabolic effect on craniofacial bone repair when administrated in low doses. Based on this premise, this study analyzed the influence of prophylactic low doses of ALN on bone healing in defects created in rabbit mandible. A 5 × 2-mm diameter deep defect was created in the calvaria of 28 rabbits. Fourteen of these rabbits received previously 50 μg/kg of 1% sodium ALN for 4 weeks, while the other rabbits received only 0.9% physiological saline solution (control). Animals were euthanized at 15 and 60 days postsurgery (n = 7), and the data were analyzed using histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry using the anti-CD34, bone morphogenetic protein -2 (BMP-2), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 antibodies. On the 15th day postsurgery, the specimens that received previous treatment with ALN demonstrated large vascular lumen and intense positivity to CD34 either concentrated in endothelium or cells spread among the reparative tissue. These results coincided with intense positivity for BMP-2+ cells and TGF-β1 that was concentrated in both cells and perivascular area. In contrast, the control group revealed scarce cells that exhibited CD34, BMP-2+, and the TGF-β1 was restricted for perivascular area on well-formed granulation tissue. These patterns of immunohistochemical result, especially found on the 15th day of analysis, seem to be responsible for the development of larger quantities of bone matrix in the specimens that receive ALN on the 60th day postsurgery. These preliminary results showed that the prophylactic administration of low doses of ALN might be an alternative to craniofacial bone craniofacial bone repair because it increases the immunopositivity for TGF-β1 and consequently improves the CD34+ and BMP-2+ cells on reparative sites.

  6. The use of insulin to improve fertility of timed-inseminated postpartum suckled beef cows Uso de insulina para aumento da fertilidade de vacas de corte pós-parto lactantes inseminadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Schneider

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of insulin alone or in association with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on the fertility of postpartum beef cows subjected to synchronization. A total of 340 cows was subjected to fixed time artificial insemination. In the trial 1, the cows were subjected to temporary weaning (TW, while in the trial 2 the same protocol was tested without TW. The addition of an insulin injection to a progesterone/eCG-based protocol without TW increased the pregnancy rate of beef cows with body condition score (BCS equal to or lower than 2.5. Insulin had no effect on cows submitted to TW or with BCS equal to or higher than 3.0.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar apenas o efeito da insulina ou dela em associação com gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG na fertilidade de vacas em pós-parto submetidas à sincronização. Um total de 340 vacas foi submetido à inseminação artificial em tempo fixo. No experimento 1, as vacas foram submetidas ao desmame temporário (DT, enquanto no experimento 2, o mesmo protocolo foi testado sem DT. A adição de uma injeção de insulina a um protocolo baseado em progesterona/eCG sem DT aumentou a taxa de prenhez de vacas de corte com escore de condição corporal (ECC igual ou menor que 2,5. A insulina não teve efeito em vacas submetidas a DT ou com ECC igual ou maior que 3,0.

  7. Variable-Period Undulators for Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  8. Variable-Period Undulators For Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high-energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  9. Testing periodically integrated autoregressive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPeriodically integrated time series require a periodic differencing filter to remove the stochastic trend. A non-periodic integrated time series needs the first-difference filter for similar reasons. When the changing seasonal fluctuations for the non-periodic integrated series can be

  10. Imbalance of intestinal immune function in piglets infected by porcine circovirus type 2 during the fetal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Li, Jin Jun; Liu, Yuan; Dong, Wei; Pang, Pei; Deng, Zhi Bang

    2017-03-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2- (PCV2-) associated reproductive disorders and enteritis have commonly been observed on PCV2-contaminated pig farms in recent years. In order to investigate disorders of intestinal immunity in piglets infected by PCV2 during the fetal period, 9 PCV2b-infected piglets and 6 non-infected piglets at one day of age were selected and euthanised prior to suckling. Samples of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and duodena were collected to investigate factors related to intestinal immunity and to detect lymphocytic apoptosis. The results indicated that there were no significant changes in the levels of IL-2, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in the PCV2b-infected piglets but IFN-γ levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01) and IL-4 levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in infected piglets than in the controls. Furthermore, lymphocytic apoptosis increased in PCV2b-infected piglets and CD4+ to CD8+ ratios were lower in these piglets than in the controls. These findings suggest vertical transmission of PCV2b to fetuses, leading to an imbalance of intestinal immune function in piglets.

  11. Periodic feedback stabilization for linear periodic evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gengsheng

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a number of recent advances regarding periodic feedback stabilization for linear and time periodic evolution equations. First, it presents selected connections between linear quadratic optimal control theory and feedback stabilization theory for linear periodic evolution equations. Secondly, it identifies several criteria for the periodic feedback stabilization from the perspective of geometry, algebra and analyses respectively. Next, it describes several ways to design periodic feedback laws. Lastly, the book introduces readers to key methods for designing the control machines. Given its coverage and scope, it offers a helpful guide for graduate students and researchers in the areas of control theory and applied mathematics.

  12. ' ' :'.: ',,' ,~ '.'~.: ~ Comparative Analysis of Partial Suckling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    developed for dairy production (Das, 1989). Madsen et al. (1990) reported a successful introduction of Norwegian Landrace x upgraded. Tanzanian dairy goats into rural areas in. Morogoro region (Mgeta Division) where the climate is sub-tropical and feed resources are adequate. In all places where dairy goats have been.

  13. Suckling behaviour in captive Dendrohyrax arboreus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1980-11-06

    Nov 6, 1980 ... the subject of several studies (Coe 1962; Rahm 1963; Sale. 1965a,b,c; 1966, .... possibly olfactory, stimulus which is not functional until some time after the ... Notes on the habits of the Mount Kenya hyrax (Pro- cavia johnstoni ...

  14. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  15. Performance Improvement for Quasi Periodical Disturbances in PH Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEBEL, K.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Proper operation of control systems is essential for achieving good economic results and reducing control effort. The paper is focused on presenting a new application of a well-known concept. The main scope of the paper is a practical presentation of obtaining a minimum process performance index by means of known statistical tools. This is achievable by appropriate selection of the correction value for set-point and the width of the time window of a statistical algorithm. The proposed novel algorithm was successfully implemented in the pilot neutralization process. On one hand, the proposed algorithm is a corrector of the statistical properties of the control error, and, on the other one, of a set point of the control system.

  16. Periodic waves in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Jing-Hua; Yan, Jie-Yun; Tian, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Periodic waves are presented in this Letter. With symbolic computation, equations for monochromatic waves are studied, and analytic periodic waves are obtained. Factors affecting properties of periodic waves are analyzed. Nonlinear metamaterials, with the continuous distribution of the dielectric permittivity obtained, are different from the ones with the discrete distribution. -- Highlights: ► Equations for the monochromatic waves in transverse magnetic polarization have been studied. ► Analytic periodic waves for the equations have been obtained. ► Periodic waves are theoretically presented and studied in the nonlinear metamaterials.

  17. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-02-01

    This article proposes a nonparametric method for estimating the period and values of a periodic sequence when the data are evenly spaced in time. The period is estimated by a "leave-out-one-cycle" version of cross-validation (CV) and complements the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both theoretically and by simulation.We also propose a nonparametric test of the null hypothesis that the data have constantmean against the alternative that the sequence of means is periodic. Finally, our methodology is demonstrated on three well-known time series: the sunspots and lynx trapping data, and the El Niño series of sea surface temperatures. © 2012 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Quality.

  18. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wei; Chen Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases

  19. Photolysis of Periodate and Periodic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Knud; Kläning, U. K.

    1978-01-01

    The photochemistry of periodate and periodic acid in aqueous solution was studied (i) by quantum yield measurements at low light intensity (ii) by flash photolysis, and (iii) by photolysis of glassy samples at 77 K. The photochemical studies were supplemented with pulse radiolysis studies...... of aqueous periodate solutions and with kinetic studies using stopped-flow technique. In strongly alkaline solution the photodecomposition of periodate proceeds via formation of O– and IVI. At pH solution O3 P is formed in a small...

  20. Using periodicity to mitigate ground vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of trenches, barriers and wave impeding blocks on the transmission path between a source and receiver can be used for mitigation of ground vibration. However, to be effective a barrier must have a depth of about one wavelength of the waves to be mitigated. Hence, while great reductions......: A soil with periodic stiffening (ground improvement) and a ground with periodic changes in the surface elevation obtained by artificial landscaping. By means of a two-dimensional finite-element model, the stiffness and mass matrices are determined for a single cell of the ground with horizonal...

  1. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  2. Periodic instantons and scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlebnikov, S.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tinyakov, P.G.

    1991-04-01

    We discuss the role of periodic euclidean solutions with two turning points and zero winding number (periodic instantons) in instanton induced processes below the sphaleron energy E sph . We find that the periodic instantons describe certain multiparticle scattering events leading to the transitions between topologically distinct vacua. Both the semiclassical amplitudes and inital and final states of these transitions are determined by the periodic instantons. Furthermore, the corresponding probabilities are maximal among all states of given energy. We show that at E ≤ E sph , the periodic instantons can be approximated by infinite chains of ordinary instantons and anti-instantons, and they naturally emerge as deformations of the zero energy instanton. In the framework of 2d abelian Higgs model and 4d electroweak theory we show, however, that there is not obvious relation between periodic instantons and two-particle scattering amplitudes. (orig.)

  3. Holonomic systems for period mappings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingyue, E-mail: jychen@brandeis.edu [Department of Mathematics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Huang, An, E-mail: anhuang@math.harvard.edu [Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lian, Bong H., E-mail: lian@brandeis.edu [Department of Mathematics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Period mappings were introduced in the sixties [4] to study variation of complex structures of families of algebraic varieties. The theory of tautological systems was introduced recently [7,8] to understand period integrals of algebraic manifolds. In this paper, we give an explicit construction of a tautological system for each component of a period mapping. We also show that the D-module associated with the tautological system gives rise to many interesting vanishing conditions for period integrals at certain special points of the parameter space.

  4. Microprocessor controlled digital period meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Rusch, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor controlled digital period meter has been developed and tested operationally on a reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The principle of operation is the mathematical relationship between asymptotic periods and pulse counting circuitry. This relationship is used to calculate and display the reactor periods over a range of /plus or minus/1 second to /plus or minus/999 seconds. The time interval required to update each measurement automatically varies from 8 seconds at the lowest counting rates to 2 seconds at higher counting rates. The paper will describe hardware and software design details and show the advantages of this type of Period Meter over the conventional circuits. 1 ref

  5. Comparison of Periodized and Non-Periodized Resistance Training on Maximal Strength: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tyler D; Tolusso, Danilo V; Fedewa, Michael V; Esco, Michael R

    2017-10-01

    Periodization is a logical method of organizing training into sequential phases and cyclical time periods in order to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for overtraining. Periodized resistance training plans are proposed to be superior to non-periodized training plans for enhancing maximal strength. The primary aim of this study was to examine the previous literature comparing periodized resistance training plans to non-periodized resistance training plans and determine a quantitative estimate of effect on maximal strength. All studies included in the meta-analysis met the following inclusion criteria: (1) peer-reviewed publication; (2) published in English; (3) comparison of a periodized resistance training group to a non-periodized resistance training group; (4) maximal strength measured by 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, bench press, or leg press. Data were extracted and independently coded by two authors. Random-effects models were used to aggregate a mean effect size (ES), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and potential moderators. The cumulative results of 81 effects gathered from 18 studies published between 1988 and 2015 indicated that the magnitude of improvement in 1RM following periodized resistance training was greater than non-periodized resistance training (ES = 0.43, 95% CI 0.27-0.58; P training status (β = -0.59; P = 0.0305), study length (β = 0.03; P = 0.0067), and training frequency (β = 0.46; P = 0.0123) were associated with a change in 1RM. These results indicate that undulating programs were more favorable for strength gains. Improvements in 1RM were greater among untrained participants. Additionally, higher training frequency and longer study length were associated with larger improvements in 1RM. These results suggest that periodized resistance training plans have a moderate effect on 1RM compared to non-periodized training plans. Variation in training stimuli

  6. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wang

    Full Text Available Using the forward period analysis (FPA, we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested.

  7. Detecting periodicities with Gaussian processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Durrande

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of detecting and quantifying the periodic component of a function given noise-corrupted observations of a limited number of input/output tuples. Our approach is based on Gaussian process regression, which provides a flexible non-parametric framework for modelling periodic data. We introduce a novel decomposition of the covariance function as the sum of periodic and aperiodic kernels. This decomposition allows for the creation of sub-models which capture the periodic nature of the signal and its complement. To quantify the periodicity of the signal, we derive a periodicity ratio which reflects the uncertainty in the fitted sub-models. Although the method can be applied to many kernels, we give a special emphasis to the Matérn family, from the expression of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space inner product to the implementation of the associated periodic kernels in a Gaussian process toolkit. The proposed method is illustrated by considering the detection of periodically expressed genes in the arabidopsis genome.

  8. Scheduling periodic tasks with slack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korst, J.H.M.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Lenstra, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the problem of nonpreemptively scheduling periodic tasks on a minimum number of identical processors, assuming that some slack is allowed in the time between successive executions of a periodic task. We prove that the problem is NP-hard in the strong sense. Necessary and sufficient

  9. Rationalization of Comet Halley's periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.

    1990-01-01

    The sense of long axis orientation of Comet Halley during the Vega 1 encounter must be reversed from that deduced by Sagdeev et al. (1986) in order to harmonize the comet nucleus' Vega/Giotto-observed orientations with periodicities extracted from time-series brightness data. It is also demonstrated that Vega/Giotto observations can be satisfied by either a 2.2- or 3.7-day long-axis free precession period. A novel Fourier algorithm is used to reanalyze five independent data sets; strong evidence is adduced for periods harmonically related to a 7.4-day period. The preferred candidate models for Halley's nuclear rotation are characterized by a long-axis precession period of 3.7 days.

  10. Orbital periods of recurrent novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    The class of recurrent novae (RN) with thermonuclear runaways contains only three systems (T Pyx, U Sco, and V394 CrA), for which no orbital periods are known. This paper presents a series of photometric observations where the orbital periods for all three systems are discovered. T Pyx is found to have sinusoidal modulation with an amplitude of 0.08 mag and a period of 2.3783 h (with a possible alias of 2.6403 h). U Sco is found to be an eclipsing system with an eclipse amplitude of roughly 1.5 mag and an orbital period of 1.2344 days. V394 CrA is found to have sinusoidal modulation with an amplitude of 0.5 mag and a period of 0.7577 days. Thus two out of three RN with thermonuclear runaways (or five out of six for all RN) have evolved companions. 16 refs

  11. Chaos to periodicity and periodicity to chaos by periodic perturbations in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qianshu; Zhu Rui

    2004-01-01

    A three-variable model of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction system subject to external sinusoidal perturbations is investigated by means of frequency spectrum analysis. In the period-1 window of the model, the transitions from periodicity to chaos are observed; in the chaotic window, the transitions from chaos to periodicity are found. The former might be understood by the circle map of two coupled oscillators, and the latter is partly explained by the resonance between the main frequency of the chaos and the frequency of the external periodic perturbations

  12. Iraqi architecture in mogul period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Shatha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Iraqi architecture have many periods passed through it until now, each on from these periods have it is architectural style, also through time these styles interacted among us, to creating kind of space forming, space relationships, and architectural elements (detailed treatments, the research problem being from the multi interacted architectural styles causing some of confused of general characteristic to every style, that we could distinguish by it. Research tries to study architecture style through Mogul Conquest to Baghdad. Aim of research follow main characteristic for this architectural style in the Mogul periods on the level of form, elements, and treatments. Research depending on descriptive and analytical all buildings belong to this period, so from analyzing there style by, general form for building, architectural elements, and it architectural treatment, therefore; repeating this procedures to every building we get some similarities, from these similarities we can making conclusion about pure characteristic of the style of these period. Other side, we also discover some Dissimilar in the building periods, these will lead research to make what interacting among styles in this period, after all that we can drew clearly main characteristic of Architectural Style for Mogul Conquest in Baghdad

  13. The Periodic Table in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian (Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts was the first academy to elect D. I. Mendeleev as its honorary member (1882, whereas the periodic table of the elements has been taught regularly at the Zagreb University since 1888. The early interest of Croatian chemists in the periodic table should be attributed primarily to their pan-Slavic attitude, particularly as proof that Slavic people were able to produce "their own Newtons" (M. V. Lomonosov and D. I. Mendeleev. Such enthusiastic views, however, did not help in analyzing the contribution of Mendeleev and other scientists to the discovery and development of the periodic table of the elements.

  14. Topological imprint for periodic orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Jesús San; Moscoso, Ma José; Gómez, A González

    2012-01-01

    The more self-crossing points an orbit has the more complex it is. We introduce the topological imprint to characterize crossing points and focus on the period-doubling cascade. The period-doubling cascade topological imprint determines the topological imprint for orbits in chaotic bands. In addition, there is a closer link between this concept and the braids studied by Lettelier et al (2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 1809–25). (paper)

  15. Minimum period and the gap in periods of Cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paczynski, B.; Sienkiewicz, R.

    1983-01-01

    The 81 minute cutoff to the orbital periods of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic binaries is consistent with evolution of those systems being dominated by angular momentum losses due to gravitational radiation. Unfortunately, many uncertainties, mainly poorly known atmospheric opacities below 2000 K, make is physically impossible to verify the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation by using the observed cutoff at 81 minutes. The upper boundary of the gap in orbital periods observed at about 3 hours is almost certainly due to enhanced angular momentum losses from cataclysmic binaries which have longer periods. The physical mechanism of those losses is not identified, but a possible importance of stellar winds is pointed out. The lower boundary of the gap may be explained with the oldest cataclysmic binaries, whose periods evolved past the minimum at 81 minutes and reached the value of 2 hours within about 12 x 10 9 years after the binary had formed. Those binaries should have secondary components of only 0.02 solar masses, and their periods could be used to estimate ages of the oldest cataclysmic stars, and presumably the age of Galaxy. An alternative explanation for the gap requires that binaries should be detached while crossing the gap. A possible mechanism for this phenomenon is discussed. It requires the secondary components to be about 0.2 solar masses in the binaries just below the gap

  16. Commuting periodic operators and the periodic Wigner function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, J

    2004-01-01

    Commuting periodic operators (CPO) depending on the coordinate x-hat and the momentum p-hat operators are defined. The CPO are functions of the two basic commuting operators exp(i x-hat 2π/a) and exp(i/h p-hat a), with a being an arbitrary constant. A periodic Wigner function (PWF) w(x, p) is defined and it is shown that it is applicable in a normal expectation value calculation to the CPO, as done in the original Wigner paper. Moreover, this PWF is non-negative everywhere, and it can therefore be interpreted as an actual probability distribution. The PWF w(x, p) is shown to be given as an expectation value of the periodic Dirac delta function in the phase plane. (letter to the editor)

  17. Nanopublication beyond the sciences: the PeriodO period gazetteer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Golden

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The information expressed in humanities datasets is inextricably tied to a wider discursive environment that is irreducible to complete formal representation. Humanities scholars must wrestle with this fact when they attempt to publish or consume structured data. The practice of “nanopublication,” which originated in the e-science domain, offers a way to maintain the connection between formal representations of humanities data and its discursive basis. In this paper we describe nanopublication, its potential applicability to the humanities, and our experience curating humanities nanopublications in the PeriodO period gazetteer.

  18. Periodic testing in operative action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larm, T.

    2005-01-01

    Periodic testing forms a remarkable part of the regular work tasks of the shift crew. Testing is generally carried out beside the daily monitoring and control work. Even remarkable plant related differences may occur in the procedures and routines used in periodic testing. The goal is still always the same, to regularly ensure that the systems and equipment are in working order according to their design. This presentation studies with examples the execution and scope of periodic testing as well as the routines and procedures used in the testing in Loviisa power plant. The presentation is based on the testing procedures of Loviisa power plant and the aim is not to compare them to the procedures of other plants. The scope of periodic testing has increased and the routines and procedures have been developed as the operation experience has increased. The assessment of the need of periodic testing and the consideration of the practical execution possibilities should be a part of the plant's planning phase as a part of the planning process. (orig.)

  19. Inflation from periodic extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro [Department of Physics, Keio University, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: thigaki@rk.phys.keio.ac.jp, E-mail: y_tatsuta@akane.waseda.jp [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    We discuss a realization of a small field inflation based on string inspired supergravities. In theories accompanying extra dimensions, compactification of them with small radii is required for realistic situations. Since the extra dimension can have a periodicity, there will appear (quasi-)periodic functions under transformations of moduli of the extra dimensions in low energy scales. Such a periodic property can lead to a UV completion of so-called multi-natural inflation model where inflaton potential consists of a sum of multiple sinusoidal functions with a decay constant smaller than the Planck scale. As an illustration, we construct a SUSY breaking model, and then show that such an inflaton potential can be generated by a sum of world sheet instantons in intersecting brane models on extra dimensions containing orbifold. We show also predictions of cosmic observables by numerical analyzes.

  20. Periodicity, the Canon and Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Scanlon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic according to this title is admittedly a broad one, embracing two very general concepts of time and of the cultural valuation of artistic products. Both phenomena are, in the present view, largely constructed by their contemporary cultures, and given authority to a great extent from the prestige of the past. The antiquity of tradition brings with it a certain cachet. Even though there may be peripheral debates in any given society which question the specifics of periodization or canonicity, individuals generally accept the consensus designation of a sequence of historical periods and they accept a list of highly valued artistic works as canonical or authoritative. We will first examine some of the processes of periodization and of canon-formation, after which we will discuss some specific examples of how these processes have worked in the sport of two ancient cultures, namely Greece and Mesoamerica.

  1. Automated Periodicals System at a Community College Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Harp

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Automated systems need not be extensive to save time and improve efficiency. Moraine Valley's off-line operation, based on a file of 715 periodical titles, generates renewal orders, sends claims, and records subscription histories.

  2. Periodicity and repeatability in data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, D.

    Using magnetic data from the first two years in Saturn orbit, the basic periodicity of apparent is examined with the aim of elucidating the `cam' shaft model of Espinosa et al. (2003) identifying the nature of the `cam' and giving a definitive period for its rotation. An initial hypothesis, supported by the spectral analysis of analysis of the first 8 months in orbit Gianpieri et al. (2006), is made that the source of the period is linked to something inside the planet and therefore that the source inertia means that the period effectively does not change over the 2 years. Moreover one expects that the source phase is fixed. Using this approach, not only can the period identified by spectral analysis (647.1 + 0.6 min.) be verified but also by phase analysis between successive passes over the 2 years the period can be refined to 647.6 + 0.1 min. The signal itself is remarkably reproducible from pass to pass. It appears in all three components of the field and its polarisation is unambiguously not attributable to direct detection of an internal field. Not only does the signal not decay rapidly with distance from the planet, but although it has the m=1 symmetry of a tilted dipole, the field lines diverge from the planet indicating an exterior source. This feature led to the `cam' model. The polarisation and comparisons of passes with different latitude profiles show a surprising north-south symmetry in the azimuthal field. The absence of asymmetry with respect to the magnetic equator rules out a direct magnetospheric-ionospheric interaction source. Accordingly, it is proposed that the basic `cam' effect is generated by a single hemisphere anomaly which creates hemisphere to hemisphere field aligned currents. The existence of Saturn phase related anomaly appears to produce a basic asymmetry in the inner magnetosphere that sets the phase of both an inflowing and outflowing sector in a rotating circulation system.

  3. Sigmoid Volvulus Complicating Postpartum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey E. Ward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sigmoid volvulus is a rare complication of pregnancy and the puerperium. Case. A 19-year-old patient, gravida 1 para 0 at 41 0/7 weeks of gestation, admitted for late-term induction of labor underwent an uncomplicated primary low transverse cesarean delivery for arrest of descent. Her postoperative period was complicated by sudden onset of abdominal pain and the ultimate diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. Conclusion. Prompt surgical evaluation of an acute abdomen in the postpartum period is essential; delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to significant maternal morbidity and mortality.

  4. Hydrogen purification by periodic adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barg, Christian; Secchi, Argimiro R.; Trierweiler, Jorge O. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: cbarg@enq.ufrgs.br; arge@enq.ufrgs.br; jorge@enq.ufrgs.br

    2000-07-01

    The periodic adsorption processes have been widely used for industrial applications, mainly because it spends less energy than the usual gas separation processes, like the cryogenic distillation. The largest commercial application of periodic adsorption processes is the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) applied to hydrogen purification. Although its wide use in the chemical and petrochemical industry, there are no reports in the open literature about complete modeling studies of a complex commercial unit, with multiple adsorbents and multiple beds and several feed components. This study has as objective the modeling, optimization and dynamical analysis of an industrial PSA unit for hydrogen purification. (author)

  5. Effects of excess maternal thyroxin on the bones of rat offspring from birth to the post-weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Mariana Zanini; Santos, Gianne Karla; Batista, Ana Claudia Moura; Reis, Amanda Maria Sena; Silva, Juneo Freitas; Ribeiro, Lorena Gabriela Rocha; Ocarino, Natália de Melo; Serakides, Rogéria

    2016-04-01

    Objective To evaluate, in rat offspring, bone changes induced by excess maternal thyroxin during pregnancy and lactation, and to assess the reversibility of these changes after weaning. Material and methods Twenty Wistar rats were distributed in two groups, hyperthyroid and control, that were treated daily with L-thyroxin (50 mcg/animal) and placebo, respectively. The treatment was initiated seven days before mating and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. From every female of each of the two groups, two offspring were euthanized after birth, two at 21 days of age (weaning), and two at 42 days of age (21 days after weaning). In newborns, the length of pelvic and thoracic limbs were measured, and in the other animals, the length and width of the femur and humerus were measured. Bones were dissected, decalcified, embedded in paraffin, and analyzed histomorphometrically. Results Excess maternal thyroxin significantly reduced the length of the pelvic limb in neonates. In 21-day-old individuals, excess maternal thyroxine reduced the length and the width of the femur and the humerus. It also increased thickness of the epiphyseal plate and the percentage of trabecular bone tissue. In 42-day-old individuals, there were no significant differences between groups in relation to the parameters evaluated in the previous periods. Conclusion Excess maternal thyroxine reduced growth in suckling rats both at birth and at weaning, and it also increased the percentage of trabecular bone tissue in 21-day-old animals. These changes, however, were reversible at 42 days, i.e., 21 days after weaning. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2016;60(2):130-7.

  6. Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture l. Suckling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 5 (1993) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture l. Suckling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ongeag die frekwensie van soging en dae na kalwing, was die mees algemene sogingperiode tussen 04:00 en 06:00. Die minste sogingsperiodes is waargeneemt ussen middernag en ongeveer0 4:00. Die langste interval tussent wee sogingsperiodesb inne 'n 24hperiode het altyd voor 4:00 voorgekom en hierdie interval ...

  8. Periodic and quasiperiodic revivals in periodically driven interacting quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitz, David J.; Lazarides, Achilleas; Bar Lev, Yevgeny

    2018-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that interparticle interactions generically destroy dynamical localization in periodically driven systems, resulting in diffusive transport and heating. In this Rapid Communication we rigorously construct a family of interacting driven systems which are dynamically localized and effectively decoupled from the external driving potential. We show that these systems exhibit tunable periodic or quasiperiodic revivals of the many-body wave function and thus of all physical observables. By numerically examining spinless fermions on a one-dimensional lattice we show that the analytically obtained revivals of such systems remain stable for finite systems with open boundary conditions while having a finite lifetime in the presence of static spatial disorder. We find this lifetime to be inversely proportional to the disorder strength.

  9. Cosmophysical periods in European history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirskij, B.M.; Kislovskij, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    In social systems there are rhythms synchronised by cosmical periods. These rhythms have partly biological origin. Some natural cycles also might influence upon historical processes (as such as climatic and epidemical). The analysis of the literature shows that there is rhythmic component in European history where solar activity cycles -11 and 340 years are presented. 17 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Genius of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    'Isn't it the work of a genius!' exclaimed Academician V.I. Spitsyn, USSR, a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee when talking to an Agency audience in January. His listeners shared his enthusiasm. Academician Spitsyn was referring to the first formulation a hundred years ago by Professor Dmitry I. Mendeleyev of the Periodic Law of Elements. (author)

  11. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  12. Periodic linear differential stochastic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, H.

    1975-01-01

    Periodic linear differential processes are defined and their properties are analyzed. Equivalent representations are discussed, and the solutions of related optimal estimation problems are given. An extension is presented of Kailath and Geesey’s [1] results concerning the innovations representation

  13. Model selection in periodic autoregressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the issue of period autoagressive time series models (PAR) selection in practice. One aspect of model selection is the choice for the appropriate PAR order. This can be of interest for the valuation of economic models. Further, the appropriate PAR order is important

  14. Periodic progress report, 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    This is the first progress report of the BriteEuram project named "High Power Laser Cutting for Heavy Industry" ("Powercut"). The report contains a summary of the objectives of the first period, an overview of the technical progress, a comparison between the planed and the accomplished work...

  15. Autoinflammatory Diseases with Periodic Fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Erdal; Bilginer, Yelda; Ozen, Seza

    2017-07-01

    One purpose of this review was to raise awareness for the new autoinflammatory syndromes. These diseases are increasingly recognized and are in the differential diagnosis of many disease states. We also aimed to review the latest recommendations for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of these patients. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome/mevalonate kinase deficiency (HIDS/MVKD) are the more common autoinflammatory diseases that are characterized by periodic fevers and attacks of inflammation. Recently much collaborative work has been done to understand the characteristics of these patients and to develop recommendations to guide the physicians in the care of these patients. These recent recommendations will be summarized for all four diseases. FMF is the most common periodic fever disease. We need to further understand the pathogenesis and the role of single mutations in the disease. Recently, the management and treatment of the disease have been nicely reviewed. CAPS is another interesting disease associated with severe complications. Anti-interleukin-1 (anti-IL-1) treatment provides cure for these patients. TRAPS is characterized by the longest delay in diagnosis; thus, both pediatricians and internists should be aware of the characteristic features and the follow-up of these patients. HIDS/MVKD is another autoinflammatory diseases characterized with fever attacks. The spectrum of disease manifestation is rather large in this disease, and we need further research on biomarkers for the optimal management of these patients.

  16. Vertebrate fauna of the Roman period, migrations period and Medieval period in Vojvodina (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmanović Darko P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on current published and unpublished research results, a total of 16 vertebrate species members of mammal (Mammalia, bird (Aves and osteichthyes (Osteichthyes classes have been registered at 11 archaeological sites from the Roman Period in Vojvodina. Mammals dominate with 12 species and one genus, birds are present with 3 species, and osteichthyes with one. From the Migration Period, at 9 sites, 22 vertebrate species have been registered, of which 13 species and one genus of mammals, 4 species and one genus of birds, and 5 species from the Osteichthyes class. At 8 sites from the Medieval Period, 16 vertebrate species have been registered. Mammals are the most numerous class with 10 species and one genus, while birds are present with 4 species and one genus. Furthermore, two species of osteichthyes have also been registered.

  17. Milk yield of some goat breeds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, goats are primarily bred for meat production. However, for the past twenty years the interest in goat milk production was based on imported breeds such as Alpine-French, Saanen and German Improved Fawn goat. The purpose of this paper is to establish litter size of the principal goat breeds in Croatia and the indicators related to milk yield and chemical composition. The largest average litter size has been determined on the German Improved Fawn (1.72, then with the Boer (1.54, the Saanen (1.53 and the Croatian coloured goat (1.51, while the Alpine-French goat was the smallest (1.31. The longest lactation period (259 days has been determined on the Alpine-French goat, while the largest milk yield during lactation (724.4 kg and the largest milk fat yield (20.16 kg and protein yield (18.64 kg have been determined on the Saanen goat. However, it has been established that the Alpine-French goat milk has the highest average fat content (3.55 %, while the German Improved Fawn’s milk has the highest protein content (3.23 %. The Saanen goat had the longest milking period (222 days and the shortest suckling period (32 days, while the Alpine-French and the German Improved Fawn had the longest suckling period (51 and 45 days, respectively. The lowest quantity of milk during the suckling period (102.97 kg, i.e. 14 % was suckled by Saanen kids, while the Alpine-French (122.08 kg, i.e. 22 % and the German Improved Fawn kids suckled the greatest quantity (116.31 kg, i.e. 22 %.

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of incubation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottino-Loffler, Bertrand; Scott, Jacob G; Strogatz, Steven H

    2017-12-21

    The incubation period for typhoid, polio, measles, leukemia and many other diseases follows a right-skewed, approximately lognormal distribution. Although this pattern was discovered more than sixty years ago, it remains an open question to explain its ubiquity. Here, we propose an explanation based on evolutionary dynamics on graphs. For simple models of a mutant or pathogen invading a network-structured population of healthy cells, we show that skewed distributions of incubation periods emerge for a wide range of assumptions about invader fitness, competition dynamics, and network structure. The skewness stems from stochastic mechanisms associated with two classic problems in probability theory: the coupon collector and the random walk. Unlike previous explanations that rely crucially on heterogeneity, our results hold even for homogeneous populations. Thus, we predict that two equally healthy individuals subjected to equal doses of equally pathogenic agents may, by chance alone, show remarkably different time courses of disease.

  19. Period of an Interrupted Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bradley E.

    2002-11-01

    While demonstrating a classic conservation-of-energy problem to my AP Physics students, I became curious about the periodic motion that ensued for certain initial conditions. The original problem consists of releasing a mass at the end of a string from an initial position horizontal to the plane of a table. The string comes in contact with a peg some distance below the point where the string is attached at the top. One is asked to find what minimum fraction of the string's length should the peg be placed to have the mass complete a circle about the peg. However, when the mass is released from much lower heights, the system undergoes periodic motion that can be thought of as an interrupted pendulum.

  20. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  1. On nonlinear periodic drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauschke, U.; Schlueter, H.

    1990-09-01

    Nonlinear periodic drift waves are investigated on the basis of a simple perturbation scheme for both the amplitude and inverse frequency. The coefficients for the generation of the forced harmonics are derived, a nonlinear dispersion relation is suggested and a criterion for the onset of the modulational instability is obtained. The results are compared with the ones obtained with the help of a standard KBM-treatment. Moreover cnoidal drift waves are suggested and compared to an experimental observation. (orig.)

  2. Long Period Seismological Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-31

    in central Asia as observed at the high-gain long- period sites. Preliminary results from observations at Chiang Mai (CHG) show that the complexity...Preliminary results from observations at Chiang Mai (CHG) show that the complexity of the surface wave signals from many events in the Tadzhik-Kirgiz...and receivers. A number of Interesting features can be illustrated by examining portions of three selsmograms recorded at Chiang Mai (CHO

  3. Spatially variant periodic structures in electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Raymond C.; Pazos, Javier J.; Digaum, Jennefir L.; Kuebler, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial transforms are a popular technique for designing periodic structures that are macroscopically inhomogeneous. The structures are often required to be anisotropic, provide a magnetic response, and to have extreme values for the constitutive parameters in Maxwell's equations. Metamaterials and photonic crystals are capable of providing these, although sometimes only approximately. The problem still remains about how to generate the geometry of the final lattice when it is functionally graded, or spatially varied. This paper describes a simple numerical technique to spatially vary any periodic structure while minimizing deformations to the unit cells that would weaken or destroy the electromagnetic properties. New developments in this algorithm are disclosed that increase efficiency, improve the quality of the lattices and provide the ability to design aplanatic metasurfaces. The ability to spatially vary a lattice in this manner enables new design paradigms that are not possible using spatial transforms, three of which are discussed here. First, spatially variant self-collimating photonic crystals are shown to flow unguided waves around very tight bends using ordinary materials with low refractive index. Second, multi-mode waveguides in spatially variant band gap materials are shown to guide waves around bends without mixing power between the modes. Third, spatially variant anisotropic materials are shown to sculpt the near-field around electric components. This can be used to improve electromagnetic compatibility between components in close proximity. PMID:26217058

  4. Long-Period Solar Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAUTHIER,JOHN H.

    2000-07-20

    Terrestrial climate records and historical observations of the Sun suggest that the Sun undergoes aperiodic oscillations in radiative output and size over time periods of centuries and millenia. Such behavior can be explained by the solar convective zone acting as a nonlinear oscillator, forced at the sunspot-cycle frequency by variations in heliomagnetic field strength. A forced variant of the Lorenz equations can generate a time series with the same characteristics as the solar and climate records. The timescales and magnitudes of oscillations that could be caused by this mechanism are consistent with what is known about the Sun and terrestrial climate.

  5. Pairs of dual periodic frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2012-01-01

    The time–frequency analysis of a signal is often performed via a series expansion arising from well-localized building blocks. Typically, the building blocks are based on frames having either Gabor or wavelet structure. In order to calculate the coefficients in the series expansion, a dual frame...... is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide constructions of dual pairs of frames in the setting of the Hilbert space of periodic functions L2(0,2π). The frames constructed are given explicitly as trigonometric polynomials, which allows for an efficient calculation of the coefficients...

  6. Periodic dynamics in queuing networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addabbo, Tommaso [Information Engineering Department, University of Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: addabbo@dii.unisi.it; Kocarev, Ljupco [Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, bul. Krste Misirkov 2, P.O. Box 428, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)], E-mail: lkocarev@ucsd.edu

    2009-08-30

    This paper deals with state-dependent open Markovian (or exponential) queuing networks, for which arrival and service rates, as well as routing probabilities, may depend on the queue lengths. For a network of this kind, following Mandelbaum and Pats, we provide a formal definition of its associated fluid model, and we focus on the relationships which may occur between the network stochastic dynamics and the deterministic dynamics of its corresponding fluid model, particularly focusing on queuing networks whose fluid models have global periodic attractors.

  7. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  8. Forgiveness in the intertestamental period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Mong Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests answers to the following questions: what are the characteristics of God�s forgiveness in the intertestamental literature and what connection do these characteristics have with the Old Testament? Important passages in the late Second Temple period that expose the characteristics of God�s forgiveness, such as certain Qumran texts (1QH 12:35�37, 1QH 13:2 and the Damascus Document 14:18�19, the writings of Philo and Josephus, the Apocrypha and the Pseudepigrapha, are investigated for this purpose.

  9. Novas tecnologias, novas mídias, velhas dificuldades: aprimorando a interface com o usuário para a escolha de base de dados ou periódicosNew technologies, new medias, old dificulties: improving the user interface to choose a research database or periodical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina de Freitas Griebler

    2007-01-01

    popularization of these technologies, manydocuments are now available in both printed and electronic format. As the number of available documents increases, new questions arise: how can one improve the user interface for better choosing a database? Which databases contain the desired periodic?Is a given periodic heading indexed by more than one database? Is the complete periodic available or only its summary? Which database must be queried on a specific subject? Librarians of North American universities had proposed some solutions to these questions by essentially trying to simplify and optimize the search in the librarycatalogues (Online Public Access Catalogue - OPAC. The present work proposes the application of the North American idea in the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS library system. More specifically, we would like to provide a high-levelinterface for automatically combining the user’s searches simultaneously to the UFRGS library system, to the entire set of databases available through the Portal.periodicos from CAPES, and to the free databases available on the Internet.

  10. Periodic weather and climate variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir V

    2002-01-01

    Variations in meteorological parameters are largely due to periodic processes and can be forecast for several years. Many such processes are related to astronomical factors such as the gravitational influences of the Moon and the Sun, and the modulation of solar irradiance by lunar and planetary motion. The Moon, Jupiter, and Venus have the strongest effect. These influences produce lines in the spectra of meteorological variations, which are combinations of the harmonics of the frequencies of revolution of the planets, the Earth, and the Moon around the Sun with the harmonics of the lunar revolution around the Earth. Due to frequency differences between the orbital and radial motions, fine spectral features of three types appear: line splitting, line-profile complications due to radial oscillations, and additional lines due to the combination of radial-oscillation frequencies with perturbation harmonics. (reviews of topical problems)

  11. The periodic table in Flatland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.

    1995-01-01

    The D-dimensional Coulomb system serves as a starting point for generating generalized atomic shells. These shells are ordered according to a generalized Madelung rule in D dimensions. This rule together with an Aufbau Prinzip is applied to produce a D-dimensional periodic table. A model is developed to rationalize the ordering of the shells predicted by the generalized Madelung rule. This model is based on the introduction of an Hamiltonian, invariant under the q-deformed algebra U q (so(D)), that breaks down the SO (D + 1) dynamical symmetry of the hydrogen atom in D dimensions. The D = 2 case (Flatland) is investigated with some details. It is shown that the neutral atoms and the (moderately) positive ions correspond to the values q = 0.8 and q = 1, respectively, of the deformation parameter q. (authors). 55 refs

  12. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  13. A periodic table for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit differences in metastatic behavior and drug sensitivity that correlate with certain tumor-specific variables such as differentiation grade, growth rate/extent and molecular regulatory aberrations. In practice, patient management is based on the past results of clinical trials adjusted for these biomarkers. Here, it is proposed that treatment strategies could be fine-tuned upfront simply by quantifying tumorigenic spatial (cell growth) and temporal (genetic stability) control losses, as predicted by genetic defects of cell-cycle-regulatory gatekeeper and genome-stabilizing caretaker tumor suppressor genes, respectively. These differential quantifications of tumor dysfunction may in turn be used to create a tumor-specific 'periodic table' that guides rational formulation of survival-enhancing anticancer treatment strategies.

  14. Evaluation of the reproductive performance of crossbred zebu cattle under artificial insemination through the use of progesterone RIA in Venezuela and its improvement with temporary calf removal and progesterone implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Belloso, E.; Portillo Martinez, G.; De Ondiz, A.; Rojas, N.; Soto Castillo, G.; Aranguren, J.; Ramirez Iglesia, L.; Perera, F.

    2001-01-01

    A survey was carried out to evaluate the reproductive performance of crossbred zebu cattle under artificial insemination (AI). Defatted milk samples were taken for progesterone radioimmunoassay at the moment of AI (day 0), 10 days and 22 days after AI and at manual pregnancy diagnosis. Six farms located in the western region of Venezuela were used in this study and a total of 600 AI were included. The calving to first service interval (CFSI) and the calving to conception interval (CCI) showed no significant differences between the hand milking (suckling) and machine milking (non suckling) systems. However, significant differences (P<0.05) were found among farms within the traditional and hand milking system. The mean (± SEM) CFSI for first calving heifers and for cows with second or higher parity was 141.9 ± 6.9 and 71.8 ± 4.2 days (P<0.05), and the CCI for these two groups was 154 ± 8.9 and 80.8 ± 5.5 days (P<0.05), respectively. Cows calving in the dry season had CFSI and CCI of 115.4 ± 5.2 and 123.8 ± 6.8 days, while for those calving in the rainy season the intervals were 98.3 ± 5.5 and 111.1 ± 7.2 days respectively (P<0.05). Predominantly Bos indicus cows had shorter CFSI and CCI (P<0.05) than predominantly Bos taurus cows. Overall conception rate, analyzed by Chi-square, showed significant differences due to predominant breed and parity. Correct heat detection, as determined by low progesterone levels at AI, was 95.5% in the best farm and 83.3% in the worst farm. The results of this study identify a postpartum anoestrus problem, especially in the first calf heifers with an important effect of season, breed, farm, and heat detection on the reproductive efficiency of farms under AI. After this survey a study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of calf removal for 96 hours compared with treatment using norgestomet implants and PMSG for oestrus induction and fertility in crossbred primiparous acyclic zebu. cows which were suckled twice a day

  15. Dynamical diffraction in periodic multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, V F

    1997-01-01

    Exact reflectivity curves are calculated numerically for various periodic multilayers using the optical matrix method in order to test the dynamical theory of diffraction. The theory is generally valid for values of the bilayer thickness d up to about 100 A. For somewhat larger values of d, where the theory begins to break down, the initial discrepancy is in the phase of the oscillations in the wings of the peaks. For very large values of d, where the first-order Bragg peak approaches the edge of the mirror reflection, two general types of multilayers can be distinguished. In the first (typified in the present work by Ni/Ti), there is a large (30% or more) reduction in the actual value of the critical wave vector for total reflection while, in the second (typified here by Fe/Ge), there is very little reduction (3 % or so). The origin of these two very different types of behavior is explained. It is also shown that, within the dynamical theory of diffraction, the change in the position of the center of the Dar...

  16. Crystallography beyond periodic Crystal perfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez-Rams, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The discovery of the quasi-crystals [D. Schechtman et. Al., Phys.] Rev. Lett. [53, 1951-1953 (1984)] made very narrow definition of the crystalline state based on the periodicity of a local arrangement of atoms. Since the definition of this State has been a matter of much controversy [G.R. Desiraju, Nature 423, 485 (2003); S. van Smaalen, IUCR Aperiodic Commission Reports. August 7, 2002; International Union of Crystallography. Report of the Executive Committee for 1991; ACTA Cryst. A48, 922-946 (1992)]. We will make a presentation of the current time of the crystallography in this regard from the conceptual point of view. We show the use of the formalism of algorithmic complexity or Kolmogorov [M. Li and P. Vitanyi, An Introduction to Kolmogorov Complexity and Its Applications (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 1993), W.H. Zurek, Phys.] Rev. 40, 4731 (1989); Nature 341, 119-124 (1989)] provides a different perspective on the nature of the Crystallographic order. Infinite crystals can be considered solid with zero algorithmic complexities by atom. Show statistical analysis of inorganic compounds [J.L.C. Daams et al., Atlas of Crystal Structure Types for Intermetallic Phases (ASM International, Ohio, 1991), Fachinformationszentrum/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database, Karlsruhe (2003) icsd.fkf.mpg.de] demonstrating that the minimization of complexity is a trend in the crystalline arrangement. We will then compare the degree of disorder of some typical solids according to their algorithmic complexity. Finally, space diffraction will be studied from this same perspective and will be discussed that zero algorithmic complexities by point in space of diffraction does not necessarily imply the same thing for the Atomic arrangement. The discrete portion of the diffraction pattern is a fingerprint of the underlying order but not the actual existence of long-range order. Experimental results will be showcased [E. Estévez-Rams et al., Physical Review B, 63 (2001

  17. Periodic precursors of nonlinear dynamical transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yu; Dong Shihai; Lozada-Cassou, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study the resonant response of a nonlinear system to external periodic perturbations. We show by numerical simulation that the periodic resonance curve may anticipate the dynamical instability of the unperturbed nonlinear periodic system, at parameter values far away from the bifurcation points. In the presence of noise, the buried intrinsic periodic dynamics can be picked out by analyzing the system's response to periodic modulation of appropriate intensity

  18. Shortening of construction period of nuclear power plant. Activities of construction industry on construction period shortening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Total construction period could be shorten by prefabricating structures efficiently in another yard and reducing working hours on site, which would reduce work at height or congestion work and also upgrade safety at work. Construction period shortening would surely reduce expenses during work and advance operation start of electric utilities. Construction of reactor building, turbine building, water intake and drainage canal was performed on a relatively large scale and a big share of whole schedule. This article summarized basic technologies to shorten construction period for reactor building/turbine building and water intake and drainage canal. Advanced methods of reactor building/turbine building; (1) modularization of equipment and skeleton, (2) utilization of concrete mold, reinforcing bar and steel frame, (3) precedent steel frame method and (4) steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) method, were outlined and their application examples were shown to reduce work on site and improve work efficiency. As for water intake and drainage canal construction, (1) precast concrete method, (2) SC method and (3) steel plate shell method were described with application examples. Construction procedures and problems using mega block method for water intake and drainage canal were also introduced. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Krsko periodic safety review project prioritization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Vrbanic, I.; Spiler, J.; Lambright, J.

    2004-01-01

    Definition of a Krsko Periodic Safety Review (PSR) project is a comprehensive safety review of a plant after last ten years of operation. The objective is a verification by means of a comprehensive review using current methods that Krsko NPP remains safety when judged against current safety objectives and practices and that adequate arrangements are in place to maintain plant safety. This objective encompasses the three main criteria or goals: confirmation that the plant is as safe as originally intended, determination if there are any structures, systems or components that could limit the life of the plant in the foreseeable future, and comparison the plant against modern safety standards and to identify where improvements would be beneficial at justifiable cost. Krsko PSR project is structured in the three phases: Phase 1: Preparation of Detailed 10-years PSR Program, Phase 2: Performing of 10-years PSR Program and preparing of associated documents (2001-2003), and Phase 3: Implementation of the prioritized compensatory measures and modifications (development of associated EEAR, DMP, etc.) after agreement with the SNSA on the design, procedures and time-scales (2004-2008). This paper presents the NEK PSR results of work performed under Phase 2 focused on the ranking of safety issues and prioritization of corrective measures needed for establishing an efficient action plan. Safety issues were identified in Phase 2 during the following review processes: Periodic Safety Review (PSR) task; Krsko NPP Regulatory Compliance Program (RCP) review; Westinghouse Owner Group (WOG) catalog items screening/review; SNSA recommendations (including IAEA RAMP mission suggestions/recommendations).(author)

  20. Periodic Poisson Solver for Particle Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohlus, M.; Henning, C.

    2015-05-01

    A method is described to solve the Poisson problem for a three dimensional source distribution that is periodic into one direction. Perpendicular to the direction of periodicity a free space (or open) boundary is realized. In beam physics, this approach allows to calculate the space charge field of a continualized charged particle distribution with periodic pattern. The method is based on a particle mesh approach with equidistant grid and fast convolution with a Green's function. The periodic approach uses only one period of the source distribution, but a periodic extension of the Green's function. The approach is numerically efficient and allows the investigation of periodic- and pseudo-periodic structures with period lengths that are small compared to the source dimensions, for instance of laser modulated beams or of the evolution of micro bunch structures. Applications for laser modulated beams are given.

  1. Optimization of the commissioning period of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Ganglian; Li Chunyue

    2014-01-01

    Due to current equipment manufacture capacity, construction experience and other factors, commissioning of nuclear power projects was used to be postponed, which could lead to delay of the whole project. Based on the actual situation, optimization of commissioning period and its logic could be an effective way to improve this situation to some extent. Based on previous practice and experience in the schedule management for the commissioning nuclear power projects, this paper analyzes and discusses the characteristics of make commissioning plan and the difficulties of program implementation and strategies of commissioning plan optimization, discusses and presents ways of dynamic plan adjustment and optimization at the vision of entire project, synthesizes the methods of time management through commissioning itself, interface and management, expounds measures for the timing and optimization of commissioning schedule and commissioning period, and sums up the ways of optimization of commissioning period, improving management capabilities and control of optimization principles. (authors)

  2. Unstable periodic orbits and chaotic economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, K.; Saiki, Y.

    2005-01-01

    We numerically find many unstable periodic solutions embedded in a chaotic attractor in a macroeconomic growth cycle model of two countries with different fiscal policies, and we focus on a special type of the unstable periodic solutions. It is confirmed that chaotic behavior represented by the model is qualitatively and quantitatively related to the unstable periodic solutions. We point out that the structure of a chaotic solution is dissolved into a class of finite unstable periodic solutions picked out among a large number of periodic solutions. In this context it is essential for the unstable periodic solutions to be embedded in the chaotic attractor

  3. Multi-Scale Peak and Trough Detection Optimised for Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Neuroscience Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Steven M; Ercole, Ari

    2018-01-01

    The reliable detection of peaks and troughs in physiological signals is essential to many investigative techniques in medicine and computational biology. Analysis of the intracranial pressure (ICP) waveform is a particular challenge due to multi-scale features, a changing morphology over time and signal-to-noise limitations. Here we present an efficient peak and trough detection algorithm that extends the scalogram approach of Scholkmann et al., and results in greatly improved algorithm runtime performance. Our improved algorithm (modified Scholkmann) was developed and analysed in MATLAB R2015b. Synthesised waveforms (periodic, quasi-periodic and chirp sinusoids) were degraded with white Gaussian noise to achieve signal-to-noise ratios down to 5 dB and were used to compare the performance of the original Scholkmann and modified Scholkmann algorithms. The modified Scholkmann algorithm has false-positive (0%) and false-negative (0%) detection rates identical to the original Scholkmann when applied to our test suite. Actual compute time for a 200-run Monte Carlo simulation over a multicomponent noisy test signal was 40.96 ± 0.020 s (mean ± 95%CI) for the original Scholkmann and 1.81 ± 0.003 s (mean ± 95%CI) for the modified Scholkmann, demonstrating the expected improvement in runtime complexity from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]. The accurate interpretation of waveform data to identify peaks and troughs is crucial in signal parameterisation, feature extraction and waveform identification tasks. Modification of a standard scalogram technique has produced a robust algorithm with linear computational complexity that is particularly suited to the challenges presented by large, noisy physiological datasets. The algorithm is optimised through a single parameter and can identify sub-waveform features with minimal additional overhead, and is easily adapted to run in real time on commodity hardware.

  4. Periodic radio variability in NRAO 530: phase dispersion minimization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Junchao; Lin Jiming; Qiu Hongbing; Wang Junyi; An Tao

    2012-01-01

    A periodicity analysis of the radio light curves of the blazar NRAO 530 at 14.5, 8.0, and 4.8 GHz is presented employing an improved phase dispersion minimization technique. The result, which shows two persistent periodic components of ∼ 6 and ∼ 10 yr at all three frequencies, is consistent with the results obtained with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet Z-transform algorithms. The reliability of the derived periodicities is confirmed by the Monte Carlo numerical simulations which show a high statistical confidence. (Quasi-)Periodic fluctuations of the radio luminosity of NRAO 530 might be associated with the oscillations of the accretion disk triggered by hydrodynamic instabilities of the accreted flow. (research papers)

  5. Depression in pregnancy and postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Mamta; Sood, A K

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in a service hospital, with the aim to study the prevalence and incidence of depression in pregnancy and postpartum period. Eighty Four consecutive patients attending the antenatal outpatient in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology department in their last trimester of pregnancy were recruited for the study. They were assessed on Beck Depression Inventory thrice viz. during third trimester of pregnancy, within 3 days of delivery (early postpartum period) & within 4-8 weeks of delivery (late postpartum period).The prevalence of depression was 8.3%, 20% and 12.8% respectively at three ratings. The incidence was 16% and 10% in the early & late postpartum period respectively. Further analysis revealed that depression in pregnancy correlated significantly with depression in early postpartum period, but not with late postpartum period. Depression in early postpartum period correlated with depression in late postpartum period.These findings have implications for early detection and care of women at risk for developing depression.

  6. Periodic solutions of nonlinear vibrating beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Berkovits

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove new existence and multiplicity results for periodic semilinear beam equation with a nonlinear time-independent perturbation in case the period is not prescribed. Since the spectrum of the linear part varies with the period, the solvability of the equation depends crucially on the period which can be chosen as a free parameter. Since the period of the external forcing is generally unknown a priori, we consider the following natural problem. For a given time-independent nonlinearity, find periods T for which the equation is solvable for any T-periodic forcing. We will also deal with the existence of multiple solutions when the nonlinearity interacts with the spectrum of the linear part. We show that under certain conditions multiple solutions do exist for any small forcing term with suitable period T. The results are obtained via generalized Leray-Schauder degree and reductions to invariant subspaces.

  7. Specific features of elite bodybuilders’ training process in competition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Tihorsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To substantiate methodic of training process construction for elite bodybuilders in competition period with usage of different training methods. Material: elite bodybuilders - members of combined team of Ukraine (n=16 participated in the research. Results: we presented comparative characteristic of the most often used bodybuilding training methodic. Besides, optimal training methodic in competition period was worked out and substantiated. Such methodic permits to improve body proportions at the account of fat layer reduction. By the data of Harvard step-test the sportsmen improved organism’s functional potentials by 6%. Conclusions: the offered methodic noticeably reduces probability of functional unfavorable states (over-training, overloading, traumas. The methodic permits to achieve the required sport form without over-tension adaptation-compensatory mechanisms and acquire maximal muscular relief; improve proportions with minimal losses of muscles’ volume.

  8. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide to form a substance consisting of not less than 60 percent by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240 Food... Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in...

  9. 39 CFR 121.2 - Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periodicals. 121.2 Section 121.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.2 Periodicals. (a) End-to-End. (1) For all SCF turnaround Periodicals properly...

  10. 27 CFR 70.244 - Payroll period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payroll period. 70.244... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.244 Payroll period. For purpose of determining the... established calendar period regularly used by the employer or other person levied upon for payroll or payment...

  11. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may choose its budget period in consultation with and subject to the approval of the Regional Administrator. ...

  12. 10 CFR 603.1295 - Periodic audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic audit. 603.1295 Section 603.1295 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1295 Periodic audit. An audit of a participant, performed at an agreed-upon... an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a participant differs from an award-specific audit of an...

  13. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a participant...

  14. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal apparatus...

  15. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142) for...

  16. Effects of newborn characteristics and length of colostrum feeding period on passive immune transfer in goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, N; Capote, J; Morales-Delanuez, A; Rodríguez, C; Argüello, A

    2009-04-01

    Majorera goat kids (n = 200) were used to evaluate the effects of litter size, birth body weight, sex, and suckling duration on serum IgG concentrations. Kids were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental groups: litter size and sex were equally distributed in each group. In the first group, kids (n = 67) stayed with their dams for 24 h; in the second group, kids (n = 66) stayed with their dams for 48 h; and in the third group, kids (n = 67) stayed with their dams for 120 h. Blood samples were obtained every 24 h for 5 d, and serum IgG concentration was measured using radial immunodiffusion. In litter sizes of 1 to 2 kids, IgG blood serum concentration was significantly higher (18.30 +/- 5.40 mg/mL) than in litters of 3 kids (9.85 +/- 4.23 mg/mL). Kid sex did not affect IgG blood serum concentrations. Suckling duration did not affect kid serum IgG concentrations. In conclusion, kids with low birth body weight (kids are allowed to suckle colostrum for at least 24 h from their dams, this seems to be sufficient time to ingest enough IgG from colostrum to achieve an adequate serum IgG concentration and passive immune protection to avoid failure of passive immune transfer.

  17. Handgun waiting periods reduce gun deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Michael; Malhotra, Deepak; Poliquin, Christopher

    2017-11-14

    Handgun waiting periods are laws that impose a delay between the initiation of a purchase and final acquisition of a firearm. We show that waiting periods, which create a "cooling off" period among buyers, significantly reduce the incidence of gun violence. We estimate the impact of waiting periods on gun deaths, exploiting all changes to state-level policies in the Unites States since 1970. We find that waiting periods reduce gun homicides by roughly 17%. We provide further support for the causal impact of waiting periods on homicides by exploiting a natural experiment resulting from a federal law in 1994 that imposed a temporary waiting period on a subset of states. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. A highly specific test for periodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansmann, Gerrit, E-mail: gansmann@uni-bonn.de [Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Helmholtz Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Physics, University of Bonn, Nussallee 14–16, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Interdisciplinary Center for Complex Systems, University of Bonn, Brühler Straße 7, 53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    We present a method that allows to distinguish between nearly periodic and strictly periodic time series. To this purpose, we employ a conservative criterion for periodicity, namely, that the time series can be interpolated by a periodic function whose local extrema are also present in the time series. Our method is intended for the analysis of time series generated by deterministic time-continuous dynamical systems, where it can help telling periodic dynamics from chaotic or transient ones. We empirically investigate our method's performance and compare it to an approach based on marker events (or Poincaré sections). We demonstrate that our method is capable of detecting small deviations from periodicity and outperforms the marker-event-based approach in typical situations. Our method requires no adjustment of parameters to the individual time series, yields the period length with a precision that exceeds the sampling rate, and its runtime grows asymptotically linear with the length of the time series.

  19. A highly specific test for periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansmann, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    We present a method that allows to distinguish between nearly periodic and strictly periodic time series. To this purpose, we employ a conservative criterion for periodicity, namely, that the time series can be interpolated by a periodic function whose local extrema are also present in the time series. Our method is intended for the analysis of time series generated by deterministic time-continuous dynamical systems, where it can help telling periodic dynamics from chaotic or transient ones. We empirically investigate our method's performance and compare it to an approach based on marker events (or Poincaré sections). We demonstrate that our method is capable of detecting small deviations from periodicity and outperforms the marker-event-based approach in typical situations. Our method requires no adjustment of parameters to the individual time series, yields the period length with a precision that exceeds the sampling rate, and its runtime grows asymptotically linear with the length of the time series

  20. Performance of the periodic pulse technique--4. Periodic pulse reaction kinetics of oxidative dehydrogenation of isobutyraldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, T.; Ii, M.; Murakami, Y.

    1980-07-01

    The periodic pulse method was used to study the reaction mechanism and kinetics of the oxidative dehydrogenation of isobutyraldehyde (IBA) by following the formation rates of methacrolein (MA), carbon monoxide and dioxide (CO/sub x/), and other products (P) as a function of pulse widths and reactant partial pressures at 350/sup 0/C over a 2:3 antimony oxide/molybdenum trioxide catalyst. The results were consistent with a mechanism according to which IBA reacts with oxygen retained by the catalyst to form MA, causing reduction of the catalyst. The IBA also adsorbed on the surface as an oxygenated species which either reacted with gas-phase oxygen to form CO/sub x/ or desorbed as an oxygenated P. The reduced catalyst surface was reoxidized by oxygen adsorption. Implications of catalyst tailoring for increased MA yields by improving the redox mechanism and inhibiting the surface reactions, are discussed.

  1. Modeling Interdependent and Periodic Real-World Action Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashima, Takeshi; Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2018-01-01

    Mobile health applications, including those that track activities such as exercise, sleep, and diet, are becoming widely used. Accurately predicting human actions in the real world is essential for targeted recommendations that could improve our health and for personalization of these applications. However, making such predictions is extremely difficult due to the complexities of human behavior, which consists of a large number of potential actions that vary over time, depend on each other, and are periodic. Previous work has not jointly modeled these dynamics and has largely focused on item consumption patterns instead of broader types of behaviors such as eating, commuting or exercising. In this work, we develop a novel statistical model, called TIPAS, for Time-varying, Interdependent, and Periodic Action Sequences. Our approach is based on personalized, multivariate temporal point processes that model time-varying action propensities through a mixture of Gaussian intensities. Our model captures short-term and long-term periodic interdependencies between actions through Hawkes process-based self-excitations. We evaluate our approach on two activity logging datasets comprising 12 million real-world actions (e.g., eating, sleep, and exercise) taken by 20 thousand users over 17 months. We demonstrate that our approach allows us to make successful predictions of future user actions and their timing. Specifically, TIPAS improves predictions of actions, and their timing, over existing methods across multiple datasets by up to 156%, and up to 37%, respectively. Performance improvements are particularly large for relatively rare and periodic actions such as walking and biking, improving over baselines by up to 256%. This demonstrates that explicit modeling of dependencies and periodicities in real-world behavior enables successful predictions of future actions, with implications for modeling human behavior, app personalization, and targeting of health interventions. PMID

  2. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  3. The Dynamic Multi-Period Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min; Cordeau, Jean-Francois; Laporte, Gilbert

    This paper considers the Dynamic Multi-Period Vehicle Routing Problem which deals with the distribution of orders from a depot to a set of customers over a multi-period time horizon. Customer orders and their feasible service periods are dynamically revealed over time. The objectives are to minim......This paper considers the Dynamic Multi-Period Vehicle Routing Problem which deals with the distribution of orders from a depot to a set of customers over a multi-period time horizon. Customer orders and their feasible service periods are dynamically revealed over time. The objectives...... are to minimize total travel costs and customer waiting, and to balance the daily workload over the planning horizon. This problem originates from a large distributor operating in Sweden. It is modeled as a mixed integer linear program, and solved by means of a three-phase heuristic that works over a rolling...... planning horizon. The multi-objective aspect of the problem is handled through a scalar technique approach. Computational results show that our solutions improve upon those of the Swedish distributor....

  4. Periodicity of TLD badge personnel monitoring service in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kher, R.K.; Joshi, V.D.; Kaushik, Aruna; Sharma, Amiy; Chatterjee, S.

    2003-01-01

    The periodicity of an individual monitoring service is an important aspect. Presently minimum period for TLD badge service is maintained as 'calendar month' and choice of quarterly service is also offered. The periodicity of the TLD service for a given category/application type of institution, is to be fixed taking into account level of average occupational doses in all or typical institutions of given category and other information indicating the status of safety and possible fluctuations of exposure levels and potential for overexposure cases. This paper presents the status on the periodicity of TLD Badge Service as is evolved and adopted for the four broad categories i.e. DAE (Nuclear Fuel Cycle) Institutions, Industrial, Medical, Research institutions. It is concluded that quarterly service is a convenient option for institution categories where type of work/workload, and work practices are such that occupational exposures could be normally kept below about one mSv or so in the monitoring period, average annual dose less than 1 mSv and persons receiving annual dose >10 mSv is less than 1% of total in the category. Also, the judicious use of the flexibility in the periodicity of TLD Badge service would help (i) to keep the monitoring related workload to the optimum for the monitoring units and (ii) to keep the expenses incurred by the institution towards monitoring to the minimum without sacrificing radiation safety (iii) to focus the extra monitoring efforts on the applications/situations requiring improvement in radiation safety. (author)

  5. Discrete symmetries in periodic-orbit theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The application of periodic-orbit theory to systems which possess a discrete symmetry is considered. A semiclassical expression for the symmetry-projected Green's function is obtained; it involves a sum over classical periodic orbits on a symmetry-reduced phase space, weighted by characters of the symmetry group. These periodic orbits correspond to trajectories on the full phase space which are not necessarily periodic, but whose end points are related by symmetry. If the symmetry-projected Green's functions are summed, the contributions of the unperiodic orbits cancel, and one recovers the usual periodic-orbit sum for the full Green's function. Several examples are considered, including the stadium billiard, a particle in a periodic potential, the Sinai billiard, the quartic oscillator, and the rotational spectrum of SF 6

  6. Southern hemisphere searches for short period pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchester, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    Two searches of the southern sky for short period pulsars are briefly described. The first, made using the 64-m telescope at Parkes, is sensitive to pulsars with periods greater than about 10 ms and the second, made using the Molonglo radio telescope, has sensitivity down to periods of about 1.5 ms. Four pulsars were found in the Parkes survey and none in the Molonglo survey, although analysis of the latter is as yet incomplete. 10 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  7. Long-Period Variability in o Ceti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Karovska, Margarita

    2009-02-01

    We carried out a new and sensitive search for long-period variability in the prototype of the Mira class of long-period pulsating variables, o Ceti (Mira A), the closest and brightest Mira variable. We conducted this search using an unbroken light curve from 1902 to the present, assembled from the visual data archives of five major variable star observing organizations from around the world. We applied several time-series analysis techniques to search for two specific kinds of variability: long secondary periods (LSPs) longer than the dominant pulsation period of ~333 days, and long-term period variation in the dominant pulsation period itself. The data quality is sufficient to detect coherent periodic variations with photometric amplitudes of 0.05 mag or less. We do not find evidence for coherent LSPs in o Ceti to a limit of 0.1 mag, where the amplitude limit is set by intrinsic, stochastic, low-frequency variability of approximately 0.1 mag. We marginally detect a slight modulation of the pulsation period similar in timescale to that observed in the Miras with meandering periods, but with a much lower period amplitude of ±2 days. However, we do find clear evidence of a low-frequency power-law component in the Fourier spectrum of o Ceti's long-term light curve. The amplitude of this stochastic variability is approximately 0.1 mag at a period of 1000 days, and it exhibits a turnover for periods longer than this. This spectrum is similar to the red noise spectra observed in red supergiants.

  8. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution to BAM neural networks with periodic coefficients and continuously distributed delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tiejun; Chen Anping; Zhou Yuyuan

    2005-01-01

    By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and Liapunov function, we obtain some sufficient criteria to ensure the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution to the bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with periodic coefficients and continuously distributed delays. These results improve and generalize the works of papers [J. Cao, L. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 61 (2000) 1825] and [Z. Liu, A. Chen, J. Cao, L. Huang, IEEE Trans. Circuits Systems I 50 (2003) 1162]. An example is given to illustrate that the criteria are feasible

  9. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution to BAM neural networks with periodic coefficients and continuously distributed delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, distributed delays [rapid communication] T.; Chen, A.; Zhou, Y.

    2005-08-01

    By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and Liapunov function, we obtain some sufficient criteria to ensure the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution to the bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with periodic coefficients and continuously distributed delays. These results improve and generalize the works of papers [J. Cao, L. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 61 (2000) 1825] and [Z. Liu, A. Chen, J. Cao, L. Huang, IEEE Trans. Circuits Systems I 50 (2003) 1162]. An example is given to illustrate that the criteria are feasible.

  10. Epidural Analgesia in the Postoperative Period

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathsen, Curtis

    2001-01-01

    .... This descriptive study was conducted to determine which surgical patients experienced the most analgesia with the fewest side effects when receiving epidural analgesia in the postoperative period...

  11. Project 2nd Periodic Report - Section 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healy, Mark; Knowles, Emma; Johnstone, Cameron

    The work described in this publication has received support from the European Community - Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 “Capacities” Specific Programme through grant agreement number 262552, MaRINET. Project Periodic Report. 2nd Period: October 2012 – March 2014 inclusive.......The work described in this publication has received support from the European Community - Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 “Capacities” Specific Programme through grant agreement number 262552, MaRINET. Project Periodic Report. 2nd Period: October 2012 – March 2014 inclusive....

  12. Periodic Continuing Disability Review Case Backlog

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Social Security Administration (SSA) conducts periodic CDRs to ensure that only those beneficiaries who remain disabled continue to receive monthly benefits. The...

  13. Current status of and problems in ice heat storage systems contribution to improving load rate. Contracts on Eco-Ice reached 240 cases by October 1997, an increase of 1.5 times over the same period of the previous year (Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc.); Fukaritsu kaizen ni kokensuru kori chikunetsu system no genjo to kadai. 1997 nendo 10 gatsu made no ekoaisu seiyaku wa 240 ken de tai zennen dokihi 1.5bai (Chubu Denryoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, M. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    This paper introduces activities performed by Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. on ice heat storage air conditioning systems. Chubu Electric Power has worked with concerted efforts particularly on proliferation of an ice heat storage type air conditioning system, called `Eco-Ice`. A `heat storage air conditioner group` has been established in the sales department of the head office, and `market development groups` in branch offices to advance the recommendation activities. The Eco-Ice has been publicized on TV commercials, and the `97 Electric Power Heat Storage Air Conditioning Fair was held. Individual discrete type models were added to the product line-up in fiscal 1995. In addition, because of the system economy having been improved as a result of the improvements in the governmental subsidy system, power charge system, and support system, the number of Eco-Ice contracts is increasing rapidly. Two-hundred and forty Eco-Ice systems were contracted from April to October 1997, which means that peak shift capacity reached 7887 kW. Compared with the same period of fiscal 1996, the number of contract increased by 74 cases or 45% , and the peak shift capacity increased by 3148 kW or 66%. 4 figs.

  14. Solution Methods for the Periodic Petrol Station Replenishment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Triki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the Periodic Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PPSRP over a T-day planning horizon and describe four heuristic methods for its solution. Even though all the proposed heuristics belong to the common partitioning-then-routing paradigm, they differ in assigning the stations to each day of the horizon. The resulting daily routing problems are then solved exactly until achieving optimalization. Moreover, an improvement procedure is also developed with the aim of ensuring a better quality solution. Our heuristics are tested and compared in two real-life cases, and our computational results show encouraging improvements with respect to a human planning solution

  15. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. (a) Annual income limitations; old-law pension. Where the right to old-law pension is payable under section...

  16. 46 CFR 403.115 - Accounting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting period. 403.115 Section 403.115 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.115 Accounting period. Each Association subject to this part shall maintain...

  17. 18 CFR 367.5 - Accounting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting period. 367.5 Section 367.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Instructions § 367.5 Accounting period. Each service company must keep its books on a monthly basis so that for...

  18. 24 CFR 221.775 - Option period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Option period. 221.775 Section 221.775 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... § 221.775 Option period. The mortgagee may exercise its option to assign within one year following the...

  19. 42 CFR 409.60 - Benefit periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefit periods. 409.60 Section 409.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Scope of Hospital Insurance Benefits § 409.60 Benefit periods. (a) When benefit...

  20. 28 CFR 524.75 - Periodic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periodic review. 524.75 Section 524.75... TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Central Inmate Monitoring (CIM) System § 524.75 Periodic review. The Warden shall ensure that the status of an inmate's CIM assignment is considered at each program review...

  1. 50 CFR 424.21 - Periodic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic review. 424.21 Section 424.21... SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists § 424.21 Periodic review. At least once every 5 years, the Secretary shall conduct a review of each listed species to determine whether it...

  2. Attractors for discrete periodic dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Franke; James F. Selgrade

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical framework is introduced to study attractors of discrete, nonautonomous dynamical systems which depend periodically on time. A structure theorem for such attractors is established which says that the attractor of a time-periodic dynamical system is the unin of attractors of appropriate autonomous maps. If the nonautonomous system is a perturbation of an...

  3. Discontinuous Spirals of Stable Periodic Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sack, Achim; Freire, Joana G.; Lindberg, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We report the experimental discovery of a remarkable organization of the set of self-generated periodic oscillations in the parameter space of a nonlinear electronic circuit. When control parameters are suitably tuned, the wave pattern complexity of the periodic oscillations is found to increase...

  4. Multi-periodic nanostructures for photon control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluge, Christian; Adam, Jost; Barié, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    We propose multi-periodic nanostructures yielded by superposition of multiple binary gratings for wide control over photon emission in thin-film devices. We present wavelength- and angle-resolved photoluminescence measurements of multi-periodically nanostructured organic light-emitting layers...

  5. Quantized gauge invariant periodic TDHF solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.-K.; Griffin, J.J.; Lichtner, P.C.; Dworzecka, M.

    1979-01-01

    Time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) is used to study steady state large amplitude nuclear collective motions, such as vibration and rotation. As is well known the small amplitude TDHF leads to the RPA equation. The analysis of periodicity in TDHF is not trivial because TDHF is a nonlinear theory and it is not known under what circumstances a nonlinear theory can support periodic solutions. It is also unknown whether such periodic solution, if they exist, form a continuous or a discrete set. But, these properties may be important in obtaining the energy spectrum of the collective states from the TDHF description. The periodicity and Gauge Invariant Periodicity of solutions are investigated for that class of models whose TDHF solutions depend on time through two parameters. In such models TDHF supports a continuous family of periodic solutions, but only a discrete subset of these is gauge invariant. These discrete Gauge Invariant Periodic solutions obey the Bohr-Summerfeld quantization rule. The energy spectrum of the Gauge Invariant Periodic solutions is compared with the exact eigenergies in one specific example

  6. 20 CFR 410.501 - Payment periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment periods. 410.501 Section 410.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.501 Payment periods. Benefits are paid to...

  7. Selecting Full-Text Undergraduate Periodicals Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Julie M.; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Examines how libraries and librarians can compare full-text general periodical indices, using ProQuest Direct, Periodical Abstracts (via Ovid), and EBSCOhost as examples. Explores breadth and depth of coverage; manipulation of results (email/download/print); ease of use (searching); and indexing quirks. (AEF)

  8. 20 CFR 655.205 - Recruitment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment period. 655.205 Section 655.205... FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.205 Recruitment period. (a) If the OFLC Administrator determines that the...

  9. Buffer Overflow Period in a MAP Queue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chydzinski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The buffer overflow period in a queue with Markovian arrival process (MAP and general service time distribution is investigated. The results include distribution of the overflow period in transient and stationary regimes and the distribution of the number of cells lost during the overflow interval. All theorems are illustrated via numerical calculations.

  10. Shock dynamics in layered periodic media

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.; Leveque, Randall J.

    2012-01-01

    of shock waves in a one-dimensional periodic layered medium by a computational study of time-reversibility and entropy evolution. We find that periodic layered media tend to inhibit shock formation. For small initial conditions and large impedance variation

  11. Survival period, infectivity and morphological composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... At the end of each maintenance period (hours), three clean albino mice were ... for up to 12 and 24 hours respectively were infective for the mice inoculation test. ... period (21.0days) higher peak parasitaemia (15-20 parasites per field) and higher population of slender forms.

  12. Online Periodic Table: A Cautionary Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izci, Kemal; Barrow, Lloyd H.; Thornhill, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to evaluate ten online periodic table sources for their accuracy and (b) to compare the types of information and links provided to users. Limited studies have been reported on online periodic table (Diener and Moore 2011; Slocum and Moore in "J Chem Educ" 86(10):1167, 2009). Chemistry students'…

  13. The periodic table of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that a periodic classification of elementary particles (eps) may be done with the basic properties of eps: viz. mass, spin and parity. Further application of spacing rule and GMO mass formulae show repetitions at very regular intervals. It is found that properties of eps are periodic function of rest mass. (author). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  14. The periodic table of elementary particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, B J [St. Anthony' s College, Shillong (India). Dept. of Physics

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that a periodic classification of elementary particles (eps) may be done with the basic properties of eps: viz. mass, spin and parity. Further application of spacing rule and GMO mass formulae show repetitions at very regular intervals. It is found that properties of eps are periodic function of rest mass. (author). 17 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. 12 CFR 226.7 - Periodic statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumer with a periodic statement that discloses the following items, to the extent applicable: (a... convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 226.7 Periodic statement. (a) Rules... consumers may obtain from the creditor more information about the balance computation method and how...

  16. 5 CFR 9901.512 - Probationary periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9901.512 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY... Probationary periods. (a) Initial probationary period. (1) An employee who is given a career, career...

  17. Resonances in a periodically driven bosonic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quelle, Anton; de Morais Smith, Cristiane

    2017-01-01

    Periodically driven systems are a common topic in modern physics. In optical lattices specifically, driving is at the origin of many interesting phenomena. However, energy is not conserved in driven systems, and under periodic driving, heating of a system is a real concern. In an effort to better

  18. Almost periodic Hamiltonians: an algebraic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.

    1981-07-01

    We develop, by analogy with the study of periodic potential, an algebraic theory for almost periodic hamiltonians, leading to a generalized Bloch theorem. This gives rise to results concerning the spectral measures of these operators in terms of those of the corresponding Bloch hamiltonians

  19. Period Variations for the Cepheid VZ Cyg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirorattanakul, Krittanon; Engle, Scott; Pepper, Joshua; Wells, Mark; Laney, Clifton D.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-12-01

    The Cepheid Period-Luminosity law is a key rung on the extragalactic distance ladder. However, numerous Cepheids are known to undergo period variations. Monitoring, refining, and understanding these period variations allows us to better determine the parameters of the Cepheids themselves and of the instability strip in which they reside, and to test models of stellar evolution. VZ Cyg, a classical Cepheid pulsating at ˜4.864 days, has been observed for over 100 years. Combining data from literature observations, the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) transit survey, and new targeted observations with the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak, we find a period change rate of dP/dt = -0.0642 ± 0.0018 s yr-1. However, when only the recent observations are examined, we find a much higher period change rate of dP/dt = -0.0923 ± 0.0110 s yr-1. This higher rate could be due to an apparent long-term (P ≈ 26.5 years) cyclic period variation. The possible interpretations of this single Cepheid’s complex period variations underscore both the need to regularly monitor pulsating variables and the important benefits that photometric surveys such as KELT can have on the field. Further monitoring of this interesting example of Cepheid variability is recommended to confirm and better understand the possible cyclic period variations. Further, Cepheid timing analyses are necessary to fully understand their current behaviors and parameters, as well as their evolutionary histories.

  20. David's Understanding of Functions and Periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Hope

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of David, a senior enrolled in a high school precalculus course. David's understandings of functions and periodicity was explored, through clinical interviews and contextualized through classroom observations. Although David's precalculus class was traditional his understanding of periodic functions was unconventional David engaged…

  1. Periodization Theory: Confronting an Inconvenient Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, John

    2018-04-01

    Periodization theory has, over the past seven decades, emerged as the preeminent training planning paradigm. The philosophical underpinnings of periodization theory can be traced back to the integration of diverse shaping influences, whereby coaching beliefs and traditions were blended with historically available scientific insights and contextualized against pervading social planning models. Since then, many dimensions of elite preparation have evolved significantly, as driven by a combination of coaching innovations and science-led advances in training theory, techniques, and technologies. These advances have been incorporated into the fabric of the pre-existing periodization planning framework, yet the philosophical assumptions underpinning periodization remain largely unchallenged and unchanged. One particularly influential academic sphere of study, the science of stress, particularly the work of Hans Selye, is repeatedly cited by theorists as a central pillar upon which periodization theory is founded. A fundamental assumption emanating from the early stress research is that physical stress is primarily a biologically mediated phenomenon: a presumption translated to athletic performance contexts as evidence that mechanical training stress directly regulates the magnitude of subsequent 'fitness' adaptations. Interestingly, however, since periodization theory first emerged, the science of stress has evolved extensively from its historical roots. This raises a fundamental question: if the original scientific platform upon which periodization theory was founded has disintegrated, should we critically re-evaluate conventional perspectives through an updated conceptual lens? Realigning periodization philosophy with contemporary stress theory thus presents us with an opportunity to recalibrate training planning models with both contemporary scientific insight and progressive coaching practice.

  2. Almost Periodic Solutions for Impulsive Fractional Stochastic Evolution Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toufik Guendouzi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the existence of square-mean piecewise almost periodic solutions for impulsive fractional stochastic evolution equations involving Caputo fractional derivative. The main results are obtained by means of the theory of operators semi-group, fractional calculus, fixed point technique and stochastic analysis theory and methods adopted directly from deterministic fractional equations. Some known results are improved and generalized.

  3. Solution Methods for the Periodic Petrol Station Replenishment Problem

    OpenAIRE

    C Triki

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the Periodic Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PPSRP) over a T-day planning horizon and describe four heuristic methods for its solution. Even though all the proposed heuristics belong to the common partitioning-then-routing paradigm, they differ in assigning the stations to each day of the horizon. The resulting daily routing problems are then solved exactly until achieving optimalization. Moreover, an improvement procedure is also developed with the aim of ens...

  4. Periodic and secular changes in SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, G.W.; Newsom, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The recent history of SS 433 is reviewed with particular attention being given to the discovery of the periodic phenomena displayed by this object. Several periods ranging from days to months are established as being present in the spectrum of the ''moving'' lines as well as in other aspects of the emission from the object. In addition evidence for secular change in some of the defining parameters of the system is presented. Although these secular changes may eventually prove to be periodic on a rather long time scale, some interpretation of both the periodic and secular phenomena is possible. It is shown that it is possible to interpret all the known periodic phenomena in terms of a processing object responding to the time-varying torques that one would expect in a binary system

  5. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis: Three rare secondary causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Eswaradass Venkatesan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic paralysis is a rare neuromuscular disorder, related to a defect in muscle ion channels, characterized by episodes of painless muscle weakness, which may be precipitated by heavy exercise, fasting, or high-carbohydrate meals. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis may be familial (primary or secondary. Here, we report three cases of secondary causes of hypokalemic periodic paralysis. On evaluation, case 1 had distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA due to Sjogren′s syndrome, case 2 had drug induced proximal RTA (Fanconi′s syndrome and case 3 had thyrotoxicosis. Clinician must be aware of causes of secondary PP as recognition and diagnosis can completely prevent further attacks of periodic paralysis. Each of the above case is rare, but completely treatable if diagnosed. Low dose steroids with bicarbonate replacement in case 1, stopping tenofovir in case 2 and carbimazole therapy in case 3 prevented further attacks of periodic paralysis and cardiopulmonary complications.

  6. Periodic-cylinder vesicle with minimal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Hua, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    We give some details about the periodic cylindrical solution found by Zhang and Ou-Yang in [1996 Phys. Rev. E 53 4206] for the general shape equation of vesicle. Three different kinds of periodic cylindrical surfaces and a special closed cylindrical surface are obtained. Using the elliptic functions contained in mathematic, we find that this periodic shape has the minimal total energy for one period when the period–amplitude ratio β ≈ 1.477, and point out that it is a discontinuous deformation between plane and this periodic shape. Our results also are suitable for DNA and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie-Anne Marquet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low” the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1, whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON. Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05 compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism.

  8. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Molle, Odeline; Hawley, John A.; Burke, Louise M.; Tiollier, Eve; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low”) the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1), whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON). Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05) compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism. PMID:27897989

  9. Collaborative Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Rasmus

    The thesis data have been collected in the EU-sponsored project: Collaborative Improvement Tool for the Extended Manufacturing Enterprise, CO-IMPROVE. In this project four universities (Denmark, Ireland, Italy, and The Netherlands), two software vendors (Greece and Sweden) and three companies...... (Denmark, Italy and The Netherlands) each with three to five suppliers were involved. The CO-IMPROVE project and the thesis is based on “action research” and “action learning”. The main aim of the whole project is through actual involvement and actions make the researchers, companies and selected suppliers...... learn how to improve operations in (hopefully) a win-win like manner through collaboration....

  10. Optimal glucose management in the perioperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charity H; Lee, Jane; Ruhlman, Melissa K

    2015-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is a common finding in surgical patients during the perioperative period. Factors contributing to poor glycemic control include counterregulatory hormones, hepatic insulin resistance, decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, use of dextrose-containing intravenous fluids, and enteral and parenteral nutrition. Hyperglycemia in the perioperative period is associated with increased morbidity, decreased survival, and increased resource utilization. Optimal glucose management in the perioperative period contributes to reduced morbidity and mortality. To readily identify hyperglycemia, blood glucose monitoring should be instituted for all hospitalized patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Convectons in periodic and bounded domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, Isabel; Batiste, Oriol; Alonso, Arantxa; Knobloch, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    Numerical continuation is used to compute spatially localized convection in a binary fluid with no-slip laterally insulating boundary conditions and the results are compared with the corresponding ones for periodic boundary conditions (PBC). The change in the boundary conditions produces a dramatic change in the snaking bifurcation diagram that describes the organization of localized states with PBC: the snaking branches turn continuously into a large amplitude state that resembles periodic convection with defects at the sidewalls. Odd parity convectons are more affected by the boundary conditions since the sidewalls suppress the horizontal pumping action that accompanies these states in spatially periodic domains.

  12. Convectons in periodic and bounded domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercader, Isabel; Batiste, Oriol; Alonso, Arantxa [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Knobloch, Edgar [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Numerical continuation is used to compute spatially localized convection in a binary fluid with no-slip laterally insulating boundary conditions and the results are compared with the corresponding ones for periodic boundary conditions (PBC). The change in the boundary conditions produces a dramatic change in the snaking bifurcation diagram that describes the organization of localized states with PBC: the snaking branches turn continuously into a large amplitude state that resembles periodic convection with defects at the sidewalls. Odd parity convectons are more affected by the boundary conditions since the sidewalls suppress the horizontal pumping action that accompanies these states in spatially periodic domains.

  13. Diffraction Theory and Almost Periodic Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strungaru, Nicolae; Terauds, Venta

    2016-09-01

    We introduce and study the notions of translation bounded tempered distributions, and autocorrelation for a tempered distribution. We further introduce the spaces of weakly, strongly and null weakly almost periodic tempered distributions and show that for weakly almost periodic tempered distributions the Eberlein decomposition holds. For translation bounded measures all these notions coincide with the classical ones. We show that tempered distributions with measure Fourier transform are weakly almost periodic and that for this class, the Eberlein decomposition is exactly the Fourier dual of the Lebesgue decomposition, with the Fourier-Bohr coefficients specifying the pure point part of the Fourier transform. We complete the project by looking at few interesting examples.

  14. Attractors of the periodically forced Rayleigh system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bazavan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous second order nonlinear ordinary differential equation(ODE introduced in 1883 by Lord Rayleigh, is the equation whichappears to be the closest to the ODE of the harmonic oscillator withdumping.In this paper we present a numerical study of the periodic andchaotic attractors in the dynamical system associated with the generalized Rayleigh equation. Transition between periodic and quasiperiodic motion is also studied. Numerical results describe the system dynamics changes (in particular bifurcations, when the forcing frequency is varied and thus, periodic, quasiperiodic or chaotic behaviour regions are predicted.

  15. Periodicity in Age-Resolved Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esipov, Sergei

    We discuss the interplay between the non-linear diffusion and age-resolved population dynamics. Depending on the age properties of collective migration the system may exhibit continuous joint expansion of all ages or continuous expansion with age segregation. Between these two obvious limiting regimes there is an interesting window of periodic expansion, which has been previously used by us in modeling bacterial colonies of Proteus mirabilis. In order to test whether the age-dependent collective migration leads to periodicity in other systems we performed a Fourier analysis of historical data on ethnic expansions and found multiple co-existing periods of activity.

  16. Periodic solutions of dissipative systems revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górniewicz Lech

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We reprove in an extremely simple way the classical theorem that time periodic dissipative systems imply the existence of harmonic periodic solutions, in the case of uniqueness. We will also show that, in the lack of uniqueness, the existence of harmonics is implied by uniform dissipativity. The localization of starting points and multiplicity of periodic solutions will be established, under suitable additional assumptions, as well. The arguments are based on the application of various asymptotic fixed point theorems of the Lefschetz and Nielsen type.

  17. Periodic solutions of dissipative systems revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Górniewicz

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We reprove in an extremely simple way the classical theorem that time periodic dissipative systems imply the existence of harmonic periodic solutions, in the case of uniqueness. We will also show that, in the lack of uniqueness, the existence of harmonics is implied by uniform dissipativity. The localization of starting points and multiplicity of periodic solutions will be established, under suitable additional assumptions, as well. The arguments are based on the application of various asymptotic fixed point theorems of the Lefschetz and Nielsen type.

  18. Periodic tests: a human factors analysis of documentary aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinet, Romuald; Rousseau, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Periodic tests are technical inspections aimed at verifying the availability of the safety-related systems during operation. The French licensee, Electricite de France (EDF), manages periodic tests according to procedures, methods of examination and a frequency, which were defined when the systems were designed. These requirements are defined by national authorities of EDF in a reference document composed of rules of testing and tables containing the reference values to be respected. This reference document is analyzed and transformed by each 'Centre Nucleaire de Production d'Electricite' (CNPE) into station-specific operating ranges of periodic tests. In 2003, the IRSN noted that significant events for safety (ESS) involving periodic tests represented more than 20% of ESS between 2000 and 2002. Thus, 340 ESS were related to non-compliance with the conditions of the test and errors in the implementation of the procedures. A first analysis showed that almost 26% of all ESSs from 2000 to 2002 were related to periodic tests. For many of them, the national reference document and the operating ranges of tests were involved. In this context, the 'Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire' (DGSNR), requested the 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IRSN) to examine the process of definition and implementation of the periodic tests. The IRSN analyzed about thirty French Licensee event reports occurring during the considered period (2000-2002). The IRSN also interviewed the main persons responsible for the processes and observed the performance of 3 periodic tests. The results of this analysis were presented to a group of experts ('Groupe Permanent') charged with delivering advice to the DGSNR about the origin of the problems identified and the improvements to be implemented. The main conclusions of the IRSN addressed the quality of the prescriptive documents. In this context, EDF decided to carry out a thorough analysis of the whole process. The first

  19. Análise empírica da contribuição de melhoria nos municípios catarinenses no período de 2007 a 2009 = Empirical analysis of the contribution of improvement in the municipalities of Santa Catarina in the period 2007 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Balsanelli

    2011-03-01

    tributo no montante da receita tributária e de quais os dez municípios que mais o arrecadaram, sempre usando a fórmula: contribuição de melhoria dividida pela receita tributária total. Por fim, tem-se por conclusão a insignificância da contribuição de melhoria nos municípios catarinenses, não pela sua capacidade de geração de receita, mas sim pela quase nulidade de sua cobrança, por não possuir uniformidade, e mesmo naqueles em que há uniformidade os recursos obtidos são ínfimos. The improvement contribution is a tax levied as a consideration for some kind of service that was provided by the municipality. May derive from particular appreciation that the property benefited by aggregating services. His recovery always depends on the law and is guided into two main prerequisites: the public service delivery and enhancement of the well covered by the provision of such service. According to existing legislation, the improvement contribution can only be charged provided that the taxpayer has prior knowledge by publication of due notice, that as understanding of the Federal Supreme Court ruling may be subsequent to the execution, since the publication it is necessary to collect the tax and not for carrying out the work. The central objective of the study seeks to bring into vogue the relevance of the contribution of improvement in municipal finances, so you can get a comprehensive view on the issue discussed, as well as pointing out improvements. The 293 municipalities of Santa Catarina were the focus of population analysis, and limitations were found, more precisely the lack of data for some municipalities, but not aroused any significant anomalies in the data analysis. All data were obtained from Finbra and tabulated in Microsoft Excel. The analysis to obtain the result on the municipalities that have grossed more improvement contribution in the years 2007, 2008 and 2009 was with the division’s contribution to improving the total tax revenue, and

  20. 77 FR 73452 - Grace Period Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... survey may be distributed in waves for convenience. The Grace Period Study survey will be an electronic... information that is used for sampling purposes will be maintained in a separate file from the quantitative...

  1. Time-Varying Periodicity in Intraday Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Thyrsgaard, Martin; Todorov, Viktor

    We develop a nonparametric test for deciding whether return volatility exhibits time-varying intraday periodicity using a long time-series of high-frequency data. Our null hypothesis, commonly adopted in work on volatility modeling, is that volatility follows a stationary process combined...... with a constant time-of-day periodic component. We first construct time-of-day volatility estimates and studentize the high-frequency returns with these periodic components. If the intraday volatility periodicity is invariant over time, then the distribution of the studentized returns should be identical across...... with estimating volatility moments through their sample counterparts. Critical values are computed via easy-to-implement simulation. In an empirical application to S&P 500 index returns, we find strong evidence for variation in the intraday volatility pattern driven in part by the current level of volatility...

  2. Multi-Period Trading via Convex Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Stephen; Busseti, Enzo; Diamond, Steve

    2017-01-01

    We consider a basic model of multi-period trading, which can be used to evaluate the performance of a trading strategy. We describe a framework for single-period optimization, where the trades in each period are found by solving a convex optimization problem that trades off expected return, risk......, transaction cost and holding cost such as the borrowing cost for shorting assets. We then describe a multi-period version of the trading method, where optimization is used to plan a sequence of trades, with only the first one executed, using estimates of future quantities that are unknown when the trades....... In this paper, we do not address a critical component in a trading algorithm, the predictions or forecasts of future quantities. The methods we describe in this paper can be thought of as good ways to exploit predictions, no matter how they are made. We have also developed a companion open-source software...

  3. Optimization on replacement period of plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Masao; Asano, Hiromi

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of the replacement period of plant equipment is one of the main items to rationalize the activities on plant maintenance. There are several models to replace the equipment and the formulations for optimizing the replacement period are different among these models. In this study, we calculated the optimum replacement periods for some equipment parts based on the replacement models and found that the optimum solutions are not so largely differ from the replacement models as far as the replacement period is not so large. So we will be able to use the most usable model especially in the early phase of rationalization on plant maintenance, since there are large uncertainties in data for optimization. (author)

  4. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit provides comprehensive and preventive health care services for children under age 21 who...

  5. 12 CFR 219.24 - Retention period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROVIDING FINANCIAL RECORDS; RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN FINANCIAL RECORDS (REGULATION S... period of time, taking into consideration the nature of the record and the amount of time that has...

  6. The period-luminosity relation for Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the empirical determination of the period-luminosity-colour relation for classical Cepheids are presented. In this study the quantitative effects of random errors, reddening, sample size and the presence of both colour and period cut-offs (imposed by the finite extent of the instability strip) on the observational redetermination of the original relation are evaluated. Both random errors in the photometry and correlated errors in the reddening corrections are shown to have systematic effects. Especially sensitive to these errors is the colour coefficient in the period-luminosity-colour relation, where the ratio of the error to the width of the instability strip is the determining factor. With present observations only broad confidence limits can be placed on present knowledge of the intrinsic period-luminosity-colour relation and/or its variations from galaxy to galaxy. (author)

  7. Genetics Home Reference: hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... M, Franques J, Bendahhou S, Lory P, Hainque B, Fournier E, Nicole S, Fontaine B. Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis. 2002 ... related congenital muscular dystrophy Melorheostosis Rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome All New & Updated Pages Reviewed : October 2017 Published : ...

  8. The ACM Periodical Bank: A Retrospective View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jack A.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluates a cooperative venture in interlibrary lending of periodicals planned and executed by ten midwestern colleges. The study traces the consortium's history from 1967 to the present, describing successes and problems. (RAA)

  9. Concurrent hypokalemic periodic paralysis and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary periodic paralysis is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of ion-channel dysfunction, manifested by episodic flaccid paresis secondary to abnormal sarcolemma excitability. Membrane destabilization involving Na, K-ATPase has been hypothesized to be a biological etiology of the bipolar disorder (BD and the mechanisms underlying lithium therapy have been linked to it. To date, there has been only one reported case of BD comorbid with periodic paralysis. Herein, we reported another case of concurrent bipolar mania and hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP, one special form of periodic paralysis. Consistent with the previous case, our patient responded well to lithium treatment for both bipolar mania and HPP. This might provide some support to the hypothesis that the therapeutic effects of lithium in both BD and HPP could be due to the correction of the underlying common pathophysiology.

  10. Ecological periodic tables: In principle and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical periodic table, the Linnaean system of classification and the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram are iconic information organizing structure in chemistry, biology and astronomy, respectively, because they are simple, exceptionally useful and they foster the expansion of sci...

  11. Galactic Dark Matter and Terrestrial Periodicities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clube, S

    1998-01-01

    .... The Earth may thus be regarded as a probe of the disc environment; and to account for the periodicity, the Galactic disc is required to have a substantial dark matter component ( approx .15 molar mass/cu pc...

  12. Global bioevents and the question of periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepkoski, J. John

    The hypothesis of periodicity in extinction is an empirical claim that extinction events, while variable in magnitude, are regular in timing and therefore are serially dependent upon some single, ultimate cause with clocklike behavior. This hypothesis is controversal, in part because of questions regarding the identity and timing of certain extinction events and because of speculations concerning possible catastrophic extraterrestrial forcing mechanisms. New data on extinctions of marine animal genera are presented that display a high degree of periodicity in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic as well as a suggestion of nonstationary periodicity in the late Paleozoic. However, no periodicity is evident among the as yet poorly documented extinction events of the early and middle Paleozoic.

  13. Periodical test program in depth revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltin, C.; Zermizoglou, R.

    1987-11-01

    Inspection visits made to different sites during 1980 and 1981 evidenced the need to extend and define more precisely the periodical tests performed on safety related systems; thus Electricite de France was requested by the Safety Authorities to re-examine the periodical test program for all safety related systems. This paper presents the methodology adopted by Electricite de France in order to perform an exhaustive analysis of the periodical test program for the 900 and 1300 MWe plants, and the organization set up at the IPSN at one hand and Electricite de France on the other hand for the purpose of elaborating a periodical test program which would be ratified by the Safety Authorities

  14. Toward an Organic Chemist's Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H. K., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An analogy between electron transfer reactions of the elements and those of organic molecules is offered. Examples of organic electron transfer reactions are presented. The rationale of constructing an organic chemists' periodic table is also discussed. (HM)

  15. Theodore William Richards and the Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, James B.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the contribution of Theodore Richards to the accurate determination of atomic weights of copper and other elements; his major contribution was to the building of the definitive periodic table of the elements. (BR)

  16. Spectral properties of almost-periodic Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R.

    1983-12-01

    We give a description of some spectral properties of almost-periodic hamiltonians. We put the stress on some particular points of the proofs of the existence of absolutely continuous or pure point spectrum [fr

  17. Astrobee Periodic Technical Review (PTR) Delta 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Christopher; Smith, Marion F.; Smith, Ernest Everett; Bualat, Maria Gabriele; Barlow, Jonathan Spencer

    2017-01-01

    Astrobee is a free flying robot for the inside of the International Space Station (ISS). The Periodic Technical Review (PTR) delta 3 is the final design review of the system presented to stakeholders.

  18. Periodic words connected with the Fibonacci words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barabash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two families of periodic words (FLP-words of type 1 and FLP-words of type 2 that are connected with the Fibonacci words and investigated their properties.

  19. Broiler adaptation to post-hatching period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiorka Alex

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the latest years more attention has been given to mechanisms for bird adaptation at post-hatching period by management of environmental conditions and formulations of diets offered during this period when digestive, immune, and thermo-regulating systems suffer slight changes. In post-hatching period, digestive system is anatomically complete, but its functionality is still immature in relation to adult birds. The chick immunity depends on maternal antibodies transferred to egg just before laying. In addition, variations within thermal comfort zone might affect initial development of chick. For example, high temperatures may induce hyperthermia with dehydration, while low temperatures may lead to hypothermia responsible by pulmonary hypertension syndrome. In conclusion, productivity might be enhanced when good conditions are offered to chicks during the period from last embryo development to first days after hatching.

  20. Prognosis following cancer surgery during holiday periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagergren, Jesper; Mattsson, Fredrik; Lagergren, Pernilla

    2017-11-15

    Surgery is the mainstay curative treatment in most cancer. We aimed to test the new hypothesis that cancer surgery performed during holiday periods is associated with worse long-term prognosis than for non-holiday periods. This nationwide Swedish population-based cohort study included 228,927 patients during 1997-2014 who underwent elective resectional surgery for a cancer where the annual number of resections was over 100. The 16 eligible cancer sites were grouped into 10 cancer groups. The exposure, holiday periods, was classified as wide (14-weeks) or narrow (7-weeks). Surgery conducted inside versus outside holiday periods was compared regarding overall disease-specific (main outcome) and overall all-cause (secondary outcome) mortality. Cox regression provided hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, hospital volume, calendar period and tumor stage. Surgery conducted during wide and narrow holiday periods were associated with increased HRs of disease-specific mortality for cancer of the breast (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.13 and HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.12) and possibly of cancer of the liver-pancreas-bile ducts (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.99-1.20 and HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.99-1.26). Sub-groups with cancer of the colon-rectum, head-and-neck, prostate, kidney-urine bladder and thyroid also experienced statistically significantly worse prognosis following surgery conducted during holiday periods. No influence of surgery during holiday was detected for cancer of the esophagus-stomach, lung or ovary-uterus. All-cause HRs were similar to the disease-specific HRs. The prognosis following cancer surgery might not be fully maintained during holiday periods for all cancer sites. © 2017 UICC.

  1. Entanglement of periodic anisotropic XY chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lifa; Tong Peiqing

    2005-01-01

    By using the concept of concurrence, the entanglement of periodic anisotropic XY chains in a transverse field is studied numerically. It is found that the derivatives ∂ λ C(1) of nearest-neighbour concurrence diverge at quantum critical points. By proper scaling, we found that all the derivatives ∂ λ C(1) for periodic XY chains in the vicinity of quantum critical points have the same behaviours as that of a uniform chain

  2. Coupled mode theory of periodic waveguides arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.

    We apply the scalar coupled mode theory to the case of waveguides array consisting om two periodic waveguides. One of the waveguides is arbitrary shifted along another. A longitudinal shift acts as a parameter in the coupled mode theory. The proposed theory explains peculiarities of modes dispers...... dispersion and transmission in coupled periodic waveguides systems. Analytical results are compared with the numerical ones obtained by the plane wave expansion and FDTD methods....

  3. IUPAC Periodic Table of the Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, N.E.; Coplen, T.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Wieser, M.E.; Singleton, G.; Walczyk, T.; Yoneda, S.; Mahaffy, P.G.; Tarbox, L.V.

    2011-01-01

    For almost 150 years, the Periodic Table of the Elements has served as a guide to the world of elements by highlighting similarities and differences in atomic structure and chemical properties. To introduce students, teachers, and society to the existence and importance of isotopes of the chemical elements, an IUPAC Periodic Table of the Isotopes (IPTI) has been prepared and can be found as a supplement to this issue.

  4. Periodicity and Immortality in Reversible Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Kari , Jarkko; Ollinger , Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Additional material available on the web at http://www.lif.univ-mrs.fr/~nollinge/rec/gnirut/; We investigate the decidability of the periodicity and the immortality problems in three models of reversible computation: reversible counter machines, reversible Turing machines and reversible one-dimensional cellular automata. Immortality and periodicity are properties that describe the behavior of the model starting from arbitrary initial configurations: immortality is the property of having at le...

  5. PERIODIC SIGNALS IN BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xinyi; Stefano, Rosanne Di; Esin, Ann; Taylor, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing events are powerful tools for the study of stellar populations. In particular, they can be used to discover and study a variety of binary systems. A large number of binary lenses have already been found through microlensing surveys and a few of these systems show strong evidence of orbital motion on the timescale of the lensing event. We expect that more binary lenses of this kind will be detected in the future. For binaries whose orbital period is comparable to the event duration, the orbital motion can cause the lensing signal to deviate drastically from that of a static binary lens. The most striking property of such light curves is the presence of quasi-periodic features, which are produced as the source traverses the same regions in the rotating lens plane. These repeating features contain information about the orbital period of the lens. If this period can be extracted, then much can be learned about the lensing system even without performing time-consuming, detailed light-curve modeling. However, the relative transverse motion between the source and the lens significantly complicates the problem of period extraction. To resolve this difficulty, we present a modification of the standard Lomb–Scargle periodogram analysis. We test our method for four representative binary lens systems and demonstrate its efficiency in correctly extracting binary orbital periods

  6. Interference pattern period measurement at picometer level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiansong; Wei, Chunlong; Jia, Wei; Zhou, Changhe; Li, Minkang; Lu, Yancong

    2016-10-01

    To produce large scale gratings by Scanning Beam Interference Lithography (SBIL), a light spot containing grating pattern is generated by two beams interfering, and a scanning stage is used to drive the substrate moving under the light spot. In order to locate the stage at the proper exposure positions, the period of the Interference pattern must be measured accurately. We developed a set of process to obtain the period value of two interfering beams at picometer level. The process includes data acquisition and data analysis. The data is received from a photodiode and a laser interferometer with sub-nanometer resolution. Data analysis differs from conventional analyzing methods like counting wave peaks or using Fourier transform to get the signal period, after a preprocess of filtering and envelope removing, the mean square error is calculated between the received signal and ideal sinusoid waves to find the best-fit frequency, thus an accuracy period value is acquired, this method has a low sensitivity to amplitude noise and a high resolution of frequency. With 405nm laser beams interfering, a pattern period value around 562nm is acquired by employing this process, fitting diagram of the result shows the accuracy of the period value reaches picometer level, which is much higher than the results of conventional methods.

  7. Physical explanation of the periodic table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, V N

    2003-05-01

    The Periodic Table of the elements, the most important generalization in chemistry, is often considered as a representative special case in the study of the relation between chemistry and physics. Its quantum interpretation was initiated, but not completed, by Niels Bohr. In this paper, post-Bohr conceptual developments are discussed from historical and epistemological points of view. The difference between high-precision numerical calculations for individual atoms and the theory of the periodic system as a whole is emphasized. Periodic laws met in Nature are not restricted to the chemical Periodic Table. A comparative study of these laws makes it possible to single out essential features that define the particular pattern of periodicity. It is shown that the periodic system of neutral ground state atoms now has a firm nonempirical quantum-theoretical basis. Alternative approaches, based on group theory and other mathematical schemes, are briefly discussed. It is argued that, while quantum theory is capable of fully accurate calculations for relatively simple atoms or molecular objects, the complexity of polyatomic molecules and chemical reactions guarantees the flourishing of chemistry as a separate scientific discipline.

  8. Estimates on the minimal period for periodic solutions of nonlinear second order Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiming Long.

    1994-11-01

    In this paper, we prove a sharper estimate on the minimal period for periodic solutions of autonomous second order Hamiltonian systems under precisely Rabinowitz' superquadratic condition. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig

  9. Bounded and Periodic Solutions of Semilinear Impulsive Periodic System on Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei W

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A class of semilinear impulsive periodic system on Banach spaces is considered. First, we introduce the -periodic PC-mild solution of semilinear impulsive periodic system. By virtue of Gronwall lemma with impulse, the estimate on the PC-mild solutions is derived. The continuity and compactness of the new constructed Poincaré operator determined by impulsive evolution operator corresponding to homogenous linear impulsive periodic system are shown. This allows us to apply Horn's fixed-point theorem to prove the existence of -periodic PC-mild solutions when PC-mild solutions are ultimate bounded. This extends the study on periodic solutions of periodic system without impulse to periodic system with impulse on general Banach spaces. At last, an example is given for demonstration.

  10. Hyperthyroidism affects lipid metabolism in lactating and suckling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas, S M; Jahn, G A; Giménez, M S

    2001-08-01

    Two per thousand pregnant women have hyperthyroidism (HT), and although the symptoms are attenuated during pregnancy, they rebound after delivery, affecting infant development. To examine the effects of hyperthyroidism on lactation, we studied lipid metabolism in maternal mammary glands and livers of hyperthyroid rats and their pups. Thyroxine (10 microg/100 g body weight/d) or vehicle-treated rats were made pregnant 2 wk after commencement of treatment and sacrificed on days 7, 14, and 21 of lactation with the litters. Circulating triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine concentrations in the HT mothers were increased on all days. Hepatic esterified cholesterol (EC) and free cholesterol (FC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations were diminished on days 14 and 21. Lipid synthesis, measured by incorporation of [3H]H2O into EC, FC, and TG, fatty acid synthase, and acetyl CoA carboxylase activities increased at day 14, while incorporation into FC and EC decreased at days 7 and 21, respectively. Mammary FC and TG concentrations were diminished at day 14; incorporation of [3H]H2O into TG decreased at days 7 and 21, and incorporation of [3H]H2O into FC increased at day 14. In the HT pups, growth rate was diminished, tetraiodothyronine concentration rose at days 7 and 14 of lactation, and triiodothyronine increased only at day 14. Liver TG concentrations increased at day 7 and fell at day 14, while FC increased at day 14 and only acetyl CoA carboxylase activity fell at day 14. Thus, hyperthyroidism changed maternal liver and mammary lipid metabolism, with decreased lipid concentration in spite of increased liver rate of synthesis and decreases in mammary synthesis. These changes, along with the mild hyperthyroidism of the litters, may have contributed to their reduced growth rate.

  11. Convergence acceleration of quasi-periodic and quasi-periodic-rational interpolations by polynomial corrections

    OpenAIRE

    Lusine Poghosyan

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers convergence acceleration of the quasi-periodic and the quasi-periodic-rational interpolations by application of polynomial corrections. We investigate convergence of the resultant quasi-periodic-polynomial and quasi-periodic-rational-polynomial interpolations and derive exact constants of the main terms of asymptotic errors in the regions away from the endpoints. Results of numerical experiments clarify behavior of the corresponding interpolations for moderate number of in...

  12. Collaborative Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Rasmus

    -organisational continuous improvement of their performance, relative to that of other EMEs. Developing a collaborative improvement relationship between companies is a protracted and complex process and, according to some surveys, the failure rate is as low as one to three. This failure rate is affected by a whole range...... of factors. The research presented in this thesis was aimed at identifying these factors and investigating their interplay and influence on the progress and success of the development of the collaborative improvement. This thesis presents our findings regarding the factors found, their interplay...

  13. Periodic Table Target: A Game that Introduces the Biological Significance of Chemical Element Periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, Richard S.; McGinty, Ragan L.; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    Periodic Table Target, a game for middle school or high school students, familiarizes students with the form of the periodic table and the biological significance of different elements. The Periodic Table Target game board is constructed as a class project, and the game is played to reinforce the content. Students are assigned several elements…

  14. Period, Place and Mental Space: Using Historical Scholarship to Develop Year 7 Pupils' Sense of Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan

    2014-01-01

    What is a sense of period? And how can pupils' sense of period be developed? Questions such as these have troubled history teachers for many years, often revolving around debates over the role played by empathy and imagination in coming to know a period on its own terms. Rather than adopt a comparative approach, Dan Smiths decided in his teaching…

  15. Charged particle periodicity in the Saturnian magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbary, J.F.; Krimigis, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The low energy charged particles (LECP) experiments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft performed measurements of electrons (approx.22 keV to approx.20 MeV) and ions (approx.28 keV to approx.150 MeV) during the Saturn encounters in 1980 and 1981. Count rate ratios of two of the low energy electron (22 to 35 keV and 183 to 500 keV) and ion (43 to 80 keV and 137 to 215 keV) channels exhibit an approximation 10 hour periodicity in the outer Saturnian magnetosphere beyond the orbit of Titan. Electron ratios vary from approx.50 to approx.300; ion ratios vary from approx.3 to approx.20. Similar but less pronounced periodicities are observed for higher and lower energy electron and ion spectral indices. Three complete cycles were observed during the Voyager 2 outbound portion of the encounter from which were determined an electron ratio period of 10/sup h/21/sup m/ +- 48/sup m/ and an ion ratio period of 9/sup h/49/sup m/ +- 59/sup m/. Using Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) and Saturn Electrostatic Discharge (SED) periods, extrapolation backward from Voyager 2 to Voyager 1 suggests that the periodicities are Saturnian rather than Jovian in nature, and that they persist in phase for time intervals at least as long as 287 days. Ratio minima, or spectral hardenings, occur in the same hemisphere as do auroral brightenings, SKR activity, and spoke enhanement. We interpret the observations as prima facie evidence of an asymmetry in the Saturian magnetic field and the root cause of the observed SKR periodicity

  16. The period-age relation for cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, Yu.N.

    1978-01-01

    The list of 119 cepheid-members of 55 clusters and associations of the Magellanic Clouds, the Galaxy, and M31 is given. The period-age relation is found from the data on 64 cepheids in 29 clusters for which the age determinations are available, the ages of extragalactic clusters were determined mainly from their integral colours. The U-B colours are found to be of much better age parameters than the B-V ones. The composite period-age relation agrees well with the theoretical one. The observed dispersion of the period-age relation leads to an estimate of the age dispersion about 1x10 7 years in the associations. Some peculiarities of the cepheids with the shortest periods amongst others in the same clusters are probably explained if they are overtone pulsators. The period-age relation may be used for an investigation of the recent history of star formation in the galaxies. This relation allows to determine the age gradient across the spiral arm in M31 which is in agreement with the density wave theory predictions. The distribution of cepheids in our Galaxy and neighbouring galaxies is consistent with the conception of star formation lasting for some dozen million years in cells with a dimension of some hundreds of parsecs

  17. Periodic subsystem density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele; Ceresoli, Davide

    2014-01-01

    By partitioning the electron density into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for reducing the computational scaling of Kohn–Sham DFT. To date, however, FDE has been employed to molecular systems only. Periodic systems, such as metals, semiconductors, and other crystalline solids have been outside the applicability of FDE, mostly because of the lack of a periodic FDE implementation. To fill this gap, in this work we aim at extending FDE to treat subsystems of molecular and periodic character. This goal is achieved by a dual approach. On one side, the development of a theoretical framework for periodic subsystem DFT. On the other, the realization of the method into a parallel computer code. We find that periodic FDE is capable of reproducing total electron densities and (to a lesser extent) also interaction energies of molecular systems weakly interacting with metallic surfaces. In the pilot calculations considered, we find that FDE fails in those cases where there is appreciable density overlap between the subsystems. Conversely, we find FDE to be in semiquantitative agreement with Kohn–Sham DFT when the inter-subsystem density overlap is low. We also conclude that to make FDE a suitable method for describing molecular adsorption at surfaces, kinetic energy density functionals that go beyond the GGA level must be employed

  18. Periodic subsystem density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Alessandro; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele

    2014-11-01

    By partitioning the electron density into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for reducing the computational scaling of Kohn-Sham DFT. To date, however, FDE has been employed to molecular systems only. Periodic systems, such as metals, semiconductors, and other crystalline solids have been outside the applicability of FDE, mostly because of the lack of a periodic FDE implementation. To fill this gap, in this work we aim at extending FDE to treat subsystems of molecular and periodic character. This goal is achieved by a dual approach. On one side, the development of a theoretical framework for periodic subsystem DFT. On the other, the realization of the method into a parallel computer code. We find that periodic FDE is capable of reproducing total electron densities and (to a lesser extent) also interaction energies of molecular systems weakly interacting with metallic surfaces. In the pilot calculations considered, we find that FDE fails in those cases where there is appreciable density overlap between the subsystems. Conversely, we find FDE to be in semiquantitative agreement with Kohn-Sham DFT when the inter-subsystem density overlap is low. We also conclude that to make FDE a suitable method for describing molecular adsorption at surfaces, kinetic energy density functionals that go beyond the GGA level must be employed.

  19. Multiphase averaging of periodic soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    The multiphase averaging of periodic soliton equations is considered. Particular attention is given to the periodic sine-Gordon and Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equations. The periodic sine-Gordon equation and its associated inverse spectral theory are analyzed, including a discussion of the spectral representations of exact, N-phase sine-Gordon solutions. The emphasis is on physical characteristics of the periodic waves, with a motivation from the well-known whole-line solitons. A canonical Hamiltonian approach for the modulational theory of N-phase waves is prescribed. A concrete illustration of this averaging method is provided with the periodic sine-Gordon equation; explicit averaging results are given only for the N = 1 case, laying a foundation for a more thorough treatment of the general N-phase problem. For the KdV equation, very general results are given for multiphase averaging of the N-phase waves. The single-phase results of Whitham are extended to general N phases, and more importantly, an invariant representation in terms of Abelian differentials on a Riemann surface is provided. Several consequences of this invariant representation are deduced, including strong evidence for the Hamiltonian structure of N-phase modulational equations

  20. Medicine in Balkans during the Roman Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykan, Daniş

    2017-08-04

    The aim of this study is to investigate the archaeological finds to enlighten the medical methods of treatments and operations applied in Balkans during Roman Period. Some independent local and regional find groups, taken from existing publications will be grouped together and a holistic point-of-view will be taken against medicine in Balkan Geography during Roman Period. Due to basic differences it contained, the data before Roman Period are excluded. Most of Greece and Aegean Islands are also excluded since the topic selected is "Medicine of Roman Period." Greece and Aegean Islands should be evaluated in another study in connection with West Anatolia which is closer than the Balkan Geography in terms of social relations. The spread of medical tools in Balkans during Roman Period is concentrated around military garrisons, and in settlements built around military pathways, and in settlements containing an amphitheater associated with gladiators. This spread is verified by the studies on Bulgaria in general. The data is also compatible with the assertion suggesting that the amount of application of pharmaceutical treatment increases when one moves away from the military centres.

  1. The Discrete Beverton-Holt Model with Periodic Harvesting in a Periodically Fluctuating Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyad AlSharawi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of constant and periodic harvesting on the Beverton-Holt model in a periodically fluctuating environment. We show that in a periodically fluctuating environment, periodic harvesting gives a better maximum sustainable yield compared to constant harvesting. However, if one can also fix the environment, then constant harvesting in a constant environment can be a better option, especially for sufficiently large initial populations. Also, we investigate the combinatorial structure of the periodic sequence of carrying capacities and its effect on the maximum sustainable yield. Finally, we leave some questions worth further investigations.

  2. Maternal offspring behaviour in Curraleiro Pé Duro naturalized cattle in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Castanheira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study consisted of describing dam and calf suckling behaviour of Curraleiro Pé Duro cattle. In this study, 38 mother-offspring pairs and one mother-offspring-orphan trio were observed for 10 hours daily during three consecutive days spaced every four months over a period of one year. After identification, the animals were observed under field conditions where calf posture and the number of suckling episodes (NS, mean suckling duration (MSD, total suckling duration per day (TSD as well as natural weaning of these animals were recorded. The model assessed the effects of calf sex and age as well as feeding time. Suckling episodes (70.6% had a duration of one to five minutes and the calf that suckled in the inverted parallel position had greater chances of success during suckling (99.5%; the younger animals had a shorter mean suckling duration (4.0±0.6 minutes than the older ones (7.5±1.2 minutes but they showed a higher number of suckling episodes (6.29±1.00 vs. 1.33±0.04 feeds in 10 hours for young and older calves. Only the factor age in the first three months was significant for NS, MSD, and TSD; males and females had similar suckling episode length and distribution. While these animals show some traits similar to other cattle breeds such as feeding their calves early in the morning and late in the afternoon, the dams spend large periods of the day away from their calves and suckling is more frequent but for shorter periods of time compared with other breeds. Other unique features such as allo-suckling and formation of day-long crèches are observed in this breed.

  3. Existence and global attractivity of positive periodic solutions of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems with several deviating arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M; Wang, K; Jiang, D

    1999-08-01

    In this paper, we study the existence and global attractivity of positive periodic solutions of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems. By using the method of coincidence degree and Lyapunov functional, a set of easily verifiable sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of at least one strictly positive (componentwise) periodic solution of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems with several deviating arguments and the existence of a unique globally asymptotically stable periodic solution with strictly positive components of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition system with several delays. Some new results are obtained. As an application, we also examine some special cases of the system we considered, which have been studied extensively in the literature. Some known results are improved and generalized.

  4. A Bayesian test for periodic signals in red noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, S.

    2010-02-01

    Many astrophysical sources, especially compact accreting sources, show strong, random brightness fluctuations with broad power spectra in addition to periodic or quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) that have narrower spectra. The random nature of the dominant source of variance greatly complicates the process of searching for possible weak periodic signals. We have addressed this problem using the tools of Bayesian statistics; in particular, using Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques to approximate the posterior distribution of model parameters, and posterior predictive model checking to assess model fits and search for periodogram outliers that may represent periodic signals. The methods developed are applied to two example data sets, both long XMM-Newton observations of highly variable Seyfert 1 galaxies: RE J1034 + 396 and Mrk 766. In both cases, a bend (or break) in the power spectrum is evident. In the case of RE J1034 + 396, the previously reported QPO is found but with somewhat weaker statistical significance than reported in previous analyses. The difference is due partly to the improved continuum modelling, better treatment of nuisance parameters and partly to different data selection methods.

  5. On complex periodic motions and bifurcations in a periodically forced, damped, hardening Duffing oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yu; Luo, Albert C.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, analytically predicted are complex periodic motions in the periodically forced, damped, hardening Duffing oscillator through discrete implicit maps of the corresponding differential equations. Bifurcation trees of periodic motions to chaos in such a hardening Duffing oscillator are obtained. The stability and bifurcation analysis of periodic motion in the bifurcation trees is carried out by eigenvalue analysis. The solutions of all discrete nodes of periodic motions are computed by the mapping structures of discrete implicit mapping. The frequency-amplitude characteristics of periodic motions are computed that are based on the discrete Fourier series. Thus, the bifurcation trees of periodic motions are also presented through frequency-amplitude curves. Finally, based on the analytical predictions, the initial conditions of periodic motions are selected, and numerical simulations of periodic motions are carried out for comparison of numerical and analytical predictions. The harmonic amplitude spectrums are also given for the approximate analytical expressions of periodic motions, which can also be used for comparison with experimental measurement. This study will give a better understanding of complex periodic motions in the hardening Duffing oscillator.

  6. Low-frequency Periodic Error Identification and Compensation for Star Tracker Attitude Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiongqi; XIONG Kai; ZHOU Haiyin

    2012-01-01

    The low-frequency periodic error of star tracker is one of the most critical problems for high-accuracy satellite attitude determination.In this paper an approach is proposed to identify and compensate the low-frequency periodic error for star tracker in attitude measurement.The analytical expression between the estimated gyro drift and the low-frequency periodic error of star tracker is derived firstly.And then the low-frequency periodic error,which can be expressed by Fourier series,is identified by the frequency spectrum of the estimated gyro drift according to the solution of the first step.Furthermore,the compensated model of the low-frequency periodic error is established based on the identified parameters to improve the attitude determination accuracy.Finally,promising simulated experimental results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method.The periodic error for attitude determination is eliminated basically and the estimation precision is improved greatly.

  7. Policy Uncertainty, Investment and Commitment Periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Today's investment decisions in key sectors such as energy, forestry or transport have significant impacts on the levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the coming decades. Given the economic and environmental long-term implications of capital investment and retirement, a climate mitigation regime should aim to encourage capital investment in climate-friendly technologies. Many factors affect technology choice and the timing of investment, including investor expectations about future prices and policies. Recent international discussions have focused on the importance of providing more certainty about future climate policy stringency. The design of commitment periods can play a role in creating this environment. This paper assesses how the length of commitment periods influences policy uncertainty and investment decisions. In particular, the paper analyses the relationship between commitment period length and near term investment decisions in climate friendly technology.

  8. Magnetomechanically induced long period fiber gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causado-Buelvas, Jesus D.; Gomez-Cardona, Nelson D.; Torres, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we report a simple, flexible method to create long period fiber gratings mechanically by controlling the repulsion/attraction force between two magnets that pressing a plate with a periodic array of small glass cylinders to a short length of optical fiber. Via the photoelastic effect, the pressure points induce the required periodic refractive index modulation to create the LPFG. We found that the induced device exhibits spectral characteristics similar to those of other types of LPFG. As the optical properties of LPFGs are directly related to the nature of the applied perturbations, we show, to our knowledge for the frrst time, how is the evolution of birefringence effects in mechanically induced LPFGs

  9. Effective propagation in a perturbed periodic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel, Agnès; Pagneux, Vincent

    2008-08-01

    In a recent paper [D. Torrent, A. Hakansson, F. Cervera, and J. Sánchez-Dehesa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 204302 (2006)] inspected the effective parameters of a cluster containing an ensemble of scatterers with a periodic or a weakly disordered arrangement. A small amount of disorder is shown to have a small influence on the characteristics of the acoustic wave propagation with respect to the periodic case. In this Brief Report, we inspect further the effect of a deviation in the scatterer distribution from the periodic distribution. The quasicrystalline approximation is shown to be an efficient tool to quantify this effect. An analytical formula for the effective wave number is obtained in one-dimensional acoustic medium and is compared with the Berryman result in the low-frequency limit. Direct numerical calculations show a good agreement with the analytical predictions.

  10. Effective propagation in a perturbed periodic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, Agnes; Pagneux, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper [D. Torrent, A. Hakansson, F. Cervera, and J. Sanchez-Dehesa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 204302 (2006)] inspected the effective parameters of a cluster containing an ensemble of scatterers with a periodic or a weakly disordered arrangement. A small amount of disorder is shown to have a small influence on the characteristics of the acoustic wave propagation with respect to the periodic case. In this Brief Report, we inspect further the effect of a deviation in the scatterer distribution from the periodic distribution. The quasicrystalline approximation is shown to be an efficient tool to quantify this effect. An analytical formula for the effective wave number is obtained in one-dimensional acoustic medium and is compared with the Berryman result in the low-frequency limit. Direct numerical calculations show a good agreement with the analytical predictions

  11. Krsko NPP Periodic Safety Review program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Spiler, J.; Novsak, M.

    2001-01-01

    The need for conducting a Periodic Safety Review for the Krsko NPP has been clearly recognized both by the NEK and the regulator (SNSA). The PSR would be highly desirable both in the light of current trends in safety oversight practices and because of many benefits it is capable to provide. On January 11, 2001 the SNSA issued a decision requesting the Krsko NPP to prepare a program and determine a schedule for the implementation of the program for 'Periodic Safety Review of NPP Krsko'. The program, which is required to be in accordance with the IAEA safety philosophy and with the EU practice, was submitted for the approval to the SNSA by the end of March 2001. The paper summarizes Krsko NPP Periodic Safety Review Program [1] including implemented SNSA and IAEA Expert Mission comments.(author)

  12. Electromagnetic Radiation of Electrons in Periodic Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich

    2011-01-01

    Periodic magnetic structures (undulators) are widely used in accelerators to generate monochromatic undulator radiation (UR) in the range from far infrared to the hard X-ray region. Another periodic crystalline structure is used to produce quasimonochromatic polarized photon beams via the coherent bremsstrahlung mechanism (CBS). Due to such characteristics as monochromaticity, polarization and adjustability, these types of radiation is of large interest for applied and basic research of accelerator-emitted radiation. The book provides a detailed overview of the fundamental principles behind electromagnetic radiation emitted from accelerated charged particles (e.g. UR, CBS, radiation of fast electrons in Laser flash fields) as well as a unified description of relatively new radiation mechanisms which attracted great interest in recent years. This are the so-called polarization radiation excited by the Coulomb field of incident particles in periodic structures, parametric X-rays, resonant transition radiation a...

  13. Subdomain Precise Integration Method for Periodic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A subdomain precise integration method is developed for the dynamical responses of periodic structures comprising many identical structural cells. The proposed method is based on the precise integration method, the subdomain scheme, and the repeatability of the periodic structures. In the proposed method, each structural cell is seen as a super element that is solved using the precise integration method, considering the repeatability of the structural cells. The computational efforts and the memory size of the proposed method are reduced, while high computational accuracy is achieved. Therefore, the proposed method is particularly suitable to solve the dynamical responses of periodic structures. Two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method through comparison with the Newmark and Runge-Kutta methods.

  14. [Hypertension and pregnancy: Post-partum period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugon-Rodin, Justine; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    Post-partum period is associated with specific characteristics in women with gestational disorders or preeclampsia. For breastfeeding women, the choice of antihypertensive treatment should take into account the impact on child health. The impact of breastfeeding on health mother must be also discussed. Moreover, for lactation inhibition, bromocriptine should not be used, especially in the context of gestational disorders. In post-partum period, the best contraceptive strategy is only-progestin contraception or non-hormonal contraceptives use. However, this choice will depend on the stabilization or normalization of blood pressure in early post-partum period. Finally, several consultations should be suggested: an information and announcement to explain the consequences of these gestational disorders and organize their multidisciplinary management and follow-up. A preconceptional consultation takes its place to anticipate potential recurrent preeclampsia or gestational hypertension and to schedule a future pregnancy in optimal conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Quasi-periodicity in deep redshift surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygaert, R. van de

    1991-01-01

    The recent result by Broadhurst et al., (1990. Nature 343, 726) showing a striking, nearly periodic, galaxy redshift distribution in a narrow pencil-beam survey, is explained within the Voronoi cellular model of clustering of galaxies. Galaxies, whose luminosities are selected from a Schechter luminosity function, are placed randomly within the walls of this cellular model. Narrow and deep, magnitude-limited, pencil-beam surveys through these structures are simulated. Some 15 per cent of these beams show that observed regular pattern, with a spacing between the peaks of the order of 105 h -1 -150 h -1 Mpc, but most pencil-beams show peaks in the redshift distribution without periodicity, so we may conclude that, even within a cellular universe, periodicity is not a common phenomenon. (author)

  16. Vlasov dynamics of periodically driven systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyadip; Shah, Kushal

    2018-04-01

    Analytical solutions of the Vlasov equation for periodically driven systems are of importance in several areas of plasma physics and dynamical systems and are usually approximated using ponderomotive theory. In this paper, we derive the plasma distribution function predicted by ponderomotive theory using Hamiltonian averaging theory and compare it with solutions obtained by the method of characteristics. Our results show that though ponderomotive theory is relatively much easier to use, its predictions are very restrictive and are likely to be very different from the actual distribution function of the system. We also analyse all possible initial conditions which lead to periodic solutions of the Vlasov equation for periodically driven systems and conjecture that the irreducible polynomial corresponding to the initial condition must only have squares of the spatial and momentum coordinate. The resulting distribution function for other initial conditions is aperiodic and can lead to complex relaxation processes within the plasma.

  17. Periodic safety analyses; Les essais periodiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouffon, A; Zermizoglou, R

    1990-12-01

    The IAEA Safety Guide 50-SG-S8 devoted to 'Safety Aspects of Foundations of Nuclear Power Plants' indicates that operator of a NPP should establish a program for inspection of safe operation during construction, start-up and service life of the plant for obtaining data needed for estimating the life time of structures and components. At the same time the program should ensure that the safety margins are appropriate. Periodic safety analysis are an important part of the safety inspection program. Periodic safety reports is a method for testing the whole system or a part of the safety system following the precise criteria. Periodic safety analyses are not meant for qualification of the plant components. Separate analyses are devoted to: start-up, qualification of components and materials, and aging. All these analyses are described in this presentation. The last chapter describes the experience obtained for PWR-900 and PWR-1300 units from 1986-1989.

  18. Periodic solutions of Volterra integral equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Islam

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider the system of equationsx(t=f(t+∫−∞tk(t,sx(sds,           (1andx(t=f(t+∫−∞tk(t,sg(s,x(sds.       (2Existence of continuous periodic solutions of (1 is shown using the resolvent function of the kernel k. Some important properties of the resolvent function including its uniqueness are obtained in the process. In obtaining periodic solutions of (1 it is necessary that the resolvent of k is integrable in some sense. For a scalar convolution kernel k some explicit conditions are derived to determine whether or not the resolvent of k is integrable. Finally, the existence and uniqueness of continuous periodic solutions of (1 and (2 are btained using the contraction mapping principle as the basic tool.

  19. Influence of Kinesitherapy on Gait in Patients with Ischemic Stroke in the Chronic Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danche Vasileva

    2015-10-01

    CONCLUSION: The applied specialized kinesitherapeutic methodology continued later as exercise program at home, which significantly improved gait cadence and speed of movement in patients with ischemic stroke in the chronic period and is with a supportive prolonged exposure.

  20. Local normal vector field formulation for periodic scattering problems formulated in the spectral domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beurden, M.C.; Setija, Irwan

    2017-01-01

    We present two adapted formulations, one tailored to isotropic media and one for general anisotropic media, of the normal vector field framework previously introduced to improve convergence near arbitrarily shaped material interfaces in spectral simulation methods for periodic scattering geometries.